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Sample records for nervous system induced

  1. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.C.; Perez, M.R. Del

    1997-01-01

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  2. Hyperammonemia-induced toxicity for the developing central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Cagnon, L.; Braissant, O.

    2007-01-01

    In pediatric patients, hyperammonemia can be caused by various acquired or inherited disorders such as urea cycle deficiencies or organic acidemias. The brain is much more susceptible to the deleterious effects of ammonium during development than in adulthood. Hyperammonemia can provoke irreversible damages to the developing central nervous system that lead to cortical atrophy, ventricular enlargement and demyelination, responsible for cognitive impairment, seizures and cerebral palsy. Until ...

  3. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  4. Explanation of diagnostic criteria for radiation-induced nervous system disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation-Induced Nervous System Disease has been issued and implemented by the Ministry of health. This standard contained three independent criteria of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury. These three kinds of disease often go together in clinic,therefore,the three diagnostic criteria were merged into radioactive nervous system disease diagnostic criteria for entirety and maneuverability of the standard. This standard was formulated based on collection of the clinical practice experience, extensive research of relevant literature and foreign relevant publications. It is mainly applied to diagnosis and treatment of occupational radiation-induced nervous system diseases, and to nervous system diseases caused by medical radiation exposure as well. In order to properly implement this standard, also to correctly deal with radioactive nervous system injury, the main contents of this standard including dose threshold, clinical manifestation, indexing standard and treatment principle were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  5. Hyperammonemia-induced toxicity for the developing central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnon, Laurène; Braissant, Olivier

    2007-11-01

    In pediatric patients, hyperammonemia can be caused by various acquired or inherited disorders such as urea cycle deficiencies or organic acidemias. The brain is much more susceptible to the deleterious effects of ammonium during development than in adulthood. Hyperammonemia can provoke irreversible damages to the developing central nervous system that lead to cortical atrophy, ventricular enlargement and demyelination, responsible for cognitive impairment, seizures and cerebral palsy. Until recently, the mechanisms leading to these irreversible cerebral damages were poorly understood. Using experimental models allowing the analysis of the neurotoxic effects of ammonium on the developing brain, these last years have seen the emergence of new clues showing that ammonium exposure alters several amino acid pathways and neurotransmitter systems, as well as cerebral energy metabolism, nitric oxide synthesis, oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability transition and signal transduction pathways. Those alterations may explain neuronal loss and impairment of axonal and dendritic growth observed in the different models of congenital hyperammonemia. Some neuroprotective strategies such as the potential use of NMDA receptor antagonists, nitric oxide inhibitors, creatine and acetyl-l-carnitine have been suggested to counteract these toxic effects. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms involved in the chain of events leading to neuronal dysfunction under hyperammonemia may be useful to develop new potential strategies for neuroprotection.

  6. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... your Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  7. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  8. Stress-induced obesity and the emotional nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallman, Mary F

    2010-03-01

    Stress and emotional brain networks foster eating behaviors that can lead to obesity. The neural networks underlying the complex interactions among stressors, body, brain and food intake are now better understood. Stressors, by activating a neural stress-response network, bias cognition toward increased emotional activity and degraded executive function. This causes formed habits to be used rather than a cognitive appraisal of responses. Stress also induces secretion of glucocorticoids, which increases motivation for food, and insulin, which promotes food intake and obesity. Pleasurable feeding then reduces activity in the stress-response network, reinforcing the feeding habit. These effects of stressors emphasize the importance of teaching mental reappraisal techniques to restore responses from habitual to thoughtful, thus battling stress-induced obesity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress-induced obesity and the emotional nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Dallman, Mary F

    2009-01-01

    Stress and emotional brain networks foster eating behaviors that may lead to obesity. The neural networks underlying the complex interactions among stressors, body, brain and food intake are now better understood. Stressors, by activating a neural stress-response network, bias cognition toward increased emotional activity and degraded executive function. This causes formed habits to be used rather than a cognitive appraisal of responses. Stress also induces secretion of both glucocorticoids, ...

  10. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  11. Localization of Reversion-Induced LIM Protein (RIL) in the Rat Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Yuko; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Morishima, Tetsuro; Sasano, Hiroshi; Asai, Kiyofumi; Sobue, Kazuya; Takata, Kuniaki

    2009-01-01

    Reversion-induced LIM protein (RIL) is a member of the ALP (actinin-associated LIM protein) subfamily of the PDZ/LIM protein family. RIL serves as an adaptor protein and seems to regulate cytoskeletons. Immunoblotting suggested that RIL is concentrated in the astrocytes in the central nervous system. We then examined the expression and localization of RIL in the rat central nervous system and compared it with that of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4). RIL was concentrated in the cells of ependyma lining the ventricles in the brain and the central canal in the spinal cord. In most parts of the central nervous system, RIL was expressed in the astrocytes that expressed AQP4. Double-labeling studies showed that RIL was concentrated in the cytoplasm of astrocytes where glial fibrillary acidic protein was enriched as well as in the AQP4-enriched regions such as the endfeet or glia limitans. RIL was also present in some neurons such as Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and some neurons in the brain stem. Differential expression of RIL suggests that it may be involved in the regulation of the central nervous system

  12. Effect of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on the peripheral nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi Flou Hjorth; Mølck, A.-M.; Bøgh, I. B.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) is a common acute side effect in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients, especially during intensive insulin therapy. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) depends on glucose as its primary energy source during normoglycaemia and, consequently, it may be particularly...... state exceeds a certain level of severity and duration, resulting in a sensory-motor neuropathy with associated skeletal muscle atrophy. Large myelinated motor fibres appear to be particularly vulnerable. Thus, although the PNS is not an obligate glucose consumer, as is the brain, it appears to be more...... prone to IIH than the central nervous system when hypoglycaemia is not severe (blood glucose level ≤ 2 mm), possibly reflecting a preferential protection of the brain during periods of inadequate glucose availability. With a primary focus on evidence from experimental animal studies investigating...

  13. Radiation-induced changes of the developing nervous system of amphibians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    1986-01-01

    The nervous system of amphibians (Xenopus laevis and Bufo) is of an outstanding sensitivity against irradiation in the early periods of its tissue induction and development. This is descriptively shown by various pathological disturbances. Irradiated series showed a protracted course of development. The brains obtains lower relative weights and diminished absolute lengths although the body weight remained nearly constant. The distribution of pigmentation in the brains of treated animals was changed. This indicated radiation-induced disturbances. Further, the significance of pigmentation pattern for a distinct evaluation of histological effects is also confirmed by a coincidence between the gross visible anomalies of the brain and the number of pigment-sites. Examples of malformation are given by aplasias, hypoplasias, hyperplasias up to cases of cyclopia. In the peripheral nervous system of Xenopus the neuromuscular junctions of the musculus interhyoideus were examined. The majority of neural endplates in the irradiated cases showed a loss of Schwann cells. As a consequence a diffusion of the transmitter acetylcholine in the endplate-region must be suggested. Accordingly, the morphological compensation reaction was seen in a thickening and sprouting. (orig.)

  14. The central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The first section presents a comprehensive evaluation of radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system and provides a comparison of the detection accuracies of radionuclide imaging (RNI) and XCT in certain lesions, realizing that the XCT results may vary when radiocontrast or newer generation XCT scanners are used. Although conventional radionuclide imaging of the central nervous system has experienced no significant changes over the last 7 years except for mild refinements, a new section has been added on positron emission tomography (PET). Most positron radiopharmaceuticals passively cross the intact blood-brain barrier, and their localization has catalyzed renewed interest in our ability to metabolically study and obtain images of the central nervous system. The section on radionuclide cisternography has been rewritten to reflect present day practice and the wider application of XCT in describing conditions affecting the ventricular system

  15. Effect of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi Flou Hjorth; Bøgh, I. B.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    normoglycaemia. Brain glucose concentrations, being approximately 15-20% of the blood glucose concentration in humans, are rigorously maintained during hypoglycaemia through adaptions such as increased cerebral glucose transport, decreased cerebral glucose utilisation and, possibly, by using central nervous......Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) is a major acute complication in type 1 as well as in type 2 diabetes, particularly during intensive insulin therapy. The brain plays a central role in the counter-regulatory response by eliciting parasympathetic and sympathetic hormone responses to restore...... system glycogen as a glucose reserve. However, during sustained hypoglycaemia, the brain cannot maintain a sufficient glucose influx and, as the cerebral hypoglycaemia becomes severe, electroencephalogram changes, oxidative stress and regional neuronal death ensues. With particular focus on evidence from...

  16. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location. The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors

  17. Larval nervous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    as the adult central nervous system (CNS). Two structures can be recognized, viz. a pair of cerebral ganglia, which form the major part of the adult brain, and a blastoporal (circumblastoporal) nerve cord, which becomes differentiated into a perioral loop, paired or secondarily fused ventral nerve cords......, and the nervous systems of echinoderms and enteropneusts appear completely enigmatic. The ontogeny of the chordate CNS can perhaps be interpreted as a variation of the ontogeny of the blastoporal nerve cord of the protostomes, and this is strongly supported by patterns of gene expression. The presence...

  18. Hypoxia-inducible factor signalling mechanisms in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, A; O'Connor, J J

    2013-08-01

    In the CNS, neurones are highly sensitive to the availability of oxygen. In conditions where oxygen availability is decreased, neuronal function can be altered, leading to injury and cell death. Hypoxia has been implicated in a number of central nervous system pathologies including stroke, head trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. Cellular responses to oxygen deprivation are complex and result in activation of short- and long-term mechanisms to conserve energy and protect cells. Failure of synaptic transmission can be observed within minutes following this hypoxia. The acute effects of hypoxia on synaptic transmission are primarily mediated by altering ion fluxes across membranes, pre-synaptic effects of adenosine and other actions at glutamatergic receptors. A more long-term feature of the response of neurones to hypoxia is the activation of transcription factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor. The activation of hypoxia-inducible factor is governed by a family of dioxygenases called hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl 4 hydroxylases (PHDs). Under hypoxic conditions, PHD activity is inhibited, thereby allowing hypoxia-inducible factor to accumulate and translocate to the nucleus, where it binds to the hypoxia-responsive element sequences of target gene promoters. Inhibition of PHD activity stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor and other proteins thus acting as a neuroprotective agent. This review will focus on the response of neuronal cells to hypoxia-inducible factor and its targets, including the prolyl hydroxylases. We also present evidence for acute effects of PHD inhibition on synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Nervous System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbitt, Cynthia; Carpenter, Molly

    2006-01-01

    For many children, especially those with reading difficulties, a motor-kinesthetic learning activity may be an effective tool to teach complex concepts. With this in mind, the authors developed and tested a game designed to teach fourth- to sixth-grade children some basic principles of nervous system function by allowing the children themselves to…

  20. Apnea induced by respiratory syncytial virus infection is not associated with viral invasion of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Daniella Levy; Yarden-Bilavsky, Havatzelet; Mendelson, Ella; Yuhas, Yael; Ashkenazi, Shai; Nahum, Elhanan; Berent, Eva; Hindiyeh, Musa; Bilavsky, Efraim

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to study whether direct central nervous system invasion is responsible for the neurologic manifestations seen in hospitalized infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Cerebrospinal fluid from infants with RSV infection was tested for the detection of the following respiratory RNA viruses: RSV, influenza A and B, pandemic influenza H1N1, Parainfluenza-3, human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, parechovirus and enterovirus. All children tested negative for the presence of viral material in the cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the notion that the mechanism of RSV-induced neurologic manifestations, including apnea, is not direct central nervous system invasion.

  1. Tachycardia induced electrical remodeling of the atria and the autonomic nervous system in goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, Yuri; Tieleman, RG; Brower, T; Van den Berg, MP; de Kam, PJ; de Langen, CDJ; Haaksma, J; Grandjean, JG; Patberg, KW; van Gelder, IC; Crijns, HJGM

    1999-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) shortens the atrial effective refractory period (AERP). To investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system during this so-called electrical remodeling of the atria (ERA) and during recovery from ERA we analyzed heart rate variability (HRV). In 12 goats atrioventricular

  2. Serum Neuroinflammatory Disease-Induced Central Nervous System Proteins Predict Clinical Onset of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Raphael

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need in multiple sclerosis (MS patients to develop biomarkers and laboratory tests to improve early diagnosis, predict clinical relapses, and optimize treatment responses. In healthy individuals, the transport of proteins across the blood–brain barrier (BBB is tightly regulated, whereas, in MS, central nervous system (CNS inflammation results in damage to neuronal tissues, disruption of BBB integrity, and potential release of neuroinflammatory disease-induced CNS proteins (NDICPs into CSF and serum. Therefore, changes in serum NDICP abundance could serve as biomarkers of MS. Here, we sought to determine if changes in serum NDICPs are detectable prior to clinical onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE and, therefore, enable prediction of disease onset. Importantly, we show in longitudinal serum specimens from individual mice with EAE that pre-onset expression waves of synapsin-2, glutamine synthetase, enolase-2, and synaptotagmin-1 enable the prediction of clinical disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, we observed differences in serum NDICPs between active and passive immunization in EAE, suggesting hitherto not appreciated differences for disease induction mechanisms. Our studies provide the first evidence for enabling the prediction of clinical disease using serum NDICPs. The results provide proof-of-concept for the development of high-confidence serum NDICP expression waves and protein biomarker candidates for MS.

  3. Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation induces anxiety-like behavior and alters central nervous system biochemistry in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercik, Premysl; Verdu, Elena F; Foster, Jane A; Macri, Joseph; Potter, Murray; Huang, Xiaxing; Malinowski, Paul; Jackson, Wendy; Blennerhassett, Patricia; Neufeld, Karen A; Lu, Jun; Khan, Waliul I; Corthesy-Theulaz, Irene; Cherbut, Christine; Bergonzelli, Gabriela E; Collins, Stephen M

    2010-12-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies have associated gastrointestinal inflammation and infection with altered behavior. We investigated whether chronic gut inflammation alters behavior and brain biochemistry and examined underlying mechanisms. AKR mice were infected with the noninvasive parasite Trichuris muris and given etanercept, budesonide, or specific probiotics. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy was performed in a subgroup of mice before infection. Gastrointestinal inflammation was assessed by histology and quantification of myeloperoxidase activity. Serum proteins were measured by proteomic analysis, circulating cytokines were measured by fluorescence activated cell sorting array, and serum tryptophan and kynurenine were measured by liquid chromatography. Behavior was assessed using light/dark preference and step-down tests. In situ hybridization was used to assess brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the brain. T muris caused mild to moderate colonic inflammation and anxiety-like behavior that was associated with decreased hippocampal BDNF messenger RNA (mRNA). Circulating tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, as well as the kynurenine and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, were increased. Proteomic analysis showed altered levels of several proteins related to inflammation and neural function. Administration of etanercept, and to a lesser degree of budesonide, normalized behavior, reduced cytokine and kynurenine levels, but did not influence BDNF expression. The probiotic Bifidobacterium longum normalized behavior and BDNF mRNA but did not affect cytokine or kynurenine levels. Anxiety-like behavior was present in infected mice after vagotomy. Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation induces anxiety-like behavior and alters central nervous system biochemistry, which can be normalized by inflammation-dependent and -independent mechanisms, neither of which requires the integrity of the vagus nerve. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc

  4. The role of the sympathetic nervous system in radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuu, Mutsumi; Shichijo; Kazuko; Nakamura, Yasuko; Ikeda, Yuji; Naito, Shinji; Ito, Masahiro; Okaichi, Kumio; Sekine, Ichiro

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the sympathetic nervous system on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells, apoptosis levels were compared in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), animals which are a genetic hyperfunction model of the sympathetic nervous system, and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). SHR and WKY were exposed to whole body X-ray irradiation at doses from 0.5 to 2 Gy. The apoptotic index in jejunal crypt cells was significantly greater in SHR than in WKY at each time point after irradiation and at each dose. WKY and SHR were treated with reserpine to induce sympathetic dysfunction, and were subsequently exposed to irradiation. Reserpine administration to SHR or WKY resulted in a significant suppression of apoptosis. p53 accumulation was detected in the jejunum in both WKY and SHR after irradiation by Western blotting analysis. There were no significant differences in the levels of p53 accumulation in irradiated intestine between WKY and SHR. These findings suggested that hyperfunction of the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the mechanism of high susceptibility to radiation-induced apoptosis of the jejunal crypt cells. (author)

  5. Central nervous system depressant activityof Leonurus sibiricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of aerial parts of Leonurus sibiricus was shown to possess central nervous system depressant action by significantly decreased the time of onset of sleep and potentiated the pentobarbital induced sleeping time in mice. Keywords: Leonurus sibiricus, labiatae, central nervous depressant, sedation

  6. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... organs they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  7. ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Cansu; Göy, Defne Flora; Özden, Gülşah; Barutçu, Öykü; Bozer, Cüneyt

    2015-01-01

    Enteric nervous system directs and regulates the breakdown, absorption and elimination of food in our digestive system. However, alongside its digestive functions, enteric nervous system has also gained importance because of the discovery of its bidirectional link with intestinal flora, which has recently started to be considered as a separate organ in addiction to its digestive functions. Enteric nervous system contains approximately 100 million nerve cells, operates both independently and i...

  8. Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System, Central Nervous System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gastrointestinal tract is chiefly involved in the digestion of ingested food, facilitation of absorption process and expulsion of the undigested food material through motility process. Motility is influenced by neurohormonal system which is associated with the enteric nervous system , autonomic nervous system and the ...

  9. Characterization of radiation-induced apoptosis in developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.R.; Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.; Sanjurjo, J.

    2000-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to ionizing radiation may cause a variety of effects on Central Nervous System (CNS) including microcephaly, severe mental retardation and lower intelligence tests score. The highest risks occur between 8 and 15 week of gestational age, simultaneously with the greatest neuroblastic proliferation and migration to cerebral cortex. It has been shown that radiation induce apoptosis in CNS, primarily in neonatal or early postnatal brain. At the same time, programmed cell death plays an important role in normal development of embrionic tissues, especially in the neuronal system. The purpose of the present study was the characterization and quantification of the apoptosis, the effectivity of different neuroprotectors, and the involvement of the caspase-3 in the programmed cellular death in our model. Evidence for apoptotic like features included: apoptotic nuclei observed by conventional and fluorescent staining, analysis of DNA fragmentation in agarosa gels and flow cytometric quantification. To gain an insight about the neuroprotective effect of different modulators of neuroprotection, it has been tested: Protein synthesis inhibitor, Compounds capable of reducing the effect of oxidative stress, Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and glutamate receptor antagonists. Cerebrocortical micromass cultures were prepared from fetuses of Wistar rats removed between 15 and 19 embronic day (ED) and 5 postnatal day (PN). Irradiation was performed two hours after seeding, with a Co60 source and a fast beam of the research reactor RA1 with a neutron-gamma field. Conventional staining was performed with May Grunwald Giemsa. Fluorescent staining consisted in a mixture of Propidium iodide (IP), fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and Hoescht 33342. Analysis of DNA fragmentation was carried out on 1,8% agarosa gel stained with ethidium bromide, visualized and photographed by UV illumination. Caspase-3 activation was performed using ApoAlert TM Kit. The quantification of

  10. Role of the adrenergic nervous system in development of training-induced bradycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigvardsson, K; Svanfeldt, E; Kilbom, A

    1977-12-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats, normal and chemically sympathectomized with 6-hydroxy-dopamine, were trained by treadmill running. The normal rats, unlike the sympathectomized animals, showed reduction of the exercise heart rate after the training period. Compared to a sedentary control group the sympathectomized rats showed no difference in intrinsic heart rate after pithing and denervation and no increase in heart weight. The increase of the heart weight/body weight ratio after training was smaller in the sympathectomized group than in the normal one. The results show that a functioning adrenergic nervous system is necessary for an efficient adaptation to physical training. Administration of noradrenaline to pithed trained and untrained rats showed that betaadrenergic receptor sensitivity was not altered by physical training. The intrinsic heart rate of normal trained rats was lower than that of normal control rats.

  11. The nervous systems of cnidarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Westfall, J A

    1995-01-01

    Cnidarians have simple nervous systems and it was probably within this group or a closely-related ancestor that nervous systems first evolved. The basic plan of the cnidarian nervous system is that of a nerve net which, at some locations, has condensed to form nerve plexuses, or circular...... specialized neurons that we find in higher animals today. The primitive nervous system of cnidarians is strongly peptidergic: from a single sea anemone species Anthopleura elegantissima, we have now isolated 16 different novel neuropeptides. These peptides are biologically active and cause inhibitions...... that the peptides are located in neuronal dense-cored vesicles associated with both synaptic and non-synaptic release sites. All these data indicate that evolutionarily "old" nervous systems use peptides as transmitters. We have also investigated the biosynthesis of the cnidarian neuropeptides. These neuropeptides...

  12. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Fike, J.R.; Hoopes, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  13. The role of amino acids on the development of radiation-induced damage of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamatodani, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kouichi; Nohara, Kyoko; Moriyasu, Saeko; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Radiation impairs some functions of the central nervous system, which is one of the radiation-resistant tissues in the body. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of the effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy-ions on the release of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, in the hypothalamus of rats measured by in vivo brain microdialysis. Total body and head, but not abdominal, heavy-ion (carbon) irradiation induced a significant increase in glutamate levels to approximately 150% of the basal level at 1.5 h of the irradiation, and the release gradually increased during the observation period. Furthermore, heavy-ion-induced glutamate release was suppressed by pretreatment with the dexamethasone. These results suggested that the central pathways (i.e. the neuronal damage of the brain or inflammatory cytokines which were produced in the brain) are involved in the development of high-LET radiation-induced glutamate release. (author)

  14. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.F.; Tobias, C.A.; Born, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  15. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, Paul W.; Butt, Omer I. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); D' Agnillo, Felice, E-mail: felice.dagnillo@fda.hhs.gov [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO{sub 2} therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. {yields} Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO{sub 2} infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. {yields} These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. {yields} NaNO{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO{sub 2} with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO{sub 2} on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO{sub 2}, at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO{sub 2} alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  16. Sodium nitrite induces acute central nervous system toxicity in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, Paul W.; Butt, Omer I.; D'Agnillo, Felice

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Toxicological implications associated with the use of NaNO 2 therapy to treat systemic cell-free Hb exposure are not well-defined. → Systemic Hb exposure followed by NaNO 2 infusion induces acute CNS toxicities in guinea pigs. → These CNS effects were not reproduced by the infusion of cell-free Hb or NaNO 2 alone. → NaNO 2 -mediated oxidation of cell-free Hb may play a causative role in the observed CNS changes. -- Abstract: Systemic cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) released via hemolysis disrupts vascular homeostasis, in part, through the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO). Sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ) therapy can attenuate the hypertensive effects of Hb. However, the chemical reactivity of NaNO 2 with Hb may enhance heme- or iron-mediated toxicities. Here, we investigate the effect of NaNO 2 on the central nervous system (CNS) in guinea pigs exposed to systemic cell-free Hb. Intravascular infusion of NaNO 2 , at doses sufficient to alleviate Hb-mediated blood pressure changes, reduced the expression of occludin, but not zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) or claudin-5, in cerebral tight junctions 4 h after Hb infusion. This was accompanied by increased perivascular heme oxygenase-1 expression, neuronal iron deposition, increased astrocyte and microglial activation, and reduced expression of neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN). These CNS changes were not observed in animals treated with Hb or NaNO 2 alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of nitrite salts to treat systemic Hb exposure may promote acute CNS toxicity.

  17. Diabetes-Induced Dysfunction of Mitochondria and Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle and the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Fujimaki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases spread all over the world, which results in hyperglycemia caused by the breakdown of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. Diabetes has been reported to disrupt the functions and dynamics of mitochondria, which play a fundamental role in regulating metabolic pathways and are crucial to maintain appropriate energy balance. Similar to mitochondria, the functions and the abilities of stem cells are attenuated under diabetic condition in several tissues. In recent years, several studies have suggested that the regulation of mitochondria functions and dynamics is critical for the precise differentiation of stem cells. Importantly, physical exercise is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration by improving the functions of both mitochondria and stem cells. In the present review, we provide an overview of the diabetic alterations of mitochondria and stem cells and the preventive effects of physical exercise on diabetes, focused on skeletal muscle and the nervous system. We propose physical exercise as a countermeasure for the dysfunction of mitochondria and stem cells in several target tissues under diabetes complication and to improve the physiological function of patients with diabetes, resulting in their quality of life being maintained.

  18. Exercise training-induced modification in autonomic nervous system: An update for cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnier, Florent; Labrunée, Marc; Pathak, Atul; Pavy-Le Traon, Anne; Galès, Céline; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Guiraud, Thibaut

    2017-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular disease show autonomic dysfunction, including sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal, which leads to fatal events. This review aims to place sympathovagal balance as an essential element to be considered in management for cardiovascular disease patients who benefit from a cardiac rehabilitation program. Many studies showed that exercise training, as non-pharmacologic treatment, plays an important role in enhancing sympathovagal balance and could normalize levels of markers of sympathetic flow measured by microneurography, heart rate variability or plasma catecholamine levels. This alteration positively affects prognosis with cardiovascular disease. In general, cardiac rehabilitation programs include moderate-intensity and continuous aerobic exercise. Other forms of activities such as high-intensity interval training, breathing exercises, relaxation and transcutaneous electrical stimulation can improve sympathovagal balance and should be implemented in cardiac rehabilitation programs. Currently, the exercise training programs in cardiac rehabilitation are individualized to optimize health outcomes. The sports science concept of the heart rate variability (HRV)-vagal index used to manage exercise sessions (for a goal of performance) could be implemented in cardiac rehabilitation to improve cardiovascular fitness and autonomic nervous system function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain and nervous system (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nervous system controls the many complicated and interconnected functions of the body and mind. Motor, sensory cognitive and autonomic function are all coordinated and driven by the brain and nerves. As people age, nerve ...

  20. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The central nervous system depressant activity of the crude methanol extract (REC) and fractions (RE1, RE2, and RE3) of Russelia equisetiformis were evaluated in mice using the following models: amphetamine – induced stereotypy, picrotoxin – induced convulsion and phenobarbitone sleeping time.

  1. The evolution of the serotonergic nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion......Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion...

  2. The involvement of central nervous system histamine receptors in psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Tomomitsu; Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Masuda, Chiaki; Iwami, Shunya; Sato, Miki; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Kawano, Tasuku; Ohkawara, Yuichi; Sakurada, Shinobu; Takayanagi, Motoaki; Ohno, Isao

    2016-09-01

    Psychological stress is one of the major risk factors for asthma exacerbation. Although histamine in the brain acts as an excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter associated with psychological stress, the contribution of brain histamine to psychological stress-induced exacerbation of asthma remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of histamine receptors in the CNS on stress induced asthma aggravation. We monitored the numbers of inflammatory cells and interleukin (IL)-13 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, mucus secretion in airway epithelial cells, and antigen-specific IgE contents in sera in a murine model of stress-induced asthma treated with epinastine (an H1R antagonist), thioperamide (an H3/4R antagonist), or solvent. All indicators of stress-induced asthma exacerbation were significantly reduced in stressed mice treated with epinastine compared with those treated with solvent, whereas treatment with thioperamide did not reduce the numbers of inflammatory cells in the stressed mice. These results suggest that H1R, but not H3/4R, may be involved in stress-induced asthma exacerbations in the central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A new pharmacological role for donepezil: attenuation of morphine-induced tolerance and apoptosis in rat central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tolerance to the analgesic effect of opioids is a pharmacological phenomenon that occurs after their prolonged administration. It has been shown that morphine-induced tolerance is associated with apoptosis in the central nervous system and neuroprotective agents which prevented apoptosis signaling could attenuate tolerance to the analgesic effects. On the other hand donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects. Therefore in this study, the effect of systemic administration of donepezil on morphine-induced tolerance and apoptosis in the rat cerebral cortex and lumbar spinal cord was evaluated. Various groups of rats received morphine (ip) and different doses of donepezil (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 mg/kg/day). Nociception was assessed using tail flick apparatus. Tail flick latency was recorded when the rat shook its tail. For apoptosis assay other groups of rats received the above treatment and apoptosis was evaluated by in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method. Results The results showed that administration of donepezil (0.5, 1, 1.5 mg/kg, ip) delayed the morphine tolerance for 9, 12 and 17 days, respectively. Furthermore pretreatment injection of donepezil attenuated the number of apoptotic cells in the cerebral cortex and lumbar spinal cord compared to the control group. Conclusion In conclusion, we found that systemic administration of donepezil attenuated morphine-induced tolerance and apoptosis in the rat cerebral cortex and lumbar spinal cord. PMID:24455992

  4. Bone marrow-derived fibroblast growth factor-2 induces glial cell proliferation in the regenerating peripheral nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro-Resende Victor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the essential biological roles of bone marrow-derived cells, secretion of many soluble factors is included and these small molecules can act upon specific receptors present in many tissues including the nervous system. Some of the released molecules can induce proliferation of Schwann cells (SC, satellite cells and lumbar spinal cord astrocytes during early steps of regeneration in a rat model of sciatic nerve transection. These are the major glial cell types that support neuronal survival and axonal growth following peripheral nerve injury. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 is the main mitogenic factor for SCs and is released in large amounts by bone marrow-derived cells, as well as by growing axons and endoneurial fibroblasts during development and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS. Results Here we show that bone marrow-derived cell treatment induce an increase in the expression of FGF-2 in the sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglia and the dorsolateral (DL region of the lumbar spinal cord (LSC in a model of sciatic nerve transection and connection into a hollow tube. SCs in culture in the presence of bone marrow derived conditioned media (CM resulted in increased proliferation and migration. This effect was reduced when FGF-2 was neutralized by pretreating BMMC or CM with a specific antibody. The increased expression of FGF-2 was validated by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry in co-cultures of bone marrow derived cells with sciatic nerve explants and regenerating nerve tissue respectivelly. Conclusion We conclude that FGF-2 secreted by BMMC strongly increases early glial proliferation, which can potentially improve PNS regeneration.

  5. NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2013-01-01

    The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential

  6. Sympathetic nervous system and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, William H.; Convertino, Victor A.

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: Orthostatic stability on Earth is maintained through sympathetic nerve activation sufficient to increase peripheral vascular resistance and defend against reductions of blood pressure. Orthostatic instability in astronauts upon return from space missions has been linked to blunted vascular resistance responses to standing, introducing the possibility that spaceflight alters normal function between sympathetic efferent traffic and vascular reactivity. Methods: We evaluated published results of spaceflight and relevant ground-based microgravity simulations in an effort to determine responses of the sympathetic nervous system and consequences for orthostatic stability. Results: Direct microneurographic recordings from humans in space revealed that sympathetic nerve activity is increased and preserved in the upright posture after return to Earth (STS-90). However, none of the astronauts studied during STS-90 presented with presyncope postflight, leaving unanswered the question of whether postflight orthostatic intolerance is associated with blunted sympathetic nerve responses or inadequate translation into vascular resistance. Conclusions: There is little evidence to support the concept that spaceflight induces fundamental sympathetic neuroplasticity. The available data seem to support the hypothesis that regardless of whether or not sympathetic traffic is altered during flight, astronauts return with reduced blood volumes and consequent heightened baseline sympathetic activity. Because of this, the ability to withstand an orthostatic challenge postflight is directly proportional to an astronaut's maximal sympathetic activation capacity and remaining sympathetic reserve.

  7. Feed-induced Dystonias in Children With Severe Central Nervous System Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordekar, Santosh R; Velayudhan, Manjula; Campbell, David I

    2017-09-01

    Dystonias can arise from any painful stimuli in neurologically disabled children. Classically, feed-induced dystonias from mediastinal pain due to severe gastroesophageal reflux disease are described as Sandifer spasm. We report a case series of 12 severely neurologically impaired children with enteral feed-induced dystonias. Intestinal dysmotility was demonstrated in several. Improvements are seen with jejunal feeds or gut rest with total parenteral nutrition. Use of parenteral nutrition in children with severe neurodisability requires thorough discussion with patient groups and commissioners to give clinicians guidelines to standardize care.

  8. Injury-Induced Type I IFN Signaling Regulates Inflammatory Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    IFNs signal through a receptor (IFNAR), which involves activation of IFN regulatory factor (IRF)9, leading to the induction of IFN-stimulated genes including IRF7, that in turn enhances the induction of type I IFN. Axonal transection induced upregulation of IRF7 and IRF9 in hippocampus. Induction...

  9. What Are the Parts of the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Print What are the parts of the nervous system? The nervous system consists of two main parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system: The central nervous system is made up of the brain and ...

  10. Increased p53 and decreased p21 accompany apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation in the nervous system of a crustacean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, Gabriela, E-mail: gabrielahollmann@biof.ufrj.br [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil); Linden, Rafael, E-mail: rlinden@biof.ufrj.br [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil); Giangrande, Angela, E-mail: angela.giangrande@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire-IGBMC, INSERM, Strasbourg (France); Allodi, Silvana, E-mail: sallodi@biof.ufrj.br [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The paper characterizes molecular pathways of cell responses to environmental doses of UV in brain tissue of a crab species. • The UV radiation changes levels of proteins which trigger apoptotic or cell cycle arrest pathways and also it changes neurotrophins which lead to apoptosis of neural cell in the central nervous system (CNS) of the crab Ucides cordatus. • The UVB wavelengths in the solar simulator damaged the DNA, either directly or indirectly, by increasing ROS, and induced the increase of p53 and AKT, which blocked p21 and increased the expression of activated caspase-3, triggering apoptosis. The signs of death increased the expression of neurotrophins (BDNF and GDNF), which continued to stimulate the apoptosis signaling mediated by caspase-3. • In the brain of the crab U. cordatus, p53/p21 relationship in response to UV radiation is different from that of most mammals. - Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, leading the cell to apoptosis by the p53 pathway. This study evaluated some molecular markers of the apoptosis pathway induced by UVA, UVB and UVA+ UVB (Solar Simulator, SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated the central nervous system (CNS) by immunoblotting the content of proteins p53, p21, phosphorylated AKT, BDNF, GDNF, activated caspase-3 (C3) and phosphohistone H3 (PH3); and by immunohistochemical tests of the cells labeled for PH3 and C3. After the fifth day of exposure, UVB radiation and SIM increased the protein content of p53, increasing the content of AKT and, somehow, blocking p21, increasing the content of activated caspase-3, which led the cells to apoptosis. The signs of death affected the increase in neurotrophins, such as BDNF and GDNF, stimulating the apoptotic cascade of events. Immunohistochemical assays and immunoblotting showed that apoptosis was present in the brains of all UV groups, while

  11. Thrombin preferentially induces autophagy in glia cells in the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shukun; Wu, Gang; Ding, Xin; Zhang, Yi

    2016-09-06

    Autophagy widely occurs after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In our previous study, we demonstrated that thrombin, a serine protease produced after hematoma, contributes to ICH-induced autophagy. However, whether thrombin plays a neuronal and/or astrocytic role in autophagy induction is largely unknown. Here, we examined the autophagic role of thrombin on neurons and glia cells, respectively. In vivo, we found that intracaudate injection of thrombin specifically elevated the astrocytic expression of beclin-1 and LC3, two autophagic markers, and promoted the formation of autophagic vacuoles within astrocytes rather than neurons in the ipsilateral basal ganglia. Consistent with this, thrombin enhanced the LC3-II level and increased the number of MDC-labeled autophagic vacuoles in cultured astrocytes. These results indicated that thrombin preferentially activated astrocytic autophagy after ICH, and therefore provided novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic targets for hemorrhage stroke and brain trauma. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Neurochemistry of Pressure-Induced Nitrogen and Metabolically Inert Gas Narcosis in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostain, Jean-Claude; Lavoute, Cécile

    2016-06-13

    Gases that are not metabolized by the organism are thus chemically inactive under normal conditions. Such gases include the "noble gases" of the Periodic Table as well as hydrogen and nitrogen. At increasing pressure, nitrogen induces narcosis at 4 absolute atmospheres (ATAs) and more in humans and at 11 ATA and more in rats. Electrophysiological and neuropharmacological studies suggest that the striatum is a target of nitrogen narcosis. Glutamate and dopamine release from the striatum in rats are decreased by exposure to nitrogen at a pressure of 31 ATA (75% of the anesthetic threshold). Striatal dopamine levels decrease during exposure to compressed argon, an inert gas more narcotic than nitrogen, or to nitrous oxide, an anesthetic gas. Inversely, striatal dopamine levels increase during exposure to compressed helium, an inert gas with a very low narcotic potency. Exposure to nitrogen at high pressure does not change N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor activities in Substantia Nigra compacta and striatum but enhances gama amino butyric acidA (GABAA) receptor activities in Substantia Nigra compacta. The decrease in striatal dopamine levels in response to hyperbaric nitrogen exposure is suppressed by recurrent exposure to nitrogen narcosis, and dopamine levels increase after four or five exposures. This change, the lack of improvement of motor disturbances, the desensitization of GABAA receptors on dopamine cells during recurrent exposures and the long-lasting decrease of glutamate coupled with the higher sensitivity of NMDA receptors, suggest a nitrogen toxicity induced by repetitive exposures to narcosis. These differential changes in different neurotransmitter receptors would support the binding protein theory. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1579-1590, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Nanomedicine and the nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Colin R; Hunter, Ross J

    2012-01-01

    The nanosciences encompass a variety of technologies ranging from particles to networks and nanostructures. Nanoparticles can be suitable carriers of therapeutic agents, and nanostructures provide suitable platforms and scaffolds for sub-micro bioengineering. This book focuses on nanomedicine and nanotechnology as applied to the nervous system and the brain. It covers nanoparticle-based immunoassays, nanofiber microbrush arrays, nanoelectrodes, protein nanoassemblies, nanoparticles-assisted imaging, nanomaterials, and ion channels. Additional topics include stem cell imaging, neuronal performa

  14. Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, M.; Frati, A.; Piccirilli, M.; Agrillo, A.; Brogna, C.; Occhiogrosso, G.; Giangaspero, F.; Caroli, E.

    2005-01-01

    Central nervous system mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare malignant tumors that constitute a separate entity from the classical chondrosarcoma and myxoid variant. Clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas is still unknown. We describe two rare examples of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with a review of the literature, in an attempt to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment of choice of these unusual tumors. Among the 55 reported cases, 23 had postoperative radiotherapy. Although there is no statistical significance according to the Log-Rank test (p=0.7), the patients treated with radiation therapy seem to have a better chance of survival. Patients who had adjuvant chemotherapy (only 5) showed survival times similar to those patients who had none. Although clinical behaviour of central nervous system chondrosarcomas remains to be defined, data from our series as well as literature show that radical removal is the best therapeutic choice. In addition, patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy seem to show a trend toward increased survival

  15. Central Nervous System and Innate Immune Mechanisms for Inflammation- and Cancer-induced Anorexia

    OpenAIRE

    Ruud, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Anyone who has experienced influenza or a bacterial infection knows what it means to be ill. Apart from feeling feverish, experiencing aching joints and muscles, you lose the desire to eat. Anorexia, defined as loss of appetite or persistent satiety leading to reduced energy intake, is a hallmark of acute inflammatory disease. The anorexia is part of the acute phase response, triggered as the result of activation of the innate immune system with concomitant release of inflammatory mediators, ...

  16. Aging changes in the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/004023.htm Aging changes in the nervous system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The brain and nervous system are your body's central control center. They control ...

  17. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... process. Autonomic disorders may be reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous ... with acetylcholine and placed on the legs and forearm. Then, the volume of sweat is measured to ...

  18. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  19. Reduced Genetic Diversity in Lymphoid and Central Nervous System Tissues and Selection-Induced Tissue-Specific Compartmentalization of Neuropathogenic SIVsmmFGb during Acute Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Reeve, Aaron B.; Patel, Kalpana; Pearce, Nicholas C.; Augustus, Katherine V.; Domingues, Heber G.; O'Neil, Shawn P.; Novembre, Francis J.

    2009-01-01

    The simian lentivirus strain SIVsmmFGb is a viral swarm population inducing neuropathology in over 90% of infected pigtailed macaques and serves as a reliable model for HIV neuropathogenesis. However, little is understood about the genetic diversity of this virus, how said diversity influences the initial seeding of the central nervous system and lymph nodes, or whether the virus forms distinct genetic compartments between tissues during acute infection. In this study, we establish that our S...

  20. An Integrated Model of the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems for Analysis of Microgravity Induced Fluid Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R.; Gady, S.; Heinemann, K.; Nelson, E. S.; Mulugeta, L.; Ethier, C. R.; Samuels, B. C.; Feola, A.; Vera, J.; Myers, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    A recognized side effect of prolonged microgravity exposure is visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The medical understanding of this phenomenon is at present preliminary, although it is hypothesized that the headward shift of bodily fluids in microgravity may be a contributor. Computational models can be used to provide insight into the origins of VIIP. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, NASAs Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is developing an integrated computational model of the human body which is divided into the eye, the cerebrovascular system, and the cardiovascular system. This presentation will focus on the development and testing of the computational model of an integrated model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) and central nervous system (CNS) that simulates the behavior of pressures, volumes, and flows within these two physiological systems.

  1. Prenatal irradiation: nitric oxide and oxidative stress roles in radiation-induced apoptosis of the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjurjo, Julieta

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The effects of prenatal irradiation on developing brain should be considered at cellular, structural and functional levels, integrating the information obtained from different sources in an appropriated model to explain the mechanisms involved in neuronal damage. That would permit to make risk estimations and improve radiological protection. Human brain is especially sensitive to ionizing radiation during certain stages of prenatal development. At doses such as those received by Hiroshima and Nagasaki's atomic bomb explosions survivors that were prenatally exposed, the maximum risk was to those exposed between the 8th and 15th weeks of gestation, in coincidence with the highest rate of neuron production and its migration to the brain cortex. The major effect produced on both, brain growth and development, was the augmentation of the Severe Mental Retardation (SMR) incidence. Radiation-induced apoptosis of neuronal progenitors should be considered as one of the factors associated with this pathology, apart from those of migration and synaptogenesis. Apoptosis is an innate and evolutionally conserved process by which the cells provoke the inactivation, disorganisation and degradation of their structural and functional components in a systematic fashion, with the aim of producing its own death. It is also the main cell death mechanism induced by low linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation in developing Central Nervous System (CNS). Radioinduced apoptosis characterization during the different developmental stages, its kinetics and the possible implicated mechanisms (like oxidative injury and nitric oxide) was done using an 'in vitro' system of cortical micro masses (primary cultures of brain cortex cells) from rat embryo brains. Cell cultures were exposed to a single dose of gamma radiation, between 0,2 and 2 Gy, supplied by a Co 60 source (Picker C4M60) at a 70 cm distance with a field area size of 25 cm x 25 cm and at a 0,34 Gy/minute dose rate

  2. Extending the enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarbati, Andrea; Osculati, Francesco

    2007-08-01

    The work reviews the evidence suggesting that lingual components of the autonomic system may be considered the most rostral portion of the enteric nervous system (ENS) defining the concept of lingual ENS (LENS). The LENS is not dissimilar from the more distally located portions of the ENS, however, it is characterized by a massive sensory input generated by collaterals of gustatory and trigeminal fibers. The different neuronal subpopulations that compose the LENS operate reflexes involved in regulation of secretion and vasomotility. Systemic reflexes on the digestive and respiratory apparatus are operated by means of neural connections through the pharynx or larynx. The LENS can modulate the activity of distally located organs by means of the annexed glands.The LENS seems therefore to be a "chemical eye" located at the beginning of the digestive apparatus which analyses the foods before their ingestion and diffuses this information distally. The definition of the LENS supports the concept of an elevated degree of autonomy in the ENS and puts in a new light the role of the gustatory system in modulation of the digestive functions. For its characteristics, the LENS appears to be an ideal model to study the elementary connectivity of the ENS.

  3. Central Nervous System Infections in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-04

    Central Nervous System Infections; Bacterial Meningitis; Viral Meningitis; Aseptic Meningitis; Encephalitis; Brain Abscess; Neuroborreliosis; Neurosyphilis; Lyme Disease; Tertiary Syphilis; Cerebral Abscess; Meningitis

  4. Electrocardiographic changes in central nervous system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, J; Elson, J

    1993-05-01

    This article gives a basic description of neurophysiologic control of cardiac function. Specific electrocardiographic abnormalities related to various central nervous system insults are discussed also.

  5. The ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Pasteurella multocida B:2 to induce clinical and pathological lesions in the nervous system of buffalo calves following experimental inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse Abdullah, Faez Firdaus; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Teik Chung, Eric Lim; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi

    2017-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. multocida B:2, a causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in cattle and buffaloes, is considered as the main virulence factor and contribute in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent studies provided evidences about the involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS. However, the role of P. multocida B:2 immunogens, especially the LPS is still uncovered. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the role of P. multocida B:2 LPS to induce pathological changes in the nervous system. Nine eight-month-old, clinically healthy buffalo calves were used and distributed into three groups. Calves of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and intravenously with 10 ml of LPS broth extract represent 1 × 10 12  cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while calves of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. Significant differences were found in the mean scores for clinical signs, post mortem and histopathological changes especially in Group 2, which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system, mainly the brain. On the other hand, lower scores have been recorded for clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence about the ability of P. multocida B:2 LPS to cross the blood brain barrier and induce pathological changes in the nervous system of the affected buffalo calves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermogenesis induced by a high-carbohydrate meal in fasted lean and overweight young men: insulin, body fat, and sympathetic nervous system involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Lopes, Iva; Forga, Luis; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    This dietary trial was designed to evaluate the effect of an experimental short-term fasting period followed by a high-carbohydrate meal on energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and sympathetic nervous system activity in normal (body mass index 27 kg/m(2)) men who were healthy, non-diabetic or with no other endocrine disease, non-smokers, not taking oral prescription medications, and with a stable body weight for the previous 3 mo. Fasting and fed energy expenditures and diet-induced thermogenesis were measured after a high-carbohydrate meal in seven overweight and six lean young male subjects by indirect calorimetry. Heart rate, urinary excretion of catecholamines, serum glucose, and insulin were also measured over the experimental fasting (7.5 h) and postprandial (4 h) periods. After carbohydrate intake, overweight men showed a significantly higher energy production (kJ/kg of fat-free mass) than did lean individuals, and the diet-induced thermogenesis (percentage of energy intake) was positively correlated with body fat (kg), percentage of body fat, fat-free mass (kg), and fasting pre-meal serum insulin levels. Postprandial cumulative energy expenditure was directly associated with postprandial insulin response and with mean postprandial heart rate values. No significant differences in urinary catecholamines were found between lean and overweight men at basal conditions or during the study period. Overweight individuals showed similar short-term sympathetic nervous system responses induced by an experimental fasting period. Although diet-induced thermogenesis after carbohydrate intake was not statistically different between lean and overweight men, the postprandial insulin response and body fat content seemed to be involved in sympathetic nervous system activity.

  7. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kioumehr, F.; Dadsetan, M.R.; Rooholamini, S.A.; Au, A.

