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Sample records for nerve therapeutic applications

  1. Peripheral facial nerve palsy after therapeutic endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jun; Lee, Ji Woon; Lee, Jun Hyung; Park, Chol Jin; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Hyun Jin

    2015-03-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a mononeuropathy that affects the peripheral part of the facial nerve. Primary causes of peripheral FNP remain largely unknown, but detectable causes include systemic infections (viral and others), trauma, ischemia, tumor, and extrinsic compression. Peripheral FNP in relation to extrinsic compression has rarely been described in case reports. Here, we report a case of a 71-year-old man who was diagnosed with peripheral FNP following endoscopic submucosal dissection. This case is the first report of the development of peripheral FNP in a patient undergoing therapeutic endoscopy. We emphasize the fact that physicians should be attentive to the development of peripheral FNP following therapeutic endoscopy.

  2. Therapeutic results in sixth nerve palsy

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    Pruna Violeta-Ioana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors aim to assess through a retrospective study the efficiency of different therapeutic methods used in VIth nerve palsy. 60 patients with VIth nerve palsy, admitted and treated in Oftapro Clinic, were divided into two groups: a group with partial dysfunction (paresis of sixth nerve and a group with the complete abolition of neuromuscular function (VIth nerve palsy. Initial examination included assessment of neuromuscular function, binocular vision and existence of medial rectus muscle contracture (ipsi- and contralateral and contralateral lateral rectus inhibitory palsy. Neuromuscular dysfunction was graded from - 8 (paralysis to 0 (normal abduction. Therapeutic modalities ranged from conservative treatment (occlusion, prism correction, botulinum toxin chemodenervation and surgical treatment: medial rectus recession + lateral rectus resection, in cases of paresis, and transposition procedures (Hummelscheim and full tendon transfer in cases of sixth nerve palsy. Functional therapeutic success was defined as absence of diplopia in primary position, with or without prism correction, and surgical success was considered obtaining orthoptic alignment in primary position or a small residual deviation (under 10 PD. 51 patients had unilateral dysfunction, and 9 patients had bilateral VI-th nerve dysfunction. 8 patients had associated fourth or seventh cranial nerves palsy. The most common etiology was traumatic, followed by tumor and vascular causes. There were 18 cases of spontaneous remission, partial or complete (4-8 months after the onset, and 6 cases enhanced by botulinum toxin chemodenervation. 17 paretic eyes underwent surgery, showing a very good outcome, with restoration of binocular single vision. The procedure of choice was recession of medial rectus muscle, combined with resection of lateral rectus muscle. All patients with sixth nerve palsy underwent surgery, except one old female patient, who refused surgery. Hummelscheim procedure was

  3. Intraoperative radiation of canine carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve. Therapeutic applications in the management of advanced head and neck cancers

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    Mittal, B.B.; Pelzer, H.; Tsao, C.S.; Ward, W.F.; Johnson, P.; Friedman, C.; Sisson, G.A. Sr.; Kies, M. (Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-12-01

    As a step in the application of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for treating advanced head and neck cancers, preliminary information was obtained on the radiation tolerance of the canine common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve to a single, high-dose electron beam. Both sides of the neck of eight mongrel dogs were operated on to expose an 8-cm segment of common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve. One side of the neck was irradiated, using escalating doses of 2500, 3500, 4500, and 5500 cGy. The contralateral side of the neck served as the unirradiated control. At 3 and 6 months after IORT, one dog at each dose level was killed. None of the dogs developed carotid bleeding at any time after IORT. Light microscopic investigations using hematoxylin-eosin staining on the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein showed no consistent changes that suggested radiation damage; however, the Masson trichrome stain and hydroxyproline concentration of irradiated common carotid artery indicated an increase in the collagen content of the tunica media. Marked changes in the irradiated vagus nerve were seen, indicating severe demyelination and loss of nerve fibers, which appeared to be radiation-dose dependent. Four patients with advanced recurrent head and neck cancer were treated with surgical resection and IORT without any acute or subacute complications. The role of IORT as a supplement to surgery, external beam irradiation, and chemotherapy in selected patients with advanced head and neck cancer needs further exploration.

  4. Effects of deep heating provided by therapeutic ultrasound on demyelinating nerves.

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    Aydin, Elif; Tastaban, Engin; Omurlu, Imran Kurt; Turan, Yasemin; Şendur, Ömer Faruk

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] Physiotherapeutic heating agents are classified into two groups: superficial-heating agents and deep-heating agents. Therapeutic ultrasound is a deep-heating agent used to treat various musculosketal disorders. Numerous studies have attempted to determine the impact of ultrasound on healthy nerve conduction parameters. However, the instantaneous effects of deep heating via ultrasound on demyelinating nerves do not appear to have been described previously. The present study aimed to assess and compare the impact of ultrasound on demyelinating nerve and healthy nerve conduction parameters. [Subjects and Methods] Carpal tunnel syndrome was used as a focal demyelination model. Thirty-two hands of 25 participants with carpal tunnel syndrome were enrolled in the study. Ultrasound parameters were 3.3 MHz, 1.0 W/cm(2), 8 minutes, and continuous wave. Electrodiagnostic studies were performed initially, at the midpoint (4th min), and immediately after (8th min) ultrasound application. [Results] Reduced motor conduction velocity was found in demyelinating nerves at the 4th and 8th minutes. Ulnar nerve onset latency was significantly prolonged in the 8th minute recording, compared to the initial value. There were no significant differences in relative velocity and latency changes between demyelinating and normal nerves. [Conclusion] Deep heating via ultrasound may inversely affect conduction velocity in demyelinating nerves.

  5. Effects of deep heating provided by therapeutic ultrasound on demyelinating nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Elif; Tastaban, Engin; Omurlu, Imran Kurt; Turan, Yasemin; Şendur, Ömer Faruk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physiotherapeutic heating agents are classified into two groups: superficial-heating agents and deep-heating agents. Therapeutic ultrasound is a deep-heating agent used to treat various musculosketal disorders. Numerous studies have attempted to determine the impact of ultrasound on healthy nerve conduction parameters. However, the instantaneous effects of deep heating via ultrasound on demyelinating nerves do not appear to have been described previously. The present study aimed to assess and compare the impact of ultrasound on demyelinating nerve and healthy nerve conduction parameters. [Subjects and Methods] Carpal tunnel syndrome was used as a focal demyelination model. Thirty-two hands of 25 participants with carpal tunnel syndrome were enrolled in the study. Ultrasound parameters were 3.3 MHz, 1.0 W/cm2, 8 minutes, and continuous wave. Electrodiagnostic studies were performed initially, at the midpoint (4th min), and immediately after (8th min) ultrasound application. [Results] Reduced motor conduction velocity was found in demyelinating nerves at the 4th and 8th minutes. Ulnar nerve onset latency was significantly prolonged in the 8th minute recording, compared to the initial value. There were no significant differences in relative velocity and latency changes between demyelinating and normal nerves. [Conclusion] Deep heating via ultrasound may inversely affect conduction velocity in demyelinating nerves. PMID:27190467

  6. Biomaterials and therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    A number of organic and inorganic, synthetic or natural derived materials have been classified as not harmful for the human body and are appropriate for medical applications. These materials are usually named biomaterials since they are suitable for introduction into living human tissues of prosthesis, as well as for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapies, tissue regeneration and many other clinical applications. Recently, nanomaterials and bioabsorbable polymers have greatly enlarged the fields of application of biomaterials attracting much more the attention of the biomedical community. In this review paper I am going to discuss the most recent advances in the use of magnetic nanoparticles and biodegradable materials as new biomedical tools.

  7. A Romanian therapeutic approach to peripheral nerve injury.

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    Zegrea, I; Chivu, Laura Ioana; Albu, Mădălina Georgiana; Zamfirescu, D; Chivu, R D; Ion, Daniela Adriana; Lascăr, I

    2012-01-01

    The study of nerve regeneration and functional recovery of the injured peripheral nerves represents a worldwide subject of clinical and scientific research. Our team aimed to obtain the first guide for nerve regeneration, bioartificial and biodegradable, using exclusively Romanian resources and having the advantages of price and quality, over the imported nerve conduits already used in clinical practice. First steps of this project consisted in obtaining the prototype of nerve guide conduit and its' testing in vitro and in vivo. Tests of physicochemical characterization, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectrometry, thermal analysis (differential calorimetry, thermo-gravimetry), electron microscopy, water absorption and enzymatic degradation of the obtained prototype were followed by in vivo testing. The first results, obtained on a group of Brown Norway rats who suffered experimental lesions of 1 cm at the level of left sciatic nerve, which have then been repaired using the Romanian conduit prototype, are favorable in terms of biocompatibility, biodegradable capacity and support of nerve regeneration.

  8. Potential therapeutic applications of biosurfactants.

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    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-12-01

    Biosurfactants have recently emerged as promising molecules for their structural novelty, versatility, and diverse properties that are potentially useful for many therapeutic applications. Mainly due to their surface activity, these molecules interact with cell membranes of several organisms and/or with the surrounding environments, and thus can be viewed as potential cancer therapeutics or as constituents of drug delivery systems. Some types of microbial surfactants, such as lipopeptides and glycolipids, have been shown to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to disrupt cell membranes causing their lysis through apoptosis pathways. Moreover, biosurfactants as drug delivery vehicles offer commercially attractive and scientifically novel applications. This review covers the current state-of-the-art in biosurfactant research for therapeutic purposes, providing new directions towards the discovery and development of molecules with novel structures and diverse functions for advanced applications.

  9. Novel Therapeutic Development of NF1-Associated Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0124 TITLE: Novel Therapeutic Development of NF1-Associated Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST...Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0124 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ping Chi, MD, PhD 5e. TASK...that affects approximately 1 in 3000 people. Although multiple defects can arise, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) represents the most

  10. Anticonvulsants for Nerve Agent-Induced Seizures: The Influence of the Therapeutic Dose of Atropine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphorous nerve agents-induced cological Basis of Therapeutics, 10th ed. (Hardman JG, Limbird LE, and ( Gilman seizures and efficacy of atropine...us.army.mil Taylor P (2001) Anticholinesterase agents, in Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharrna-

  11. Scenario Writing: A Therapeutic Application.

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    Haddock, Billy D.

    1989-01-01

    Introduces scenario writing as useful therapeutic technique. Presents case study of woman in midst of divorce and custody fight to illustrate context in which technique was applied. Suggests additional applications. Concludes that good response is more likely for clients who possess good writing skills although other clients may use their own…

  12. Spinal cord infarction following therapeutic computed tomography-guided left L2 nerve root injection.

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    Somayaji, H S; Saifuddin, A; Casey, A T H; Briggs, T W R

    2005-02-15

    Case report. To report a rare case of spinal cord infarction following therapeutic computed tomography-guided nerve root injection. Diagnostic and therapeutic image-guided nerve root injection is commonly performed in the management of low back pain and sciatica. The severe complication of spinal cord infarction has been reported in only 3 cases previously. Retrospective review of case records and imaging. A 71-year-old woman presented with symptoms and signs of left L2 nerve root compression. She was managed with computed tomography-guided left L2 nerve root injection using bupivacaine and triamcinolone and developed immediate bilateral sensory loss and paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse hyperintensity within the distal thoracic cord and conus on T2-weighted images, consistent with spinal cord infarction. We report the fourth case of spinal cord infarction following nerve root injection. The severity of this complication warrants that it should be considered during patient consent for this procedure.

  13. Therapeutic Management of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome Causing Ulnar Nerve Entrapment

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    Emanuele Cigna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare traumatic vascular disease of the hand. Method and Materials. We report the case of a 43-years-old man with a painful tumefaction of the left hypothenar region. The ulnar artery appeared thrombosed clinically and radiologically. The patient underwent surgery to resolve the ulnar nerve compression and revascularise the artery. Results. The symptoms disappeared immediately after surgery. The arterial flow was reestablished. Postoperatively on day 20, a new thrombosis of the ulnar artery occurred. Conclusion. Hypothenar hammer syndrome is caused by repetitive trauma to the heel of the hand. The alterations of the vessel due to its chronic inflammation caused an acute compression of the ulnar nerve at the Guyon's canal and, in our case, do not allow a permanent revascularisation of the ulnar artery.

  14. Therapeutic Management of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome Causing Ulnar Nerve Entrapment

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare traumatic vascular disease of the hand. Method and Materials. We report the case of a 43-years-old man with a painful tumefaction of the left hypothenar region. The ulnar artery appeared thrombosed clinically and radiologically. The patient underwent surgery to resolve the ulnar nerve compression and revascularise the artery. Results. The symptoms disappeared immediately after surgery. The arterial flow was reestablished. Postoperatively ...

  15. Effects of deep heating provided by therapeutic ultrasound on demyelinating nerves

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physiotherapeutic heating agents are classified into two groups: superficial-heating agents and deep-heating agents. Therapeutic ultrasound is a deep-heating agent used to treat various musculosketal disorders. Numerous studies have attempted to determine the impact of ultrasound on healthy nerve conduction parameters. However, the instantaneous effects of deep heating via ultrasound on demyelinating nerves do not appear to have been described previously. The present study aimed to ...

  16. Conotoxins: Therapeutic Potential and Application

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    Richard T. Layer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological variety of conotoxins, diverse peptides found in the venoms of marine cone snails, is well recognized. Venoms from each of the estimated 500 species of cone snails contain 50 to 200 distinct biologically active peptides. Most conotoxins characterized to date target receptors and ion channels of excitable tissues, such as ligandgated nicotinic acetylcholine, N-methyl-D-aspartate, and type 3 serotonin receptors, as well as voltage-gated calcium, sodium, and potassium channels, and G-protein-coupled receptors including α-adrenergic, neurotensin, and vasopressin receptors, and the norepinephrine transporter. Several conotoxins have shown promise in preclinical models of pain, convulsive disorders, stroke, neuromuscular block, and cardioprotection. The pharmacological selectivity of the conotoxins, coupled with the safety and efficacy demonstrated in preclinical models, has led to their investigation as human therapeutic agents. In the following review, we will survey the pharmacology and therapeutic rationale of those conotoxins with potential clinical application, and discuss the unique challenges that each will face in the course of their transition from venom component to human therapeutic.

  17. [Optic nerve pits: clinical and therapeutic review of 21 cases].

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    Montenegro, M; Bonnet, M

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study of optic nerve pits in patients referred to our clinic during the last 15 years was conducted. The study included 21 eyes in 19 patients. The optic pit was associated with a serous macular detachment (SMD) in 19 eyes (90%). Various treatments of the SMD were used depending on the time period. Systemic corticosteroids were used in five patients. The SMD did not respond to this treatment. Argon laser photocoagulation was applied to the temporal side of the optic disc in five patients. Intravitreal injection of pure gas was used as an adjunct to photocoagulation treatment in eleven eyes. Pure SF 6 was used in 8 eyes, and C 3 F 8 in 3 eyes. The follow-up after treatment was over 6 months in 10 patients who underwent photocoagulation or the combination of photocoagulation and gas injection. The SMD remained unchanged in two eyes which underwent photocoagulation treatment without gas injection. In the group of patients treated by photocoagulation in association with SF 6 injection, the SMD totally reattached in one eye, decreased in 2 eyes and remained unchanged in 2 eyes. Total resorption of subretinal fluid and permanent retinal reattachment occurred in the 3 eyes treated by intravitreal injection of pure C 3 F 8 as an adjunct to photocoagulation treatment. Further clinical investigations on large series of patients are required to determine whether prolonged retinal tamponade by C 3 F 8 gas in association with photocoagulation treatment is a valuable method in the management of SMD complicating optic nerve pits.

  18. Single cycle structure-based humanization of an anti-nerve growth factor therapeutic antibody.

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    Sonia Covaceuszach

    Full Text Available Most forms of chronic pain are inadequately treated by present therapeutic options. Compelling evidence has accumulated, demonstrating that Nerve Growth Factor (NGF is a key modulator of inflammatory and nociceptive responses, and is a promising target for the treatment of human pathologies linked to chronic and inflammatory pain. There is therefore a growing interest in the development of therapeutic molecules antagonising the NGF pathway and its nociceptor sensitization actions, among which function-blocking anti-NGF antibodies are particularly relevant candidates.In this respect, the rat anti-NGF αD11 monoclonal antibody (mAb is a potent antagonist, able to effectively antagonize rodent and human NGF in a variety of in vitro and in vivo systems. Here we show that mAb αD11 displays a significant analgesic effect in two different models of persistent pain in mice, with a remarkable long-lasting activity. In order to advance αD11 mAb towards its clinical application in man, anti-NGF αD11 mAb was humanized by applying a novel single cycle strategy based on the a priori experimental determination of the crystal and molecular structure of the parental Fragment antigen-binding (Fab. The humanized antibody (hum-αD11 was tested in vitro and in vivo, showing that the binding mode and the NGF neutralizing biological activities of the parental antibody are fully preserved, with even a significant affinity improvement. The results firmly establish hum-αD11 as a lead candidate for clinical applications in a therapeutic area with a severe unmet medical need. More generally, the single-cycle structure-based humanization method represents a considerable improvement over the standard humanization methods, which are intrinsically empirical and require several refinement cycles.

  19. Single Cycle Structure-Based Humanization of an Anti-Nerve Growth Factor Therapeutic Antibody

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    Covaceuszach, Sonia; Marinelli, Sara; Krastanova, Ivet; Ugolini, Gabriele; Pavone, Flaminia; Lamba, Doriano; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Most forms of chronic pain are inadequately treated by present therapeutic options. Compelling evidence has accumulated, demonstrating that Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is a key modulator of inflammatory and nociceptive responses, and is a promising target for the treatment of human pathologies linked to chronic and inflammatory pain. There is therefore a growing interest in the development of therapeutic molecules antagonising the NGF pathway and its nociceptor sensitization actions, among which function-blocking anti-NGF antibodies are particularly relevant candidates. In this respect, the rat anti-NGF αD11 monoclonal antibody (mAb) is a potent antagonist, able to effectively antagonize rodent and human NGF in a variety of in vitro and in vivo systems. Here we show that mAb αD11 displays a significant analgesic effect in two different models of persistent pain in mice, with a remarkable long-lasting activity. In order to advance αD11 mAb towards its clinical application in man, anti-NGF αD11 mAb was humanized by applying a novel single cycle strategy based on the a priori experimental determination of the crystal and molecular structure of the parental Fragment antigen-binding (Fab). The humanized antibody (hum-αD11) was tested in vitro and in vivo, showing that the binding mode and the NGF neutralizing biological activities of the parental antibody are fully preserved, with even a significant affinity improvement. The results firmly establish hum-αD11 as a lead candidate for clinical applications in a therapeutic area with a severe unmet medical need. More generally, the single-cycle structure-based humanization method represents a considerable improvement over the standard humanization methods, which are intrinsically empirical and require several refinement cycles. PMID:22403636

  20. A review of studies on the therapeutic effect of vagus nerve stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve widely innervates in the human body, and it has diverse physiological functions. Many new physiological functions are gradually found. Studies on its action mechanism have been gradually deepened. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been used for treatment of epilepsy and depression in clinic. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanism of VNS. RETRIEVE STRATEGY: A computer-based online research in Pubmed with the key words of "vagus nerve stimulation" published between February 1990 and October 2006 in English were systemically reviewed. Totally 583 articles were collected and primarily selected. Inclusive criteria: the mechanism of therapeutic effects of VNS-related literatures. Exclusive criteria: repetitive study. LITERATURE EVALUATION: According to inclusive criteria, of the 57 articles, which met the inclusive criteria, 42 were associated with the therapeutic function of VNS, and 15 with the mechanism of these related functions. DATA SYNTHESIS: Vagus nerve has special nerve innervation and wide projection with extensive physiological effects. Till now, VNS has been used in the therapy of epilepsy and depression, and exact clinical effects have been obtained. Further studies have discovered other functions of VNS, such as the effect on the memory powcr, cognition, and perception to pain. Thus, the studies about VNS become diverse. Just because of the special physiological functions of vagus nerve, VNS can bring some adverse reactions such as foreign body sensation, hoarseness, trigeminal neuralgia, etc. The mechanism of therapeutic function of VNS is still under exploration. CONCLUSION: As a mature surgical technique, VNS has been widely used in the therapy of epilepsy, depression, inflammation, analgesia, relieving itching, etc. Although the mechanism is still unclear, it brings obvious clinical effects.

  1. Clinical applications of therapeutic phlebotomy.

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    Kim, Kyung Hee; Oh, Ki Young

    2016-01-01

    Phlebotomy is the removal of blood from the body, and therapeutic phlebotomy is the preferred treatment for blood disorders in which the removal of red blood cells or serum iron is the most efficient method for managing the symptoms and complications. Therapeutic phlebotomy is currently indicated for the treatment of hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, porphyria cutanea tarda, sickle cell disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with hyperferritinemia. This review discusses therapeutic phlebotomy and the related disorders and also offers guidelines for establishing a therapeutic phlebotomy program.

  2. Clinical applications of therapeutic phlebotomy

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    Kim KH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyung Hee Kim,1 Ki Young Oh,2 1Department of Laboratory Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, South Korea Abstract: Phlebotomy is the removal of blood from the body, and therapeutic phlebotomy is the preferred treatment for blood disorders in which the removal of red blood cells or serum iron is the most efficient method for managing the symptoms and complications. Therapeutic phlebotomy is currently indicated for the treatment of hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, porphyria cutanea tarda, sickle cell disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with hyperferritinemia. This review discusses therapeutic phlebotomy and the related disorders and also offers guidelines for establishing a therapeutic phlebotomy program. Keywords: therapeutic phlebotomy, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, porphyria cutanea tarda, sickle cell disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

  3. Ivermectin: pharmacology and therapeutic applications

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    Sunita B. Chhaiya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug with a broad spectrum of activity, high efficacy as well as a wide margin of safety. It belongs to the family of avermectins. It binds to glutamate-gated chloride iron channels, which are present in invertebrate nerve and muscle cells, and causes the paralysis and death of the parasite. Ivermectin is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and used worldwide to treat patients with onchocerciasis and strongyloidiasis. It is also used against a wide range of endoparasites (nematodes and ectoparasites (insects, acarine of animals and humans. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 132-139

  4. HDAC8, A Potential Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNST)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Lopez; Bill, Kate Lynn J.; Hemant Kumar Bid; Danielle Braggio; Dylan Constantino; Bethany Prudner; Abeba Zewdu; Kara Batte; Dina Lev; Pollock, Raphael E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HDAC isoform-specific inhibitors may improve the therapeutic window while limiting toxicities. Developing inhibitors against class I isoforms poses difficulties as they share high homology among their catalytic sites; however, HDAC8 is structurally unique compared to other class I isoforms. HDAC8 inhibitors are novel compounds and have affinity for class I HDAC isoforms demonstrating anti-cancer effects; little is known about their activity in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tu...

  5. Therapeutic effectiveness of epicranial nerve blocks on post-traumatic syndrome from head injury

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    C. A. Caputi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The autor describes the case of a 53-year-old woman suffering from headache and dizziness, sometimes nausea, tinnitus in the right ear, and diffuse scalp allodynia following an occupational accident involving a head injury. Hyposensitizing treatment by anesthetic blockade at the emergence points of the epicranial nerves, which were hyperalgesic to fi nger pressure, rapidly controlled the allodynia and eventually the headache. Unexpectedly, the patient also reported reduced dizziness and resolution of the tinnitus. The unforeseen outcome highlights the unpredictable therapeutic potential of a simple and modestly invasive procedure. The neuropathophysiological interpretation is consequently very interesting.

  6. [Glucomannan: properties and therapeutic applications].

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    González Canga, A; Fernández Martínez, N; Sahagún, A M; García Vieitez, J J; Díez Liébana, M J; Calle Pardo, A P; Castro Robles, L J; Sierra Vega, M

    2004-01-01

    Glucomannan is a dietary fiber employed quite frequently in the western countries since two decades now, as its ingestion plays an important role in human health. However, eastern people have used this fiber for more than a thousand years. This dietary fiber is the main polysaccharide obtain from the tubers of the Amorphophallus konjac plant, a member of the family Araceae found in east Asia. The chemical structure of glucomannan consists, mainly, in mannose and glucose in the ratio 8:5 linked by beta (1-->4) glycosidic bonds. This soluble fiber has a extraordinarily high waterholding capacity, forming highly viscous solutions when dissolved in water. It has the highest molecular weight and viscosity of any known dietary fiber. It has been demonstrated that this product is highly effective in the treatment of obesity due to the satiety sensation that it produces; as a remedy for constipation, because it increases the faeces volume; as hypocholesterolemic agent, interfering in the transport of cholesterol and of bile acids and as hypoglycemic and hypoinsulinemic agent, probably, by delaying gastric emptying and slowering glucose delivery to the intestinal mucosa. To the beneficial properties of this fiber, several disadvantages can be added as the production of flatulence, abdominal pain, esophageal obstruction, lower gastrointestinal obstruction or even the possible modification of the bioavailability of other drugs. This paper reviews the main characteristics of glucomannan, as well as its properties, physiologic effects and therapeutic uses.

  7. Magnetic Microspheres for Therapeutical Applications

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    Mazuruk, K.; Ramachandran, N.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a well known cancer therapy and consists of heating a tumor region to the elevated temperatures in the range of 40-45 C for an extended period of time (2-8 hours). This leads to thermal inactivation of cell regulatory and growth processes with resulting widespread necrosis, carbonization and coagulation. Moreover, heat boosts the tumor response to other treatments such as radiation, chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Of particular importance is careful control of generated heat in the treated region and keeping it localized. Higher heating, to about 56 C can lead to tissue thermo-ablation. With accurate temperature control, hyperthermia has the advantage of having minimal side effects. Several heating techniques are utilized for this purpose, such as whole body hyperthermia, radio-frequency (RF) hyperthermia, ultrasound technique, inductive microwave antenna hyperthermia, inductive needles (thermoseeds), and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH).MFH offers many advantages as targeting capability by applying magnets. However, this technology still suffers significant inefficiencies due to lack of thermal control. This paper will provide a review of the topic and outline the ongoing work in this area. The main emphasis is in devising ways to overcome the technical difficulty in hyperthermia therapy of achieving a uniform therapeutic temperature over the required region of the body and holding it steady. The basic obstacle of the present heating methods are non-uniform thermal properties of the tissue. Our approach is to develop a novel class of magnetic fluids which have inherent thermoregulating properties. We have identified a few magnetic alloys which can serve as a suitable nano-particle material. The objective is to synthesize, characterize and evaluate the efficacy of TRMF for hyperthermia therapy.

  8. Synthetic biology for therapeutic applications.

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    Abil, Zhanar; Xiong, Xiong; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-02-02

    Synthetic biology is a relatively new field with the key aim of designing and constructing biological systems with novel functionalities. Today, synthetic biology devices are making their first steps in contributing new solutions to a number of biomedical challenges, such as emerging bacterial antibiotic resistance and cancer therapy. This review discusses some synthetic biology approaches and applications that were recently used in disease mechanism investigation and disease modeling, drug discovery and production, as well as vaccine development and treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

  9. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells as a Therapeutic Approach to Optic Nerve Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise A. Mesentier-Louro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following optic nerve injury associated with acute or progressive diseases, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs of adult mammals degenerate and undergo apoptosis. These diseases have limited therapeutic options, due to the low inherent capacity of RGCs to regenerate and due to the inhibitory milieu of the central nervous system. Among the numerous treatment approaches investigated to stimulate neuronal survival and axonal extension, cell transplantation emerges as a promising option. This review focuses on cell therapies with bone marrow mononuclear cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which have shown positive therapeutic effects in animal models of optic neuropathies. Different aspects of available preclinical studies are analyzed, including cell distribution, potential doses, routes of administration, and mechanisms of action. Finally, published and ongoing clinical trials are summarized.

  10. Bone Marrow-Derived Cells as a Therapeutic Approach to Optic Nerve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesentier-Louro, Louise A.; Zaverucha-do-Valle, Camila; Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo H.; Silva-Junior, Almir J.; Pimentel-Coelho, Pedro M.; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia; Santiago, Marcelo F.

    2016-01-01

    Following optic nerve injury associated with acute or progressive diseases, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of adult mammals degenerate and undergo apoptosis. These diseases have limited therapeutic options, due to the low inherent capacity of RGCs to regenerate and due to the inhibitory milieu of the central nervous system. Among the numerous treatment approaches investigated to stimulate neuronal survival and axonal extension, cell transplantation emerges as a promising option. This review focuses on cell therapies with bone marrow mononuclear cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which have shown positive therapeutic effects in animal models of optic neuropathies. Different aspects of available preclinical studies are analyzed, including cell distribution, potential doses, routes of administration, and mechanisms of action. Finally, published and ongoing clinical trials are summarized. PMID:26649049

  11. Therapeutic Applications of Classic Hallucinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Ross, Stephen

    2017-05-18

    This chapter reviews what is known about the therapeutic uses of the serotonergic or classic hallucinogens, i.e., psychoactive drugs such as LSD and psilocybin that exert their effects primarily through agonist activity at serotonin 2A (5HT2A) receptors. Following a review of the history of human use and scientific study of these drugs, the data from clinical research are summarized, including extensive work on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of alcoholism and other addictions, studies of the use of LSD and psilocybin to relieve distress concerning death, particularly in patients with advanced or terminal cancer, and more limited data concerning the use of classic hallucinogens to treat mood and anxiety disorders. A survey of possible mechanisms of clinically relevant effects is provided. The well-established safety of classic hallucinogens is reviewed. To provide a clinical perspective, case summaries are provided of two individuals who received treatment in recent controlled trials of psilocybin: one being treated for alcoholism, the other suffering from anxiety and depression related to fear of death due to a cancer diagnosis. Although promising early phase research conducted from the 1950s through the early 1970s was discontinued before firm conclusions could be reached concerning the efficacy of any of the classic hallucinogens for any clinical condition, the research that was conducted in that era strongly suggests that classic hallucinogens have clinically relevant effects, particularly in the case of LSD treatment of alcoholism. In the past decade, clinical trials have resumed investigating the effects of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of existential distress in the face of cancer, and in the treatment of addictions including alcoholism and nicotine addiction. The studies that have been completed to date are not sufficient to establish efficacy, but the outcomes have been very encouraging, and larger trials, up to and including

  12. Magnetoneurography: theory and application to peripheral nerve disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Bruno-Marcel

    2004-12-01

    Magnetoneurography (MNG) is a non-invasive method to trace and visualize three-dimensionally the propagation path of compound action currents (CAC) along peripheral nerves. The basic physical and physiological principle is the mapping of extremely weak magnetic fields generated by the intraaxonal longitudinal ion flows of evoked nerval CAC using SQUID sensors (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices). During recent years, MNG protocols have been established which allow for a non-invasive spatiotemporal tracing of impulse propagation along peripheral nerves in humans and in particular along proximal nerve segments in a clinical setting. Thereby, the three-dimensional path, the local nerve conduction velocity, the length and strength of the CAC de- and repolarization phase have been reconstructed. First recordings in patients demonstrated that the method is sensitive enough to detect and to localize nerve conduction anomalities along nerve roots, as, e.g. caused by lumbosacral disc herniation. This review on MNG will focus on those studies which provide data from humans and thereby reveal perspectives for its future clinical applications.

  13. Applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, various functional nanostructured materials with interesting optical, magnetic, mechanical and chemical properties have been extensively applied to biomedical areas including imaging, diagnosis and therapy. In therapeutics, most research has focused on the application of nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for drugs and genes, because nanoparticles in the size range of 2-100 nm can interact with biological systems at the molecular level, and allow targeted delivery and passage through biological barriers. Recent investigations have even revealed that several kinds of nanomaterials are intrinsically therapeutic. Not only can they passively interact with cells, but they can also actively mediate molecular processes to regulate cell functions. This can be seen in the treatment of cancer via anti-angiogenic mechanisms as well as the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by effectively controlling oxidative stress. This review will present recent applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents in the treatment of disease.

  14. The nerve protection and in vivo therapeutic effect of Acalypha indica extract in frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernie H. Purwaningsih

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim To demonstrate nerve protection and/or treatment effect of Acalypha indica Linn. extract on nerve paralysis induced by subcutaneus injection of pancuronium bromide on frog’s back.Methods The study was performed on sixty frogs (Bufo melanostictus Schneider that divided into two groups, i.e. the neuro-protection and neuro-therapy group. Each group was divided further into 6 sub-treatment groups: negative control group treated by water and positive control group treated by piracetam, treatment groups received the extracts 200, 300, 400, 500 mg/kgBW. Pancuronium bromide 0.2% (1 : 20 dilutions were injected subcutaneously as muscle relaxant. The protective effect was studied by giving the extract orally, 1 hour prior to injection; while the therapeutic effect of the extract was studied by 10 minute treatment after injecting pancuronium bromide solution. The parameters measured were the onset and duration of paralysis (in minutes and the recovery time (time needed to recover into normal condition.Results The study showed significantly different protective effect of Acalypha indica Linn. root water extract at 400 and 500 mg/KgBW compared to negative control group and positive control group (piracetam (p < 0.05; while the therapeutic effect was obvious at the dose 200-500 mg/KgBW compared to negative control group (p = 0.000. There was no significant difference compared to positive control group (piracetam, except at 300 mg/KgBW (p = 0.012.Conclusion These results have proven that the water extract of Acalypha indica Linn. root has comparable protective and treatment effect on nerves system, as piracetam, but further studies should be performed to provide more evidences particularly pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on two animal models that commonly used. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:96-102Keywords: Acalypha indica Linn, Bufo melanostictus Schneider, nerve-protection

  15. Vagus nerve stimulation may be a sound therapeutic option in the treatment of refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S. Meneses

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Refractory epilepsy accounts for 20 to 30% of epilepsy cases and remains a challenge for neurologists. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS is an option for palliative treatment. OBJECTIVE: It was to study the efficacy and tolerability of VNS in patients implanted with a stimulator at the Curitiba Institute of Neurology (INC. METHODS: A case study of six patients with refractory epilepsy submitted to a VNS procedure at the INC in the last four years was described and discussed. RESULTS: Mean age at time of implantation was 29 years. Mean follow-up was 26.6 months. Seizure frequency decreased in all patients (40-50% (n=2 and >80% (n=4. Three patients no longer required frequent hospitalizations. Two patients previously restricted to wheelchairs started to walk, probably because of improved mood. CONCLUSION: In this population, VNS proved to be a sound therapeutic option for treating refractory epilepsy.