    1994-02-01

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  8. Cystic Fibrosis and the Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, Leah R

    2017-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). CFTR is an anion channel that conducts bicarbonate and chloride across cell membranes. Although defective anion transport across epithelial cells is accepted as the basic defect in CF, many of the features observed in people with CF and organs affected by CF are modulated by the nervous system. This is of interest because CFTR expression has been reported in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, and it is well known that the transport of anions, such as chloride, greatly modulates neuronal excitability. Thus it is predicted that in CF, lack of CFTR in the nervous system affects neuronal function. Consistent with this prediction, several nervous system abnormalities and nervous system disorders have been described in people with CF and in animal models of CF. The goal of this special feature article is to highlight the expression and function of CFTR in the nervous system. Special emphasis is placed on nervous system abnormalities described in people with CF and in animal models of CF. Finally, features of CF that may be modulated by or attributed to faulty nervous system function are discussed. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding and controlling the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2002-01-01

    The enteric nervous system or the `Little Brain' of the gut controls gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and is involved in visceral sensation. In this chapter, new developments in understanding the function of the enteric nervous system are described. In particular, the interaction of this

  10. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  11. Haemangiopericytoma of central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, M.F.; Benjamin, C.S. [Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Clinical Oncology

    1995-02-01

    The records of four patients presenting with a histological diagnosis of haemangiopericytoma of the central nervous system, in Auckland, New Zealand, between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed retrospectively, with the aim of determining the natural history of the disease and response to various treatment modalities. Three out of the four patients reviewed presented with primary cerebral disease and the fourth with a primary spinal cord tumour. All three cerebral primary patients were initially treated with local surgical excision. All three patients received radical radiotherapy following local recurrence. The first two patients remained disease-free locally although one patient developed a solitary liver metastasis 5 years after radiotherapy. The third patient was referred with multiple cerebral metastases and failed to respond to radiotherapy. The patient with the primary lesion in the spinal cord was treated with local excision followed by postoperative radiotherapy and remains disease-free 17 years after treatment. One patient failed to respond to chemotherapy, prescribed to treat a local recurrence adjacent to the previous radiotherapy field. This was successfully excised subsequently. The patient presenting with multiple cerebral metastases was the only patient to die of this disease. Results suggest that local recurrence is avoidable with adequate wide excision of the primary tumour followed by local radical radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy remains controversial and no conclusion could be drawn regarding the role of palliative radiotherapy from this study. Active treatment and long-term follow-up are necessary because of the relative aggressiveness of this disease and the propensity for late relapses. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.

    1987-05-01

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  13. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  14. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals......Immune-mediated tissue damage or hypersensitivity can be mediated by autospecific IgG antibodies. Pathology results from activation of complement, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, mediated by inflammatory effector leukocytes include macrophages, natural killer cells, and granulocytes...... injection of antibody and complement to the CNS, or experimental manipulations to induce BBB breakdown. We here review studies in MS and NMO that elucidate roles for IgG and complement in the induction of BBB breakdown, astrocytopathy, and demyelinating pathology. These studies point to significance of T...

  15. CHIP, a carboxy terminus HSP-70 interacting protein, prevents cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eCabral Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and protein misfolding are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. ER stress activates Unfolded Protein Response (UPR, an adaptative response. However, severe ER stress can induce cell death. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase and co-chaperone Carboxyl Terminus HSP70/90 Interacting Protein (CHIP prevents neuron death in the hippocampus induced by severe ER stress. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs were exposed to Tunicamycin, a pharmacological ER stress inducer, to trigger cell death. Overexpression of CHIP was achieved with a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV and significantly diminished ER stress-induced cell death, as shown by analysis of propidium iodide (PI uptake, condensed chromatin, TUNEL and cleaved caspase 3 in the CA1 region of OHSCs. In addition, overexpression of CHIP prevented upregulation of both CHOP and p53 both pro-apoptotic pathways induced by ER stress. We also detected an attenuation of eIF2a phosphorylation promoted by ER stress. However, CHIP did not prevent upregulation of BiP/GRP78 induced by UPR. These data indicate that overexpression of CHIP attenuates ER-stress death response while maintain ER stress adaptative response in the central nervous system. These results indicate a neuroprotective role for CHIP upon UPR signalling. CHIP emerge as a candidate for clinical intervention in neurodegenerative diseases associated with ER stress.

  16. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  17. Effects of dexamethasone and meloxicam on Borrelia burgdorferi-induced inflammation in glial and neuronal cells of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Geeta; Martinez, Alejandra N; Martin, Dale S; Philipp, Mario T

    2017-02-02

    Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), affects both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Previously, we reported that in a model of acute LNB in rhesus monkeys, treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone significantly reduced both pleocytosis and levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune mediators that were induced by Bb. Dexamethasone also inhibited the formation of inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and demyelinating lesions in the brain and spinal cord of these animals. In contrast, these signs were evident in the infected animals that were left untreated or in those that were treated with meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. To address the differential anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone and meloxicam in the central nervous system (CNS), we evaluated the potential of these drugs to alter the levels of Bb-induced inflammatory mediators in culture supernatants of rhesus frontal cortex (FC) explants, primary rhesus astrocytes and microglia, and human oligodendrocytes. We also ascertained the potential of dexamethasone to modulate Bb-induced apoptosis in rhesus FC explants. As meloxicam is a known COX-2 inhibitor, we evaluated whether meloxicam altered the levels of COX-2 as induced by live Bb in cell lysates of primary rhesus astrocytes and microglia. Dexamethasone but not meloxicam significantly reduced the levels of several Bb-induced immune mediators in culture supernatants of FC explants, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Dexamethasone also had a protective effect on Bb-induced neuronal and oligodendrocyte apoptosis in rhesus FC explants. Further, meloxicam significantly reduced the levels of Bb-induced COX-2 in microglia, while both Bb and meloxicam were unable to alter the constitutive levels of COX-2 in astrocytes. These data indicate that dexamethasone and meloxicam have differential anti-inflammatory effects on Bb-induced inflammation in glial and neuronal cells

  18. Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis induces memory impairment and increases pro-inflammatory host response in the central nervous system of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichello, Tatiana; Simões, Lutiana R; Valvassori, Samira S; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Aveline, Paulo Eduardo D V; Dominguini, Diogo; Elias, Samuel G; Vilela, Marcia C; Quevedo, João; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis has recently become an increasingly common cause of central nervous system infection. The invasion of bacteria within the subarachnoid space stimulates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, triggering a host immune response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate memory and pro-inflammatory mediators at different times in the brains of adult Wistar rats with K. pneumoniae meningitis. The animals were sacrificed at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h after meningitis induction. The hippocampus, frontal cortex and cerebrospinal fluid were isolated to determine the cytokine, chemokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. In the first 6 and 24 h following meningitis induction, there was a significant increase of the TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 and BDNF levels in the central nervous system. Ten days after meningitis induction, cognitive memory was evaluated using an open-field task and step-down inhibitory avoidance task. In the control group, significant differences in behaviour were observed between the training and testing sessions for both tasks, demonstrating habituation and aversive memory. However, the meningitis group did not exhibit any difference between the training and testing sessions in either task, demonstrating memory impairment. As a result of these observations, we believe that the meningitis model may be a good research tool to study the biological mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of this illness, while recognizing that animal models should be interpreted with caution before extrapolation to the clinic.

  19. Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V˙O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to experimentally induced cold pain in adolescent non-suicidal self-injury--study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Rinnewitz, Lena; Warth, Marco; Kaess, Michael

    2015-07-07

    Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with altered sensitivity to experimentally induced pain. Adolescents engaging in NSSI report greater pain threshold and pain tolerance, as well as lower pain intensity and pain unpleasantness compared to healthy controls. The experience of pain is associated with reactivity of both the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, previous research has not yet systematically addressed differences in the physiological response to experimentally induced pain comparing adolescents with NSSI and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Adolescents with NSSI and healthy controls undergo repeated painful stimulation with the cold pressor task. ANS activity is continuously recorded throughout the procedure to assess changes in heart rate and heart rate variability. Blood pressure is monitored and saliva is collected prior to and after nociceptive stimulation to assess levels of saliva cortisol. The study will provide evidence whether lower pain sensitivity in adolescents with NSSI is associated with blunted physiological and endocrinological responses to experimentally induced pain compared to healthy controls. Extending on the existing evidence on altered pain sensitivity in NSSI, measured by self-reports and behavioural assessments, this is the first study to take a systematic approach in evaluating the physiological response to experimentally induced pain in adolescent NSSI. Deutsche Register Klinischer Studien, Study ID: DRKS00007807; Trial Registration Date: 13.02.2015.

  1. Cannabidiol inhibits paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through 5-HT(1A) receptors without diminishing nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sara Jane; McAllister, Sean D; Kawamura, Rumi; Murase, Ryuchi; Neelakantan, Harshini; Walker, Ellen A

    2014-02-01

    Paclitaxel (PAC) is associated with chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CIPN) that can lead to the cessation of treatment in cancer patients even in the absence of alternate therapies. We previously reported that chronic administration of the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) prevents PAC-induced mechanical and thermal sensitivity in mice. Hence, we sought to determine receptor mechanisms by which CBD inhibits CIPN and whether CBD negatively effects nervous system function or chemotherapy efficacy. The ability of acute CBD pretreatment to prevent PAC-induced mechanical sensitivity was assessed, as was the effect of CBD on place conditioning and on an operant-conditioned learning and memory task. The potential interaction of CBD and PAC on breast cancer cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. PAC-induced mechanical sensitivity was prevented by administration of CBD (2.5 - 10 mg·kg⁻¹) in female C57Bl/6 mice. This effect was reversed by co-administration of the 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY 100635, but not the CB₁ antagonist SR141716 or the CB₂ antagonist SR144528. CBD produced no conditioned rewarding effects and did not affect conditioned learning and memory. Also, CBD + PAC combinations produce additive to synergistic inhibition of breast cancer cell viability. Our data suggest that CBD is protective against PAC-induced neurotoxicity mediated in part by the 5-HT(1A) receptor system. Furthermore, CBD treatment was devoid of conditioned rewarding effects or cognitive impairment and did not attenuate PAC-induced inhibition of breast cancer cell viability. Hence, adjunct treatment with CBD during PAC chemotherapy may be safe and effective in the prevention or attenuation of CIPN. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Laser puncture therapy of nervous system disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anishchenko, G.; Kochetkov, V.

    1984-08-29

    The authors discuss experience with treatment of nervous system disorders by means of laser-puncture therapy. Commenting on the background of the selection of this type of treatment, they explain that once researchers determined the biological action of laser light on specific nerve receptors of the skin, development of laser apparatus capable of concentrating the beam in the millimeter band was undertaken. The devices that are being used for laser-puncture are said to operate in the red helium-neon band of light. The authors identify beam parameters that have been selected for different groups of acupuncture points of the skin, and the courses of treatment (in seconds of radiation) and their time intervals. They go on to discuss the results of treatment of over 800 patients categorized in a group with disorders of the peripheral nervous system and a second group with disorders of the central nervous system.

  3. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described. © IMechE 2015.

  4. Metallothionein reduces central nervous system inflammation, neurodegeneration, and cell death following kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2005-01-01

    We examined metallothionein (MT)-induced neuroprotection during kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity by studying transgenic mice with MT-I overexpression (TgMT mice). KA induces epileptic seizures and hippocampal excitotoxicity, followed by inflammation and delayed brain damage. We show for th...

  5. Diet-induced obesity has neuroprotective effects in murine gastric enteric nervous system: involvement of leptin and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Charlotte; Reichardt, François; Marchix, Justine; Bado, André; Schemann, Michael; des Varannes, Stanislas Bruley; Neunlist, Michel; Moriez, Raphaël

    2012-02-01

    Nutritional factors can induce profound neuroplastic changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS), responsible for changes in gastrointestinal (GI) motility. However, long-term effects of a nutritional imbalance leading to obesity, such as Western diet (WD), upon ENS phenotype and control of GI motility remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of WD-induced obesity (DIO) on ENS phenotype and function as well as factors involved in functional plasticity. Mice were fed with normal diet (ND) or WD for 12 weeks. GI motility was assessed in vivo and ex vivo. Myenteric neurons and glia were analysed with immunohistochemical methods using antibodies against Hu, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), Sox-10 and with calcium imaging techniques. Leptin and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were studied using immunohistochemical, biochemical or PCR methods in mice and primary culture of ENS. DIO prevented the age-associated decrease in antral nitrergic neurons observed in ND mice. Nerve stimulation evoked a stronger neuronal Ca(2+) response in WD compared to ND mice. DIO induced an NO-dependent increase in gastric emptying and neuromuscular transmission in the antrum without any change in small intestinal transit. During WD but not ND, a time-dependent increase in leptin and GDNF occurred in the antrum. Finally, we showed that leptin increased GDNF production in the ENS and induced neuroprotective effects mediated in part by GDNF. These results demonstrate that DIO induces neuroplastic changes in the antrum leading to an NO-dependent acceleration of gastric emptying. In addition, DIO induced neuroplasticity in the ENS is likely to involve leptin and GDNF.

  6. Structural Nervous System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GTL's SNS technology aids in the operation of new or existing structural health monitoring (SHM) systems by integrating data and power pathways into the structure....

  7. The biphasic effects of moderate alcohol consumption with a meal on ambiance-induced mood and autonomic nervous system balance: a randomized crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse C Schrieks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. METHODS: In a crossover design 28 women (age 18-45 y, BMI 18.5-27 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. RESULTS: Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. CONCLUSION: Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022.

  8. The biphasic effects of moderate alcohol consumption with a meal on ambiance-induced mood and autonomic nervous system balance: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Kallen, Victor L; Grootjen, Marc; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2014-01-01

    The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. In a crossover design 28 women (age 18-45 y, BMI 18.5-27 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire) at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022.

  9. The Biphasic Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption with a Meal on Ambiance-Induced Mood and Autonomic Nervous System Balance: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrieks, Ilse C.; Stafleu, Annette; Kallen, Victor L.; Grootjen, Marc; Witkamp, Renger F.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. Methods In a crossover design 28 women (age 18–45 y, BMI 18.5–27 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire) at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. Results Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. Conclusion Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022. PMID:24465955

  10. Cannabidiol and endogenous opioid peptide-mediated mechanisms modulate antinociception induced by transcutaneous electrostimulation of the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thais Cristina Teixeira; Londe, Anna Karla; Albano, Rafael Isaac Pires; de Araújo Júnior, Artur Teixeira; de Aguiar Azeredo, Mariana; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Vasconcellos, Thiago Henrique Ferreira; Dos Reis Ferreira, Célio Marcos; Teixeira, Dulcinéa Gonçalves; de Souza Crippa, José Alexandre; Vieira, Débora; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2014-12-15

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological therapy for the treatment of pain. The present work investigated the effect of cannabidiol, naloxone and diazepam in combination with 10 Hz and 150 Hz TENS. Male Wistar rats were submitted to the tail-flick test (baseline), and each rodent received an acute administration (intraperitoneal) of naloxone (3.0mg/kg), diazepam (1.5mg/kg) or cannabidiol (0.75 mg/kg, 1.5mg/kg, 3.0mg/kg, 4.5mg/kg, 6.0mg/kg and 12.0mg/kg); 10 min after the acute administration, 10 Hz or 150 Hz TENS or a sham procedure was performed for 30 min. Subsequently, tail-flick measures were recorded over a 90-min period, at 5-min intervals. 10 Hz TENS increased the nociceptive threshold during the 90-min period. This antinociceptive effect was reversed by naloxone pre-treatment, was not altered by diazepam pre-treatment and was abolished by cannabidiol pre-treatment (1.5mg/kg). Moreover, 150 Hz TENS increased tail-flick latencies by 35 min post-treatment, which was partially inhibited by naloxone pre-treatment and totally inhibited by cannabidiol (1.5mg/kg). These data suggest the involvement of the endogenous opioid system and the cannabinoid-mediated neuromodulation of the antinociception induced by transcutaneous electrostimulation at 10 Hz and 150 Hz TENS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. IFN-gamma-induced chemokines synergize with pertussis toxin to promote T cell entry to the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millward, Jason M; Caruso, Maria; Campbell, Iain L

    2007-01-01

    for the chemokines CXCL10 and CCL5, to levels comparable to those seen during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Other chemokines (CXCL2, CCL2, CCL3) were not induced. Mice lacking the IFN-gammaR showed no response, and a control viral vector did not induce chemokine expression. Chemokine expression...... was predominantly localized to meningeal and ependymal cells, and was also seen in astrocytes and microglia. IFN-gamma-induced chemokine expression did not lead to inflammation. However, when pertussis toxin was given i.p. to mice infected with the IFN-gamma vector, there was a dramatic increase in the number of T...

  12. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “balance and coordination examination”. Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. Results A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47%) of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2) and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%), cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%), upper limbs (6 videos, 10%), lower limbs (3 videos, 5%), balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%). The other 68 (53%) videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0). The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers). The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD). Conclusions Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource for learning

  13. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azer Samy A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “balance and coordination examination”. Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. Results A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47% of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2 and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%, cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%, upper limbs (6 videos, 10%, lower limbs (3 videos, 5%, balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%. The other 68 (53% videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0. The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers. The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD. Conclusions Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource

  14. The Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System and Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    part of our training and practice is spent acquiring skills in averting or utilizing the autonomic nervous system effects of anaesthetic drugs or surgical procedures under a variety of pathophysiological conditions. Moreover, many of these pathophysiological condi- tions may be associated with impaired preoperative autonomic ...

  15. Phenylketonuria: central nervous system and microbiome interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Arturo Herrera Morban

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by increased phenylalanine (Phe levels causing an inadequate neurodevelopment; the treatment of PKU is a Phe-restricting diet, and as such it can modulate the intestinal microbiome of the individual, generating central nervous system secondary disturbances that, added to the baseline disturbance, can influence the outcome of the disease.

  16. Central nervous system tuberculomata presenting as internuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma can have variable presentation depending upon the site and number of tuberculomata. We are reporting a rare case of a 15 years old girl who presented to our hospital with binocular diplopia on right gaze. Clinical examination revealed left sided internuclear ophthalmoplegia ...

  17. Central nervous system tuberculosis | Cherian | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, one of the most devastating clinical manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) is noted in 5 to 10% of extrapulmonary TB cases, and accounts for approximately 1% of all TB cases. Definitive diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) depends upon the detection of the tubercle bacilli in ...

  18. Azole-Resistant Central Nervous System Aspergillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Jan W. M.; Jansen, Rogier R.; Bresters, Dorine; Visser, Caroline E.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Kuijper, Ed J.; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Verweij, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  19. Azole-resistant central nervous system aspergillosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Jansen, R.R.; Bresters, D.; Visser, C.E.; Geerlings, S.E.; Kuijper, E.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  20. Ultrasound and the developing central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskin, M C; Barnett, S B

    2001-07-01

    The potential risk of ultrasonography resulting in adverse biologic effects is particularly important in neurosonographic applications of diagnostic ultrasound in medicine. Key issues relate to the likelihood of producing bioeffects from the level of acoustic output emitted from modern diagnostically powerful ultrasound equipment. Important elements in the assessment of risk include the sensitivity of the tissue structures under examination, the standards of practice in clinical use and the presence of biologic effects identified from laboratory experimentation or from human studies. The World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology continues to support activities related to evaluating bioeffects and safety of ultrasound. This paper includes extracts of some of the presentations given during the latest safety meeting, a mini-symposium on "ultrasound and the developing fetal central nervous system" held in conjunction with the WFUMB Congress in May 2000. The speakers covered topics ranging from physics of estimating heating from ultrasound equipment in clinical use to actual measurement of ultrasound-induced intracranial temperature increases in animal fetuses. Finally, some practical scanning strategies were proposed to minimise risk of adverse outcome in various clinical neurosonographic practices.

  1. Mergeable nervous systems for robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Nithin; Christensen, Anders Lyhne; O'Grady, Rehan; Mondada, Francesco; Dorigo, Marco

    2017-09-12

    Robots have the potential to display a higher degree of lifetime morphological adaptation than natural organisms. By adopting a modular approach, robots with different capabilities, shapes, and sizes could, in theory, construct and reconfigure themselves as required. However, current modular robots have only been able to display a limited range of hardwired behaviors because they rely solely on distributed control. Here, we present robots whose bodies and control systems can merge to form entirely new robots that retain full sensorimotor control. Our control paradigm enables robots to exhibit properties that go beyond those of any existing machine or of any biological organism: the robots we present can merge to form larger bodies with a single centralized controller, split into separate bodies with independent controllers, and self-heal by removing or replacing malfunctioning body parts. This work takes us closer to robots that can autonomously change their size, form and function.Robots that can self-assemble into different morphologies are desired to perform tasks that require different physical capabilities. Mathews et al. design robots whose bodies and control systems can merge and split to form new robots that retain full sensorimotor control and act as a single entity.

  2. Central nervous system complications after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. IFN-gamma-induced chemokines synergize with pertussis toxin to promote T cell entry to the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millward, Jason M; Caruso, Maria; Campbell, Iain L

    2007-01-01

    was predominantly localized to meningeal and ependymal cells, and was also seen in astrocytes and microglia. IFN-gamma-induced chemokine expression did not lead to inflammation. However, when pertussis toxin was given i.p. to mice infected with the IFN-gamma vector, there was a dramatic increase in the number of T...... lymphocytes detected in the CNS by flow cytometry. This increase in blood-derived immune cells in the CNS did not occur with pertussis toxin alone, and did not manifest as histologically detectable inflammatory pathology. These results show that IFN-gamma induces a characteristic glial chemokine response...

  4. Sympathetic nervous system activation reduces contraction-induced rapid vasodilation in the leg of humans independent of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William E; Kruse, Nicholas T; Casey, Darren P

    2017-07-01

    Contraction-induced rapid vasodilation is attenuated similarly in the upper and lower limbs of older adults. In the forearm, this attenuation is in part due to a greater sympathetic vasoconstriction. We examined whether the age-related reduction in contraction-induced vasodilation in the leg is also due to a sympathetic vasoconstrictive mechanism. Thirteen young (24 ± 1 yr) and twelve older adults (67 ± 1 yr) performed single-leg knee extension at 20 and 40% of work-rate maximum (WR max ) during control and cold-pressor test (CPT) conditions. Femoral artery diameter and blood velocity were measured using Doppler ultrasound. Vascular conductance (VC; ml·min -1 ·mmHg -1 ) was calculated using blood flow (ml/min) and mean arterial pressure (mmHg). Peak (ΔVC from baseline) and total VC were blunted in older adults during control conditions across exercise intensities ( P ROV). Within the forearm, this attenuation is partially due to enhanced sympathetic vasoconstriction. In the current study, we found that sympathetic vasoconstriction reduces contraction-induced ROV within the leg of both young and older adults, with the magnitude of change being similar between age groups. Our current results suggest that age-related attenuations in contraction-induced ROV within the leg are not fully explained by a sympathetic vasoconstrictor mechanism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Metalloproteinases control brain inflammation induced by pertussis toxin in mice overexpressing the chemokine CCL2 in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Buist, Richard; Sun, Xue-Jun

    2006-01-01

    in the perivascular space in brains of transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress CCL2 under control of a CNS-specific promoter. The Tg mice show no clinical symptoms, even though leukocytes have crossed the endothelial basement membrane. Pertussis toxin (PTx) given i.p. induced encephalopathy and weight loss in Tg mice...... symptoms. Metalloproteinase (MPs) enzymes are implicated in leukocyte infiltration in neuroinflammation. Unmanipulated Tg mice had elevated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-10, and -12 mRNA in the brain. PTx further induced expression of tissue inhibitor...... of metalloproteinase-1, metalloproteinase disintegrins-12, MMP-8, and -10 in brains of Tg mice. Levels of the microglial-associated MP MMP-15 were not affected in control or PTx-treated Tg mice. PTx also up-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA in Tg CNS. Weight loss...

  6. Metalloproteinases control brain inflammation induced by pertussis toxin in mice overexpressing the chemokine CCL2 in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Buist, Richard; Sun, Xue-Jun

    2006-01-01

    . We used flow cytometry, ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and immunofluorescent staining to show that encephalopathy involved leukocyte migration across the glia limitans into the brain parenchyma, identifying this as the critical step in inducing clinical...... of metalloproteinase-1, metalloproteinase disintegrins-12, MMP-8, and -10 in brains of Tg mice. Levels of the microglial-associated MP MMP-15 were not affected in control or PTx-treated Tg mice. PTx also up-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA in Tg CNS. Weight loss...

  7. How viruses infiltrate the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicová, A; Bhide, K; Bhide, M; Kováč, A

    Central nervous system is protected by the blood-brain barrier, which represents a physical, metabolic and transport barrier and is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic system termed neurovascular unit. Several pathogens, among them viruses, are able to invade the brain. Traversal of viruses across the blood-brain barrier is an essential step for the invasion of the central nervous system and can occur by different mechanisms - by paracellular, transcellular and/or by "Trojan horse" pathway. Penetration of viruses to brain can lead to the blood-brain barrier dysfunction, including increased permeability, pleocytosis and encephalopathy. Viruses causing the central nervous system infections include human immunodeficiency virus type 1, rhabdovirus, different flaviviruses, mouse adenovirus type 1, herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, reovirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, arbovirus, cytomegalovirus, mumps virus, parvovirus B19, measles virus, human T-cell leukemia virus, enterovirus, morbillivirus, bunyaviruses, togaviruses and others. In this review we summarized what is known about the routes of how some viruses enter the brain and how neurons and glial cells react to infection.

  8. LGI Proteins in the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Kegel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins play important roles in these processes. They are secreted proteins consisting of an LRR (leucine-rich repeat domain and a so-called epilepsy-associated or EPTP (epitempin domain. Both domains are thought to function in protein–protein interactions. The first LGI gene to be identified, LGI1, was found at a chromosomal translocation breakpoint in a glioma cell line. It was subsequently found mutated in ADLTE (autosomal dominant lateral temporal (lobe epilepsy also referred to as ADPEAF (autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. LGI1 protein appears to act at synapses and antibodies against LGI1 may cause the autoimmune disorder limbic encephalitis. A similar function in synaptic remodelling has been suggested for LGI2, which is mutated in canine Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy. LGI4 is required for proliferation of glia in the peripheral nervous system and binds to a neuronal receptor, ADAM22, to foster ensheathment and myelination of axons by Schwann cells. Thus, LGI proteins play crucial roles in nervous system development and function and their study is highly important, both to understand their biological functions and for their therapeutic potential. Here, we review our current knowledge about this important family of proteins, and the progress made towards understanding their functions.

  9. LGI proteins in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Linde; Aunin, Eerik; Meijer, Dies; Bermingham, John R

    2013-06-25

    The development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins) play important roles in these processes. They are secreted proteins consisting of an LRR (leucine-rich repeat) domain and a so-called epilepsy-associated or EPTP (epitempin) domain. Both domains are thought to function in protein-protein interactions. The first LGI gene to be identified, LGI1, was found at a chromosomal translocation breakpoint in a glioma cell line. It was subsequently found mutated in ADLTE (autosomal dominant lateral temporal (lobe) epilepsy) also referred to as ADPEAF (autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features). LGI1 protein appears to act at synapses and antibodies against LGI1 may cause the autoimmune disorder limbic encephalitis. A similar function in synaptic remodelling has been suggested for LGI2, which is mutated in canine Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy. LGI4 is required for proliferation of glia in the peripheral nervous system and binds to a neuronal receptor, ADAM22, to foster ensheathment and myelination of axons by Schwann cells. Thus, LGI proteins play crucial roles in nervous system development and function and their study is highly important, both to understand their biological functions and for their therapeutic potential. Here, we review our current knowledge about this important family of proteins, and the progress made towards understanding their functions.

  10. Radiation risks to the developing nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegel, H.; Schmahl, W.; Stieve, F.E.; Gerber, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    A symposium dealing with 'Radiation Risks to the Developing Nervous System' held at Neuherberg, June 18-20, 1985 was organised by the Radiation Protection Programme of the Commission of the European Communities and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH. The proceedings of this symposium present up-to-date information on the development of the nervous system and the modifications caused by prenatal radiation there upon. A large part of the proceedings is devoted to the consequences of prenatal irradiation in experimental animals with respect to alterations in morphology, biochemistry and behaviour, to the influence of dose, dose rate and radiation quality and to the question whether damage of the brain can arise from a synergistic action of radiation together with other agents. Since animal models for damage to the human central nervous system have inherent short-comings due to the differences in structure, complexity and development it is discussed how experimental studies could be applied to the human situation. The most recent data on persons exposed in utero at Hiroshima and Nagasaki are reviewed. A round table discussion, published in full, analyses all this information with a view to radiation protection, and defines the areas where future studies are needed. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers in these proceedings. (orig./MG)

  11. The BIRN Project: Imaging the Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellisman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The grand goal in neuroscience research is to understand how the interplay of structural, chemical and electrical signals in nervous tissue gives rise to behavior. Experimental advances of the past decades have given the individual neuroscientist an increasingly powerful arsenal for obtaining data, from the level of molecules to nervous systems. Scientists have begun the arduous and challenging process of adapting and assembling neuroscience data at all scales of resolution and across disciplines into computerized databases and other easily accessed sources. These databases will complement the vast structural and sequence databases created to catalogue, organize and analyze gene sequences and protein products. The general premise of the neuroscience goal is simple; namely that with 'complete' knowledge of the genome and protein structures accruing rapidly we next need to assemble an infrastructure that will facilitate acquisition of an understanding for how functional complexes operate in their cell and tissue contexts.

  12. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions......, and the capacity of CNS glial cells to produce and respond to Type I IFN. Differential signaling outcomes of IFN-α and IFN-β, which have been ascribed to differential affinity for IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, determine whether Type I IFN exert pathogenic or protective roles in the CNS. These points will be discussed...

  13. Part I. The role of metabolism in N-methylthiobenzamide-induced pneumotoxicity. Part II. The role of the sympathetic nervous system in methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl-induced pneumotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penney, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Part I. This is an investigation of the role of metabolism in the induction of lung injury by N-methylthiobenzamide (NMTB). N-methylthiobenzamide S-oxide (NMTBSO), a metabolite of NMTB, was prepared and found to produce lung injury that was qualitatively identical to that of NMTB. 1-methyl-1-phenyl-3-benzoylthiourea (MPBTU) protected rodents from lethal doses of either NMTB or NMTBSO. MPBTU also blocked the increases in pulmonary 14 C-thymidine incorporation induced by these compounds. Both NMTB and NMTBSO were found to undergo oxidation when incubated with either lung or liver microsomes and an NADPH-generating system. The in vitro microsomal oxidation of NMTB and NMTBSO was markedly inhibited by addition of MPBTU. These data suggest that oxidation of NMTB is required for the expression of NMTB-induced pneumotoxicity. Part II. Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT) has been used as an antiknock additive in unleaded gasoline. Rats treated with MMT exhibit severe convulsions accompanied by hemorrhagic pulmonary edema. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible role of neurogenic mechanisms in MMT-induced hemorrhagic pulmonary edema

  14. Photoplethysmographic measurements from central nervous system tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J P; Kyriacou, P A; Chang, S H; Maney, K; George, K J; Langford, R M

    2007-01-01

    A new system for measuring the oxygen saturation of blood within tissue has been developed, for a number of potential patient monitoring applications. This proof of concept project aims to address the unmet need of real-time measurement of oxygen saturation in the central nervous system (CNS) for patients recovering from neurosurgery or trauma, by developing a fibre optic signal acquisition system for internal placement through small apertures. The development and testing of a two-wavelength optical fibre reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) system is described together with measurements in rats and preliminary results from a clinical trial of the system in patients undergoing neurosurgery. It was found that good quality red and near-infrared PPG signals could be consistently obtained from the rat spinal cord (n=6) and human cerebral cortex (n=4) using the fibre optic probe. These findings justify further development and clinical evaluation of this fibre optic system

  15. Photoplethysmographic measurements from central nervous system tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J P [Anaesthetic Laboratory, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Chang, S H [Anaesthetic Laboratory, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); Maney, K [Anaesthetic Laboratory, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); George, K J [Neuroscience Centre, Queen Mary, University of London, E1 0NS (United Kingdom); Langford, R M [Anaesthetic Laboratory, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    A new system for measuring the oxygen saturation of blood within tissue has been developed, for a number of potential patient monitoring applications. This proof of concept project aims to address the unmet need of real-time measurement of oxygen saturation in the central nervous system (CNS) for patients recovering from neurosurgery or trauma, by developing a fibre optic signal acquisition system for internal placement through small apertures. The development and testing of a two-wavelength optical fibre reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) system is described together with measurements in rats and preliminary results from a clinical trial of the system in patients undergoing neurosurgery. It was found that good quality red and near-infrared PPG signals could be consistently obtained from the rat spinal cord (n=6) and human cerebral cortex (n=4) using the fibre optic probe. These findings justify further development and clinical evaluation of this fibre optic system.

  16. Elucidating the Role of Injury-Induced Electric Fields (EFs) in Regulating the Astrocytic Response to Injury in the Mammalian Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Matthew L; Henderson, Scott C; Colello, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Injury to the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) induces astrocytes to change their morphology, to increase their rate of proliferation, and to display directional migration to the injury site, all to facilitate repair. These astrocytic responses to injury occur in a clear temporal sequence and, by their intensity and duration, can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the repair of damaged CNS tissue. Studies on highly regenerative tissues in non-mammalian vertebrates have demonstrated that the intensity of direct-current extracellular electric fields (EFs) at the injury site, which are 50-100 fold greater than in uninjured tissue, represent a potent signal to drive tissue repair. In contrast, a 10-fold EF increase has been measured in many injured mammalian tissues where limited regeneration occurs. As the astrocytic response to CNS injury is crucial to the reparative outcome, we exposed purified rat cortical astrocytes to EF intensities associated with intact and injured mammalian tissues, as well as to those EF intensities measured in regenerating non-mammalian vertebrate tissues, to determine whether EFs may contribute to the astrocytic injury response. Astrocytes exposed to EF intensities associated with uninjured tissue showed little change in their cellular behavior. However, astrocytes exposed to EF intensities associated with injured tissue showed a dramatic increase in migration and proliferation. At EF intensities associated with regenerating non-mammalian vertebrate tissues, these cellular responses were even more robust and included morphological changes consistent with a regenerative phenotype. These findings suggest that endogenous EFs may be a crucial signal for regulating the astrocytic response to injury and that their manipulation may be a novel target for facilitating CNS repair.

  17. Elucidating the Role of Injury-Induced Electric Fields (EFs in Regulating the Astrocytic Response to Injury in the Mammalian Central Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Baer

    Full Text Available Injury to the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS induces astrocytes to change their morphology, to increase their rate of proliferation, and to display directional migration to the injury site, all to facilitate repair. These astrocytic responses to injury occur in a clear temporal sequence and, by their intensity and duration, can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the repair of damaged CNS tissue. Studies on highly regenerative tissues in non-mammalian vertebrates have demonstrated that the intensity of direct-current extracellular electric fields (EFs at the injury site, which are 50-100 fold greater than in uninjured tissue, represent a potent signal to drive tissue repair. In contrast, a 10-fold EF increase has been measured in many injured mammalian tissues where limited regeneration occurs. As the astrocytic response to CNS injury is crucial to the reparative outcome, we exposed purified rat cortical astrocytes to EF intensities associated with intact and injured mammalian tissues, as well as to those EF intensities measured in regenerating non-mammalian vertebrate tissues, to determine whether EFs may contribute to the astrocytic injury response. Astrocytes exposed to EF intensities associated with uninjured tissue showed little change in their cellular behavior. However, astrocytes exposed to EF intensities associated with injured tissue showed a dramatic increase in migration and proliferation. At EF intensities associated with regenerating non-mammalian vertebrate tissues, these cellular responses were even more robust and included morphological changes consistent with a regenerative phenotype. These findings suggest that endogenous EFs may be a crucial signal for regulating the astrocytic response to injury and that their manipulation may be a novel target for facilitating CNS repair.

  18. Did the ctenophore nervous system evolve independently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph F

    2014-08-01

    Recent evidence supports the placement of ctenophores as the most distant relative to all other animals. This revised animal tree means that either the ancestor of all animals possessed neurons (and that sponges and placozoans apparently lost them) or that ctenophores developed them independently. Differentiating between these possibilities is important not only from a historical perspective, but also for the interpretation of a wide range of neurobiological results. In this short perspective paper, I review the evidence in support of each scenario and show that the relationship between the nervous system of ctenophores and other animals is an unsolved, yet tractable problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A; Mehler, Mark F

    2018-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms act as control systems for modulating genomic structure and activity in response to evolving profiles of cell-extrinsic, cell-cell, and cell-intrinsic signals. These dynamic processes are responsible for mediating cell- and tissue-specific gene expression and function and gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions. The major epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation; histone protein posttranslational modifications, nucleosome remodeling/repositioning, and higher-order chromatin reorganization; noncoding RNA regulation; and RNA editing. These mechanisms are intimately involved in executing fundamental genomic programs, including gene transcription, posttranscriptional RNA processing and transport, translation, X-chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting, retrotransposon regulation, DNA replication, and DNA repair and the maintenance of genomic stability. For the nervous system, epigenetics offers a novel and robust framework for explaining how brain development and aging occur, neural cellular diversity is generated, synaptic and neural network connectivity and plasticity are mediated, and complex cognitive and behavioral phenotypes are inherited transgenerationally. Epigenetic factors and processes are, not surprisingly, implicated in nervous system disease pathophysiology through several emerging paradigms - mutations and genetic variation in genes encoding epigenetic factors; impairments in epigenetic factor expression, localization, and function; epigenetic mechanisms modulating disease-associated factors and pathways; and the presence of deregulated epigenetic profiles in central and peripheral tissues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Central Nervous System Involvement by Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, A.; Gozzetti, A.; Cerase, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare occurrence and is found in approximately 1% of MM patients at some time during the course of their disease. At the time of diagnosis, extramedullary MM is found in 7% of patients, and another 6% may develop....... Results: The median time from MM diagnosis to CNS MM diagnosis was 3 years. Upon diagnosis, 97% patients with CNS MM received frontline therapy, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. The most common symptoms at presentation were visual changes (36...... history of chemotherapy and unfavorable cytogenetic profile, survival of individuals free from these negative prognostic factors can be prolonged due to administration of systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. Prospective multi-institutional studies are warranted to improve the outcome of patients...

  1. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  2. [Tumors of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría-Loyola, Marco Antonio; Galnares-Olalde, Javier Andrés; Mercado, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a considerable morbidity and mortality rate. Recent advances in the underlying oncogenic mechanisms of these tumors have led to new classification systems, which, in turn, allow for a better diagnostic approach and therapeutic planning. Most of these neoplasms occur sporadically and several risk factors have been found to be associated with their development, such as exposure to ionizing radiation or electromagnetic fields and the concomitant presence of conditions like diabetes, hypertension and Parkinson's disease. A relatively minor proportion of primary CNS tumors occur in the context of hereditary syndromes. The purpose of this review is to analyze the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapy of CNS tumors with particular emphasis in the putative risk factors mentioned above.

  3. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko

    1989-01-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author)

  4. Sympathetic Nervous System Synchrony in Couple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anu; Kykyri, Virpi-Liisa; Kaartinen, Jukka; Penttonen, Markku; Seikkula, Jaakko

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether there is statistically significant sympathetic nervous system (SNS) synchrony between participants in couple therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure psychophysiological synchrony during therapy in a multiactor setting. The study focuses on electrodermal activity (EDA) in the second couple therapy session from 10 different cases (20 clients, 10 therapists working in pairs). The EDA concordance index was used as a measure of SNS synchrony between dyads, and synchrony was found in 85% of all the dyads. Surprisingly, co-therapists exhibited the highest levels of synchrony, whereas couples exhibited the lowest synchrony. The client-therapist synchrony was lower than that of the co-therapists, but higher than that of the couples. A Video Abstract is available next to the online version of this article on the JMFT web site. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  5. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  6. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Ezra A.; Orbach, Darren B.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  7. Corticosteroids In Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena AK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections of central nervous system are still a major problem. Despite the introduction of newer antimicrobial agents, mortality and long-term sequelace associated with these infections is unacceptably high. Based on the evidence that proinflammtory cytokines have a role in pathophysiology of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis, corticosteroids with a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effect have been tested and found to be of use in experimental and clinical studies, Review of the available literature suggests steroid administration just prior to antimicrobial therapy is effective in decreasing audiologic and neurologic sequelae in childern with H. influenzae nenigitis. Steroid use for bacterial meningitis in adults is found to be beneficial in case of S. pneumoniae. The value of adjunctive steroid therapy for other bacterial causes of meningitis remains unproven. Corticocorticoids are found to be of no benefit in viral meningitis, Role of steroids in HIV positive patients needs to be studied.

  8. Histamine, antihistamines, and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Histamine is a central nervous system (CNS) neurotransmitter. It acts in the brain via three receptors, H(1), H(2), and H(3). It is a mediator of "wakefulness" and its activity is necessary to maintain wakefulness, alertness, and reaction time. These activities can be impaired by H(1)-antagonists (reverse agonists) capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier. By blocking the homeostatic effects of histamine in the CNS, drowsiness and functional impairment with or without drowsiness can occur. Several tests have been designed to assess the effects of antihistamines on the CNS. These include subjective measurements of drowsiness and more objective measurements of impairment. Second-generation antihistamines have been designed to minimize blood-brain barrier penetration by reducing lipophilicity and increasing the affinity for P-aminnoglycoprotein.

  9. Autoimmune Neurology of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, W Oliver; Pittock, Sean J

    2017-06-01

    This article reviews the rapidly evolving spectrum of autoimmune neurologic disorders with a focus on those that involve the central nervous system, providing an understanding of how to approach the diagnostic workup of patients presenting with central nervous system symptoms or signs that could be immune mediated, either paraneoplastic or idiopathic, to guide therapeutic decision making. The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the discovery of novel neural antibodies and their targets. Many commercial laboratories can now test for these antibodies, which serve as diagnostic markers of diverse neurologic disorders that occur on an autoimmune basis. Some are highly specific for certain cancer types, and the neural antibody profiles may help direct the physician's cancer search. The diagnosis of an autoimmune neurologic disorder is aided by the detection of an objective neurologic deficit (usually subacute in onset with a fluctuating course), the presence of a neural autoantibody, and improvement in the neurologic status after a course of immunotherapy. Neural autoantibodies should raise concern for a paraneoplastic etiology and may inform a targeted oncologic evaluation (eg, N-methyl-D-aspartate [NMDA] receptor antibodies are associated with teratoma, antineuronal nuclear antibody type 1 [ANNA-1, or anti-Hu] are associated with small cell lung cancer). MRI, EEG, functional imaging, videotaped evaluations, and neuropsychological evaluations provide objective evidence of neurologic dysfunction by which the success of immunotherapy may be measured. Most treatment information emanates from retrospective case series and expert opinion. Nonetheless, early intervention may allow reversal of deficits in many patients and prevention of future disability.

  10. Central nervous system involvement in the autonomic responses to psychological distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Morree, H.M.; Szabó, B.M.; Rutten, G.J.; Kop, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress can trigger acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death in vulnerable patients. The primary pathophysiological mechanism that plays a role in stress-induced cardiac events involves the autonomic nervous system, particularly disproportional sympathetic activation and

  11. Gross anatomy and development of the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catala, Martin; Kubis, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) composed of the brain, the brainstem, the cerebellum, and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) made up of the different nerves arising from the CNS. The PNS is divided into the cranial nerves III to XII supplying the head and the spinal nerves that supply the upper and lower limbs. The general anatomy of the PNS is organized according to the arrangement of the fibers along the rostro-caudal axis. The control of the development of the PNS has been unravelled during the last 30 years. Motor nerves arise from the ventral neural tube. This ventralization is induced by morphogenetic molecules such as sonic hedgehog. In contrast, the sensory elements of the PNS arise from a specific population of cells originating from the roof of the neural tube, namely the neural crest. These cells give rise to the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, the autonomic ganglia and the paraganglia including the adrenergic neurons of the adrenals. Furthermore, the supportive glial Schwann cells of the PNS originate from the neural crest cells. Growth factors as well as myelinating proteins are involved in the development of the PNS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification models of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipser, D

    1992-01-01

    It has been widely observed that when artificial neural networks are trained by supervised learning to do computations that also occur in the nervous system, the behavior of the model neurons often closely resembles that of the real neurons involved in the task. It is not immediately clear why this should be the case or what use can be made of models generated by supervised learning. Here, recent developments are reviewed and analysed in an attempt to clarify these issues. This analysis is facilitated by treating supervised learning models of the brain as a special case of system identification, a general and well-studied modeling paradigm. The neural systems identification paradigm provides a systematic way to generate realistic models starting with a high-level description of a hypothesized computation and some architectural and physiological constraints about the area being modeled. There is no inherent limitation to the realism that can be incorporated into identification models. This approach eliminates the need to find neural implementation algorithms by ad hoc means and provides neuroscientists with a convenient way to build models that account for observed data.

  13. Effects of Music Therapy on the Cardiovascular and Autonomic Nervous System in Stress-Induced University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Soon; Jeong, Hyeon Cheol; Yim, Jong Eun; Jeon, Mi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Stress is caused when a particular relationship between the individual and the environment emerges. Specifically, stress occurs when an individual's abilities are challenged or when one's well-being is threatened by excessive environmental demands. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of music therapy on stress in university students. Randomized controlled trial. Sixty-four students were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 33) or the control group (n = 31). Music therapy. Initial measurement included cardiovascular indicators (blood pressure and pulse), autonomic nervous activity (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN], normalized low frequency, normalized high frequency, low/high frequency), and subjective stress. After the first measurement, participants in both groups were exposed to a series of stressful tasks, and then a second measurement was conducted. The experimental group then listened to music for 20 minutes and the control group rested for 20 minutes. A third and final measurement was then taken. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the first or second measurement. However, after music therapy, the experimental group and the control group showed significant differences in all variables, including systolic blood pressure (p = .026), diastolic blood pressure (p = .037), pulse (p stress (p = .026). Classical music tends to relax the body and may stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system. These results suggest music therapy as an intervention for stress reduction.

  14. Role of nervous system on immunological response of animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elssayed, A.E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Autoantibodies occur more frequently in old age. Both organ and non organ specific antibodies have been reported to occur in increasing frequency in sera of diseased free men and mice relatively late in life. The prevalence of auto-anti-thyroglobulin antibodies in various thyroid abnormalities are common regardless of age. The investigation reported in the present study was aimed to provide some insights on virtually unexplored area of auto-anti-thyroglobulin as related to central nervous system using various radio immunological and serological techniques for the determination of antibody formation and toter, in artificial case of auto-immunity developed by induced T G immunity in rabbits

  15. Role of nervous system on immunological response of animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elssayed, A.E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Autoantibodies occur more frequently in old age. Both organ and non organ specific antibodies have been reported to occur in increasing frequency in sera of diseased free men and mice relatively late in life. The prevalence of autoantithyroglobulin antibodies in various thyroid abnormalities are common regardless of age. The investigation reported in the present study was aimed to provide some insights on virtually unexplored area of autoantithyroglobulin as related to central nervous system using various radio immunological and serological techniques for the determination of antibody formation and toter, in artificial case of auto immunity developed by induced T G immunity in rabbits

  16. Injectable hydrogels for central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Shoichet, Molly S; Ballios, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) including those in the brain, spinal cord and retina are devastating because the CNS has limited intrinsic regenerative capacity and currently available therapies are unable to provide significant functional recovery. Several promising therapies have been identified with the goal of restoring at least some of this lost function and include neuroprotective agents to stop or slow cellular degeneration, neurotrophic factors to stimulate cellular growth, neutralizing molecules to overcome the inhibitory environment at the site of injury, and stem cell transplant strategies to replace lost tissue. The delivery of these therapies to the CNS is a challenge because the blood–brain barrier limits the diffusion of molecules into the brain by traditional oral or intravenous routes. Injectable hydrogels have the capacity to overcome the challenges associated with drug delivery to the CNS, by providing a minimally invasive, localized, void-filling platform for therapeutic use. Small molecule or protein drugs can be distributed throughout the hydrogel which then acts as a depot for their sustained release at the injury site. For cell delivery, the hydrogel can reduce cell aggregation and provide an adhesive matrix for improved cell survival and integration. Additionally, by choosing a biodegradable or bioresorbable hydrogel material, the system will eventually be eliminated from the body. This review discusses both natural and synthetic injectable hydrogel materials that have been used for drug or cell delivery to the CNS including hyaluronan, methylcellulose, chitosan, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Matrigel. (paper)

  17. [The interface between the immune system and autonomic nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Shunya; Mukaino, Akihiro; Ando, Yukio

    2017-01-01

      The nervous system and the immune system are two major systems in human body. Although it was revealed these two systems correlated, the control of immune cell dynamics by the nervous system has come to draw a lot of attention at the present time. Recent advances in basic and preclinical science reveal that reflex neural circuits inhibit the production of cytokines and inflammation in several animal models. One well-characterized cytokine-inhibiting mechanism, termed the "inflammatory reflex", is dependent upon vagus nerve stimulation that inhibits cytokine production and attenuates the inflammation. And the mechanism for controlling lymphocyte trafficking becomes clear, and molecular basis of immune regulation by the nervous system was reported. On the other hand, the nervous system is protected from the invasion of harmful agents by the barrier. However, there are neuroimmunological disorders, which is associated with autoimmunity, tumor immunity, and infection immunity. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an acquired immune-mediated disorder that leads to widespread autonomic manifestations, in which autoantibodies to ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play a central role. Previously, we elucidated the prevalence of extra-autonomic manifestations in patients with AAG. It is necessary to establish the new systems for the detection of autoantibodies to other subunits of acetylcholine receptor.

  18. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. There is no standard staging system for central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. The extent or spread ... are different types of treatment for patients with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Different types of treatment ...

  19. 50-57 Effects of the Autonomic Nervous System, Centra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    The gastrointestinal tract is chiefly involved in the digestion of ingested food, facilitation of absorption process and expulsion of the undigested food material through motility process. Motility is influenced by neurohormonal system which is associated with the enteric nervous system , autonomic nervous system and the ...

  20. HHV-6 symptoms in central nervous system. Encephalitis and encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinari, Satoshi; Hamano, Shinichiro

    2007-01-01

    Described is the present knowledge of central nervous symptoms, mainly encephalitis and encephalopathy, caused by the primary infection of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) in the pediatric field. Discovery of HHV-6 is in 1986, the virus, normally latent, has a high nervous affinity, and most infants are infected until the age of 3 years. Encephalitis and encephalopathy caused by the primary infection can be derived from direct viral invasion in nervous system or secondary like that through angitis. Most of early clinical symptoms are febrile convulsion. Imaging of the head by MRI particularly with diffusion weighted imaging and by cerebral blood flow SPECT with 123 I-infetamine (IMP) is important for classification of encephalitis and encephalopathy by HHV-6: Four types of them are defined according to the area of lesion observed in abnormal images, the basal nuclei-diencephalon-brainstem, frontal lobe-dominant one, cerebral hemisphere and diffusive one. Further reviewed are the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis together with other HHV-6 related problems like infection in neonate, temporal lobe epilepsy and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. Current topics are related with activation of latent HHV-6. Despite numerous findings, many remain to be elucidated in acute encephalitis and encephalopathy which are most important in pediatrics. (R.T.)

  1. Kinetics of the inhibitory interaction of organophosphorus neuropathy inducers and non-inducers in soluble esterases in the avian nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangas, Iris; Vilanova, Eugenio; Estevez, Jorge, E-mail: jorge.estevez@umh.es

    2011-11-15

    Some published studies suggest that low level exposure to organophosphorus esters (OPs) may cause neurological and neurobehavioral effects at long term exposure. These effects cannot be explained by action on known targets. In this work, the interactions (inhibition, spontaneous reactivation and 'ongoing inhibition') of two model OPs (paraoxon, non neuropathy-inducer, and mipafox, neuropathy-inducer) with the chicken brain soluble esterases were evaluated. The best-fitting kinetic model with both inhibitors was compatible with three enzymatic components. The amplitudes (proportions) of the components detected with mipafox were similar to those obtained with paraoxon. These observations confirm the consistency of the results and the model applied and may be considered an external validation. The most sensitive component (E{alpha}) for paraoxon (11-23% of activity, I{sub 50} (30 min) = 9-11 nM) is also the most sensitive for mipafox (I{sub 50} (30 min) = 4 nM). This component is spontaneously reactivated after inhibition with paraoxon. The second sensitive component to paraoxon (E{beta}, 71-84% of activity; I{sub 50} (30 min) = 1216 nM) is practically resistant to mipafox. The third component (E{gamma}, 5-8% of activity) is paraoxon resistant and has I{sub 50} (30 min) of 3.4 {mu}M with mipafox, similar to NTE (neuropathy target esterase). The role of these esterases remains unknown. Their high sensitivity suggests that they may either play a role in toxicity in low-level long-term exposure of organophosphate compounds or have a protective effect related with the spontaneous reactivation. They will have to be considered in further metabolic and toxicological studies. -- Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraoxon and mipafox interactions have been evaluated with chicken soluble brain esterases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paraoxon inhibition was analyzed considering the simultaneous spontaneous reactivation. Black

  2. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S.; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-01-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks. PMID:27127597

  3. Controlling Underwater Robots with Electronic Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We are developing robot controllers based on biomimetic design principles. The goal is to realise the adaptive capabilities of the animal models in natural environments. We report feasibility studies of a hybrid architecture that instantiates a command and coordinating level with computed discrete-time map-based (DTM neuronal networks and the central pattern generators with analogue VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration electronic neuron (aVLSI networks. DTM networks are realised using neurons based on a 1-D or 2-D Map with two additional parameters that define silent, spiking and bursting regimes. Electronic neurons (ENs based on Hindmarsh–Rose (HR dynamics can be instantiated in analogue VLSI and exhibit similar behaviour to those based on discrete components. We have constructed locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs with aVLSI networks that can be modulated to select different behaviours on the basis of selective command input. The two technologies can be fused by interfacing the signals from the DTM circuits directly to the aVLSI CPGs. Using DTMs, we have been able to simulate complex sensory fusion for rheotaxic behaviour based on both hydrodynamic and optical flow senses. We will illustrate aspects of controllers for ambulatory biomimetic robots. These studies indicate that it is feasible to fabricate an electronic nervous system controller integrating both aVLSI CPGs and layered DTM exteroceptive reflexes.

  4. Central nervous system reactions to cervical myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergaard, A.; Dons, K.; Eskesen, V.; Kruse-Larsen, C.; Blatt Lyon, B.; Arlien Soeborg, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Praestholm, J. (Hvidovre Hospital (Denmark). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Neurosurgery, Neurology, and Clinical Neurophysiology)

    1991-09-01

    In a double blind prospective study of side effects to cervical myelography 38 patients were evaluated with neurologic examination, electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem evoked response (BER), somatosensory evoked responses (SSER), and continuous reaction times prior to and at 6 h and 24 h after myelography with either metrizamide or iohexol. A difference in the incidence of side effects (for example headache, dizziness, nausea, and neck pain) to the two different contrast media indicated that the inconveniences related to myelography were not only due to the spinal puncture. A contrast medium effect on the central nervous system varying from one agent to another was present. A high frequency of EEG deteriorations among patients with adverse clinical reactions and on only discrete affection upon BER indicated the reaction to be located to the cerebral cortex. Weakened tendon reflexes and reduced strength in the upper extremities were probably caused by blockade in the motor roots as SSER were normal indicating no affection of the sensory pathways. This hypothesis is in agreement with the fact the patients were in the prone position in the first phase of the investigation causing the highest concentration of contrast medium around the motor roots and the anterior part of the spinal cord. Difference in metabolic effect may explain differences in side effects of metrizamide and iohexol. (orig.).

  5. Central nervous system reactions to cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard, A.; Dons, K.; Eskesen, V.; Kruse-Larsen, C.; Blatt Lyon, B.; Arlien Soeborg, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Praestholm, J.

    1991-01-01

    In a double blind prospective study of side effects to cervical myelography 38 patients were evaluated with neurologic examination, electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem evoked response (BER), somatosensory evoked responses (SSER), and continuous reaction times prior to and at 6 h and 24 h after myelography with either metrizamide or iohexol. A difference in the incidence of side effects (for example headache, dizziness, nausea, and neck pain) to the two different contrast media indicated that the inconveniences related to myelography were not only due to the spinal puncture. A contrast medium effect on the central nervous system varying from one agent to another was present. A high frequency of EEG deteriorations among patients with adverse clinical reactions and on only discrete affection upon BER indicated the reaction to be located to the cerebral cortex. Weakened tendon reflexes and reduced strength in the upper extremities were probably caused by blockade in the motor roots as SSER were normal indicating no affection of the sensory pathways. This hypothesis is in agreement with the fact the patients were in the prone position in the first phase of the investigation causing the highest concentration of contrast medium around the motor roots and the anterior part of the spinal cord. Difference in metabolic effect may explain differences in side effects of metrizamide and iohexol. (orig.)

  6. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  7. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-04-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson's disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  8. Measuring Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Activity in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Aimée E.; van Lien, René; van Eijsden, Manon; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Geus, Eco J.

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls mainly automatic bodily functions that are engaged in homeostasis, like heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration and renal function. The ANS has two main branches: the sympathetic nervous system, preparing the human body for action

  9. Extraversion, Neuroticism and Strength of the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, Jean-Yves

    1976-01-01

    The hypothesized identity of the dimensions of extraversion-introversion and strength of the nervous system was tested on four groups of nine subjects (neurotic extraverts, stable extraverts, neurotic introverts, stable introverts). Strength of the subjects' nervous system was estimated using the electroencephalographic (EEG) variant of extinction…

  10. Plasticity and Neural Stem Cells in the Enteric Nervous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Karl-Herbert; Van Ginneken, Chris; Copray, Sjef

    2009-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a highly organized part of the autonomic nervous system, which innervates the whole gastrointestinal tract by several interconnected neuronal networks. The ENS changes during development and keeps throughout its lifespan a significant capacity to adapt to

  11. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 6. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System - Oligodendrocytes – Ensheathers of the CNS. Yasmin Khan Medha S Rajadhyaksha. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 6 June 2002 pp 6-13 ... Keywords. Glia; myelin; central nervous system.

  12. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H.; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health. PMID:22523490

  13. Mechanosensitivity in the enteric nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eMazzuoli-Weber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The enteric nervous system (ENS autonomously controls gut muscle activity. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN initiate reflex activity by responding to mechanical deformation of the gastrointestinal wall. MEN throughout the gut primarily respond to compression or stretch rather than to shear force. Some MEN are multimodal as they respond to compression and stretch. Depending on the region up to 60% of the entire ENS population responds to mechanical stress. MEN fire action potentials after mechanical stimulation of processes or soma although they are more sensitive to process deformation. There are at least two populations of MEN based on their sensitivity to different modalities of mechanical stress and on their firing pattern. 1 Rapidly, slowly and ultra-slowly adapting neurons which encode compressive forces. 2 Ultra-slowly adapting stretch-sensitive neurons encoding tensile forces. Rapid adaptation of firing is typically observed after compressive force while slow adaptation or ongoing spike discharge occurs often during tensile stress (stretch. All MEN have some common properties: they receive synaptic input, are low fidelity mechanoreceptors and are multifunctional in that some serve interneuronal others even motor functions. Consequently, MEN possess processes with mechanosensitive as well as efferent functions. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that MEN sense and control muscle activity at the same time as servo-feedback loop. The mechanosensitive channel(s or receptor(s expressed by the different MEN populations are unknown. Future concepts have to incorporate compressive and tensile-sensitive MEN into neural circuits that controls muscle activity. They may interact to control various forms of a particular motor pattern or regulate different motor patterns independently from each other.

  14. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Kun, L.E.; Ang, K.K.; Stephens, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathognomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits are associated with diffuse white matter changes. Clinical and experimental dose-response information have been evaluated and summarized into specific recommendations for the spinal cord and brain. The common spinal cord dose limit of 45 Gy in 22 to 25 fractions is conservative and can be relaxed if respecting this limit materially reduces the probability of tumor control. It is suggested that the 5% incidence of radiation myelopathy probably lies between 57 and 61 Gy to the spinal cord in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. A clinically detectable length effect for the spinal cord has not been observed. The effects of chemotherapy and altered fractionation are also discussed. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, with imaging and clinical changes being observed generally only above 50 Gy. However, neurocognitive effects are observed at lower doses, especially in children. A more pronounced volume effect is believed to exist in the brain than in the spinal cord. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiation and chemotherapy effects. Diffuse white matter injury can be attributed to radiation and associated with neurological deficits, but leukoencephalopathy is rarely observed in the absence of chemotherapy. Subjective, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) parameters related to radiation spinal cord and brain injury have been developed and presented on ordinal scales

  15. Radiation response of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Kun, L.E.; Stephens, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the anatomical, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects of radiation injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the lack of pathoGyomonic characteristics for CNS radiation lesions, demyelination and malacia are consistently the dominant morphological features of radiation myelopathy. In addition, cerebral atrophy is commonly observed in patients with neurological deficits related to chemotherapy and radiation, and neurocognitive deficits are associated with diffuse white matter changes. Clinical and experimental dose-response information have been evaluated and summarized into specific recommendations for the spinal cord and brain. The common spinal cord dose limit of 45 Gn in 22 to 25 fractions is conservative and can be relaxed if respecting this limit materially reduces the probability of tumor control. It is suggested that the 5% incidence of radiation myelopathy probably lies between 57 and 61 Gy to the spinal cord in the absence of dose modifying chemotherapy. A clinically detectable length effect for the spinal cord has not been observed. The effects of chemotherapy and altered fractionation are also discussed. Brain necrosis in adults is rarely noted below 60 Gy in conventional fractionation, with imaging and clinical changes being observed generally only above 50 Gy. However, neurocognitive effects are observed at lower doses, especially in children. A more pronounced volume effect is believed to exist in the brain than in the spinal cord. Tumor progression may be hard to distinguish from radiation and chemotherapy effects. Diffuse white matter injury can be attributed to radiation and associated with neurological deficits, but leukoencephalopathy is rarely observed in the absence of chemotherapy. Subjective, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) parameters related to radiation spinal cord and brain injury have been developed and presented on ordinal scales. 140 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severino, Mariasavina; Schwartz, Erin S.; Thurnher, Majda M.; Rydland, Jana; Nikas, Ioannis; Rossi, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors, where aggressive surgical treatment leads to disease

  17. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  18. Polyphenols, Antioxidants and the Sympathetic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2017-11-14

    A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies. The main mechanisms by which polyphenols are cardioprotective are related to the improvement of vascular function and their anti-atherogenic effect. Furthermore, a blood pressure-lowering effect was consistently demonstrated in randomized controlled trials in humans, when the effect of flavonoid-rich foods, such as tea and chocolate, was tested. More recent studies suggest that inhibition of sympathetic overactivity might be one of the mechanisms by which these substances exert their cardioprotective effects. Indeed, an increased adrenergic traffic to the vasculature is a major mechanism of disease in a number of cardiovascular and extra-cardiac diseases, including hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome and heart failure. A considerable body of evidence, mostly from experimental studies, support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species might exert sympatho-excitatory effects both at the central and at the peripheral level. Accordingly, supplementation with antioxidants might reduce adrenergic overdrive to the vasculature and blunt cardiovascular reactivity to stress. While supplementation with "classical" antioxidants such as ROS-scavengers has many limitations, increasing the intake of polyphenol-rich foods seems to be a promising novel

  19. Autonomic nervous system function in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, J; Schmitz, T; Saft, C; Postert, T; Kraus, P; Epplen, J T; Przuntek, H; Agelink, M W

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether Huntington's disease (HD) affects autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning. Twenty patients with HD who had positive genetic test results underwent standardised ANS function tests including sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) of the hands and feet, measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), both during five minutes of resting and deep respiration, and an orthostatic blood pressure test. Patients were classified according to the motor subscale of the unified Huntington's disease rating scale (UHDRS; mean (SD) score 26.4 (13.6)) and divided into two subgroups: UHDRS or =25 points (mid stages, M-HD). Autonomic indices were compared with those obtained for a group of well matched healthy controls (n=60). Overall, patients showed lower HRV indices than controls. Multivariate analysis with the independent factor of "group" (controls, E-HD, M-HD) showed a significant group effect on both the high frequency power (F=4.32, p=0.017) and the coefficient of variation (F=4.23, p=0.018), indicating a significant reduction in vagal modulation in the M-HD group. There was a shift in autonomic neurocardiac balance towards sympathetic predominance in the M-HD group compared with controls (F=2.89, p=0.062). Moreover, we found an inverse correlation between the severity of clinical HD symptoms (assessed by the UHDRS) and the modulation of cardiovagal activity (p=0.028). Vagal dysregulation was present in two patients; one of them also showed a pathological blood pressure test and a latency prolongation in the SSRs of the hands. Two other patients had pathologically reduced SSR amplitudes. Only patients of the M-HD group were affected. Autonomic dysfunction is present even in the middle stages of HD and affects both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branch of the ANS.

  20. Effect of hyperthermia on the central nervous system: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, P.; van der Zee, J.; Wondergem, J.; Haveman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental data show that nervous tissue is sensitive to heat. Animal data indicate that the maximum tolerated heat dose after local hyperthermia of the central nervous system (CNS) lies in the range of 40-60 min at 42-42 x 5 degrees C or 10-30 min at 43 degrees C. No conclusions concerning the

  1. Statin therapy inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miron, Veronique E; Zehntner, Simone P; Kuhlmann, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood...... that OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2(strong)/Nkx2.2(weak)). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating...... the need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes....

  2. Use of selective silver impregnation of neuronal degeneration as a biomarker for assessing organophosphorus-induced neuropathy in the central nervous system. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, D. Jr.; Bursian, S.J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Exposure to selected groups of organophosphorus compounds has been shown to result in neuronal degeneration in both avian and mammalian nervous systems. Previous investigators, using hematoxylin and eosin stains, concluded that the degeneration resulting from exposure to these compounds was restricted to peripheral nerves and to long fiber tracts of the spinal cord and lower brainstem. The authors re-examined the results of exposure to the organophosphorus compounds tri-Q-tolyl phosphate, diisopropylphosphorofluoridate, and triphenyl phosphite using a variant of the Fink-Heimer silver impregnation method. This method selectively stains degenerating axions and axon terminals. Chickens, Japanese quail, rats, and mature and immature ferrets were used in these studies because of their differential clinical susceptibility to organophosphorus compounds. Their results indicate that exposure to each compound may result in a variable amount of degeneration within selected nuclei and tracts in the brain and spinal cord. The amount of degeneration seen in each instance corresponds well with the severity of the resultant clinical signs. In addition, the locus and severity of neuronal degeneration is dependent on the particular compound used, the species of animal exposed, and the age of the animal at the time of exposure.

  3. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system in Chagas heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Reis Lopes

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system and especially the intracardiac autonomic nervous system is involved in Chagas' disease. Ganglionitis and periganglionitis were noted in three groups ofpatients dying with Chagas'disease: 1 Those in heart failure; 2 Those dying a sudden, non violent death and; 3 Those dying as a consequence ofaccidents or homicide. Hearts in the threegroups also revealed myocarditis and scattered involvement of intramyocardial ganglion cells as well as lesions of myelinic and unmyelinic fibers ascribable to Chagas'disease. In mice with experimentally induced Chagas' disease weobserved more intensive neuronal lesions of the cardiac ganglia in the acute phase of infection. Perhaps neuronal loss has a role in the pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy. However based on our own experience and on other data from the literature we conclude that the loss of neurones is not the main factor responsible for the manifestations exhibited by chronic chagasic patients. On the other hand the neuronal lesions may have played a role in the sudden death ofone group of patients with Chagas'disease but is difficult to explain the group of patients who did not die sudderly but instead progressed to cardiac failure.

  4. Engineering Biomaterial Properties for Central Nervous System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Christopher John

    Biomaterials offer unique properties that are intrinsic to the chemistry of the material itself or occur as a result of the fabrication process; iron oxide nanoparticles are superparamagnetic, which enables controlled heating in the presence of an alternating magnetic field, and a hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material provides minimally invasive placement of a fibrous, artificial extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. Utilization of these unique properties towards central nervous system disease and dysfunction requires a thorough definition of the properties in concert with full biological assessment. This enables development of material-specific features to elicit unique cellular responses. Iron oxide nanoparticles are first investigated for material-dependent, cortical neuron cytotoxicity in vitro and subsequently evaluated for alternating magnetic field stimulation induced hyperthermia, emulating the clinical application for enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in glioblastoma treatment. A hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material is first applied to a rat brain to evaluate biomaterial interface astrocyte accumulation as a function of hybrid material composition. The hybrid material is then utilized towards increasing functional engraftment of dopaminergic progenitor neural stem cells in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Taken together, these two scenarios display the role of material property characterization in development of biomaterial strategies for central nervous system repair and regeneration.

  5. CT diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Koreaki

    1980-01-01

    In the diagnosis of central nervous system congenital anomalies, understanding of embryology of the central nervous system and pathophysiology of each anomaly are essential. It is important for clinical approach to central nervous system congenital anomalies to evaluate the size of the head and tention of the anterior fontanelle. Accurate diagnosis of congenital anomalies depends on a correlation of CT findings to clinical pictures. Clinical diagnosis of congenital anomalies should include prediction of treatability and prognosis, in addition to recognition of a disease. (author)

  6. Vulnerable processes of nervous system development: a review of markers and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, S; Das, K P; Lassiter, T L; White, L D

    2000-01-01

    subject is discussed in light of scientific uncertainties regarding perturbation-induced compensation in the developing nervous system. Thus, utilization of age-appropriate tests of these developmental processes may improve the detection and reduce uncertainty about the nature of adverse effects following developmental exposure to environmental neurotoxicants.

  7. Central Nervous Activity upon Systemic Salicylate Application in Animals with Kanamycin-Induced Hearing Loss - A Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröschel, Moritz; Götze, Romy; Müller, Susanne; Ernst, Arne; Basta, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of systemic salicylate on central auditory and non-auditory structures in mice. Since cochlear hair cells are known to be one major target of salicylate, cochlear effects were reduced by using kanamycin to remove or impair hair cells. Neuronal brain activity was measured using the non-invasive manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging technique. For all brain structures investigated, calcium-related neuronal activity was increased following systemic application of a sodium salicylate solution: probably due to neuronal hyperactivity. In addition, it was shown that the central effect of salicylate was not limited to the auditory system. A general alteration of calcium-related activity was indicated by an increase in manganese accumulation in the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, as well as in the amygdala. The present data suggest that salicylate-induced activity changes in the auditory system differ from those shown in studies of noise trauma. Since salicylate action is reversible, central pharmacological effects of salicylate compared to those of (permanent) noise-induced hearing impairment and tinnitus might induce different pathophysiologies. These should therefore, be treated as different causes with the same symptoms. PMID:27078034

  8. Central Nervous Activity upon Systemic Salicylate Application in Animals with Kanamycin-Induced Hearing Loss--A Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröschel, Moritz; Götze, Romy; Müller, Susanne; Ernst, Arne; Basta, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of systemic salicylate on central auditory and non-auditory structures in mice. Since cochlear hair cells are known to be one major target of salicylate, cochlear effects were reduced by using kanamycin to remove or impair hair cells. Neuronal brain activity was measured using the non-invasive manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging technique. For all brain structures investigated, calcium-related neuronal activity was increased following systemic application of a sodium salicylate solution: probably due to neuronal hyperactivity. In addition, it was shown that the central effect of salicylate was not limited to the auditory system. A general alteration of calcium-related activity was indicated by an increase in manganese accumulation in the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, as well as in the amygdala. The present data suggest that salicylate-induced activity changes in the auditory system differ from those shown in studies of noise trauma. Since salicylate action is reversible, central pharmacological effects of salicylate compared to those of (permanent) noise-induced hearing impairment and tinnitus might induce different pathophysiologies. These should therefore, be treated as different causes with the same symptoms.

  9. Central Nervous Activity upon Systemic Salicylate Application in Animals with Kanamycin-Induced Hearing Loss--A Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Gröschel

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of systemic salicylate on central auditory and non-auditory structures in mice. Since cochlear hair cells are known to be one major target of salicylate, cochlear effects were reduced by using kanamycin to remove or impair hair cells. Neuronal brain activity was measured using the non-invasive manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging technique. For all brain structures investigated, calcium-related neuronal activity was increased following systemic application of a sodium salicylate solution: probably due to neuronal hyperactivity. In addition, it was shown that the central effect of salicylate was not limited to the auditory system. A general alteration of calcium-related activity was indicated by an increase in manganese accumulation in the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus, as well as in the amygdala. The present data suggest that salicylate-induced activity changes in the auditory system differ from those shown in studies of noise trauma. Since salicylate action is reversible, central pharmacological effects of salicylate compared to those of (permanent noise-induced hearing impairment and tinnitus might induce different pathophysiologies. These should therefore, be treated as different causes with the same symptoms.

  10. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-08-08

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, we will review the latest advances of studies on the correlation between gut microorganisms and CNS functions & diseases.

  11. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Roland Teixeira

    Full Text Available The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive

  12. Progress of radionuclide diagnostic methods in central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badmaev, K.N.; Zen'kovich, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    A summarry on modern radionuclide diagnosis achivements of central nervous system diseases is presented. Most optimal tumorotropic preparations and compounds in the view of decreasing irradiation does and optimazing image are given

  13. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  14. Central nervous system infections in heart transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Patel, Robin; Daly, Richard C.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Wijdicks, Eelco F. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study central nervous system infections after heart transplantations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Cardiac Transplant Program at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Patients Three hundred fifteen consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation from January 1988

  15. A simple analogy for nervous system plasticity after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Karim; Forero, Juan; Hurd, Caitlin

    2015-04-01

    When considering plasticity, the central nervous system can be viewed as a building block house. After damage, building components might be lost or loosened and may be rearranged by renovation, analogous to neuroplasticity that occurs after central nervous system injury. In both scenarios, the location and severity of damage will determine the efficacy of renovation/rehabilitation and thus the quality of the adapted structure.

  16. Role of metallothionein-III following central nervous system damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Javier; Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-III (MT-III) in the central nervous system following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex by studying Mt3-null mice. In normal mice, dramatic astrogliosis and microgliosis and T-cell infiltration were observed in the area...... the inflammatory response elicited in the central nervous system by a cryoinjury, nor does it serve an important antioxidant role, but it may influence neuronal regeneration during the recovery process....

  17. The glia of the adult Drosophila nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Malte C.; Jung, Christophe; Batelli, Sara; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2017-01-01

    Glia play crucial roles in the development and homeostasis of the nervous system. While the GLIA in the Drosophila embryo have been well characterized, their study in the adult nervous system has been limited. Here, we present a detailed description of the glia in the adult nervous system, based on the analysis of some 500 glial drivers we identified within a collection of synthetic GAL4 lines. We find that glia make up ∼10% of the cells in the nervous system and envelop all compartments of neurons (soma, dendrites, axons) as well as the nervous system as a whole. Our morphological analysis suggests a set of simple rules governing the morphogenesis of glia and their interactions with other cells. All glial subtypes minimize contact with their glial neighbors but maximize their contact with neurons and adapt their macromorphology and micromorphology to the neuronal entities they envelop. Finally, glial cells show no obvious spatial organization or registration with neuronal entities. Our detailed description of all glial subtypes and their regional specializations, together with the powerful genetic toolkit we provide, will facilitate the functional analysis of glia in the mature nervous system. GLIA 2017 GLIA 2017;65:606–638 PMID:28133822

  18. Holothurian Nervous System Diversity Revealed by Neuroanatomical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Lázaro-Peña, María I.; Vázquez-Figueroa, Lionel D.; Díaz-Balzac, Roberto J.; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2016-01-01

    The Echinodermata comprise an interesting branch in the phylogenetic tree of deuterostomes. Their radial symmetry which is reflected in their nervous system anatomy makes them a target of interest in the study of nervous system evolution. Until recently, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has been hindered by a shortage of neuronal markers. However, in recent years several markers of neuronal and fiber subpopulations have been described. These have been used to identify subpopulations of neurons and fibers, but an integrative study of the anatomical relationship of these subpopulations is wanting. We have now used eight commercial antibodies, together with three antibodies produced by our group to provide a comprehensive and integrated description and new details of the echinoderm neuroanatomy using the holothurian Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) as our model system. Immunoreactivity of the markers used showed: (1) specific labeling patterns by markers in the radial nerve cords, which suggest the presence of specific nerve tracts in holothurians. (2) Nerves directly innervate most muscle fibers in the longitudinal muscles. (3) Similar to other deuterostomes (mainly vertebrates), their enteric nervous system is composed of a large and diverse repertoire of neurons and fiber phenotypes. Our results provide a first blueprint of the anatomical organization of cells and fibers that form the holothurian neural circuitry, and highlight the fact that the echinoderm nervous system shows unexpected diversity in cell and fiber types and their distribution in both central and peripheral nervous components. PMID:26987052

  19. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone and meloxicam on Borrelia burgdorferi-induced inflammation in neuronal cultures of dorsal root ganglia and myelinating cells of the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Geeta; Meisner, Olivia C; Philipp, Mario T

    2015-12-23

    Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), could result in cognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, and radiculoneuritis. We hypothesized that inflammation is a key factor in LNB pathogenesis and recently evaluated the effects of dexamethasone, a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and meloxicam a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), in a rhesus monkey model of acute LNB. Dexamethasone treatment significantly reduced the levels of immune mediators, and prevented inflammatory and/or neurodegenerative lesions in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and apoptosis in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, infected animals treated with meloxicam showed levels of inflammatory mediators, inflammatory lesions, and DRG cell apoptosis that were similar to that of the infected animals that were left untreated. To address the differential anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone and meloxicam on neuronal and myelinating cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), we evaluated the potential of these drugs to alter the levels of Bb-induced inflammatory mediators in rhesus DRG cell cultures and primary human Schwann cells (HSC), using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). We also ascertained the ability of these drugs to modulate cell death as induced by live Bb in HSC using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assay and the potential of dexamethasone to modulate Bb-induced apoptosis in HSC by the TUNEL assay. Earlier, we reported that dexamethasone significantly reduced Bb-induced immune mediators and apoptosis in rhesus DRG cell cultures. Here, we report that dexamethasone but not meloxicam significantly reduces the levels of several cytokines and chemokines as induced by live Bb, in HSC and DRG cell cultures. Further, meloxicam does not significantly alter Bb-induced cell death in HSC, while dexamethasone protects HSC against Bb-induced cell death. These data

  1. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  2. The complex simplicity of the brittle star nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueva, Olga; Khoury, Maleana; Heinzeller, Thomas; Mashanova, Daria; Mashanov, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) have been increasingly used in studies of animal behavior, locomotion, regeneration, physiology, and bioluminescence. The success of these studies directly depends on good working knowledge of the ophiuroid nervous system. Here, we describe the arm nervous system at different levels of organization, including the microanatomy of the radial nerve cord and peripheral nerves, ultrastructure of the neural tissue, and localization of different cell types using specific antibody markers. We standardize the nomenclature of nerves and ganglia, and provide an anatomically accurate digital 3D model of the arm nervous system as a reference for future studies. Our results helped identify several general features characteristic to the adult echinoderm nervous system, including the extensive anatomical interconnections between the ectoneural and hyponeural components, neuroepithelial organization of the central nervous system, and the supporting scaffold of the neuroepithelium formed by radial glial cells. In addition, we provide further support to the notion that the echinoderm radial glia is a complex and diverse cell population. We also tested the suitability of a range of specific cell-type markers for studies of the brittle star nervous system and established that the radial glial cells are reliably labeled with the ERG1 antibodies, whereas the best neuronal markers are acetylated tubulin, ELAV, and synaptotagmin B. The transcription factor Brn1/2/4 - a marker of neuronal progenitors - is expressed not only in neurons, but also in a subpopulation of radial glia. For the first time, we describe putative ophiuroid proprioceptors associated with the hyponeural part of the central nervous system. Together, our data help establish both the general principles of neural architecture common to the phylum Echinodermata and the specific ophiuroid features.

  3. Central nervous system systemic lupus erythematosus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, A.G.; Boyer, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Ischemic neurologic events and neuropsychiatric disorders occur in approximately 70% of patients with systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The CT and MR findings in adults with central nervous system (CNS) SLE have been described, but to the authors' knowledge no pediatric series has been reported. The MR and CT findings in four children with CNS SLE are compared with those reported in adults. Large infarcts are less frequent in children than in adults with CNS SLE, while multiple small infarctions and white matter lesions are more common. These findings in children who have no obvious source of emboli, intracardiac shunt, or history of trauma should raise the suspicion of SLE

  4. Designing and implementing nervous system simulations on LEGO robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, Daniel; Rosenthal, Nikolai; Ayers, Joseph

    2013-05-25

    We present a method to use the commercially available LEGO Mindstorms NXT robotics platform to test systems level neuroscience hypotheses. The first step of the method is to develop a nervous system simulation of specific reflexive behaviors of an appropriate model organism; here we use the American Lobster. Exteroceptive reflexes mediated by decussating (crossing) neural connections can explain an animal's taxis towards or away from a stimulus as described by Braitenberg and are particularly well suited for investigation using the NXT platform.(1) The nervous system simulation is programmed using LabVIEW software on the LEGO Mindstorms platform. Once the nervous system is tuned properly, behavioral experiments are run on the robot and on the animal under identical environmental conditions. By controlling the sensory milieu experienced by the specimens, differences in behavioral outputs can be observed. These differences may point to specific deficiencies in the nervous system model and serve to inform the iteration of the model for the particular behavior under study. This method allows for the experimental manipulation of electronic nervous systems and serves as a way to explore neuroscience hypotheses specifically regarding the neurophysiological basis of simple innate reflexive behaviors. The LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit provides an affordable and efficient platform on which to test preliminary biomimetic robot control schemes. The approach is also well suited for the high school classroom to serve as the foundation for a hands-on inquiry-based biorobotics curriculum.

  5. Effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahão; Neto, Emidio Beraldo; de Freitas, Lucas Alves; Dorce, Valquiria Abrão Coronado

    2018-01-01

    In Brazil, the scorpion species responsible for most severe incidents belong to the Tityus genus and, among this group, T. serrulatus , T. bahiensis , T. stigmurus and T. obscurus are the most dangerous ones. Other species such as T. metuendus , T. silvestres, T. brazilae , T. confluens , T. costatus , T. fasciolatus and T. neglectus are also found in the country, but the incidence and severity of accidents caused by them are lower. The main effects caused by scorpion venoms - such as myocardial damage, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema and shock - are mainly due to the release of mediators from the autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, some evidence show the participation of the central nervous system and inflammatory response in the process. The participation of the central nervous system in envenoming has always been questioned. Some authors claim that the central effects would be a consequence of peripheral stimulation and would be the result, not the cause, of the envenoming process. Because, they say, at least in adult individuals, the venom would be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, there is some evidence showing the direct participation of the central nervous system in the envenoming process. This review summarizes the major findings on the effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system, both clinically and experimentally. Most of the studies have been performed with T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis . Little information is available regarding the other Brazilian Tityus species.

  6. Monophyletic Origin of the Metazoan Nervous System: Characterizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Russell; Beckenbach, Andrew

    In the absence of additional cases to be studied, our understanding of the likelihood of intelligent life evolving elsewhere in the universe must be framed within the context of the evolution of intelligence on this planet. Towards this end a valid model of the evolution of animal life, and in particular of the nervous system, is key. Models which describe the development of complexity within the nervous system can be positively misleading if they are not grounded in an accurate model of the true relationships of the animal phyla. If fact the evolution of animal life at its earliest stages, from protists to the sponges, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora and onward to the bilateral animal phyla is poorly characterized. Recently numerous phylogenies of the early animal radiation have been published based upon DNA sequence data, with conflicting and poorly supported results. A polyphyletic origin for the animal nervous system has been implied by the results of several studies, which would lead to the conclusion that some characteristics of the nervous systems of higher and lower animals could be convergent. We show that an equally parsimonious interpretation of the molecular sequence data published thus far is that it reflects rapid speciation events early in animal evolution among the classical ``diploblast'' phyla, as well as accelerated DNA sequence divergence among the higher animals. This could be interpreted as support for a classical phylogeny of the animal kingdom, and thus of a strictly monophyletic origin for the nervous system.

  7. [Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus - diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyrka, Magdalena

    Nervous system involvement in lupus belongs to its severe complications and significantly impacts its prognosis. Neuropsychiatric lupus includes 19 disease manifestations concerning both central and peripheral nervous system. This paper presents clinical aspects of central nervous system involvement in lupus. It reviews its epidemiology, risk factors and principles of diagnosis and therapy.

  8. Acute irradiation injury and autonomic nervous system. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuu, Mutsumi; Sekine, Ichiro; Shichijo, Kazuko; Ito, Masahiro; Ikeda, Yuzi; Matsuzaki, Sumihiro; Zea-Iriate, W.-L.; Kondo, Takahito

    1996-01-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of occurrence of radiation sickness, whole body irradiation of various doses of X-ray was done on male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) whose sympathetic nervous system is functionally activated and on their original male Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and the change of their body weights was examined. Further, changes of blood pressure in rats irradiated at 7.5 Gy, of norepinephrine contents in their gut as a parameter of sympathetic nervous function and of acetylcholine contents as that of parasympathetic nervous function were measured. Histopathological examinations were also performed. SHR died at smaller dose than WKY. The blood pressure as a parameter of systemic sympathetic nervous system varied greatly in SHR. Norepinephrine contents elevated rapidly and greatly in SHR after irradiation and acetylcholine contents rapidly elevated in WKY. Apoptosis was more frequently observed in the intestinal crypt of SHR. Participation of autonomic nervous system was thus shown in the appearance of acute radiation injury and sickness in SHR, which was thought to be a useful model for the investigation. (K.H.)

  9. Sjogrens Syndrome Presenting with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Terzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjogren’s syndrome is a slowly progressive autoimmune disease. Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20-25% cases in Sjogren’s syndrome. 87% of the neurological involvement is peripheral nervous system, almost 13% in the form of central nervous system involvement. Affected central nervous system may show similar clinical and radiological findings as in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this paper, a 43-year-old patient is discussed who was referred with the complaint of dizziness, there was MS- like lesions in brain imaging studies and was diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome. MS- like clinical and radiologic tables can be seen, albeit rarely in Sjogren’s syndrome. In these cases, early diagnosis and early treatment for the sjögren has a great importance for the prognosis of the disease.

  10. Mechanisms of magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashut, Tamar; Wolfus, Shuki; Friedman, Alex; Lavidor, Michal; Bar-Gad, Izhar; Yeshurun, Yosef; Korngreen, Alon

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a stimulation method in which a magnetic coil generates a magnetic field in an area of interest in the brain. This magnetic field induces an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field is determined by the geometry and location of the coil relative to the brain. Although TMS has been used for several decades, the biophysical basis underlying the stimulation of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) is still unknown. To address this problem we developed a numerical scheme enabling us to combine realistic magnetic stimulation (MS) with compartmental modeling of neurons with arbitrary morphology. The induced electric field for each location in space was combined with standard compartmental modeling software to calculate the membrane current generated by the electromagnetic field for each segment of the neuron. In agreement with previous studies, the simulations suggested that peripheral axons were excited by the spatial gradients of the induced electric field. In both peripheral and central neurons, MS amplitude required for action potential generation was inversely proportional to the square of the diameter of the stimulated compartment. Due to the importance of the fiber's diameter, magnetic stimulation of CNS neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. Passive dendrites affect this process primarily as current sinks, not sources. The simulations predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magnetic stimulation. Moreover, they suggest that MS does not directly trigger dendritic regenerative mechanisms. These insights into the mechanism of MS may be relevant for the design of multi-intensity TMS protocols, may facilitate the construction of magnetic stimulators, and may aid the interpretation of results of TMS of the CNS.

  11. Mechanisms of magnetic stimulation of central nervous system neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Pashut

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a stimulation method in which a magnetic coil generates a magnetic field in an area of interest in the brain. This magnetic field induces an electric field that modulates neuronal activity. The spatial distribution of the induced electric field is determined by the geometry and location of the coil relative to the brain. Although TMS has been used for several decades, the biophysical basis underlying the stimulation of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS is still unknown. To address this problem we developed a numerical scheme enabling us to combine realistic magnetic stimulation (MS with compartmental modeling of neurons with arbitrary morphology. The induced electric field for each location in space was combined with standard compartmental modeling software to calculate the membrane current generated by the electromagnetic field for each segment of the neuron. In agreement with previous studies, the simulations suggested that peripheral axons were excited by the spatial gradients of the induced electric field. In both peripheral and central neurons, MS amplitude required for action potential generation was inversely proportional to the square of the diameter of the stimulated compartment. Due to the importance of the fiber's diameter, magnetic stimulation of CNS neurons depolarized the soma followed by initiation of an action potential in the initial segment of the axon. Passive dendrites affect this process primarily as current sinks, not sources. The simulations predict that neurons with low current threshold are more susceptible to magnetic stimulation. Moreover, they suggest that MS does not directly trigger dendritic regenerative mechanisms. These insights into the mechanism of MS may be relevant for the design of multi-intensity TMS protocols, may facilitate the construction of magnetic stimulators, and may aid the interpretation of results of TMS of the CNS.

  12. Knockdown of wfs1, a fly homolog of Wolfram syndrome 1, in the nervous system increases susceptibility to age- and stress-induced neuronal dysfunction and degeneration in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Yasufumi; Sekiya, Michiko; Fujisaki, Naoki; Quan, Xiuming; Iijima, Koichi M

    2018-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WS), caused by loss-of-function mutations in the Wolfram syndrome 1 gene (WFS1), is characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus, bilateral optic atrophy, and a wide spectrum of neurological and psychiatric manifestations. WFS1 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident transmembrane protein, and mutations in this gene lead to pancreatic β-cell death induced by high levels of ER stress. However, the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration caused by WFS1 deficiency remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of WFS1 in the maintenance of neuronal integrity in vivo by knocking down the expression of wfs1, the Drosophila homolog of WFS1, in the central nervous system. Neuronal knockdown of wfs1 caused age-dependent behavioral deficits and neurodegeneration in the fly brain. Knockdown of wfs1 in neurons and glial cells resulted in premature death and significantly exacerbated behavioral deficits in flies, suggesting that wfs1 has important functions in both cell types. Although wfs1 knockdown alone did not promote ER stress, it increased the susceptibility to oxidative stress-, excitotoxicity- or tauopathy-induced behavioral deficits, and neurodegeneration. The glutamate release inhibitor riluzole significantly suppressed premature death phenotypes induced by neuronal and glial knockdown of wfs1. This study highlights the protective role of wfs1 against age-associated neurodegeneration and furthers our understanding of potential disease-modifying factors that determine susceptibility and resilience to age-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Knockdown of wfs1, a fly homolog of Wolfram syndrome 1, in the nervous system increases susceptibility to age- and stress-induced neuronal dysfunction and degeneration in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Sakakibara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolfram syndrome (WS, caused by loss-of-function mutations in the Wolfram syndrome 1 gene (WFS1, is characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus, bilateral optic atrophy, and a wide spectrum of neurological and psychiatric manifestations. WFS1 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER-resident transmembrane protein, and mutations in this gene lead to pancreatic β-cell death induced by high levels of ER stress. However, the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration caused by WFS1 deficiency remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of WFS1 in the maintenance of neuronal integrity in vivo by knocking down the expression of wfs1, the Drosophila homolog of WFS1, in the central nervous system. Neuronal knockdown of wfs1 caused age-dependent behavioral deficits and neurodegeneration in the fly brain. Knockdown of wfs1 in neurons and glial cells resulted in premature death and significantly exacerbated behavioral deficits in flies, suggesting that wfs1 has important functions in both cell types. Although wfs1 knockdown alone did not promote ER stress, it increased the susceptibility to oxidative stress-, excitotoxicity- or tauopathy-induced behavioral deficits, and neurodegeneration. The glutamate release inhibitor riluzole significantly suppressed premature death phenotypes induced by neuronal and glial knockdown of wfs1. This study highlights the protective role of wfs1 against age-associated neurodegeneration and furthers our understanding of potential disease-modifying factors that determine susceptibility and resilience to age-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of relieving...

  15. Autonomic Nervous System in Paralympic Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Matthias; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2018-05-01

    Individuals sustaining a spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently suffer from sensorimotor and autonomic impairment. Damage to the autonomic nervous system results in cardiovascular, respiratory, bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunctions, as well as temperature dysregulation. These complications not only impede quality of life, but also affect athletic performance of individuals with SCI. This article summarizes existing evidence on how damage to the spinal cord affects the autonomic nervous system and impacts the performance in athletes with SCI. Also discussed are frequently used performance-enhancing strategies, with a special focus on their legal aspect and implication on the athletes' health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capper, David; Jones, David T.W.; Sill, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter......-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show...

  17. Dynamic regulation of neurotransmitter specification: Relevance to nervous system homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodinsky, Laura N.; Belgacem, Yesser Hadj; Swapna, Immani; Sequerra, Eduardo Bouth

    2013-01-01

    During nervous system development the neurotransmitter identity changes and coexpression of several neurotransmitters is a rather generalized feature of developing neurons. In the mature nervous system, different physiological and pathological circumstances recreate this phenomenon. The rules of neurotransmitter respecification are multiple. Among them, the goal of assuring balanced excitability appears as an important driving force for the modifications in neurotransmitter phenotype expression. The functional consequences of these dynamic revisions in neurotransmitter identity span a varied range, from fine-tuning the developing neural circuit to modifications in addictive and locomotor behaviors. Current challenges include determining the mechanisms underlying neurotransmitter phenotype respecification and how they intersect with genetic programs of neuronal specialization. PMID:23270605

  18. Role of neuroactive steroids in the peripheral nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cosimo eMelcangi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a target of their action. Indeed, as here reported neuroactive steroids are physiological regulators of peripheral nerve functions and they may also represent interesting therapeutic tools for different types of peripheral neuropathy.

  19. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  20. White matter lesions and encephalopathy in patients treated for primary central nervous system lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenberg, MWM; Bromberg, JEC; Witkamp, TD; Terhaard, CHJ; Taphoorn, MJB

    A retrospective analysis of the clinical presentations and neuroimaging characteristics of 33 patients with a primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNL) who received cranial radiotherapy was performed to assess incidence of and risk factors for radiation-induced encephalopathy. CT and MRI scans

  1. Some Central Nervous System Effects of the aqueous Extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Phyllanthus amarus is used in Southern Nigeria to treat variety of diseases including epilepsy. The aqueous extract of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus was investigated for some central nervous system effects. Two animals models (maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion), were used ...

  2. Genetic therapy for the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, William J; Breakefield, Xandra O; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2011-04-15

    Genetic therapy is undergoing a renaissance with expansion of viral and synthetic vectors, use of oligonucleotides (RNA and DNA) and sequence-targeted regulatory molecules, as well as genetically modified cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells from the patients themselves. Several clinical trials for neurologic syndromes appear quite promising. This review covers genetic strategies to ameliorate neurologic syndromes of different etiologies, including lysosomal storage diseases, Alzheimer's disease and other amyloidopathies, Parkinson's disease, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and brain tumors. This field has been propelled by genetic technologies, including identifying disease genes and disruptive mutations, design of genomic interacting elements to regulate transcription and splicing of specific precursor mRNAs and use of novel non-coding regulatory RNAs. These versatile new tools for manipulation of genetic elements provide the ability to tailor the mode of genetic intervention to specific aspects of a disease state.