  16. The therapeutic dilemma of vagus nerve stimulator-induced sleep disordered breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Hinesh; Bhat, Sushanth; Gupta, Divya; Mulvey, Martha; Ming, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can reduce the frequency of seizures in patients with refractory epilepsy, but can affect respiration in sleep. Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can worsen seizure frequency. Unfortunately, OSA and VNS-induced sleep disordered breathing (SDB) may occur in the same patient, leading to a therapeutic dilemma. We report a pediatric patient in whom OSA improved after tonsillectomy, but coexistent VNS-induced SDB persisted. With decrease in VNS output current, patient's SDB improved, but seizure activity exacerbated, which required a return to the original settings. Continuous positive airway pressure titration was attempted, which showed only a partial improvement in apnea–hypopnea index. This case illustrates the need for clinicians to balance seizure control and SDB in patients with VNS. PMID:27168865

  17. Conotoxins: Structure, Therapeutic Potential and Pharmacological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Rafia; Karim, Sajjad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Wilson, Cornelia M; Mirza, Zeenat

    2016-01-01

    Cone snails, also known as marine gastropods, from Conus genus produce in their venom a diverse range of small pharmacologically active structured peptides called conotoxins. The cone snail venoms are widely unexplored arsenal of toxins with therapeutic and pharmacological potential, making them a treasure trove of ligands and peptidic drug leads. Conotoxins are small disulfide bonded peptides, which act as remarkable selective inhibitors and modulators of ion channels (calcium, sodium, potassium), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, noradrenaline transporters, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and neurotensin receptors. They are highly potent and specific against several neuronal targets making them valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics. In this review, we discuss their gene superfamily classification, nomenclature, post-translational modification, structural framework, pharmacology and medical applications of the active conopeptides. We aim to give an overview of their structure and therapeutic potential. Understanding these aspects of conopeptides will help in designing more specific peptidic analogues.

  18. Therapeutic applications of collagenase (metalloproteases: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Alipour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive therapeutic methods have recently been used in medical sciences. Enzymes have shown high activity at very low concentrations in laboratories and pharmaceutical, enabling them to play crucial roles in different biological phenomena related to living organism, especially human medicine. Recently, using the therapeutic methods based on non-invasive approaches has been emphasized in medical society. Researchers have focused on producing medicines and tools reducing invasive procedures in medical. Collagenases are proteins which catalyze chemical processes and break the peptide bonds in collagen. Collagen may be generated more than the required amount or produced in unsuitable sites or may not degrade after a certain time. In such cases, using an injectable collagenase or its ointment can be helpful in collagen degradation. In both in vitro and in vivo tests, it has been revealed that collagenases have several therapeutic properties in wound healing, burns, nipple pain and some diseases including intervertebral disc herniation, keloid, cellulite, lipoma among others. This review describes the therapeutic application of collagenase in medical sciences and the process for its production using novel methods, paving the way for more effective and safe applications of collagenases.

  19. Aromatherapy and the central nerve system (CNS): therapeutic mechanism and its associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao Nan; Liu, Zhu Jun; Zhang, Huan Jing; Tzeng, Chi Meng

    2013-07-01

    Molecular medical research on aromatherapy has been steadily increasing for use as an adjuvant therapy in managing psychiatric disorders and to examine its therapeutic mechanisms. Most studies, as well as clinically applied experience, have indicated that various essential oils, such as lavender, lemon and bergamot can help to relieve stress, anxiety, depression and other mood disorders. Most notably, inhalation of essential oils can communicate signals to the olfactory system and stimulate the brain to exert neurotransmitters (e.g. serotonin and dopamine) thereby further regulating mood. However, little research has been done on the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects, thus their mechanism of action remains ambiguous. Several hypotheses have been proposed regarding the therapeutic mechanism of depression. These have mainly centered on possible deficiencies in monoamines, neurotrophins, the neuroendocrine system, c-AMP, cation channels as well as neuroimmune interactions and epigenetics, however the precise mechanism or mechanisms related to depression have yet to be elucidated. In the current study, the effectiveness of aromatherapy for alleviating psychiatric disorders was examined using data collected from previously published studies and our unpublished data. A possible signaling pathway from olfactory system to the central nerve system and the associated key molecular elements of aromatherapy are also proposed.

  20. Noncosmetic periocular therapeutic applications of botulinum toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaynak-Hekimhan Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin blocks acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. The drug which was initially found to be useful in the treatment of strabismus has been extremely effective in the treatment of variety of conditions, both cosmetic and noncosmetic. Some of the noncosmetic uses of botulinum toxin applications include treatment of spastic facial dystonias, temporary treatment of idiopathic or thyroid dysfunction-induced upper eyelid retraction, suppression of undesired hyperlacrimation, induction of temporary ptosis by chemodenervation in facial paralysis, and correction of lower eyelid spastic entropion. Additional periocular uses include control of synchronic eyelid and extraocular muscle movements after aberrant regeneration of cranial nerve palsies. Cosmetic effects of botulinum toxin were discovered accidentally during treatments of facial dystonias. Some of the emerging nonperiocular application for the drug includes treatment of hyperhidrosis, migraine, tension-type headaches, and paralytic spasticity. Some of the undesired side effects of periocular applications of botulinum toxin inlcude ecchymosis, rash, hematoma, headache, flu-like symptoms, nausea, dizziness, loss of facial expression, lower eyelid laxity, dermatochalasis, ectropion, epiphora, eyebrow and eyelid ptosis, lagophthalmos, keratitis sicca, and diplopia.

  1. Atherosclerosis and Nanotechnology: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Jeremy D; Chaddha, Ashish; Bhattacharjee, Somnath; Goonewardena, Sascha N

    2016-02-01

    Over the past several decades, tremendous advances have been made in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, with shifting demographics and evolving risk factors we now face new challenges that must be met in order to further advance are management of patients with CAD. In parallel with advances in our mechanistic appreciation of CAD and atherosclerosis, nanotechnology approaches have greatly expanded, offering the potential for significant improvements in our diagnostic and therapeutic management of CAD. To realize this potential we must go beyond to recognize new frontiers including knowledge gaps between understanding atherosclerosis to the translation of targeted molecular tools. This review highlights nanotechnology applications for imaging and therapeutic advancements in CAD.

  2. Patented herbal formulations and their therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthaba, Mohamed; Baboota, Sanjula; Athar, Tanwir M D; Thajudeen, Kamal Y; Ahmed, Sayeed; Ali, Javed

    2010-11-01

    Recently, there is a greater global interest in non synthetic, natural medicines derived from plant sources due to better tolerance and minimum adverse drug reactions as compared to synthetic medicines. Herbal products are also commonly used by the patients with certain chronic medical conditions, including breast cancer, liver disease, human immunodeficiency, asthma and rheumatological disorders. WHO estimates that about three-quarters of the world's population currently uses herbs and other forms of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The herbs are formulated in different modern dosage forms, such as Tablets, Capsules, Topical cream, Gel, Ointment and even some novel drug delivery forms, like extended release, sustained release, and microencapsules dosage forms. Patenting of herbal formulations has increased over the past few years and scientific evidence of therapeutic activity has been reported by performing various in vitro and in vivo experiments. This manuscript deals with various patented herbal formulations with their therapeutic application against various diseases.

  3. HDAC8, A Potential Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Lopez

    Full Text Available HDAC isoform-specific inhibitors may improve the therapeutic window while limiting toxicities. Developing inhibitors against class I isoforms poses difficulties as they share high homology among their catalytic sites; however, HDAC8 is structurally unique compared to other class I isoforms. HDAC8 inhibitors are novel compounds and have affinity for class I HDAC isoforms demonstrating anti-cancer effects; little is known about their activity in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST. Recently, we demonstrated anti-MPNST efficacy of HDAC8i in human and murine-derived MPNST pre-clinical models; we now seek to consider the potential therapeutic inhibition of HDAC8 in MPNST.Four Human MPNST cell lines, a murine-derived MPNST cell line, and two HDAC8 inhibitors (PCI-34051, PCI-48012; Pharmacyclics, Inc. Sunnyvale, CA were studied. Proliferation was determined using MTS and clonogenic assays. Effects on cell cycle were determined via PI FACS analysis; effects on apoptosis were determined using Annexin V-PI FACS analysis and cleaved caspase 3 expression. In vivo growth effects of HDAC8i were evaluated using MPNST xenograft models. 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify potential HDAC8 deacetylation substrates.HDAC8i induced cell growth inhibition and marked S-phase cell cycle arrest in human and murine-derived MPNST cells. Relative to control, HDAC8i induced apoptosis in both human and murine-derived MPNST cells. HDAC8i exhibited significant effects on MPNST xenograft growth (p=0.001 and tumor weight (p=0.02. Four potential HDAC8 substrate targets were identified using a proteomic approach: PARK7, HMGB1, PGAM1, PRDX6.MPNST is an aggressive sarcoma that is notoriously therapy-resistant, hence the urgent need for improved anti-MPNST therapies. HDAC8 inhibition may be useful for MPNST by improving efficacy while limiting toxicities as compared to pan-HDACis.

  4. Therapeutic Effect of Exendin-4, a Long-Acting Analogue of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, on Nerve Regeneration after the Crush Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Yamamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 is glucose-dependent insulinotropic hormone secreted from enteroendocrine L cells. Its long-acting analogue, exendin-4, is equipotent to GLP-1 and is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, exendin-4 has effects on the central and peripheral nervous system. In this study, we administered repeated intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of exendin-4 to examine whether exendin-4 is able to facilitate the recovery after the crush nerve injury. Exendin-4 injection was started immediately after crush injury and was repeated every day for subsequent 14 days. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve crush exhibited marked functional loss, electrophysiological dysfunction, and atrophy of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA. All these changes, except for the atrophy of TA, were improved significantly by the administration of exendin-4. Functional, electrophysiological, and morphological parameters indicated significant enhancement of nerve regeneration 4 weeks after nerve crush. These results suggest that exendin-4 is feasible for clinical application to treat peripheral nerve injury.

  5. Clinical application of therapeutic erythrocytapheresis (TEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbonesi, M; Bruni, R

    2000-06-01

    Therapeutic erythrocytapheresis (TEA) has been used in different diseases such as polycythemia vera (PV), secondary erythrocytosis or hemochromatosis as a process of the less cumbersome but more expensive phlebotomy. TEA is preferred in emergency conditions such as thrombocytosis or in conditions such as porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) or erythropoietic porphyria when plasma exchange (PEX) is often combined with TEA to reduce extracellular levels of uroporphyrin which contribute to plasma hyperviscosity. TEA is often combined with drug therapy that varies from etoposide in PV to EPO and desferoxamine which are used to mobilize and reduce iron stores in hemochromatosis. Benefits from this combination may be more long lasting than expected. Nonetheless for TEA, there is no standard protocol and, clinical experience with this therapy remains highly anecdotal. Therapeutic red cell-exchange (TREX) has been used with much interest over the years, starting with the management of hemolytic disease of the newborn and later used to correct severe anemia in thalassemia patients thereby preventing iron overload. It has also been used for the management of complications of sickle cell disease such as priapism, chest syndrome, stroke, retinal, bone, splenic and hepatic infarction or in preparation for surgery by reducing HbS to less than 30%. Automated apheresis has also favored the use of TREX in conditions such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and aniline poisoning, arsenic poisoning, Na chlorate intoxications and CO intoxications, hemoglobinopathies, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, reactions due to ABO incompatibility, in preparation for ABO incompatible bone marrow transplantation or for preventing anti-D immunization after the transfusion of D(+) cells to D(-) recipients. Another field of application has been in the emergency management of intraerythrocytic parasite infections such as malaria and babesiosis. Application of TREX may be wide but its real use remains limited

  6. A class of new microwave therapeutic applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, James C.; Kantor, Gideon; Ghods, Abdolhamid

    1982-01-01

    A class of new direct-contact microwave applicators has been developed for diathermy and hyperthermia applications. They consist of three concentric, circular, cylindrical tubes. The inner cylinder may serve as a port for circulating coolant to reduce surface temperature or as a port for introducing ionizing radiation in combination therapy for cancer. The coaxial waveguides formed by the inner and middle cylinders and by the middle and outer cylinders permit the propagation of TE11 and TE21 modes, respectively, for dual-beam, single-frequency use. The combinations give relatively uniform, circularly symmetric heating distributions in the tissue. Heating pattern and leakage level measurements obtained for a 10-cm-diameter dual-beam 2450±50-MHz applicator show that the maximum leakage level at a distance of 5 cm from the surface of the applicator in contact with planar fat-muscle phantoms is less than 4 mW/cm2 for a therapeutic specific absorption rate (SAR) of 235 W/kg. This value corresponds to a net forward power of 26 W. The measured VSWR is about 1.25. The width of the heating pattern is about 4 cm at a depth of 2.2 cm into the simulated muscle, where the SAR is half the maximum, and decreases slowly as the depth into the muscle increases, thus giving it a fairly uniform distribution.

  7. Study on Clinical Application of Nerve Monitor in Parotid Tumor Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-peng; JIA Bao-jun; AO Jian-hua; QU Dan-yang; SHENG Yan-jiao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study is to explore the application value of the nerve monitor adopted to pinpoint facial nerves before anatomization during a parotid tumor surgery. Methods Facial nerves of 36 patients were pinpointed by N800 nerve monitor produced by Shandong Weigao Group Medical Polymer Co. Ltd before being anatomized and exposed in parotid surgeries in order to protect the corresponding facial nerve branch and complete the related surgery. Results All the facial nerves of the 36 patients were located precisely and 108 related facial nerves were suc-cessfully anatomized and protected without any damage. Conclusion Pinpointing the facial nerve branch with a nerve monitor before anatomization pro-motes not only the efficiency of the surgery but also the safety of it and is proved to be more significant in a secondary surgery.

  8. Agarose and methylcellulose hydrogel blends for nerve regeneration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Benton C.; Minner, Eric J.; Wiseman, Sherri L.; Klank, Rebecca L.; Gilbert, Ryan J.

    2008-06-01

    Trauma sustained to the central nervous system is a debilitating problem for thousands of people worldwide. Neuronal regeneration within the central nervous system is hindered by several factors, making a multi-faceted approach necessary. Two factors contributing to injury are the irregular geometry of injured sites and the absence of tissue to hold potential nerve guides and drug therapies. Biocompatible hydrogels, injectable at room temperature, that rapidly solidify at physiological temperatures (37 °C) are beneficial materials that could hold nerve guidance channels in place and be loaded with therapeutic agents to aid wound healing. Our studies have shown that thermoreversible methylcellulose can be combined with agarose to create hydrogel blends that accommodate these properties. Three separate novel hydrogel blends were created by mixing methylcellulose with one of the three different agaroses. Gelation time tests show that the blends solidify at a faster rate than base methylcellulose at 37 °C. Rheological data showed that the elastic modulus of the hydrogel blends rapidly increases at 37 °C. Culturing experiments reveal that the morphology of dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons was not altered when the hydrogels were placed onto the cells. The different blends were further assessed using dissolution tests, pore size evaluations using scanning electron microscopy and measuring the force required for injection. This research demonstrates that blends of agarose and methylcellulose solidify much more quickly than plain methylcellulose, while solidifying at physiological temperatures where agarose cannot. These hydrogel blends, which solidify at physiological temperatures naturally, do not require ultraviolet light or synthetic chemical cross linkers to facilitate solidification. Thus, these hydrogel blends have potential use in delivering therapeutics and holding scaffolding in place within the nervous system.

  9. Nerve growth factor and injured peripheral nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Endong Shi; Bingchen Wang; Qingshan Sun

    2008-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) exhibits many biological activities, such as supply of nutrients, neuroprotection, and the generation and rehabilitation of injured nerves. The neuroprotective and neurotrophic qualities of NGF are generally recognized. NGF may enhance axonal regeneration and myelination of peripheral nerves, as well as cooperatively promote functional recovery of injured nerves and limbs. The clinical efficacy of NGF and its therapeutic potentials are reviewed here. This paper also reviews the latest NGF research developments for repairing injured peripheral nerve, thereby providing scientific evidence for the appropriate clinical application of NGF.

  10. Therapeutic drug monitoring, a practical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kees Neef, C.; Touw, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is an indispensable tool in therapeutic handling and medication safety. A definition of TDM is: Therapeutic drug monitoring is a system of quality assurance of a drug management system, aiming that the right drug is given tot the right patient in the right dose in o

  11. Remote therapeutic effect of early nerve transposition in treatment of obstetric al brachial plexus palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To report a method and remote therape utic effect of early nerve transposition in treatment of obstetrical brachial pl exus palsy.   Methods: From May 1995 to August 1996, 12 patients who had no r ecovery of biceps 3 months after birth were treated with nerve transposition. Ei ght had neuroma at the upper trunk and 4 had rupture or avulsion of the upper tr unk. Mallet test was used to evaluate the results.   Results: The follow-up of 40-52 months showed that excellent and good recovery in functions was found in 75% of the patients and the excellen t rate of phrenic nerve and accessory nerve transposition was 83.3% and 6 6.7% respectively. A complete recovery in shoulder and elbow joint function wa s in 3 patients and Mallet Ⅳ was in 6 patients.   Conclusions: Satisfactory outcome can be obtained by using earl y nerve transposition in treating obstetrical brachial plexus.Paralysis, obstetric; Peripheral nerves; Nerve trans position

  12. Biological Properties and Therapeutic Applications of Propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforcin, José M

    2016-06-01

    Propolis is a resinous material collected by bees from bud and exudates of the plants, mixed with bee enzymes, pollen and wax. In this review, the biological properties of propolis and some therapeutic applications are discussed. The same biological activities have been investigated until today, using samples from different geographic regions. Thus, the study of the biological properties of a given sample should always be associated with its chemical composition and botanical source, representing a particular sample of a given geographic area, exploring its biological potential and the role of its constituents. Efforts have been carried out to explain propolis' mechanisms of action in vivo and in vitro, but the majority of propolis' targets and actions are still unclear. The number of formulations containing propolis and patents have increased, although propolis extracts have been used deliberately with different recommendations, not always mentioning the chemical composition, vegetal source and the methods of extraction. Clinical studies will help to obtain criterious recommendations in view of the expected outcomes. Further investigation should explore the effects of common compounds found in the samples from all over the world in an attempt to standardize the research on propolis and to obtain new drugs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Therapeutic and prophylactic applications of alphavirus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Gregory J; Fleeton, Marina N; Sheahan, Brian J

    2008-11-11

    Alphavirus vectors are high-level, transient expression vectors for therapeutic and prophylactic use. These positive-stranded RNA vectors, derived from Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, multiply and are expressed in the cytoplasm of most vertebrate cells, including human cells. Part of the genome encoding the structural protein genes, which is amplified during a normal infection, is replaced by a transgene. Three types of vector have been developed: virus-like particles, layered DNA-RNA vectors and replication-competent vectors. Virus-like particles contain replicon RNA that is defective since it contains a cloned gene in place of the structural protein genes, and thus are able to undergo only one cycle of expression. They are produced by transfection of vector RNA, and helper RNAs encoding the structural proteins. Layered DNA-RNA vectors express the Semliki Forest virus replicon from a cDNA copy via a cytomegalovirus promoter. Replication-competent vectors contain a transgene in addition to the structural protein genes. Alphavirus vectors are used for three main applications: vaccine construction, therapy of central nervous system disease, and cancer therapy.

  14. Microcapsule carbon nanotube devices for therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulamarva, Arun; Raja, Pavan M. V.; Bhathena, Jasmine; Chen, Hongmei; Talapatra, Saikat; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Prakash, Satya

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a new class of nanomaterials that have immense potential in the field of biomedicine. Their ability to carry large quantities of therapeutic molecules makes them prime candidates for providing targeted delivery of therapeutics for use in various diseases. However, their utility is limited due to the problems faced during their delivery to target sites. This article for the first time describes the design of a novel microcapsule carbon nanotube targeted delivery device. This device has potential in the targeted delivery of carbon nanotubes in suitable membranes along with their cargo, safely and effectively to the target loci.

  15. Combinatorial therapeutic targeting of BMP2 and MEK-ERK pathways in NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Sidra; Ge, Yubin; Tainsky, Michael A

    2016-08-30

    The clinical management of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) is challenging not only due to its aggressive and invasive nature, but also limited therapeutic options. Using gene expression profiling, our lab identified BMP2-SMAD1/5/8 pathway as a potential therapeutic target for treating MPNSTs. In this study, we explored the therapeutic impact of targeting BMP2-SMAD1/5/8 pathway in conjunction with RAS-MEK-ERK signaling, which is constitutively activated in MPNSTs. Our results indicated that single agent treatment with LDN-193189, a BMP2 Type I receptor inhibitor, did not affect the growth and survival of MPNST cells at biochemically relevant inhibitory concentrations. However, addition of a MEK1/2 inhibitor, selumetinib, to LDN-193189-treated cells resulted in significant inhibition of cell growth and induction of cell death. LDN-193189 at biochemically effective concentrations significantly inhibited motility and invasiveness of MPNST cells, and these effects were enhanced by the addition of selumetinib. Overall, our results advocate for a combinatorial therapeutic approach for MPNSTs that not only targets the growth and survival via inhibition of MEK1/2, but also its malignant spread by suppressing the activation of BMP2-SMAD1/5/8 pathway. Importantly, these studies were conducted in low-passage patient-derived MPNST cells, allowing for an investigation of the effects of the proposed drug treatments in a biologically-relevant context.

  16. Combinatorial therapeutic targeting of BMP2 and MEK-ERK pathways in NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Sidra; Ge, Yubin; Tainsky, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical management of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) is challenging not only due to its aggressive and invasive nature, but also limited therapeutic options. Using gene expression profiling, our lab identified BMP2-SMAD1/5/8 pathway as a potential therapeutic target for treating MPNSTs. In this study, we explored the therapeutic impact of targeting BMP2-SMAD1/5/8 pathway in conjunction with RAS-MEK-ERK signaling, which is constitutively activated in MPNSTs. Our results indicated that single agent treatment with LDN-193189, a BMP2 Type I receptor inhibitor, did not affect the growth and survival of MPNST cells at biochemically relevant inhibitory concentrations. However, addition of a MEK1/2 inhibitor, selumetinib, to LDN-193189-treated cells resulted in significant inhibition of cell growth and induction of cell death. LDN-193189 at biochemically effective concentrations significantly inhibited motility and invasiveness of MPNST cells, and these effects were enhanced by the addition of selumetinib. Overall, our results advocate for a combinatorial therapeutic approach for MPNSTs that not only targets the growth and survival via inhibition of MEK1/2, but also its malignant spread by suppressing the activation of BMP2-SMAD1/5/8 pathway. Importantly, these studies were conducted in low-passage patient-derived MPNST cells, allowing for an investigation of the effects of the proposed drug treatments in a biologically-relevant context. PMID:27494873

  17. Reactivation of Brain Acetylcholinesterase by Monoisonitrosoacetone Increases the Therapeutic Efficacy Against Nerve Agents in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Biological Interactions 187 (2010) 318–324 Table 1 ChE reactivation by oxime treatments in brain regions, peripheral tissues and blood components following...the significant ChE reactivation by oxime treatments in brain regions, peripheral tissues and blood components following exposure to GB, GF, and VX.a...regions, peripheral tis- ues, or blood components , when an oxime treatment significantly eactivated nerve agent-inhibited ChE. For example, if an

  18. A novel therapeutic target for peripheral nerve injury-related diseases: aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AminoARSs are essential enzymes that perform the first step of protein synthesis. Beyond their original roles, AminoARSs possess non-canonical functions, such as cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Therefore, AminoARSs represent a powerful pharmaceutical target if their non-canonical functions can be controlled. Using AminoARSs-specific primers, we screened mRNA expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn of rats with peripheral nerve injury created by sciatic nerve axotomy. Of 20 AminoARSs, we found that phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase beta chain (FARSB, isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IARS and methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MARS mRNA expression was increased in spinal dorsal horn neurons on the injured side, but not in glial cells. These findings suggest the possibility that FARSB, IARS and MARS, as a neurotransmitter, may transfer abnormal sensory signals after peripheral nerve damage and become a new target for drug treatment.

  19. Overview of the clinical applications of vagus nerve stimulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, J.P.; Beems, T.

    2010-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has become an established therapy for difficult-to-treat epilepsy during the past 20 years. The vagus nerve provides a unique entrance to the brain. Electrical stimulation of this structure in the cervical region allows direct modulative access to subcortical brain area

  20. Overview of the Clinical Applications of Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, J.P.; Beems, T.

    2010-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has become an established therapy for difficult-to-treat epilepsy during the past 20 years. The vagus nerve provides a unique entrance to the brain. Electrical stimulation of this structure in the cervical region allows direct modulative access to subcortical brain area

  1. 以问题为基础学习教学方法结合循证医学在神经疾病临床康复治疗学教学中的应用%Application of problem-based learning combined with evidence-based medicine in teaching of the clinical rehabilitation therapeutics of nerve disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛亚利; 于涛; 万春晓; 王婧; 王家仲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of problem-based learning combined with evidence-based medicine (PBL + EBM) and conventional model on clinical teaching of the clinical rehabilitation therapeutics of nerve disease.Methods Students were selected by sampling in conventional model group(n =20)and PBL+EBM group (n =20),and the two groups received clinical teaching of the clinical rehabilitation therapeutics of nerve disease by conventional model and PBL + EBM model respectively.At the end of the study,each student received objective and subjective evaluation.Results There was significant difference in results.The score of medical cases analyzing ability and operating skill,clinical knowledge,exercise therapy,occupational therapy,speech therapy and physical therapy in the PBL +EBM group was significantly higher than that in conventional model group(P<0.05).The questionnaire showed that more students in PBL + EBM group felt satisfied with this teaching model (P < 0.05).Conclusions The model of problem-based learning combined with evidence-based medicine is feasible and effective in clinical teaching of the clinical rehabilitation therapeutics of nerve disease.The applying of this method can change the traditional teaching thought of the teachers and improve the students' mastery of knowledge level,clinical skills,problem solving ability,and information acquisition ability,etc.%目的 比较以问题为基础学习教学方法(problem-based learning,PBL)结合循证医学(evidence-based medicine,EBM)方法(PBL+EBM)与传统教学方法在神经疾病临床康复治疗学教学中的效果.方法 选择天津医科大学2009级和2010级四年制运动康复专业40名学生为研究对象.采用分层随机分组的方法,将这些学生分为实验组和对照组,每组各20名学生.两组学生在神经疾病临床康复治疗学教学期间分别接受PBL+EBM教学方法与传统教学方法,教学结束后对两种教学方法的教学效果分

  2. Biomedical engineering strategies for peripheral nerve repair: surgical applications, state of the art, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Bryan J; Gordon, Tessa; Loverde, Joseph R; Kochar, Arshneel S; Mackinnon, Susan E; Cullen, D Kacy

    2011-01-01

    Damage to the peripheral nervous system is surprisingly common and occurs primarily from trauma or a complication of surgery. Although recovery of nerve function occurs in many mild injuries, outcomes are often unsatisfactory following severe trauma. Nerve repair and regeneration presents unique clinical challenges and opportunities, and substantial contributions can be made through the informed application of biomedical engineering strategies. This article reviews the clinical presentations and classification of nerve injuries, in addition to the state of the art for surgical decision-making and repair strategies. This discussion presents specific challenges that must be addressed to realistically improve the treatment of nerve injuries and promote widespread recovery. In particular, nerve defects a few centimeters in length use a sensory nerve autograft as the standard technique; however, this approach is limited by the availability of donor nerve and comorbidity associated with additional surgery. Moreover, we currently have an inadequate ability to noninvasively assess the degree of nerve injury and to track axonal regeneration. As a result, wait-and-see surgical decisions can lead to undesirable and less successful "delayed" repair procedures. In this fight for time, degeneration of the distal nerve support structure and target progresses, ultimately blunting complete functional recovery. Thus, the most pressing challenges in peripheral nerve repair include the development of tissue-engineered nerve grafts that match or exceed the performance of autografts, the ability to noninvasively assess nerve damage and track axonal regeneration, and approaches to maintain the efficacy of the distal pathway and targets during the regenerative process. Biomedical engineering strategies can address these issues to substantially contribute at both the basic and applied levels, improving surgical management and functional recovery following severe peripheral nerve injury.

  3. Recent progress in nanomedicine: therapeutic, diagnostic and theranostic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizzo, L.Y.; Theek, B.; Storm, G.; Kiessling, F.; Lammers, T.G.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of nanomedicine formulations for therapeutic and diagnostic applications has increased exponentially. Many different systems and strategies have been developed for drug targeting to pathological sites, as well as for visualizing and quantifying important (patho-) physiologic

  4. Vasculogenesis and Its Cellular Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajska, Anna; Jankowska-Steifer, Ewa; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Olkowski, Radosław; Gula, Grzegorz; Niderla-Bielińska, Justyna; Flaht-Zabost, Aleksandra; Jasińska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Vasculogenesis was originally defined by Risau in 1997 [Nature 386: 671-674] as the de novo formation of vessels from endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), so-called angioblasts. Initially, this process was believed to be related only to embryonic life; however, further studies reported vasculogenesis to occur also in adult tissues. This overview presents the current knowledge about the origin, differentiation and significance of EPCs that have been observed in various diseases, tumors, and reparative processes. We also summarize the knowledge of how to activate these cells for therapeutic purposes and the outcomes of the therapies.

  5. Advances and Future Applications of Augmented Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Salazar; Eisenberg, Howard M; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2016-09-07

    Peripheral nerve injuries remain a significant source of long lasting morbidity, disability, and economic costs. Much research continues to be performed in areas related to improving the surgical outcomes of peripheral nerve repair. In this review, the physiology of peripheral nerve regeneration and the multitude of efforts to improve surgical outcomes are discussed. Improvements in tissue engineering that have allowed for the use of synthetic conduits seeded with neurotrophic factors are highlighted. Selected pre-clinical and available clinical data using cell based methods such as Schwann cell, undifferentiated, and differentiated stem cell transplantation to guide and enhance peripheral nerve regeneration are presented. The limitations that still exist in the utility of neurotrophic factors and cell-based therapies are outlined. Strategies that are most promising for translation into the clinical arena are suggested.

  6. Advances and Future Applications of Augmented Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Jones

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries remain a significant source of long lasting morbidity, disability, and economic costs. Much research continues to be performed in areas related to improving the surgical outcomes of peripheral nerve repair. In this review, the physiology of peripheral nerve regeneration and the multitude of efforts to improve surgical outcomes are discussed. Improvements in tissue engineering that have allowed for the use of synthetic conduits seeded with neurotrophic factors are highlighted. Selected pre-clinical and available clinical data using cell based methods such as Schwann cell, undifferentiated, and differentiated stem cell transplantation to guide and enhance peripheral nerve regeneration are presented. The limitations that still exist in the utility of neurotrophic factors and cell-based therapies are outlined. Strategies that are most promising for translation into the clinical arena are suggested.

  7. Therapeutic applications of extracellular vesicles: clinical promise and open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    György, Bence; Hung, Michelle E; Breakefield, Xandra O; Leonard, Joshua N

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an updated perspective on rapidly proliferating efforts to harness extracellular vesicles (EVs) for therapeutic applications. We summarize current knowledge, emerging strategies, and open questions pertaining to clinical potential and translation. Potentially useful EVs comprise diverse products of various cell types and species. EV components may also be combined with liposomes and nanoparticles to facilitate manufacturing as well as product safety and evaluation. Potential therapeutic cargoes include RNA, proteins, and drugs. Strategic issues considered herein include choice of therapeutic agent, means of loading cargoes into EVs, promotion of EV stability, tissue targeting, and functional delivery of cargo to recipient cells. Some applications may harness natural EV properties, such as immune modulation, regeneration promotion, and pathogen suppression. These properties can be enhanced or customized to enable a wide range of therapeutic applications, including vaccination, improvement of pregnancy outcome, and treatment of autoimmune disease, cancer, and tissue injury.