  3. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumilov, V. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Syryamkin, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper puts forward principles of action of devices operating similarly to the nervous system and the brain of biological systems. We propose an alternative method of studying diseases of the nervous system, which may significantly influence prevention, medical treatment, or at least retardation of development of these diseases. This alternative is to use computational and electronic models of the nervous system. Within this approach, we represent the brain in the form of a huge electrical circuit composed of active units, namely, neuron-like units and connections between them. As a result, we created computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems, which are based on the principles of functioning of biological nervous systems that we have put forward. Our models demonstrate reactions to external stimuli and their change similarly to the behavior of simplest biological organisms. The models possess the ability of self-training and retraining in real time without human intervention and switching operation/training modes. In our models, training and memorization take place constantly under the influence of stimuli on the organism. Training is without any interruption and switching operation modes. Training and formation of new reflexes occur by means of formation of new connections between excited neurons, between which formation of connections is physically possible. Connections are formed without external influence. They are formed under the influence of local causes. Connections are formed between outputs and inputs of two neurons, when the difference between output and input potentials of excited neurons exceeds a value sufficient to form a new connection. On these grounds, we suggest that the proposed principles truly reflect mechanisms of functioning of biological nervous systems and the brain. In order to confirm the correspondence of the proposed principles to biological nature, we carry out experiments for the study of processes of

  4. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumilov, V. N., E-mail: vnshumilov@rambler.ru; Syryamkin, V. I., E-mail: maximus70sir@gmail.com; Syryamkin, M. V., E-mail: maximus70sir@gmail.com [National Research Tomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 36 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The paper puts forward principles of action of devices operating similarly to the nervous system and the brain of biological systems. We propose an alternative method of studying diseases of the nervous system, which may significantly influence prevention, medical treatment, or at least retardation of development of these diseases. This alternative is to use computational and electronic models of the nervous system. Within this approach, we represent the brain in the form of a huge electrical circuit composed of active units, namely, neuron-like units and connections between them. As a result, we created computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems, which are based on the principles of functioning of biological nervous systems that we have put forward. Our models demonstrate reactions to external stimuli and their change similarly to the behavior of simplest biological organisms. The models possess the ability of self-training and retraining in real time without human intervention and switching operation/training modes. In our models, training and memorization take place constantly under the influence of stimuli on the organism. Training is without any interruption and switching operation modes. Training and formation of new reflexes occur by means of formation of new connections between excited neurons, between which formation of connections is physically possible. Connections are formed without external influence. They are formed under the influence of local causes. Connections are formed between outputs and inputs of two neurons, when the difference between output and input potentials of excited neurons exceeds a value sufficient to form a new connection. On these grounds, we suggest that the proposed principles truly reflect mechanisms of functioning of biological nervous systems and the brain. In order to confirm the correspondence of the proposed principles to biological nature, we carry out experiments for the study of processes of

  5. Autonomic nervous system involvement in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Mylène; Chia, Pamela; Sarji, Shervin; Nguyen, Jason; Hoftman, Nir; Ruffenach, Gregoire; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Mahajan, Aman; Umar, Soban

    2017-12-04

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic pulmonary vascular disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) leading to right ventricular (RV) failure. Autonomic nervous system involvement in the pathogenesis of PAH has been demonstrated several years ago, however the extent of this involvement is not fully understood. PAH is associated with increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation, decreased heart rate variability, and presence of cardiac arrhythmias. There is also evidence for increased renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation in PAH patients associated with clinical worsening. Reduction of neurohormonal activation could be an effective therapeutic strategy for PAH. Although therapies targeting adrenergic receptors or RAAS signaling pathways have been shown to reverse cardiac remodeling and improve outcomes in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH)-models, the effectiveness and safety of such treatments in clinical settings have been uncertain. Recently, novel direct methods such as cervical ganglion block, pulmonary artery denervation (PADN), and renal denervation have been employed to attenuate SNS activation in PAH. In this review, we intend to summarize the multiple aspects of autonomic nervous system involvement in PAH and overview the different pharmacological and invasive strategies used to target autonomic nervous system for the treatment of PAH.

  6. Innate immunity in the nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaglia, V.; Baas, F.

    2009-01-01

    The complement (C) system plays a central role in innate immunity and bridges innate and adaptive immune responses. A fine balance of C activation and regulation mediates the elimination of invading pathogens and the protection of the host from excessive C deposition on healthy tissues. If this

  7. Brain Facts: A Primer on the Brain and Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Joseph, Ed.

    This booklet describes only a glimpse of what is known about the nervous system, brain disorders, and the exciting avenues of research that promise new therapies for many of the most devastating neurological and psychiatric diseases. The neuron, brain development, sensation and perception, learning and memory, movement, advances and challenges in…

  8. Chikungunya Virus and Central Nervous System Infections in Children, India

    OpenAIRE

    Lewthwaite, Penny; Vasanthapuram, Ravi; Osborne, Jane C.; Begum, Ashia; Plank, Jenna L.M.; Shankar, M. Veera; Hewson, Roger; Desai, Anita; Beeching, Nick J.; Ravikumar, Ravi; Solomon, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus best known for causing fever, rash, arthralgia, and occasional neurologic disease. By using real-time reverse transcription?PCR, we detected CHIKV in plasma samples of 8 (14%) of 58 children with suspected central nervous system infection in Bellary, India. CHIKV was also detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of 3 children.

  9. Is there anything "autonomous" in the nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasia-Filho, Alberto A

    2006-03-01

    The terms "autonomous" or "vegetative" are currently used to identify one part of the nervous system composed of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and gastrointestinal divisions. However, the concepts that are under the literal meaning of these words can lead to misconceptions about the actual nervous organization. Some clear-cut examples indicate that no element shows "autonomy" in an integrated body. Nor are they solely "passive" or generated "without mental elaboration." In addition, to be "not consciously controlled" is not a unique attribute of these components. Another term that could be proposed is "homeostatic nervous system" for providing conditions to the execution of behaviors and maintenance of the internal milieu within normal ranges. But, not all homeostatic conditions are under the direct influence of these groups of neurons, and some situations clearly impose different ranges for some variables that are adaptative (or hazardous) in the tentative of successfully coping with challenging situations. Finally, the name "nervous system for visceral control" emerges as another possibility. Unfortunately, it is not only "viscera" that represent end targets for this specific innervation. Therefore, it is commented that no quite adequate term for the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and gastrointestinal divisions has already been coined. The basic condition for a new term is that it should clearly imply the whole integrated and collaborative functions that the components have in an indivisible organism, including the neuroendocrine, immunological, and respiratory systems. Until that, we can call these parts simply by their own names and avoid terms that are more "convenient" than appropriate.

  10. The autonomic nervous system regulates postprandial hepatic lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinstroop, Eveline; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Foppen, Ewout; Wortel, Joke; Kooijman, Sander; Berbée, Jimmy F. P.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2013-01-01

    The liver is a key organ in controlling glucose and lipid metabolism during feeding and fasting. In addition to hormones and nutrients, inputs from the autonomic nervous system are also involved in fine-tuning hepatic metabolic regulation. Previously, we have shown in rats that during fasting an

  11. Central nervous system affecting drugs and road traffic accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These accidents (RTA) have been attributed to various causes including driving under the influence of drugs that affect the central nervous system (CNS). Objective: This study was aimed at determining the role of CNS affecting drugs in the causation of RTA among these motorcyclists and also to make recommendations ...

  12. Primary granulomatous angeitis of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrena, R.; Sevilla, G.; Olivan, M.; Gutierrez, P.; Guelbenzo, S.; Ayuso, T.

    1995-01-01

    A case of a young man with primary granulomatous angeitis of the central nervous system manifesting as a seizure is presented. The patient did not show previous pathology. Laboratory tests, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed, but the definitive diagnosis was made only by means of brain biopsy. Administration of steroids showed and improvement in symptoms. 8 refs

  13. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolicki, L.; Bak, M.; Grieb, P.

    1996-01-01

    The article presents the current results of MR spectroscopy in evaluation of central nervous system. This method is useful in examination of brain ischemia, brain tumors, epilepsy; white matter disorders and degeneration diseases. MR spectroscopy is unique technique for in vivo examination of the brain in physiological and pathophysiological states. (author)

  14. Sino-orbital aspergillosis with central nervous system complication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A central nervous system (CNS) complication (cerebral abscess) was diagnosed following seizures in the patient. The patient died a few days later. Conclusion: The diagnosis of aspergillosis of the orbit was only made from fungal culture after the patient's death. It requires a high index of suspicion to make a diagnosis of ...

  15. Some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Spondias mombin (SP) was evaluated for some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effect in albino wistar rats and mice. The extract was administered to pre-weighed mice (20-35 g), divided into five groups of five mice each at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for the ...

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, M.S. van der; Valk, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this article a review is given of the use of magnetic resonance imaging for the central nervous system. An example of the screening of the population for multiple scelerosis is given. A good preliminary examination and the supply of relevant information to the person which performs the imaging is necessary. (R.B.). 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. Some Central Nervous System Activities of Nerium Oleander Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the activity of 50 % hydroalcohol flower extract of Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. on the locomotor activity of mice ...

  18. Thiophene Scaffold as Prospective Central Nervous System Agent: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, Aakash; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Aggarwal, Swati; Kaushik, Dhirender; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Heterocyclic compounds are extensively dispersed in nature and are vital for life. Various investigational approaches towards Structural Activity Relationship that focus upon the exploration of optimized candidates have become vastly important. Literature studies tell that for a series of compounds that are imperative in industrial and medicinal chemistry, thiophene acts as parent. Among various classes of heterocyclic compounds that have potential central nervous system activity, thiophene is the most important one. In the largely escalating chemical world of heterocyclic compounds showing potential pharmacological character, thiophene nucleus has been recognized as the budding entity. Seventeen Papers were included in this review article to define the central nervous system potential of thiophene. This review article enlightens the rationalized use and scope of thiophene scaffold as novel central nervous system activity such as anticonvulsant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5/p25) inhibitors, CNS depressant, capability to block norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake by their respective transporters etc. The Finding of this review confirm the importance of thiophene scaffold as potential central nervous system agents. From this outcome, ideas for future molecular modifications leading to the novel derivatives with better constructive pharmacological potential may be derived.

  19. Spontaneous nervous system concussion in dogs: A description of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In human medicine, central nervous system (CNS) concussion is defined as a transient neurological dysfunction following a traumatic event, without evidence of structural abnormalities of the affected region on advanced diagnostic imaging. Depending on the anatomical region involved, three forms of concussive ...

  20. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  1. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carl Ludwig Schleich (1859-1922) was an anaesthetist and a surgeon who for the first time emphasized the role of neuroglia in brain function. In an era that was dominated by the idea that neurons alone were functional units of the nervous system and that glial cells were a mere glue holding neurons in place, Schleich ...

  2. [Imaging diagnosis of central nervous system involvement in panarteritis nodosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhagen, K; Stoppe, G; Meyer, G J; Heintz, P; Hundeshagen, H; Deicher, H

    1989-01-01

    Central nervous system involvement of periarteritis nodosa is a rare complication of this disease. The diagnosis of CNS manifestation in vasculitis has been improved by using imaging techniques (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography). A case of polyarteritis nodosa with CNS involvement is presented; the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography is discussed.

  3. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System - An Introduction to Glial Cells. Medha S Rajadhyaksha Yasmin Khan. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 4-10 ...

  4. Responses of the Autonomic Nervous System to Flavors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de René A.; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory flavor perception plays an important role in decision-making, for instance for food products. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses, such as heart rate and skin conductance responses, towards such flavor stimuli may provide insights into processes related to consumer acceptance

  5. Innate immune responses in central nervous system inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, Bente; Owens, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), innate glial cell responses play a key role in determining the outcome of leukocyte infiltration. Access of leukocytes is controlled via complex interactions with glial components of the blood-brain barrier that include angiotensin II...

  6. Role of semaphorins in the adult nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Joris; Verhaagen, J.

    2003-01-01

    In the developing nervous system, extending axons are directed towards their appropriate targets by a myriad of attractive and repulsive guidance cues. Work in the past decade has significantly advanced our understanding of these molecules and has made it increasingly clear that their function is

  7. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Schot, L P

    1982-01-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been localized in different parts of the hydra nervous system. Immunoreactivity occurs in nerve perikarya and processes in the ectoderm of the lower peduncle region near the basal disk, in the ectoderm of the hypostome and in the ectoderm of the tentacles...

  8. Imaging in the infectious diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, F.; Gandon, Y.; Heautot, J.F.; Montagne, C.; Michelet, C.; Carsin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The basic signs of the major bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycotic infections of the central nervous system with CT and MRI are described. The problems arising from the presence of the HIV virus are emphasized and the attitude required according to the findings of imaging, is defined [fr

  9. Spontaneous Electrical Activity in the Nervous System and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to examine the effects of biogenic amines on the spontaneous electrical activity of the nervous system in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The activity recorded from different segments of the ventral nerve cord differed in the frequency and number of spike categories firing. The activity was highest ...

  10. Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates

  11. Central nervous system effects in acute thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Tai; Huang, Chin-Chang; Kuo, Hung-Chou; Wang, Hsuan-Min; Shen, Wu-Shiun; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chu, Nai-Shin

    2006-03-01

    We report the central nervous system manifestations, neuropsychological studies and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings of two patients with acute thallium intoxication. Neurologically the patients suffered from confusion, disorientation, and hallucination in the acute stage, followed by anxiety, depression, lack of attention, and memory impairment, in addition to peripheral neuropathy. Neuropsychological tests revealed an impairment of memory function, including reversed digital span, memory registration, memory recall, memory recognition, similarity, proverb reasoning, and verbal fluency. High concentrations of thallium were found in the urine, blood, and drinking water of these two patients. Brain MRI showed lesions in the corpus striatum in one patient. During the follow-up periods, the clinical manifestations and neuropsychological studies showed a slowly progressive improvement, and a follow-up brain MRI 1.5 months later demonstrated a resolution of the lesions. We conclude that thallium intoxication might induce encephalopathy, and brain MRI studies demonstrated the acute-stage brain lesions in a severe intoxicated patient. In addition, neuropsychological tests also confirmed memory deficits, although the brain lesions in the corpus striatum might resolve.

  12. THYROID HORMONES AND NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SITE-OF-ACTION AND RELEVANCE OF AN ANIMAL MODEL OF DEVELOPMENTAL HYPYOTHYROXINEMIA-INDUCED HEARING LOSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research demonstrated that perinatal exposure to Aroclor 1254 (A1254) resulted in both hypothyroxinemia (HPX) and a low-frequency ototoxicity (hearing loss). We hypothesized that the ototoxicity resulted from A1254- induced HPX during the postnatal critical period of c...

  13. Central nervous system Toll-like receptor expression in response to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelination disease in resistant and susceptible mouse strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turrin Nicolas P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In immunopathological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS, genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the initiation and progression of the disease are often discussed. The Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelination disease (TMEV-IDD model used to study MS reflects this: genetically susceptible mice infected intra-cerebrally with TMEV develop a chronic demyelination disease. TMEV-IDD can be induced in resistant mouse strains by inducing innate immunity with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Interestingly, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is the cognate receptor for LPS and its activation can induces up-regulation of other TLRs, such as TLR7 (the receptor for TMEV and 9, known to be involved in autoimmunity. Up-regulation of TLRs could be involved in precipitating an autoimmune susceptible state. Consequently, we looked at TLR expression in the susceptible (SJL/J and resistant (C57BL/6 strains of mice infected with TMEV. The resistant mice were induced to develop TMEV-IDD by two LPS injections following TMEV infection. Results Both strains were found to up-regulate multiple TLRs (TLR2, 7 and 9 following the TMEV infection. Expression of these TLRs and of viral mRNA was significantly greater in infected SJL/J mice. The susceptible SJL/J mice showed up-regulation of TLR3, 6 and 8, which was not seen in C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion Expression of TLRs by susceptible mice and the up-regulation of the TLRs in resistant mice could participate in priming the mice toward an autoimmune state and develop TMEV-IDD. This could have implications on therapies that target TLRs to prevent the emergence of conditions such as MS in patients at risk for the disease.

  14. Temporal encoding in a nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zane N Aldworth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which temporal encoding may be implemented by single neurons in the cercal sensory system of the house cricket Acheta domesticus. We found that these neurons exhibit a greater-than-expected coding capacity, due in part to an increased precision in brief patterns of action potentials. We developed linear and non-linear models for decoding the activity of these neurons. We found that the stimuli associated with short-interval patterns of spikes (ISIs of 8 ms or less could be predicted better by second-order models as compared to linear models. Finally, we characterized the difference between these linear and second-order models in a low-dimensional subspace, and showed that modification of the linear models along only a few dimensions improved their predictive power to parity with the second order models. Together these results show that single neurons are capable of using temporal patterns of spikes as fundamental symbols in their neural code, and that they communicate specific stimulus distributions to subsequent neural structures.

  15. 3H-digoxin distribution in the nervous system in ventricular tachycardia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazer, G.; Binnion, P.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of 3H-digoxin has been measured in a large number of tissues from the central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous system after the induction of ventricular tachycardia by infusing digoxin into anesthetized dogs. In most parts of the nervous system the tissue digoxin concentration was close to that in the cerebrospinal fluid. Digoxin accumulation in the choroid plexus probably represented a labeling of adenosine triphosphatase. There was a markedly higher concentration of digoxin in the neurohypophysis than in the adenohypophysis, and the very high levels in the neurohypophysis are hard to explain. There may be a relationship between the pituitary and the hypothalamic digoxin levels, although the concentration in the latter was unimpressive. The fornix showed a modest increase in 3H-digoxin concentration and may play a role, as its efferent discharge goes to the hypothalamus. The high concentration of digoxin in the area postrema suggests that this central nervous system structure is responsible, at least in part, for producing digoxin-induced cardiac arrhythmias. It may act as a sensing organ sensitive to blood digoxin concentration. Either it is the only central nervous structure implicated, or it is involved together with the fornix-hypothalamus-hypophysis pathways. Further proof is given for the importance of the autonomic nervous system in cardiac arrhythmias by the high digoxin levels in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion and adrenal medulla

  16. 3H-digoxin distribution in the nervous system in ventricular tachycardia. [Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazer, G.; Binnion, P.

    The distribution of 3H-digoxin has been measured in a large number of tissues from the central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous system after the induction of ventricular tachycardia by infusing digoxin into anesthetized dogs. In most parts of the nervous system the tissue digoxin concentration was close to that in the cerebrospinal fluid. Digoxin accumulation in the choroid plexus probably represented a labeling of adenosine triphosphatase. There was a markedly higher concentration of digoxin in the neurohypophysis than in the adenohypophysis, and the very high levels in the neurohypophysis are hard to explain. There may be a relationship between the pituitary and the hypothalamic digoxin levels, although the concentration in the latter was unimpressive. The fornix showed a modest increase in 3H-digoxin concentration and may play a role, as its efferent discharge goes to the hypothalamus. The high concentration of digoxin in the area postrema suggests that this central nervous system structure is responsible, at least in part, for producing digoxin-induced cardiac arrhythmias. It may act as a sensing organ sensitive to blood digoxin concentration. Either it is the only central nervous structure implicated, or it is involved together with the fornix-hypothalamus-hypophysis pathways. Further proof is given for the importance of the autonomic nervous system in cardiac arrhythmias by the high digoxin levels in the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion and adrenal medulla.

  17. Diverse roles of neurotensin agonists in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eBoules

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NT is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease, pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and Parkinson’s disease.

  18. Activation of mTor Signaling by Gene Transduction to Induce Axon Regeneration in the Central Nervous System Following Neural Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    lesion staining is reduced to about 20% in the Tau- Tom control. Both p70S6K (CA) and NLS-p70S6K (CA) induce new axon growth and restore the extent of...TH innervation to 40.5 and 42.1 percent respectively. The latter is significantly different than the Tau- Tom control (p = 0.027), but the former is...not, due to the higher standard error. In measures of the number of TH-positive axons in the MFB (B) and the number Tau- Tom -positive axons in the

  19. Functional structure and dynamics of the human nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The status of an effort to define the directions needed to take in extending pilot models is reported. These models are needed to perform closed-loop (man-in-the-loop) feedback flight control system designs and to develop cockpit display requirements. The approach taken is to develop a hypothetical working model of the human nervous system by reviewing the current literature in neurology and psychology and to develop a computer model of this hypothetical working model.

  20. Measles virus and associated central nervous system sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Renee; Bonthius, Daniel J

    2012-09-01

    Worldwide, measles remains one of the most deadly vaccine-preventable diseases. In the United States, enrollment in the public schools requires that each child receives 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine before entry, essentially eliminating this once endemic disease. Recent outbreaks of measles in the United States have been associated with importation of measles virus from other countries and subsequent transmission to intentionally undervaccinated children. The central nervous system complications of measles can occur within days or years of acute infection and are often severe. These include primary measles encephalitis, acute postinfectious measles encephalomyelitis, measles inclusion body encephalitis, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. These measles-associated central nervous system diseases differ in their pathogenesis and pathologic effects. However, all involve complex brain-virus-immune system interactions, and all can lead to severe and permanent brain injury. Despite better understanding of the clinical presentations and pathogenesis of these illnesses, effective treatments remain elusive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Multifactorial role of Peripheral Nervous System in Bone Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkiatas, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Pakos, Emilios E.; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis; Gelalis, Ioannis; Vekris, Marios; Korompilias, Anastasios

    2017-09-01

    Bone alters its metabolic and anabolic activities in response to the variety of systemic and local factors such as hormones and growth factors. Classical observations describing abundance of the nerve fibers in bone also predict a paradigm that the nervous system influences bone metabolism and anabolism. Since 1916 several investigators tried to analyze the effect of peripheral nervous system in bone growth and most of them advocated for the positive effect of innervation in the bones of growing organisms. Moreover, neuronal tissue controls bone formation and remodeling. The purpose of this mini-review is to present the most recent data concerning the influence of innervation on bone growth, the current understanding of the skeletal innervation and their proposed physiological effects on bone metabolism as well as the implication of denervation in human skeletal biology in the developing organism since the peripheral neural trauma as well as peripheral neuropathies are common and they have impact on the growing skeleton.

  2. Pazopanib efficacy in recurrent central nervous system hemangiopericytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apra, Caroline; Alentorn, Agusti; Mokhtari, Karima; Kalamarides, Michel; Sanson, Marc

    2018-04-26

    There is currently no treatment for solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas (SFT/H) of the central nervous system recurring after multiple surgeries and radiotherapies. The NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion is the hallmark of these tumors, and upregulates Early Growth Factor, activating several growth pathways. We treated two patients presenting pluri-recurrent meningeal SFT/H with Pazopanib, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We analyzed the exome and RNA sequencing data of one of them and, in addition to another meningeal SFT/H, compared it to the transcriptomic profiling of 5 systemic SFT/H. A dramatic clinical and radiological response was observed in both cases, respectively 84 and 43% decrease after 3 months. As a comparison, Pazopanib has only a stabilizing effect in systemic SFT/H. Indeed, central nervous system SFT/H show overexpression of different tyrosine kinases targeted by Pazopanib. Two consecutive patients with untreatable central nervous system SFT/H showed a spectacular partial response to Pazopanib, an unprecedented result in SFT/H. This result could be explained by differences in expression profiles and calls for a confirmation in a larger cohort of patients.

  3. Direct demonstration of the infiltration of murine central nervous system by Pgp-1/CD44high CD45RB(low) CD4+ T cells that induce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeine, R; Owens, T

    1992-01-01

    In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), autoimmune T cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) and initiate demyelinating pathology. We have used flow cytometry to directly analyse the migration to the CNS of MBP-reactive CD4+ T cells labelled with a lipophilic fluorescent dye...

  4. Neural Mobilization Treatment Decreases Glial Cells and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in the Central Nervous System in Rats with Neuropathic Pain Induced by CCI in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardini, Aline Carolina; Dos Santos, Fabio Martinez; da Silva, Joyce Teixeira; de Oliveira, Mara Evany; Martins, Daniel Oliveira; Chacur, Marucia

    2017-01-01

    Background . Glial cells are implicated in the development of chronic pain and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) released from activated microglia contributes to the nociceptive transmission. Neural mobilization (NM) technique is a method clinically effective in reducing pain sensitivity. Here we examined the involvement of glial cells and BDNF expression in the thalamus and midbrain after NM treatment in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI). CCI was induced and rats were subsequently submitted to 10 sessions of NM, every other day, beginning 14 days after CCI. Thalamus and midbrain were analyzed for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), microglial cell OX-42, and BDNF using Immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays. Results . Thalamus and midbrain of CCI group showed increases in GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF expression compared with control group and, in contrast, showed decreases in GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF after NM when compared with CCI group. The decreased immunoreactivity for GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF in ventral posterolateral nucleus in thalamus and the periaqueductal gray in midbrain was shown by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions . These findings may improve the knowledge about the involvement of astrocytes, microglia, and BDNF in the chronic pain and show that NM treatment, which alleviates neuropathic pain, affects glial cells and BDNF expression.

  5. Brain inflammation induced by severe asphyxia in newborn pigs and the impact of alternative resuscitation strategies on the newborn central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannevig, Ingrid; Solevåg, Anne Lee; Sonerud, Tonje; Saugstad, Ola Didrik; Nakstad, Britt

    2013-02-01

    We compared the current guidelines for neonatal resuscitation with alternative measures and aimed to find out whether this modulated brain inflammation. Progressive asphyxia was induced in 94 newborn pigs until asystole. With the reference being resuscitation guidelines, 30 s of initial positive-pressure ventilation before compression (C) and ventilation (V) (C:V; 3:1) in 21% oxygen, pigs were randomized to (i) ventilation for 30, 60, or 90 s before chest compressions; (ii) C:V ratios of 3:1, 9:3, or 15:2; or (iii) 21% or 100% oxygen. Concentrations of inflammatory markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and gene expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were measured for different interventions. In CSF, S100 was higher with 90 s than with 30 or 60 s of initial positive-pressure ventilation, whereas concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were higher with 30 than with 60 s. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were higher with 30 than with 60 s. No other comparison between ratios and oxygen concentrations used yielded significant results. With respect to signs of brain inflammation, newly born pigs at asystole should be ventilated for longer than 30 s before chest compressions start. C:V ratios of 9:3 and 15:2 as compared with 3:1, or air instead of pure oxygen, did not modulate inflammatory markers.

  6. Mesoscopic organization reveals the constraints governing Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Pan

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in biology is to understand how activity at the cellular level of neurons, as a result of their mutual interactions, leads to the observed behavior of an organism responding to a variety of environmental stimuli. Investigating the intermediate or mesoscopic level of organization in the nervous system is a vital step towards understanding how the integration of micro-level dynamics results in macro-level functioning. The coordination of many different co-occurring processes at this level underlies the command and control of overall network activity. In this paper, we have considered the somatic nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for which the entire neuronal connectivity diagram is known. We focus on the organization of the system into modules, i.e., neuronal groups having relatively higher connection density compared to that of the overall network. We show that this mesoscopic feature cannot be explained exclusively in terms of considerations such as, optimizing for resource constraints (viz., total wiring cost and communication efficiency (i.e., network path length. Even including information about the genetic relatedness of the cells cannot account for the observed modular structure. Comparison with other complex networks designed for efficient transport (of signals or resources implies that neuronal networks form a distinct class. This suggests that the principal function of the network, viz., processing of sensory information resulting in appropriate motor response, may be playing a vital role in determining the connection topology. Using modular spectral analysis we make explicit the intimate relation between function and structure in the nervous system. This is further brought out by identifying functionally critical neurons purely on the basis of patterns of intra- and inter-modular connections. Our study reveals how the design of the nervous system reflects several constraints, including

  7. S-nitrosoglutathione induces ciliary neurotrophic factor expression in astrocytes, which has implications to protect the central nervous system under pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paintlia, Manjeet K; Paintlia, Ajaib S; Singh, Avtar K; Singh, Inderjit

    2013-02-08

    Accumulating evidence suggests that reactive astrogliosis has beneficial and detrimental outcomes in various CNS disorders, but the mechanism behind this dichotomy is unclear. Recent advances in this direction suggested that NO signaling is critical to regulate the outcomes of reactive astrogliosis in vivo. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, we here investigated the effect of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO; a physiological NO donor) in astrocytes in vitro settings. GSNO enhanced the expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurotrophic factors including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The enhanced CNTF expression in GSNO-treated astrocytes was ascribed to NO-mediated sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling. It was associated with p38 MAPK-dependent increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ transactivation. In addition, the chromatin accessibility of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ accompanied with ATF2 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) was enhanced across the CNTF gene promoter in GSNO treated astrocytes. Interestingly, secreted CNTF was responsible for increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in GSNO-treated astrocytes in an autocrine manner via a JAK2- and STAT3-dependent mechanism. In addition, CNTF secreted by GSNO-treated astrocytes enhanced the differentiation of immature oligodendrocytes in vitro. These effects of GSNO were consistent with an endogenously produced NO in astrocytes stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. We conclude that NO signaling induces CNTF expression in astrocytes that favors the beneficial outcomes of reactive astrogliosis in vivo. Our data suggest that the endogenously produced NO or its exogenous source has potential to modulate the outcomes of reactive astrogliosis to protect CNS under pathological conditions.

  8. S-Nitrosoglutathione Induces Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Expression in Astrocytes, Which Has Implications to Protect the Central Nervous System under Pathological Conditions*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paintlia, Manjeet K.; Paintlia, Ajaib S.; Singh, Avtar K.; Singh, Inderjit

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that reactive astrogliosis has beneficial and detrimental outcomes in various CNS disorders, but the mechanism behind this dichotomy is unclear. Recent advances in this direction suggested that NO signaling is critical to regulate the outcomes of reactive astrogliosis in vivo. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, we here investigated the effect of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO; a physiological NO donor) in astrocytes in vitro settings. GSNO enhanced the expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurotrophic factors including ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The enhanced CNTF expression in GSNO-treated astrocytes was ascribed to NO-mediated sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling. It was associated with p38 MAPK-dependent increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ transactivation. In addition, the chromatin accessibility of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ accompanied with ATF2 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) was enhanced across the CNTF gene promoter in GSNO treated astrocytes. Interestingly, secreted CNTF was responsible for increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in GSNO-treated astrocytes in an autocrine manner via a JAK2- and STAT3-dependent mechanism. In addition, CNTF secreted by GSNO-treated astrocytes enhanced the differentiation of immature oligodendrocytes in vitro. These effects of GSNO were consistent with an endogenously produced NO in astrocytes stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. We conclude that NO signaling induces CNTF expression in astrocytes that favors the beneficial outcomes of reactive astrogliosis in vivo. Our data suggest that the endogenously produced NO or its exogenous source has potential to modulate the outcomes of reactive astrogliosis to protect CNS under pathological conditions. PMID:23264628

  9. Novel mechanisms of central nervous system damage in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy E Hazleton

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Joy E Hazleton1, Joan W Berman1,2, Eliseo A Eugenin11Department of Pathology and 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAAbstract: Human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection of the central nervous system is an early event after primary infection, resulting in motor and cognitive defects in a significant number of individuals despite successful antiretroviral therapy. The pathology of the infected brain is characterized by enhanced leukocyte infiltration, microglial activation and nodules, aberrant expression of inflammatory factors, neuronal dysregulation and loss, and blood–brain barrier disruption. Months to years following the primary infection, these central nervous system insults result in a spectrum of motor and cognitive dysfunction, ranging from mild impairment to frank dementia. The mechanisms that mediate impairment are still not fully defined. In this review we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms that facilitate impairment and new data that implicate intercellular communication systems, gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, as mediators of human immunodeficiency virus-1 toxicity and infection within the central nervous system. These data suggest potential targets for novel therapeutics.Keywords: AIDS, dementia, inflammation, gap junctions, nanotubes, chemokines

  10. Chagas' disease and the involvement of the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Ademir Batista

    2003-06-01

    Chagas' disease is a major endemic disease in Latin America and a great cause for concern due to its high incidence: it afflicts 16 to 18 million individuals and places over 90 million people at risk of infection. At present, five mechanisms can be proposed to explain the pathogenesis of chronic Chagas cardiopathy: 1. direct lesion of the tissue by Trypanosoma cruzi; 2. dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (neurogenic concept); 3. microvascular disease; 4. immunologic reaction; 5. alterations in the extracellular matrix. The neurogenic concept is the most attractive explanation for the pathogenesis of chronic Chagas cardiopathy through the involvement of the autonomic nervous system, an issue that has been prominent ever since Chagas first initiated research in the field. Köberle, in his pioneering studies on the role of the autonomic nervous system in Chagas patients in the 1950s, adopted the technique of neuron counts, whereby he registered a reduction in parasympathetic nerve cells, and thus considered Chagas cardiopathy a "parasympathetic reduction" with predominance of the sympathetic. In the 1960s, systematic studies on autonomic function, organized by Professor Dalmo Amorim, were initiated in the School of Medicine in Ribeirão Preto. Several aspects of cardiac autonomic control were later described independently by teams in Brazil (Ribeirão Preto and Brasília), Argentina (Cordoba) and Venezuela (Mérida). In general, the studies performed in Ribeirăo Preto by Amorim and Marin Neto and in Brasília by Junqueira Jr. reflected the functional involvement of the parasympathetic system, while the studies performed in Córdoba were linked with the view of cardiovascular sympathetic dysfunction. In Brazil, the involvement of the sympathetic system, with relation to the functional aspect of sympathetic denervation, is well characterized by Marin Neto through the assessment of heart rate using the tilt test in both Chagas and control groups. Further

  11. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Cabral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a, and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals.

  12. Nervous system and receptors. Chapter 3.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumariage, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The literature is reviewed for the effects of sulphur-containing radioprotective agents on the nervous system and receptors. Studies of the neurological changes observed in alert animals and their modification by anaesthetics have indicated that a direct effect is exerted on the cortical and subcortical structures. Some local anaesthetic effects may result from nerve endings being squeezed by the edematous papule formed on the site of the injection. MEA and, to a lesser extent, cystamine, competitively block the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting the action of acetylcholine on the motor end-plate. The effects of radioprotective substances on the autonomic nervous system in different species have also been considered. The sensitivity of the chemo- and pressor-sensitive endings of the aortic branch, the carotids and the lungs is not affected by the administration of radioprotective agents. (U.K.)

  13. Neurotropic Enterovirus Infections in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-I Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses are a group of positive-sense single stranded viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. Most enteroviruses infect humans from the gastrointestinal tract and cause mild symptoms. However, several enteroviruses can invade the central nervous system (CNS and result in various neurological symptoms that are correlated to mortality associated with enteroviral infections. In recent years, large outbreaks of enteroviruses occurred worldwide. Therefore, these neurotropic enteroviruses have been deemed as re-emerging pathogens. Although these viruses are becoming large threats to public health, our understanding of these viruses, especially for non-polio enteroviruses, is limited. In this article, we review recent advances in the trafficking of these pathogens from the peripheral to the central nervous system, compare their cell tropism, and discuss the effects of viral infections in their host neuronal cells.

  14. Pathophysiology of Resistant Hypertension: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Tsioufis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension (RH is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among the characteristics of patients with RH, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and aldosterone excess are covering a great area of the mosaic of RH phenotype. Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is present in all these underlying conditions, supporting its crucial role in the pathophysiology of antihypertensive treatment resistance. Current clinical and experimental knowledge points towards an impact of several factors on SNS activation, namely, insulin resistance, adipokines, endothelial dysfunction, cyclic intermittent hypoxaemia, aldosterone effects on central nervous system, chemoreceptors, and baroreceptors dysregulation. The further investigation and understanding of the mechanisms leading to SNS activation could reveal novel therapeutic targets and expand our treatment options in the challenging management of RH.

  15. Central nervous system histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Ignacio; Minces, Pablo; De Cristofano, Analía M; Negroni, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Neurohistoplasmosis is a rare disease, most prevalent in immunosuppressed patients, secondary to disseminated disease with a high mortality rate when diagnosis and treatment are delayed. We report a previously healthy 12 year old girl, from a bat infested region of Tucuman Province, Argentine Republic, who developed meningoencephalitis due to Histoplasma capsulatum. Eighteen months prior to admission the patient started with headaches and intermittent fever. The images of the central nervous system showed meningoencephalitis suggestive of tuberculosis. She received antibiotics and tuberculostatic medications without improvement. Liposomal amphotericin B was administered for six weeks. The patient's clinical status improved remarkably. Finally the culture of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for micelial form of Histoplasma capsulatum. The difficulties surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of neurohistoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients are discussed in this manuscript, as it also intends to alert to the presence of a strain of Histoplasma capsulatum with affinity for the central nervous system. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  16. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Agustina; López Soto, Eduardo J; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perelló, Mario

    2017-03-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals.

  17. Chemokines and chemokine receptors in inflammation of the nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, D; Han, Yong-Chang; Rani, M R

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on the production of chemokines by resident glial cells of the nervous system. We describe studies in two distinct categories of inflammation within the nervous system: immune-mediated inflammation as seen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) or multiple sclerosis...... (MS) and post-traumatic inflammation. We provide evidence that chemokines play a role in amplifying the inflammatory reaction in EAE (and, probably, MS). In the context of neural trauma, chemokines appear to be primary stimuli for leukocyte recruitment. Strikingly, expression of monocyte...... that produce aggregates of simultaneous stimuli. These characteristics, in turn, mirror the expression patterns of the endogenous genes: MCP-1 is expressed under a variety of circumstances, while IP-10 appears primarily during immune-mediated processes that feature exposure of resident neuroglia to high levels...

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of central nervous system haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, M.; Hennessy, O.

    1993-01-01

    The variable magnetic resonance imaging appearances of central nervous system haemorrhage, both intra- and extra-axial, are described. These will vary with the type of image contrast (T1 or T2 weighting), the nature of the imaging sequence (spin-echo or gradient-echo) and the time from onset of haemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful technique for imaging haemorrhage in the central nervous system as it yields temporal information about haematoma development, and it is the only non-invasive means of imaging intraspinal haemorrhage. However, in the imaging of haematomas within 24 h of onset and in subarachnoid haemorrhage computed tomography is the investigation of choice. 13 refs., 6 figs

  19. Echography of congenital malformations of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toirac Romani, Carlos Andres; Salmon Cruzata, Acelia; Musle Acosta, Mirelvis; Rosales Fargie, Yamile; Dosouto Infante, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A descriptive and prospective study was conducted in 173 pregnant women attended at the Provincial Department of Clinical Genetics of Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2000 to December, 2004, to identify congenital malformations of the central nervous system detected by means of echography. The most frequent malformation was the hydrocephaly, followed by the fusion defects of the spine, associated with the hydrocephaly and the absence of cranial cavity. There was a prevalence of altered alpha fetoprotein and of elevated amniotic fluid

  20. Pathophysiology of Resistant Hypertension: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Tsioufis, Costas; Kordalis, Athanasios; Flessas, Dimitris; Anastasopoulos, Ioannis; Tsiachris, Dimitris; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-01-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among the characteristics of patients with RH, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and aldosterone excess are covering a great area of the mosaic of RH phenotype. Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is present in all these underlying conditions, supporting its crucial role in the pathophysiology of antihypertensive treatment resistance. Current clinical and experimental knowledge po...

  1. Acute Central Nervous System Complications in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytan, Birol; Evim, Melike Sezgin; Güler, Salih; Güneş, Adalet Meral; Okan, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    The outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia has improved because of intensive chemotherapy and supportive care. The frequency of adverse events has also increased, but the data related to acute central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment are sparse. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these complications and to determine their long term outcome. We retrospectively analyzed the hospital reports of 323 children with de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia from a 13-year period for acute neurological complications. The central nervous system complications of leukemic involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and post-treatment late-onset encephalopathy, and neurocognitive defects were excluded. Twenty-three of 323 children (7.1%) suffered from central nervous system complications during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. The majority of these complications (n = 13/23; 56.5%) developed during the induction period. The complications included posterior reversible encephalopathy (n = 6), fungal abscess (n = 5), cerebrovascular lesions (n = 5), syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (n = 4), and methotrexate encephalopathy (n = 3). Three of these 23 children (13%) died of central nervous system complications, one from an intracranial fungal abscess and the others from intracranial thrombosis. Seven of the survivors (n = 7/20; 35%) became epileptic and three of them had also developed mental and motor retardation. Acute central neurological complications are varied and require an urgent approach for proper diagnosis and treatment. Collaboration among the hematologist, radiologist, neurologist, microbiologist, and neurosurgeon is essential to prevent fatal outcome and serious morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Managing Atypical and Typical herpetic central nervous system infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cag, Yasemin; Erdem, Hakan; Leib, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    There have been many studies pertaining to the management of herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME), but the majority of them have focussed on virologically unconfirmed cases or included only small sample sizes. We have conducted a multicentre study aimed at providing management strategies for HME. O...... the subtle nature of HME, CSF HSV PCR, EEG and MRI data should be collected for all patients with a central nervous system infection....

  3. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur; Toorn, Ronald van

    2009-01-01

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  4. Central nervous system activity of Illicium verum fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouksey, Divya; Upmanyu, Neeraj; Pawar, R S

    2013-11-01

    To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum (I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system. The TLC and HPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum. Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study. The powdered material was successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using a Soxhlet extractor. Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines. The CNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity. The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each. The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight. The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol. Toxicity studies reported 2 000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and 1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic dose Intraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of 200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantly alter muscles coordination activity. The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of 200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts. The observation suggested that the extracts of I. verum possess potent CNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Space radiation risks to the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Alp, Murat; Sulzman, Frank M.; Wang, Minli

    2014-07-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) risks which include during space missions and lifetime risks due to space radiation exposure are of concern for long-term exploration missions to Mars or other destinations. Possible CNS risks during a mission are altered cognitive function, including detriments in short-term memory, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, which may affect performance and human health. The late CNS risks are possible neurological disorders such as premature aging, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other dementia. Radiation safety requirements are intended to prevent all clinically significant acute risks. However the definition of clinically significant CNS risks and their dependences on dose, dose-rate and radiation quality is poorly understood at this time. For late CNS effects such as increased risk of AD, the occurrence of the disease is fatal with mean time from diagnosis of early stage AD to death about 8 years. Therefore if AD risk or other late CNS risks from space radiation occur at mission relevant doses, they would naturally be included in the overall acceptable risk of exposure induced death (REID) probability for space missions. Important progress has been made in understanding CNS risks due to space radiation exposure, however in general the doses used in experimental studies have been much higher than the annual galactic cosmic ray (GCR) dose (∼0.1 Gy/y at solar maximum and ∼0.2 Gy/y at solar minimum with less than 50% from HZE particles). In this report we summarize recent space radiobiology studies of CNS effects from particle accelerators simulating space radiation using experimental models, and make a critical assessment of their relevance relative to doses and dose-rates to be incurred on a Mars mission. Prospects for understanding dose, dose-rate and radiation quality dependencies of CNS effects and extrapolation to human risk assessments are described.

  6. Interaction of Plant Extracts with Central Nervous System Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant extracts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various maladies including neurological diseases. Several central nervous system receptors have been demonstrated to interact with plant extracts and components affecting the pharmacology and thereby potentially playing a role in human disease and treatment. For instance, extracts from Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort targeted several CNS receptors. Similarly, extracts from Piper nigrum, Stephania cambodica, and Styphnolobium japonicum exerted inhibition of agonist-induced activity of the human neurokinin-1 receptor. Methods: Different methods have been established for receptor binding and functional assays based on radioactive and fluorescence-labeled ligands in cell lines and primary cell cultures. Behavioral studies of the effect of plant extracts have been conducted in rodents. Plant extracts have further been subjected to mood and cognition studies in humans. Results: Mechanisms of action at molecular and cellular levels have been elucidated for medicinal plants in support of standardization of herbal products and identification of active extract compounds. In several studies, plant extracts demonstrated affinity to a number of CNS receptors in parallel indicating the complexity of this interaction. In vivo studies showed modifications of CNS receptor affinity and behavioral responses in animal models after treatment with medicinal herbs. Certain plant extracts demonstrated neuroprotection and enhanced cognitive performance, respectively, when evaluated in humans. Noteworthy, the penetration of plant extracts and their protective effect on the blood-brain-barrier are discussed. Conclusion: The affinity of plant extracts and their isolated compounds for CNS receptors indicates an important role for medicinal plants in the treatment of neurological disorders. Moreover, studies in animal and human models have confirmed a scientific basis for the

  7. Neuronal expression of muskelin in the rodent central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges-Labouesse Elisabeth

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kelch repeat protein muskelin mediates cytoskeletal responses to the extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin 1, (TSP1, that is known to promote synaptogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS. Muskelin displays intracellular localization and affects cytoskeletal organization in adherent cells. Muskelin is expressed in adult brain and has been reported to bind the Cdk5 activator p39, which also facilitates the formation of functional synapses. Since little is known about muskelin in neuronal tissues, we here analysed the tissue distribution of muskelin in rodent brain and analysed its subcellular localization using cultured neurons from multiple life stages. Results Our data show that muskelin transcripts and polypeptides are expressed throughout the central nervous system with significantly high levels in hippocampus and cerebellum, a finding that resembles the tissue distribution of p39. At the subcellular level, muskelin is found in the soma, in neurite projections and the nucleus with a punctate distribution in both axons and dendrites. Immunostaining and synaptosome preparations identify partial localization of muskelin at synaptic sites. Differential centrifugation further reveals muskelin in membrane-enriched, rather than cytosolic fractions. Conclusion Our results suggest that muskelin represents a multifunctional protein associated with membranes and/or large protein complexes in most neurons of the central nervous system. These data are in conclusion with distinct roles of muskelin's functional interaction partners.

  8. Radon exposure and tumors of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Dacosta-Urbieta, Ana; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Kelsey, Karl T

    2017-03-15

    To review the published evidence of links between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors through a systematic review of the scientific literature. We performed a thorough bibliographic search in Medline (PubMed) and EMBASE. We combined MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms and free text. We developed a purpose-designed scale to assess the quality of the included manuscripts. We have included 18 studies, 8 performed on miners, 3 on the general population and 7 on children, and the results have been structured using this classification. The results are inconclusive. An association between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors has been observed in some studies on miners, but not in others. The results observed in the general adult population and in children are also mixed, with some research evincing a statistically significant association and others showing no effect. We cannot conclude that there is a relationship between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors. The available studies are extremely heterogeneous in terms of design and populations studied. Further research is needed in this topic, particularly in the general population residing in areas with high levels of radon. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Gangliosides in the Nervous System: Biosynthesis and Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Robert K.; Ariga, Toshio; Yanagisawa, Makoto; Zeng, Guichao

    Gangliosides, abundant in the nervous system, are known to play crucial modulatory roles in cellular recognition, interaction, adhesion, and signal transduction, particularly during early developmental stages. The expression of gangliosides in the nervous system is developmentally regulated and is closely related to the differentiation state of the cell. Ganglioside biosynthesis occurs in intracellular organelles, from which gangliosides are transported to the plasma membrane. During brain development, the ganglioside composition of the nervous system undergoes remarkable changes and is strictly regulated by the activities of glycosyltransferases, which can occur at different levels of control, including glycosyltransferase gene transcription and posttranslational modification. Genes for glycosyltransferase involved in ganglioside biosynthesis have been cloned and classified into families of glycosyltransferases based on their amino acid sequence similarities. The donor and acceptor substrate specificities are determined by enzymatic analysis of the glycosyltransferase gene products. Cell-type specific regulation of these genes has also been studied. Gangliosides are degraded by lysosomal exoglycosidases. The action of these enzymes occurs frequently in cooperation with activator proteins. Several human diseases are caused by defects of degradative enzymes, resulting in massive accumulation of certain glycolipids, including gangliosides in the lysosomal compartment and other organelles in the brain and visceral organs. Some of the representative lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) caused by the accumulation of lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes will be discussed.

  10. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization) and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors

  11. Effects of snake venom polypeptides on central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Alexey; Utkin, Yuri

    2012-12-01

    The nervous system is a primary target for animal venoms as the impairment of its function results in the fast and efficient immobilization or death of a prey. There are numerous evidences about effects of crude snake venoms or isolated toxins on peripheral nervous system. However, the data on their interactions with the central nervous system (CNS) are not abundant, as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) impedes penetration of these compounds into brain. This updated review presents the data about interaction of snake venom polypeptides with CNS. Such data will be described according to three main modes of interactions: - Direct in vivo interaction of CNS with venom polypeptides either capable to penetrate BBB or injected into the brain. - In vitro interactions of cell or sub-cellular fractions of CNS with crude venoms or purified toxins. - Indirect effects of snake venoms or their components on functioning of CNS under different conditions. Although the venom components penetrating BBB are not numerous, they seem to be the most suitable candidates for the leads in drug design. The compounds with other modes of action are more abundant and better studied, but the lack of the data about their ability to penetrate BBB may substantially aggravate the potentials for their medical perspectives. Nevertheless, many such compounds are used for research of CNS in vitro. These investigations may give invaluable information for understanding the molecular basis of CNS diseases and thus lay the basis for targeted drug design. This aspect also will be outlined in the review.

  12. Learning priors for Bayesian computations in the nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Berniker

    Full Text Available Our nervous system continuously combines new information from our senses with information it has acquired throughout life. Numerous studies have found that human subjects manage this by integrating their observations with their previous experience (priors in a way that is close to the statistical optimum. However, little is known about the way the nervous system acquires or learns priors. Here we present results from experiments where the underlying distribution of target locations in an estimation task was switched, manipulating the prior subjects should use. Our experimental design allowed us to measure a subject's evolving prior while they learned. We confirm that through extensive practice subjects learn the correct prior for the task. We found that subjects can rapidly learn the mean of a new prior while the variance is learned more slowly and with a variable learning rate. In addition, we found that a Bayesian inference model could predict the time course of the observed learning while offering an intuitive explanation for the findings. The evidence suggests the nervous system continuously updates its priors to enable efficient behavior.

  13. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Irfan A. [Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Mehler, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mehler@einstein.yu.edu [Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States)

    2011-09-13

    Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization) and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors.

  14. MRI findings in central nervous system of neurofibromatosis-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoen; Huang Suiqiao; Shen Jun; Hong Guobin; Wu Zhuo; Lin Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of MR imaging in central nervous system involvement of neurofibromatosis II. Methods: 7 patients with surgically and pathologically proved neurofibromatosis II were included. Their MR imaging findings and clinical features were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The main findings of 7 cases of neurofibraomaosis II on MR imaging included bilateral acoustic neurilemoma, multiple neurofibroma, meningioma and schwannoma. Among the 7 patients, Tl-weighted imaging after contrast enhancement displayed additional lesions which had been ignored on un-enhanced scan. Conclusion: MR imaging has advantages in the detection of central nervous sys- tem involvement of neurofibromatosis II with regard to its ability to show the lesions well, meanwhile displaying the size, morphology and signal features clearly. (authors)

  15. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...

  16. Herpesvirus-associated central and peripheral nervous system involvement: two clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Popova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses can directly affect the structure of the nervous system, resulting in encephalitis, and also induce immune-mediated disorders of the peripheral nervous system as sensory-predominant chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP. Patients with immunodeficiency may simultaneously develop two pathological processes, determining the severity of the condition. Parainfectious limbic encephalitis (PILE associated with viruses from the family Herpes viridae is a form of chronic herpes encephalitis, which is characterized by dysfunction of the limbic system and by a long-term course with exacerbations. CIDP is a dysimmune disease leasing to peripheral nervous system involvement, which belongs to a class of myelinopathies. The paper describes two clinical cases of a concurrence of chronic PILE and CIDP in middle-aged men who have symptomatic status epilepticus and iatrogenic complications. It characterizes difficulties in diagnosis and the clinical features of chronic herpes infection involving the central and peripheral nervous systems. The given clinical cases suggest that not only neurologistsand epileptologists, but also resuscitation specialists and ngiosurgeons should be particularly alert to the pathology in question.

  17. Comprehensive allelotype and genetic anaysis of 466 human nervous system tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Deimling, A; Fimmers, R; Schmidt, M C

    2000-01-01

    Brain tumors pose a particular challenge to molecular oncology. Many different tumor entities develop in the nervous system and some of them appear to follow distinct pathogenic routes. Molecular genetic alterations have increasingly been reported in nervous system neoplasms. However...

  18. Arteriovenous Malformations and Other Vascular Lesions of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arteriovenous Malformations and Other Vascular Lesions of the Central Nervous System Fact Sheet What are arteriovenous malformations? What are ... What other types of vascular lesions affect the central nervous system? Besides AVMs, three other main types of vascular ...

  19. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children : The ABCD Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van den Born, Bert-Jan H; Hoekstra, Christine M C A; Gademan, Maaike G J; van Eijsden, Manon; de Rooij, Susanne R; Twickler, Marcel T B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system

  20. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Merx, J.L.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Longridge, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs.

  1. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H H; Huygen, P L M; Merx, J L; Kremer, H P H; Cremers, Cor W R J; Longridge, Neil S

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs.

  2. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D; Alhouayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-08-26

    Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16 weeks) a group of mice fed a high-fat diet with its respective control group fed a standard diet. We also performed a large-scale analysis of lipids in the central nervous system using HPLC-MS, and we then tested the lipids of interest on a primary co-culture of astrocytes and microglial cells. We measured an increase in the inflammatory tone in the cerebellum at the different time-points. However, at week 16, we evidenced that the inflammatory tone displayed significant differences in two different regions of the central nervous system, specifically an increase in the cerebellum and no modification in the cortex for high-fat diet mice when compared with chow-fed mice. Our results clearly suggest region-dependent as well as time-dependent adaptations of the central nervous system to the high-fat diet. The differences in inflammatory tone between the two regions considered seem to involve astrocytes but not microglial cells. Furthermore, a large-scale lipid screening coupled to ex vivo testing enabled us to identify three classes of lipids-phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylethanolamines, and lysophosphatidylcholines-as well as palmitoylethanolamide, as potentially responsible for the difference in inflammatory tone. This study demonstrates that the inflammatory tone induced by a high-fat diet does not similarly affect distinct regions of the central nervous system. Moreover, the lipids identified and tested ex vivo showed interesting anti-inflammatory properties and could be further studied to better characterize

  3. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Teresa Cristina de Abreu

    2004-01-01

    The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS) is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resources available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.

  4. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina de Abreu Ferrari

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resourses available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.

  5. Data supporting the role of Fyn in initiating myelination in the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Tamano, Moe; Torii, Tomohiro; Kawahara, Kazuko; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Tanoue, Akito; Takada, Shuji; Yamauchi, Junji

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic mice, which express active Fyn tyrosine kinase under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter, have been produced. This promoter induces protein expression in the initiation stage of myelination in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) "Phosphorylation of cytohesin-1 by Fyn is required for initiation of myelination and the extent of myelination during development (Yamauchi et al., 2015 [1])". Herein we provide the data regarding myelination-related protein markers and myelin ultrastructure in transgenic mice.

  6. Central nervous system frontiers for the use of erythropoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO; epoetin alfa) is well established as safe and effective for the treatment of anemia. In addition to the erythropoietic effects of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO), recent evidence suggests that it may elicit a neuroprotective effect in the central nervous...... system (CNS). Preclinical studies have demonstrated the presence of EPO receptors in the brain that are up-regulated under hypoxic or ischemic conditions. Intracerebral and systemic administration of epoetin alfa have been demonstrated to elicit marked neuroprotective effects in multiple preclinical...

  7. Histophysiology of the vegetative peripheral nervous system of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, F J; Heine, H; Schaeg, G

    1975-12-31

    Preterminal nerve fibers of the peripheral vegetative nervous system make inmediate contact (neuro-effector-areas) to interstitial cells (I.C.). This connection is characterized through a common glycocalyx with the nerve fiber. The I.C. are specific innervated cells and differ morphologically from Schwann-cells, fibrocytes, and histiocytes. The I.C. are able to come into morphologically different contacts with neighbouring cells by microvilli-like cell protrusions. These neighbouring cells then are able to contact other cells by themselves. The results are interpreted in the sense of electro-mechanical feed-back system of information processing in the vegetative periphery.

  8. Nervous and muscle system development in Phascolion strombus (Sipuncula)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Koop, Demian; Bromham, Lindell

    2005-01-01

    possible cryptic segmentation patterns. In this paper, we present the first immunocytochemical data on the ontogeny of the nervous system and the musculature in the sipunculan Phascolion strombus. Myogenesis of the first anlagen of the body wall ring muscles occurs synchronously and not subsequently from......Recent interpretations of developmental gene expression patterns propose that the last common metazoan ancestor was segmented, although most animal phyla show no obvious signs of segmentation. Developmental studies of non-model system trochozoan taxa may shed light on this hypothesis by assessing...

  9. 75 FR 75681 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ...] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...) and/or abnormal vascularity (abnormal blood supply and circulation) of the central nervous system. The...

  10. A history of the autonomic nervous system: part II: from Reil to the modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Peter C; Fisahn, Christian; Iwanaga, Joe; DiLorenzo, Daniel; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-12-01

    The history of the study of the autonomic nervous system is rich. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, scientists were beginning to more firmly grasp the reality of this part of the human nervous system. The evolution of our understanding of the autonomic nervous system has a rich history. Our current understanding is based on centuries of research and trial and error.

  11. Tachykinin-1 in the central nervous system regulates adiposity in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Chitrang; Shan, Xiaoye; Tung, Yi-Chun Loraine; Kabra, Dhiraj; Holland, Jenna; Amburgy, Sarah; Heppner, Kristy; Kirchner, Henriette; Yeo, Giles S H; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2015-05-01

    Ghrelin is a circulating hormone that targets the central nervous system to regulate feeding and adiposity. The best-characterized neural system that mediates the effects of ghrelin on energy balance involves the activation of neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide neurons, expressed exclusively in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. However, ghrelin receptors are expressed in other neuronal populations involved in the control of energy balance. We combined laser capture microdissection of several nuclei of the central nervous system expressing the ghrelin receptor (GH secretagoge receptor) with microarray gene expression analysis to identify additional neuronal systems involved in the control of central nervous system-ghrelin action. We identified tachykinin-1 (Tac1) as a gene negatively regulated by ghrelin in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, we identified neuropeptide k as the TAC1-derived peptide with more prominent activity, inducing negative energy balance when delivered directly into the brain. Conversely, loss of Tac1 expression enhances the effectiveness of ghrelin promoting fat mass gain both in male and in female mice and increases the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in ovariectomized mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate a role TAC1 in the control energy balance by regulating the levels of adiposity in response to ghrelin administration and to changes in the status of the gonadal function.

  12. Applications of Nanotechnology to the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumling, James P., II

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials, in general, have become prominent areas of academic research. The ability to engineer at the nano scale is critical to the advancement of the physical and medical sciences. In the realm of physical sciences, the applications are clear: smaller circuitry, more powerful computers, higher resolution intruments. However, the potential impact in the fields of biology and medicine are perhaps even grander. The implementation of novel nanodevices is of paramount importance to the advancement of drug delivery, molecular detection, and cellular manipulation. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the development of nanotechnology for applications in neuroscience. The nervous system provides unique challenges and opportunities for nanoscale research. This thesis discusses some background in nanotechnological applications to the central nervous system and details: (1) The development of a novel calcium nanosenser for use in neurons and astrocytes. We implemented the calcium responsive component of Dr. Roger Tsien's Cameleon sensor, a calmodulin-M13 fusion, in the first quantum dot-based calcium sensor. (2) The exploration of cell-penetrating peptides as a delivery mechanism for nanoparticles to cells of the nervous system. We investigated the application of polyarginine sequences to rat primary cortical astrocytes in order to assess their efficacy in a terminally differentiated neural cell line. (3) The development of a cheap, biocompatible alternative to quantum dots for nanosensor and imaging applications. We utilized a positively charged co-matrix to promote the encapsulation of free sulforhodamine B in silica nanoparticles, a departure from conventional reactive dye coupling to silica matrices. While other methods have been invoked to trap dye not directly coupled to silica, they rely on positively charged dyes that typically have a low quantum yield and are not extensively tested biologically, or they implement reactive dyes bound

  13. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W.M. van; De Roeck, J.; De Schepper, A.M.; Altena, R. van; Laridon, A.; Coeman, V.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  14. Central nervous system relapse of treated stage IV neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palasis, S.; Egelhoff, J.C.; Koch, B.L.; Ball, W.S. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Morris, J.D. [Department of Pediatrics, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in pediatrics. The long-term survival of patients with advanced-stage neurobastoma has remarkably improved secondary to aggressive treatment protocols including autologous bone marrow transplant (BMT). As a result, a different natural history of this disease is being reported with unusual, late manifestations. The central nervous system (CNS), once a rare site of disease, is being involved with increasing frequency. Appropriate neuroimaging in these patients is important. Two cases of patients with treated stage IV neuroblastoma who developed isolated CNS metastases are presented. The proposed pathogenesis and neuroradiologic manifestations of this complication are reviewed. (orig.) With 2 figs., 23 refs.

  15. Masquerade Syndrome of Multicentre Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guerriero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Italy we say that the most unlucky things can happen to physicians when they get sick, despite the attention of colleagues. To confirm this rumor, we report the sad story of a surgeon with bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma unresponsive to traditional therapies. Methods/Design. Case report. Results. After one year of steroidal and immunosuppressive therapy, a vitrectomy, and a trabeculectomy for unresponsive bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma, MRI showed a multicentre primary central nervous system lymphoma, which was the underlying cause of the masquerade syndrome. Conclusions. All ophthalmologists and clinicians must be aware of masquerade syndromes, in order to avoid delays in diagnosis.

  16. Peripheral nervous system involvement in chronic spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tankisi, Hatice; Pugdahl, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Upper motor neuron disorders are believed to leave the peripheral nervous system (PNS) intact. In this study we examined whether there is evidence of PNS involvement in spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Twelve subjects with chronic low cervical or thoracic SCI were included...... prospectively. Needle electromyography was done in 10 different muscles in each subject bilaterally. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) were conducted in the fibular, tibial, and femoral motor and fibular and sural sensory nerves. Results: Half the subjects had widespread abnormal spontaneous activity (SA...

  17. Hypopituitarism as unusual sequelae to central nervous system tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mageshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological tuberculosis can very rarely involve the hypophysis cerebri. We report a case of an eighteen year old female who presented with five months duration of generalised apathy, secondary amenorrhea and weight gain. She was on irregular treatment for tuberculosis of the central nervous system for the last five months. Neuroimaging revealed sellar and suprasellar tuberculomas and communicating hydrocephalus requiring emergency decompression. Endocrinological investigation showed hypopituitarism manifesting as pituitary hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hyperprolactinemia. Restarting anti-tuberculosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy, and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery led to remarkable improvement in the general condition of the patient.

  18. Prophylactic radiotherapy for central nervous system in acute leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, S.L.; Ferrigno, R.

    1994-01-01

    Prophylaxis of the central nervous system in leukemias is a complex problem and there is no optimal solution that is universal for all patients. Radiation therapy, because of its CNS toxicity and potential carcinogenicity, is reserved for those in the highest risk groups. The cranial radiation dose is 18 Gy, while the spinal cord is treated with intrathecal methotrexate or multidrug therapy. The authors describe the basic aspects of radiation therapy treatment planning, as the main areas that should be included in treatment field, in order to guarantee favourable results. (author)

  19. GABA-ergic neurons in the leach central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    GABA is a candidate for an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the leech central nervous system because of the well-documented inhibitory action of GABA in other invertebrates. To demonstrate that GABA meets the criteria used to identify a substance as a neurotransmitter, the author examined GABA metabolism and synaptic interactions of inhibitory motor neurons in two leech species, Hirudo medicinalis and Haementeria ghilianii. Segmental ganglia of the leech ventral nerve cord and identified inhibitors have the capacity to synthesize GABA when incubated in the presence of the precursor glutamate. Application of GABA to cell bodies of excitatory motor neurons or muscle fibers innervated by the inhibitors hyperpolarizes the membrane potential of the target cell and activates a chloride ion conductance channel, similar to the inhibitory membrane response following intracellular stimulation of the inhibitor. Bicuculline methiodide (5 x 10 -5 M), GABA receptor antagonist, blocks reversibly the response to applied GABA and the inhibitory synaptic inputs onto the postsynaptic neurons or muscle fibers without interfering with their excitatory inputs. Furthermore, the inhibitors are included among approximately 25 neurons per segmental ganglion that take up GABA by a high affinity uptake system, as revealed by 3 H-GABA-autoradiography. The development of the capacities to synthesize and to take up GABA were examined in leech embryos. The embryos are able to synthesize GABA at early stages of the development of the nervous system, before any neurons have extended neutrites

  20. Nerve Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System versus the Central Nervous System and the Relevance to Speech and Hearing after Nerve Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Gordon, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Schwann cells normally form myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and support nerve regeneration after nerve injury. In contrast, nerve regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is not supported by the myelinating cells known as oligodendrocytes. We have found that: 1) low frequency electrical stimulation can be…

  1. Axonal Regulation of Central Nervous System Myelination: Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingseisen, Anna; Lyons, David A

    2018-02-01

    Approximately half of the human brain consists of myelinated axons. Central nervous system (CNS) myelin is made by oligodendrocytes and is essential for nervous system formation, health, and function. Once thought simply as a static insulator that facilitated rapid impulse conduction, myelin is now known to be made and remodeled in to adult life. Oligodendrocytes have a remarkable capacity to differentiate by default, but many aspects of their development can be influenced by axons. However, how axons and oligodendrocytes interact and cooperate to regulate myelination in the CNS remains unclear. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of how such interactions generate the complexity of myelination known to exist in vivo. We highlight intriguing results that indicate that the cross-sectional size of an axon alone may regulate myelination to a surprising degree. We also review new studies, which have highlighted diversity in the myelination of axons of different neuronal subtypes and circuits, and structure-function relationships, which suggest that myelinated axons can be exquisitely fine-tuned to mediate precise conduction needs. We also discuss recent advances in our understanding of how neuronal activity regulates CNS myelination, and aim to provide an integrated overview of how axon-oligodendrocyte interactions sculpt neuronal circuit structure and function.

  2. Wnt signaling through the Ror receptor in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Iveta M; Malessy, Martijn J; Verhaagen, Joost; Fradkin, Lee G; Noordermeer, Jasprina N

    2014-02-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (Ror) proteins are conserved tyrosine kinase receptors that play roles in a variety of cellular processes that pattern tissues and organs during vertebrate and invertebrate development. Ror signaling is required for skeleton and neuronal development and modulates cell migration, cell polarity, and convergent extension. Ror has also been implicated in two human skeletal disorders, brachydactyly type B and Robinow syndrome. Rors are widely expressed during metazoan development including domains in the nervous system. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the roles of the Ror receptors in neuronal migration, axonal pruning, axon guidance, and synaptic plasticity. The processes by which Ror signaling execute these diverse roles are still largely unknown, but they likely converge on cytoskeletal remodeling. In multiple species, Rors have been shown to act as Wnt receptors signaling via novel non-canonical Wnt pathways mediated in some tissues by the adapter protein disheveled and the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src. Rors can either activate or repress Wnt target expression depending on the cellular context and can also modulate signal transduction by sequestering Wnt ligands away from their signaling receptors. Future challenges include the identification of signaling components of the Ror pathways and bettering our understanding of the roles of these pleiotropic receptors in patterning the nervous system.

  3. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.f.; Hosobuchi, Y.; Born, J.L.; Tobias, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  4. HIV Immune Recovery Inflammatory Syndrome and Central Nervous System Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Roza, Thiago Henrique

    2017-04-01

    The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a deregulated inflammatory response to invading microorganisms. It is manifested when there is an abrupt change in host immunity from an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive state to a pro-inflammatory state as a result of rapid depletion or removal of factors that promote immune suppression or inhibition of inflammation. The aim of this paper is to discuss and re-interpret the possibility of association of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) with IRIS in the central nervous system (CNS) in a case from Brazil published by Silva-Vergara ML. et al. (Mycopathologia 177:137-141, 6). An AIDS patient who was not receiving medical care developed pulmonary PCM successfully treated with itraconazole. The patient developed central nervous system PCM (NPCM) after starting the ARV therapy with recovery of immunity and control of HIV viral load, although it was not interpreted as IRIS by the authors, it fulfills the criteria for CNS IRIS. This could be the first case of NPCM associated with IRIS described. Although not frequent, IRIS must be considered in PCM patients and HIV, from endemic areas or patients that traveled to endemic areas, receiving ARV treatment and with worsening symptoms.

  5. Spectral Mixing in Nervous Systems: Experimental Evidenceand Biologically Plausible Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinfeld, D.; Mehta, S. B.

    The ability to compute the difference frequency for two periodic signals depends on a nonlinear operation that mixes those signals. Behavioral and psychophysical evidence suggest that such mixing is likely to occur in the vertebrate nervous system as a means to compare rhythmic sensory signals, such as occurs in human audition, and as a means to lock an intrinsic rhythm to a sensory input. Electrophysiological data from electroreceptors in the immobilized electric fish and somatosensory cortex in the anesthetized rat yield direct evidence for such mixing, providing a neurological substrate for the modulation and demodulation of rhythmic neuronal signals. We consider an analytical model of spectral mixing that makes use of the threshold characteristics of neuronal firing and which has features consistent with the experimental observations. This model serves as a guide for constructing circuits that isolate given mixture components. In particular, such circuits can generate nearly pure difference tones from sinusoidal inputs without the use of band-pass filters, in analogy to an image-reject mixer in communications engineering. We speculate that such computations may play a role in coding of sensory input and feedback stabilization of motor output in nervous systems.

  6. Phosphoprotein phosphatase in the central nervous system of Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, E E; Newburgh, R W

    1975-02-19

    The existence and some enzymological properties of phosphoprotein phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.16) have been established in the larval central nervous system of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). A simple, sensitive and reproducible assay employing 32-P-labeled protamine as a phosphoprotein substrate was employed to measure phosphatase activity in both soluble and particulate fractions of the insect nerve cord. The specific activity of soluble phosphatase in the Manduca sexta central nervous system is of the same order of magnitude as that in mammalian brain. Nerve cord phosphoprotamine phosphatase activity may be stimulated by a variety of monovalent salts, the optimal concentration of NaCl or KCl being 0.2 molar. Activity does not appear to be dependent on bivalent metals and is stimulated by EDTA. A reduced sulfhydryl group is obligatory for maximum activity. Phosphatase could be greatly inhibited by sodium fluoride, ATP and GTP. Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP are without effect on enzyme activity. Although most of the phosphatase activity in the insect nerve cord appears to be of cytosolic origin, much latent activity can be unmasked by incubating membranous fractions with Triton X-100. In contrast to soluble phosphatase, the detergent-solubilized activity is moderately stimulated by Mn-2+.?

  7. Involvement of the central nervous system in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Ritsuko; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Kuroiwa, Yoshigoro; Iwashita, Hiroshi; Kato, Motohiro.

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in myotonic dystrophy, intelligence quotient (IQ), brain CT scan, EEG and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (VEP) were analyzed in 10 patients with myotonic dystrophy. Impaired intelligence was observed in 9 out of 10 patients, abnormal brain CT in 7, and EEG abnormality in 7. The brain CT showed a diffuse cortical atrophy, a dilatation of the ventricles, and a periventricular lucency, mainly around the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle. The EEG findings showed a tendency toward generalized slowing of the background activity. These abnormal findings were well related to the clinical severity of MD, indicating that there is a diffuse cerebral involvement in the majority of the MD patients. VEP showed a prolonged P100 latency in 5 out of 10 patints, or 7 out of 19 eyes examined. These prolonged latency of the P100 component was considered to be due to dysfunctions of the visual pathway in the cerebral hemisphere, rather than due to cataracts and retinal dysfunctions because it was observed only in moderate and severe cases. These severe and moderate cases showed abnormalities in all four examinations. It was concluded that combination of different parameters might be useful to evaluate the central nervous system involvement in patients with MD. (author)

  8. A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish Parekh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial abscess is an extremely rare form of central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis (TB. We describe a case of central nervous system tuberculous abscess in absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. A 82-year-old Middle Eastern male from Yemen was initially brought to the emergency room due to altered mental status and acute renal failure. Cross-sectional imaging revealed multiple ring enhancing lesions located in the left cerebellum and in bilateral frontal lobe as well as in the inferior parietal lobe on the left. The patient was placed on an empiric antibiotic regimen. Preliminary testing for infectious causes was negative. Chest radiography and CT of chest showed no positive findings. He was not on any immunosuppressive medications and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA test was negative. A subsequent MRI one month later showed profound worsening of the lesions with increasing vasogenic edema and newly found mass effect impinging on the fourth ventricle. Brain biopsy showed focal exudative cerebellitis and inflamed granulation tissue consistent with formation of abscesses. The diagnosis of CNS TB was finally confirmed by positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB cultures. The patient was started on standard tuberculosis therapy but expired due to renal failure and cardiac arrest.

  9. Clinical application of MRI to fetal central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangbing; Chen Liguang; Ma Yuxiang; Liu Wen; Lin Xiangtao; Shi Hao; Yang Zhenzhen; Qu Jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of MRI on fetal central nervous system. Methods: Twenty-four women with complicated pregnancies, aged from 22 to 32 years (average 27 years) and with gestation from 23-39 weeks (average 30 weeks) were studied with a 1.5T superconductive MR unit within 24 hours after ultrasound studies. T 2 -weighted MR imaging was performed using HASTE and T 1 -weighted MR imaging was using FLASH. Comparison of the diagnosis of MRI and ultrasound were done with autopsy or postnatal follow-up MRI. Results: Of the 24 cases, 24 fetus were found. The fetal brain, gyrus, sulcus, corpus callosum, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were shown more clearly on MR T 2 -weighted images. T 1 -weighted images were not as good as T 2 -weighted images. Twenty-seven lesions were visualized by ultrasound and thirty-one by MRI in these twenty-four fetuses. By MRI study, two cases were conformed their ultrasound diagnosis, ten cases were completed their ultrasound diagnosis, and twelve cases were made the same diagnosis as ultrasound. Conclusion: MR has advantages in displaying fetal central nervous system anatomy over ultrasound, the quality of MR images is not affected by maternal somatotype, volume of amniotic fluid, fetal skull and the pelvic skeleton of pregnant women. Based on ultrasound, MR imaging is a valuable complement to sonography in difficult cases, it can conforming, completing, even more correcting the diagnosis made by ultrasound. (authors)

  10. Multifunctional mechanosensitive neurons in the enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, Michael; Mazzuoli, Gemma

    2010-02-16

    One of the most intriguing abilities of the gut is to function in isolation. This is possible because the gut's own nervous system, the enteric nervous system, contains the necessary elements to control reflex behaviors. Much progress has been made in identifying those neurons that encode mechanical or chemical stimuli. Thus, muscle behaviors in the small and large intestines depend on mechanosensitive neurons which encode a variety of mechanical stimuli, ranging from brief deformation of the neurons soma or processes to sustained tissue stretch. Mechanosensitivity has been recorded in a wide variety of neurons which behave like rapid or slowly adapting mechanosensors. Strikingly, mechanosensitive neurons do not appear to belong to a distinct class of highly specialised neurons but rather differ in their electrophysiology, neurochemistry and morphology. While some mechanosensitive neurons may respond to one stimulus type others appear to be polymodal. Available data would suggest that mechanosensitive enteric neurons are multitasking and hence belong to multifunctional circuits. This review summarises the main arguments in favour of this concept, discusses the stimulus modalities, the response patterns and the functional role of mechanosensitive enteric neurons and concludes with identifying future challenges. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prolactin gene expression in primary central nervous system tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Graziella Alebrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin (PRL is a hormone synthesized in both the pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites. It has been associated with the occurrence of neoplasms and, more recently, with central nervous system (CNS neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate prolactin expression in primary central nervous system tumors through quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IH. Results Patient mean age was 49.1 years (SD 15.43, and females accounted for 70% of the sample. The most frequent subtype of histological tumor was meningioma (61.5%, followed by glioblastoma (22.9%. Twenty cases (28.6% showed prolactin expression by immunohistochemistry, most of them females (18 cases, 90%. Quantitative real-time PCR did not show any prolactin expression. Conclusions Despite the presence of prolactin expression by IH, the lack of its expression by quantitative real-time PCR indicates that its presence in primary tumors in CNS is not a reflex of local production.

  12. Evaluating the autonomic nervous system in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ju; Shu, Chih-Hung; Chou, Kun-Ta; Wang, Yi-Fen; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Ho, Ching-Yin; Lan, Ming-Ying

    2013-06-01

    The pathogenesis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) remains unclear. It is linked to but distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which has been shown to be related to disturbed autonomic regulation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether autonomic dysfunction also plays a role in the pathogenesis of LPR. Case-control study. Tertiary care center. Seventeen patients with LPR and 19 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 50 years, were enrolled in the study. The patients were diagnosed with LPR if they had a reflux symptom index (RSI) ≥ 13 and a reflux finding score (RFS) ≥ 7. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was used to assess autonomic function. Anxiety and depression levels measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were also conducted. In HRV analysis, high frequency (HF) represents the parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system, whereas low frequency (LF) represents the total autonomic activity. There were no significant differences in the LF power and HF power between the 2 groups. However, significantly lower HF% (P = .003) and a higher LF/HF ratio (P = .012) were found in patients with LPR, who demonstrated poor autonomic modulation and higher sympathetic activity. Anxiety was also frequently observed in the patient group. The study suggests that autonomic dysfunction seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of LPR. The potential beneficial effect of autonomic nervous system modulation as a therapeutic modality for LPR merits further investigation.

  13. Antiepileptic and central nervous system depressant activity of Sechium edule fruit extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeed Mohammed Firdous Mumtaz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ethanol extract of fruits of Sechium edule on antiepileptic and central nervous system (CNS depressant model was studied in rats. The extract (200 mg/kg body weight, orally significantly reduced the duration of various phases of convulsions in both MES-induce seizures and in PTZ-induced convulsion. In CNS depressant model, the locomotor activity was also decreased in a dose dependent manner as compared to control group the extract and the rota rod test revealed a significant loss of muscular coordination.

  14. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...... and/or demyelinating pathology. This article will review the molecular and cellular dynamics of immune responses in the CNS, with particular emphasis on autoimmune inflammation, as has been studied in the authors' laboratory....

  15. The Protective Role of Prosaposin and Its Receptors in the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rebecca C.; Giddens, Michelle M.; Coleman, Brilee M.; Hall, Randy A.

    2015-01-01

    Prosaposin (also known as SGP-1) is an intriguing multifunctional protein that plays roles both intracellularly, as a regulator of lysosomal enzyme function, and extracellularly, as a secreted factor with neuroprotective and glioprotective effects. Following secretion, prosaposin can undergo endocytosis via an interaction with the low-density lipoprotein-related receptor 1 (LRP1). The ability of secreted prosaposin to promote protective effects in the nervous system is known to involve activation of G proteins, and the orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR37 and GPR37L1 have recently been shown to mediate signaling induced by both prosaposin and a fragment of prosaposin known as prosaptide. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of prosaposin, its receptors and their importance in the nervous system. PMID:25130661

  16. Central Nervous System Vasculitis: Still More Questions than Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Marco A; Espígol-Frigolé, Georgina; Prieto-González, Sergio; Tavera-Bahillo, Itziar; García-Martínez, Ana; Butjosa, Montserrat; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Cid, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) may be involved by a variety of inflammatory diseases of blood vessels. These include primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare disorder specifically targeting the CNS vasculature, and the systemic vasculitides which may affect the CNS among other organs and systems. Both situations are severe and convey a guarded prognosis. PACNS usually presents with headache and cognitive impairment. Focal symptoms are infrequent at disease onset but are common in more advanced stages. The diagnosis of PACNS is difficult because, although magnetic resonance imaging is almost invariably abnormal, findings are non specific. Angiography has limited sensitivity and specificity. Brain and leptomeningeal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis when disclosing blood vessel inflammation and are also useful to exclude other conditions presenting with similar findings. However, since lesions are segmental, a normal biopsy does not completely exclude PACNS. Secondary CNS involvement by systemic vasculitis occurs in less than one fifth of patients but may be devastating. A prompt recognition and aggressive treatment is crucial to avoid permanent damage and dysfunction. Glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide are recommended for patients with PACNS and for patients with secondary CNS involvement by small-medium-sized systemic vasculitis. CNS involvement in large-vessel vasculitis is usually managed with high-dose glucocorticoids (giant-cell arteritis) or glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents (Takayasu’s disease). However, in large vessel vasculitis, where CNS symptoms are usually due to involvement of extracranial arteries (Takayasu’s disease) or proximal portions of intracranial arteries (giant-cell arteritis), revascularization procedures may also have an important role. PMID:22379458

  17. Developmental exposure to lead and late life abnormalities of nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Riyaz; Reddy, G Rajarami

    2010-07-01

    Role of developmental exposure to environmental agents in altering the disease process is well known. Exposure to chemical agents at critical periods of development may cause some permanent changes in the functioning of various vital systems including the nervous system in the organisms. It is not surprising to see an extensive response due to exposure to chemical agents early in life as the organ systems are more vulnerable to chemical insults during developmental stages. In some cases the response to low level environmental insults may not be obvious until adult or old age. Results from several studies have shown such latency in response to the nervous system leading to neurodegeneration in old age. Studies conducted in murine and primate models provided ample evidence for the association of developmental exposure to low levels of heavy metal lead (Pb) and Alzheimer's disease-like pathology during senescence. It is not clear about the reasons behind such response; however, the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms could explain the role of early events in life in inducing the late life abnormalities of nervous system. It is possible that environmental agents epigenetically modulate the gene regulation to persist the response silent for a long period of time and to result pathological outcomes significantly later in life. This article will summarize the association of early life exposure to environmental agents and late-life abnormalities with an emphasis on developmental exposure to Pb and neurodegeneration in old age.

  18. Cnidarian Neurotoxic Peptides Affecting Central Nervous System Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Hernández-Guzmán, Ulises; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Natural products from animal venoms have been used widely in the discovery of novel molecules with particular biological activities that enable their use as potential drug candidates. The phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish, sea anemones, corals zoanthids, hydrozoans, etc.) is the most ancient venomous phylum on earth. Its venoms are composed of a complex mixture of peptidic compounds with neurotoxic and cytolitic properties that have shown activity on mammalian systems despite the fact that they are naturally targeted against fish and invertebrate preys, mainly crustaceans. For this reason, cnidarian venoms are an interesting and vast source of molecules with a remarkable activity on central nervous system, targeting mainly voltage-gated ion channels, ASIC channels, and TRPV1 receptors. In this brief review, we list the amino acid sequences of most cnidarian neurotoxic peptides reported to date. Additionally, we propose the inclusion of a new type of voltage-gated sea anemone sodium channel toxins based on the most recent reports.

  19. Normal sympathetic nervous system response in reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, María de Lourdes; Levin, Gloria; Bertotti, Alicia; Ferreiro, Jorge; Barontini, Marta

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated sympathetic nervous system activity by sympathetic skin response (SSR) recording and we further investigated sympathetic and opioid outflow indirectly in patients with features of reflex sympathetic dystrophy by measuring concentrations of plasma catecholamines (CAs) and their metabolites and plasma metenkephalin (ME), before and after corticoid treatment. Six patients were studied. Basal SSR latencies, morphologies and amplitudes were normal in five patients. In one woman, latency and amplitude were also normal but the morphology was disturbed. Basal plasma ME, CA and metabolite levels were similar in the affected and non-affected limbs and a significant increase in plasma ME concentrations was observed in both affected and non-affected limbs after two weeks of steroid treatment. Altogether these results point to an adaptive supersensitivity rather than a sympathetic hyperactivity in this syndrome; also, they indicate that the therapeutic effect of steroids adds, to their known anti-inflammatory action, a stimulatory action on the endogenous opioid system.

  20. Radiation therapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Shibamoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Up until the late 1970s, radiation therapy played an important role in the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL but more recently its role has changed due to the increased use of systemic chemotherapy. In this article, the current status of radiotherapy for PCNSL and optimal forms of radiotherapy, including the treatment volume and radiation dose, are discussed. Data from nationwide Japanese surveys of PCNSL patients treated with radiation therapy suggest that the prognosis of PCNSL patients improved during the 1990s, in part due to the use of high-dose methotrexate-containing chemotherapy. The prognosis of patients treated with radiation alone also improved. Radiotherapy still seems to play an important role in the attempt to cure this disease.

  1. Protective and Pathological Immunity during Central Nervous System Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Robyn S; Hunter, Christopher A

    2017-06-20

    The concept of immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has dominated the study of inflammatory processes in the brain. However, clinically relevant models have highlighted that innate pathways limit pathogen invasion of the CNS and adaptive immunity mediates control of many neural infections. As protective responses can result in bystander damage, there are regulatory mechanisms that balance protective and pathological inflammation, but these mechanisms might also allow microbial persistence. The focus of this review is to consider the host-pathogen interactions that influence neurotropic infections and to highlight advances in our understanding of innate and adaptive mechanisms of resistance as key determinants of the outcome of CNS infection. Advances in these areas have broadened our comprehension of how the immune system functions in the brain and can readily overcome immune privilege. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The effect of space radiation of the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Grant E.; Tobias, Cornelius A.; Yang, Tracy; Whitney, Monroe

    The long-term effects of irradiation by accelerated heavy ions on the structure and function of the nervous system have not been studied extensively. Although the adult brain is relatively resistant to low LET radiation, cellular studies indicate that individual heavy ions can produce serious membrane lesions and multiple chromatin breaks. Capillary hemorrhages may follow high LET particle irradiation of the developing brain as high RBE effects. Evidence has been accumulating that the glial system and blood-brain barrier (BBB) are relatively sensitive to injury by ionizing radiation. While DNA repair is active in neural systems, it may be assumed that a significant portion of this molecular process is misrepair. Since the expression of cell lethality usually requires cell division, and nerve cells have an extremely low rate of division, it is possible that some of the characteristic changes of premature aging may represent a delayed effect of chromatin misrepair in brain. Altered microcirculation, decreased local metabolism, entanglement and reduction in synaptic density, premature loss of neurons, myelin degeneration, and glial proliferation are late signs of such injuries. HZE particles are very efficient in producing carcinogenic cell transformation, reaching a peak for iron particles. The promotion of viral transformation is also efficient up to an energy transfer of approximately 300 keV/micron. The RBE for carcinogenesis in nerve tissues remains unknown. On the basis of available information concerning HZE particle flux in interplanetary space, only general estimates of the magnitude of the effects of long-term spaceflight on some nervous system parameters may be constructed.

  3. Temporal expression and cellular origin of CC chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 in the central nervous system: insight into mechanisms of MOG-induced EAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericsson-Dahlstrand Anders

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CC chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 are critical for the recruitment of mononuclear phagocytes to the central nervous system (CNS in multiple sclerosis (MS and other neuroinflammatory diseases. Mononuclear phagocytes are effector cells capable of phagocytosing myelin and damaging axons. In this study, we characterize the regional, temporal and cellular expression of CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 mRNA in the spinal cord of rats with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (MOG-EAE. While resembling human MS, this animal model allows unique access to CNS-tissue from various time-points of relapsing neuroinflammation and from various lesional stages: early active, late active, and inactive completely demyelinated lesions. Methods The expression of CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 mRNA was studied with in situ hybridization using radio labelled cRNA probes in combination with immunohistochemical staining for phenotypic cell markers. Spinal cord sections from healthy rats and rats with MOG-EAE (acute phase, remission phase, relapse phase were analysed. In defined lesion stages, the number of cells expressing CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 mRNA was determined. Data were statistically analysed by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Results In MOG-EAE rats, extensive up-regulation of CCR1 and CCR5 mRNA, and moderate up-regulation of CCR2 mRNA, was found in the spinal cord during episodes of active inflammation and demyelination. Double staining with phenotypic cell markers identified the chemokine receptor mRNA-expressing cells as macrophages/microglia. Expression of all three receptors was substantially reduced during clinical remission, coinciding with diminished inflammation and demyelination in the spinal cord. Healthy control rats did not show any detectable expression of CCR1, CCR2 or CCR5 mRNA in the spinal cord. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the acute and chronic-relapsing phases of MOG

  4. R1 autonomic nervous system in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Dagmara; Winklewski, Pawel J

    2017-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rapid loss of kidney function resulting in accumulation of end metabolic products and associated abnormalities in fluid, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. The pathophysiology of AKI is complex and multifactorial involving numerous vascular, tubular and inflammatory pathways. Neurohumoral activation with heightened activity of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system play a critical role in this scenario. Inflammation and/or local renal ischaemia are underlying mechanisms triggering renal tissue hypoxia and resultant renal microcirculation dysfunction; a common feature of AKI occurring in numerous clinical conditions leading to a high morbidity and mortality rate. The contribution of renal nerves to the pathogenesis of AKI has been extensively demonstrated in a series of experimental models over the past decades. While this has led to better knowledge of the pathogenesis of human AKI, therapeutic approaches to improve patient outcomes are scarce. Restoration of autonomic regulatory function with vagal nerve stimulation resulting in anti-inflammatory effects and modulation of centrally-mediated mechanisms could be of clinical relevance. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that a therapeutic splenic ultrasound approach may prevent AKI via activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. This review briefly summarizes renal nerve anatomy, basic insights into neural control of renal function in the physiological state and the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the pathophysiology of AKI chiefly due to sepsis, cardiopulmonary bypass and ischaemia/reperfusion experimental model. Finally, potentially preventive experimental pre-clinical approaches for the treatment of AKI aimed at sympathetic inhibition and/or parasympathetic stimulation are presented. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Role of the Autonomic Nervous System in the Tumor Micro-Environment and its Therapeutic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhifang; Shioda, Seiji; Masahisa, Jinushi; Kawakami, Yutaka; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Lim, Huimin Calista; Wang, Shenjun; Zhao, Xue; Liu, Yangyang; Zhou, Dan; Guo, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Although evidence over the last 30 years suggests that the autonomic nervous system (ANS) mediates stress-induced allostatic and immune responses, the crucial role that it plays in the tumor micro-environment has only recently been reported. Here, we review the action of ANS signaling in this micro-environment. Emerging data suggest that primary tumors are innervated by the ANS which mediates stress-related effects on tumor progression. The activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) takes advantage of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides from the innervating neural circuitry and/or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis glucocorticoids via their receptors to modulate the gene expression associated with oncogenesis, the proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells, angiogenesis, and the tumor-associated immune response. The parasympathetic nervous system has also been implicated in some tumor types, but its contribution in the tumor micro-environment remains unclear. In addition to identifying the ANS signaling pathways involved in tumor progression, recent reports suggest that the ANS could be a potential biomarker to predict tumor progression, and have identified new pharmacological strategies, such as the use of β-adrenergic blockers, to inhibit tumor progression and metastasis by targeting this system. These findings are reviewed here. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. When do the symptoms of autonomic nervous system malfunction appear in patients with Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luka, Silvio R; Svetel, Marina; Pekmezović, Tatjana; Milovanović, Branislav; Kostić, Vladimir S

    2014-04-01

    Dysautonomia appears in almost all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in a certain stage of their condition. The aim of our study was to detect the development and type of autonomic disorders, find out the factors affecting their manifestation by analyzing the potential association with demographic variables related to clinical presentation, as well as the symptoms of the disease in a PD patient cohort. The patients with PD treated at the Clinic of Neurology in Belgrade during a 2-year period, divided into 3 groups were studied: 25 de novo patients, 25 patients already treated and had no long-term levodopa therapy-related complications and 22 patients treated with levodopa who manifested levodopa-induced motor complications. Simultaneously, 35 healthy control subjects, matched by age and sex, were also analyzed. Autonomic nervous system malfunction was defined by Ewing diagnostic criteria. The tests, indicators of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, were significantly different in the PD patients as compared with the controls, suggesting the failure of both systems. However, it was shown, in the selected groups of patients, that the malfunction of both systems was present in two treated groups of PD patients, while de novo group manifested only sympathetic dysfunction. For this reason, the complete autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed only in the treated PD patients, while de novo patients were defined as those with the isolated sympathetic dysfunction. The patients with the complete autonomic neuropathy differed from the subjects without such neuropathy in higher cumulative and motor unified Parkinson's disease rating score (UPDRS) (p nervous system disturbances among PD patients from the near onset of disease, with a predominant sympathetic nervous system involvement. The patients who developed complete autonomic neuropathy (both sympathetic and parasympathetic) were individuals with considerable level of functional failure, more severe clinical

  7. Fractals in the nervous system: conceptual implications for theoretical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    This essay is presented with two principal objectives in mind: first, to document the prevalence of fractals at all levels of the nervous system, giving credence to the notion of their functional relevance; and second, to draw attention to the as yet still unresolved issues of the detailed relationships among power-law scaling, self-similarity, and self-organized criticality. As regards criticality, I will document that it has become a pivotal reference point in Neurodynamics. Furthermore, I will emphasize the not yet fully appreciated significance of allometric control processes. For dynamic fractals, I will assemble reasons for attributing to them the capacity to adapt task execution to contextual changes across a range of scales. The final Section consists of general reflections on the implications of the reviewed data, and identifies what appear to be issues of fundamental importance for future research in the rapidly evolving topic of this review.

  8. Central nervous system paracoccidioidomycosis in an AIDS patient: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Vergara, Mario León; Rocha, Ivonete Helena; Vasconcelos, Rakel Rocha; Maltos, André Luiz; Neves, Fernando de Freitas; Teixeira, Luciana de Almeida Silva; Mora, Delio José

    2014-02-01

    Up to now, over 200 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) associated to HIV infection have already been reported; however, the central nervous system involvement in this coinfection was rarely reported. This paper presents a 35-year-old Brazilian male AIDS patient who developed pulmonary PCM successfully treated with itraconazole. At the antiretroviral therapy starting, he had 32 CD4(+) T cells baseline count and high viral load levels. After 9 months, he presented severe fungal meningoencephalitis diagnosed by sublenticular enhanced nodular lesion at computerized tomography and magnetic resonance brain imaging and a positive Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis smear and culture from cerebrospinal fluid. At the time, a sixfold increase in CD4(+) T cell count and undetectable viral load level were evidenced. The patient received amphotericin B during 1 year presenting slow but progressive clinical improvement, and he is currently asymptomatic and without neurological disabilities. To our knowledge, this is the second case report of a patient with neuroparacoccidioidomycosis associated to HIV infection.