  8. [Application of fibrin glue in facial nerve repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinying; Hua, Qingquan; Wang, Shenqing

    2007-06-01

    This animal experiment was aimed to apply fibrin in facial nerve repair and to quest for technical improvements in facial surgery. In each of 15 healthy large ear white rabbits, a unilateral 5 mm intratemporal facial nerve gap was created, the proximal and distal stumps were inserted into chitin tube, 1 ml autologous fibrin glue was applied around the anastomotic zone, and no suture was employed. At 3 months and 5 months after opertion, electrophysioligical study was performed. Compared with normal nerves, the regenerating nerves in both the chitin tube bridged group and the perineurium suture group had longer incubation period, lower amplitude, slower nerve-muscle conduction velocity at 3 months postoperatively. The differences were distinctly significant (P < 0.01). Although being decreased at 5 months after operation, the differences were still statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the chitin tube bridged group and perineurium suture group at 3 months and 5 months, respectively. The study suggests that facial nerve repair using fibrin glue and chitin tube has the advantages of being easier,faster and more stable.

  9. Nerve cuff electrode using embedded magnets and its application to hypoglossal nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jungmin; Hye Wee, Jee; Hoan Park, Jeong; Park, Pona; Kim, Jeong-Whun; Kim, Sung June

    2016-12-01

    Objective. A novel nerve cuff electrode with embedded magnets was fabricated and developed. In this study, a pair of magnets was fully embedded and encapsulated in a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate to utilize magnetic force in order to replace the conventional installing techniques of cuff electrodes. In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the magnet-embedded nerve cuff electrode (MENCE). Lastly, several issues pertaining to the MENCE such as the cuff-to-nerve diameter ratio, the force of the magnets, and possible concerns were discussed in the discussion section. Approach. Electrochemical impedance spectrum and cyclic voltammetry assessments were conducted to measure the impedance and charge storage capacity of the cathodal phase (CSCc). The MENCE was installed onto the hypoglossal nerve (HN) of a rabbit and the movement of the genioglossus was recorded through C-arm fluoroscopy while the HN was stimulated by a pulsed current. Main results. The measured impedance was 0.638 ∠ -67.8° kΩ at 1 kHz and 5.27 ∠ -82.1° kΩ at 100 Hz. The average values of access resistance and cut-off frequency were 0.145 kΩ and 3.98 kHz, respectively. The CSCc of the electrode was measured as 1.69 mC cm-2 at the scan rate of 1 mV s-1. The movement of the genioglossus contraction was observed under a pulsed current with an amplitude level of 0.106 mA, a rate of 0.635 kHz, and a duration of 0.375 ms applied through the MENCE. Significance. A few methods to close and secure cuff electrodes have been researched, but they are associated with several drawbacks. To overcome these, we used magnetic force as a closing method of the cuff electrode. The MENCE can be precisely installed on a target nerve without any surgical techniques such as suturing or molding. Furthermore, it is convenient to remove the installed MENCE because it requires little force to detach one magnet from the other, enabling repeatable installation and removal. We

  10. [Sympathetic nerve activity in chronic renal failure - what are the therapeutic options?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberg, M; Tokmak, F

    2013-11-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure are characterized by a tonic elevation of sympathetic tone. This factor largely contributes to their increased cardiovascular risk. The increased sympathetic drive is caused by activiation of renal afferent fibers in the diseased kidneys. Therapeutic options for hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure with respect to their sympathetic overactivity are inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-system and central sympatholytic drugs. The role of catheter-based renal denervation in these patients is currently under investigation.

  11. Recent Progress in Nanomedicine: Therapeutic, Diagnostic and Theranostic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Larissa Y.; Theek, Benjamin; Storm, Gert; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of nanomedicine formulations for therapeutic and diagnostic applications has increased exponentially. Many different systems and strategies have been developed for drug targeting to pathological sites, as well as for visualizing and quantifying important (patho-) physiological processes. In addition, ever more efforts have been undertaken to combine diagnostic and therapeutic properties within a single nanomedicine formulation. These so-called nanotheranostics are abl...

  12. Application of Shape Memory Alloys in Facial Nerve Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vloeberghs

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Facial Nerve can be damaged at a peripheral level by a stroke or, for example by trauma or infection within the faceor the ear. In these cases the facial muscles are paralysed with little or no chance of spontaneous recovery. This research focuses on the potential utilisation of a Shape Memory Alloy(SMA to replace the function of the Facial Nerve, which willallow in conjunction with passive reconstructive methods, a patient to regain limited but active movement of the mouthcorner. Paralysis of the mouth corner is a very disabling bothfunctionally and cosmetically, speech and swallowing are hampered and the patient loses saliva, with presents a social problem.

  13. Recent developments in therapeutic applications of Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Rathinam; Hemaiswarya, Shanmugam; Ganesan, Venkatesan; Carvalho, Isabel S

    2016-05-01

    The cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are photosynthetic prokaryotes having applications in human health with numerous biological activities and as a dietary supplement. It is used as a food supplement because of its richness in nutrients and digestibility. Many cyanobacteria (Microcystis sp, Anabaena sp, Nostoc sp, Oscillatoria sp., etc.) produce a great variety of secondary metabolites with potent biological activities. Cyanobacteria produce biologically active and chemically diverse compounds belonging to cyclic peptides, lipopeptides, fatty acid amides, alkaloids and saccharides. More than 50% of the marine cyanobacteria are potentially exploitable for extracting bioactive substances which are effective in killing cancer cells by inducing apoptotic death. Their role as anti-viral, anti-tumor, antimicrobial, anti-HIV and a food additive have also been well established. However, such products are at different stages of clinical trials and only a few compounds have reached to the market.

  14. Shock wave application to rat skin induces degeneration and reinnervation of sensory nerve fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtori, S; Inoue, G; Mannoji, C; Saisu, T; Takahashi, K; Mitsuhashi, S; Wada, Y; Takahashi, K; Yamagata, M; Moriya, H

    2001-11-23

    There have been several reports on the use of extracorporeal shock waves in the treatment of pseudarthrosis, calcifying tendinitis, and tendinopathies of the elbow. However, the pathomechanism of pain relief has not been clarified. To investigate the analgesic properties of shock wave application, we analyzed whether it produces morphologic changes in cutaneous nerve fibres. In normal rat skin, the epidermis is heavily innervated by nerve fibres immunoreactive for protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and by some fibres immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). There was nearly complete degeneration of epidermal nerve fibres in the shock wave-treated skin, as indicated by the loss of immunoreactivity for PGP 9.5 or CGRP. Reinnervation of the epidermis occurred 2 weeks after treatment. These data show that relief of pain after shock wave application to the skin results from rapid degeneration of the intracutaneous nerve fibres.

  15. [Application of ENMG-controlled electrostimulation of peripheral nerves in the treatment of compression radiculopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Ia Iu; Shirokov, V A

    2009-01-01

    A clinical experiment on a group of 22 patients, aged 45,4+/-6,2 years, with compression radiculopathies L(5)-S(1) has proved the possibility of optimized therapeutic electrostimulation of peripheral nerves under the control of F-waves on ENMG. Parameters of electrostimulation were specified as follows: rectangular impulses of positive polarity and duration of 500-1000 ms, frequency 1-10 Hz and submaximal intensity of current. The positive effect of electrostimulation on the conductivity of nerve fibers and excitability of spinal motor neurons was found.

  16. Application of a venous conduit as a stent for repairing rabbit facial nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Recently,many investigators have tried to use natural biomaterials,such as,artery,vein,decalcified bone,etc.,as conduits for nerve repair.However,immunological rejection of conduits made of natural biomaterials limits their application.Therefore,it is essential to identify more suitable types of biomaterials.OBJECTIVE:To observe the characteristics of a bioengineering processing method using venous conduit as a stent for repairing facial nerve injury.DESIGN:A controlled observational experiment.SETTING:Animal Laboratories of the Third Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University and the 157 Hospital.MATERIALS:Thirty-three male New Zealand rabbits of pure breed,weighing 1.5 to 2.0 kg,were provided by Medical Experimental Animal Room of Sun Yat-sen University.The protocol was carried out in accordance with animal ethics guidelines for the use and care of animals.Venous conduits and autogenous nerves were transplanted into the left and right cheeks,respectively.Eleven animals were chosen for anatomical observations at 5,10 and 15 weeks after surgery.METHODS:This experiment was carried out in the Animal Laboratories of the Third Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University and the 157 Hospital between May and November 2006.After animals were anesthetized,15 mm of retromandibular vein was harvested for preparing a venous conduit.Approximately 3 cm of low buccal branch of facial nerve was exposed.A segment of 1.2 cm nerve was resected from the middle,and a gap of 1.5 cm formed due to bilateral retraction.The prepared venous conduit of 1.5 cm was sutured to the outer membrane of the severed ends of the nerve.Muscle and skin were sutured layer by layer.Using the same above-mentioned method,the low buccal branch of right autogenous facial nerve was resected,and the left facial nerve segment from the same animal was transplanted using end-to-end neurorrhaphy for control.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:①Post-operatively,food intake,vibrissae activity and wound healing of

  17. Priming ammonia lyases and aminomutases for industrial and therapeutic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heberling, Matthew M.; Wu, Bian; Bartsch, Sebastian; Janssen, Dick B.

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia lyases (AL) and aminomutases (AM) are emerging in green synthetic routes to chiral amines and an AL is being explored as an enzyme therapeutic for treating phenylketonuria and cancer. Although the restricted substrate range of the wild-type enzymes limits their widespread application, the no

  18. The superficial peroneal nerve at the foot. Organisation, surgical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas, F; Bonnel, F; Kouloumdjian, P

    1996-01-01

    The authors report the results of the dissection of the superficial peroneal nerves of 30 adult cadavers, from its emergence through the deep sural fascia up to its terminal branches. Its emergence was located, on average, 11 cm from the lower end of the lateral malleolus (min: 9 cm, max: 11.5 cm). The division of the nerve into the medial dorsal cutaneous n. and the intermediate dorsal cutaneous n. was found in 29 cases after its emergence from the sural fascia and before its passage on the proximal edge of the extensor retinaculum. The distance between the medial dorsal cutaneous n. and the medial malleolus was more than 2 cm. This nerve divided into three branches at a level varying from 5 to 20 cm in relation to the first interdigital space (average 9 cm). The intermediate dorsal cutaneous n. was found in 27 cases. It divided into two branches at a variable distance from the fourth interdigital space (4 to 6 cm). According to Kosinski's classification, we found 24 cases of type I (80%), three cases of type II (10%) and three cases of type IV (10%). The authors stress the numerous topographic variations and the multiple anatomical types.

  19. Nerve growth factor and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D): a potential therapeutic target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-juan; Liu, Liang; Yao, Shu-kun

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with abnormal bowel habits. Diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) is a major subtype of IBS, the predominant manifestations of which are abdominal pain and diarrhea. The pathogenesis of IBS-D remained unknown until recently. The effects of psychosocial stress, central hypervigilance, neuroendocrine abnormality, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, mucosal immune activation, intestinal barrier dysfunction, visceral hypersensitivity (VH), altered gut flora, and genetic susceptibility may be involved in its development. Recently, increased attention has been placed on the neural-immune-endocrine network mechanism in IBS-D, especially the role of various neuroendocrine mediators. As a member of the neurotrophin family, nerve growth factor (NGF) has diverse biological effects, and participates in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Basic studies have demonstrated that NGF is associated with inflammatory- and stress-related VH, as well as stress-related intestinal barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study is to summarize recent literature and discuss the role of NGF in the pathophysiology of IBS-D, especially in VH and intestinal barrier dysfunction, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target in IBS-D.

  20. Evaluation of the chitosan/glycerol-{beta}-phosphate disodium salt hydrogel application in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Lu; Zhang Xiufang; Gong Yandao [State Key Lab Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ao Qiang; Han Hongyan, E-mail: gongyd@tsinghua.edu.c, E-mail: aoqiang@tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Neurological Disorders, Yuquan Hospital, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Research efforts have been devoted to evaluating the application of the chitosan (CS)/glycerol-{beta}-phosphate (GP) disodium salt hydrogel in peripheral nerve regeneration. The gelation time was determined to be 770 s using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. A standard 10 mm long rat sciatic nerve defect model was employed, followed by bridging the proximal and distal stumps with chitosan conduits injected with the Schwann cell-containing hydrogel. Injections of the blank hydrogel, Schwann cell suspension and culture medium were used as controls. Two months later, electrophysiological assessment and fluorogold retrograde tracing showed that compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and fluorogold-labeled neurons were only detected in the Schwann cell suspension group and culture medium group. The rats were then killed, and implanted conduits were removed for examination. There were no regenerated nerves found in groups injected with the blank hydrogel or Schwann cell-containing hydrogel, while the other two groups clearly displayed regenerated nerves across the gaps. In the subsequent histological assessment, immunohistochemistry, toluidine blue staining and transmission electron microscopy were performed to evaluate the regenerated nerves. The relative wet weight ratio, Masson trichrome staining and acetylcholinesterase staining were employed for the examination of gastrocnemius muscles in all four groups. The Schwann cell suspension group showed the best results for all these indexes; the culture medium group ranked second and the two hydrogel-injected groups showed the least optimal results. In conclusion, our data revealed that the implanted CS/GP hydrogel actually impeded nerve regeneration, which is inconsistent with former in vitro reports and general supposition. We believe that the application of the CS/GP hydrogel in nerve regeneration requires a further study before a satisfactory result is obtained. In addition, the present study also confirmed that

  1. An overview of leech and its therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimannan Sivachandran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hirudotherapy has a broad spectrum of therapeutic application in the medical field ranging from cardiology, gynaecology, ophthalmology, plastic and reconstructive surgeries. In medieval and early modern medicine, leeches were used to remove blood from patients in an attempt to balance the biological humours. Leeches are widely used to treat venous congestion in microvascular replantation, free and conventional flap surgery and traumatology. Recently, Food and Drug Administration has approved the usage of live leeches as medical device for therapeutic applications. Presently, some of the leech species have declined dramatically in its population due to the over utilization of leech for medicinal purposes and also due to pollution in several parts of the world particularly in European and Asian countries. This review presents an overview of leech including the history, biology, classification, and its application as medical device. Further, it also covers the controversies and misconception related to leech species identification and complications of post hirudotherapy.

  2. An overview of leech and its therapeutic applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimannan Sivachandran; Rajandas Heera; Pattabhiraman Lalitha; Manickam Ravichandran; Shalini Sivadasan; Kasi Marimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Hirudotherapy has a broad spectrum of therapeutic application in the medical field ranging from cardiology, gynaecology, ophthalmology, plastic and reconstructive surgeries. In medieval and early modern medicine, leeches were used to remove blood from patients in an attempt to balance the biological humours. Leeches are widely used to treat venous congestion in microvascular replantation, free and conventional flap surgery and traumatology. Recently, Food and Drug Administration has approved the usage of live leeches as medical device for therapeutic applications. Presently, some of the leech species have declined dramatically in its population due to the over utilization of leech for medicinal purposes and also due to pollution in several parts of the world particularly in European and Asian countries. This review presents an overview of leech including the history, biology, classification, and its application as medical device. Further, it also covers the controversies and misconception related to leech species identification and complications of post hirudotherapy.

  3. Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Sgouros, George

    2003-01-01

    This book examines the applications of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations in therapeutic nuclear medicine, from basic principles to computer implementations of software packages and their applications in radiation dosimetry and treatment planning. It is written for nuclear medicine physicists and physicians as well as radiation oncologists, and can serve as a supplementary text for medical imaging, radiation dosimetry and nuclear engineering graduate courses in science, medical and engineering faculties. With chapters is written by recognised authorities in that particular field, the book covers the entire range of MC applications in therapeutic medical and health physics, from its use in imaging prior to therapy to dose distribution modelling targeted radiotherapy. The contributions discuss the fundamental concepts of radiation dosimetry, radiobiological aspects of targeted radionuclide therapy and the various components and steps required for implementing a dose calculation and treatment planning methodology in ...

  4. [The dorsal nerve of the clitoris: surgical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaya, V; Aubin, A; Rogez, J-M; Douard, R; Delmas, V

    2014-03-01

    To describe the course of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris (DNC) to better define its anatomy in the human adult and to help surgeons to avoid iatrogenic injury during surgical procedures. An extensive review of the current literature was done on Medline via PubMed by using the following keywords: "anatomie du clitoris", "anatomy of clitoris", "nerf dorsal du clitoris", "dorsal nerve of clitoris", "réparation clitoridienne", "transposition clitoridienne", "surgery of the clitoris", "clitoridoplasty". This review analyzed dissection, magnetic resonance imaging, 3-dimensional sectional anatomy reconstruction and immuno-histochemical studies. The DNC comes from the pudendal nerve. He travels from under the inferior pubis ramus to the posterosuperior edge of the clitoral crus. The DNC reappears under the pubic symphysis and enters the deep component of the suspensory ligament. He runs on the dorsal face of the clitoral body at 11 and 1 o'clock. Distally, he gives many nervous ramifications, runs along the tunica and enters the glans. The NDC might be surgically injured (i) under the pubic symphysis, at the union of the two crus of clitoris and (ii) on the dorsal surface of the clitoral body. The pathway of the DNC on the dorsal face of the clitoris permits to approach the ventral face of the clitoris without risk of iatrogenic injuries. The distance between the pubic symphysis and the DNC implies that the incision should be done just under the pubic symphysis. Distally, the dissection of the DNC next the glands appears as dangerous and impossible, considering that the DNC is too close to the glandular tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Post-evaluation of the neurophaties treatment post-trauma with therapeutic laser. Model in sciatic nerve of frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Antonio S.; Ocampo, Arcelia F. M.; Hernández, María G. H.; Jasso, José L. C.; Lira, Maricela O. F.; Flores, Mariana A.; Balderrama, Vicente L.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compound nerve action potential amplitude and latency measured to determine the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated in a model of stimulated frog sciatic nerve laser at 810 nm as perioperative treatment after injury. It used 30 bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) to obtain 60 sciatic nerves forming four groups, groups 1 and 2 worked with nerves in vitro, were dissected in humid chambers for placing isolated organ, was recorded on compound nerve action potential, the second group laser was applied at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours and at the same time were placed in 10% formalin. Groups 3 and 4 are worked in vivo localizing the nerve and causing damage through compression, occurred over the compound nerve action potential to assess the degree of myelination and the number of fibers stimulated, the group 4 was applied to 810 nm laser (500 Hz, 10 J, 200 mW) after injury, after 48 hours, three frogs were sacrificed by introducing the nerves in 10% formalin. The latency recorded by stimulating the sciatic nerve of frog to 0.5 mA and 100 ms in groups 1 and 2 show significant differences (p000), as to the extent, if any statistically significant difference. (p<0.001 and p<0.000). The laser produces a favorable response in the treatment of paresthesia (post-traumatic neuropathy).

  6. Therapeutic applications of collagenase (metalloproteases):A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamzeh Alipour; Abbasali Raz; Sedigheh Zakeri; Navid Dinparast Djadid

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive therapeutic methods have recently been used in medical sciences. Enzymes have shown high activity at very low concentrations in laboratories and pharmaceutical, enabling them to play crucial roles in different biological phenomena related to living organism, especially human medicine. Recently, using the therapeutic methods based on non-invasive approaches has been emphasized in medical society. Researchers have focused on producing medicines and tools reducing invasive procedures in medical. Collagenases are proteins which catalyze chemical processes and break the peptide bonds in collagen. Collagen may be generated more than the required amount or produced in unsuitable sites or may not degrade after a certain time. In such cases, using an injectable collagenase or its ointment can be helpful in collagen degradation. In both in vitro and in vivo tests, it has been revealed that collagenases have several therapeutic properties in wound healing, burns, nipple pain and some diseases including intervertebral disc her-niation, keloid, cellulite, lipoma among others. This review describes the therapeutic application of collagenase in medical sciences and the process for its production using novel methods, paving the way for more effective and safe applications of collagenases.

  7. Biology and therapeutic applications of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Gutierrez, Maria P; Roszer, Tamas; Ricote, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand dependent transcription factors. The three mammalian PPARs are key regulators of fatty acid and lipoprotein metabolism, glucose homeostasis, cellular proliferation/ differentiation and the immune response. PPARs are therefore important targets in the treatment of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and are also of interest in relation to chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, chronic pulmonary inflammation, pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis. Recent advances have attributed novel functions to PPARs in blood pressure regulation, neuroinflammation, nerve-cell protection, inflammatory pain reduction, and the hypothalamic control of metabolism. The abundant pleiotropic actions of PPARs suggest that PPAR agonists have enormous therapeutic potential. However, current PPAR-based therapies often have undesired side effects due to the concomitant activation of PPARs in non-target cells. There is therefore growing interest in the development of cell-specific PPAR agonists and improvement of the clinical use of PPAR ligands. This review gives an overview of PPAR functions and discusses the current and potential medical implications of PPAR ligands in various pathologies, ranging from metabolic disorders to cardiovascular disease, chronic inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

  8. Application of conductive polymers, scaffolds and electrical stimulation for nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Morshed, Mohammad; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Baharvand, Hossein; Kiani, Sahar; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2011-04-01

    Among the numerous attempts to integrate tissue engineering concepts into strategies to repair nearly all parts of the body, neuronal repair stands out. This is partially due to the complexity of the nervous anatomical system, its functioning and the inefficiency of conventional repair approaches, which are based on single components of either biomaterials or cells alone. Electrical stimulation has been shown to enhance the nerve regeneration process and this consequently makes the use of electrically conductive polymers very attractive for the construction of scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering. In this review, by taking into consideration the electrical properties of nerve cells and the effect of electrical stimulation on nerve cells, we discuss the most commonly utilized conductive polymers, polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PANI), along with their design and modifications, thus making them suitable scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering. Other electrospun, composite, conductive scaffolds, such as PANI/gelatin and PPy/poly(ε-caprolactone), with or without electrical stimulation, are also discussed. Different procedures of electrical stimulation which have been used in tissue engineering, with examples on their specific applications in tissue engineering, are also discussed.

  9. Properties and therapeutic application of bromelain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Rajendra; Jain, Sapna; Shraddha; Kumar, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Bromelain belongs to a group of protein digesting enzymes obtained commercially from the fruit or stem of pineapple. Fruit bromelain and stem bromelainare prepared differently and they contain different enzymatic composition. "Bromelain" refers usually to the "stem bromelain." Bromelain is a mixture of different thiol endopeptidases and other components like phosphatase, glucosidase, peroxidase, cellulase, escharase, and several protease inhibitors. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that bromelain exhibits various fibrinolytic, antiedematous, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Bromelain is considerably absorbable in the body without losing its proteolytic activity and without producing any major side effects. Bromelain accounts for many therapeutic benefits like the treatment of angina pectoris, bronchitis, sinusitis, surgical trauma, and thrombophlebitis, debridement of wounds, and enhanced absorption of drugs, particularly antibiotics. It also relieves osteoarthritis, diarrhea, and various cardiovascular disorders. Bromelain also possesses some anticancerous activities and promotes apoptotic cell death. This paper reviews the important properties and therapeutic applications of bromelain, along with the possible mode of action.

  10. Application of tissue clearing and light sheet fluorescence microscopy to assess optic nerve regeneration in unsectioned tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xueting; Yungher, Benjamin; Park, Kevin K

    2014-01-01

    Optic nerve crush injury, as a model to study central nervous system (CNS) injury, is widely used to assess potential therapeutic strategies, aimed at promoting axon regeneration and neuronal survival. Traditional methods to evaluate optic nerve regeneration rely on histological sectioning. However, tissue sectioning results in inevitable loss of three-dimensional (3D) information, such as axonal trajectories and terminations. Here we describe a protocol for whole-tissue assessment of optic nerve regeneration in adult mice without the need for histological sectioning.

  11. Aqueous Plasma Pharmacy: Preparation Methods, Chemistry, and Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Jessica M.; McCall, James R.; Bzdek, Justin P.; Johnson, Derek C.; Hybertson, Brooks M.

    2017-01-01

    Plasma pharmacy is a subset of the broader field of plasma medicine. Although not strictly defined, the term aqueous plasma pharmacy (APP) is used to refer to the generation and distribution of reactive plasma-generated species in an aqueous solution followed by subsequent administration for therapeutic benefits. APP attempts to harness the therapeutic effects of plasma-generated oxidant species within aqueous solution in various applications, such as disinfectant solutions, cell proliferation related to wound healing, and cancer treatment. The subsequent use of plasma-generated solutions in the APP approach facilitates the delivery of reactive plasma species to internal locations within the body. Although significant efforts in the field of plasma medicine have concentrated on employing direct plasma plume exposure to cells or tissues, here we focus specifically on plasma discharge in aqueous solution to render the solution biologically active for subsequent application. Methods of plasma discharge in solution are reviewed, along with aqueous plasma chemistry and the applications for APP. The future of the field also is discussed regarding necessary research efforts that will enable commercialization for clinical deployment. PMID:28428835

  12. Bioinspired Composite Materials: Applications in Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Alisha; Mahato, Kuldeep; Chandra, Pranjal; Srivastava, Ananya; Joshi, Shrikrishna N.; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Evolution-optimized specimens from nature with inimitable properties, and unique structure-function relationships have long served as a source of inspiration for researchers all over the world. For instance, the micro/nanostructured patterns of lotus-leaf and gecko feet helps in self-cleaning, and adhesion, respectively. Such unique properties shown by creatures are results of billions of years of adaptive transformation, that have been mimicked by applying both science and engineering concepts to design bioinspired materials. Various bioinspired composite materials have been developed based on biomimetic principles. This review presents the latest developments in bioinspired materials under various categories with emphasis on diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  13. Diagnostic and therapeutic application of noncoding RNAsfor hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chikako Shibata; Motoyuki Otsuka; Takahiro Kishikawa; Motoko Ohno; Takeshi Yoshikawa; Akemi Takata; Kazuhiko Koike

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA moleculesthat regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally,targeting thousands of messenger RNAs. Long noncodingRNAs (lncRNAs), another class of noncodingRNAs, have been determined to be also involved intranscription regulation and translation of target genes.Since deregulated expression levels or functions ofmiRNAs and lncRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)are frequently observed, clinical use of noncodingRNAs for novel diagnostic and therapeutic applicationsin the management of HCCs is highly and emergentlyexpected. Here, we summarize recent findingsregarding deregulated miRNAs and lncRNAs for theirpotential clinical use as diagnostic and prognosticbiomarkers of HCC. Specifically, we emphasize thederegulated expression levels of such noncoding RNAsin patients' sera as noninvasive biomarkers, a field thatrequires urgent improvement in the clinical surveillanceof HCC. Since nucleotide-based strategies are beingapplied to clinical therapeutics, we further summarizeclinical and preclinical trials using oligonucleotidesinvolving the use of miRNAs and small interfering RNAsagainst HCC as novel therapeutics. Finally, we discusscurrent open questions, which must be clarified in thenear future for realistic clinical applications of thesenew strategies.

  14. Therapeutic applications of circadian rhythms for the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Tsimakouridze

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system exhibits dramatic time-of-day dependent rhythms, for example the diurnal variation of heart rate, blood pressure, and timing of onset of adverse cardiovascular events such as heart attack and sudden cardiac death. Over the past decade, the circadian clock mechanism has emerged as a crucial factor regulating these daily fluctuations. Most recently, these studies have led to a growing clinical appreciation that targeting circadian biology offers a novel therapeutic approach towards cardiovascular (and other diseases. Here we describe leading-edge therapeutic applications of circadian biology including 1 timing of therapy to maximize efficacy in treating heart disease (chronotherapy; 2 novel biomarkers discovered by testing for genomic, proteomic, metabolomic or other factors at different times of day and night (chronobiomarkers; and 3 novel pharmacologic compounds that target the circadian mechanism with potential clinical applications (new chronobiology drugs. Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide and new approaches in the management and treatment of heart disease are clearly warranted and can benefit patients clinically.

  15. Potential therapeutic applications of microbial surface-active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Fracchia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous investigations of microbial surface-active compounds or biosurfactants over the past two decades have led to the discovery of many interesting physicochemical and biological properties including antimicrobial, anti-biofilm and therapeutic among many other pharmaceutical and medical applications. Microbial control and inhibition strategies involving the use of antibiotics are becoming continually challenged due to the emergence of resistant strains mostly embedded within biofilm formations that are difficult to eradicate. Different aspects of antimicrobial and anti-biofilm control are becoming issues of increasing importance in clinical, hygiene, therapeutic and other applications. Biosurfactants research has resulted in increasing interest into their ability to inhibit microbial activity and disperse microbial biofilms in addition to being mostly nontoxic and stable at extremes conditions. Some biosurfactants are now in use in clinical, food and environmental fields, whilst others remain under investigation and development. The dispersal properties of biosurfactants have been shown to rival that of conventional inhibitory agents against bacterial, fungal and yeast biofilms as well as viral membrane structures. This presents them as potential candidates for future uses in new generations of antimicrobial agents or as adjuvants to other antibiotics and use as preservatives for microbial suppression and eradication strategies.

  16. Therapeutic application of anti-angiogenic nanomaterials in cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2016-06-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, plays a vital role in physiological and pathological processes (embryonic development, wound healing, tumor growth and metastasis). The overall balance of angiogenesis inside the human body is maintained by pro- and anti-angiogenic signals. The processes by which drugs inhibit angiogenesis as well as tumor growth are called the anti-angiogenesis technique, a most promising cancer treatment strategy. Over the last couple of decades, scientists have been developing angiogenesis inhibitors for the treatment of cancers. However, conventional anti-angiogenic therapy has several limitations including drug resistance that can create problems for a successful therapeutic strategy. Therefore, a new comprehensive treatment strategy using antiangiogenic agents for the treatment of cancer is urgently needed. Recently researchers have been developing and designing several nanoparticles that show anti-angiogenic properties. These nanomedicines could be useful as an alternative strategy for the treatment of various cancers using anti-angiogenic therapy. In this review article, we critically focus on the potential application of anti-angiogenic nanomaterial and nanoparticle based drug/siRNA/peptide delivery systems in cancer therapeutics. We also discuss the basic and clinical perspectives of anti-angiogenesis therapy, highlighting its importance in tumor angiogenesis, current status and future prospects and challenges.Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, plays a vital role in physiological and pathological processes (embryonic development, wound healing, tumor growth and metastasis). The overall balance of angiogenesis inside the human body is maintained by pro- and anti-angiogenic signals. The processes by which drugs inhibit angiogenesis as well as tumor growth are called the anti-angiogenesis technique, a most promising cancer treatment strategy. Over the

  17. Micro-Nanostructured Polyaniline Assembled in Cellulose Matrix via Interfacial Polymerization for Applications in Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dingfeng; Fan, Lin; Gao, Lingfeng; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yanfeng; Ye, Qifa; Yu, Aixi; Dai, Honglian; Yin, Yixia; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Lina

    2016-07-13

    Conducting polymers have emerged as frontrunners to be alternatives for nerve regeneration, showing a possibility of the application of polyaniline (PANI) as the nerve guidance conduit. In the present work, the cellulose hydrogel was used as template to in situ synthesize PANI via the limited interfacial polymerization method, leading to one conductive side in the polymer. PANI sub-micrometer dendritic particles with mean diameter of ∼300 nm consisting of the PANI nanofibers and nanoparticles were uniformly assembled into the cellulose matrix. The hydrophobic PANI nanoparticles were immobilized in the hydrophilic cellulose via the phytic acid as "bridge" at presence of water through hydrogen bonding interaction. The PANI/cellulose composite hydrogels exhibited good mechanical properties and biocompatibility as well as excellent guiding capacity for the sciatic nerve regeneration of adult Sprague-Dawley rats without any extra treatment. On the basis of the fact that the pure cellulose hydrogel was an inert material for the neural repair, PANI played an indispensable role on the peripheral nerve regeneration. The hierarchical micro-nanostructure and electrical conductivity of PANI could remarkably induce the adhesion and guiding extension of neurons, showing its great potential in biomedical materials.

  18. Properties and Therapeutic Application of Bromelain: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Pavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromelain belongs to a group of protein digesting enzymes obtained commercially from the fruit or stem of pineapple. Fruit bromelain and stem bromelainare prepared differently and they contain different enzymatic composition. “Bromelain” refers usually to the “stem bromelain.” Bromelain is a mixture of different thiol endopeptidases and other components like phosphatase, glucosidase, peroxidase, cellulase, escharase, and several protease inhibitors. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that bromelain exhibits various fibrinolytic, antiedematous, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Bromelain is considerably absorbable in the body without losing its proteolytic activity and without producing any major side effects. Bromelain accounts for many therapeutic benefits like the treatment of angina pectoris, bronchitis, sinusitis, surgical trauma, and thrombophlebitis, debridement of wounds, and enhanced absorption of drugs, particularly antibiotics. It also relieves osteoarthritis, diarrhea, and various cardiovascular disorders. Bromelain also possesses some anticancerous activities and promotes apoptotic cell death. This paper reviews the important properties and therapeutic applications of bromelain, along with the possible mode of action.