  9. Monitoring In Patients With Infections Of Central Nervous System

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    Arunoday G R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of brain injury in infections of central nervous system (CNS are complex. While the primary injury may be due to meningeal and/or parenchymal invasion by the pathogen and release of toxins, a variety of secondary insults occur, which may influence the outcome as much as the primary insult. This concept is well recognized in brain trauma(1,2 where early recognition of secondary injuries and their appropriate treatment has been shown to improve outcome. Hypoxia, ischemia and metabolic disturbances are important secondary insults recognized in brain trauma, These are known to cause permanent neurological damage and worsening of outcome if undetected and untreated. In CNS infections, with their complex pathophysiologies, there is ample scope for such secondary insults. Monitoring in patients with CNS infections is to detect these secondary insults, allowing for a more informed approach to treatment.

  10. Central nervous system lymphoma: magnetic resonance imaging features at presentation

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    Ricardo Schwingel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed at studying presentations of the central nervous system (CNS lymphoma using structural images obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: The MRI features at presentation of 15 patients diagnosed with CNS lymphoma in a university hospital, between January 1999 and March 2011, were analyzed by frequency and cross tabulation. RESULTS: All patients had supratentorial lesions; and four had infra- and supratentorial lesions. The signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images was predominantly hypo- or isointense. In the T2 weighted images, single lesions were associated with a hypointense signal component. Six patients presented necrosis, all of them showed perilesional abnormal white matter, nine had meningeal involvement, and five had subependymal spread. Subependymal spread and meningeal involvement tended to occur in younger patients. CONCLUSION: Presentations of lymphoma are very pleomorphic, but some of them should point to this diagnostic possibility.

  11. Central nervous system hypoxia in children due to near drowning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, S.J.; Gerald, B.; Magill, H.L.; Tonkin, I.L.D.

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen children who experienced acute, profound central nervous system hypoxia secondary to near drowning, aspiration, or respiratory arrest underwent CT examination. During the first week after the episode, the most frequent finding was a loss of gray-white matter differentiation. Other findings included effacement of sulci and cisterns, focal areas of edema in the cerebral cortex or basal ganglia, and hemorrhagic infarctions of the basal ganglia. Subsequent CT scans obtained from two weeks to five months after the hypoxic episode showed progression of cerebral loss from cortical infarction with gyral hemorrhage and enhancement to global parenchymal atrophy. The prognosis is poor in these patients: seven children experienced severe neurologic deficits and seven died

  12. Congenital and acquired mitochondrial disorders of the central nervous system

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    V. V. Nikitina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical presentations of disorders of the nervous system manifest in young and middle-aged patients with congenital and acquired mitochondrial dysfunctions and cognitive disorders manifest in patients with mitochondrial diseases more often. Nowadays the effective methods of initial diagnosing of these conditions are neurological and neuropsychological examination of patients, using of biochemical markers of mitochondrial diseases: the indices of lactate, total homocysteine in plasma and liquor. Neuro-visual study (Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, MR spectroscopy, tractography, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, mitochondrial DNA typing is actually used for the differential diagnosing of mitochondrial diseases with other disorders that are accompanied by demyelinating disorders.

  13. Tendencies the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Jimenez Medina, Jose

    2004-01-01

    It is known that the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors is based on the use of surgery and radiotherapy (RT) and that chemotherapy (QMT) is used even more, as well as the other drugs. A bibliographic review was made to update the knowledge on the current trends and perspectives of RT applied to CNS tumors. The following were found among them: a) combinations of RT and CMT; b) radiosensitizers incorporated to the radiant treatment; c) angiogenesis inhibitors associated with RT; d) the scale-up or increase of the RT doses thanks to the development of new technologies, such as 3 D conformal radiotherapy, intensity- modulated radiotherapy, surgery and others. Another field of research is that of the changes in the rhythm or fractioning of the RT: hyperfractionated, accelerated, combinations of both, etc., which will allow mainly to increase the dosage scale-up

  14. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  15. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie

    2014-01-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals

  16. Central Nervous System (CNS Disease Triggering Takotsubo Syndrome

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    Josef Finsterer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo syndrome (TTS is usually triggered by psychological or physical stress. One of the many physical sources of stress are central nervous system (CNS disorders. CNS disorders most frequently triggering TTS include subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, migraine, and intracerebral bleeding. More rare CNS-triggers of TTS include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, encephalitis, or traumatic brain or spinal cord injury. TTS triggered by any of the CNS disorders needs to be recognized since adequate treatment of TTS may improve the general outcome from the CNS disorder as well. Neurologists need to be aware of TTS as a complication of specific CNS disorders but TTS may be triggered also by CNS disorders so far not recognised as causes of TTS.

  17. MRT of the central nervous system; MRT des Zentralnervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, M.; Jansen, O. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The book presents the state of the art of MRT imaging of the central nervous system. Detailed information is presented in order to provide sufficient knowledge for the medical diagnostician to discuss any case encountered at eye level with the clinical physician. The book is an indispensable reference manual and a quick orientation already during examination in difficult cases. It contains images made with the most recent technology and with excellent representation of details. Even rare findings are described in detail. The imaging principle is illustrated by more than 1000 pictures and graphical representations as well as more than 100 complementary tables. Findings are classified by regions, i.e. 'brain' and 'spinal cord', including anatomical descriptions. (orig.)

  18. Implication of coumarins towards central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Budzyńska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Coumarins are widely distributed, plant-derived, 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one derivatives which have attracted intense interest in recent years as a result of their diverse and potent pharmacological properties. Particularly, their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) have been established. The present review discusses the most important pharmacological effects of natural and synthetic coumarins on the CNS, including their interactions with benzodiazepine receptors, their dopaminergic and serotonergic affinity, and their ability to inhibit cholinesterases and monoamine oxidases. The structure-activity relationships pertaining to these effects are also discussed. This review posits that natural or synthetic coumarins have the potential for development in the therapy of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, schizophrenia, anxiety, epilepsy, and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Are astrocytes executive cells within the central nervous system?

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    Roberto E. Sica

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experimental evidence suggests that astrocytes play a crucial role in the physiology of the central nervous system (CNS by modulating synaptic activity and plasticity. Based on what is currently known we postulate that astrocytes are fundamental, along with neurons, for the information processing that takes place within the CNS. On the other hand, experimental findings and human observations signal that some of the primary degenerative diseases of the CNS, like frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s dementia, Huntington’s dementia, primary cerebellar ataxias and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of which affect the human species exclusively, may be due to astroglial dysfunction. This hypothesis is supported by observations that demonstrated that the killing of neurons by non-neural cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of those diseases, at both their onset and their progression. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that astrocytes might be involved in the pathogenesis of some psychiatric disorders as well.

  20. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Khono, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using human embryonal carcinoma (Ntera2=NT2) and Human neuroblastoma cell (NB1). They exposed to heavy ions and X ray 80% confluent cells in culture bottles. The cells were different type about growth and differentiation in the neuron. The apoptosis profile was measured by AnnexinV-EGFP, PI stained and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after carbon- or iron-ion irradiation. Memory functions were rapidly decreased after irradiation both ions. Iron -ion group were recovered 20 weeks after irradiation C-ion group were recovered 25 weeks after irradiation. Tier memory were still keep at over 100 weeks after irradiation. (author)

  1. Parkinson disease: the enteric nervous system spills its guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkinderen, P; Rouaud, T; Lebouvier, T; Bruley des Varannes, S; Neunlist, M; De Giorgio, R

    2011-11-08

    Lewy pathology in Parkinson disease (PD) extends well beyond the CNS, also affecting peripheral autonomic neuronal circuits, especially the enteric nervous system (ENS). The ENS is an integrative neuronal network also referred to as "the brain in the gut" because of its similarities to the CNS. We have recently shown that the ENS can be readily analyzed using routine colonic biopsies. This led us to propose that the ENS could represent a unique window to assess the neuropathology in living patients with PD. In this perspective, we discuss current evidence which indicates that the presence of ENS pathology may by exploited to improve our understanding and management of PD and likely other neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

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    Theodore S. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.

  3. Regenerative Therapies for Central Nervous System Diseases: a Biomaterials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Roger Y; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Mitrousis, Nikolaos; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a limited capacity to spontaneously regenerate following traumatic injury or disease, requiring innovative strategies to promote tissue and functional repair. Tissue regeneration strategies, such as cell and/or drug delivery, have demonstrated promising results in experimental animal models, but have been difficult to translate clinically. The efficacy of cell therapy, which involves stem cell transplantation into the CNS to replace damaged tissue, has been limited due to low cell survival and integration upon transplantation, while delivery of therapeutic molecules to the CNS using conventional methods, such as oral and intravenous administration, have been limited by diffusion across the blood–brain/spinal cord-barrier. The use of biomaterials to promote graft survival and integration as well as localized and sustained delivery of biologics to CNS injury sites is actively being pursued. This review will highlight recent advances using biomaterials as cell- and drug-delivery vehicles for CNS repair. PMID:24002187

  4. Optical cuff for optogenetic control of the peripheral nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Frédéric; Sottas, Loïc; Browne, Liam E.; Asboth, Léonie; Latremoliere, Alban; Sakuma, Miyuki; Courtine, Grégoire; Woolf, Clifford J.; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) contain axons with specific motor, somatosensory and autonomic functions. Optogenetics offers an efficient approach to selectively activate axons within the nerve. However, the heterogeneous nature of nerves and their tortuous route through the body create a challenging environment to reliably implant a light delivery interface. Approach. Here, we propose an optical peripheral nerve interface—an optocuff—, so that optogenetic modulation of peripheral nerves become possible in freely behaving mice. Main results. Using this optocuff, we demonstrate orderly recruitment of motor units with epineural optical stimulation of genetically targeted sciatic nerve axons, both in anaesthetized and in awake, freely behaving animals. Behavioural experiments and histology show the optocuff does not damage the nerve thus is suitable for long-term experiments. Significance. These results suggest that the soft optocuff might be a straightforward and efficient tool to support more extensive study of the PNS using optogenetics.

  5. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Concussion: Arterial Pulse Contour Analysis

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    Michael F La Fountaine

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The arterial pulse wave (APW has a distinct morphology whose contours reflect dynamics in cardiac function and peripheral vascular tone as a result of sympathetic nervous system (SNS control. With a transition from rest to increased metabolic demand, the expected augmentation of SNS outflow will not only affect arterial blood pressure and heart rate, it will also induce changes to the contours of the APW. Following a sports concussion, a transient state cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present. How this state affects the APW, has yet to be described. A prospective, parallel-group study on cardiovascular autonomic control (i.e., digital electrocardiogram and continuous beat-to-beat blood pressure was performed in the seated upright position in ten athletes with concussion and 7 non-injured control athletes. Changes in APW were compared at rest and during the first 60 seconds (F60 of an isometric handgrip test (IHGT in concussed athletes and non-injured controls within 48 hours (48hr and 1 week (1wk of injury. The concussion group was further separated by the length of time until they were permitted to return to play (RTP>1wk; RTP≤1wk. SysSlope, an indirect measurement of stroke volume, was significantly lower in the concussion group at rest and during F60 at 48hr and 1wk; a paradoxical decline in SysSlope occurred at each visit during the transition from rest to IHGT F60. The RTP>1wk group had lower SysSlope (405±200; 420±88; 454±236 mmHg/s, respectively at rest 48hr compared to the RTP≤1wk and controls. Similarly at 48hr rest, several measurements of arterial stiffness were abnormal in RTP>1wk compared to RTP≤1wk and controls: Peak-to-Notch Latency (0.12±0.04; 0.16±0.02; 0.17±0.05, respectively, Notch Relative Amplitude (0.70±0.03; 0.71±0.04; 0.66±0.14, respectively and Stiffness Index (6.4±0.2; 5.7±0.4; 5.8±0.5, respectively. Use of APW revealed that concussed athletes have a transient increase in peripheral artery

  6. A neurochemical map of the developing amphioxus nervous system

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    Candiani Simona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphioxus, representing the most basal group of living chordates, is the best available proxy for the last invertebrate ancestor of the chordates. Although the central nervous system (CNS of amphioxus comprises only about 20,000 neurons (as compared to billions in vertebrates, the developmental genetics and neuroanatomy of amphioxus are strikingly vertebrate-like. In the present study, we mapped the distribution of amphioxus CNS cells producing distinctive neurochemicals. To this end, we cloned genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and/or transporters of the most common neurotransmitters and assayed their developmental expression in the embryo and early larva. Results By single and double in situ hybridization experiments, we identified glutamatergic, GABAergic/glycinergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neurons in developing amphioxus. In addition to characterizing the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the developing amphioxus CNS, we observed that cholinergic and GABAergic/glycinergic neurons are segmentally arranged in the hindbrain, whereas serotonergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons are restricted to specific regions of the cerebral vesicle and the hindbrain. We were further able to identify discrete groups of GABAergic and glutamatergic interneurons and cholinergic motoneurons at the level of the primary motor center (PMC, the major integrative center of sensory and motor stimuli of the amphioxus nerve cord. Conclusions In this study, we assessed neuronal differentiation in the developing amphioxus nervous system and compiled the first neurochemical map of the amphioxus CNS. This map is a first step towards a full characterization of the neurotransmitter signature of previously described nerve cell types in the amphioxus CNS, such as motoneurons and interneurons.

  7. An Electerophisioligic Study Of Autonomic Nervous System In Diabetic Patients

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    Noorolahi Moghaddam H

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in diabetics can occur apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and sometimes leads to complaints which may be diagnosed by electrodiagnostic methods. Moreover glycemic control of these patients may prevent such a complications."nMaterials and Methods: 30 diabetic patients were compared to the same number of age and sex-matched controls regarding to electrophysiologic findings of autonomic nervous system. Symptoms referable to autonomic disorder including nightly diarrhea, dizziness, urinary incontinence, constipation, nausea, and mouth dryness were recorded in all diabetic patients. Palmar and plantar SSR and expiration to inspiration ratio (E: I and Valsalva ratio were recorded in all diabetics and control individuals by electromyography device. In addition NCS was performed on two sensory and two motor nerves in diabetic patients."nResults: There was no relation between age of diabetics and abnormal D: I ratio, Valsalva ratio and degree of electrophysiologic autonomic impairment. Also no relation between peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment was found. Plantar SSR was absent in 80% of diabetics with orthostatic hypotension (p~ 0.019. Palmar and plantar SSR were absent in many diabetics in comparison to control group (for palmar SSR p~ 0.00 and for plantar SSR p< 0.015. There was no relation between diabetes duration since diagnosis and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment."nConclusion: According to the above mentioned findings diabetic autonomic neuropathy develops apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and probably with different mechanisms. Remarkable absence of palmar SSR in diabetics with orthostatic hypotension can be due to its sympathetic origin. Absence of any relation between diabetes duration and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment can be due to late diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or no pathophysiologic relation between chronic

  8. Connexin32 expression in central and peripheral nervous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschenes, S.M.; Scherer, S.S.; Fischbeck, K.H. [Univ. of Pennslylvania, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Mutations have been identified in the gap junction gene, connexin32 (Cx32), in patients affected with the X-linked form of the demyelinating neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX). Gap junctions composed of Cx32 are present and developmentally regulated in a wide variety of tissues. In peripheral nerve, our immunohistochemical analysis localized Cx32 to the noncompacted myelin of the paranodal regions and the Schmidt-Lantermann incisures, where previous studies describe gap junctions. In contrast to the location of Cx32 in peripheral nerve and the usual restriction of clinical manifestations to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) (abstract by Paulson describes an exception), preliminary studies show that Cx32 is present in the compacted myelin of the central nervous system (CNS), as demonstrated by radial staining through the myelin sheath of oligodendrocytes in rat spinal cord. Analysis of Cx32 expression in various regions of rat CNS during development shows that the amount of Cx32 mRNA and protein increases as myelination increases, a pattern observed for other myelin genes. Studies in the PNS provide additional evidence that Cx32 and myelin genes are coordinately regulated at the transcriptional level; Cx32 and peripheral myelin gene PMP-22 mRNAs are expressed in parallel following transient or permanent nerve injury. Differences in post-translational regulation of Cx32 in the CNS and PNS may be indicated by the presence of a faster migrating form of Cs32 in cerebrum versus peripheral nerve. Studies are currently underway to determine the unique role of Cx32 in peripheral nerve.

  9. Auricular Acupuncture May Suppress Epileptic Seizures via Activating the Parasympathetic Nervous System: A Hypothesis Based on Innovative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that auricular acupuncture has a significant effect on inducing parasympathetic tone. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder consisting of recurrent seizures resulting from excessive, uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain. Autonomic imbalance demonstrating an increased sympathetic activity and a reduced parasympathetic activation is involved in the development and progress of epileptic seizures. Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system such as vagus nerve stimulation has been used for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Here, we propose that auricular acupuncture may suppress epileptic seizures via activating the parasympathetic nervous system.

  10. Auricular Acupuncture May Suppress Epileptic Seizures via Activating the Parasympathetic Nervous System: A Hypothesis Based on Innovative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Rong, Pei-Jing; Li, Liang; Ben, Hui; Zhu, Bing; Litscher, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that auricular acupuncture has a significant effect on inducing parasympathetic tone. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder consisting of recurrent seizures resulting from excessive, uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain. Autonomic imbalance demonstrating an increased sympathetic activity and a reduced parasympathetic activation is involved in the development and progress of epileptic seizures. Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system such as vagus nerve stimulation has been used for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Here, we propose that auricular acupuncture may suppress epileptic seizures via activating the parasympathetic nervous system.

  11. The TAM receptor Tyro3 regulates myelination in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermann, Rainer; Aprico, Andrea; Perera, Ashwyn A; Bujalka, Helena; Cole, Alistair E; Xiao, Junhua; Field, Judith; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Binder, Michele D

    2017-04-01

    Myelin is an essential component of the mammalian nervous system, facilitating rapid conduction of electrical impulses by axons, as well as providing trophic support to neurons. Within the central nervous system, the oligodendrocyte is the specialized neural cell responsible for producing myelin by a process that is thought to be regulated by both activity dependent and independent mechanisms but in incompletely understood ways. We have previously identified that the protein Gas6, a ligand for a family of tyrosine kinase receptors known as the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk) receptors, directly increases oligodendrocyte induced myelination in vitro. Gas6 can bind to and activate all three TAM receptors, but the high level of expression of Tyro3 on oligodendrocytes makes this receptor the principal candidate for transducing the pro-myelinating effect of Gas6. In this study, we establish that in the absence of Tyro3, the pro-myelinating effect of Gas6 is lost, that developmental myelination is delayed and that the myelin produced is thinner than normal. We show that this effect is specific to the myelination process and not due to changes in the proliferation or differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. We have further demonstrated that the reduction in myelination is due to the loss of Tyro3 on oligodendrocytes, and this effect may be mediated by activation of Erk1. Collectively, our findings indicate the critical importance of Tyro3 in potentiating central nervous system myelination. GLIA 2017 GLIA 2017;65:581-591. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Autonomic Nervous System in the Control of Energy Balance and Body Weight: Personal Contributions

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    G. Messina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the industrialized world, so that the World Health Organization considers obesity as a “pandemia” in rich populations. The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance and body weight. This review summarizes our own data and perspectives, emphasizing the influence exerted by autonomic nervous system on energy expenditure and food intake, which are able to determine the body weight. Activation of the sympathetic discharge causes an increase in energy expenditure and a decrease in food intake, while reduction of food intake and body weight loss determines a reduction of the sympathetic activity. On the other hand, pathophysiological mechanisms of the obesity involve alterations of the sympathetic nervous system in accordance with the “Mona Lisa Hypothesis,” an acronym for “most obesities known are low in sympathetic activity.” Furthermore, the parasympathetic influences on the energy expenditure are analyzed in this review, showing that an increase in parasympathetic activity can induce a paradoxical enhancement of energy consumption.

  13. Music Attenuated a Decrease in Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity after Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tiantian; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Miura, Misa; Ito, Osamu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Music and exercise can both affect autonomic nervous system activity. However, the effects of the combination of music and exercise on autonomic activity are poorly understood. Additionally, it remains unknown whether music affects post-exercise orthostatic tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music on autonomic nervous system activity in orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Twenty-six healthy graduate students participated in four sessions in a random order on four separate days: a sedentary session, a music session, a bicycling session, and a bicycling with music session. Participants were asked to listen to their favorite music and to exercise on a cycle ergometer. We evaluated autonomic nervous system activity before and after each session using frequency analysis of heart rate variability. High frequency power, an index of parasympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly increased in the music session. Heart rate was increased, and high frequency power was decreased, in the bicycling session. There was no significant difference in high frequency power before and after the bicycling with music session, although heart rate was significantly increased. Additionally, both music and exercise did not significantly affect heart rate, systolic blood pressure or also heart rate variability indices in the orthostatic test. These data suggest that music increased parasympathetic activity and attenuated the exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity without altering the orthostatic tolerance after exercise. Therefore, music may be an effective approach for improving post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, resulting in a faster recovery and a reduction in cardiac stress after exercise.

  14. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack eHawksley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics and one or more vocal (phonic tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS. Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an

  15. Long-term modulation of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system by spinal cord neurons in normal and ischaemic hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armour, JA; Linderoth, B; Arora, RC; DeJongste, MJL; Ardell, JL; Kingma, JG; Hill, M; Foreman, RD

    2002-01-01

    Electrical excitation of the dorsal aspect of the rostral thoracic spinal cord imparts long-term therapeutic benefits to patients with angina pectoris. Such spinal cord stimulation also induces short-term suppressor effects on the intrinsic cardiac nervous system. The purpose of this study was to

  16. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction and serum levels of neurotoxic and neurotrophic cytokines in patients with cobalamin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Çeneli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available neurotrophiccytokines epidermal growth factor (EGF and interleukin-6 (IL-6 plays a role in the pathogenesisof cobalamin (Cbl deficiency-induced neuropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomicnervous system dysfunction and to look for any relationship between autonomic nervous systemdisturbances and serum cytokine levels (TNF-

  17. Vascular supply of the central nervous system of the land snail Megalobulimus oblongus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    OpenAIRE

    Noblega, Hector Gabriel; Missaglia, Vivian; Stenert, Cristina; Heuser, Maria Cristina Faccioni; Achaval-Elena, Matilde

    2003-01-01

    The vascularization of the central nervous system of the snail Megalobulimus oblongus was studied by injection of carmine-gelatin solution into the arterial system and using a histochemical technique for the detection of alkaline phosphatase. The central nervous system of M. oblongus is irrigated by the anterior aorta, from which a series of small branches emerge that supply the subesophageal nervous ganglia. In turn, these branches give rise to a series of smaller vessels that irrigate the b...

  18. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Eijk, L.T.G.J. van; Zwaag, J.; Wildenberg, J. van den; Sweep, F.C.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot

  19. Marital conflict and children's externalizing behavior: interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Moore, Ginger A

    2009-01-01

    "Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS...

  20. Liposomal Conjugates for Drug Delivery to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Helm

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatments of central nervous system (CNS diseases often fail due to the blood–brain barrier. Circumvention of this obstacle is crucial for any systemic treatment of such diseases to be effective. One approach to transfer drugs into the brain is the use of colloidal carrier systems—amongst others, liposomes. A prerequisite for successful drug delivery by colloidal carriers to the brain is the modification of their surface, making them invisible to the reticuloendothelial system (RES and to target them to specific surface epitopes at the blood–brain barrier. This study characterizes liposomes conjugated with cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA as transport vectors in vitro in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC and in vivo in rats using fluorescently labelled liposomes. Experiments with PBCEC showed that sterically stabilized (PEGylated liposomes without protein as well as liposomes conjugated to native bovine serum albumin (BSA were not taken up. In contrast, cBSA-liposomes were taken up and appeared to be concentrated in intracellular vesicles. Uptake occurred in a concentration and time dependent manner. Free BSA and free cBSA inhibited uptake. After intravenous application of cBSA-liposomes, confocal fluorescence microscopy of brain cryosections from male Wistar rats showed fluorescence associated with liposomes in brain capillary surrounding tissue after 3, 6 and 24 h, for liposomes with a diameter between 120 and 150 nm, suggesting successful brain delivery of cationized-albumin coupled liposomes.

  1. West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro R. Winkelmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV, a neurotropic single-stranded flavivirus has been the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis worldwide.  Up to 50% of WNV convalescent patients in the United States were reported to have long-term neurological sequelae.  Neither antiviral drugs nor vaccines are available for humans.  Animal models have been used to investigate WNV pathogenesis and host immune response in humans.  In this review, we will discuss recent findings from studies in animal models of WNV infection, and provide new insights on WNV pathogenesis and WNV-induced host immunity in the central nervous system.

  2. Advanced in study of cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation effects on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Tu Yu; Wang Lili

    2008-01-01

    Along with radiation treatment extensively applied, radiation injury also is valued gradually. The effect of radiation to the cellular and molecular of central nervous system (CNS) is a complicated and moderately advanced process and the mechanism is remains incompletely clear yet. Inquiring into the possible mechanism of the CNS including the injury and the restoration of neuron, neuroglia cells, endotheliocyte cell and blood-brain barrier and the molecular level of change induced by radiation, so as to provide beneficial thought for preventing and curing radiation injury clinically. Some neuroprotective strategies are also addressed in the review. (authors)

  3. Metallothionein expression in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Espejo, C; Ortega-Aznar, A

    2003-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major chronic demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which oxidative stress likely plays a pathogenic role in the development of myelin and neuronal damage. Metallothioneins (MTs) are antioxidant proteins induced in the CNS...... by tissue injury, stress and some neurodegenerative diseases, which have been postulated to play a neuroprotective role. In fact, MT-I+II-deficient mice are more susceptible to developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and treatment of Lewis rats with Zn-MT-II reduces EAE severity. We show...

  4. Iron Homeostasis in Peripheral Nervous System, Still a Black Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveggia, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Iron is the most abundant transition metal in biology and an essential cofactor for many cellular enzymes. Iron homeostasis impairment is also a component of peripheral neuropathies. Recent Advances: During the past years, much effort has been paid to understand the molecular mechanism involved in maintaining systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. This has been stimulated by the evidence that iron dyshomeostasis is an initial cause of several disorders, including genetic and sporadic neurodegenerative disorders. Critical Issues: However, very little has been done to investigate the physiological role of iron in peripheral nervous system (PNS), despite the development of suitable cellular and animal models. Future Directions: To stimulate research on iron metabolism and peripheral neuropathy, we provide a summary of the knowledge on iron homeostasis in the PNS, on its transport across the blood–nerve barrier, its involvement in myelination, and we identify unresolved questions. Furthermore, we comment on the role of iron in iron-related disorder with peripheral component, in demyelinating and metabolic peripheral neuropathies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 634–648. PMID:24409826

  5. Paracoccidioidomycosis of the central nervous system: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacki, M.A. [Section of Neuroradiology, Service of Radiology, Sta Isabel Hospital, Sta Catarina (Brazil); Toni, G. de [University Hospital, Medical School of Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Borba, L.A. [Division of Neurosurgery, Sta Isabel Hospital, Blumenau, Sta Catarina (Brazil); Oliveira, G.G. [Division of Pathology, Sta Isabel Hospital, Blumenau, Sta Catarina (Brazil)

    1995-11-01

    A retrospective analisis of six cases of central nervous system paracoccidioidomycosis, all but one proven by biopsy and surgery, was carried out to study the CT and clinical data and pathological correlation. Most of the patients were from the country. Headache, vomiting, seizures and hemiparesis were the most frequent symptoms. Papilloedema was present in four patients with raised intracranial pressure. Five patients had chronic lung disease and two with advanced systemic disease, skin and mucous membrane lesions were also observed. The neurological disturbance was sometimes the presenting features and the diagnosis was discovered incidentally after surgery. Both solitary and multiple parenchymal lesions were observed and the cerebral hemispheres were more commonly involved in four patients. Local meningeal involvement was observed in one with a single cortical granuloma. We enphasise the usefulness of CT, showing a rounded or lobulated mass with an isodense or radiolucent centre after contrast enhancement, surrounded by an irregular wall of varying thickness. There was always moderate oedema, extending peripherally. Other infections or neoplastic diseases may present similar findings. Preoperative diagnosis should rest on integration of clinical data, chest films, laboratory and neuroimaging studies. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Hemostasis and Alterations of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Zoppo, Gregory J.; Izawa, Yoshikane; Hawkins, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of coagulation has been successfully applied to ischemic disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Some components of the coagulation system have been identified in the CNS, yet with limited exception their functions have not been clearly defined. Little is known about how events within the cerebral tissues affect hemostasis. Nonetheless, the interaction between cerebral cells and vascular hemostasis and the possibility that endogenous coagulation factors can participate in functions within the neurovascular unit provide intriguing possibilities for deeper insight into CNS functions and the potential for treatment of CNS injuries. Here, we consider the expression of coagulation factors in the CNS, the coagulopathy associated with focal cerebral ischemia (and its relationship to hemorrhagic transformation), the use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in ischemic stroke and its study in animal models, the impact of rt-PA on neuron and CNS structure and function, and matrix protease generation and matrix degradation and hemostasis. Interwoven among these topics is evidence for interactions of coagulation factors with and within the CNS. How activation of hemostasis occurs in the cerebral tissues and how the brain responds are difficult questions that offer many research possibilities. PMID:24166247

  7. Early development of chick embryo respiratory nervous system: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, R; Parisi Salvi, E; Renda, T

    2006-10-01

    The extrinsic and intrinsic respiratory nervous systems receive specific contributions from the vagal and sympathetic components. Using specific markers for vagal and sympathetic structures, we studied the distribution patterns of immunoreactivity to galanin (GAL), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP) and the tachykinin substance P in extrinsic and intrinsic nerve of chick embryo respiratory system, during development from the very early age to hatching. All peptides studied appeared in the intrinsic and extrinsic nervous systems early. We found substance P in both the vagal and sympathetic systems, PACAP in vagal components alone and GAL mainly in the sympathetic system. The intrinsic nervous system showed high immunoreactivity for all peptides studied. These data accord with the well known early trophic functions that peptides have on the development of nervous networks and modulatory activity on the intrinsic nervous system. The GAL again proves to be the main peptide in chick embryo sympathetic respiratory system.

  8. Distribution of the Endocannabinoid System in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sherry Shu-Jung; Mackie, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system consists of endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), the enzymes that synthesize and degrade endocannabinoids, and the receptors that transduce the effects of endocannabinoids. Much of what we know about the function of endocannabinoids comes from studies that combine localization of endocannabinoid system components with physiological or behavioral approaches. This review will focus on the localization of the best-known components of the endocannabinoid system for which the strongest anatomical evidence exists.

  9. Peripheral nervous system insulin resistance in ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Caleb W; Groover, Anna L; Ryals, Janelle M; Geiger, Paige C; Feldman, Eva L; Wright, Douglas E

    2013-05-10

    A reduction in peripheral nervous system (PNS) insulin signaling is a proposed mechanism that may contribute to sensory neuron dysfunction and diabetic neuropathy. Neuronal insulin resistance is associated with several neurological disorders and recent evidence has indicated that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in primary culture display altered insulin signaling, yet in vivo results are lacking. Here, experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the PNS of insulin-resistant mice displays altered insulin signal transduction in vivo. For these studies, nondiabetic control and type 2 diabetic ob/ob mice were challenged with an intrathecal injection of insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and downstream signaling was evaluated in the DRG and sciatic nerve using Western blot analysis. The results indicate that insulin signaling abnormalities documented in other "insulin sensitive" tissues (i.e. muscle, fat, liver) of ob/ob mice are also present in the PNS. A robust increase in Akt activation was observed with insulin and IGF-1 stimulation in nondiabetic mice in both the sciatic nerve and DRG; however this response was blunted in both tissues from ob/ob mice. The results also suggest that upregulated JNK activation and reduced insulin receptor expression could be contributory mechanisms of PNS insulin resistance within sensory neurons. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that alterations in insulin signaling occur in the PNS and may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy.

  10. Central nervous system and cervical spine abnormalities in Apert syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breik, Omar; Mahindu, Antony; Moore, Mark H; Molloy, Cindy J; Santoreneos, Stephen; David, David J

    2016-05-01

    Apert syndrome characterized by acrocephalosyndactyly is a rare autosomal dominant congenital malformation with a prevalence of 1/65,000 births. With an extensive range of phenotypic and developmental manifestations, its management requires a multidisciplinary approach. A variety of craniofacial, central nervous system (CNS), and cervical spine abnormalities have been reported in these patients. This study aimed to determine the incidence of these CNS abnormalities in our case series. Retrospective review of Australian Craniofacial Unit (ACFU) database for Apert patients was performed. Data collected that included demographics, place of origin, age at presentation, imaging performed, and images were reviewed and recorded. Where available, developmental data was also recorded. Ninety-four patients seen and managed at the ACFU had their CNS and cervical spine abnormalities documented. The main CNS abnormalities were prominent convolutional markings (67 %), ventriculomegaly (48 %), crowded foramen magnum (36 %), deficient septum pellucidum (13 %), and corpus callosum agenesis in 11 %. Major C-spine findings were present in 50.8 % of patients and included fusion of posterior elements of C5/C6 (50 %) and C3/4 (27 %). Multilevel fusion was seen in 20 %. Other abnormalities were C1 spina bifida occulta (7 %) and atlanto-axial subluxation (7 %). Multiple CNS and cervical spine (c-spine) abnormalities are common in Apert syndrome. The significance of these abnormalities remains largely unknown. Further research is needed to better understand the impact of these findings on growth, development, and treatment outcomes.

  11. Fractal Structure and Entropy Production within the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. E. Seely

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to explore the relationship between two traditionally unrelated concepts, fractal structure and entropy production, evaluating both within the central nervous system (CNS. Fractals are temporal or spatial structures with self-similarity across scales of measurement; whereas entropy production represents the necessary exportation of entropy to our environment that comes with metabolism and life. Fractals may be measured by their fractal dimension; and human entropy production may be estimated by oxygen and glucose metabolism. In this paper, we observe fractal structures ubiquitously present in the CNS, and explore a hypothetical and unexplored link between fractal structure and entropy production, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism. Rapid increase in both fractal structures and metabolism occur with childhood and adolescent growth, followed by slow decrease during aging. Concomitant increases and decreases in fractal structure and metabolism occur with cancer vs. Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis, respectively. In addition to fractals being related to entropy production, we hypothesize that the emergence of fractal structures spontaneously occurs because a fractal is more efficient at dissipating energy gradients, thus maximizing entropy production. Experimental evaluation and further understanding of limitations and necessary conditions are indicated to address broad scientific and clinical implications of this work.

  12. Maternal rearing environment impacts autonomic nervous system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda; Capitanio, John P

    2017-05-01

    While it is now well known that social deprivation during early development permanently perturbs affective responding, accumulating evidence suggests that less severe restriction of the early social environment may also have deleterious effects. In the present report, we evaluate the affective responding of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) infants raised by their mothers in restricted social environments or by their mothers in large social groups by indexing autonomic nervous system activity. Following a 25-hr evaluation of biobehavioral organization, electrocardiogram, and an index of respiration were recorded for 10 min. This allowed for an evaluation of both heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of parasympathetic activity, during a challenging situation. Three- to four-month-old infants raised in restricted social environments had significantly higher heart rates and lower RSA as compared to infants raised in unrestricted social environments, consistent with a more potent stress response to the procedure. These results are consistent with mounting evidence that the environment in which individuals are raised has important consequences for affective processing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Complexity of autonomic nervous system function in individuals with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Manata Vanzella

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate autonomic modulation in individuals with COPD, compared with healthy controls, via recurrence plots (RPs and linear heart rate variability (HRV indices. Methods: We analyzed data on 74 volunteers, who were divided into two groups: COPD (n = 43 and control (n = 31. For calculation of HRV indices, heart rate was measured beat-by-beat during 30 min of supine rest using a heart-rate meter. We analyzed linear indices in the time and frequency domains, as well as indices derived from the RPs. Results: In comparison with the control group, the COPD group showed significant increases in the indices derived from the RPs, as well as significant reductions in the linear indices in the time and frequency domains. No significant differences were observed in the linear indices in the frequency domains expressed in normalized units or in the low frequency/high frequency ratio. Conclusions: Individuals with COPD show a reduction in both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, associated with decreased complexity of autonomic nervous system function, as identified by RPs, which provide important complementary information in the detection of autonomic changes in this population.

  14. Delayed cell death signaling in traumatized central nervous system: hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Danielle; Qiu, JingXin; Grafe, Marjorie; Fabian, Roderick; Kent, Thomas A; Rassin, David; Nesic, Olivera; Werrbach-Perez, Karin; Perez-Polo, Regino

    2002-02-01

    There are two different ways for cells to die: necrosis and apoptosis. Cell death has traditionally been described as necrotic or apoptotic based on morphological criteria. There are controversy about the respective roles of apoptosis and necrosis in cell death resulting from trauma to the central nervous system (CNS). An evaluation of work published since 1997 in which electron microscopy was applied to ascertain the role of apoptosis and necrosis in: spinal cord injury, stroke, and hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) showed evidence for necrosis and apoptosis based on DNA degradation, presence of histones in cytoplasm, and morphological evidence in spinal cord. In the aftermath of stroke, many of the biochemical markers for apoptosis were present but the morphological determinations suggested that necrosis is the major source of post-traumatic cell death. This was not the case in H/I where both biochemical assays and the morphological studies gave more consistent results in a manner similar to the spinal cord injury studies. After H/I, major factors affecting cell death outcomes are DNA damage and repair processes, expression of bcl-like gene products and inflammation-triggered cytokine production.

  15. Frequency of central nervous system tumors in delta region, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled R Zalata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim of Work: Central nervous system (CNS tumors represent a major public health problem, and their epidemiological data in Egypt have been rather incomplete except for some regional reports. There are no available frequency-based data on CNS tumors in our locality. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CNS tumors in east delta region, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The data were collected during the 8-year period from January 1999 to December 2007 from Pathology Department, Mansoura University, and other referred pathology labs. Examination of HandE stained sections from retrieved paraffin blocks were done in all cases for histopathologic categorization of C.N.S. tumors. Immunohistochemical studies were applied to confirm final histopathologic diagnosis in problematic cases. Results: Intracranial tumors represented 86.7% of cases in comparison to only 13.3% for spinal tumors. Gliomas were the CNS tumors of the highest frequency (35.2%, followed by meningioma (25.6%, pituitary adenoma (11.6% and nerve sheath tumors (6.6%. 10.25% of tumors were of children <15 years. Conclusion: This study provides the largest series of the relative frequency of CNS tumors in Delta region in Egypt till now and may help to give insight into the epidemiology of CNS tumors in our locality.

  16. The role of the nervous system in fish evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Hofmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in the evolution and adaptation of animals. All sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive abilities are organized in the brain and spinal cord. Volumetric measurements of different brain regions were made in more than 150 species of ray finned fishes as well as in several outgroups. In Actanthopterygii, the hypothalamus shows greatest enlargement most likely due to an enormous visual input via the nucleus glomerulosos. The telencephalon is highly differentiated in many acanthopterygii, mostly coral reef species, but its relative size is not much effected. There is, however, a clear shift from olfactory to visual functions in ray finned fishes. In species with a highly differentiated telencephalon, the area where place memory may be located is very prominent. In basal ray finned fishes, lungfish, amphibia and elasmobranchs, the olfactory bulb is relatively large and the ratio of the olfactory bulb and telencephalon large as well. This holds also for elopomorpha and spiny eels, but in most other groups vision dominates. Apart from differences between larger clades, variation in brain architecture are also seen in closely related species and even between sexes of the same species. Profound differences are present in the cerebellum between male and female swordtails and in the telencephalon of sticklebacks. Morphometric analysis of brain architecture turned out to be an important tool to study the evolution and adaptations of the brain in fishes.

  17. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial; Kantarjian, Hagop; Allen, Pamela; Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow; O'Brien, Susan; Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D.; Thomas, Deborah A.; Gidley, Paul W.; Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement

  18. Natalizumab-Associated Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Menarvia; Menger, Richard P; Kalakoti, Piyush; Thakur, Jai Deep; Dossani, Rimal H; Sharma, Kanika; Nanda, Anil; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2018-01-01

    Natalizumab, a selective adhesion molecule inhibitor binding to an α-4 subunit of integrin, has emerged to be an effective immunomodulator, especially in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and Crohn disease. Recent reports documenting the development of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) as a result of its administration have been concerning, and they trigger a debate about a possible causal association. In our report, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature on lymphoma development after natalizumab use, and we report an additional case of PCNSL development in a young woman who received natalizumab for her Crohn disease. A systematic (qualitative) review of literature on lymphoma development after natalizumab therapy was performed by use of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Data on patient characteristics, indication for drug therapy, dosages, radiologic findings, potential risk factors for PCNSL, and tumor markers were synthesized. Additionally, we present the findings from the case of a young woman who received natalizumab therapy (4 doses, 300 mg each) for Crohn disease and in whom PCNSL developed. Overall, 8 reports including our index case document lymphoma development after natalizumab use. Our case finding revisits the debate suggesting a remote possibility of association that warrants further evaluation and validation. Evidence documenting a causal association of natalizumab and PCNSL is weak. Considering the potential benefits of using natalizumab for current indications, we recommend vigilant monitoring of patients receiving the drug for PCNSL outlook. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Nervous system development and regeneration in freshwater planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kelly G; Currie, Ko W; Pearson, Bret J; Zayas, Ricardo M

    2017-05-01

    Planarians have a long history in the fields of developmental and regenerative biology. These animals have also sparked interest in neuroscience due to their neuroanatomy, spectrum of simple behaviors, and especially, their almost unparalleled ability to generate new neurons after any type of injury. Research in adult planarians has revealed that neuronal subtypes homologous to those found in vertebrates are generated from stem cells throughout their lives. This feat is recapitulated after head amputation, wherein animals are capable of regenerating whole brains and regaining complete neural function. In this review, we summarize early studies on the anatomy and function of the planarian nervous system and discuss our present knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing neurogenesis in planarians. Modern studies demonstrate that the transcriptional programs underlying neuronal specification are conserved in these remarkable organisms. Thus, planarians are outstanding models to investigate questions about how stem cells can replace neurons in vivo. WIREs Dev Biol 2017, 6:e266. doi: 10.1002/wdev.266 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kantarjian, Hagop [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow [Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Brien, Susan [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Deborah A. [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gidley, Paul W. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  1. The Central Nervous in system Rhabdoid tumor primitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manana, G.; Bernachin, J.; Waskoff, S.; Panuncio, A.

    2004-01-01

    Primitive Rhabdoid tumors of the Central Nervous system are entities of very low frequency and since 1942 is the first event observed in a total of 16,000 cases studied in the Laboratory of Neuropathology, Clinical Hospital. Until 2003 were described 118 case in the literature. The case is about the 3 years old child with no previous medical history consulted for 3 months with headaches, repeated vomiting, irritability and non specific abnormal gait. On examination is found a physical waking depression and great hydrocephalus in V I bilateral pair so is submitted to a emergency surgery. RMI CT and MRI performed reveals large frontal tumor that reaches the oval center with cystic and calcifications areas. Three days after is operates for the intraventricular tumor without post operative complications. Receive chemotherapy and the patient died 2 years later. The neuro pathological and ultrastructural study reveals a Rhabdoid malignancy brain tumor of grade IV as well as were analyzed histopathological and ultrastructural aspects of this entity

  2. Spike Frequency Adaptation in Neurons of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Go Eun; Cheong, Eunji

    2017-08-01

    Neuronal firing patterns and frequencies determine the nature of encoded information of the neurons. Here we discuss the molecular identity and cellular mechanisms of spike-frequency adaptation in central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Calcium-activated potassium (K Ca ) channels such as BK Ca and SK Ca channels have long been known to be important mediators of spike adaptation via generation of a large afterhyperpolarization when neurons are hyper-activated. However, it has been shown that a strong hyperpolarization via these K Ca channels would cease action potential generation rather than reducing the frequency of spike generation. In some types of neurons, the strong hyperpolarization is followed by oscillatory activity in these neurons. Recently, spike-frequency adaptation in thalamocortical (TC) and CA1 hippocampal neurons is shown to be mediated by the Ca 2+ -activated Cl- channel (CACC), anoctamin-2 (ANO2). Knockdown of ANO2 in these neurons results in significantly reduced spike-frequency adaptation accompanied by increased number of spikes without shifting the firing mode, which suggests that ANO2 mediates a genuine form of spike adaptation, finely tuning the frequency of spikes in these neurons. Based on the finding of a broad expression of this new class of CACC in the brain, it can be proposed that the ANO2-mediated spike-frequency adaptation may be a general mechanism to control information transmission in the CNS neurons.

  3. Effects of radiation on development, especially of the nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, S.P.; D'Amato, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    Humans and other organisms are exposed to ionizing radiations from a variety of natural and man-made sources. Radiation may cause mutations and chromosome abnormalities, cell-killing, alterations and transformations in cell growth, and carcinogenetic changes. This paper considers principally the cell-killing and nonlethal cell alterations in developing laboratory mammals and humans, especially the nervous system, that follow irradiation and often lead to malformation and disturbed function, but at certain stages to restitution of the injury. Most of what researchers know about the mechanisms of these radiation effects in man is derived from animal experiments, especially with rats. The few observations in humans have corresponded closely to them. Researchers illustrate the cellular effects and malformative results with an example of cell-killing in the developing cortex of a human fetus exposed to therapeutic radiation in utero; a current timetable of the malformative and other effects of radiation on rats during development from which expectations of human effects might be extrapolated; examples of hydrocephalus produced in rats; low-dose alterations of nerve cells in rats; and a microcephalic Japanese boy exposed in utero to the atomic bomb at Hiroshima in 1945

  4. Cholesterol: Its Regulation and Role in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Orth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a major constituent of the human brain, and the brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ. Numerous lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins are expressed in the brain. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between the major brain cells and is essential for normal brain development. The metabolism of brain cholesterol differs markedly from that of other tissues. Brain cholesterol is primarily derived by de novo synthesis and the blood brain barrier prevents the uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol from the circulation. Defects in cholesterol metabolism lead to structural and functional central nervous system diseases such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Niemann-Pick type C disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. These diseases affect different metabolic pathways (cholesterol biosynthesis, lipid transport and lipoprotein assembly, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein receptors, and signaling molecules. We review the metabolic pathways of cholesterol in the CNS and its cell-specific and microdomain-specific interaction with other pathways such as the amyloid precursor protein and discuss potential treatment strategies as well as the effects of the widespread use of LDL cholesterol-lowering drugs on brain functions.

  5. Clinical Proton MR Spectroscopy in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Jeffry R.; Barker, Peter B.; Bartha, Robert; Bizzi, Alberto; Boesch, Chris; Bolan, Patrick J.; Brindle, Kevin M.; Cudalbu, Cristina; Dinçer, Alp; Dydak, Ulrike; Emir, Uzay E.; Frahm, Jens; González, Ramón Gilberto; Gruber, Stephan; Gruetter, Rolf; Gupta, Rakesh K.; Heerschap, Arend; Henning, Anke; Hetherington, Hoby P.; Howe, Franklyn A.; Hüppi, Petra S.; Hurd, Ralph E.; Kantarci, Kejal; Klomp, Dennis W. J.; Kreis, Roland; Kruiskamp, Marijn J.; Leach, Martin O.; Lin, Alexander P.; Luijten, Peter R.; Marjańska, Małgorzata; Maudsley, Andrew A.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Pan, Jullie W.; Peet, Andrew C.; Poptani, Harish; Posse, Stefan; Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Ross, Brian D.; Scheenen, Tom W. J.; Schuster, Christian; Smith, Ian C. P.; Soher, Brian J.; Tkáč, Ivan; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Kauppinen, Risto A.

    2014-01-01

    A large body of published work shows that proton (hydrogen 1 [1H]) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy has evolved from a research tool into a clinical neuroimaging modality. Herein, the authors present a summary of brain disorders in which MR spectroscopy has an impact on patient management, together with a critical consideration of common data acquisition and processing procedures. The article documents the impact of 1H MR spectroscopy in the clinical evaluation of disorders of the central nervous system. The clinical usefulness of 1H MR spectroscopy has been established for brain neoplasms, neonatal and pediatric disorders (hypoxia-ischemia, inherited metabolic diseases, and traumatic brain injury), demyelinating disorders, and infectious brain lesions. The growing list of disorders for which 1H MR spectroscopy may contribute to patient management extends to neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, and stroke. To facilitate expanded clinical acceptance and standardization of MR spectroscopy methodology, guidelines are provided for data acquisition and analysis, quality assessment, and interpretation. Finally, the authors offer recommendations to expedite the use of robust MR spectroscopy methodology in the clinical setting, including incorporation of technical advances on clinical units. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24568703

  6. Fetal central nervous system anomalies: fast MRI vs ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenzhong; Xia Liming; Yang Minjie; Feng Dingyi; Hu Junwu; Zou Mingli; Wang Chengyuan; Chen Xinlin; Yang Xiaohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of fast MRI to detect fetal central nervous system (CNS) anomalies and to compare its performance with that of prenatal ultrasonography (US). Methods Forty-eight pregnant women were detected by conventional prenatal US and MRI. Twenty-two fetuses with CNS anomalies were conformed by autopsy and follow-up. The MR and US appearances of fetal CNS structure were compared to each other and to that of autopsy. Results: A total of 26 CNS anomalies were identified by autopsy (n=17) and follow-up (n=9) including anencephaly (n=6), rachischisis (n=2), encephalocele (n=3), congenital hydrocephalus (n=7), alobar holoprosencephaly (n=1), porencephalia (n=3), arachnoid cyst (n=2) and choroids plexus cyst (n=2). US diagnosed 24 CNS anomalies, the correct diagnostic rate was 92.3%, the false-positive rate was 3.8%, the missed-diagnostic rate was 3.8%. MRI diagnosed 23 CNS anomalies, the correct-diagnostic rate was 88.5%, the false-positive rate was 3.8% ,the missed-diagnostic rate was 7.7%. There was no difference between US and MRI (P>0.05), but MRI have larger FOV, higher tissues resolution, and can demonstrate gray-white matter in detail. Conclusions: MR imaging has a similar sensitivity to that of US in the detection of fetal CNS anomalies. (authors)

  7. The autonomic nervous system regulates postprandial hepatic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinstroop, Eveline; la Fleur, Susanne E; Ackermans, Mariette T; Foppen, Ewout; Wortel, Joke; Kooijman, Sander; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Rensen, Patrick C N; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2013-05-15

    The liver is a key organ in controlling glucose and lipid metabolism during feeding and fasting. In addition to hormones and nutrients, inputs from the autonomic nervous system are also involved in fine-tuning hepatic metabolic regulation. Previously, we have shown in rats that during fasting an intact sympathetic innervation of the liver is essential to maintain the secretion of triglycerides by the liver. In the current study, we hypothesized that in the postprandial condition the parasympathetic input to the liver inhibits hepatic VLDL-TG secretion. To test our hypothesis, we determined the effect of selective surgical hepatic denervations on triglyceride metabolism after a meal in male Wistar rats. We report that postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations were significantly elevated in parasympathetically denervated rats compared with control rats (P = 0.008), and VLDL-TG production tended to be increased (P = 0.066). Sympathetically denervated rats also showed a small rise in postprandial triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.045). On the other hand, in rats fed on a six-meals-a-day schedule for several weeks, a parasympathetic denervation resulted in >70% higher plasma triglycerides during the day (P = 0.001), whereas a sympathetic denervation had no effect. Our results show that abolishing the parasympathetic input to the liver results in increased plasma triglyceride levels during postprandial conditions.

  8. Central nervous system infection following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanajiri, Ryo; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Kosuke; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watakabe, Kyoko; Murata, Yutaka; Hagino, Takeshi; Seno, Yasushi; Najima, Yuho; Igarashi, Aiko; Doki, Noriko; Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Ohashi, Kazuteru

    2017-03-01

    Here, we described the clinical characteristics and outcomes of central nervous system (CNS) infections occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in a single institution over the previous 6 years. Charts of 353 consecutive allogeneic transplant recipients were retrospectively reviewed for CNS infection. A total of 17 cases of CNS infection were identified at a median of 38 days (range, 10-1028 days) after allo-HSCT. Causative pathogens were human herpesvirus-6 (n=6), enterococcus (n=2), staphylococcus (n=2), streptococcus (n=2), varicella zoster virus (n=1), cytomegalovirus (n=1), John Cunningham virus (n=1), adenovirus (n=1), and Toxoplasma gondii (n=1). The cumulative incidence of CNS infection was 4.1% at 1 year and 5.5% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that high-risk disease status was a risk factor for developing CNS infection (p=.02), and that overall survival at 3 years after allo-HSCT was 33% in patients with CNS infection and 53% in those without CNS infection (p=.04). Copyright © 2016 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Dementia in Patients with Central Nervous System Mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Ishihara, Masaki; Konno, Michiko

    2016-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. One of the major difficulties in accurate diagnosis is to detect the pathogen in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures. Thus, the clinical diagnosis is often made by combining circumstantial evidence, including mononuclear cell-dominant pleocytosis with low glucose and protein elevation in the CSF, as well as positive results from an antigen-based assay and a (1-3)-beta-D-glucan assay using plasma and/or CSF. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics, which are not performed as routine examinations and are mostly performed as part of academic research in Japan, are sensitive tools for the early diagnosis of CNS mycosis. Mognetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to assess the complications of fungal meningitis, such as abscess, infarction, and hydrocephalus. Clinicians should realize the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic tools. Early and accurate diagnosis, including identification of the particular fungal species, enables optimal antifungal treatment that produces good outcomes in patients with CNS mycosis.

  10. Central Nervous System Histoplasmosis in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyalakonda, Harita; Albuerne, Marisol; Suazo Hernandez, Lia Patricia; Sarria, Juan C

    2016-02-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) by Histoplasma capsulatum in AIDS is uncommon and not easily recognized. CNS histoplasmosis cases from our institution were identified by a retrospective chart review from 2004-2014. A thorough literature search was performed for additional cases and their characteristics were compared. Clinical findings, treatment and outcomes are discussed. A total of 5 cases from our institution were identified. They had a clinical presentation that included classic signs of meningitis, often with evidence of disseminated involvement, and was typically severe with important neurological impairment. These cases were treated with antifungal agents, including a lipid amphotericin B formulation and azole drugs, but eventually 3 experienced nonresolution of their disease likely because of lack of adherence to therapy and died from their infection. The clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of these cases did not significantly differ from cases found in the review of the literature. Clinicians practicing in endemic areas should be aware of this rare but serious form of histoplasmosis. The recognition of 5 cases of CNS histoplasmosis in AIDS patients from a single institution suggests that histoplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of the CNS complications of AIDS. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanotechnologies for the study of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajetunmobi, A; Prina-Mello, A; Volkov, Y; Corvin, A; Tropea, D

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. MRI findings of central nervous system granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Man; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Ik Soo; Cho, Kwan Soo

    1997-01-01

    To characterize MRI findings of central nervous system (CNS) granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) and to analyse the points which differentiate it from other CNS tumors. We evaluated MRI in six patients with CNS granulocytic sarcoma proven by surgery or bone marrow biopsy (intracranical, one case and spine five cases). A 0.5T superconductive MR machine was used for diagnosis and, axial, coronal and sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin echo images and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained. We retrospectively analized the location, signal intensity, margin, contrast enhancement and homogeneity, and bony change around the tumor. MRI findings of CNS granulocytic sarcomas were as follows : one tumor was seen to be an extra-axial mass in the posterior fossa of the brain, four were epidural, and one was an epidural and presacral masses in the spine;tumor magins were lobulated and three were smooth. On T1-weighted images, all tumors were of isoignal intensity;on T2-weighted images, four were of isosignal intersity and two were of high signal intensity. Contrast enhancement was inhomogeneous in five of six cases. Bony change around the tumor was seen in two cases. On T1-weighted images, CNS granulocytic sarcomas (chloromas) were of isosignal intensity, relative to brain parenchyma or spinal cord;on T2-weighted images, they were of iso or high signal intensity, with relative contrast enhancement. These points could be useful in differentiating them from other CNS tumors

  13. Prenatal irradiation: radioinduced apoptosis in developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.; Perez, M.R.; Barboza, M.

    1998-01-01

    Severe mental retardation (SMR) is the most significant effect of prenatal irradiation. The high radiosensitivity of developing brain is related with the chronology of morpho genetic phenomena regarding neuroblast proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration, synaptogenesis and dendritic arborization. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) normally occurs during development in central nervous system (CNS). Apoptosis is a direct result of the expression of specific genes with a final common pathway leading to a characteristic DNA fragmentation pattern. A wide variety of situations and toxic agents have been reported to result in apoptotic death in developing CNS. The aim of this work was the characterization and quantification of apoptosis using an in vitro model of prenatal irradiation. Primary cell cultures from rat brain cortex of 17 days g.a. were irradiated with a gamma source, with doses between 0.2 Gy to 2 Gy. Apoptosis was evaluated 4 hours and 20 hours after irradiation by hematoxylin/eosin, fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and DNA electrophoresis. It was also evaluated the neuro protective effect of L-NAME, SOD and glutathion. A dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell fraction was observed. A protector effect related with the presence of glutathion was observed. (author) [es

  14. Nanotechnologies for the study of the central nervous system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajetunmobi, A

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders.

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes knowledge of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Disease pathogenesis, detection of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis and prognosis, and approaches to therapy warrant consideration. HSV infection of the CNS is one of few treatable viral diseases. Clinical trials indicate that outcome following neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the CNS is significantly improved when 6 months of suppressive oral acyclovir therapy follows IV antiviral therapy. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections of the brain do not benefit from extended oral antiviral therapy. This implies a difference in disease pathogenesis between HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections of the brain. PCR detection of viral DNA in the CSF is the gold standard for diagnosis. Use of PCR is now being adopted as a basis for determining the duration of therapy in the newborn. HSV infections are among the most common encountered by humans; seropositivity occurs in 50% to 90% of adult populations. Herpes simplex encephalitis, however, is an uncommon result of this infection. Since no new antiviral drugs have been introduced in nearly 3 decades, much effort has focused on learning how to better use acyclovir and how to use existing databases to establish earlier diagnosis.

  16. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Schindler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS.

  17. Glial biomarkers in human central nervous system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Gwenn A; Campbell, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    There is a growing understanding that aberrant GLIA function is an underlying factor in psychiatric and neurological disorders. As drug discovery efforts begin to focus on glia-related targets, a key gap in knowledge includes the availability of validated biomarkers to help determine which patients suffer from dysfunction of glial cells or who may best respond by targeting glia-related drug mechanisms. Biomarkers are biological variables with a significant relationship to parameters of disease states and can be used as surrogate markers of disease pathology, progression, and/or responses to drug treatment. For example, imaging studies of the CNS enable localization and characterization of anatomical lesions without the need to isolate tissue for biopsy. Many biomarkers of disease pathology in the CNS involve assays of glial cell function and/or response to injury. Each major glia subtype (oligodendroglia, astroglia and microglia) are connected to a number of important and useful biomarkers. Here, we describe current and emerging glial based biomarker approaches for acute CNS injury and the major categories of chronic nervous system dysfunction including neurodegenerative, neuropsychiatric, neoplastic, and autoimmune disorders of the CNS. These descriptions are highlighted in the context of how biomarkers are employed to better understand the role of glia in human CNS disease and in the development of novel therapeutic treatments. GLIA 2016;64:1755-1771. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Metabolic disorders of purine metabolism affecting the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, H A; Sabina, Richard L; Van Den Berghe, Georges

    2013-01-01

    The purines are a group of molecules used by all cells for many vital biochemical processes including energy-requiring enzymatic reactions, cofactor-requiring reactions, synthesis of DNA or RNA, signaling pathways within and between cells, and other processes. Defects in some of the enzymes of purine metabolism are known to be associated with specific clinical disorders, and neurological problems may be a presenting sign or the predominant clinical problem for several of them. This chapter describes three disorders for which the clinical features and metabolic basis are well characterized. Deficiency of adenylosuccinate-lyase (ADSL) causes psychomotor retardation, epilepsy, and autistic features. Lesch-Nyhan disease is caused by deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and is characterized by hyperuricemia, motor and cognitive disability, and self-injurious behavior. Deficiency of myoadenylate deaminase (mAMPD) is associated with myopathic features. In addition to these disorders, several other disorders are briefly summarized. These include defects of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PND), deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK), or IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Each of these disorders provides an unusual window on the unique importance of purine metabolism for function of different parts of the nervous system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of microbiome in central nervous system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Kasper, Lloyd H.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals live in a co-evolutionary association with the plethora of microorganisms that reside at a variety of tissue microenvironments. The microbiome represents the collective genomes of these co-existing microorganisms, which is shaped by host factors such as genetics and nutrients but in turn is able to influence host biology in health and disease. Niche-specific microbiome, prominently the gut microbiome, has the capacity to effect both local and distal sites within the host. The gut microbiome has played a crucial role in the bidirectional gut-brain axis that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities, and thus the concept of microbiome-gut-brain axis is emerging. Studies are revealing how diverse forms of neuro-immune and neuro-psychiatric disorders are correlated with or modulated by variations of microbiome, microbiota-derived products and exogenous antibiotics and probiotics. The microbiome poises the peripheral immune homeostasis and predisposes host susceptibility to CNS autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Neural, endocrine and metabolic mechanisms are also critical mediators of the microbiome-CNS signaling, which are more involved in neuro-psychiatric disorders such as autism, depression, anxiety, stress. Research on the role of microbiome in CNS disorders deepens our academic knowledge about host-microbiome commensalism in central regulation and in practicality, holds conceivable promise for developing novel prognostic and therapeutic avenues for CNS disorders. PMID:24370461

  20. Central nervous system radiation injury in small animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogel, A.J. van der

    1991-01-01

    Experimental studies on radiation injury in the central nervous system have been carried out in many species ranging from mouse to monkey. This review is restricted to studies in rodents irradiated with low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. In this paper, the various rodent models of brain and spinal cord injury are described with particular emphasis on the pathology of different types of lesions and theories of their pathogenesis. Many of the initial studies were limited to relatively high single doses, but in later work more clinically relevant fractionated irradiation schemes were employed. This has led to the recognition of various types of early and late delayed injury that are analogous to the syndromes observed in humans. Two main pathways have been suggested for the pathogenesis, one involving predominantly the progressive loss of glial cells and the other involving vascular injury. The relative importance of both mechanisms will be discussed with respect to treatment conditions and to dose level in particular. An hypothesis is presented concerning the possible role of different cell types in the development of specific syndromes

  1. Diffusion imaging in pediatric central nervous system infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, J. [Dept. de Imagiologia, Hospital Geral De Santo Antonio, Porto (Portugal); Zimmerman, R.A.; Haselgrove, J.C.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the role of diffusion imaging (DI) in central nervous system (CNS) infections in pediatric patients. It was anticipated that DI would be more sensitive than conventional MRI in the detection of the infarctive complications of infection, and possibly, in the detection of the infectious process as well. Seventeen pediatric patients, eight having meningitis'' five with herpes encephalitis, three with brain abscess or cerebritis and one with sepsis, were evaluated at 1.5-T with DI. All herpes patients had positive DI at the site of herpetic involvement, and two had the addition of watershed infarctions. DI demonstrated more lesions in three of the four cases of herpetic encephalitis. Half the meningitis cases had watershed infarction where DI was better and half had vasculitic infarctions in which DI was equal to or better than conventional MRI. Diffusion imaging was more sensitive than conventional MRI alone in detection of changes due to infections and ischemic lesions, but did not differentiate between them by DI or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), although anatomic distribution of lesions proved useful. (orig.)

  2. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Liu Cuihua; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2003-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using mouse neonatal brain cells in culture exposed to heavy ions and X ray at fifth days of the culture. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and the survivability of neurons focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains with different genetic types, and linear energy transfer (LET) of the different nucleons. Of the three mouse strains tested, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), B6 and C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive and C3H the least sensitive to both X-ray and carbon ion (290 MeV/n) when compared by 10% apoptotic induction. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID cells exposing to different ions, (X, C, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed at higher dose than 1 Gy, an enhancement was observed in the high LET region and at lower dose than 0.5 Gy. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after localized carbon- or iron-ion irradiation to hippocampus area. (author)

  3. A Review on Central Nervous System Effects of Gastrodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoma Gastrodiae (also known as Tian ma, the dried rhizome of Gastrodia elata Blume, is a famous Chinese herb that has been traditionally used for the treatment of headache, dizziness, spasm, epilepsy, stoke, amnesia and other disorders for centuries. Gastrodin, a phenolic glycoside, is the main bioactive constituent of Rhizoma Gastrodiae. Since identified in 1978, gastrodin has been extensively investigated on its pharmacological properties. In this article, we reviewed the central nervous system (CNS effects of gastrodin in preclinical models of CNS disorders including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, affective disorders, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, cognitive impairment as well as the underlying mechanisms involved and, where possible, clinical data that support the pharmacological activities. The sources and pharmacokinetics of gastrodin were also reviewed here. As a result, gastrodin possesses a broad range of beneficial effects on the above-mentioned CNS diseases, and the mechanisms of actions include modulating neurotransmitters, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, suppressing microglial activation, regulating mitochondrial cascades, up-regulating neurotrophins, etc. However, more detailed clinical trials are still in need for positioning it in the treatment of neurological disorders.

  4. Peripheral nervous system insulin resistance in ob/ob mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A reduction in peripheral nervous system (PNS) insulin signaling is a proposed mechanism that may contribute to sensory neuron dysfunction and diabetic neuropathy. Neuronal insulin resistance is associated with several neurological disorders and recent evidence has indicated that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in primary culture display altered insulin signaling, yet in vivo results are lacking. Here, experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the PNS of insulin-resistant mice displays altered insulin signal transduction in vivo. For these studies, nondiabetic control and type 2 diabetic ob/ob mice were challenged with an intrathecal injection of insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and downstream signaling was evaluated in the DRG and sciatic nerve using Western blot analysis. Results The results indicate that insulin signaling abnormalities documented in other “insulin sensitive” tissues (i.e. muscle, fat, liver) of ob/ob mice are also present in the PNS. A robust increase in Akt activation was observed with insulin and IGF-1 stimulation in nondiabetic mice in both the sciatic nerve and DRG; however this response was blunted in both tissues from ob/ob mice. The results also suggest that upregulated JNK activation and reduced insulin receptor expression could be contributory mechanisms of PNS insulin resistance within sensory neurons. Conclusions These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that alterations in insulin signaling occur in the PNS and may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24252636

  5. Effects of heavy particle irradiation on central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Kumie; Nakadai, Taeko; Khono, Yukio; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2004-01-01

    Effects of low dose heavy particle radiation to central nervous system were studied using mouse neonatal brain cells in culture exposed to heavy ions and X ray at fifth days of the culture. The subsequent biological effects were evaluated by an induction of apoptosis and the survivability of neurons focusing on the dependencies of the animal strains with different genetic types, and linear energy transfer (LET) of the different nucleons. Of the three mouse strains tested, SCID, B6, B6C3F1 and C3H, used for brain cell culture, SCID was the most sensitive. Radiation sensitivity of these cells ware SCID>B6>B6C3F1>C3H to both X-ray and carbon ion (290 MeV/n) when compared by 10% apoptotic induction. The LET dependency was compared with using SCID cells exposing to different ions, (X, C, Si, Ar, and Fe). Although no detectable LET dependency was observed at higher dose than 1 Gy, an enhancement was observed in the high LET region and at lower dose than 0.5 Gy. The survivability profiles of the neurons were different in the mouse strains and ions. Memory and learning function of adult mice were studied using water maze test after localized carbon- or iron-ion irradiation to hippocampus area. Memory function were rapidly decrease after irradiation both ions. C-ion group were recovered 20 weeks after irradiation, but Iron group were different. (author)

  6. Tartrazine and the developing nervous system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, T J; Brodie, R E; Spaid, S L

    1977-05-01

    Rat dams were exposed to the artificial food color tartrazine (FD&C Yellow no. 5) at dietary levels of 0, 1, and 2% during gestation and lactation. The experimental offspring were continued on the same diets for approximately 3 months after weaning. No adverse physical or behavioral effects were noted in the dams. Fetal development and postnatal viability of the offspring were also normal. The only effect on postnatal development of the central nervous system (CNS) was a small transient change in neuromotor clinging ability of female offspring. The limited effect of tartrazine on the CNS was further evidenced by the facts that (1) the neurobehavioral profiles of the experimental weanlings revealed no significant abnormalities, and (2) morphochemical analysis of brain tissue, as well as brain weights, revealed no abnormalities. Tartrazine did appear to exert more general signs of toxicity in the offspring--namely, depressed body weight, an apparent reduction in thymus weight, and a slight elevation of red blood cells and hemoglobin.

  7. Motor execution detection based on autonomic nervous system responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Riener, Robert; Zimmermann, Raphael; Lambercy, Olivier; Edelmann, Janis; Fluet, Marie-Christine; Gassert, Roger; Wolf, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Triggered assistance has been shown to be a successful robotic strategy for provoking motor plasticity, probably because it requires neurologic patients’ active participation to initiate a movement involving their impaired limb. Triggered assistance, however, requires sufficient residual motor control to activate the trigger and, thus, is not applicable to individuals with severe neurologic injuries. In these situations, brain and body–computer interfaces have emerged as promising solutions to control robotic devices. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of a body–machine interface to detect motion execution only monitoring the autonomic nervous system (ANS) response. Four physiological signals were measured (blood pressure, breathing rate, skin conductance response and heart rate) during an isometric pinching task and used to train a classifier based on hidden Markov models. We performed an experiment with six healthy subjects to test the effectiveness of the classifier to detect rest and active pinching periods. The results showed that the movement execution can be accurately classified based only on peripheral autonomic signals, with an accuracy level of 84.5%, sensitivity of 83.8% and specificity of 85.2%. These results are encouraging to perform further research on the use of the ANS response in body–machine interfaces. (paper)

  8. Toxic Effects of Mercury on the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernandes Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. This exposure is more common than expected, and the health consequences of such exposure remain unclear. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities, and now, exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Many studies show that high exposure to mercury induces changes in the central nervous system, potentially resulting in irritability, fatigue, behavioral changes, tremors, headaches, hearing and cognitive loss, dysarthria, incoordination, hallucinations, and death. In the cardiovascular system, mercury induces hypertension in humans and animals that has wide-ranging consequences, including alterations in endothelial function. The results described in this paper indicate that mercury exposure, even at low doses, affects endothelial and cardiovascular function. As a result, the reference values defining the limits for the absence of danger should be reduced.

  9. Toxic Effects of Mercury on the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Azevedo, Bruna; Barros Furieri, Lorena; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra; Frizera Vassallo, Paula; Ronacher Simões, Maylla; Fiorim, Jonaina; Rossi de Batista, Priscila; Fioresi, Mirian; Rossoni, Luciana; Stefanon, Ivanita; Alonso, María Jesus; Salaices, Mercedes; Valentim Vassallo, Dalton

    2012-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. This exposure is more common than expected, and the health consequences of such exposure remain unclear. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities, and now, exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Many studies show that high exposure to mercury induces changes in the central nervous system, potentially resulting in irritability, fatigue, behavioral changes, tremors, headaches, hearing and cognitive loss, dysarthria, incoordination, hallucinations, and death. In the cardiovascular system, mercury induces hypertension in humans and animals that has wide-ranging consequences, including alterations in endothelial function. The results described in this paper indicate that mercury exposure, even at low doses, affects endothelial and cardiovascular function. As a result, the reference values defining the limits for the absence of danger should be reduced. PMID:22811600

  10. Studying the pathophysiologic connection between cardiovascular and nervous systems using stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Volkan; Lombardo, Dawn M

    2016-12-01

    The cardiovascular and nervous systems are deeply connected during development, health, and disease. Both systems affect and regulate the development of each other during embryogenesis and the early postnatal period. Specialized neural crest cells contribute to cardiac structures, and a number of growth factors released from the cardiac tissue (e.g., glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin, nerve growth factor, Neurotrophin-3) ensure proper maturation of the incoming parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons. Physiologically, the cardiovascular and nervous systems operate in harmony to adapt to various physical and emotional conditions to maintain homeostasis through sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Moreover, neurocardiac regulation involves a neuroaxis consisting of cortex, amygdala, and other subcortical structures, which have the ability to modify lower-level neurons in the hierarchy. Given the interconnectivity of cardiac and neural systems, when one undergoes pathological changes, the other is affected to a certain extent. In addition, there are specific neurocardiac diseases that affect both systems simultaneously, such as Huntington disease, Lewy body diseases, Friedreich ataxia, congenital heart diseases, Danon disease, and Timothy syndrome. Over the last decade, in vitro modeling of neurocardiac diseases using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has provided an invaluable opportunity to elevate our knowledge about the brain-heart connection, since previously primary cardiomyocytes and neurons had been extremely difficult to maintain long-term in vitro. Ultimately, the ability of iPSC technology to model abnormal functional phenotypes of human neurocardiac disorders, combined with the ease of therapeutic screening using this approach, will transform patient care through personalized medicine in the future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. International society of neuropathology-haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louis, D.N.; Perry, A.; Burger, P.; Ellison, D.W.; Reifenberger, G.; Deimling, A. Von; Aldape, K.; Brat, D.; Collins, V.P.; Eberhart, C.; Figarella-Branger, D.; Fuller, G.N.; Giangaspero, F.; Giannini, C.; Hawkins, C.; Kleihues, P.; Korshunov, A.; Kros, J.M.; Lopes, M. Beatriz; Ng, H.K.; Ohgaki, H.; Paulus, W.; Pietsch, T.; Rosenblum, M.; Rushing, E.; Soylemezoglu, F.; Wiestler, O.; Wesseling, P.

    2014-01-01

    Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of

  12. 76 FR 44595 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee...

  13. 75 FR 36428 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  14. 77 FR 20037 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  15. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: is absence of intratumoral hemorrhage a characteristic finding on MRI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Akihiko; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Dodo, Toshiki; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that intratumoral hemorrhage is a common finding in glioblastoma multi-forme, but is rarely observed in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Our aim was to reevaluate whether intratumoral hemorrhage observed on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) as gross intratumoral hemorrhage and on susceptibility-weighted imaging as intratumoral susceptibility signal can differentiate primary central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. A retrospective cohort of brain tumors from August 2008 to March 2013 was searched, and 58 patients (19 with primary central nervous system lymphoma, 39 with glioblastoma multiforme) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage was examined on T2WI, and an intratumoral susceptibility signal was graded using a 3-point scale on susceptibility-weighted imaging. Results were compared between primary central nervous system lymphoma and glioblastoma multiforme, and values of P central nervous system lymphoma and 23 patients (59%) with glioblastoma multiforme. Absence of gross intratumoral hemorrhage could not differentiate between the two disorders (P = 0.20). However, intratumoral susceptibility signal grade 1 or 2 was diagnostic of primary central nervous system lymphoma with 78.9% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity (P central nervous system lymphoma from glioblastoma multiforme. However, specificity in this study was relatively low, and primary central nervous system lymphoma cannot be excluded based solely on the presence of an intratumoral susceptibility signal.

  16. 78 FR 63481 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  17. 76 FR 3912 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  18. 78 FR 63478 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  19. 78 FR 20328 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  20. 75 FR 12768 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  1. 75 FR 17417 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  2. Cardiac sympathetic nervous system imaging with (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine: Perspectives from Japan and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, K.; Scholte, A.; Nakata, T.; Dimitriu-Leen, A.C.; Chikamori, T.; Vitola, J.V.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac sympathetic nervous system dysfunction is closely associated with risk of serious cardiac events in patients with heart failure (HF), including HF progression, pump-failure death, and sudden cardiac death by lethal ventricular arrhythmia. For cardiac sympathetic nervous system imaging,

  3. [Panarteritis nodosa: infection of the central nervous system with headache and clinical symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H

    1981-01-29

    Headache in various forms is frequent in panarteritis nodosa and possibly is an early symptom of affection of the central nervous system. 2 typical cases are described. In up to 13% of patients with panarteritis nodosa the central nervous system is affected, the forms of the disease are described as well as development of prognosis under today's therapy.

  4. Of Scaredy Cats and Cold Fish: The autonomic nervous system and behaviour in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dierckx (Bram)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal functions. The goal of this regulation is to maintain bodily homeostasis in a changing external environment. The autonomic nervous system acts largely independent of volition and controls heart rate,

  5. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  6. Central nervous system involvement in childhood HIV: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Perez, A.; Otero, C.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the neuroradiological findings disclosed by CT on children infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to analyze the different radiological changes observed in the presence and absence of HIV encephalopathy. Fifty-one children with vertically transmitted HIV infection were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of neurological changes (groups I and II, respectively). All the patients underwent cranial CT at different phases during the course of the disease. The presence of cerebral atrophy, calcifications of the basal ganglia, lesions involving white matter, opportunistic infections, vascular lesions and tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) was assessed. Neurological signs were observed in 17 patients (group I) and were absent in 34 (group II). Seventy percent of the patients in group I presented abnormal cranial CT findings, the most common of which were cerebral atrophy (58.8%) and calcifications of the basal ganglia (47%). One patient presented focal white matte lesions, another had hemorrhagic infarction and subdural hematoma and a third presented aneurysmal dilation of the intracerebral arteries. The rate of mortality in children with encephalopathy was 82.3%. Of the 34 patients in group II, Three (8.8%) presented an increase in the size of the ventricular system and of the subarachnoid space. Neuroradiological changes are frequently observed in children with HIV encephalopathy. Diffuse cerebral atrophy and calcification of the basal ganglia and periventricular white matter are the most common findings. Although cerebral atrophy can precede the development of encephalopathy, its presence generally coincides with neurological deterioration. The onset of neurological signs in HIV-infected patients indicates a very poor prognosis for the outcome of the disease. (Author) 32 refs

  7. Neuroregulatory properties of substance P in the enteric nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Its presence in intrinsic neurons of the gut, combined with its potent biological effects on this tissue, suggest that endogenous SP may play a role in the physiological regulation of gastrointestinal function. SP elicits potent, atropine-resistant contractions of guinea-pig ileum which mimic the effects of high-frequency electrical field stimulation. In addition, SP-like immunoreactivity was found to be released from segments of guinea-pig ileum in a calcium-dependent fashion by electrical stimulation. A SP radioligand binding assay was developed in order to characterize SP receptors in the rat gut. /sup 3/H-SP binds with specificity and high-affinity to membranes of rat small intestine; Scatchard plots of saturation data are curved, indicating the presence of multiple binding sites. The K/sub D/ for the high-affinity site is 0.25 nM as determined by computerized non-linear least squares analysis. Specific binding is linear with protein, dependent on temperature, and reversible. The rate constants for association and dissociation of 0.5 nm /sup 3/H-SP are: value derived form these constants, 0.34nM, agrees well with K/sub D/ derived from Scatchard plots. The rank order of potency for various tachykinins in inhibiting /sup 3/H-SP binding indicates that the high-affinity site is a P-type tachykinin receptor. Specific /sup 3/H-SP binding is modulated in a dose-related fashion by guanine nucleotides; a reduction in binding is seen which can be largely attributed to an increase in the rate of dissociation of /sup 3/H-SP in the presence of GTP. This suggests that the binding site is a receptor linked to an effector system by a GTP-binding protein.

  8. Paracoccidioidomycosis case series with and without central nervous system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Sousa Pietra Pedroso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is the most important systemic mycosis in South America. Central nervous system involvement is potentially fatal and can occur in 12.5% of cases. This paper aims to contribute to the literature describing eight cases of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPMC and compare their characteristics with patients without neurological involvement, to identify unique characteristics of NPCM. METHODS: A cohort of 213 PCM cases was evaluated at the Infectious Diseases Clinic of the University Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from October 1976 to August 2008. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, therapeutic and follow-up data were registered. RESULTS: Eight patients presented NPCM. The observed NPCM prevalence was 3.8%. One patient presented the subacute form of PCM and the other seven presented the chronic form of the disease. The parenchymatous form of NPCM occurred in all patients. 60% of the patients who proceeded from the north/ northeast region of Minas Gerais State developed NPCM. The neurological involvement of a mother and her son was observed. NPCM patients exhibited demographical and clinical profiles similar to what is described in the literature. When NPCM cases were compared to PCM patients, there were differences in relation to origin and positive PCM family history. CONCLUSIONS: The results corroborate the clinical view that the neurological findings are extremely important in the evaluation of PCM patients. Despite the limitations of this study, the differences in relation to patient's origins and family history point to the need of further studies to determine the susceptibility factors involved in the neurological compromise.

  9. New insights on NOX enzymes in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayernia, Zeynab; Jaquet, Vincent; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2014-06-10

    There is increasing evidence that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the central nervous system (CNS) involves the NOX family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases. Controlled ROS generation appears necessary for optimal functioning of the CNS through fine-tuning of redox-sensitive signaling pathways, while overshooting ROS generation will lead to oxidative stress and CNS disease. NOX enzymes are not only restricted to microglia (i.e. brain phagocytes) but also expressed in neurons, astrocytes, and the neurovascular system. NOX enzymes are involved in CNS development, neural stem cell biology, and the function of mature neurons. While NOX2 appears to be a major source of pathological oxidative stress in the CNS, other NOX isoforms might also be of importance, for example, NOX4 in stroke. Globally speaking, there is now convincing evidence for a role of NOX enzymes in various neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and psychosis-related disorders. The relative importance of specific ROS sources (e.g., NOX enzymes vs. mitochondria; NOX2 vs. NOX4) in different pathological processes needs further investigation. The absence of specific inhibitors limits the possibility to investigate specific therapeutic strategies. The uncritical use of non-specific inhibitors (e.g., apocynin, diphenylene iodonium) and poorly validated antibodies may lead to misleading conclusions. Physiological and pathophysiological studies with cell-type-specific knock-out mice will be necessary to delineate the precise functions of NOX enzymes and their implications in pathomechanisms. The development of CNS-permeant, specific NOX inhibitors will be necessary to advance toward therapeutic applications.

  10. Central nervous system pathology in pediatric AIDS: an autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, D W; Belman, A L; Park, Y D; Wiley, C; Horoupian, D S; Llena, J; Kure, K; Lyman, W D; Morecki, R; Mitsudo, S

    1989-01-01

    The neuropathologic findings of brains and spinal cords removed at autopsy from 26 infants and children with AIDS is described; in two cases, only the spinal cords were available. The most common finding in the brains was dystrophic calcification of blood vessels of all calibers in the basal ganglia and deep cerebral white matter (21 og 24 cases). The next most frequent finding was subacute encephalitis (SE) (15 of 24 cases) with microglial nodules and multinulceated giant cells. Immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization studies showed HIV antigen or genetic sequences only in the brains of cases with SE. Multinucleated giants cells (MGC) were the most frequent cells with reaction products. MGC were labeled with ricinus lectin (RCA), but not with leukocyte common antigen (LCA) or glial fibrillary acidic protein. Many cells in microglial nodules were labeled with RCA, but not LCA; cells in the perivascular compartment were labeled with LCA, but not RCA. Corticospinal tract degeneration was noted in 15 of 20 spinal cords. In six cases tract degeneration was consistent with delayed myelination, and the remaining cases had axonal injury consistent with Wallerian degeneration. Opportunistic infections were rare (three cases). Central nervous system lymphoma occurred in three children and was the most common mass lesion. In two cases lymphoma occurred in the setting of a systemic polyclonal immunoproliferation possibly related to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Cerebrovascular accidents were noted in seven cases. Two cases had hemorrhage associated with immune thrombocytopenia; one hemorrhage was catastrophic. Two children had large vessel arteriopathy with multiple encephalomalacias. Two children had a necrotizing encephalopathy with encephalomalacia and vascular changes suggestive of a mitochondrial cytopathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Neuroregulatory properties of substance P in the enteric nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Its presence in intrinsic neurons of the gut, combined with its potent biological effects on this tissue, suggest that endogenous SP may play a role in the physiological regulation of gastrointestinal function. SP elicits potent, atropine-resistant contractions of guinea-pig ileum which mimic the effects of high-frequency electrical field stimulation. In addition, SP-like immunoreactivity was found to be released from segments of guinea-pig ileum in a calcium-dependent fashion by electrical stimulation. A SP radioligand binding assay was developed in order to characterize SP receptors in the rat gut. 3 H-SP binds with specificity and high-affinity to membranes of rat small intestine; Scatchard plots of saturation data are curved, indicating the presence of multiple binding sites. The K/sub D/ for the high-affinity site is 0.25 nM as determined by computerized non-linear least squares analysis. Specific binding is linear with protein, dependent on temperature, and reversible. The rate constants for association and dissociation of 0.5 nm 3 H-SP are: value derived form these constants, 0.34nM, agrees well with K/sub D/ derived from Scatchard plots. The rank order of potency for various tachykinins in inhibiting 3 H-SP binding indicates that the high-affinity site is a P-type tachykinin receptor. Specific 3 H-SP binding is modulated in a dose-related fashion by guanine nucleotides; a reduction in binding is seen which can be largely attributed to an increase in the rate of dissociation of 3 H-SP in the presence of GTP. This suggests that the binding site is a receptor linked to an effector system by a GTP-binding protein

  12. Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanambakkam, Adanma; Ibrahimi, Sami; Bilal, Khalid; Cherry, Mohamad A

    2018-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS EMZBL) is a rare disease. We present a review of the literature and describe its presentation, differential diagnosis, treatment options, and outcomes. Systematic search of PubMed, Medline, and Embase databases via the Ovid engine for primary articles and case reports yielded 37 unduplicated peer-reviewed articles of CNS EMZBL. We identified 69 cases in these articles and 1 unreported case at our institution, which were included for this review's analysis. Median age at diagnosis was 55 years (range, 18-78 years), with a female preponderance of 77% (n = 54). Most common presenting symptoms were headache in 43% (n = 30), seizures in 31% (n = 22), and visual defects in 27% (n = 19). The most common treatment modalities were localized therapies, which were provided to 67% (n = 47) of cases. These included radiotherapy in 27% (n = 19), radiotherapy with surgery in 24% (n = 17), and surgery alone in 16% (n = 11). Ninety percent (n = 63) of patients had a median follow-up of 23 months. Complete remission was experienced by 77% (n = 49) patients, and 22% (n = 14) were alive with disease. Three patients had evidence of relapse, and one patient died. CNS EMZBL is an indolent, low-grade, radiosensitive lymphoma with good treatment outcomes and prognosis. It is an important differential to consider in extra-axial dural-based masses. Individualized management plans, with preference given to localized treatment options, should be considered after factoring in the site and extent of disease, its resectability, and the expected adverse effects of systemic therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lost among the trees? The autonomic nervous system and paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Corinne A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been strikingly neglected in Western medicine. Despite its profound importance for regulation, adjustment and coordination of body systems, it lacks priority in training and practice and receives scant attention in numerous major textbooks. The ANS is integral to manifestations of illness, underlying familiar physical and psychological symptoms. When ANS activity is itself dysfunctional, usual indicators of acute illness may prove deceptive. Recognising the relevance of the ANS can involve seeing the familiar through fresh eyes, challenging assumptions in clinical assessment and in approaches to practice. Its importance extends from physical and psychological well-being to parenting and safeguarding, public services and the functioning of society. Exploration of its role in conditions ranging from neurological, gastrointestinal and connective tissue disorders, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome, to autism, behavioural and mental health difficulties may open therapeutic avenues. The ANS offers a mechanism for so-called functional illnesses and illustrates the importance of recognising that 'stress' takes many forms, physical, psychological and environmental, desirable and otherwise. Evidence of intrauterine and post-natal programming of ANS reactivity suggests that neonatal care and safeguarding practice may offer preventive opportunity, as may greater understanding of epigenetic change of ANS activity through, for example, accidental or psychological trauma or infection. The aim of this article is to accelerate recognition of the importance of the ANS throughout paediatrics, and of the potential physical and psychological cost of neglecting it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  15. How the immune and nervous systems interact during disease-associated anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsman, J P; Dantzer, R

    2001-01-01

    Anorexia is one of the most common symptoms associated with illness and constitutes an adaptive strategy in fighting acute infectious diseases. However, prolonged reduction in food intake and an increase in metabolic rate, as seen in the anorexia-cachexia syndrome, lead to depletion of body fat and protein reserves, thus worsening the organism's condition. Because the central nervous system controls many aspects of food intake, soluble factors known as cytokines that are secreted by immune cells might act on the brain to induce anorexia during disease. This review focuses on the communication pathways from the immune system to the brain that might mediate anorexia during disease. The vagus nerve is a rapid route of communication from the immune system to the brain, as subdiaphragmatic vagotomy attenuates the decrease in food-motivated behavior and c-Fos expression in the central nervous system in response to peripheral administration of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1beta, or bacterial lipopolysaccharide. At later time points after peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration, interleukin-1 itself acts in the brain to mediate anorexia and is found in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. The mechanisms by which interleukin-1beta gains access to the brain and the potential role of neuropeptide-Y-containing neurons in the arcuate hypothalamus in mediating anorexia during disease are discussed.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 in central nervous system inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wullschleger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL-6 is recognised as an important cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. OBJECTIVE: To perform a large retrospective study designed to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-6 levels in the context of neurological diseases, and evaluate its usefulness as a biomarker to help discriminate multiple sclerosis (MS from other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 374 CSF samples for IL-6 using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Groups tested were composed of demyelinating diseases of the CNS (DD, n = 117, including relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, n = 65, primary progressive MS (PPMS, n = 11, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, n = 11, optic neuritis (ON, n = 30; idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM, n = 10; other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND, n = 35; and non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND, n = 212. Differences between groups were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: CSF IL-6 levels exceeded the positivity cut-off of 10 pg/ml in 18 (51.4% of the 35 OIND samples, but in only three (3.9% of the 76 MS samples collected. CSF IL-6 was negative for all NIND samples tested (0/212. IL-6 cut-off of 10 pg/ml offers 96% sensitivity to exclude MS. CONCLUSION: CSF IL-6 may help to differentiate MS from its major differential diagnosis group, OIND.

  17. Microtubules in health and degenerative disease of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Andrew J; Baas, Peter W

    2016-09-01

    Microtubules are essential for the development and maintenance of axons and dendrites throughout the life of the neuron, and are vulnerable to degradation and disorganization in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Microtubules, polymers of tubulin heterodimers, are intrinsically polar structures with a plus end favored for assembly and disassembly and a minus end less favored for these dynamics. In the axon, microtubules are nearly uniformly oriented with plus ends out, whereas in dendrites, microtubules have mixed orientations. Microtubules in developing neurons typically have a stable domain toward the minus end and a labile domain toward the plus end. This domain structure becomes more complex during neuronal maturation when especially stable patches of polyaminated tubulin become more prominent within the microtubule. Microtubules are the substrates for molecular motor proteins that transport cargoes toward the plus or minus end of the microtubule, with motor-driven forces also responsible for organizing microtubules into their distinctive polarity patterns in axons and dendrites. A vast array of microtubule-regulatory proteins impart direct and indirect changes upon the microtubule arrays of the neuron, and these include microtubule-severing proteins as well as proteins responsible for the stability properties of the microtubules. During neurodegenerative diseases, microtubule mass is commonly diminished, and the potential exists for corruption of the microtubule polarity patterns and microtubule-mediated transport. These ill effects may be a primary causative factor in the disease or may be secondary effects, but regardless, therapeutics capable of correcting these microtubule abnormalities have great potential to improve the status of the degenerating nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in human nervous system tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grizzi, Fabio; Baena, Riccardo Rodriguez y; Dioguardi, Nicola; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Gaetani, Paolo; Franceschini, Barbara; Di Ieva, Antonio; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Ceva-Grimaldi, Giorgia; Bollati, Angelo; Frezza, Eldo E; Cobos, E

    2006-01-01

    Human sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a highly conserved protein that was originally isolated from a rabbit epididymal sperm membrane and testis membrane pellet. It has recently been included in the cancer/testis (CT) antigen family, and shown to be expressed in multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. We investigated its immunolocalisation in specimens of nervous system (NS) malignancies, in order to establish its usefulness as a target for tumour-vaccine strategies. The expression of Sp17 was assessed by means of a standardised immunohistochemical procedure [(mAb/antigen) MF1/Sp17] in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded surgical specimens of NS malignancies, including 28 neuroectodermal primary tumours (6 astrocytomas, 16 glioblastoma multiforme, 5 oligodendrogliomas, and 1 ependymoma), 25 meningeal tumours, and five peripheral nerve sheath tumours (4 schwannomas, and 1 neurofibroma),. A number of neuroectodermal (21%) and meningeal tumours (4%) were found heterogeneously immunopositive for Sp17. None of the peripheral nerve sheath tumours was immunopositive for Sp17. The expression pattern was heterogeneous in all of the positive samples, and did not correlate with the degree of malignancy. The frequency of expression and non-uniform cell distribution of Sp17 suggest that it cannot be used as a unique immunotherapeutic target in NS cancer. However, our results do show the immunolocalisation of Sp17 in a proportion of NS tumour cells, but not in their non-pathological counterparts. The emerging complex function of Sp17 makes further studies necessary to clarify the link between it and immunopositive cells

  19. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira Canellas, A. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit (I.D.I.), Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Rovira Gols, A. [Parc Tauli University Institute - UAB, UDIAT, Diagnostic Centre, Sabadell (Spain); Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  20. Hox gene regulation in the central nervous system of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwar eGummalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hox genes specify the structures that form along the anteroposterior (AP axis of bilateria. Within the genome, they often form clusters where, remarkably enough, their position within the clusters reflects the relative positions of the structures they specify along the AP axis. This correspondence between genomic organization and gene expression pattern has been conserved through evolution and provides a unique opportunity to study how chromosomal context affects gene regulation. In Drosophila, a general rule, often called posterior dominance, states that Hox genes specifying more posterior structures repress the expression of more anterior Hox genes. This rule explains the apparent spatial complementarity of Hox gene expression patterns in Drosophila. Here we review a noticeable exception to this rule where the more-posteriorly expressed Abd-B hox gene fails to repress the more-anterior abd-A gene in cells of the central nervous system (CNS. While Abd-B is required to repress ectopic expression of abd-A in the posterior epidermis, abd-A repression in the posterior CNS is accomplished by a different mechanism that involves a large 92kb long non-coding RNA (lncRNA encoded by the intergenic region separating abd-A and Abd-B (the iab8ncRNA. Dissection of this lncRNA revealed that abd-A is repressed by the lncRNA using two redundant mechanisms. The 1st mechanism is mediated by a microRNA (mir-iab-8 encoded by intronic sequence within the large iab8-ncRNA. Meanwhile, the second mechanism seems to involve transcriptional interference by the long iab-8 ncRNA on the abd-A promoter. Recent work demonstrating CNS-specific regulation of genes by ncRNAs in Drosophila, seem to highlight a potential role for the iab-8-ncRNA in the evolution of the Drosophila hox complexes

  1. Central Nervous System Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, a Plant Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Eralp, Emin; Tsambis, Elias; Itil, Kurt Z.; Stein, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) are among the most prescribed drugs in France and Germany. EGb is claimed to be effective in peripheral arterial disorders and in "cerebral insufficiency." The mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Three of the ingredients of the extract have been isolated and found to be pharmacologically active, but which one alone or in combination is responsible for clinical effects is unknown. The recommended daily dose (3 x 40 mg extract) is based more on empirical data than on clinical dose-findings studies. However, despite these, according to double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, EGb has therapeutic effects, at least, on the diagnostic entity of "cerebral insufficiency," which is used in Europe as synonymous with early dementia. To determine whether EGb has significant pharmacological effects on the human brain, a pharmacodynamic study was conducted using the Quantitative Pharmacoelectroencephalogram (QPEEG(R)) method. It was established that the pharmacological effects (based on a predetermined 7.5--13.0-Hz alpha frequency band in a computer-analyzed electroencephalogram = CEEG(R)) of EGb on the central nervous system (CNS) are significantly different than placebo, and the high and low doses could be discriminated from each other. The 120-mg, but particularly the 240-mg, single doses showed the most consistent CNS effects with an earlier onset (1 h) and longer duration (7 h). Furthermore, it was established that the electrophysiological effects of EGb in CNS are similar to those of well-known cognitive activators such as "nootropics" as well as tacrine, the only marketed "antidementia" drug currently available in the United States.