  19. Spatial clustering analysis in neuroanatomy: Applications of different approaches to motor nerve fiber distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prodanov, Dimiter; Nagelkerke, Nico; Marani, Enrico; Crunelli, V.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial organization of the nerve fibers in the peripheral nerves may be important for the studies of axonal regeneration, the degenerative nerve diseases and the construction of interfaces with peripheral nerves, such as nerve prostheses. Functional topography of motor axons related to the gastrocn

  20. Application of nerve conduit biomaterials in nerve repair%神经导管生物材料在神经修复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁云锋; 商崇智

    2011-01-01

    背景:神经导管是由天然或人工合成材料制成的、用于桥接神经断端的组织工程支架材料,具有引导和促进神经再生作用.目的:总结近年来常用的神经导管生物材料在神经修复中的应用.方法:由作者应用计算机检索维普数据库中与神经导管生物材料在神经修复中应用有关的文章,检索时限2002-01/ 2010-12.检索关键词:神经导管;生物材料;神经损伤;神经修复;神经再生.纳入标准:与神经导管生物材料在神经修复中应用有关的文章.排除标准:重复研究或较陈旧文献.根据纳入排除标准共保留相关文献30篇.结果与结论:非生物降解材料由于其不可吸收性和对再生神经的远期不良影响使临床应用受到限制.生物降解材料在神经再生完成后可在体内降解吸收,无需二次手术取出,但目前未能利用生物降解材料完全仿制出具有天然神经结构的支架.生物衍生材料生物相容性好、排异反应小,可提供细胞外基质、胶原,起支架作用,但缺血后存在管形塌陷、再生不良、吸收瘢痕组织、增生及粘连等问题.神经导管生物材料在神经修复中的应用前景广阔,但单用一类材料难以制作出理想的神经导管生物材料,通过结合各类材料的优点,与神经营养因子、细胞外基质成分和许旺细胞等联合应用,制备新型具有生物活性的导管材料,将有利于神经修复进一步发展.%BACKGROUND: Nerve conduits made of natural or synthetic materials are used as tissue-engineered scaffolds for nervebridging, and have a guiding and promoting effect on nerve regeneration.OBJECTIVE: To summarize the application of nerve conduit biomaterials in nerve repair in recent years.METHODS: Papers regarding application of nerve conduit biomaterials to repair nerve defects published in VIP databasebetween January 2002 and December 2010 were researched by the authors using the keywords of “nerve conduit

  1. Pharmacogenomics: current applications and future prospects towards personalized therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiopoulou, A; Gazouli, M; Karikas, G A

    2013-01-01

    Personalized Medicine is more than just a metabolic activity of a person. Pharmacogenomics, pharmacogenetics, pharmacoproteomics, and metabolomics play an important role in the development of personalized medicines. Personalized medicine uses information about a person's genes, proteins, enzyme activities, and cellular environment to diagnose and treat disease, cancer included. A major problem of personalized medicine is the fact that there is no portable bedside and low-cost bioanalytical technology that can be used in close proximity to the patient. This technology could play a significant role in defining the dosage setting for subsets of the population. The success of the personalized therapy is possible through the application of technology, which can provide a bridge between metabolism status and an individual's response to a particular drug and therapeutic modality.

  2. Therapeutic agents and herbs in topical application for acne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2011-08-01

    Acne vulgaris suppresses an individual's self-confidence by causing distress with regard to physical appearance, which affects a significant number of individuals during puberty and is delineated by adolescence. Several treatments have been introduced to decrease the aesthetic and psychological problems caused by acne. The topical application of therapeutic agents has been found to be more feasible than hormonal treatment and laser therapy. The ingredients in topical acne treatments, particularly herbs and naturally derived compounds, have received considerable interest as they have fewer adverse effects than synthetic agents. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. A CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF CERVICAL SPONDYLOPATHY OF NERVE ROOT TYPE TREATED BY COMBINED CERVICAL TRACTION AND ELECTROACUPUNCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何涛; 何岚

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of combined cervical traction and electroacupuncture (EA) on Cervical Spondylopathy of Nerve Root Type (CSNRT). Methods: 145 patients diagnosed as CSNRT were randomized into 3 groups: combined treatment group, EA group, and cervical traction (CT) group. The combined group was treated with traction followed 2), etc.. Patients of two control groups were only treated by either CT or EA. Results: The markedly-effective rate and total effective rate were 76.0% and 94.0% respectively in the combined treatment group, 62.5% and 81.25% respectively in CT group, and 63.82% and 82.97% respectively in EA group. The therapeutic effect of the combined treatment group was significantly superior to that of two control groups (P<0.05). At 6-month follow-up, the above two markedly-effective and total effective rates in the combined treatment group remained 74.0% and 92.0%, still significantly higher than that in two control groups. Conclusion: Combining cervicle traction with EA treatment can effectively eliminate or relieve the symptoms and signs in patients with nerve root type cervical spondylopathy.

  4. Immunological GABAergic interactions and therapeutic applications in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Gérald J; Glinka, Yelena; Wang, Qinghua

    2015-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. However, it is also produced in other sites; notably by pancreatic β cells and immune cells. The function of GABA in the immune system is at an early stage of study, but it exerts inhibitory effects that are relevant to autoimmune diseases. The study of GABAergic interactions in the immune system has centered on three main aspects: 1) the expression of GABA and the relevant GABAergic molecular machinery; 2) the in vitro response of immune cells; and 3) therapeutic applications in autoimmune diseases. T cells and macrophages can produce GABA, and express all the components necessary for a GABAergic response. There are two types of GABA receptors, but lymphocytes appear to express only type A (GABAAR); a ligand-gated chloride channel. Other immune cells may also express the type B receptor (GABABR); a G-protein coupled receptor. Activation of GABA receptors on T cells and macrophages inhibits responses such as production of inflammatory cytokines. In T cells, GABA blocks the activation-induced calcium signal, and it also inhibits NF-κB activation. In preclinical models, therapeutic application of GABA, or GABAergic (agonistic) drugs, protects against type 1 diabetes (T1D), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and contact dermatitis. In addition, GABA exerts anti-apoptotic and proliferative effects on islet β cells, which may be applicable to islet transplantation. Autoimmunity against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65; synthesizes GABA) occurs in T1D. Antigen therapy of T1D with GAD65 or proinsulin in mice has protective effects, which are markedly enhanced by combined GABA therapy. Clinically, autoantibodies against GAD65 and/or GABA receptors play a pathogenic role in several neurological conditions, including stiff person syndrome (SPS), some forms of encephalitis, and autoimmune epilepsy. GABAergic drugs are widely used in

  5. The Utility of Human Plasma-Derived Butyrylcholinesterase (huBuChE) as a Therapeutic Measure in the Absence of Pre-Treatment or Conventional Post-Poisoning Therapies Against Nerve Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Human butyrylcholinesterase (huBuChE) has investigational new drug (IND) status in the U.S. as a pretreatment against organophosphate poisoning in humans...huBuChE) as a therapeutic measure in the absence of pre-treatment or conventional post- poisoning therapies against nerve agent. PRINCIPAL...absence of pre- treatment or conventional post- poisoning therapies against nerve agent. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81WXH-10- -0044 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  6. Centipede Venoms and Their Components: Resources for Potential Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abdul Hakim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Venomous animals have evolved with sophisticated bio-chemical strategies to arrest prey and defend themselves from natural predators. In recent years, peptide toxins from venomous animals have drawn considerable attention from researchers due to their surprising chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological diversity. Similar to other venomous animals, centipedes are one of the crucial venomous arthropods that have been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years in China. Despite signifying pharmacological importance, very little is known about the active components of centipede venoms. More than 500 peptide sequences have been reported in centipede venomous glands by transcriptome analysis, but only a small number of peptide toxins from centipede has been functionally described. Like other venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders, the venom of centipedes could be an excellent source of peptides for developing drugs for treatments as well as bio-insecticides for agrochemical applications. Although centipede venoms are yet to be adequately studied, the venom of centipedes as well as their components described to date, should be compiled to help further research. Therefore, based on previous reports, this review focusses on findings and possible therapeutic applications of centipede venoms as well as their components.

  7. Guided Bone Regeneration: biological principle and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzepi, Maria; Donos, N

    2010-06-01

    The Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) treatment concept advocates that regeneration of osseous defects is predictably attainable via the application of occlusive membranes, which mechanically exclude non-osteogenic cell populations from the surrounding soft tissues, thereby allowing osteogenic cell populations originating from the parent bone to inhabit the osseous wound. The present review discusses the evolution of the GBR biological rationale and therapeutic concept over the last two decades. Further, an overview of the GBR research history is provided with specific focus on the evidence available on its effectiveness and predictability in promoting the regeneration of critical size cranio-maxillo-facial defects, the neo-osteogenesis potential and the reconstruction of atrophic alveolar ridges before, or in conjunction with, the placement of dental implants. The authors conclude that future research should focus on (a) the investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the wound healing process following GBR application; (b) the identification of site and patient related factors which impact on the effectiveness and predictability of GBR therapy and (c) the evaluation of the pathophysiology of the GBR healing process in the presence of systemic conditions potentially affecting the skeletal system.

  8. Clinical application of shock wave therapy in musculoskeletal disorders: part II related to myofascial and nerve apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggini, R; Di Stefano, A; Saggini, A; Bellomo, R G

    2015-01-01

    Shock waves have been widely recognized in literature as a biological regulator; accordingly we carried out a review on the effect of shock waves on the mesenchymal cells in their various expressions: bone, muscle, ligament and tendon tissue. To date, the application of Shock Wave Therapy (SWT) in musculoskeletal disorders has been primarily used in the treatment of tendinopathies (proximal plantar fasciopathy, lateral elbow tendinopathy, calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder, and patellar tendinopathy, etc.) and bone defects (delayed and non-union of bone fractures, avascular necrosis of femoral head, etc.). Although the mechanism of their therapeutic effects is still unknown, the majority of published papers have shown the positive and beneficial effects of using SWT as a treatment for musculoskeletal disorders, with a success rate ranging from 65% to 91%, while the complications are low or negligible. The purpose of this paper is to present the published data on the clinical application of SWT in the treatment of myofascial and nerve disorders. With the help of the relevant literature, in this paper we outline the indications and success rates of SWT, as well as the adequate SWT parameters (e.g., rate of impulses, energy flux density) defined according to the present state of knowledge.

  9. Neuroprotection trek--the next generation: neuromodulation II. Applications--epilepsy, nerve regeneration, neurotrophins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Russell J.

    2003-01-01

    Three examples of neuroprotective applications of electrical stimulation-neuromodulation-are considered: (1) the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy, (2) the augmentation of peripheral nerve regeneration after transection, and (3) the interaction between electrical stimulation and neurotrophins (notably brain derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]) in various neuroprotective situations. The research cited demonstrates clear benefit from appropriate electrical stimulation in the treatment of (1) certain patients with medication-refractory epilepsy, and (2) the functional regeneration of peripheral nerves after transection and surgical repair. Furthermore, neuromodulation of peripheral nerve regeneration has been associated with an increase in the neurotrophin BDNF. The roles of BDNF and other neurotrophins in several disorders of the nervous system are discussed in the context of neuromodulation and its augmentation of neurotrophins. Neuromodulation-at least in part through its effect on BDNF and other neurotrophins-will likely play a major role in the treatment (and possibly prevention) of disorders of the nervous system for which neuroproteive pharmacologic agents have traditionally been sought.

  10. Objective determinations of sensibility in the upper extremity. Part III. Application of cutaneous stimuli in patients with peripheral nerve lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, S L; Nahai, F; Brown, D M; Jordan, N; Kutner, M

    1977-10-01

    Quantitative values for pressure, electrical, and two-point touch stimulation were examined in five patients with peripheral nerve injuries of the ulnar or median nerves. Analyses of profiles generated for each stimulus application in each patient participating in this preliminary study suggest that, following the reading of a sensitization statement, pressure and electrical shock threshold values are clearly reduced compared to similar measurements in the unaffected limb. Values obtained prior to the statement indicated progressively reduced thresholds, however. Changes in sensation appear to precede significant improvements in sensory nerve conduction velocity. Limitations in the sensory testing techniques as well as suggestions for improving its validity are discussed.

  11. Repairing Peripheral Nerves: Is there a Role for Carbon Nanotubes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprych, Karen M; Whitby, Raymond L D; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Tomlins, Paul; Adu, Jimi

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major global health problem that can result in debilitating neurological deficits and neuropathic pain. Current state-of-the-art treatment involves reforming the damaged nerve pathway using a nerve autograft. Engineered nerve repair conduits can provide an alternative to the nerve autograft avoiding the inevitable tissue damage caused at the graft donor site. Commercially available nerve repair conduits are currently only considered suitable for repairing small nerve lesions; the design and performance of engineered conduits requires significant improvements to enable their use for repairing larger nerve defects. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an emerging novel material for biomedical applications currently being developed for a range of therapeutic technologies including scaffolds for engineering and interfacing with neurological tissues. CNTs possess a unique set of physicochemical properties that could be useful within nerve repair conduits. This progress report aims to evaluate and consolidate the current literature pertinent to CNTs as a biomaterial for supporting peripheral nerve regeneration. The report is presented in the context of the state-of-the-art in nerve repair conduit design; outlining how CNTs may enhance the performance of next generation peripheral nerve repair conduits.

  12. 188W/188Re Generator System and Its Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boschi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 188Re radioisotope represents a useful radioisotope for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic applications, particularly because of its favorable nuclear properties. The nuclide decay pattern is through the emission of a principle beta particle having 2.12 MeV maximum energy, which is enough to penetrate and destroy abnormal tissues, and principle gamma rays (Eγ=155 keV, which can efficiently be used for imaging and calculations of radiation dose. 188Re may be conveniently produced by 188W/188Re generator systems. The challenges related to the double neutron capture reaction route to provide only modest yield of the parent 188W radionuclide indeed have been one of the major issues about the use of 188Re in nuclear medicine. Since the specific activity of 188W used in the generator is relatively low (<185 GBq/g, the eluted Re188O4- can have a low radioactive concentration, often ineffective for radiopharmaceutical preparation. However, several efficient postelution concentration techniques have been developed, which yield clinically useful Re188O4- solutions. This review summarizes the technologies developed for the preparation of 188W/188Re generators, postelution concentration of the 188Re perrhenate eluate, and a brief discussion of new chemical strategies available for the very high yield preparation of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals.

  13. Therapeutic Application of Natural Medicine Monomers in Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chen; Wall, Nathan R; Zu, Yuangang; Sui, Guangchao

    2017-07-14

    Natural medicine monomers (NMMs) isolated from plants have been recognized for their roles in treating different human diseases including cancers. Many NMMs exhibit effective anti-cancer activities and can be used as drugs or adjuvant agents to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy with low or tolerable side effects. Some NMMs, such as Paclitaxel and Camptothecin, have been extensively studied for decades and are now used as anti-cancer medicines due to their remarkable curative effects, such as inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, and inducing cell death and differentiation. Although therapeutic effects for most NMMs have been appreciated, the underlying mechanisms of their anti-cancer activities remain largely unexplored. In this review, we have grouped NMMs into six categories based on their chemical structures, and summarized current knowledge of molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer activities to provide a theoretical basis for clinical application and new drug development of NMMs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Lectins, Interconnecting Proteins with Biotechnological/Pharmacological and Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are proteins extensively used in biomedical applications with property to recognize carbohydrates through carbohydrate-binding sites, which identify glycans attached to cell surfaces, glycoconjugates, or free sugars, detecting abnormal cells and biomarkers related to diseases. These lectin abilities promoted interesting results in experimental treatments of immunological diseases, wounds, and cancer. Lectins obtained from virus, microorganisms, algae, animals, and plants were reported as modulators and tool markers in vivo and in vitro; these molecules also play a role in the induction of mitosis and immune responses, contributing for resolution of infections and inflammations. Lectins revealed healing effect through induction of reepithelialization and cicatrization of wounds. Some lectins have been efficient agents against virus, fungi, bacteria, and helminths at low concentrations. Lectin-mediated bioadhesion has been an interesting characteristic for development of drug delivery systems. Lectin histochemistry and lectin-based biosensors are useful to detect transformed tissues and biomarkers related to disease occurrence; antitumor lectins reported are promising for cancer therapy. Here, we address lectins from distinct sources with some biological effect and biotechnological potential in the diagnosis and therapeutic of diseases, highlighting many advances in this growing field.

  15. Lectins, Interconnecting Proteins with Biotechnological/Pharmacological and Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Priscila Marcelino dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are proteins extensively used in biomedical applications with property to recognize carbohydrates through carbohydrate-binding sites, which identify glycans attached to cell surfaces, glycoconjugates, or free sugars, detecting abnormal cells and biomarkers related to diseases. These lectin abilities promoted interesting results in experimental treatments of immunological diseases, wounds, and cancer. Lectins obtained from virus, microorganisms, algae, animals, and plants were reported as modulators and tool markers in vivo and in vitro; these molecules also play a role in the induction of mitosis and immune responses, contributing for resolution of infections and inflammations. Lectins revealed healing effect through induction of reepithelialization and cicatrization of wounds. Some lectins have been efficient agents against virus, fungi, bacteria, and helminths at low concentrations. Lectin-mediated bioadhesion has been an interesting characteristic for development of drug delivery systems. Lectin histochemistry and lectin-based biosensors are useful to detect transformed tissues and biomarkers related to disease occurrence; antitumor lectins reported are promising for cancer therapy. Here, we address lectins from distinct sources with some biological effect and biotechnological potential in the diagnosis and therapeutic of diseases, highlighting many advances in this growing field. PMID:28367220

  16. Pycnogenol: a blend of procyanidins with multifaceted therapeutic applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Gabriele

    2010-10-01

    Great interest is currently centred on the biologic activities of pycnogenol a standardized plant extract obtained from the bark of the French maritime pine Pinus pinaster (formerly known as Pinus maritima), Aiton, subspecies Atlantica des Villar (Pycnogenol, Horphag Research Ltd., UK, Geneve, Switzerland), which grows in the coastal southwest France. The quality of this extract is specified in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP 28). Between 65% and 75% of Pycnogenol are procyanidins comprising of catechin and epicatechin subunits with varying chain lengths. Other constituents are polyphenolic monomers, phenolic or cinnamic acids and their glycosides. As many studies indicate, pycnogenol components are highly bioavailable. Uniquely, pycnogenol displays greater biologic effects as a mixture than its purified components do individually indicating that the components interact synergistically. Pycnogenol is now utilized throughout the world as a nutritional supplement and as a phytochemical remedy for various diseases ranging from chronic inflammation to circulatory dysfunction, including several impaired psycho-physiological functions. Owing to the basic chemical structure of its components, the most obvious feature of pycnogenol is its strong antioxidant activity. In fact, phenolic acids, polyphenols, and in particular flavonoids, are composed of one (or more) aromatic rings bearing one or more hydroxyl groups and are therefore potentially able to quench free radicals by forming resonance-stabilized phenoxyl radicals. In this review, emphasizing the molecular, cellular, and functional bases of therapy, data appearing in the peer-reviewed literature and focussing the main therapeutic applications of pycnogenol will be summarized and critically evaluated.

  17. Biosurfactants Produced by Marine Microorganisms with Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2016-02-18

    Marine microorganisms possess unique metabolic and physiological features and are an important source of new biomolecules, such as biosurfactants. Some of these surface-active compounds synthesized by marine microorganisms exhibit antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens (including multi-drug resistant pathogens), and could be used instead of existing drugs to treat infections caused by them. In other cases, these biosurfactants show anti-cancer activity, which could be envisaged as an alternative to conventional therapies. However, marine biosurfactants have not been widely explored, mainly due to the difficulties associated with the isolation and growth of their producing microorganisms. Culture-independent techniques (metagenomics) constitute a promising approach to study the genetic resources of otherwise inaccessible marine microorganisms without the requirement of culturing them, and can contribute to the discovery of novel biosurfactants with significant biological activities. This paper reviews the most relevant biosurfactants produced by marine microorganisms with potential therapeutic applications and discusses future perspectives and opportunities to discover novel molecules from marine environments.

  18. Genome editing in pluripotent stem cells: research and therapeutic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleidi, Michela, E-mail: michela.deleidi@dzne.de [German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Tübingen within the Helmholtz Association, Tübingen (Germany); Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen (Germany); Yu, Cong [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, New York (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Recent progress in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) and genome editing technologies has opened up new avenues for the investigation of human biology in health and disease as well as the development of therapeutic applications. Gene editing approaches with programmable nucleases have been successfully established in hPSCs and applied to study gene function, develop novel animal models and perform genetic and chemical screens. Several studies now show the successful editing of disease-linked alleles in somatic and patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as well as in animal models. Importantly, initial clinical trials have shown the safety of programmable nucleases for ex vivo somatic gene therapy. In this context, the unlimited proliferation potential and the pluripotent properties of iPSCs may offer advantages for gene targeting approaches. However, many technical and safety issues still need to be addressed before genome-edited iPSCs are translated into the clinical setting. Here, we provide an overview of the available genome editing systems and discuss opportunities and perspectives for their application in basic research and clinical practice, with a particular focus on hPSC based research and gene therapy approaches. Finally, we discuss recent research on human germline genome editing and its social and ethical implications. - Highlights: • Programmable nucleases have proven efficient and specific for genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). • Genome edited hPSCs can be employed to study gene function in health and disease as well as drug and chemical screens. • Genome edited hPSCs hold great promise for ex vivo gene therapy approaches. • Technical and safety issues should be first addressed to advance the clinical use of gene-edited hPSCs.

  19. Group 9 organometallic compounds for therapeutic and bioanalytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dik-Lung; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Compared with organic small molecules, metal complexes offer several distinct advantages as therapeutic agents or biomolecular probes. Carbon atoms are typically limited to linear, trigonal planar, or tetrahedral geometries, with a maximum of two enantiomers being formed if four different substituents are attached to a single carbon. In contrast, an octahedral metal center with six different substituents can display up to 30 different stereoisomers. While platinum- and ruthenium-based anticancer agents have attracted significant attention in the realm of inorganic medicinal chemistry over the past few decades, group 9 complexes (i.e., iridium and rhodium) have garnered increased attention in therapeutic and bioanalytical applications due to their adjustable reactivity (from kinetically liable to substitutionally inert), high water solubility, stability to air and moisture, and relative ease of synthesis. In this Account, we describe our efforts in the development of group 9 organometallic compounds of general form [M(C(∧)N)2(N(∧)N)] (where M = Ir, Rh) as therapeutic agents against distinct biomolecular targets and as luminescent probes for the construction of oligonucleotide-based assays for a diverse range of analytes. Earlier studies by researchers had focused on organometallic iridium(III) and rhodium(III) half-sandwich complexes that show promising anticancer activity, although their precise mechanisms of action still remain unknown. More recently, kinetically-inert group 9 complexes have arisen as fascinating alternatives to organic small molecules for the specific targeting of enzyme activity. Research in our laboratory has shown that cyclometalated octahedral rhodium(III) complexes were active against Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) or NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) activity, or against NO production leading to antivasculogenic activity in cellulo. At the same time, recent interest in the development of small molecules as modulators of protein

  20. Early application of nerve growth factor affects serum inflammatory cytokine levels in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that there are changes of various cytokines, chemokines and adhesion factors in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). What are the changes of interleukin-6 and interleukin-18 in serum of HIE neonates.OBJECTIVE: To observe the dynamic changes of interleukin-6 and interleukin-18 in peripheral serum at different time after HIE in neonates, and analyze the possible therapeutic efficacy of early application of NGF.DESIGN: A non-randomized controlled observation synchronically.SETTING: Department of Neonatology, Sun Yat-sen Hospital affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University.PARTICIPANTS: Sixty neonates with HIE were selected from the Department of Neonatology, Sun Yat-sen Hospital affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University from January 2004 to October 2006, including 32 boys and 28 girls, who were all accorded with the diagnostic standards for moderate to severe HIE. The neonates were divided into two groups NGF-treated group (n =30), HIE group (n =30). The HIE neonates in the NGF-treated group were given routine treatment and intramuscular injection of NGF within 24 hours after birth. Those in the HIE group were given routine treatments. Meanwhile, 30 apneic normal neonates (17 boys and 13 girls) at the same period were selected as the control group. The gestational age was 37 - 42 weeks in all the three groups, the body mass at birth was 2 500 - 4 000 g. Informed contents were obtained from the relatives of all the enrolled neonates.METHODS: The HIE neonates in the NGF-treated group were given routine treatment and intramuscular injection of NGF (2 000 U) within 24 hours after birth, once a day, 10 days as a course. Those in the HIE group were given routine treatments. Blood samples (3 mL) were drawn from femoral vein in all the neonates 1, 3 and 7 days after birth. The levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-18 in serum were detected with enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of interlenkin

  1. Gum tragacanth/poly(l-lactic acid) nanofibrous scaffolds for application in regeneration of peripheral nerve damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Marziyeh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Bahrami, S Hajir; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2016-04-20

    Nanofibrous nerve guides have gained huge interest in supporting the peripheral nerve regeneration due to their abilities to simulate the topography, mechanical, biological and extracellular matrix morphology of native tissue. Gum tragacanth (GT) is a biocompatible mixture of polysaccharides that has been used in biomedical applications. During this study, we fabricated aligned and random nanofibers from poly(l-lactic acid) and gum tragacanth (PLLA/GT) in various ratios (100:0, 75:25, and 50:50) by electrospinning. Scanning electron microscope demonstrated smooth and uniform nanofibers with diameters in the range of 733±65nm and 226±73nm for align PLLA and random PLLA/GT 50:50 nanofibers, respectively. FTIR analysis, contact angle, in vitro biodegradation and tensile measurements were carried out to evaluate the chemical and mechanical properties of the different scaffolds. PLLA/GT 75:25 exhibited the most balanced properties compared to other scaffolds and was used for in vitro culture of nerve cells (PC12) to assess the potential of using these scaffolds as a substrate for nerve regeneration. The cells were found to attach and proliferate on aligned PLLA/GT 75:25 scaffolds, expressing bi-polar neurite extensions and the orientation of nerve cells was along the direction of the fiber alignment. Results of 8 days of in vitro culture of PC12 cells on aligned PLLA/GT 75:25 nanofibers, showed 20% increase in cell proliferation compared to PLLA/GT 75:25 random nanofibers. PLLA/GT 75:25 aligned nanofibers acted as a favorable cue to support neurite outgrowth and nerve cell elongation compared with PLLA nanofibers. Our results showed that aligned PLLA/GT 75:25 nanofibers are promising substrates for application as bioengineered grafts for nerve tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Therapeutic Application of Electric Fields in the Injured Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nervous system injuries, both in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system are a major cause for pain, loss-of-function, and impairment of daily life. As nervous system injuries commonly heal slowly or incompletely, new therapeutic approaches may be required.

  3. Microbubbles and Ultrasound: Therapeutic Applications in Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei J; Matkar, Pratiek N; Chen, Hao H; Mofid, Azadeh; Leong-Poi, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains one of the most common causes of end-stage renal disease. Current therapeutic strategies aiming at optimization of serum glucose and blood pressure are beneficial in early stage DN, but are unable to fully prevent disease progression. With the limitations of current medical therapies and the shortage of available donor organs for kidney transplantation, the need for novel therapies to address DN complications and prevent progression towards end-stage renal failure is crucial. The development of ultrasound technology for non-invasive and targeted in-vivo gene delivery using high power ultrasound and carrier microbubbles offers great therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of DN. The promising results from preclinical studies of ultrasound-mediated gene delivery (UMGD) in several DN animal models suggest that UMGD offers a unique, non-invasive platform for gene- and cell-based therapies targeted against DN with strong clinical translation potential.

  4. Emerging trends at the interface of chemistry and biology: Applications to the design of human therapeutics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santanu Bhattacharya; Raghavan Varadarajan

    2010-03-01

    This article describes recent developments in the design and implementation of various strategies towards the development of novel therapeutics using first principles from biology and chemistry. Strategies for multi-target therapeutics and network analysis with a focus on cancer and HIV are discussed. Methods for gene and siRNA delivery are presented along with challenges and opportunities for siRNA therapeutics. Advances in protein design methodology and screening are described, with a focus on their application to the design of antibody based therapeutics. Future advances in this area relevant to vaccine design are also mentioned.

  5. Gene therapy in peripheral nerve reconstruction approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haastert, Kirsten; Grothe, Claudia

    2007-06-01

    Gene transfer to a transected peripheral nerve or avulsed nerve root is discussed to be helpful where neurosurgical peripheral nerve reconstruction alone will not result in full recovery of function. Axonal regeneration is supposed to be facilitated by this new therapeutic approach via delivery of specific regeneration promoting molecules as well as survival proteins for the injured sensory and motor neurons. Therefore gene therapy aims in long-term and site-specific delivery of those neurotrophic factors. This paper reviews methods and perspectives for gene therapy to promote functional recovery of severely injured and thereafter reconstructed peripheral nerves. Experimental in vivo and ex vivo gene therapy approaches are reported by different groups. In vivo gene therapy generally uses direct injection of cDNA vectors to injured peripheral nerves. Ex vivo gene therapy is based on the isolation of autologous cells followed by genetic modification of these cells in vitro and re-transplantation of the modified cells to the patient as part of tissue engineered nerve transplants. Vectors of different origin are published to be suitable for peripheral nerve gene therapy and this review discusses the different strategies with regard to their efficiency in gene transfer, their risks and their potential relevance for clinical application.

  6. Nerve growth factor, clinical applications and production of the recombinant protei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zangi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian neurotrophin family proteins, nerve growth factor (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5 are known as neuronal survival factors. NGF, one of the most important cytokines, is composed of 118 amino acids. NGF is involved in the growth and differentiation of neural cells of the vertebrate peripheral sympathetic nerve as well as basal forebrain cholinergic neurons which degenerate in Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, it is implicated in the regulation of synaptic transmission and synaptogenesis in the central nervous system. NGF is produced by a variety of immune cells, including B cells, T cells, monocytes and mast cells as well as nervous system and binds through two distinct receptors, TrkA and p75NTR which signaling through them leads to the neuronal differentiation and cell death respectively. Considering the importance of this protein as a drug, NGF has been proposed for the treatment of neuron degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and multiple sclerosis. To produce enough protein for research and clinical applications, genetic engineering techniques are used to produce recombinant forms. To date, there are no reports about the systems for production of the recombinant human NGF in an effective, low cost, with industrial production. Plants as a safe host generally offer major advantages such as free of animal pathogens, low costs, the ability to produce a protein similar to natural protein, and industrial production in large scale. Then they are suitable for the production of recombinant human NGF.

  7. Pulsed radiofrequency application in the entrapment neuropathy of a sural nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozdemir, Muhammet; Usta, Burhanettin; Sert, Huseyin; Muslu, Bunyamin; Demircioglu, Irem Ruveyda; Uras, Ismail

    2010-04-01

    Compressive and entrapment neuropathy of the peroneal nerve is the most common entrapment syndrome in the lower limbs, often caused by mechanical or dynamic compression of a segment of nerve at the level of the fibula head. Because of its special anatomic situation, external compression while under trauma or traction is quite easy. A case of entrapment neuropathy syndrome in a 33-year-old man treated by pulse radiofrequency to the lateral cutaneous branch of the common peroneal nerve is presented.

  8. Pulsed Radiofrequency Application in the Entrapment Neuropathy of a Sural Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Gozdemir, Muhammet; Usta, Burhanettin; Sert, Huseyin; Muslu,Bunyamin; Demircioglu, Irem Ruveyda; Uras, Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Compressive and entrapment neuropathy of the peroneal nerve is the most common entrapment syndrome in the lower limbs, often caused by mechanical or dynamic compression of a segment of nerve at the level of the fibula head. Because of its special anatomic situation, external compression while under trauma or traction is quite easy. A case of entrapment neuropathy syndrome in a 33-year-old man treated by pulse radiofrequency to the lateral cutaneous branch of the common peroneal nerve is prese...

  9. Emerging clinical and therapeutic applications of Nigella sativa in gastroenterology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shailendra Kapoor

    2009-01-01

    Nigella sativa decreases DNA damage and thereby prevents initiation of carcinogenesis in colonic tissue secondary to exposure to toxic agents such as azoxymethane. N. sativa is of immense therapeutic benefit in diabetic individuals and those with glucose intolerance as it accentuates glucose-induced secretion of insulin besides having a negative impact on glucose absorption from the intestinal mucosa. N. sativa administration protects hepatic tissue from deleterious effects of toxic metals such as lead, and attenuates hepatic lipid peroxidation following exposure to chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride.

  10. Functional Roles and Therapeutic Applications of Exosomes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Laura; Battistelli, Cecilia; Montaldo, Claudia; Citarella, Franca; Strippoli, Raffaele; Cicchini, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes are important in intercellular communication. They assure the horizontal transfer of specific functional contents (i.e., proteins, lipids, RNA molecules, and circulating DNA) from donor to recipient cells. Notably, tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) appear to be an important vehicle of specific signals in cancer, impacting on tumor growth and metastasis. Recent researches point to the characterization of exosomes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), the major adult liver malignancy. In this review, we summarize current findings on HCC exosomes, focusing on the identification of noncoding RNAs as exosome-enriched functional regulators and new potential biomarkers. The great potential of exosomes in future HCC diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is underlined.