  2. Role of the autonomic nervous system in rat liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cunshuan; Zhang, Xinsheng; Wang, Gaiping; Chang, Cuifang; Zhang, Lianxing; Cheng, Qiuyan; Lu, Ailing

    2011-05-01

    To study the regulatory role of autonomic nervous system in rat regenerating liver, surgical operations of rat partial hepatectomy (PH) and its operation control (OC), sympathectomy combining partial hepatectomy (SPH), vagotomy combining partial hepatectomy (VPH), and total liver denervation combining partial hepatectomy (TDPH) were performed, then expression profiles of regenerating livers at 2 h after operation were detected using Rat Genome 230 2.0 array. It was shown that the expressions of 97 genes in OC, 230 genes in PH, 253 genes in SPH, 187 genes in VPH, and 177 genes in TDPH were significantly changed in biology. The relevance analysis showed that in SPH, genes involved in stimulus response, immunity response, amino acids and K(+) transport, amino acid catabolism, cell adhesion, cell proliferation mediated by JAK-STAT, Ca(+), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, cell growth and differentiation through JAK-STAT were up-regulated, while the genes involved in chromatin assembly and disassembly, and cell apoptosis mediated by MAPK were down-regulated. In VPH, the genes associated with chromosome modification-related transcription factor, oxygen transport, and cell apoptosis mediated by MAPK pathway were up-regulated, but the genes associated with amino acid catabolism, histone acetylation-related transcription factor, and cell differentiation mediated by Wnt pathway were down-regulated. In TDPH, the genes related to immunity response, growth and development of regenerating liver, cell growth by MAPK pathway were up-regulated. Our data suggested that splanchnic and vagal nerves could regulate the expressions of liver regeneration-related genes.

  3. Citation classics in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Eun; Park, Kang M; Kim, Yerim; Yoon, Dae Y; Bae, Jong S

    2017-06-01

    To identify and analyze the characteristics of the most influential articles about central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disease. The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science database and the 2014 Journal Citation Reports Science Edition were used to retrieve the top 100 cited articles on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease. The citation numbers, journals, years of publication, authorships, article types, subjects and main issues were analyzed. For neuromyelitis optica (NMO), articles that were cited more than 100 times were regarded as a citation classic and described separately. The top 100 cited articles were published between 1972 and 2011 in 13 journals. The highest number of articles ( n  = 24) was published in Brain, followed by The New England Journal of Medicine ( n  = 21). The average number of citations was 664 (range 330-3,897), and 64% of the articles were from the United States and the United Kingdom. The majority of the top 100 cited articles were related to multiple sclerosis ( n  = 87), and only a few articles reported on other topics such as NMO ( n  = 9), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis ( n  = 2) and optic neuritis ( n  = 2). Among the top 100 cited articles, 77% were original articles. Forty-one citation classics were found for NMO. Our study provides a historical perspective on the research progress on CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease and may serve as a guide for important advances and trends in the field for associated researchers.

  4. Current opinions on radiotherapy of pediatric central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chojnacka, M.; Skowronska-Gardas, A.

    2006-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms are the most frequent solid tumors in childhood accounting for 20% of all pediatric malignancies. Despite developments in neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, a significant proportion of these patients suffer progressive disease. A good treatment management strategy should consider not only survival but also the quality of life of the child. Irradiation is ann essential part of the management of the majority of CNS tumors. During then last decade, there significant advances in the technology of planning and delivery of radiation treatment. These new radiotherapy techniques such as conformal, intensity modulated photon beam and stereotactic methods allow a high homogenous dose to the tumor region with minimal doses to normal tissue. This is particularly important in children with localized low-grade tumors, whose prognosis of long-term survival is often excellent and should be accompanied by smallest risk of treatment toxicity. For small tumors fractionated radiotherapy stereotactic radiotherapy using multiple fixed non-coplanar beams is an appropriate treatment. Modification of craniospinal technique, lowering of the total craniospinal dose with adjuvant chemotherapy, new radiotherapy modalities to treat the posterior fossa may be employed to possibly decrease the late rectifies of radiation therapy. For malignant glioma and brain stem tumors we need new approaches, as chemo sensitization, angiogenesis inhibitors and gene therapies. These new methods in therapy of pediatric brain tumors and our experience in treatment of children with medulloblastoma, low-grade astrocytoma, craniopharyngioma and brain stem tumors are presented. We summarize therapeutic aspects of most childhood brain tumors. (author)

  5. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira Canellas, A.; Rovira Gols, A.; Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  6. Canine Central Nervous System Neoplasm Phenotyping Using Tissue Microarray Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzbarth, I; Heinrich, F; Herder, V; Recker, T; Wohlsein, P; Baumgärtner, W

    2017-05-01

    Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent a useful technique for the simultaneous phenotyping of large sample numbers and are particularly suitable for histopathologic tumor research. In this study, TMAs were used to evaluate semiquantitatively the expression of multiple antigens in various canine central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and to identify markers with potential discriminative diagnostic relevance. Ninety-seven canine CNS neoplasms, previously diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin sections according to the World Health Organization classification, were investigated on TMAs, with each tumor consisting of 2 cylindrical samples from the center and the periphery of the neoplasm. Tumor cells were phenotyped using a panel of 28 monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, and hierarchical clustering analysis was applied to group neoplasms according to similarities in their expression profiles. Hierarchical clustering generally grouped cases with similar histologic diagnoses; however, gliomas especially exhibited a considerable heterogeneity in their positivity scores. Multiple tumor groups, such as astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, significantly differed in the proportion of positive immunoreaction for certain markers such as p75 NTR , AQP4, GFAP, and S100 protein. The study highlights AQP4 and p75 NTR as novel markers, helping to discriminate between canine astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. Furthermore, the results suggest that p75 NTR and proteolipid protein may represent useful markers, whose expression inversely correlates with malignant transformation in canine astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, respectively. Tissue microarray was demonstrated to be a useful and time-saving tool for the simultaneous immunohistochemical characterization of multiple canine CNS neoplasms. The present study provides a detailed overview of the expression patterns of different types of canine CNS neoplasms.

  7. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton G. Burt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2, 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV and augmentation index (AIx, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02 independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002 independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54. Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001 but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12. We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies.

  8. Anxiety, depression and autonomic nervous system dysfunction in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajkó, Zoltán; Szekeres, Csilla-Cecília; Kovács, Katalin Réka; Csapó, Krisztina; Molnár, Sándor; Soltész, Pál; Nyitrai, Erika; Magyar, Mária Tünde; Oláh, László; Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László

    2012-06-15

    This study examined the relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction, anxiety and depression in untreated hypertension. 86 newly diagnosed hypertensive patients and 98 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The psychological parameters were assessed with Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory by a skilled psychologist. Autonomic parameters were examined during tilt table examination (10min lying position, 10min passive tilt). Heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated by autoregressive methods. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was calculated by non-invasive sequence method from the recorded beat to beat blood pressure values and RR intervals. Significantly higher state (42.6±9.3 vs. 39.6±10.7 p=0.05) and trait (40.1±8.9 vs. 35.1±8.6, p<0.0001) anxiety scores were found in the hypertension group. There was no statistically significant difference in the depression level. LF-RRI (Low Frequency-RR interval) of HRV in passive tilt (377.3±430.6 vs. 494.1±547, p=0.049) and mean BRS slope (11.4±5.5 vs. 13.2±6.4, p=0.07) in lying position were lower in hypertensives. Trait anxiety score correlates significantly with sympatho/vagal balance (LF/HF-RRI) in passive tilt position (Spearman R=-0.286, p=0.01). Anxiety could play a more important role than depression in the development of hypertension. Altered autonomic control of the heart could be one of the pathophysiological links between hypertension and psychological factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioengineered cell culture systems of central nervous system injury and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Fábio Gabriel Rodrigues; Vasconcelos, Natália L.; Gomes, Eduardo Domingos Correia; Marques, Fernanda; Sousa, João Carlos; Sousa, Nuno; Silva, Nuno A.; Silva, Rita Catarina Assunção Ribeiro; Lima, Rui Augusto Ribeiro; Salgado, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Cell culture systems, either 2D or explant based, have been pivotal to better understand the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Recently, bioengineered cell culture systems have been proposed as an alternative to the traditional setups. These innovative systems often combine different cell populations in 3D environments that more closely recapitulate the different niches that exist within the developing or adult CNS. Given the importance of such systems for the...

  10. Preliminary histochemical and electron microscopic observations on the nervous system of hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladini, G; Venturini, G; Margotta, V; Medolago-Albani, L; Lauro, G M; Carolei, A; Del Piano, M; Nicosia, R

    1986-01-01

    The nervous system of a primitive Coelenterate (Chlorohydra viridissima) has been studied using ultrastructural and histochemical techniques. The authors confirm the ultrastructural pattern of nerve cells described by Lentz and coworkers. Reserpine treatment fails to induce any reduction of catechol- and indoleamine content visible to histochemical observation. In vivo treatment with tetanus toxin does not induce behavioural changes and no specific binding of toxin is revealed by immunocytological analysis. This suggests that neuron tetanus toxin receptor sites are absent in hydra. Hydra nerve cells must therefore be considered as extremely primitive elements, which the Authors consider to support the hypothesis of neurons having originated as a gradual differentiation of myoepithelial cells, as proposed by Pantin (1956) and by Passano (1963).

  11. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canillas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Nervous System (CNS can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as “secondary injury”. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon.Existen diferentes tipos de lesiones o desordenes del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC que pueden provocar graves secuelas e incluso en algunos casos una discapacidad permanente. Además, el proceso de reparación del SNC tiene algunas complicaciones. El mecanismo natural de reacción a una lesión, el cual consiste en la formación de una cicatriz glial, es desencadenado por un proceso inflamatorio. Las moléculas liberadas durante estos procesos, la inflamación y formación de la cicatriz glial, así como la deficiencia en oxígeno y glucosa debidos a la lesión, crean un ambiente que inhibe la regeneración axonal creando la llamada “lesión secundaria”. Los biomateriales están adquiriendo un papel cada vez más importante en la reparación de SNC. Las

  12. Addressing Neuroplastic Changes in Distributed Areas of the Nervous System Associated With Chronic Musculoskeletal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, René; Higgins, Johanne; Bourbonnais, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Present interventions utilized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation are guided, in large part, by a biomedical model where peripheral structural injury is believed to be the sole driver of the disorder. There are, however, neurophysiological changes across different areas of the peripheral and central nervous systems, including peripheral receptors, dorsal horn of the spinal cord, brain stem, sensorimotor cortical areas, and the mesolimbic and prefrontal areas associated with chronic musculoskeletal disorders, including chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and tendon injuries. These neurophysiological changes appear not only to be a consequence of peripheral structural injury but also to play a part in the pathophysiology of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Neurophysiological changes are consistent with a biopsychosocial formulation reflecting the underlying mechanisms associated with sensory and motor findings, psychological traits, and perceptual changes associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. These changes, therefore, have important implications in the clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, and treatment of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal rehabilitation professionals have at their disposal tools to address these neuroplastic changes, including top-down cognitive-based interventions (eg, education, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, motor imagery) and bottom-up physical interventions (eg, motor learning, peripheral sensory stimulation, manual therapy) that induce neuroplastic changes across distributed areas of the nervous system and affect outcomes in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Furthermore, novel approaches such as the use of transcranial direct current stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be utilized to help renormalize neurological function. Comprehensive treatment addressing peripheral structural injury as well as neurophysiological changes occurring across

  13. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system induced by a single-episode of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: a study using MRI-enhanced gradient echo T2 star-weighted angiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Zhao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine whether a single episode of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH could cause superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SS-CNS.This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirty-two patients with a history of a single episode of tSAH were enrolled in the study. An episode of tSAH was confirmed in patients based on a CT scan or a lumbar puncture, and a follow-up examination was conducted at least six weeks after the brain trauma. A follow-up MRI examination was performed, using enhanced gradient echo T2 star-weighted angiography (ESWAN to detect hemosiderin deposition on the cortical surface. The extent to which hemosiderin deposition was associated with several clinical factors was investigated. Various degrees of hemosiderin deposition were detected in 31 of 32 (96.9% single-episode tSAH patients. Analysis of contingency tables revealed an association between the regions of subarachnoid bleeding based on CT images and the regions of hemosiderin deposition based on ESWAN images (χ2 = 17.73, P<0.05. SS-CNS was determined to be a common consequence after a single episode of tSAH. The extent of hemosiderin deposition is closely correlated with the initial bleeding sites and bleeding volume.

  14. Aromatherapy Improves Work Performance Through Balancing the Autonomic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Capdevila, Lluis

    2017-03-01

    This study analyzed the efficacy of aromatherapy in improving work performance and reducing workplace stress. The initial sample comprised 42 administrative university workers (M age  = 42.21 years, standard deviation = 7.12; 10 male). All sessions were performed in a university computer classroom. The participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group (AG) and a control group (CG), and they were invited to participate in a specific session only once. They were seated in front of a computer. During the intervention period, some oil diffusers were switched on and were in operation throughout the session with petitgrain essential oil for AG sessions and a neutral oil (almond) for CG sessions. At the same time, participants completed a computer task on a specific Web site typing on their keyboard until they had finished it. The single times were different for all participants and were recorded on the Web site as "performance time." Before and after the intervention, participants completed anxiety and mood state questionnaires (the Stait-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI] and the Profile of Mood States [POMS]). Heart-rate variability (HRV) was measured before (PRE), during (20-25 min), and after (POS) the intervention to analyze autonomic nervous system regulation. The AG performed the Web site task 2.28 min faster than the CG (p = 0.05). The two groups showed differences in the following HRV parameters: low frequency (p = 0.05), high frequency (p = 0.02), standard deviation of all RR intervals (p = 0.05), and root mean square of differences (p = 0.02). All participants in all groups showed a decrease from PRE to POST for STAI (p Aromatherapy (inhaling petitgrain essential oil) can improve performance in the workplace. These results could be explained by an autonomic balance on the sympathetic/parasympathetic system through a combined action of the petitgrain main components (linalyl acetate, linalool, and myrcene). The final

  15. Peptide-gated ion channels and the simple nervous system of Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründer, Stefan; Assmann, Marc

    2015-02-15

    Neurons either use electrical or chemical synapses to communicate with each other. Transmitters at chemical synapses are either small molecules or neuropeptides. After binding to their receptors, transmitters elicit postsynaptic potentials, which can either be fast and transient or slow and longer lasting, depending on the type of receptor. Fast transient potentials are mediated by ionotropic receptors and slow long-lasting potentials by metabotropic receptors. Transmitters and receptors are well studied for animals with a complex nervous system such as vertebrates and insects, but much less is known for animals with a simple nervous system like Cnidaria. As cnidarians arose early in animal evolution, nervous systems might have first evolved within this group and the study of neurotransmission in cnidarians might reveal an ancient mechanism of neuronal communication. The simple nervous system of the cnidarian Hydra extensively uses neuropeptides and, recently, we cloned and functionally characterized an ion channel that is directly activated by neuropeptides of the Hydra nervous system. These results demonstrate the existence of peptide-gated ion channels in Hydra, suggesting they mediate fast transmission in its nervous system. As related channels are also present in the genomes of the cnidarian Nematostella, of placozoans and of ctenophores, it should be considered that the early nervous systems of cnidarians and ctenophores have co-opted neuropeptides for fast transmission at chemical synapses. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Microglia - insights into immune system structure, function, and reactivity in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Babcock, Alicia A; Vinters, Harry V

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are essential cellular components of a well-functioning central nervous system (CNS). The development and establishment of the microglial population differs from the other major cell populations in the CNS i.e. neurons and macroglia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). This different...

  17. Poliovirus trafficking toward central nervous system via human poliovirus receptor-dependent and -independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seii eOHKA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In humans, paralytic poliomyelitis results from the invasion of the central nervous system by circulating poliovirus (PV via the blood-brain barrier (BBB. After the virus enters the central nervous system (CNS, it replicates in neurons, especially in motor neurons (MNs, inducing the cell death that causes paralytic poliomyelitis. Along with this route of dissemination, neural pathway has been reported in humans, monkeys, and PV-sensitive human PV receptor (hPVR/CD155-transgenic (Tg mice. We demonstrated that a fast retrograde axonal transport process is required for PV dissemination through the sciatic nerve of hPVR-Tg mice and that intramuscularly inoculated PV causes paralysis in a hPVR-dependent manner. We also showed that hPVR-independent axonal transport of PV exists in hPVR-Tg and non-Tg mice, indicating that several different pathways for PV axonal transport exist in these mice. Circulating PV after intravenous inoculation in mice cross the BBB at a high rate in a hPVR-independent manner. Recently, we identified transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1 of mouse brain capillary endothelial cells as a binding protein to PV, implicating that TfR1 is a possible receptor for PV to permeate the BBB.

  18. Nervous system disruption and concomitant behavioral abnormality in early hatched pufferfish larvae exposed to heavy oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Sugahara, Yuki; Watanabe, Tomoe; Irie, Kouta; Ishida, Minoru; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Takata, Hiromi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori

    2011-08-01

    Spills of heavy oil (HO) over the oceans have been proven to have an adverse effect on marine life. It has been hypothesized that exposure of early larvae of sinking eggs to HO leads largely to normal morphology, whereas abnormal organization of the developing neural scaffold is likely to be found. HO-induced disruption of the nervous system, which controls animal behavior, may in turn cause abnormalities in the swimming behavior of hatched larvae. To clarify the toxicological effects of HO, we performed exposure experiments and morphological and behavioral analyses in pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) larvae. Fertilized eggs of pufferfish were exposed to 50 mg/L of HO for 8 days and transferred to fresh seawater before hatching. The hatched larvae were observed for their swimming behavior, morphological appearance, and construction of muscles and nervous system. In HO-exposed larvae, we did not detect any anomaly of body morphology. However, they showed an abnormal swimming pattern and disorganized midbrain, a higher center controlling movement. Our results suggest that HO-exposed fishes suffer developmental disorder of the brain that triggers an abnormal swimming behavior and that HO may be selectively toxic to the brain and cause physical disability throughout the life span of these fishes.

  19. Influences of Vestibular System on Sympathetic Nervous System. Implications for countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denise, Pr Pierre

    As gravity is a direct and permanent stress on body fluids, muscles and bones, it is not surpris-ing that weightlessness has important effects on cardiovascular and musculo-skeletal systems. However, these harmful effects do not totally result from the removal of the direct stress of gravity on these organs, but are also partially and indirectly mediated by the vestibular sys-tem. Besides its well known crucial role in spatial orientation and postural equilibrium, it is now clear that the vestibular system is also involved in the regulation of other important physi-ological systems: respiratory and cardiovascular systems, circadian regulation, food intake and even bone mineralization. The neuroanatomical substrate for these vestibular-mediated reg-ulations is still poorly defined, but there is much evidence that vestibular system has strong impacts not only on brainstem autonomic centers but on many hypothalamic nuclei as well. As autonomic nervous system controls almost all body organs, bringing into play the vestibular system by hypergravity or microgravity could virtually affects all major physiological func-tions. There is experimental evidence that weightlessness as well as vestibular lesion induce sympathetic activation thus participating in space related physiological alterations. The fact that some effects of weightlessness on biological systems are mediated by the vestibular system has an important implication for using artificial gravity as a countermeasure: artificial gravity should load not only bones and the cardiovascular system but the vestibular system as well. In short-arm centrifuges, the g load at the head level is low because the head is near the axis of rotation. If the vestibular system is involved in cardiovascular deconditioning and bone loss during weightlessness, it would be more effective to significantly stimulate it and thus it would be necessary to place the head off-axis. Moreover, as the otolithic organs are non longer stimu-lated in

  20. Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Emergency Department Visits Involving Nonmedical Use of Central Nervous System Stimulants among Adults Aged 18 to 34 Increased between 2005 and 2011 Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants include prescription drugs, like those used ...

  1. Insulin in the nervous system and the mind: Functions in metabolism, memory, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Zabolotny, Janice M; Huang, Hu; Lee, Hyon; Kim, Young-Bum

    2016-08-01

    Insulin, a pleotrophic hormone, has diverse effects in the body. Recent work has highlighted the important role of insulin's action in the nervous system on glucose and energy homeostasis, memory, and mood. Here we review experimental and clinical work that has broadened the understanding of insulin's diverse functions in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including glucose and body weight homeostasis, memory and mood, with particular emphasis on intranasal insulin. Implications for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, dementia, and mood disorders are discussed in the context of brain insulin action. Intranasal insulin may have potential in the treatment of central nervous system-related metabolic disorders.

  2. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1988-01-01

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs.

  3. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1988-01-01

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs

  4. Central nervous system tumours and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1989-01-01

    Among female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of fatal brain or central nervous system tumours. A significant excess did appear, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumours outside of the brain was observed, consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Excess tumours of the eye, pituitary or pineal did not occur. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. (author)

  5. Diagnosis abnormalities of limb movement in disorders of the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymchik, Gregory S.; Skytsiouk, Volodymyr I.; Klotchko, Tatiana R.; Bezsmertna, Halyna; Wójcik, Waldemar; Luganskaya, Saule; Orazbekov, Zhassulan; Iskakova, Aigul

    2017-08-01

    The paper deals with important issues of diagnosis early signs of diseases of the nervous system, including Parkinson's disease and other specific diseases. Small quantities of violation trajectory of spatial movement of the extremities of human disease at the primary level as the most appropriate features are studied. In modern medical practice is very actual the control the emergence of diseases of the nervous system, including Parkinson's disease. In work a model limbs with six rotational kinematic pairs for diagnosis of early signs of diseases of the nervous system is considered. subject.

  6. Recent Understanding on Diagnosis and Management of Central Nervous System Vasculitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Iannetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system vasculitides in children may develop as a primary condition or secondary to an underlying systemic disease. Many vasculitides affect both adults and children, while some others occur almost exclusively in childhood. Patients usually present with systemic symptoms with single or multiorgan dysfunction. The involvement of central nervous system in childhood is not frequent and it occurs more often as a feature of subtypes like childhood polyarteritis nodosa, Kawasaki disease, Henoch Schönlein purpura, and Bechet disease. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system of childhood is a reversible cause of severe neurological impairment, including acute ischemic stroke, intractable seizures, and cognitive decline. The first line therapy of CNS vasculitides is mainly based on corticosteroids and immunosuppressor drugs. Other strategies include plasmapheresis, immunoglobulins, and biologic drugs. This paper discusses on current understanding of most frequent primary and secondary central nervous system vasculitides in children including a tailored-diagnostic approach and new evidence regarding treatment.

  7. Recent Understanding on Diagnosis and Management of Central Nervous System Vasculitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Ludovico; Zito, Roberta; Bruschi, Simone; Papetti, Laura; Ulgiati, Fiorenza; Nicita, Francesco; Del Balzo, Francesca; Spalice, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Central nervous system vasculitides in children may develop as a primary condition or secondary to an underlying systemic disease. Many vasculitides affect both adults and children, while some others occur almost exclusively in childhood. Patients usually present with systemic symptoms with single or multiorgan dysfunction. The involvement of central nervous system in childhood is not frequent and it occurs more often as a feature of subtypes like childhood polyarteritis nodosa, Kawasaki disease, Henoch Schönlein purpura, and Bechet disease. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system of childhood is a reversible cause of severe neurological impairment, including acute ischemic stroke, intractable seizures, and cognitive decline. The first line therapy of CNS vasculitides is mainly based on corticosteroids and immunosuppressor drugs. Other strategies include plasmapheresis, immunoglobulins, and biologic drugs. This paper discusses on current understanding of most frequent primary and secondary central nervous system vasculitides in children including a tailored-diagnostic approach and new evidence regarding treatment. PMID:23008735

  8. The Ecology of Human Fear: Survival Optimization and the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean eMobbs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Survival Optimization System (SOS to account for the strategies that humans and other animals use to defend against recurring and novel threats. The SOS attempts to merge ecological models that define a repertoire of contextually relevant threat induced survival behaviors with contemporary approaches to human affective science. We first propose that the goal of the nervous system is to reduce surprise and optimize actions by (i predicting the sensory landscape, through simulation of possible encounters with threat, selecting appropriate action by pre-encounter avoidance and (ii prevention strategies in which the organism manufactures safe environments. When a potential threat is encountered the (iii threat orienting system is engaged to determine whether the organism ignores the stimulus or switches into a process of (iv assessment, where the organism monitors the stimulus, weighs the threat value, predicts the actions of the threat, searches for safety, and guides behavioral actions crucial to directed escape. When under imminent attack, (v defensive systems evoke fast reflexive indirect escape behaviors (i.e. fight or flight. This cascade of responses to threat of increasing magnitude are underwritten by an interconnected neural architecture that extends from cortical and hippocampal circuits, to attention, action and threat systems including the amygdala, striatum, and hard-wired defensive systems in the midbrain. The SOS also includes a modulatory feature consisting of cognitive appraisal systems that flexibly guide perception, risk and action. Moreover, personal and vicarious threat encounters fine-tune avoidance behaviors via model-based learning, with higher organisms bridging data to reduce face-to-face encounters with predators. Our theory unifies the divergent field of human affective science, proposing the highly integrated, interconnected nervous systems are optimized to avoid ecological dangers.

  9. Multiple myeloma invasion of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multiple myeloma (MM is characterized by the presence of neoplastic proliferating plasma cells. The tumor is generally restricted to the bone marrow. The most common complications include renal insufficiency, hypercalcemia, anemia and reccurent infections. The spectrum of MM neurological complications is diverse, however, involvement of MM in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and leptomeningeal infiltration are rare considered. In about 1% of the cases, the disease affects the central nervous system (CNS and presents itself in the form of localized intraparenchymal lesions, solitary cerebral plasmocytoma or CNS myelomatosis (LMM. Case report. We presented the clinical course of a 55-year-old man with MM and LMM proven by malignant plasma cells in the CSF, hospitalized with the pain in the thoracic spine. His medical history was uneventful. There had been no evidence of mental or neurological impairment prior to the seizures. Physical examination showed no abnormalities. After a complete staging, the diagnosis of MM type biclonal gammopathia IgG lambda and free lambda light chains in the stage III was confirmed. The treatment started with systemic chemotherapy (with vincristine, doxorubicin plus high-dose dexamethasone - VAD protocol, radiotherapy and bisphosphonate. The patient developed weakness, nausea, febrility, dispnea, bilateral bronchopneumonia, acute renal insufficiency, confusions, headaches and soon thereafter sensomotor aphasias and right hemiparesis. The patient was treated with the adequate therapy including one hemodyalisis. His neurological status was deteriorated, so Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT of the head was performed and the findings were normal. Analysis of CSF showed pleocytosis, 26 elements/ mL and increased concentrations of proteins. Cytological analysis revealed an increased number of plasma cells (29%. Electrophoretic analysis of proteins disclosed the existance of monoclonal components in the serum

  10. MRI changes in the central nervous system in a child with lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieron, M.A.; Khoromi, S.; Campos, A.

    1995-01-01

    We report on a 10-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented in status epilepticus as the only manifestation of central nervous system involvement. MRI of the brain showed diffuse gray and white matter lesions which almost completely resolved after treatment with methylprednisolone. MRI findings in this child are similar to those in adults with diffuse clinical manifestations. The study is essential in the initial evaluation of patients suspected of central nervous system lupus. (orig.)

  11. Central nervous system complications in non-Hodgkin-lymphomas and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liffers, R.

    1981-01-01

    261 case historys of malignant non-Hodgkin-lymphomas were analysed in the years from 1969 until 1978 in the 'Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Kiel'/West-Germany. 18 Patients got a central nervous complication of Non Hodgkin-Lymphoma earlier or later, a percentage of about 7. There were 7 cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma (LB), a percentage of 10 for this entity. In the group of immunoblastic lymphoma (IB) 6 cases of central nervous infiltration were detected, that is a ratio of 7.7 percent. 4 case histories M. Brill-Symmers (CC/CB) were complicated by central nervous dissemination, a percentage of 5.3. Patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma have the highest risk of central nervous complication. The beginning of central nervous dissemination in the single case histories is very different between the histological groups. Patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma suffered from central nervous complication in an early phase of history, in cases of M. Brill-Symmers central nervous infiltration can occur also in a late phase. The results may determine the discussion about stratifying of radiotherapy. Early radiotherapy including central nervous system may be discussed and investigated in special histological entities of malignant non-Hodgkin-lymphoma. (orig.) [de

  12. Self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogels for central nervous system regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Pi, Bin; Wang, Hui; Wang, Xiu-Mei

    2015-03-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) presents a complex regeneration problem due to the inability of central neurons to regenerate correct axonal and dendritic connections. However, recent advances in developmental neurobiology, cell signaling, cell-matrix interaction, and biomaterials technologies have forced a reconsideration of CNS regeneration potentials from the viewpoint of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The applications of a novel tissue regeneration-inducing biomaterial and stem cells are thought to be critical for the mission. The use of peptide nanofiber hydrogels in cell therapy and tissue engineering offers promising perspectives for CNS regeneration. Self-assembling peptide undergo a rapid transformation from liquid to gel upon addition of counterions or pH adjustment, directly integrating with the host tissue. The peptide nanofiber hydrogels have mechanical properties that closely match the native central nervous extracellular matrix, which could enhance axonal growth. Such materials can provide an optimal three dimensional microenvironment for encapsulated cells. These materials can also be tailored with bioactive motifs to modulate the wound environment and enhance regeneration. This review intends to detail the recent status of self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogels for CNS regeneration.

  13. Contraindications to Athletic Participation. Cardiac, Respiratory, and Central Nervous System Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses contraindications to athletic participation, examining the cardiac, respiratory, and central nervous system conditions that warrant activity disqualification. Provides guidelines about when it is safe for individuals to participate, and discusses the physician's responsibility. (SM)

  14. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Viewing Green and Built Settings: Differentiating Between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.M.H.E.; Maas, J.; Muller, R.; Braun, A.; Kaandorp, W.; van Lien, R.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; van Mechelen, W.; van den Berg, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    This laboratory study explored buffering and recovery effects of viewing urban green and built spaces on autonomic nervous system activity. Forty-six students viewed photos of green and built spaces immediately following, and preceding acute stress induction. Simultaneously recorded

  15. Morphological changes of the central nervous system after radiation exposure in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizzee, K.R.; Ordy, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The present paper is a brief review of available experimental data on the structural nervous system effects of prenatal radiation in rodents, nonhuman primates and man from the late 19th century to the present. (orig./MG)

  16. Insulin in the nervous system and the mind: Functions in metabolism, memory, and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Lee

    2016-08-01

    Major conclusions: Implications for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, dementia, and mood disorders are discussed in the context of brain insulin action. Intranasal insulin may have potential in the treatment of central nervous system-related metabolic disorders.

  17. Evidence of Nervous System Sensitization in Commonly Presenting and Persistent Painful Tendinopathies : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plinsinga, Melanie L.; Brink, Michel S.; Vicenzino, Bill; Van Wilgen, C. Paul

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate if there is sensitization of the nervous system in those with persistent rotator cuff (shoulder), lateral elbow, patellar, and Achilles tendinopathies. BACKGROUND: Tendinopathy can be difficult to treat, and persistent intractable pain and

  18. Peptides in the nervous systems of cnidarians: structure, function, and biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Leviev, I; Carstensen, Kathrine

    1996-01-01

    Cnidarians are the lowest animal group having a nervous system and it was probably within this phylum or in a related ancestor group that nervous systems first evolved. The primitive nervous systems of cnidarians are strongly peptidergic. From a single sea anemone species, Anthopleura elegantissima...... molecule. In addition to well-known, "classical" processing enzymes, novel prohormone processing enzymes must be present in cnidarian neurons. These include a processing enzyme hydrolyzing at the C-terminal sides of acidic (Asp and Glu) residues and a dipeptidyl aminopeptidase digesting at the C......-terminal sides of N-terminally located X-Pro and X-Ala sequences. All this shows that the primitive nervous systems of cnidarians are already quite complex, and that neuropeptides play a central role in the physiology of these animals....

  19. Radiologic studies in two outbreaks of isolated vasculitis in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, H.J.; Perez, M.; Tilton, A.H.; Garcia, C.; McGarry, P.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral vasculitis is only occasionally diagnosed with angiography. Two outbreaks of isolated central nervous system vasculitis permitted a comparison of the accuracy of diagnostic radiologic studies. Two new radiologic features and methods of diagnosis are discussed

  20. Cerebral angiography as a guide for therapy in isolated central nervous system vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, R.L.; Martino, C.R.; Weinert, D.M.; Hueftle, M.; Kammer, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present a case of isolated central nervous system vasculitis documented by cerebral arteriography in which remission, using a treatment regimen of prednisone and cyclophosphamide, was guided by serial arteriography during a 15-month period

  1. Candida infection of the central nervous system following neurosurgery: a 12-year review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2011-06-01

    Candida infection of the central nervous system (CNS) following neurosurgery is relatively unusual but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present our experience with this infection in adults and discuss clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcome.

  2. Functional Observational Battery Testing for Nervous System Effects of Drugs and Other Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has become standard practice in preclinical safety pharmacology and toxicology. Behavior represents the integrated sum of activities mediated by the nervous system. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observat...

  3. Congenital muscular dystrophy and severe central nervous system atrophy in two siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyten, Q. H.; Barth, P. G.; Gabreëls, F. J.; Renkawek, K.; Renier, W. O.; Gabreëls-Festen, A. A.; ter Laak, H. J.; Smits, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    Severe degenerative features of the nervous system of a hitherto unknown kind, associated with a neuromuscular disorder with histopathological features of congenital muscular dystrophy, are reported in two female siblings. The clinical profile was characterized by generalized hypotonia followed by

  4. Bioactivity of marine organisms: Part 7- Effect of seaweed extract on central nervous system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Jain, S.; Goel, A.K.; Srimal, R.C.

    Alcohol extracts of marine algae (Rhodophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Chlorophyceae) was screened for their effect on central nervous system. Of 69 species investigated 8 appeared biologically active, 6 being CNS stimulant, sites and dates of collection...

  5. Echoes from the anatomical theater of Padua: Fabrici on the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchin, Giorgio; Panetto, Monica; Dalla Francesca, Elisabetta Hellman

    2015-06-01

    Girolamo Fabrici d'Acquapendente, never published a systematic description nor an iconographic record of the nervous system except for the series of 21 pictures, entitled De Anatomia Capitis Cerebri Nervorum, stored in the Biblioteca Marciana of Venice.

  6. Fighting the Monster: Applying the Host Damage Framework to Human Central Nervous System Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil A. Panackal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The host damage-response framework states that microbial pathogenesis is a product of microbial virulence factors and collateral damage from host immune responses. Immune-mediated host damage is particularly important within the size-restricted central nervous system (CNS, where immune responses may exacerbate cerebral edema and neurological damage, leading to coma and death. In this review, we compare human host and therapeutic responses in representative nonviral generalized CNS infections that induce archetypal host damage responses: cryptococcal menigoencephalitis and tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients, pneumococcal meningitis, and cerebral malaria. Consideration of the underlying patterns of host responses provides critical insights into host damage and may suggest tailored adjunctive therapeutics to improve disease outcome.

  7. Hexachlorophene and the central nervous system. Toxic effects in mice and baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripier, M F; Bérard, M; Toga, M; Martin-Bouyer, G; Le Breton, R; Garat, J

    1981-01-01

    A study on hexachlorophene encephalopathy in mice and baboons is reported. By light microscopy, a severe spongiform lesion of the central nervous system (CNS) was localized in the white matter, without myelin breakdown or cellular reaction. By electron microscopy, the myelin alteration was characterized by wide intralamellar spaces or "splitting" developed in the intraperiod line of compact sheaths. The acute changes described were induced by administration of the drug by the digestive or cutaneous routes at various dosage levels in an aqueous solution or in talcum powder. The toxic effects depended on the age of the animals, the survival times and the concentrations of hexachlorophene, i.e., 6%, 3%, and 0.5%. The findings are compared with previous reports on the neurotoxicity of hexachlorophene and other chemicals in human and experimental animals. Hexachlorophene cannot be recommended for use in young infants because of its neurotoxicity in very low doses as demonstrated in the present report.

  8. Pathology of the Nervous System in Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander O. Vortmeyer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is a tumor syndrome that frequently involves the central nervous system (CNS. It is caused by germline mutation of the VHL gene. Subsequent VHL inactivation in selected cells is followed by numerous well-characterized molecular consequences, in particular, activation and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors HIF1 and HIF2. The link between VHL gene inactivation and tumorigenesis remains poorly understood. Hemangioblastomas are the most common manifestation in the CNS; however, CNS invasion by VHL disease-associated endolymphatic sac tumors or metastatic renal cancer also occur, and their differentiation from primary hemangioblastoma may be challenging. Finally, in this review, we present recent morphologic insights on the developmental concept of VHL tumorigenesis which is best explained by pathologic persistence of temporary embryonic progenitor cells. 

  9. Autonomic nervous system function in patients with functional abdominal pain. An experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1993-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain--that is, pain without demonstrable organic abnormalities--has often been associated with psychologic stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sympathetic nervous system response to laboratory stress and basal parasympathetic neural activity were...... cortisol measurements were included, to assess the pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and plasma adrenaline increased significantly in all groups in response to a stress test (mental arithmetic). Plasma noradrenaline increased in the DU patients only, and plasma ACTH...... response as indicated by a lesser stress-induced increment in heart rate, was seen in both patient groups (functional, 13 +/- 2 beats/min; organic, 10 +/- 2 beats/min) as compared with the healthy group (19 +/- 2 beats/min; P = 0.003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  10. Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C A; Tomljenovic, L

    2013-07-01

    We have examined the neurotoxicity of aluminum in humans and animals under various conditions, following different routes of administration, and provide an overview of the various associated disease states. The literature demonstrates clearly negative impacts of aluminum on the nervous system across the age span. In adults, aluminum exposure can lead to apparently age-related neurological deficits resembling Alzheimer's and has been linked to this disease and to the Guamanian variant, ALS-PDC. Similar outcomes have been found in animal models. In addition, injection of aluminum adjuvants in an attempt to model Gulf War syndrome and associated neurological deficits leads to an ALS phenotype in young male mice. In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders. Many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome.

  11. Insulin in the nervous system and the mind: Functions in metabolism, memory, and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Zabolotny, Janice M.; Huang, Hu; Lee, Hyon; Kim, Young-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insulin, a pleotrophic hormone, has diverse effects in the body. Recent work has highlighted the important role of insulin's action in the nervous system on glucose and energy homeostasis, memory, and mood. Scope of review: Here we review experimental and clinical work that has broadened the understanding of insulin's diverse functions in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including glucose and body weight homeostasis, memory and mood, with particular emphasis on intra...

  12. MRT of the central nervous system. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; MRT des Zentralnervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Jansen, Olav (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2014-11-01

    The book on MRT of the central nervous system includes the following chapters: anatomy, vascular diseases, brain tumors, craniocerebral injuries, infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis and related diseases, metabolic diseases, degenerative diseases, malformations and developmental disorders, hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension, spinal marrow, degenerative caused spinal and foraminal stenosis, traumata, tumors and tumor-like neoplasm, vascular diseases, inflammations, infections and related diseases, diseases of the peripheral nervous system.

  13. Development of the central nervous system in guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, Rodentia, Caviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fernanda Menezes de Oliveira e; Alcantara, Dayane; Carvalho, Rafael Cardoso; Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; Santos, Amilton Cesar dos; Viana, Diego Carvalho; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This study describes the development of the central nervous system in guinea pigs from 12th day post conception (dpc) until birth. Totally, 41 embryos and fetuses were analyzed macroscopically and by means of light and electron microscopy. The neural tube closure was observed at day 14 and the development of the spinal cord and differentiation of the primitive central nervous system vesicles was on 20th dpc. Histologically, undifferentiated brain tissue was observed as a mass of mes...

  14. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  15. A practical guide for the diagnosis of primary enteric nervous system disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäppi, M G; Staiano, A; Milla, P J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Primary gastrointestinal neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of enteric nervous system (ENS) disorders that continue to cause difficulties in diagnosis and histological interpretation. Recently, an international working group published guidelines for histological techniques and repo......OBJECTIVE: Primary gastrointestinal neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of enteric nervous system (ENS) disorders that continue to cause difficulties in diagnosis and histological interpretation. Recently, an international working group published guidelines for histological techniques...

  16. Arg-Phe-amide-like peptides in the primitive nervous systems of coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Ebbesen, Ditte Graff

    1985-01-01

    By using immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassays, several substances resembling vertebrate or invertebrate neuropeptides have been found in the nervous systems of coelenterates. The most abundant neuropeptides were those related to the molluscan neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide (FMRFamide......). Of antisera against different fragments of FMRFamide, those against RFamide were superior in recognizing the coelenterate peptide. Incubation of whole mounts with these RFamide antisera visualized the coelenterate nervous system in such a detail as has previously not been possible. By using a radioimmunoassay...

  17. Targeting of prion-infected lymphoid cells to the central nervous system accelerates prion infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedman-Levi Yael

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prions, composed of a misfolded protein designated PrPSc, are infectious agents causing fatal neurodegenerative diseases. We have shown previously that, following induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, prion-infected mice succumb to disease significantly earlier than controls, concomitant with the deposition of PrPSc aggregates in inflamed white matter areas. In the present work, we asked whether prion disease acceleration by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis results from infiltration of viable prion-infected immune cells into the central nervous system. Methods C57Bl/6 J mice underwent intraperitoneal inoculation with scrapie brain homogenates and were later induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inoculation of MOG35-55 in complete Freund's adjuvant supplemented with pertussis toxin. Spleen and lymph node cells from the co-induced animals were reactivated and subsequently injected into naïve mice as viable cells or as cell homogenates. Control groups were infected with viable and homogenized scrapie immune cells only with complete Freund's adjuvant. Prion disease incubation times as well as levels and sites of PrPSc deposition were next evaluated. Results We first show that acceleration of prion disease by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis requires the presence of high levels of spleen PrPSc. Next, we present evidence that mice infected with activated prion-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis viable cells succumb to prion disease considerably faster than do mice infected with equivalent cell extracts or other controls, concomitant with the deposition of PrPSc aggregates in white matter areas in brains and spinal cords. Conclusions Our results indicate that inflammatory targeting of viable prion-infected immune cells to the central nervous system accelerates prion disease propagation. We also show that in the absence of such targeting it is the load of PrPSc in the

  18. Organization of glial cells in the adult sea cucumber central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashanov, Vladimir S; Zueva, Olga R; Garcia-Arraras, Jose E

    2010-10-01

    The nervous system of echinoderms has long been considered too unique to be directly comparable to the nervous system of other Deuterostomia. Using two novel monoclonal antibodies in combination with epifluorescence, confocal, and electron microscopy, we demonstrate here that the central nervous system of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima possesses a major non-neuronal cell type, which shares striking similarities with the radial glia of chordates. The basic features in common include (a) an elongated shape, (b) long radial processes, (c) short lateral protrusions branching off the main processes and penetrating into the surrounding neuropile, (d) prominent orderly oriented bundles of intermediate filaments, and (e) ability to produce Reissner's substance. Radial glia account for the majority of glia cells in echinoderms and constitutes more than half of the total cell population in the radial nerve cord and about 45% in the circumoral nerve ring. The difference in glia cell number between those regions is significant, suggesting structural specialization within the seemingly simple echinoderm nervous system. Both cell death and proliferation are seen under normal physiological conditions. Although both glia and neurons undergo apoptosis, most of the mitotic cells are identified as radial glia, indicating a key role of this cell type in cell turnover in the nervous system. A hypothesis is proposed that the radial glia could be an ancestral feature of the deuterostome nervous system, and the origin of this cell type might have predated the diversification of the Chordata and Ambulacraria lineages. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in four dogs with central nervous system neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzefall, Birgit; Driver, Colin J; Benigni, Livia; Davies, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis is a polysystemic disease that can affect dogs of any age and can cause inflammation of the central nervous system. Antemortem diagnosis can be challenging, as clinical and conventional laboratory test findings are often nonspecific. A previous report described cerebellar lesions in brain MRI studies of seven dogs and proposed that these may be characteristic for central nervous system Neosporosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe MRI characteristics in another group of dogs with confirmed central nervous system neosporosis and compare them with the previous report. The hospital's database was searched for dogs with confirmed central nervous system neosporosis and four observers recorded findings from each dog's MRI studies. A total of four dogs met inclusion criteria. Neurologic examination was indicative of a forebrain and cerebellar lesion in dog 2 and multifocal central nervous system disease in dogs 1, 3, and 4. Magnetic resonance imaging showed mild bilateral and symmetrical cerebellar atrophy in three of four dogs (dogs 2, 3, 4), intramedullary spinal cord changes in two dogs (dogs 3, 4) and a mesencephalic and metencephalic lesion in one dog (dog 2). Multifocal brain lesions were recognized in two dogs (dogs 1, 4) and were present in the thalamus, lentiform nucleus, centrum semiovale, internal capsule, brainstem and cortical gray matter of the frontal, parietal or temporal lobe. Findings indicated that central nervous system neosporosis may be characterized by multifocal MRI lesions as well as cerebellar involvement in dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  20. Overview of the Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology of the Autonomic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrwein, Erica A; Orer, Hakan S; Barman, Susan M

    2016-06-13

    Comprised of the sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, and enteric nervous system, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) provides the neural control of all parts of the body except for skeletal muscles. The ANS has the major responsibility to ensure that the physiological integrity of cells, tissues, and organs throughout the entire body is maintained (homeostasis) in the face of perturbations exerted by both the external and internal environments. Many commonly prescribed drugs, over-the-counter drugs, toxins, and toxicants function by altering transmission within the ANS. Autonomic dysfunction is a signature of many neurological diseases or disorders. Despite the physiological relevance of the ANS, most neuroscience textbooks offer very limited coverage of this portion of the nervous system. This review article provides both historical and current information about the anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS. The ultimate aim is for this article to be a valuable resource for those interested in learning the basics of these two components of the ANS and to appreciate its importance in both health and disease. Other resources should be consulted for a thorough understanding of the third division of the ANS, the enteric nervous system. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1239-1278, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.