  11. Clinical application of axonal repair technique for treatment of peripheral nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 顾玉东; 徐雷

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of axonal repair technique for treatment of peripheral nerve injury clinically.Methods: In 1998, the authors applied axonal repair technique to treat peripheral nerve injuries in 12 patients with 13 nerves. It consists of four steps, ie, stumps of the nerve being soaked in a modified Collins fluid, freezed,trimmed, and coapted with glue, making the injured nerve repaired at the axonal level.Results: The patients were followed up for an average of 13 months. Results showed that in 4 cases of first-stage contraiateral C7 transfer, regenerating axons reached to the sternoclavicular joint or axilla at 4 to 7 months, offering the timing for performing the second-stage contralateral C7 transfer. In 5 cases of accessory nerve transferred to the suprascapular nerve, the abduction of the shoulder was 40° on average. In the other 3 patients with four different nerves repaired, results were also satisfactory.Conclusions: This technique is promising in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

  12. Novel therapeutics in multiple sclerosis management: clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Thomas; Hunter, Samuel F; Kantor, Daniel; Markowitz, Clyde

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects an estimated 300,000 individuals in the United States. No cure exists and although there is a lack of consensus on management, strategies to modify disease course are available. These strategies involve initiating disease-modifying therapies that have been found to slow disease progression and prevent disability symptoms, thereby improving function for MS patients. The overall goal of early disease management is to intervene prior to irreversible neuronal destruction in order to delay disability progression and improve quality of life. Maintaining a lower level of disability for a longer period of time postpones and ultimately attempts to prevent reaching a level of immobility and irreversible disability. However, due to the complex nature of disease and its unique, individual patient course, no patient can be treated alike and no patient responds to therapy similarly. Therefore, MS research is continuous in its evolution of therapeutic development, focusing on neuroprotective effects and agents with distinctive mechanisms of action allowing for unique safety and efficacy profiles. Investigations include novel oral agents and monoclonal antibodies. Many of the approved agents also are continually being investigated in order to evaluate comparative data, the most appropriate means of implementing subsequent therapy upon failure, responsiveness to therapeutic agent when switched, and long-term safety and efficacy. This multimedia webcast educational activity will cover the current state of MS science, current therapies in MS, emerging treatments in clinical trials for MS as well as differences between physicians in diagnosis and management of MS and their evolving practices.

  13. Applications of Magnetic Resonance in Model Systems: Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Evelhoch

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information regarding the metabolism and pathophysiology of individual tumors limits, in part, both the development of new anti-cancer therapies and the optimal implementation of currently available treatments. Magnetic resonance [MR, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR] provides a powerful tool to assess many aspects of tumor metabolism and pathophysiology. Moreover, since this information can be obtained nondestructively, pre-clinical results from cellular or animal models are often easily translated into the clinic. This review presents selected examples of how MR has been used to identify metabolic changes associated with apoptosis, detect therapeutic response prior to a change in tumor volume, optimize the combination of metabolic inhibitors with chemotherapy and/or radiation, characterize and exploit the influence of tumor pH on the effectiveness of chemotherapy, characterize tumor reoxygenation and the effects of modifiers of tumor oxygenation in individual tumors, image transgene expression and assess the efficacy of gene therapy. These examples provide an overview of several of the areas in which cellular and animal model studies using MR have contributed to our understanding of the effects of treatment on tumor metabolism and pathophysiology and the importance of tumor metabolism and pathophysiology as determinants of therapeutic response.

  14. Therapeutic Enzymes: Applications and Approaches to Pharmacological Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Maryam; Ghoshoon, Mohammad Bagher; Vakili, Bahareh; Ghasemi, Younes

    2017-08-08

    Among therapeutic proteins, enzymes represent small and of course profitable market. They can be used to treat important, rare, and deadly diseases. Enzyme therapy is the only available treatment for certain disorders. Here, pharmaceutical enzymes are reviewed. They are categorized in four main groups, enzymes in replacement therapy, enzymes in cancer treatment, enzymes for fibrinolysis, and finally enzymes that are used topically for various treatments. Furthermore, enzyme gene therapy and future perspective of therapeutic enzymes are mentioned in brief. There are many important approved enzymes in pharmaceutical market. Several approaches such as point mutation, fusion protein designing, glycoengineering, and PEGylation were used to achieve improved enzymes. Although sometimes enzymes were engineered to facilitate production and purification process, appropriate delivery to target sites, extending half-life, and reducing immunogenicity are among the main goal of engineering approaches. Overall, enzymes play a critical role in treatment of common and rare diseases. Evaluation of new enzymes as well as improvement of approved enzymes are of the most important challenges in biotechnology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Multiple sclerosis: Therapeutic applications of advancing drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolati, Sanam; Babaloo, Zohreh; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Ayromlou, Hormoz; Sadreddini, Sanam; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, which is accompanying with demyelination, neurodegeneration and sensibility to oxidative stress. In MS, auto-reactive lymphocytes cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reside in the perivenous demyelinating lesions which create various distinct inflammatory demyelinated plaques situated predominantly in the white matter. The current MS-related therapeutic approaches can be classified into disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) and symptomatic therapy. DMTs suppress circulating immune cells, inhibit passing the BBB and decrease the inflammatory responses. Recent advances have remarkably delayed disease development and improved the quality of life for numerous patients. In spite of major improvements in therapeutic options, there are some limitations regarding the routes of administration and the necessity for repeated and long-term dosing in which cause to systemic disadvantageous consequences and patient non-compliance. Nanotechnology presents promising approaches to improve autoimmune disease treatment with the capability to overcome many of the limitations common to the current immunosuppressive and biological therapies. Here we emphasis on nanomedicine-based drug delivery approaches of biological immunomodulatory mediators for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. This comprehensive review details the most successful drugs in MS therapy and also focuses on conceptions and clinical potential of novel nanomedicine attitudes for inducing immunosuppression and immunological tolerance in MS to modulate abnormal and pathologic immune responses.

  16. From miniature to nano robots for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menciassi, Arianna; Sinibaldi, Edoardo; Pensabene, Virginia; Dario, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the evolution of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as a process of convergence of technologies coming from different fields and involving different disciplines. In particular, it illustrates how modern surgery evolved thanks to fundamental biology knowledge; thus, with the introduction of imaging techniques intra-operatively and with the introduction of robotics, surgical procedures became much more predictable, precise and effective. Finally, the recent developments of optics (with CMOS and CCD technologies, and with the introduction of fiber optic technologies) allowed to "see" inside the human body, thus reducing the invasiveness of surgical procedures and making diagnostic procedures adequate for an effective early discovery of pathologies. Nowadays, we are assisting to a concrete merging between microrobotics technologies and bioengineering, with the potential to bring therapeutic tools where requested and when requested, with high precision and with very limited side effects. Furthermore, nanotechnology offers the possibility to fully implement this merging, thanks to the development of dedicated theranostic nanotools suitably fitting the considered convergence scenario.

  17. Packaging protein drugs as bacterial inclusion bodies for therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villaverde Antonio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A growing number of insights on the biology of bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs have revealed intriguing utilities of these protein particles. Since they combine mechanical stability and protein functionality, IBs have been already exploited in biocatalysis and explored for bottom-up topographical modification in tissue engineering. Being fully biocompatible and with tuneable bio-physical properties, IBs are currently emerging as agents for protein delivery into mammalian cells in protein-replacement cell therapies. So far, IBs formed by chaperones (heat shock protein 70, Hsp70, enzymes (catalase and dihydrofolate reductase, grow factors (leukemia inhibitory factor, LIF and structural proteins (the cytoskeleton keratin 14 have been shown to rescue exposed cells from a spectrum of stresses and restore cell functions in absence of cytotoxicity. The natural penetrability of IBs into mammalian cells (reaching both cytoplasm and nucleus empowers them as an unexpected platform for the controlled delivery of essentially any therapeutic polypeptide. Production of protein drugs by biopharma has been traditionally challenged by IB formation. However, a time might have arrived in which recombinant bacteria are to be engineered for the controlled packaging of therapeutic proteins as nanoparticulate materials (nanopills, for their extra- or intra-cellular release in medicine and cosmetics.

  18. An Analysis of Therapeutic Effect of Drug Acupoint Application in 209 Cases of Allergic Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖新生; 李月梅; 范兆金; 张家维; 刘炳权

    2001-01-01

    Both therapies of traditional crude herb moxibustion and drug acupoint application were used in 209 cases of allergic asthma to compare their long-term and short-term therapeutic effects and to analyze the relationship between clinic therapeutic effects of both therapies and differential types of the disease. The results showed that the short-term total effective rate in the group of drug acupoint application was higher than that in the group of traditional crude herb moxibustion, the therapeutic effects of drug acupoint application being closely related to differential types. Analysis also shows the best short-term therapeutic effect was in the type of heat in the lung while the poorest effect in the type of deficiency of the kidney-yang.

  19. Therapeutic applications of resveratrol and its derivatives on periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yu-Tang; Cheng, Guei-Yun; Shih, Ya-Jung; Lin, Chi-Yu; Lin, Shan-Jen; Lai, Hsuan-Yu; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Chiu, Hsien-Chung; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Fu, Earl; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Lin, Hung-Yun; Liu, Leroy F

    2017-09-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth induced by periodontopathic bacteria that results in the progressive destruction of periodontal tissues. Treatment of periodontitis is painful and time-consuming. Recently, herbal medicines have been considered for use in treating inflammation-related diseases, including periodontitis. Resveratrol and its derivative 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-glucoside (THSG), a polyphenol extracted from Polygonum multiflorum, have anti-inflammatory properties and other medical benefits. Here, we highlight the importance of resveratrol and its glycosylated derivative as possible complementary treatments for periodontitis and their potential for development as innovative therapeutic strategies. In addition, we present evidence and discuss the mechanisms of action of resveratrol and THSG on periodontitis, focusing on Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced inflammatory responses in human gingival fibroblasts and animal modeling of ligature-induced periodontitis. We also illuminate the signal transduction pathways and the cytokines involved. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Functional Roles and Therapeutic Applications of Exosomes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Santangelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are important in intercellular communication. They assure the horizontal transfer of specific functional contents (i.e., proteins, lipids, RNA molecules, and circulating DNA from donor to recipient cells. Notably, tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs appear to be an important vehicle of specific signals in cancer, impacting on tumor growth and metastasis. Recent researches point to the characterization of exosomes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC, the major adult liver malignancy. In this review, we summarize current findings on HCC exosomes, focusing on the identification of noncoding RNAs as exosome-enriched functional regulators and new potential biomarkers. The great potential of exosomes in future HCC diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is underlined.

  1. Biological and artificial nerve conduit for repairing peripheral nerve defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuetao Xie; Changqing Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recently, with the development of biological and artificial materials, the experimental and clinical studies on application of this new material-type nerve conduit for treatment of peripheral nerve defect have become the hotspot topics for professorial physicians.DATA SOURCES: Using the terms "nerve conduits, peripheral nerve, nerve regeneration and nerve transplantation" in English, we searched Pubmed database, which was published during January 2000 to June 2006, for the literatures related to repairing peripheral nerve defect with various materials. At the same time, we also searched Chinese Technical Scientific Periodical Database at the same time period by inputting" peripheral nerve defect, nerve repair, nerve regeneration and nerve graft" in Chinese.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were firstly selected, and literatures about study on various materials for repairing peripheral nerve defect and their full texts were also searched. Inclusive criteria: nerve conduits related animal experiments and clinical studies. Exclusive criteria: review or repetitive studies.DATA EXTRACTION: Seventy-nine relevant literatures were collected and 30 of them met inclusive criteria and were cited.DATA SYNTHESTS: Peripheral nerve defect, a commonly seen problem in clinic, is difficult to be solved. Autogenous nerve grafting is still the gold standard for repairing peripheral nerve defect, but because of its application limitation and possible complications, people studied nerve conduits to repair nerve defect. Nerve conduits consist of biological and artificial materials.CONCLUSION: There have been numerous reports about animal experimental and clinical studies of various nerve conduits, but nerve conduit, which is more ideal than autogenous nerve grafting, needs further clinical observation and investigation.

  2. [Uterosacral ligament and hypogastric nerve anatomical relationship. Application to deep endometriotic nodules surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaïs, H; Collinet, P; Delmas, V; Rubod, C

    2013-03-01

    Endometriosis is a concern for 10 to 15% of women of childbearing age. The uterosacral ligament is the most frequent localization of deep infiltrating endometriosis. Laparoscopic excision of endometriotic nodules may lead to functional consequences due to potential hypogastric nerve lesion. Our aim is to study the anatomical relationship between the hypogastric nerve and the uterosacral ligament in order to reduce the occurrence of such nerve lesions during pelvic surgeries. We based our study on an anatomical and surgical literature review and on the anatomical dissection of a 56-year-old fresh female subject. The hypogastric nerves cross the uterosacral ligament approximately 30mm from the torus. They go through the pararectal space, 20mm below the ureter and join the inferior hypogastric plexus at the level of the intersection between the ureter and the posterior wall of the uterine artery, at approximately 20mm from the torus. No anatomical variation has been described to date in the path of the nerve, but in its presentation which may be polymorphous. Laparoscopy and robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery facilitate the pelvic nerves visualization and are the best approach for uterosacral endometriotic nodule nerve-sparing excision. Precise knowledge by the surgeon of the anatomical relationship between the hypogastric nerve and the uterosacral ligament is essential in order to decrease the risk of complication and postoperative morbidity for patient surgically treated for deep infiltrating endometriosis involving uterosacral ligament.

  3. Stem Cells Applications in Regenerative Medicine and Disease Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahla, Ranjeet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine, the most recent and emerging branch of medical science, deals with functional restoration of tissues or organs for the patient suffering from severe injuries or chronic disease. The spectacular progress in the field of stem cell research has laid the foundation for cell based therapies of disease which cannot be cured by conventional medicines. The indefinite self-renewal and potential to differentiate into other types of cells represent stem cells as frontiers of regenerative medicine. The transdifferentiating potential of stem cells varies with source and according to that regenerative applications also change. Advancements in gene editing and tissue engineering technology have endorsed the ex vivo remodelling of stem cells grown into 3D organoids and tissue structures for personalized applications. This review outlines the most recent advancement in transplantation and tissue engineering technologies of ESCs, TSPSCs, MSCs, UCSCs, BMSCs, and iPSCs in regenerative medicine. Additionally, this review also discusses stem cells regenerative application in wildlife conservation.

  4. [Prostate cancer microenvironment: Its structure, functions and therapeutic applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorion, R; Bladou, F; Spatz, A; van Kempen, L; Irani, J

    2016-06-01

    In the field of prostate cancer there is a growing tendency for more and more studies to emphasise the predominant role of the zone situated between the tumour and the host: the tumour microenvironment. The aim of this article is to describe the structure and the functions of the prostate cancer microenvironment as well as the principal treatments that are being applied to it. PubMed and ScienceDirect databases have been interrogated using the association of keywords "tumour microenvironment" and "neoplasm therapy" along with "microenvironnement tumoral" and "traitements". Of the 593 articles initially found, 50 were finally included. The tumour microenvironment principally includes host elements that are diverted from their primary functions and encourage the development of the tumour. In it we find immunity cells, support tissue as well as vascular and lymphatic neovascularization. Highlighting the major role played by this microenvironment has led to the development of specific treatments, notably antiangiogenic therapy and immunotherapy. The tumour microenvironment, the tumour and the host influence themselves mutually and create a variable situation over time. Improvement of the knowledge of the prostate cancer microenvironment gradually enables us to pass from an approach centred on the tumour to a broader approach to the whole tumoral ecosystem. This enabled the emergence of new treatments whose place in the therapeutic arsenal still need to be found. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Emblica officinalis (Amla: A review of potential therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, is perhaps the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Several parts of the plant are used to treat a variety of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. Many ailments are treated by the fruit which is used either alone or in combination with other plants. These include common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. E. officinalis possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemic, antihypercholesterolemic, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties as demonstrated in numerous preclinical studies. Furthermore, experimental studies have reported that E. officinalis and some of its phytochemicals also exhibit anticarcinogenic properties. E. officinalis is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities. These properties are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research establishing its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans.

  6. Pharmacology and therapeutic applications of A3 receptor subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Pnina; Bar-Yehuda, Sara

    2003-01-01

    The present study summarizes the biological effects elicit upon A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR) activation in normal and tumor cells. Anti-inflamatory response is mediated upon A(3)AR activation in neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages via direct effect on cell degranulation or the production of anti-inflamatory cytokines. In basophils, which highly express A(3)AR, degranulation and mediator release upon receptor activation lead to pro-inflammatory effects resulting in bronchospasm and asthma. In other normal cells such as cardiomyocytes, neuronal cells and bone marrow cells A(1)AR activation induces cytoprotective effects in vitro. In vivo, A(3)AR agonists act as cardio- and neuroprotective agents and attenuate ischemic damage. Furthermore, agonists to A(3)AR induce granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) production and myeloprotective effect in chemotherapy treated mice. Interestingly, A(3)AR agonists inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo through a cytostatic effect mediated via the de-regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. The variety of activities elicit by A(3)AR agonists suggest their potential use as therapeutic agents in inflammation, brain/cardiac ischemia and cancer. Antagonists to A(3)AR may be implemented to the therapy of asthma and additional allergic conditions.

  7. Development of selective androgen receptor modulators and their therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Rodan, Gideon A; Schmidt, Azi

    2002-01-01

    Androgens control a broad range of physiological functions. The androgen receptor (AR), a steroid receptor that mediates the diverse biological actions of androgens, is a ligand inducible transcription factor. Abnormalities in the androgen signaling system result in many disturbances ranging from changes in gender determination and sexual development to psychiatric and emotional disorders. Androgen replacement therapy can improve many clinical conditions including hypogonadism and osteoporosis, but is limited by the lack of efficacious and safe therapeutic agents with easy delivery options. Recent progress in the area of gene regulation by steroid receptors and by selective receptor modulators provides an opportunity to examine if selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) could address some of the problems associated with current androgen therapy. Since the composition of the transcriptional initiation complex recruited by liganded AR determines the specificity of gene regulation, synthetic ligands aimed at initiating transcription of tissue and promoter specific genes offers hope for developing better androgen therapy. Establishment of assays that predict synthetic ligand activity is critical for SARM development. Advancement in high throughput compound screening and gene fingerprinting technologies, such as microarrays and proteomics, will facilitate and accelerate identification of effective SARMs.

  8. Preparation, Surface Properties, and Therapeutic Applications of Gold Nanoparticles in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Mohammadhosseini, Majid; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Abadi, Azam Jafari Najaf; Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Farshbaf, Masoud

    2017-02-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) due to their unique properties and manifold surface functionalities have been applied in bio-nanotechnology. The application of GNPs in recent medical and biological research is very extensive. Especially it involves applications such as detection and photothermalysis of microorganisms and cancer stem cells, biosensors; optical bio-imaging and observing of cells and these nanostructures also serve as practical platforms for therapeutic agents. In this review we studied all therapeutic applications of gold nanoparticles in biomedicine, synthesis methods, and surface properties.

  9. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as Carriers for Intracellular Delivery of Nucleic Acids and Subsequent Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Wenzhang; Fan, Rengen; Miao, Yufeng; Zhou, Yong; Qin, Chenglin; Shan, Xiangxiang; Wan, Xinqiang; Li, Jinbo

    2017-05-11

    Nucleic acids, including DNA, microRNA (miRNA), small interfering RNA (siRNA), and antisense oligonucleotide (ASO), are powerful gene regulators, which have been demonstrated as promising drug candidates for therapeutic treatments. Nevertheless, poor cellular membrane permeability and serum stability have greatly hindered the applications of nucleic acids in biomedicine. To address these issues, associate carriers that can encapsulate and protect nucleic acids are urgently required. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs or MSNPs), which are nanomaterials with excellent biocompatibility, large surface area for functionalization, and tunable pore size for encapsulating different cargos, are emerging as novel and ideal biomaterials for different biomedical applications. In this review paper, we focus on the applications of MSNs in nucleic acid delivery and nucleic acid-guided therapeutic treatments. General strategies for the preparation of nucleic acid-MSN complexes will be firstly introduced, followed by a summary of recent applications of MSNs in nucleic acid delivery and nucleic acid-guided therapeutics.

  10. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Nanomaterials for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.; Huang, Yu-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers outstanding potential for future biomedical applications. In particular, due to their unique characteristics, hybrid nanomaterials have recently been investigated as promising platforms for imaging and therapeutic applications. This class of nanoparticles can not only retain valuable features of both inorganic and organic moieties, but also provides the ability to systematically modify the properties of the hybrid material through the combination of functional elements. Moreover, the conjugation of targeting moieties on the surface of these nanomaterials gives them specific targeted imaging and therapeutic properties. In this review, we summarize the recent reports in the synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials and their applications in biomedical areas. Their applications as imaging and therapeutic agents in vivo will be highlighted. PMID:21747714

  11. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Nanomaterials for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan L. Vivero-Escoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers outstanding potential for future biomedical applications. In particular, due to their unique characteristics, hybrid nanomaterials have recently been investigated as promising platforms for imaging and therapeutic applications. This class of nanoparticles can not only retain valuable features of both inorganic and organic moieties, but also provides the ability to systematically modify the properties of the hybrid material through the combination of functional elements. Moreover, the conjugation of targeting moieties on the surface of these nanomaterials gives them specific targeted imaging and therapeutic properties. In this review, we summarize the recent reports in the synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials and their applications in biomedical areas. Their applications as imaging and therapeutic agents in vivo will be highlighted.

  12. Stem Cells Applications in Regenerative Medicine and Disease Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Singh Mahla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine, the most recent and emerging branch of medical science, deals with functional restoration of tissues or organs for the patient suffering from severe injuries or chronic disease. The spectacular progress in the field of stem cell research has laid the foundation for cell based therapies of disease which cannot be cured by conventional medicines. The indefinite self-renewal and potential to differentiate into other types of cells represent stem cells as frontiers of regenerative medicine. The transdifferentiating potential of stem cells varies with source and according to that regenerative applications also change. Advancements in gene editing and tissue engineering technology have endorsed the ex vivo remodelling of stem cells grown into 3D organoids and tissue structures for personalized applications. This review outlines the most recent advancement in transplantation and tissue engineering technologies of ESCs, TSPSCs, MSCs, UCSCs, BMSCs, and iPSCs in regenerative medicine. Additionally, this review also discusses stem cells regenerative application in wildlife conservation.

  13. Action potential characteristics of demyelinated rat sciatic nerve following application of 4-aminopyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targ, E F; Kocsis, J D

    1986-01-15

    The sciatic nerves of rats were demyelinated by microinjection of lysophosphatidylcholine. A variety of abnormalities such as conduction slowing and block were present. Application of the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to the lesion site, led to an increase in area of the compound action potential recorded across the site of demyelination. Single axon recordings revealed three types of changes that may account for the 4-AP-induced increase in the compound response. One group showed broadening of the action potential. Other axons showed hyperexcitability following 4-AP, as manifest by spontaneous firing and multiple spike discharge following a single stimulus. In some of the axons studied, 4-AP led to overcoming of conduction block. Although many axons showed increased excitability properties in the presence of 4-AP, the frequency-following ability of the axons was reduced, and the absolute refractory period of the axons was increased. These results indicate that pharmacological blockade of potassium channels with 4-AP not only leads to action potential broadening in demyelinated axons, but to a variety of excitability changes. These heterogeneous effects of 4-AP should be considered in the rationale for its clinical use.

  14. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, P M; Burke, D; Chen, R; Cohen, L G; Daskalakis, Z; Di Iorio, R; Di Lazzaro, V; Ferreri, F; Fitzgerald, P B; George, M S; Hallett, M; Lefaucheur, J P; Langguth, B; Matsumoto, H; Miniussi, C; Nitsche, M A; Pascual-Leone, A; Paulus, W; Rossi, S; Rothwell, J C; Siebner, H R; Ugawa, Y; Walsh, V; Ziemann, U

    2015-06-01

    These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on "Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application" (Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some of whom were in the panel of the 1994 "Report", was selected to produce a current state-of-the-art review of non-invasive stimulation both for clinical application and research in neuroscience. Since 1994, the international scientific community has seen a rapid increase in non-invasive brain stimulation in studying cognition, brain-behavior relationship and pathophysiology of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. New paradigms of stimulation and new techniques have been developed. Furthermore, a large number of studies and clinical trials have demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation, especially for TMS. Recent guidelines can be found in the literature covering specific aspects of non-invasive brain stimulation, such as safety (Rossi et al., 2009), methodology (Groppa et al., 2012) and therapeutic applications (Lefaucheur et al., 2014). This up-dated review covers theoretical, physiological and practical aspects of non-invasive stimulation of brain, spinal cord, nerve roots and peripheral nerves in the light of more updated knowledge, and include some recent extensions and developments.

  15. Peripheral nerve regeneration through a silicone chamber implanted with negative carbon ions: Possibility to clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated whether a tube with its inner surface implanted with negative-charged carbon ions (C- ions) would enable axons to extend over a distance greater than 10 mm. The tube was found to support nerves regenerating across a 15-mm-long inter-stump gap. We also investigated whether a C- ion-implanted tube pretreated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes peripheral nerve regeneration. The C- ion implanted tube accelerated nerve regeneration, and this effect was enhanced by bFGF. Silicone treated with C- ions showed increased hydrophilic properties and cellular affinity, and axon regeneration was promoted with this increased biocompatibility.

  16. Therapeutic application of hydrogen sulfide donors: the potential and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Hu, Qingxun; Zhu, Yizhun

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a colorless gas smelling of rotten egg, has long been considered a toxic gas and environment hazard. However, evidences show that H2S plays a great role in many physiological and pathological activities, and it exhibits different effects when applied at various doses. In this review, we summarize the chemistry and biomedical applications of H2S-releasing compounds, including inorganic salts, phosphorodithioate derivatives, derivatives of Allium sativum extracts, derivatives of thioaminoacids, and derivatives of antiinflammatory drugs.

  17. Magnetic Microspheres and Tissue Model Studies for Therapeutical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.; Mazuruk, K.

    2003-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a well known cancer therapy and consists of heating a tumor region to the elevated temperatures in the range of 40-45 C for an extended period of time (2-8 hours). This leads to thermal inactivation of cell regulatory and growth processes with resulting widespread necrosis, carbonization and coagulation. Moreover, heat boosts the tumor response to other treatments such as radiation, chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Of particular importance is careful control of generated heat in the treated region and keeping it localized. Higher heating, to about 56 C can lead to tissue thermo-ablation. With accurate temperature control, hyperthermia has the advantage of having minimal side effects. Several heating techniques are utilized for this purpose, such as whole body hyperthermia, radio-frequency (RF) hyperthermia, ultrasound technique, inductive microwave antenna hyperthermia, inductive needles (thermoseeds), and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH).MFH offers many advantages as targeting capability by applying magnets. However, this technology still suffers significant inefficiencies due to lack of thermal control. This paper will provide a review of the topic and outline the ongoing work in this area. The main emphasis is in devising ways to overcome the technical difficulty in hyperthermia breast therapy of achieving a uniform therapeutic temperature over the required region of the body and holding it steady for an extended period (2-3 hours). The basic shortcomings of the presently utilized heating methods stem from the non-uniform thermal properties of the tissue and the point heating characteristics of the techniques without any thermal control. Our approach is to develop a novel class of magnetic fluids, which have inherent thermoregulating properties. We have identified a few magnetic alloys which can serve as suitable nano to micron-size particle material. The objective is to synthesize, characterize and evaluate the efficacy of Thermo Regulating

  18. Ionization Mechanism of the Ambient Pressure Pyroelectric Ion Source (APPIS) and Its Applications to Chemical Nerve Agent Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Neidholdt, Evan L.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    We present studies of the ionization mechanism operative in the ambient pressure pyroelectric ionization source (APPIS), along with applications that include detection of simulants for chemical nerve agents. It is found that ionization by APPIS occurs in the gas-phase. As the crystal is thermally cycled over a narrow temperature range, electrical discharges near the surface of the crystal produce energetic species which, through reactions with atmospheric molecules, result in reactant ions su...

  19. Nonthermal electromagnetic fields: from first messenger to therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Arthur A

    2013-06-01

    Nonthermal pulsed electromagnetic fields, from low frequency to pulse-modulated radio frequency, have been successfully employed as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of delayed and non-union fractures, fresh fractures and chronic wounds. Recent increased understanding of the mechanism of action of electromagnetic fields (EMF) has permitted technologic advances allowing the development of EMF devices which are portable and disposable, can be incorporated into dressings, supports and casts, and can be used over clothing. This broadens the use of non-pharmacological, non-invasive EMF therapy to the treatment of postoperative pain and edema to enhance surgical recovery. EMF therapy is rapidly becoming a standard part of surgical care, and new, more significant, clinical applications for osteoarthritis, brain and cardiac ischemia and traumatic brain injury are in the pipeline. This study reviews recent evidence which suggests that calmodulin (CaM)-dependent nitric oxide signaling is involved in cell and tissue response to weak nonthermal EMF signals. There is abundant evidence that EMF signals can be configured a priori to increase the rate of CaM activation, which, in turn, can modulate the biochemical cascades living cells and tissues employ in response to external insult. Successful applications in pilot clinical trials, coupled with evidence at the cellular and animal levels, provide support that EMF is a first messenger that can modulate the response of challenged biological systems.

  20. Nerve biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - nerve ... A nerve biopsy is most often done on a nerve in the ankle, forearm, or along a rib. The health care ... feel a prick and a mild sting. The biopsy site may be sore for a few days ...

  1. Gold nanoparticle trapping and delivery for therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz MS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available MS Aziz1, Nathaporn Suwanpayak3,4, Muhammad Arif Jalil2, R Jomtarak4, T Saktioto2, Jalil Ali1, PP Yupapin41Institute of Advanced Photonics Science, 2Ibnu Sina Institute of Fundamental Science Studies, Nanotechnology Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; 3King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chump on Campus, Chumphon, 4Nanoscale Science and Engineering Research Alliance (N'SERA, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: A new optical trapping design to transport gold nanoparticles using a PANDA ring resonator system is proposed. Intense optical fields in the form of dark solitons controlled by Gaussian pulses are used to trap and transport nanoscopic volumes of matter to the desired destination via an optical waveguide. Theoretically, the gradient and scattering forces are responsible for this trapping phenomenon, where in practice such systems can be fabricated and a thin-film device formed on the specific artificial medical materials, for instance, an artificial bone. The dynamic behavior of the tweezers can be tuned by controlling the optical pulse input power and parameters of the ring resonator system. Different trap sizes can be generated to trap different gold nanoparticles sizes, which is useful for gold nanoparticle therapy. In this paper, we have shown the utility of gold nanoparticle trapping and delivery for therapy, which may be useful for cosmetic therapy and related applications.Keywords: gold nanoparticle trapping, particle trapping, therapy, transport

  2. Nanoparticles as conjugated delivery agents for therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroski, Megan Elizabeth

    a molecular beacon. The development of non-viral transfection approaches using gold nanoparticles (AuNP) as a gene carrier allows the implementation of advanced biophysical tools to follow the transfection cycle by utilizing nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) molecular beacon methods coupled to delivery of a gene that induces a fluorescent protein. The change in photoluminescence of an appended dye following gene release from the AuNP surface within endosomes can be tempo-rally and spatially followed. The ability to correlate the release events with the protein expression event by simultaneously monitoring fluorescent protein production provides insight into package uptake, nanoparticle disassembly, and final gene expression. Employing AuNP transfection constructs and then monitoring the stages of the transfection cycle via NSET, indicates delivery of the constructs leads to gene release from the AuNP surface within the endosome followed by slow cytosolic diffusion. The slow diffusion is the limiting step for transfection and impacts the protein yield due to competing degradation processes. Chapter 4 aims to improve the NP conjugate through the use of cell penetrating peptides (CPP) to Transfect Primary Cells. All future clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies must allow the MSC to be harvested, transfected, and induced to express a desired protein or selection of proteins to have medical benefit. For the full potential of MSC cell therapy to be realized, it is desirable to be able to systematically alter the protein expression in harvested MSC cells with high fidelity in a single transfection event. We have developed a bimodal delivery platform based on the use of a solid gold core nanoparticle that has been surface modified to produce a chimera containing a protein transduction domain (PTD) sequence to enhance cellular uptake and a linearized expression vector to induce protein production. The transfection chimera is observed to be an

  3. Therapeutic isolation and expansion of human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells for the use of muscle-nerve-blood vessel reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro eTamaki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle makes up 40-50% of body mass, and is thus considered to be a good adult stem cell source for autologous therapy. Although, several stem/progenitor cells have been fractionated from mouse skeletal muscle showing a high potential for therapeutic use, it is unclear whether this is the case in human. Differentiation and therapeutic potential of human skeletal muscle-derived cells (Sk-Cs was examined. Samples (5-10 g were obtained from the abdominal and leg muscles of 36 patients (age, 17-79 years undergoing prostate cancer treatment or leg amputation surgery. All patients gave informed consent. Sk-Cs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and were then sorted as CD34-/CD45-/CD29+ (Sk-DN/29+ and CD34+/CD45- (Sk-34 cells, in a similar manner as for the previous mouse Sk-Cs. Both cell fractions were appropriately expanded using conditioned culture medium for about 2 weeks. Differentiation potentials were then examined during cell culture and in vivo transplantation into the severely damaged muscles of athymic nude mice and rats. Interestingly, these two cell fractions could be divided into highly myogenic (Sk-DN/29+ and multipotent stem cell (Sk-34 fractions, in contrast to mouse Sk-Cs, which showed comparable capacities in both cells. At 6 weeks after the separate transplantation of both cell fractions, the former showed an active contribution to muscle fiber regeneration, but the latter showed vigorous engraftment to the interstitium associated with differentiation into Schwann cells, perineurial/endoneurial cells, and vascular endothelial cells and pericytes, which corresponded to previous observations with mouse SK-Cs. Importantly, mixed cultures of both cells resulted the reduction of tissue reconstitution capacities in vivo, whereas co-transplantation after separate expansion showed favorable results. Therefore, human Sk-Cs are potentially applicable to therapeutic autografts and show multiple differentiation

  4. 咬肌神经-面神经转位术对听神经瘤术后面瘫的治疗效果观察%Therapeutic Effect of the Masseter Nerve and Facial Nerve Transposition of Acoustic Neuroma Postoperative Facial Paralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the curative effect of masseter nerve and facial nerve transposition of facial paralysis after acoustic neuroma surgery.Methods Selected in our hospital to acoustic neuroma surgery patients with facial paralysis after 79 cases,al patients were to be masseter nerve and facial nerve transposition in the treatment of,for the observation of the therapeutic effect of patients.ResultsPatients after treatment,folow-up 1 year facial lip functions were significantly better than those before treatment,another 61 cases good action smile,10 subjects with mild to moderate recovery,8 cases of poor recovery,the 3 patients appeared parotid masseteric region of subsidence,but chewing function has not lost.Conclusion Masseter nerve and facial nerve transposition of auditory neuroma after operation,the effect of treatment of facial paralysis is good.%目的:探讨咬肌神经-面神经转位术对听神经瘤术后面瘫的治疗效果。方法选取听神经瘤术后面瘫患者79例,均予以咬肌神经-面神经转位术治疗,观察患者的治疗效果。结果患者治疗后、随访1年内面肌上唇上提功能均优于治疗前;61例微笑动作良好,10例中等程度恢复,8例恢复较差;其中3例患者出现腮腺咬肌区下陷,但是咀嚼功能并未丧失。结论咬肌神经-面神经转位术对听神经瘤术后面瘫的治疗效果好。

  5. In vitro methods to study bubble-cell interactions: Fundamentals and therapeutic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lajoinie, Guillaume; De Cock, Ine; Coussios, Constantin C.; Lentacker, Ine; Le Gac, Séverine; Stride, Eleanor; Versluis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Besides their use as contrast agents for ultrasound imaging,microbubbles are increasingly studied for a wide range of therapeutic applications. In particular, their ability to enhance the uptake of drugs through the permeabilization of tissues and cell membranes shows great promise. In order to full

  6. Functional Characterization of Human ProNGF and NGF Mutants: Identification of NGF P61SR100E as a "Painless" Lead Investigational Candidate for Therapeutic Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Malerba

    Full Text Available Nerve Growth Factor (NGF holds a great therapeutic promise for Alzheimer's disease, diabetic neuropathies, ophthalmic diseases, dermatological ulcers. However, the necessity for systemic delivery has hampered the clinical applications of NGF due to its potent pro-nociceptive action. A "painless" human NGF (hNGF R100E mutant has been engineered. It has equal neurotrophic potency to hNGF but a lower nociceptive activity. We previously described and characterized the neurotrophic and nociceptive properties also of the hNGF P61S and P61SR100E mutants, selectively detectable against wild type hNGF. However, the reduced pain-sensitizing potency of the "painless" hNGF mutants has not been quantified.Aiming at the therapeutic application of the "painless" hNGF mutants, we report on the comparative functional characterization of the precursor and mature forms of the mutants hNGF R100E and hNGF P61SR100E as therapeutic candidates, also in comparison to wild type hNGF and to hNGF P61S. The mutants were assessed by a number of biochemical, biophysical methods and assayed by cellular assays. Moreover, a highly sensitive ELISA for the detection of the P61S-tagged mutants in biological samples has been developed. Finally, we explored the pro-nociceptive effects elicited by hNGF mutants in vivo, demonstrating an expanded therapeutic window with a ten-fold increase in potency.This structure-activity relationship study has led to validate the concept of developing painless NGF as a therapeutic, targeting the NGF receptor system and supporting the choice of hNGF P61S R100E as the best candidate to advance in clinical development. Moreover, this study contributes to the identification of the molecular determinants modulating the properties of the hNGF "painless" mutants.

  7. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  8. Application of augmented reality for inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia: A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yu-Jin; Kang, Sang-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to apply augmented reality (AR) technology in the medical field include the introduction of AR techniques into dental practice. The present report introduces a simple method of applying AR during an inferior alveolar nerve block, a procedure commonly performed in dental clinics.

  9. The application of fuzzy-based methods to central nerve fiber imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axer, Hubertus; Jantzen, Jan; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf v.

    2003-01-01

    in magnetic resonance images based on the differences in myelin content in various thalamic subnuclei; (2) polarized light for classifying the 3D orientation of the nerve fibers at each point; and (3) confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for calculating semiquantitative variables for myelin content...

  10. Reference values and clinical application of magnetic peripheral nerve stimulation in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Soens, Iris; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Bhatti, Sofie F. M.; Van Ham, Luc M. L.

    Magnetic stimulation of radial (RN) and sciatic (SN) nerves was performed bilaterally in 40 healthy cats. Reference values for onset latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of magnetic motor evoked potentials (MMEPs) were obtained and compared with values of electric motor evoked potentials (EMEPs) in

  11. Characterization and Schwann Cell Seeding of up to 15.0 cm Long Spider Silk Nerve Conduits for Reconstruction of Peripheral Nerve Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kornfeld

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nerve reconstruction of extended nerve defect injuries still remains challenging with respect to therapeutic options. The gold standard in nerve surgery is the autologous nerve graft. Due to the limitation of adequate donor nerves, surgical alternatives are needed. Nerve grafts made out of either natural or artificial materials represent this alternative. Several biomaterials are being explored and preclinical and clinical applications are ongoing. Unfortunately, nerve conduits with successful enhancement of axonal regeneration for nerve defects measuring over 4.0 cm are sparse and no conduits are available for nerve defects extending to 10.0 cm. In this study, spider silk nerve conduits seeded with Schwann cells were investigated for in vitro regeneration on defects measuring 4.0 cm, 10.0 cm and 15.0 cm in length. Schwann cells (SCs were isolated, cultured and purified. Cell purity was determined by immunofluorescence. Nerve grafts were constructed out of spider silk from Nephila edulis and decellularized ovine vessels. Finally, spider silk implants were seeded with purified Schwann cells. Cell attachment was observed within the first hour. After 7 and 21 days of culture, immunofluorescence for viability and determination of Schwann cell proliferation and migration throughout the conduits was performed. Analyses revealed that SCs maintained viable (>95% throughout the conduits independent of construct length. SC proliferation on the spider silk was determined from day 7 to day 21 with a proliferation index of 49.42% arithmetically averaged over all conduits. This indicates that spider silk nerve conduits represent a favorable environment for SC attachment, proliferation and distribution over a distance of least 15.0 cm in vitro. Thus spider silk nerve implants are a highly adequate biomaterial for nerve reconstruction.

  12. Characterization and Schwann Cell Seeding of up to 15.0 cm Long Spider Silk Nerve Conduits for Reconstruction of Peripheral Nerve Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld, Tim; Vogt, Peter M; Bucan, Vesna; Peck, Claas-Tido; Reimers, Kerstin; Radtke, Christine

    2016-11-30

    Nerve reconstruction of extended nerve defect injuries still remains challenging with respect to therapeutic options. The gold standard in nerve surgery is the autologous nerve graft. Due to the limitation of adequate donor nerves, surgical alternatives are needed. Nerve grafts made out of either natural or artificial materials represent this alternative. Several biomaterials are being explored and preclinical and clinical applications are ongoing. Unfortunately, nerve conduits with successful enhancement of axonal regeneration for nerve defects measuring over 4.0 cm are sparse and no conduits are available for nerve defects extending to 10.0 cm. In this study, spider silk nerve conduits seeded with Schwann cells were investigated for in vitro regeneration on defects measuring 4.0 cm, 10.0 cm and 15.0 cm in length. Schwann cells (SCs) were isolated, cultured and purified. Cell purity was determined by immunofluorescence. Nerve grafts were constructed out of spider silk from Nephila edulis and decellularized ovine vessels. Finally, spider silk implants were seeded with purified Schwann cells. Cell attachment was observed within the first hour. After 7 and 21 days of culture, immunofluorescence for viability and determination of Schwann cell proliferation and migration throughout the conduits was performed. Analyses revealed that SCs maintained viable (>95%) throughout the conduits independent of construct length. SC proliferation on the spider silk was determined from day 7 to day 21 with a proliferation index of 49.42% arithmetically averaged over all conduits. This indicates that spider silk nerve conduits represent a favorable environment for SC attachment, proliferation and distribution over a distance of least 15.0 cm in vitro. Thus spider silk nerve implants are a highly adequate biomaterial for nerve reconstruction.

  13. Peptide hormones and lipopeptides: from self-assembly to therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J A; Burholt, S; Hamley, I W

    2017-02-01

    This review describes the properties and activities of lipopeptides and peptide hormones and how the lipidation of peptide hormones could potentially produce therapeutic agents combating some of the most prevalent diseases and conditions. The self-assembly of these types of molecules is outlined, and how this can impact on bioactivity. Peptide hormones specific to the uptake of food and produced in the gastrointestinal tract are discussed in detail. The advantages of lipidated peptide hormones over natural peptide hormones are summarised, in terms of stability and renal clearance, with potential application as therapeutic agents. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. CROSSING ANASTOMOSIS OF NERVE BUNDLES NEAR INNERVATED ORGANS TO TREAT IRREPARABLE NERVE INJURIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the therapeutical effects of crossing anastomosis of nerve on the peripheral and central nerve injuries.Methods Twelve kinds of central and peripheral nerve disorders and their complications were treated with 11 kinds of crossing anastomosis of nerve bundles near the innervated organs. After nerve injury and repair, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) retrograde tracing studies were used to investigate the rabbit's nerve function and morphology.Results The ulcers of all patients healed. Sensation, voluntary movement, and joint function recovered. Four weeks after the anastomosis of distal stump of radialis superficialis nerve and median nerve, pain sensation regained and SEPs appeared. HRP retrograde tracing studies demonstrated sensory nerve ending of medial nerve formed new connection with the body of neuron.Conclusion Crossing anastomosis of nerve is an effective method to treat peripheral and central nerve injuries.

  15. Human iPSC for Therapeutic Approaches to the Nervous System: Present and Future Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giuseppina Cefalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many central nervous system (CNS diseases including stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI, and brain tumors are a significant cause of worldwide morbidity/mortality and yet do not have satisfying treatments. Cell-based therapy to restore lost function or to carry new therapeutic genes is a promising new therapeutic approach, particularly after human iPSCs became available. However, efficient generation of footprint-free and xeno-free human iPSC is a prerequisite for their clinical use. In this paper, we will first summarize the current methodology to obtain footprint- and xeno-free human iPSC. We will then review the current iPSC applications in therapeutic approaches for CNS regeneration and their use as vectors to carry proapoptotic genes for brain tumors and review their applications for modelling of neurological diseases and formulating new therapeutic approaches. Available results will be summarized and compared. Finally, we will discuss current limitations precluding iPSC from being used on large scale for clinical applications and provide an overview of future areas of improvement. In conclusion, significant progress has occurred in deriving iPSC suitable for clinical use in the field of neurological diseases. Current efforts to overcome technical challenges, including reducing labour and cost, will hopefully expedite the integration of this technology in the clinical setting.

  16. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as Carriers for Intracellular Delivery of Nucleic Acids and Subsequent Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhang Cha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids, including DNA, microRNA (miRNA, small interfering RNA (siRNA, and antisense oligonucleotide (ASO, are powerful gene regulators, which have been demonstrated as promising drug candidates for therapeutic treatments. Nevertheless, poor cellular membrane permeability and serum stability have greatly hindered the applications of nucleic acids in biomedicine. To address these issues, associate carriers that can encapsulate and protect nucleic acids are urgently required. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs or MSNPs, which are nanomaterials with excellent biocompatibility, large surface area for functionalization, and tunable pore size for encapsulating different cargos, are emerging as novel and ideal biomaterials for different biomedical applications. In this review paper, we focus on the applications of MSNs in nucleic acid delivery and nucleic acid-guided therapeutic treatments. General strategies for the preparation of nucleic acid-MSN complexes will be firstly introduced, followed by a summary of recent applications of MSNs in nucleic acid delivery and nucleic acid-guided therapeutics.

  17. [Application of direct long-standing electrostimulation in consequences of the sciatic nerve injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsymbaliuk, Iu V

    2013-04-01

    The results of surgical treatment of 57 patients, suffering consequences of the sciatic nerve injury, using the system for long-lasting electrostimulation "Naysi 3M", were presented. The domestically manufactured system is individual and gives possibility to conduct the direct electrostimulation procedures in the home conditions, several times a day, for a long time. Positive results, consisting of the various degree enhancement of the lower extremities movements volume and strength, the sensitivity restoration and the pain severity reduction or disappearance, were achieved in 46 (81%) patients. In inefficacy of conservative treatment and presence of indications for the operation in patients with sciatic nerve injury the long-lasting electrostimulation secures restoration of the lower extremities lost functions, the pain syndrome and the vegetative-trophic disorders regress.

  18. Therapeutic effect of sacral nerve stimulation for neurogenic bladder%骶神经刺激治疗神经源性膀胱的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢俊安; 陈志文; 李龙坤; 宋波

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察骶神经刺激(SNS)治疗神经源性膀胱的疗效.方法 使用SNS治疗94例神经源性膀胱患者,观察SNS治疗前和治疗1周后的尿失禁症状简易评分(ICI-Q-SF评分)、排尿日记(包括尿失禁次数、尿垫试验、排尿次数、夜尿次数、排尿量等)和尿动力学检查指标(包括膀胱容量、逼尿肌压、最大尿流率、平均尿流率、膀胱颈压、最大尿道压、功能性尿道长度和残余尿量等),并对所得数据进行统计学分析.结果 治疗前ICI-Q-SF评分为(17.2±1.8)分,治疗后为(8.3±1.6)分,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).与治疗前比较,尿失禁次数、排尿次数和夜尿次数显著减少(P<0.05),尿垫显著减轻(P<0.05),排尿量显著增加(P<0.05);膀胱容量、最大尿流率和平均尿流率显著增加(P<0.05),残余尿量显著减少(P<0.05),而逼尿肌压、膀胱颈压、最大尿道压和功能性尿道长度等无显著性改变(P>0.05).本组总有效率为75.5%,无一例并发症发生.结论 SNS治疗神经源性膀胱的效果确切,症状改善明显,并发症少且发生率低,是值得临床推广的治疗方法.%Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of the sacral nerve stimulation (SNS)on the neurogenic bladder. Methods SNS was used to treat 94 patients with neurogenic bladder. The ICI-Q-SF scores, voiding diary (including urinary incontinence times, urinal pad test, urination times,nocturia times and urinary volume) and urine dynamics test (including bladder volume, pressure of detrusor, maximum urinary flow rate, average urinary flow rate, pressure of bladder neck, maximal urethral pressure, functional urethral length and residual urine volume) were observed before and 1 week after SNS. And the data was analyzed statistically. Results The ICI-Q-SF scores were 17.2±1.8 before the treatment of SNS and 8.3±1.6 after SNS (P<0.05). The urinary incontinence times, urination times and nocturia times were significantly decreased (P<0

  19. Engineered magnetic core shell nanoprobes:Synthesis and applications to cancer imaging and therapeutics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samir Mandal; Keya Chaudhuri

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic core shell nanoparticles are composed of a highly magnetic core material surrounded by a thin shell of desired drug, polymer or metal oxide. These magnetic core shell nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in biomedical research, more specifically in tissue imaging, drug delivery and therapeutics. The present review discusses the up-to-date knowledge on the various procedures for synthesis of magnetic core shell nanoparticles along with their applications in cancer imaging, drug delivery and hyperthermia or cancer therapeutics. Literature in this area shows that magnetic core shell nanoparticle-based imaging, drug targeting and therapy through hyperthermia can potentially be a powerful tool for the advanced diagnosis and treatment of various cancers.

  20. Engineered magnetic core shell nanoprobes: Synthesis and applications to cancer imaging and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Samir; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2016-02-26

    Magnetic core shell nanoparticles are composed of a highly magnetic core material surrounded by a thin shell of desired drug, polymer or metal oxide. These magnetic core shell nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in biomedical research, more specifically in tissue imaging, drug delivery and therapeutics. The present review discusses the up-to-date knowledge on the various procedures for synthesis of magnetic core shell nanoparticles along with their applications in cancer imaging, drug delivery and hyperthermia or cancer therapeutics. Literature in this area shows that magnetic core shell nanoparticle-based imaging, drug targeting and therapy through hyperthermia can potentially be a powerful tool for the advanced diagnosis and treatment of various cancers.

  1. Development of Optically Active Nanostructures for Potential Applications in Sensing, Therapeutics and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Padmanabh

    Materials at nanoscale are finding manifold applications in the various fields like sensing, plasmonics, therapeutics, to mention a few. Large amount of development has taken place regarding synthesis and exploring the novel applications of the various types of nanomaterials like organic, inorganic and hybrid of both. Yet, it is believed that the full potential of different nanomaterials is yet to be fully established stimulating researchers to explore more in the field of nanotechnology. Building on the same premise, in the following studies we have developed the nanomaterials in the class of optically active nanoparticles. First part of the study we have successfully designed, synthesized, and characterized Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposite substrate for potential applications in quantitative Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) measurements. Quantitative SERS-based detection of dopamine was performed successfully. In subsequent study, facile, single-step synthesis of polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated lanthanide based NaYF4 (Yb, Er) nanoparticles was developed and their application as potential photodynamic therapy agent was studied using excitations by light in near infra-red and visible region. In the following and last study, synthesis and characterization of the conjugated polymer nanoparticles was attempted successfully. Functionalization of the conjugated nanoparticles, which is a bottleneck for their potential applications, was successfully performed by encapsulating them in the silica nanoparticles, surface of which was then functionalized by amine group. Three types of optically active nanoparticles were developed for potential applications in sensing, therapeutics and imaging.

  2. Identification and Reconstruction of Prostate Tumor-Suppressing Exosomes for Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0019 TITLE: Identification and Reconstruction of Prostate Tumor-Suppressing Exosomes for Therapeutic Applications...COVERED (From - To) 2 Dec 2013 - 3 Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTILE Identification and Reconstruction of Prostate Tumor-Suppressing Exosomes for... exosomes serve as vehicles for long range intercellular communications, with the bioactive contents of exosomes as the messengers. It is hypothesized

  3. Ionization mechanism of the ambient pressure pyroelectric ion source (APPIS) and its applications to chemical nerve agent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidholdt, Evan L; Beauchamp, J L

    2009-11-01

    We present studies of the ionization mechanism operative in the ambient pressure pyroelectric ionization source (APPIS), along with applications that include detection of simulants for chemical nerve agents. It is found that ionization by APPIS occurs in the gas-phase. As the crystal is thermally cycled over a narrow temperature range, electrical discharges near the surface of the crystal produce energetic species which, through reactions with atmospheric molecules, result in reactant ions such as protonated water clusters or clusters of hydroxide and water. Reactant ions can be observed directly in the mass spectrometer. These go on to react with trace neutrals via proton transfer reactions to produce the ions observed in mass spectra, which are usually singly protonated or deprotonated species. Further implicating gas-phase ionization, observed product distributions are highly dependent on the composition of ambient gases, especially the concentration of water vapor and oxygen surrounding the source. For example, basic species such as triethylamine are observed as singly protonated cations at a water partial pressure of 10 torr. At a water pressure of 4 torr, reactive oxygen species are formed and lead to observation of protonated amine oxides. The ability of the APPIS source to detect basic molecules with high proton affinities makes it highly suited for the detection of chemical nerve agents. We demonstrate this application using simulants corresponding to VX and GA (Tabun). With the present source configuration pyridine is detected readily at a concentration of 4 ppm, indicating ultimate sensitivity in the high ppb range.

  4. Chinese advances in the research of photobiomodulation and its therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yi T.; Cheng, Lei; Liu, Jiang; Xu, Xiao-Yang; Wang, Xian-ju; Liu, Song-hao

    2005-07-01

    Photobiomodulation, once called biostimulation, has been studied as the mechanism of low intensity laser therapy since 1982, and it has been studied in China since 1987. Chinese therapeutic applications began in low intensity laser acupuncture in 1970s, in intravascular low intensity laser therapy in 1990s, in endonasal low intensity laser therapy in 1998, in high intensity laser acupuncture in 2000, and in laser surgery in 2001. As Chinese therapeutic applications of photobiomodulation were the most widely in the world, the research of photobiomodulation and its therapeutic applications was very progressive in China. Although the specific pathways mediating photobiomodulation were put forward and studied by foreign experts such as Karu et al, the non-specific pathways were put forward for the first time and were also studied very deeply by Chinese experts such as Liu TCY et al. Moreover, basic research of intravascular low intensity laser therapy, such as in vitro blood research and animal model research, was also very progressive in China.

  5. ImagePAD, a novel counting application for the Apple iPad, used to quantify axons in the mouse optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Justin P; Struebing, Felix L; Lemmon, Andrew; Geisert, Eldon E

    2014-11-01

    The present article introduces a new and easy to use counting application for the Apple iPad. The application "ImagePAD" takes advantage of the advanced user interface features offered by the Apple iOS platform, simplifying the rather tedious task of quantifying features in anatomical studies. For example, the image under analysis can be easily panned and zoomed using iOS-supported multi-touch gestures without losing the spatial context of the counting task, which is extremely important for ensuring count accuracy. This application allows one to quantify up to 5 different types of objects in a single field and output the data in a tab-delimited format for subsequent analysis. We describe two examples of the use of the application: quantifying axons in the optic nerve of the C57BL/6J mouse and determining the percentage of cells labeled with NeuN or ChAT in the retinal ganglion cell layer. For the optic nerve, contiguous images at 60× magnification were taken and transferred onto an Apple iPad. Axons were counted by tapping on the touch-sensitive screen using ImagePAD. Nine optic nerves were sampled and the number of axons in the nerves ranged from 38,872 axons to 50,196 axons with an average of 44,846 axons per nerve (SD = 3980 axons).

  6. Human Vagus Nerve Branching in the Cervical Region

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Hammer; Juliane Glätzner; Christine Feja; Christian Kühne; Jürgen Meixensberger; Uwe Planitzer; Stefan Schleifenbaum; Tillmann, Bernhard N.; Dirk Winkler

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve...

  7. Significance of antioxidant potential of plants and its relevance to therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasote, Deepak M; Katyare, Surendra S; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been identified as the root cause of the development and progression of several diseases. Supplementation of exogenous antioxidants or boosting endogenous antioxidant defenses of the body is a promising way of combating the undesirable effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative damage. Plants have an innate ability to biosynthesize a wide range of non-enzymatic antioxidants capable of attenuating ROS- induced oxidative damage. Several in vitro methods have been used to screen plants for their antioxidant potential, and in most of these assays they revealed potent antioxidant activity. However, prior to confirming their in vivo therapeutic efficacy, plant antioxidants have to pass through several physiopharmacological processes. Consequently, the findings of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential assessment studies are not always the same. Nevertheless, the results of in vitro assays have been irrelevantly extrapolated to the therapeutic application of plant antioxidants without undertaking sufficient in vivo studies. Therefore, we have briefly reviewed the physiology and redox biology of both plants and humans to improve our understanding of plant antioxidants as therapeutic entities. The applications and limitations of antioxidant activity measurement assays were also highlighted to identify the precise path to be followed for future research in the area of plant antioxidants.

  8. A Controlled Antibiotic Release System for the Development of Single-Application Otitis Externa Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan A. Serban

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ear infections are a commonly-occurring problem that can affect people of all ages. Treatment of these pathologies usually includes the administration of topical or systemic antibiotics, depending on the location of the infection. In this context, we sought to address the feasibility of a single-application slow-releasing therapeutic formulation of an antibiotic for the treatment of otitis externa. Thixotropic hydrogels, which are gels under static conditions but liquefy when shaken, were tested for their ability to act as drug controlled release systems and inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, the predominant bacterial strains associated with outer ear infections. Our overall proof of concept, including in vitro evaluations reflective of therapeutic ease of administration, formulation stability, cytocompatibility assessment, antibacterial efficacy, and formulation lifespan, indicate that these thixotropic materials have strong potential for development as otic treatment products.

  9. Notch signaling and EMT in non-small cell lung cancer: biological significance and therapeutic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xun; Wu, Hua; Han, Na; Xu, Hanxiao; Chu, Qian; Yu, Shiying; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Kongming

    2014-12-05

    Through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer cells acquire enhanced ability of migration and invasion, stem cell like characteristics and therapeutic resistance. Notch signaling regulates cell-cell connection, cell polarity and motility during organ development. Recent studies demonstrate that Notch signaling plays an important role in lung cancer initiation and cross-talks with several transcriptional factors to enhance EMT, contributing to the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Correspondingly, blocking of Notch signaling inhibits NSCLC migration and tumor growth by reversing EMT. Clinical trials have showed promising effect in some cancer patients received treatment with Notch1 inhibitor. This review attempts to provide an overview of the Notch signal in NSCLC: its biological significance and therapeutic application.

  10. Therapeutic application of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes: A promising cell-free therapeutic strategy in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motavaf, M; Pakravan, K; Babashah, S; Malekvandfard, F; Masoumi, M; Sadeghizadeh, M

    2016-06-30

    Mesenchymal stem cells have emerged as promising therapeutic candidates in regenerative medicine. The mechanisms underlying mesenchymal stem cells regenerative properties were initially attributed to their engraftment in injured tissues and their subsequent transdifferentiation to repair and replace damaged cells. However, studies in animal models and patients indicated that the low number of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells localize to the target tissue and transdifferentiate to appropriate cell lineage. Instead the regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem cells has been found - at least in part - to be mediated via their paracrine actions. Recently, a secreted group of vesicles, called "exosome" has been identified as major mediator of mesenchymal stem cells therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we will summarize the current literature on administration of exosomes released by mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine and suggest how they could help to improve tissue regeneration following injury.

  11. Impurity Profiling to Match a Nerve Agent to Its Precursor Source for Chemical Forensics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Perez Acosta, Gabriel A.; Crenshaw, Michael D.; Wallace, Krys; Mong, Gary M.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2011-10-31

    Chemical forensics is an emerging field in homeland security that aims to attribute a weaponized toxic chemical or related material to its source. Herein, for the first time, trace impurities originating from a chemical precursor were used to match a synthesized nerve agent to its precursor source. Specifically, multiple batches of sarin and its intermediate were synthesized from two commercial stocks of methylphosphonic dichloride (DC) and were then matched by impurity profiling to their DC stocks from out of five possible stocks. This was possible because each DC stock had a unique impurity profile that, for the tested stocks, persisted through synthesis, decontamination, and sample preparation. This work may form a basis for using impurity profiling to help find and prosecute perpetrators of chemical attacks.

  12. Neural Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Scaffolds for Nerve Tissue Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliano, Kerlin; Crestani, Thayane; Silveira, Davi; Helfer, Virginia Etges; Rosa, Annelise; Balbueno, Eduardo; Steffens, Daniela; Jotz, Geraldo Pereira; Pilger, Diogo André; Pranke, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    Scaffolds produced by electrospinning act as supports for cell proliferation and differentiation, improved through the release of neurotrophic factors. The objective of this study was to develop aligned and random nanofiber scaffolds with and without nerve growth factor to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for neural differentiation. Nanofiber morphology, diameter, degradability, cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, viability, cytotoxicity, and neural differentiation were performed to characterize the scaffolds. The expression for nestin, β-III tubulin, and neuron-specific enolase was also evaluated. The scaffolds demonstrated a satisfactory environment for MSC growth, being nontoxic. The MSCs cultivated on the scaffolds were able to adhere and proliferate. The evaluation of neural differentiation indicated that in all groups of scaffolds the MSCs were able to upregulate neural gene expression.

  13. Quantification of vocal fold motion using echography: application to recurrent nerve paralysis detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mike-Ely; Lefort, Muriel; Bergeret-Cassagne, Héloïse; Hachi, Siham; Li, Ang; Russ, Gilles; Lazard, Diane; Menegaux, Fabrice; Leenhardt, Laurence; Trésallet, Christophe; Frouin, Frédérique

    2015-03-01

    Recurrent nerve paralysis (RP) is one of the most frequent complications of thyroid surgery. It reduces vocal fold mobility. Nasal endoscopy, a mini-invasive procedure, is the conventional way to detect RP. We suggest a new approach based on laryngeal ultrasound and a specific data analysis was designed to help with the automated detection of RP. Ten subjects were enrolled for this feasibility study: four controls, three patients with RP and three patients without RP according to nasal endoscopy. The ultrasound protocol was based on a ten seconds B-mode acquisition in a coronal plane during normal breathing. Image processing included three steps: 1) automated detection of two consecutive closing and opening images, corresponding to extreme positions of vocal folds in the sequence of B-mode images, using principal component analysis of the image sequence; 2) positioning of three landmarks and robust tracking of these points using a multi-pyramidal refined optical flow approach; 3) estimation of quantitative parameters indicating left and right fractions of mobility, and motion symmetry. Results provided by automated image processing were compared to those obtained by an expert. Detection of extreme images was accurate; tracking of landmarks was reliable in 80% of cases. Motion symmetry indices showed similar values for controls and patients without RP. Fraction of mobility was reduced in cases of RP. Thus, our CAD system helped in the detection of RP. Laryngeal ultrasound combined with appropriate image processing helped in the diagnosis of recurrent nerve paralysis and could be proposed as a first-line method.

  14. [Problems and prospects of gene therapeutics and DNA vaccines development and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirev, Ia A; Drobkov, B I; Marakulin, I V

    2010-01-01

    The review is summarized foreign publications devoted to different aspects of DNA vaccines and gene therapeutics' biological safety. In spite of incomprehension in their action, numerous prototype DNA-based biopharmaceuticals are in advanced stages of human clinical trials. This review is focused on some safety concerns of gene formulations vaccines relate to toxic effects, vertical transmission possibility, genome integration complications, immunologic and immunopathologic effects and environmental spread. It is noted that necessity of national regulatory documents development related to gene therapy medicinal products is significant condition of their application to medical practice.

  15. Aptamers: An in vitro Evolution of Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak KAYHAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are nucleic acid oligomers with distinct conformational shapes that allow binding targets with high affinity and specificity. Selective Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX; an in vitro selection process to develop aptamers, has been invented in 1990. Despite more than 20 years have passed after its discovery, products of SELEX technology are in use in medicine. In this review we discuss why we need aptamers not only in therapeutic but also in diagnostic applications; and also critical points in SELEX technology. Finally; we present the aptamers in use and some patented aptamers awaiting approval. [Dis Mol Med 2013; 1(3.000: 54-60

  16. Therapeutic application of dysprosium-165-FHMA in the treatment of rheumatoid knee effusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, R.J.; Zalutsky, M.; Venkatesan, P.; Sledge, C.B.

    1986-03-01

    Radiation synovectomy utilizing a variety of radionuclides has proven to be an effective technique in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The recent introduction of the short-lived radionuclide, Dysprosium-165 (/sup 165/Dy), as a replacement for the longer-lived radiocolloids has reduced nontarget dosimetry caused by leakage of the agent from the articular cavity. A review of the methods and status of radiation synovectomy, and the application of /sup 165/Dy-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates (FHMA) as an alternative therapeutic agent is described.

  17. Therapeutic ultrasound - The healing sound and its applications in oral diseases: The review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothirmai Koneru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of medical ultrasound was mainly centered on the soft tissue diagnostic imaging until now. Recently, its use has been widened and adopted for various therapeutic purposes. It has been reported to facilitate the healing of bone fractures, wounds, apthous ulcers and temporomandibular disorders. In addition, ultrasound has also been shown to facilitate delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs into tumors, promote gene therapy to targeted tissues, and deliver thrombolytic drugs into blood clots. This article reviews the principles and current status of ultrasound-based treatments.

  18. Application of a kosmotrope-based solubility assay to multiple protein therapeutic classes indicates broad use as a high-throughput screen for protein therapeutic aggregation propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamniuk, Aaron P; Ditto, Noah; Patel, Mehul; Dai, Jun; Sejwal, Preeti; Stetsko, Paul; Doyle, Michael L

    2013-08-01

    Aggregation propensity is a critical attribute of protein therapeutics that can influence production, manufacturing, delivery, and potential activity and safety (immunogenicity). It is therefore imperative to select molecules with low aggregation propensity in the early stages of drug discovery to mitigate the risk of delays or failure in clinical development. Although many biophysical methods have been developed to characterize protein aggregation, most established methods are low-throughput, requiring large quantities of protein, lengthy assay times, and/or significant upstream sample preparation, which can limit application in early candidate screening. To avoid these limitations, we developed a reliable method to characterize aggregation propensity, by measuring the relative solubility of protein therapeutic candidates in the presence of the kosmotropic salt ammonium sulfate. Manual bench-scale and automated plate-based methods were applied to different protein therapeutic formats including Adnectins, domain antibodies, PEGylated Adnectins, Fc fusion proteins, and monoclonal antibodies. The kosmotrope solubility data agreed well with the aggregation propensity observed by established methods, while being amenable to high-throughput screening because of speed, simplicity, versatility and low protein material requirements. The results suggest that kosmotrope-based solubility assessment has broad applicability to selecting protein therapeutic candidates with low aggregation propensity and high "developability" to progress into development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. RNAi therapeutics and applications of microRNAs in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Keita; Ochiya, Takahiro; Takeshita, Fumitaka

    2013-06-01

    RNA interference-based therapies are proving to be powerful tools for combating various diseases, including cancer. Scientists are researching the development of safe and efficient systems for the delivery of small RNA molecules, which are extremely fragile in serum, to target organs and cells in the human body. A dozen pre-clinical and clinical trials have been under way over the past few years involving biodegradable nanoparticles, lipids, chemical modification and conjugation. On the other hand, microRNAs, which control the balance of cellular biological processes, have been studied as attractive therapeutic targets in cancer treatment. In this review, we provide an overview of RNA interference-based therapeutics in clinical trials and discuss the latest technology for the systemic delivery of nucleic acid drugs. Furthermore, we focus on dysregulated microRNAs in human cancer, which have progressed in pre-clinical trials as therapeutic targets, and describe a wide range of strategies to control the expression levels of endogenous microRNAs. Further development of RNA interference technologies and progression of clinical trials will contribute to the achievement of practical applications of nucleic acid drugs.

  20. Intrinsic therapeutic applications of noble metal nanoparticles: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvizo, Rochelle R; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Kudgus, Rachel A; Giri, Karuna; Bhattacharya, Resham; Mukherjee, Priyabrata

    2012-04-01

    Biomedical nanotechnology is an evolving field having enormous potential to positively impact the health care system. Important biomedical applications of nanotechnology that may have potential clinical applications include targeted drug delivery, detection/diagnosis and imaging. Basic understanding of how nanomaterials, the building blocks of nanotechnology, interact with the cells and their biological consequences are beginning to evolve. Noble metal nanoparticles such as gold, silver and platinum are particularly interesting due to their size and shape dependent unique optoelectronic properties. These noble metal nanoparticles, particularly of gold, have elicited a lot of interest for important biomedical applications because of their ease of synthesis, characterization and surface functionalization. Furthermore, recent investigations are demonstrating another promising application of these nanomaterials as self-therapeutics. To realize the potential promise of these unique inorganic nanomaterials for future clinical translation, it is of utmost importance to understand a few critical parameters; (i) how these nanomaterials interact with the cells at the molecular level; (ii) how their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics influenced by their surface and routes of administration; (iii) mechanism of their detoxification and clearance and (iv) their therapeutic efficacy in appropriate disease model. Thus in this critical review, we will discuss the various clinical applications of gold, silver and platinum nanoparticles with relevance to above parameters. We will also mention various routes of synthesis of these noble metal nanoparticles. However, before we discuss present research, we will also look into the past. We need to understand the discoveries made before us in order to further our knowledge and technological development (318 references).

  1. Novel epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG derivative as a new therapeutic strategy for reducing neuropathic pain after chronic constriction nerve injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Xifró

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is common in peripheral nerve injury and often fails to respond to ordinary medication. Here, we investigated whether the two novel epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG polyphenolic derivatives, compound 23 and 30, reduce the neuropathic pain in mice chronic constriction nerve injury (CCI. First, we performed a dose-response study to evaluate nociceptive sensation after administration of EGCG and its derivatives 23 and 30, using the Hargreaves test at 7 and 21 days after injury (dpi. We daily administered EGCG, 23 and 30 (10 to 100 mg/Kg; i.p. during the first week post-CCI. None of the doses of compound 23 caused significant pain diminution, whereas 50mg/kg was optimal for both EGCG and 30 to delay the latency of paw withdrawal. With 50 mg/Kg, we showed that EGCC prevented the thermal hyperalgesia from 7 to 21 dpi and compound 30 from 14 to 56 dpi. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms underpinning why EGCG and compound 30 differentially prevented the thermal hyperalgesia, we studied several biochemical parameters in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord at 14 and 56 dpi. We showed that the effect observed with EGCG and compound 30 was related to the inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN, a known target of these polyphenolic compounds. Additionally, we observed that EGCG and compound 30 reduced the expression of CCI-mediated inflammatory proteins and the nuclear localization of nuclear factor-kappa B at 14 dpi, but not at 56 dpi. We also strongly detected a decrease of synaptic plasma membrane levels of N-methyl-D-asparte receptor 2B in CCI-mice treated with compound 30 at 56 dpi. Altogether, compound 30 reduced the chronic thermal hyperalgesia induced by CCI better than the natural compound EGCG. Thus, our findings provide a rationale for the preclinical development of compound 30 as an agent to treat neuropathic pain.

  2. Non-Viral Delivery and Therapeutic Application of Small Interfering RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, N A; Prassolov, V S

    2013-07-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful method used for gene expression regulation. The increasing knowledge about the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon creates new avenues for the application of the RNAi technology in the treatment of various human diseases. However, delivery of RNA interference mediators, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), to target cells is a major hurdle. Effective and safe pharmacological use of siRNAs requires carriers that can deliver siRNA to its target site and the development of methods for protection of these fragile molecules from in vivo degradation. This review summarizes various strategies for siRNA delivery, including chemical modification and non-viral approaches, such as the polymer-based, peptide-based, lipid-based techniques, and inorganic nanosystems. The advantages, disadvantages, and prospects for the therapeutic application of these methods are also examined in this paper.

  3. Horseradish peroxidase dye tracing and embryonic statoacoustic ganglion cell transplantation in the rat auditory nerve trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgren, Björn; Jin, Zhe; Jiao, Yu; Kostyszyn, Beata; Olivius, Petri

    2011-03-04

    At present severe damage to hair cells and sensory neurons in the inner ear results in non-treatable auditory disorders. Cell implantation is a potential treatment for various neurological disorders and has already been used in clinical practice. In the inner ear, delivery of therapeutic substances including neurotrophic factors and stem cells provide strategies that in the future may ameliorate or restore hearing impairment. In order to describe a surgical auditory nerve trunk approach, in the present paper we injected the neuronal tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the central part of the nerve by an intra cranial approach. We further evaluated the applicability of the present approach by implanting statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) cells into the same location of the auditory nerve in normal hearing rats or animals deafened by application of β-bungarotoxin to the round window niche. The HRP results illustrate labeling in the cochlear nucleus in the brain stem as well as peripherally in the spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea. The transplanted SAGs were observed within the auditory nerve trunk but no more peripheral than the CNS-PNS transitional zone. Interestingly, the auditory nerve injection did not impair auditory function, as evidenced by the auditory brainstem response. The present findings illustrate that an auditory nerve trunk approach may well access the entire auditory nerve and does not compromise auditory function. We suggest that such an approach might compose a suitable route for cell transplantation into this sensory cranial nerve. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Special issue of clinical pharmacology: advances and applications in new protein therapeutics modulating tumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frankel AE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Arthur E Frankel Department of Internal Medicine, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Until recent decades, the role of the immune system in harnessing tumor growth was based on anecdotal observations of increased cancers in immune-compromised patients, the benefits of graft-versus-leukemia in allogeneic stem cell transplants, and the limited but reproducible anticancer activity of several lymphokines, including interferon and interleukin (IL-2. Vaccine studies and infusions of "activated" lymphocytes yielded variable clinical responses and disease control. An improved understanding of the molecular and cell mechanisms of the innate and adaptive immune system in cancer-bearing animals and the discovery of an immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment then led to development and testing of a battery of new drug and cell-based approaches to trigger antitumor immunity. This issue of Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications highlights some of the new protein-based compounds that are radically changing the cancer therapeutic landscape. The purpose of this collection of reviews is to inform the readership regarding the importance of the seismic change in cancer therapeutics and stimulate efforts to find novel niches and combinations of agents similar to recent advances in the application of cancer pathway inhibitors.

  5. Preventive and therapeutic application of molecular hydrogen in situations with excessive production of free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezák, J; Kura, B; Frimmel, K; Zálešák, M; Ravingerová, T; Viczenczová, C; Okruhlicová, Ľ; Tribulová, N

    2016-09-19

    Excessive production of oxygen free radicals has been regarded as a causative common denominator of many pathological processes in the animal kingdom. Hydroxyl and nitrosyl radicals represent the major cause of the destruction of biomolecules either by a direct reaction or by triggering a chain reaction of free radicals. Scavenging of free radicals may act preventively or therapeutically. A number of substances that preferentially react with free radicals can serve as scavengers, thus increasing the internal capacity/activity of endogenous antioxidants and protecting cells and tissues against oxidative damage. Molecular hydrogen (H(2)) reacts with strong oxidants, such as hydroxyl and nitrosyl radicals, in the cells, that enables utilization of its potential for preventive and therapeutic applications. H(2) rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells without affecting metabolic redox reactions and signaling reactive species. H(2) reduces oxidative stress also by regulating gene expression, and functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic agent. There is a growing body of evidence based on the results of animal experiments and clinical observations that H(2) may represent an effective antioxidant for the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases. Application of molecular hydrogen in situations with excessive production of free radicals, in particular, hydroxyl and nitrosyl radicals is relatively simple and effective, therefore, it deserves special attention.

  6. Anatomical study of the internal nasal branch of the infraorbital nerve: Application to Minimizing Nerve Damage With Surgery In and Around the Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Joe; Watanabe, Koichi; Henry, Brandon; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Walocha, Jerzy A; Oskouian, Rod J; Shane Tubbs, R

    2017-09-01

    The internal nasal branch of the infraorbital nerve (ION) runs down the nose and around the ala to be distributed to the nasal septum and vestibule. The aim of this study was to measure the internal nasal branch around the ala of the nose and discuss its possible relevance in clinical/surgical practice. Twelve sides from seven specimens derived from fresh frozen and embalmed Caucasian cadaveric heads were dissected. The specimens included three males and four females. The ages of the cadavers at death ranged from 65 to 84 years. The diameter of the internal nasal branch, horizontal distance from the lateral contour of the ala (Point A) to the branch (distance H) and vertical distance from the bottom part of the ala (Point B) to the branch (distance V) were recorded. Distance H ranged from -1.6 to 1.5 mm on right sides and -1.0 to 1.5 mm on left sides. The diameter of the nerves at Point A ranged from 1.3 to 1.8 mm on right sides and 1.3 to 1.6 mm on left sides. Distance V ranged from -1.5 to 1.0 mm on right sides and -2.3 to 1.1 mm on left sides. The diameter of the nerves at Point B ranged from 0.7 to 1.3 mm on right sides and 0.8 to 1.2 mm on left sides. The results of this study are the first to detail the topography of the internal nasal branch of the ION. Clin. Anat. 30:817-820, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Reconstruction of the canine pelvic nerve and its application to bladder transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, K; Sato, K; Kageyama, Y; Inoue, Y

    2001-01-01

    The pelvic nerve (PN) plays a crucial role in control of bladder function. However, repair of the PN during operation or transplantation of the urinary bladder preserving PN control has never been reported. This study was undertaken to explore the possibilities of restoring PN function to the canine bladder after PN-PN reattachment and of transplanting the bladder while preserving PN function. Responses of the bladder to electrical stimulation of the PN were examined in dogs that had undergone PN-PN reattachment or auto-transplantation of the bladder with PN-PN reattachment. Cystometry was performed in dogs that had undergone bladder transplantation. Eighteen months after unilateral PN-PN reattachment, stimulation of each of five PNs sutured in five dogs elicited elevation of bladder pressure. Twelve months after bilateral PN-PN reattachments in five dogs, eight of 10 PNs stimulated elicited elevation of bladder pressure. Three of five dogs that had undergone auto-transplantation of the bladder showed a long survival. Nine months after the operation, each of the six PNs stimulated in the three dogs elicited elevation of bladder pressure. Voiding reflex was observed in two of the three dogs on cystometry. All the 13 dogs examined above preserved sufficient bladder capacity and all but one demonstrated small volume of residual urine. The above results indicate that the function of the PN to the canine bladder can be restored after PN-PN reattachment and that transplantation of the bladder preserving control of the PN is possible.

  8. Sacral nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, K E; Stadelmaier, U; Besendörfer, M

    2004-01-01

    The current concept of recruiting residual function of an inadequate pelvic organ by electrostimulation involves stimulation of the sacral spinal nerves at the level of the sacral canal. The rationale for applying SNS to fecal incontinence was based on clinical observations of its effect on bowel habits and anorectal continence function in urologic patients (increased anorectal angulation and anal canal closure pressure) and on anatomic considerations: dissection demonstrated a dual peripheral nerve supply of the striated pelvic floor muscles that govern these functions. Because the sacral spinal nerve site is the most distal common location of this dual nerve supply, stimulating here can elicit both functions. Since the first application of SNS in fecal incontinence in 1994, this technique has been improved, the patient selection process modified, and the spectrum of indications expanded. At present SNS has been applied in more than 1300 patients with fecal incontinence limited.

  9. Application of medical cannabis in patients with central nerve system disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Kotuła

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family, species of the genus Cannabis. Cannabis contains active elements, including Δ9-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD. Neurological disorders are typically associated with neurodegeneration. It means that there is no causal treatment. Usually we can only modulate disease. It is very necessary to patients to reduce pain sensation or excessive muscle tension. The paper contains a description of therapeutic possibilities treatment of cannabis in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Tourette syndrome and spasticity.

  10. The application of fuzzy-based methods to central nerve fiber imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axer, Hubertus; Jantzen, Jan; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf v.;

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential of fuzzy logic methods within medical imaging. Technical advances have produced imaging techniques that can visualize structures and their functions in the living human body. The interpretation of these images plays a prominent role in diagnostic and therapeutic....... Fuzzy logic methods were applied to analyze these pictures from low- to high-level image processing. The solutions presented here are motivated by problems of routine neuroanatomic research demonstrating fuzzy-based methods to be valuable tools in medical image processing....

  11. Early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation-induced walking training promotes locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S-X; Huang, F; Gates, M; Shen, X; Holmberg, E G

    2016-11-01

    This is a randomized controlled prospective trial with two parallel groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether early application of tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES)-induced walking training can improve the locomotor function. This study was conducted in SCS Research Center in Colorado, USA. A contusion injury to spinal cord T10 was produced using the New York University impactor device with a 25 -mm height setting in female, adult Long-Evans rats. Injured rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=12 per group). One group was subjected to TANES-induced walking training 2 weeks post injury, and the other group, as control, received no TANES-induced walking training. Restorations of behavior and conduction were assessed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan open-field rating scale, horizontal ladder rung walking test and electrophysiological test (Hoffmann reflex). Early application of TANES-induced walking training significantly improved the recovery of locomotor function and benefited the restoration of Hoffmann reflex. TANES-induced walking training is a useful method to promote locomotor recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

  12. Therapeutic effects of topical application of ozone on acute cutaneous wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Su; Noh, Sun Up; Han, Ye Won; Kim, Kyoung Moon; Kang, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2009-06-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical ozonated olive oil on acute cutaneous wound healing in a guinea pig model and also to elucidate its therapeutic mechanism. After creating full-thickness skin wounds on the backs of guinea pigs by using a 6 mm punch biopsy, we examined the wound healing effect of topically applied ozonated olive oil (ozone group), as compared to the pure olive oil (oil group) and non-treatment (control group). The ozone group of guinea pig had a significantly smaller wound size and a residual wound area than the oil group, on days 5 (Pozone group than that in the oil group on day 7. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated upregulation of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions, but not fibroblast growth factor expression in the ozone group on day 7, as compared with the oil group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that topical application of ozonated olive oil can accelerate acute cutaneous wound repair in a guinea pig in association with the increased expression of PDGF, TGF-beta, and VEGF.

  13. New developments in the application of optimal control theory to therapeutic protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayón, L; Otero, J A; Suárez, P M; Tasis, C

    2016-02-01

    Optimal control theory is one of the most important tools in the development of new therapeutic protocols for treating infections. In this work, we present an algorithm able to deal with high-dimensional problems with bounded controls. The optimal solution is obtained by minimizing a positive-definite treatment cost function. Our method, based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle and the coordinate cyclic descent method, allows solving problems of varied nature. In this paper, and by way of example, therapeutic enhancement of the immune response to invasion by pathogenic attack is addressed as an optimal control problem. The generic mathematical model used describes the evolution of the disease by means of four non-linear, ordinary differential equations. The model is characterized by the concentration of pathogens, plasma cells, antibodies and a numerical value that indicates the relative characteristic of an organ damaged by disease. From a system theory point of view, drugs can be interpreted as control inputs. Therapies based on separate application of the agents are presented in previous studies. We shall present the more general problem in this paper, considering combined therapies and bounded controls. Finally, we present several numerical simulations.

  14. Photothermal therapeutic application of gold nanorods-porphyrin-trastuzumab complexes in HER2-positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xinmei; Guo, Ximing; An, Weiwei; Niu, Xingjian; Li, Suhan; Liu, Zhaoliang; Yang, Yue; Wang, Na; Jiang, Qicheng; Yan, Caichuan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Qingyuan

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanorods are effective photothermal agents in diagnosis and treatment of cancer due to their specific near-infrared laser absorption. However, tumor photothermal therapy by nanorods alone is lack of targeting. Here, we described a novel nanocomplex made up of gold nanorods, porphyrin, and trastuzumab, called TGNs and investigated the TGN-mediated photothermal therapy as a potential alternative treatment of targeting HER2-positive breast cancers. By conjugating trastuzumab and porphyrin to the surface of gold nanorods, we have increased the targeting specificity and amplified the detecting effectiveness at the same time. TGN-mediated photothermal ablation by near-infrared laser led to a selective destruction of HER2-positive cancer cells and significantly inhibited tumor growth in mouse models bearing HER2 over-expressed breast cancer xenograft with less toxicity. Moreover, TGNs provided better therapeutic efficacy in comparison with the conventional molecule targeted therapy. Our current data suggest a highly promising future of TGNs for its therapeutic application in trastuzumab-resistant breast cancers. PMID:28155894

  15. A reduced-order, single-bubble cavitation model with applications to therapeutic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A

    2011-11-01

    Cavitation often occurs in therapeutic applications of medical ultrasound such as shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Because cavitation bubbles can affect an intended treatment, it is important to understand the dynamics of bubbles in this context. The relevant context includes very high acoustic pressures and frequencies as well as elevated temperatures. Relative to much of the prior research on cavitation and bubble dynamics, such conditions are unique. To address the relevant physics, a reduced-order model of a single, spherical bubble is proposed that incorporates phase change at the liquid-gas interface as well as heat and mass transport in both phases. Based on the energy lost during the inertial collapse and rebound of a millimeter-sized bubble, experimental observations were used to tune and test model predictions. In addition, benchmarks from the published literature were used to assess various aspects of model performance. Benchmark comparisons demonstrate that the model captures the basic physics of phase change and diffusive transport, while it is quantitatively sensitive to specific model assumptions and implementation details. Given its performance and numerical stability, the model can be used to explore bubble behaviors across a broad parameter space relevant to therapeutic ultrasound.

  16. Photothermal therapeutic application of gold nanorods-porphyrin-trastuzumab complexes in HER2-positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xinmei; Guo, Ximing; An, Weiwei; Niu, Xingjian; Li, Suhan; Liu, Zhaoliang; Yang, Yue; Wang, Na; Jiang, Qicheng; Yan, Caichuan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Qingyuan

    2017-02-01

    Gold nanorods are effective photothermal agents in diagnosis and treatment of cancer due to their specific near-infrared laser absorption. However, tumor photothermal therapy by nanorods alone is lack of targeting. Here, we described a novel nanocomplex made up of gold nanorods, porphyrin, and trastuzumab, called TGNs and investigated the TGN-mediated photothermal therapy as a potential alternative treatment of targeting HER2-positive breast cancers. By conjugating trastuzumab and porphyrin to the surface of gold nanorods, we have increased the targeting specificity and amplified the detecting effectiveness at the same time. TGN-mediated photothermal ablation by near-infrared laser led to a selective destruction of HER2-positive cancer cells and significantly inhibited tumor growth in mouse models bearing HER2 over-expressed breast cancer xenograft with less toxicity. Moreover, TGNs provided better therapeutic efficacy in comparison with the conventional molecule targeted therapy. Our current data suggest a highly promising future of TGNs for its therapeutic application in trastuzumab-resistant breast cancers.

  17. Risk perception of diagnostic and therapeutic radiological applications. Comparison of experts and the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz, L. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Macias, M.T. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Prades, A.; Sola, R. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Arias, R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    Recent research has found many differences between experts and lay people in judgements of radiological risks. However, most of these studies were carried out on experts from nuclear power plants, regulatory bodies etc. This paper analyses the differences among several groups of 'experts' coming from the Health area and the lay people. A survey was designed to assess the perceived seriousness of seven diagnostic and therapeutic applications: conventional diagnostic radiology, computed tomography, chemotherapy, ecography examinations, radiotherapy, and diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The questionnaire was distributed to samples of experts (professionals exposed to ionizing radiations, and other health professionals), and outpatients. All samples were selected from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). The following comparisons will be presented: 1) Differences between experts' and the public; 2) differences among several groups of 'experts'; 3) within the 'expert' sample, differences between perceived seriousness as a patient and as a professional at risk; 4) within the public sample, individual differences related to some socio-demographic variables. A cross-cultural analysis of the above mentioned comparisons will also be carried out. (author)

  18. Exploring the Hybridization Thermodynamics of Spherical Nucleic Acids to Tailor Probes for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeria, Pratik Shailesh

    Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), three-dimensional nanoparticle conjugates composed of densely packed and highly oriented oligonucleotides around organic or inorganic nanoparticles, are an emergent class of nanostructures that show promise as single-entity agents for intracellular messenger RNA (mRNA) detection and gene regulation. SNAs exhibit superior biocompatibility and biological properties compared to linear oligonucleotides, enabling them to overcome many of the limitations of linear oligonucleotides for use in biomedical applications. However, the origins of these biologically attractive properties are not well understood. In this dissertation, the chemistry underlying one such property is studied in detail, and the findings are applied towards the rational design of more effective SNAs for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Chapter 1 introduces the synthesis of SNAs, the unique properties that make them superior to linear nucleic acids for biomedicine, and previously studied applications of these structures. Chapter 2 focuses on quantitatively studying the impact of the chemical structure of the SNA on its ability to hybridize multiple complementary nucleic acids. This chapter lays the groundwork for understanding the factors that govern SNA hybridization thermodynamics and how to tailor SNAs to increase their binding affinity to target mRNA strands. Chapters 3 and 4 capitalize on this knowledge to engineer probes for intracellular mRNA detection and gene regulation applications. Chapter 3 reports the development of an SNA-based probe that can simultaneously report the expression level of two different mRNA transcripts in live cells and differentiate diseased cells from non-diseased cells. Chapter 4 investigates the use of topically-applied SNAs to down-regulate a critical mediator of impaired wound healing in diabetic mice to accelerate wound closure. This study represents the first topical therapeutic application of SNA nanotechnology to treat open

  19. The paradoxical pro- and antiangiogenic actions of resveratrol: therapeutic applications in cancer and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleddin, Mohammad Amin

    2016-12-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes, peanuts, and red wine, plays different roles in diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Existing information indicates that resveratrol provides cardioprotection, as evidenced by superior postischemic ventricular recovery, reduced myocardial infarct size, and decreased number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes associated with resveratrol treatment in animal models. Cardiovascular benefits are experienced in humans with routine but not acute consumption of red wine. In this concise review, the paradoxical pro- and antiangiogenic effects of resveratrol are described, and different roles for resveratrol in the formation of new blood vessels are explained through different mechanisms. It is hypothesized that the effects of resveratrol on different cell types are not only dependent on its concentration but also on the physical and chemical conditions surrounding cells. The findings discussed herein shed light on potential therapeutic proapoptotic and antiangiogenic applications of low-dose resveratrol treatment in the prevention and treatment of different diseases. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Reliability of the MDi Psoriasis(®) Application to Aid Therapeutic Decision-Making in Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramírez, D; Herrerías-Esteban, J M; Ojeda-Vila, T; Carrascosa, J M; Carretero, G; de la Cueva, P; Ferrándiz, C; Galán, M; Rivera, R; Rodríguez-Fernández, L; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Ferrándiz, L

    2017-09-01

    Therapeutic decisions in psoriasis are influenced by disease factors (e.g., severity or location), comorbidity, and demographic and clinical features. We aimed to assess the reliability of a mobile telephone application (MDi-Psoriasis) designed to help the dermatologist make decisions on how to treat patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. We analyzed interobserver agreement between the advice given by an expert panel and the recommendations of the MDi-Psoriasis application in 10 complex cases of moderate to severe psoriasis. The experts were asked their opinion on which treatments were most appropriate, possible, or inappropriate. Data from the same 10 cases were entered into the MDi-Psoriasis application. Agreement was analyzed in 3 ways: paired interobserver concordance (Cohen's κ), multiple interobserver concordance (Fleiss's κ), and percent agreement between recommendations. The mean percent agreement between the total of 1210 observations was 51.3% (95% CI, 48.5-54.1%). Cohen's κ statistic was 0.29 and Fleiss's κ was 0.28. Mean agreement between pairs of human observers only, excluding the MDi-Psoriasis recommendations, was 50.5% (95% CI, 47.6-53.5%). Paired agreement between the recommendations of the MDi-Psoriasis tool and the majority opinion of the expert panel (Cohen's κ) was 0.44 (68.2% agreement). The MDi-Psoriasis tool can generate recommendations that are comparable to those of experts in psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. A starch-based microparticulate system dedicated to diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoeuille, F; Hindré, F; Venier-Julienne, M C; Sergent, M; Bouchet, F; Jouaneton, S; Denizot, B; Askienazy, S; Benoit, J P; Couturier, O F; Le Jeune, J J

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a new microparticulate system able to form a complex with radionuclides with a high yield of purity for diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Owing to its properties potato starch was chosen as starting material and modified by oxidization and coupling of a ligand (polyamine) enabling modified starch to chelate radionuclides. The choice of suitable experiments was based on a combination of a Rechtschaffner experimental design and a surface response design to determine the influence of experimental parameters and to optimize the final product. Starch-based microparticle formulations from the experimental plans were compared and characterized through particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis and, for the most promising formulations, by in vitro labeling stability studies and determination of free polyamine content or in vivo imaging studies. The mechanism of starch-based microparticle degradation was identified by means of size measurements. The results of the Rechtschaffner design showed the positive qualitative effect of the temperature and the duration of coupling reaction whereas surface response analysis clearly showed that, by increasing the oxidization level and starch concentration, the nitrogen content in the final product is increased. In vitro and in vivo characterization led to identification of the best formulation. With a size around 30 μm, high radiochemical purity (over 95%) and a high signal-to-noise ratio (over 600), the new starch-based microparticulate system could be prepared as ready-to-use kits and sterilized without modification of its characteristics, and thus meet the requirement for in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  2. 龙血竭胶囊配合神经阻滞治疗肩周炎临床观察%Therapeutic Effect of Resina Draconis Capsule Combined with Nerve Block for Scapulohumeral Periarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志方; 张高耀

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨口服龙血竭胶囊配合肩胛上神经肩关节支阻滞治疗肩关节周围炎的效果.[方法]肩关节周围炎38例41肩,口服龙血竭胶囊4粒,每天3次,30 d为1个疗程.于肩胛上神经主干的外侧1.5 cm处,采用利多卡因和醋酸曲安奈德的混合液对肩胛上神经肩关节支进行阻滞,每肩治疗1~2个疗程.[结果](1)经6~ 24个月(平均11个月)的随访,患肩疼痛减轻、日常功能改善、运动范围增加,与治疗前比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).治疗后患肩前屈、上举、外展、内旋与正常参考值间差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),表明治疗后患肩的运动范围已基本恢复到正常肩水平.(2)安全性评价:治疗后全部病例均无明显并发症发生.[结论]龙血竭胶囊配合肩胛上神经关节支阻滞是治疗肩关节周围炎较为安全有效的方法.%Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of Resina Draconis Capsule (RDC) combined with nerve block for scapulohumeral periarthritis. Methods Thirty-eight scapulohumeral periarthritis patients (involving 41 shoulders) took 4 capsules of RDC orally per day, three times a day, and 30 days constituted one treatment course. Nerve block with the mixture of lidocaine and triameinolone acetonide was performed at lateral 1. 5cm of suprascapular nerve stem to block the shoulder joint branch. Each shoulder was given one or two treatment courses. Results The results of the follow-up covering 6-24 months ( averaged 11 months) showed that the pain of the affected shoulder was relieved, daily activities were improved, and movement range was increased, the difference being significant compared with those before treatment (P 0. 05). No complications occurred during the treatment. Conclusion RDC combined with nerve block on the shoulder joint branch of suprascapular nerve is effective and safe for treatment of scapulohumeral periarthritis.

  3. Raman spectroscopic detection of peripheral nerves towards nerve-sparing surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2017-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery, namely nerve-sparing surgery, is now promising technique to avoid functional deficits of the limbs and organs following surgery as an aspect of the improvement of quality of life of patients. Detection of peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves is required for the nerve-sparing surgery; however, conventional nerve identification scheme is sometimes difficult to identify peripheral nerves due to similarity of shape and color to non-nerve tissues or its limited application to only motor peripheral nerves. To overcome these issues, we proposed a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerves by means of Raman spectroscopy. We found several fingerprints of peripheral myelinated and unmyelinated nerves by employing a modified principal component analysis of typical spectra including myelinated nerve, unmyelinated nerve, and adjacent tissues. We finally realized the sensitivity of 94.2% and the selectivity of 92.0% for peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves against adjacent tissues. Although further development of an intraoperative Raman spectroscopy system is required for clinical use, our proposed approach will serve as a unique and powerful tool for peripheral nerve detection for nerve-sparing surgery in the future.

  4. [Morphologic indices of the rat heart after colchicine application to the vagus nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbekova, T A; Chervova, I A; Dobrovol'skiĭ, G F

    1985-10-01

    By means of the light optic and electron microscopic methods atrial ganglia, myocytes, vessels of the right cardiac chambers have been studied in rats 2 days--3 weeks after application of 100 mcg of colchicine on the right nervus vagus. Certain changes of the neural fibers have been described at the area of the application. In the myocardium the microcirculatory bed, focal edema and hypoxic alterations of the myocyte ultrastructure have been revealed. In the ventrical ganglia destruction of some terminals of the preganglionar fibers, chromatolysis and vacuolization of single neurocytes, as well as intraganglionar granule-containing cells have been found. The changes described take place for 7 days and they nearly completely disappear in 10 days. A suggestion is made that some phenomena, in particular, destruction of the preganglionar fibers and changes of the cardiac microcirculatory bed are connected with certain disturbances of the quick transport of substances in the nervus vagus fibers.

  5. Investigation of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for the Differentiation of Nerve and Gland Tissue—A Possible Application for a Laser Surgery Feedback Control Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehari, F.; Rohde, M.; Knipfer, C.; Kanawade, R.; Klämpfl, F.; W., Adler; Oetter, N.; Stelzle, F.; Schmidt, M.

    2016-06-01

    Laser surgery provides clean, fast and accurate modeling of tissue. However, the inability to determine what kind of tissue is being ablated at the bottom of the cut may lead to the iatrogenic damage of structures that were meant to be preserved. In this context, nerve preservation is one of the key challenges in any surgical procedure. One example is the treatment of parotid gland pathologies, where the facial nerve (N. VII) and its main branches run through and fan out inside the glands parenchyma. A feedback system that automatically stops the ablation to prevent nerve-tissue damage could greatly increase the applicability and safety of surgical laser systems. In the present study, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to differentiate between nerve and gland tissue of an ex-vivo pig animal model. The LIBS results obtained in this preliminary experiment suggest that the measured spectra, containing atomic and molecular emissions, can be used to differentiate between the two tissue types. The measurements and differentiation were performed in open air and under normal stray light conditions.

  6. Targeted localized use of therapeutic antibodies: a review of non-systemic, topical and oral applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russell G A; Martino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies provide important tools in the "medicine chest" of today's clinician for the treatment of a range of disorders. Typically monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies are administered in large doses, either directly or indirectly into the circulation, via a systemic route which is well suited for disseminated ailments. Diseases confined within a specific localized tissue, however, may be treated more effectively and at reduced cost by a delivery system which targets directly the affected area. To explore the advantages of the local administration of antibodies, we reviewed current alternative, non-systemic delivery approaches which are in clinical use, being trialed or developed. These less conventional approaches comprise: (a) local injections, (b) topical and (c) peroral administration routes. Local delivery includes intra-ocular injections into the vitreal humor (i.e. Ranibizumab for age-related macular degeneration), subconjunctival injections (e.g. Bevacizumab for corneal neovascularization), intra-articular joint injections (i.e. anti-TNF alpha antibody for persistent inflammatory monoarthritis) and intratumoral or peritumoral injections (e.g. Ipilimumab for cancer). A range of other strategies, such as the local use of antibacterial antibodies, are also presented. Local injections of antibodies utilize doses which range from 1/10th to 1/100th of the required systemic dose therefore reducing both side-effects and treatment costs. In addition, any therapeutic antibody escaping from the local site of disease into the systemic circulation is immediately diluted within the large blood volume, further lowering the potential for unwanted effects. Needle-free topical application routes become an option when the condition is restricted locally to an external surface. The topical route may potentially be utilized in the form of eye drops for infections or corneal neovascularization or be applied to diseased skin for psoriasis, dermatitis, pyoderma

  7. Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Christine

    2016-10-20

    Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve conduits. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropods including spiders, caterpillars and mites. The silk fibers are secreted by the labial gland of the larvae of some orders of Holometabola (insects with pupa) or the spinnerets of spiders. The majority of studies using silks for biomedical applications use materials from silkworms or spiders, mostly of the genus Nephila clavipes. Silk is one of the most promising biomaterials with effects not only in nerve regeneration, but in a number of regenerative applications. The development of silks for human biomedical applications is of high scientific and clinical interest. Biomaterials in use for biomedical applications have to meet a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and elicitation of no more than a minor inflammatory response, biodegradability in a reasonable time and specific structural properties. Here we present the current status in the field of silk-based conduit development for nerve repair and discuss current advances with regard to potential clinical transfer of an implantable nerve conduit for enhancement of nerve regeneration.

  8. Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve Conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve conduits. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropods including spiders, caterpillars and mites. The silk fibers are secreted by the labial gland of the larvae of some orders of Holometabola (insects with pupa) or the spinnerets of spiders. The majority of studies using silks for biomedical applications use materials from silkworms or spiders, mostly of the genus Nephila clavipes. Silk is one of the most promising biomaterials with effects not only in nerve regeneration, but in a number of regenerative applications. The development of silks for human biomedical applications is of high scientific and clinical interest. Biomaterials in use for biomedical applications have to meet a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and elicitation of no more than a minor inflammatory response, biodegradability in a reasonable time and specific structural properties. Here we present the current status in the field of silk-based conduit development for nerve repair and discuss current advances with regard to potential clinical transfer of an implantable nerve conduit for enhancement of nerve regeneration. PMID:27775616

  9. Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve Conduits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Radtke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve conduits. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropods including spiders, caterpillars and mites. The silk fibers are secreted by the labial gland of the larvae of some orders of Holometabola (insects with pupa or the spinnerets of spiders. The majority of studies using silks for biomedical applications use materials from silkworms or spiders, mostly of the genus Nephila clavipes. Silk is one of the most promising biomaterials with effects not only in nerve regeneration, but in a number of regenerative applications. The development of silks for human biomedical applications is of high scientific and clinical interest. Biomaterials in use for biomedical applications have to meet a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and elicitation of no more than a minor inflammatory response, biodegradability in a reasonable time and specific structural properties. Here we present the current status in the field of silk-based conduit development for nerve repair and discuss current advances with regard to potential clinical transfer of an implantable nerve conduit for enhancement of nerve regeneration.

  10. Protein glycosylation in cancers and its potential therapeutic applications in neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ling Ho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glycosylation is the most complex post-translational modification of proteins. Altered glycans on the tumor- and host-cell surface and in the tumor microenvironment have been identified to mediate critical events in cancer pathogenesis and progression. Tumor-associated glycan changes comprise increased branching of N-glycans, higher density of O-glycans, generation of truncated versions of normal counterparts, and generation of unusual forms of terminal structures arising from sialylation and fucosylation. The functional role of tumor-associated glycans (Tn, sTn, T, and sLea/x is dependent on the interaction with lectins. Lectins are expressed on the surface of immune cells and endothelial cells or exist as extracellular matrix proteins and soluble adhesion molecules. Expression of tumor-associated glycans is involved in the dysregulation of glycogenes, which mainly comprise glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Furthermore, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms on many glycogenes are associated with malignant transformation. With better understanding of all aspects of cancer-cell glycomics, many tumor-associated glycans have been utilized for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purposes. Glycan-based therapeutics has been applied to cancers from breast, lung, gastrointestinal system, melanomas, and lymphomas but rarely to neuroblastomas (NBs. The success of anti-disialoganglioside (GD2, a glycolipid antigen antibodies sheds light on glycan-based therapies for NB and also suggests the possibility of protein glycosylation-based therapies for NB. This review summarizes our understanding of cancer glycobiology with a focus of how protein glycosylation and associated glycosyltransferases affect cellular behaviors and treatment outcome of various cancers, especially NB. Finally, we highlight potential applications of glycosylation in drug and cancer vaccine development for NB.

  11. Versatility of lateral cutaneous branches of intercostal vessels and nerves: anatomical study and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Takuya; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Mihara, Makoto; Kikuchi, Kazuki; Hara, Hisako; Yamamoto, Takumi; Araki, Jun; Koshima, Isao

    2013-11-01

    The use of the intercostal artery perforator (ICAP) flap has recently become popular in reconstructions of the breast, upper arm and trunk. Lateral cutaneous branches (LCBs) are a group of the ICAPs that penetrate the fascia near the middle axillary line. However, reports on its precise anatomy and clinical applications are quite limited. We performed an anatomical study of LCBs using cadavers. Based on the findings, we developed novel clinical application methods as follows: (1) sensate superficial circumflex iliac perforator (SCIP) flap, (2) supercharged SCIP flap, (3) ICAP-based propeller flap (IBPF) and (4) free ICAP flap based on LCB. LCBs have the following advantages: (1) Long pedicles can be obtained in the supine position without risk of pneumothorax. (2) The neurovascular bundle is consistently available, allowing elevation of sensate flaps. (3) Donor-site morbidity is low. Therefore, we believe that LCBs offer a versatile option in reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A GENERALLY APPLICABLE METHOD OF STATISTIC ANALYSIS FOR STUDYING AND CLASSIFYING NERVE TYPES OF CHILDREN, JUVENILES AND YOUTHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣昭; 陈庆云

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a method of statistic analysis is suggested for studying and classifying nerve types of children, juveniles and youths. First, a set of effective calculating formulae is established so as to describe nerve types quantitatively. Thus, our analysis of nerve types is based on the experimental data. Since these data can not be considered as normally distributed, even the sampling is sized greatly. This has caused certain difficulties in the data analysis. The Box-Cox Transformation is proposed for the sampling data in this paper. As a result, direr tronsformation all the sets of experimental data can successfully pass Kolmogorov's no rmallsation test. And then, the suitable representative points in normal distribution are sleeted as classifying standards. Once the dividing points for classification are set up, the problem of classifying nerve types is solved successfully.

  13. Transfer line scattering model of therapeutic hadron beams and applications to nozzle and gantry optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, M.; Benedikt, M.; Dorda, U.

    2013-01-01

    The field of hadron therapy is growing rapidly with several facilities currently being planned, under construction or in commissioning worldwide. In the “active scanning” irradiation technique, the target is irradiated using a narrow pencil beam that is scanned transversally over the target while the penetration depth is altered with the beam energy. Together, the target dose can thereby be conformed in all three dimensions to the shape of the tumor. For applications where a sharp lateral beam penumbra is required in order to spare critical organs from unwanted dose, beam size blowup due to scattering in on-line beam diagnostic monitors, air gaps and passive elements like the ripple filter must be minimized. This paper presents a model for transverse scattering of therapeutic hadron beams along arbitrary multislab geometries. The conventional scattering formulation, which is only applicable to a drift space, is extended to not only take beam optics into account, but also non-Gaussian transverse beam profiles which are typically obtained from the slow resonant extraction from a synchrotron. This work has been carried out during the design phase of the beam delivery system for MedAustron, an Austrian hadron therapy facility with first patient treatment planned for the end of 2015. Irradiation will be performed using active scanning with proton and carbon ion beams. As a direct application of the scattering model, design choices for the MedAustron proton gantry and treatment nozzles are evaluated with respect to the transverse beam profile at the focal point; in air and at the Bragg peak.

  14. Curcumin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles for breast cancer therapeutics and imaging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yallapu MM

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Murali M Yallapu1, Shadi F Othman2, Evan T Curtis2, Nichole A Bauer1, Neeraj Chauhan1,3, Deepak Kumar4,5, Meena Jaggi1,3,6, Subhash C Chauhan1,3,61Cancer Biology Research Center, Sanford Research/University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, 2Department of Biological Systems Engineering, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 3Basic Biomedical Science Division, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, 4Cancer Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, University of the District of Columbia, 5Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, 6Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, USABackground: The next generation magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs with theranostic applications have attracted significant attention and will greatly improve nanomedicine in cancer therapeutics. Such novel MNP formulations must have ultra-low particle size, high inherent magnetic properties, effective imaging, drug targeting, and drug delivery properties. To achieve these characteristic properties, a curcumin-loaded MNP (MNP-CUR formulation was developed.Methods: MNPs were prepared by chemical precipitation method and loaded with curcumin (CUR using diffusion method. The physicochemical properties of MNP-CUR were characterized using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and spectroscopy. The internalization of MNP-CUR was achieved after 6 hours incubation with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The anticancer potential was evaluated by a tetrazolium-based dye and colony formation assays. Further, to prove MNP-CUR results in superior therapeutic effects over CUR, the mitochondrial membrane potential integrity and reactive oxygen species generation were determined. Magnetic resonance imaging capability and magnetic targeting property were also evaluated.Results: MNP-CUR exhibited individual particle grain size of ~9 nm

  15. Report of a Case: Blade-vent implant application taking into acount the lateral branch of the inferior alveoar nerve

    OpenAIRE

    大滝, 祐吉; 植田, 章夫; 宮坂, 伸; 小松, 史; 岩井, 健治; 後藤, 一輔; 千野, 武廣

    1997-01-01

    Dental implants are now widely used for dental rehabilitation, but in some cases insufficient planning and complications result in poor prognoses. Paresthesia, which can be caused by nerve injury, is one of the postoperative complications. We report a case in which we applied a blade-vent implant into the mandibular molar region taking into account the lateral branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. The postoperative course was uneventful without paresthesia. In the preoperative examinations, ...

  16. An anatomical study of porcine peripheral nerve and its potential use in nerve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilic, Leyla; Garner, Philippa E; Yu, Tong; Roman, Sabiniano; Haycock, John W; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Current nerve tissue engineering applications are adopting xenogeneic nerve tissue as potential nerve grafts to help aid nerve regeneration. However, there is little literature that describes the exact location, anatomy and physiology of these nerves to highlight their potential as a donor graft. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the structural and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of porcine peripheral nerves in the hind leg. Methods included the dissection of porcine nerves, localisation, characterisation and quantification of the ECM components and identification of nerve cells. Results showed a noticeable variance between porcine and rat nerve (a commonly studied species) in terms of fascicle number. The study also revealed that when porcine peripheral nerves branch, a decrease in fascicle number and size was evident. Porcine ECM and nerve fascicles were found to be predominately comprised of collagen together with glycosaminoglycans, laminin and fibronectin. Immunolabelling for nerve growth factor receptor p75 also revealed the localisation of Schwann cells around and inside the fascicles. In conclusion, it is shown that porcine peripheral nerves possess a microstructure similar to that found in rat, and is not dissimilar to human. This finding could extend to the suggestion that due to the similarities in anatomy to human nerve, porcine nerves may have utility as a nerve graft providing guidance and support to regenerating axons. PMID:26200940

  17. An anatomical study of porcine peripheral nerve and its potential use in nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilic, Leyla; Garner, Philippa E; Yu, Tong; Roman, Sabiniano; Haycock, John W; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul

    2015-09-01

    Current nerve tissue engineering applications are adopting xenogeneic nerve tissue as potential nerve grafts to help aid nerve regeneration. However, there is little literature that describes the exact location, anatomy and physiology of these nerves to highlight their potential as a donor graft. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the structural and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of porcine peripheral nerves in the hind leg. Methods included the dissection of porcine nerves, localisation, characterisation and quantification of the ECM components and identification of nerve cells. Results showed a noticeable variance between porcine and rat nerve (a commonly studied species) in terms of fascicle number. The study also revealed that when porcine peripheral nerves branch, a decrease in fascicle number and size was evident. Porcine ECM and nerve fascicles were found to be predominately comprised of collagen together with glycosaminoglycans, laminin and fibronectin. Immunolabelling for nerve growth factor receptor p75 also revealed the localisation of Schwann cells around and inside the fascicles. In conclusion, it is shown that porcine peripheral nerves possess a microstructure similar to that found in rat, and is not dissimilar to human. This finding could extend to the suggestion that due to the similarities in anatomy to human nerve, porcine nerves may have utility as a nerve graft providing guidance and support to regenerating axons.

  18. Application of a Low-Level Laser Therapy and the Purified Protein from Natural Latex (Hevea brasiliensis in the Controlled Crush Injury of the Sciatic Nerve of Rats: A Morphological, Quantitative, and Ultrastructural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effects of a low-level laser therapy (LLLT, 15 J/cm2, 780 nm wavelength and the natural latex protein (P1, 0.1% in sciatic nerve after crush injury (15 Kgf, axonotmesis in rats. Sixty rats (male, 250 g were allocated into the 6 groups (n=10: CG—control group; EG—nerve exposed; IG—injured nerve without treatment; LG—crushed nerve treated with LLLT; PG—injured nerve treated with P1; and LPG—injured nerve treated with LLLT and P1. After 4 or 8 weeks, the nerve samples were processed for morphological, histological quantification and ultrastructural analysis. After 4 weeks, the myelin density and morphological characteristics improved in groups LG, PG, and LPG compared to IG. After 8 weeks, PG, and LPG were similar to CG and the capillary density was higher in the LG, PG, and LPG. In the ultrastructural analysis the PG and LPG had characteristics that were similar to the CG. The application of LLLT and/or P1 improved the recovery from the nerve crush injury, and in the long term, the P1 protein was the better treatment used, since only the application of LLLT has not reached the same results, and these treatments applied together did not potentiate the recovery.

  19. Research Status of Astragali Radix on Nerve Cells and Nerve System Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Zeng-qiang; ZHAO Ping-li; CAO Wen-fu

    2012-01-01

    Astragali Radix has a wide application in the nerve system diseases because of its obvious nerve cell protection and recovery effects.Astragali Radix has good clinical effects both in acute and chronic cerebrovascular diseases and neurological degenerative diseases.This paper reviews the experimental and clinical research status of Astragali Radix on nerve system and nerve system diseases,which may promote its experimental research and clinical application.

  20. Creation of highly aligned electrospun poly-L-lactic acid fibers for nerve regeneration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han Bing; Mullins, Michael E.; Cregg, Jared M.; Hurtado, Andres; Oudega, Martin; Trombley, Matthew T.; Gilbert, Ryan J.

    2009-02-01

    Aligned, electrospun polymer fibers have shown considerable promise in directing regenerating axons in vitro and in vivo. However, in several studies, final electrospinning parameters are presented for producing aligned fiber scaffolds, and alignment where minimal fiber crossing occurs is not achieved. Highly aligned species are necessary for neural tissue engineering applications to ensure that axonal extension occurs through a regenerating environment efficiently. Axonal outgrowth on fibers that deviate from the natural axis of growth may delay axonal extension from one end of a scaffold to the other. Therefore, producing aligned fiber scaffolds with little fiber crossing is essential. In this study, the contributions of four electrospinning parameters (collection disk rotation speed, needle size, needle tip shape and syringe pump flow rate) were investigated thoroughly with the goal of finding parameters to obtain highly aligned electrospun fibers made from poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA). Using an 8 wt% PLLA solution in chloroform, a collection disk rotation speed of 1000 revolutions per minute (rpm), a 22 gauge, sharp-tip needle and a syringe pump rate of 2 ml h-1 produced highly aligned fiber (1.2-1.6 µm in diameter) scaffolds verified using a fast Fourier transform and a fiber alignment quantification technique. Additionally, the application of an insulating sheath around the needle tip improved the rate of fiber deposition (electrospinning efficiency). Optimized scaffolds were then evaluated in vitro using embryonic stage nine (E9) chick dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and rat Schwann cells (SCs). To demonstrate the importance of creating highly aligned scaffolds to direct neurite outgrowth, scaffolds were created that contained crossing fibers. Neurites on these scaffolds were directed down the axis of the aligned fibers, but neurites also grew along the crossed fibers. At times, these crossed fibers even stopped further axonal extension. Highly aligned PLLA fibers

  1. Functional Characterization of Human ProNGF and NGF Mutants: Identification of NGF P61SR100E as a “Painless” Lead Investigational Candidate for Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni Ercole, Bruno; Materazzi, Serena; Nassini, Romina; Coppi, Elisabetta; Patacchini, Riccardo; Capsoni, Simona; Lamba, Doriano; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Background Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) holds a great therapeutic promise for Alzheimer's disease, diabetic neuropathies, ophthalmic diseases, dermatological ulcers. However, the necessity for systemic delivery has hampered the clinical applications of NGF due to its potent pro-nociceptive action. A “painless” human NGF (hNGF R100E) mutant has been engineered. It has equal neurotrophic potency to hNGF but a lower nociceptive activity. We previously described and characterized the neurotrophic and nociceptive properties also of the hNGF P61S and P61SR100E mutants, selectively detectable against wild type hNGF. However, the reduced pain-sensitizing potency of the “painless” hNGF mutants has not been quantified. Objectives and Results Aiming at the therapeutic application of the “painless” hNGF mutants, we report on the comparative functional characterization of the precursor and mature forms of the mutants hNGF R100E and hNGF P61SR100E as therapeutic candidates, also in comparison to wild type hNGF and to hNGF P61S. The mutants were assessed by a number of biochemical, biophysical methods and assayed by cellular assays. Moreover, a highly sensitive ELISA for the detection of the P61S-tagged mutants in biological samples has been developed. Finally, we explored the pro-nociceptive effects elicited by hNGF mutants in vivo, demonstrating an expanded therapeutic window with a ten-fold increase in potency. Conclusions This structure-activity relationship study has led to validate the concept of developing painless NGF as a therapeutic, targeting the NGF receptor system and supporting the choice of hNGF P61S R100E as the best candidate to advance in clinical development. Moreover, this study contributes to the identification of the molecular determinants modulating the properties of the hNGF “painless” mutants. PMID:26371475

  2. Advances in directed protein evolution by recursive genetic recombination: applications to therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, A L; Govindarajan, S; Vahle, K; Jones, J T; Heinrichs, V; Patten, P A

    2001-08-01

    Recent developments in directed evolution technologies combined with innovations in robotics and screening methods have revolutionized protein engineering. These methods are being applied broadly to many fields of biotechnology, including chemical engineering, agriculture and human therapeutics. More specifically, DNA shuffling and other methods of genetic recombination and mutation have resulted in the improvement of proteins of therapeutic interest. Optimizing genetic diversity and fitness through iterative directed evolution will accelerate improvements in engineered protein therapeutics.

  3. Polyethylenimine-mediated gene delivery to the lung and therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Di Gioia

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sante Di Gioia, Massimo ConeseDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, ItalyAbstract: Nonviral gene delivery is now considered a promising alternative to viral vectors. Among nonviral gene delivery agents, polyethylenimine (PEI has emerged as a potent candidate for gene delivery to the lung. PEI has some advantages over other polycations in that it combines strong DNA compaction capacity with an intrinsic endosomolytic activity. However, intracellular (mainly the nuclear membrane and extracellular obstacles still hamper its efficiency in vitro and in vivo, depending on the route of administration and the type of PEI. Nuclear delivery has been increased by adding nuclear localization signals. To overcome nonspecific interactions with biological fluids, extracellular matrix components and nontarget cells, strategies have been developed to protect polyplexes from these interactions and to increase target specificity and gene expression. When gene delivery into airway epithelial cells of the conducting airways is necessary, aerosolization of complexes seems to be better suited to guarantee higher transgene expression in the airway epithelial cells with lower toxicity than observed with either intratracheal or intravenous administration. Aerosolization, indeed, is useful to target the alveolar epithelium and pulmonary endothelium. Proof-of-principle that PEI-mediated gene delivery has therapeutic application to some genetic and acquired lung disease is presented, using as genetic material either plasmidic DNA or small-interfering RNA, although optimization of formulation and delivery protocols and limitation of toxicity need further studies.Keywords: gene transfer, gene therapy, polyethylenimine, airway epithelial cells, lung, RNA interference

  4. Dielectric characterization of PCL-based thermoplastic materials for microwave diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Suzette M; Shea, Jacob D; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A; Van Veen, Barry D; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C

    2012-03-01

    We propose the use of a polycaprolactone (PCL)-based thermoplastic mesh as a tissue-immobilization interface for microwave imaging and microwave hyperthermia treatment. An investigation of the dielectric properties of two PCL-based thermoplastic materials in the frequency range of 0.5-3.5 GHz is presented. The frequency-dependent dielectric constant and effective conductivity of the PCL-based thermoplastics are characterized using measurements of microstrip transmission lines fabricated on substrates comprised of the thermoplastic meshes. We also examine the impact of the presence of a PCL-based thermoplastic mesh on microwave breast imaging. We use a numerical test bed comprised of a previously reported 3-D anatomically realistic breast phantom and a multi-frequency microwave inverse scattering algorithm. We demonstrate that the PCL-based thermoplastic material and the assumed biocompatible medium of vegetable oil are sufficiently well matched such that the PCL layer may be neglected by the imaging solution without sacrificing imaging quality. Our results suggest that PCL-based thermoplastics are promising materials as tissue immobilization structures for microwave diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  5. Glutathione-garlic sulfur conjugates: slow hydrogen sulfide releasing agents for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Ashif Iqbal; Papajani, Vilma Toska; Paci, Maurizio; Melino, Sonia

    2015-01-20

    Natural organosulfur compounds (OSCs) from Allium sativum L. display antioxidant and chemo-sensitization properties, including the in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through the induction of apoptosis. Garlic water- and oil-soluble allyl sulfur compounds show distinct properties and the capability to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. In the present study, we optimized a new protocol for the extraction of water-soluble compounds from garlic at low temperatures and the production of glutathionyl-OSC conjugates during the extraction. Spontaneously, Cys/GSH-mixed-disulfide conjugates are produced by in vivo metabolism of OSCs and represent active molecules able to affect cellular metabolism. Water-soluble extracts, with (GSGaWS) or without (GaWS) glutathione conjugates, were here produced and tested for their ability to release hydrogen sulfide (H2S), also in the presence of reductants and of thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (TST) enzyme. Thus, the TST catalysis of the H2S-release from garlic OSCs and their conjugates has been investigated by molecular in vitro experiments. The antiproliferative properties of these extracts on the human T-cell lymphoma cell line, HuT 78, were observed and related to histone hyperacetylation and downregulation of GAPDH expression. Altogether, the results presented here pave the way for the production of a GSGaWS as new, slowly-releasing hydrogen sulfide extract for potential therapeutic applications.

  6. Glutathione-Garlic Sulfur Conjugates: Slow Hydrogen Sulfide Releasing Agents for Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashif Iqbal Bhuiyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural organosulfur compounds (OSCs from Allium sativum L. display antioxidant and chemo-sensitization properties, including the in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through the induction of apoptosis. Garlic water- and oil-soluble allyl sulfur compounds show distinct properties and the capability to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. In the present study, we optimized a new protocol for the extraction of water-soluble compounds from garlic at low temperatures and the production of glutathionyl-OSC conjugates during the extraction. Spontaneously, Cys/GSH-mixed-disulfide conjugates are produced by in vivo metabolism of OSCs and represent active molecules able to affect cellular metabolism. Water-soluble extracts, with (GSGaWS or without (GaWS glutathione conjugates, were here produced and tested for their ability to release hydrogen sulfide (H2S, also in the presence of reductants and of thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (TST enzyme. Thus, the TST catalysis of the H2S-release from garlic OSCs and their conjugates has been investigated by molecular in vitro experiments. The antiproliferative properties of these extracts on the human T-cell lymphoma cell line, HuT 78, were observed and related to histone hyperacetylation and downregulation of GAPDH expression. Altogether, the results presented here pave the way for the production of a GSGaWS as new, slowly-releasing hydrogen sulfide extract for potential therapeutic applications.

  7. Therapeutic intervention scoring system-28 (TISS-28: diretrizes para aplicação Therapeutic intervention scoring system-28 (tiss-28: directrices para su aplicación Therapeutic intervention scoring system-28 (tiss-28: directions for application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Grillo Padilha

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28 é um instrumento que permite dimensionar carga de trabalho de enfermagem em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e estimar gravidade da doença. Apresenta-se nesta publicação as definições operacionais para sua aplicação, proposta por um grupo de especialistas na área, com vistas a uniformizar o significado de cada um dos itens e evitar vieses de interpretação.El Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28 es un instrumento que permite dimensionar carga de trabajo de enfermería en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva y estimar la gravedad de la enfermedad. Se presenta en esta publicación las definiciones operacionales para su aplicación, propuesta por un grupo de especialistas en el área, con vistas a uniformizar el significado de cada uno de los items y evitar sesgos de interpretación.Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28 is a tool that enables the measurement of the nursing work load in Intensive Care Units and the estimate of how grave the disease is. In this study are presented the operational definitions for its application, proposed by a group of specialists in the area, with the aim of rendering uniform the meaning of each of the items and preventing interpretation biases.

  8. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - ulnar nerve; Ulnar nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy; Cubital tunnel syndrome ... neuropathy occurs when there is damage to the ulnar nerve. This ... syndrome may result. When damage destroys the nerve covering ( ...

  9. Cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DongFuhui

    2004-01-01

    The cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome is named that, the cutaneous nerve's functional disorder caused by some chronic entrapment, moreover appears a series of nerve's feeling obstacle,vegetative nerve function obstacle, nutrition obstacle, even motor function obstacle in various degree.

  10. Nerve biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of nerve for examination. Through a small incision, a sample ... is removed and examined under a microscope. Nerve biopsy may be performed to identify nerve degeneration, identify ...

  11. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagus nerve stimulation Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Vagus nerve stimulation is a procedure that involves implantation of a device that stimulates the vagus nerve with electrical impulses. There's one vagus nerve on ...

  12. Differential solubility of curcuminoids in serum and albumin solutions: implications for analytical and therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quitschke Wolfgang W

    2008-11-01

    serum. Conclusion These results suggest the possibility of alternative therapeutic approaches by injection or infusion of relatively small amounts of curcuminoid-enriched serum. They also provide tools to reproducibly solubilize curcuminoids for analysis in cell culture applications. The differential solubility of curcuminoids achieved by different methods of solubilization offers convenient alternatives to assess the diverse biological effects contributed by curcumin and its derivatives.

  13. Therapeutic applications of indium-111-octreotide for carcinoid syndrome. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camden, B.M.; Chu, J.M.G. [Liverpool Health Service, Liverpool, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Ultrasound

    1998-06-01

    Full text: A 83 year old female presented to our department for an Indium-111 Octreotide study to evaluate her carcinoid syndrome with the view of delivering therapeutic doses of Indium-111 Octreotide. Indium-111 Octreotide uptake has been shown in tumours with high-affinity somatostatin receptor sites. In many instances a positive scintigram predicts a favourable response to treatment with Octreotide. The diagnostic scan appearance demonstrated abnormal increased focal uptake in multiple sites of both lobes of the liver and one in the right iliac fossa, her primary site. Before the therapeutic doses, both haematological and biochemical indices of her carcinoid were performed to evaluate therapeutic response. The patient was then admitted into our isolation room and underwent 3 therapeutic doses of Indium-111 Octreotide of between 180 and 350 mCi intravenously at 4 to 6 weekly intervals. A post-therapeutic total body scan with abdominal SPECT was performed after each dose to assess therapeutic uptake and response. Before the second therapeutic dose, an FDG coincidence PET study was performed. This scan corresponded with similar sites of uptake to the Octreotide scan The patient has now had 2 of her 3 therapeutic doses with the third due in late January 1998. At this point of time her biochemical indices and clinical facial flushing and diarrhoea have shown favourable response to therapy

  14. An animal model of peripheral nerve regeneration after the application of a collagen-polyvinyl alcohol scaffold and mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Silviu Adrian; Zărnescu, Otilia; Mihai, Ioana Ruxandra; Giuglea, Carmen; Sinescu, Ruxandra Diana

    2014-01-01

    Extensive nerve injuries often leading to nerve gaps can benefit, besides the gold standard represented by autologous nerve grafts, by the inciting field of tissue engineering. To enhance the role of biomaterials in nerve regeneration, the nerve conduits are associated with Schwann or Schwann-like cells. In this study, we evaluated rat sciatic nerve regeneration, by using a biodegradable nerve guide composed of Collagen (COL) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA), associated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). After the exposure of the rat sciatic nerve, a nerve gap was created by excising 1 cm of the nerve. Three experimental groups were used for nerve gap bridging: autografts, nerve conduits filled with medium culture and nerve conduits filled with MSC. The methods of sensory and motor assessment consisted of the functional evaluation of sciatic nerve recovery - toe-spread, pinprick tests and gastrocnemius muscle index (GMI). The histological and immunocytochemical analysis of the probes that were harvested from the repair site was performed at 12 weeks. Successful nerve regeneration was noted in all three groups at the end of the 12th week. The functional and immunocytochemical results suggested that COL-PVA tubes supported with mesenchymal stem cells could be considered similar to autologous nerve grafts in peripheral nerve regeneration, without the drawbacks of the last ones. The functional results were better for the autografts and the ultrastructural data were better for the nerve conduits, but there were not noticed any statistical differences.

  15. Synthesis of Biocompatible Nanoparticulate Coordination Polymers for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandanapitiye, Murthi S.

    The combination of nanotechnology with medicinal chemistry has developed into a burgeoning research area. Nanomaterials (NMs) could be seamlessly interfaced with various facets in biology, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry and environmental chemistry that may not be available to the same material in the bulk scale. This dissertation research has focused on the development of nanoparticulate coordination polymers for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Modern imaging techniques include X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). We have successfully developed several types of nanoparticulate diagnostics and therapeutics that have some potential usefulness in biomedicine. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticulate based PET (Positron emission tomography)/SPECT (Single photon emission computed tomography) are discussed in chapter 3. In chapter 4, preparation and potential utility of non-gadolinium based MRI contrast agent are reported for T1-weighted application. As far as the solely effectiveness of relaxation is concerned, Gd-based T 1-weighted MRI contrast agents have excellent enhancement of image contrast but they have risks of biological toxicity. Consequently, the search for T 1-weighted CAs with high efficacy and low toxicity has gained attention toward the Mn(II) and Fe(III). Fe(III) is considered to be more toxic to cells because free ferric or ferrous ions can catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species via the Fenton reactions. Paramagnetic chelates of Mn(II) could be employed as T1-weighted CAs. However, it is challenging to design and synthesize highly stable Mn(II) complexes that could maintain the integrity when administered to living system. Chapter 4 describes the synthesis and utility of nanoparticulate Mn analogue of Prussian blue (K2Mn 3[FeII(CN)6]2) as an effective T1 MRI contrast agent for cellular imaging X

  16. O ultrassom terapêutico na medula espinhal acelera a regeneração do nervo ciático de ratos Therapeutic ultrasound on the spinal cord accelerates regeneration of the sciatic nerve in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Guadallini Jatte

    2011-01-01

    sciatic functional index (SFI was measured with specific software. RESULTS: The SFI during the first and last week of treatment was -59.12 and -12.55 in Group 1, -53.31 and -1.32 in Group 2, indicating a 79% and 97% improvement, respectively, but differences between groups were only significant (p<0.05 during the third week. CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that low intensity therapeutic ultrasound enhances nerve regeneration, with significance during the 3rd week of treatment. Level of Evidence: Level II, prospective comparative study.

  17. Application of Emerging Pharmaceutical Technologies for Therapeutic Challenges of Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    An important requirement of therapeutics for extended duration exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit will be the development of pharmaceutical technologies suitable for sustained and preventive health care in remote and adverse environmental conditions. Availability of sustained, stable and targeted delivery pharmaceuticals for preventive health of major organ systems including gastrointestinal, hepato-renal, musculo-skeletal and immune function are essential to offset adverse effects of space environment beyond low Earth orbit. Specifically, medical needs may include multi-drug combinations for hormone replacement, radiation protection, immune enhancement and organ function restoration. Additionally, extended stability of pharmaceuticals dispensed in space must be also considered in future drug development. Emerging technologies that can deliver stable and multi-therapy pharmaceutical preparations and delivery systems include nanotechnology based drug delivery platforms, targeted-delivery systems in non-oral and non-parenteral formulation matrices. Synthetic nanomaterials designed with molecular precision offer defined structures, electronics, and chemistries to be efficient drug carriers with clear advantages over conventional materials of drug delivery matricies. Nano-carrier materials like the bottle brush polymers may be suitable for systemic delivery of drug cocktails while Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles or (SPIONS) have great potential to serve as carriers for targeted drug delivery to a specific site. These and other emerging concepts of drug delivery and extended shelf-life technologies will be reviewed in light of their application to address health-care challenges of exploration missions. Innovations in alternate treatments for sustained immune enhancement and infection control will be also discussed.

  18. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hammer

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve stimulation.Branching of the cervical vagus nerve was investigated macroscopically in 35 body donors (66 cervical sides in the carotid sheath. After X-ray imaging for determining the vertebral levels of cervical vagus nerve branching, samples were removed to confirm histologically the nerve and to calculate cervical vagus nerve diameters and cross-sections.Cervical vagus nerve branching was observed in 29% of all cases (26% unilaterally, 3% bilaterally and proven histologically in all cases. Right-sided branching (22% was more common than left-sided branching (12% and occurred on the level of the fourth and fifth vertebra on the left and on the level of the second to fifth vertebra on the right side. Vagus nerves without branching were significantly larger than vagus nerves with branches, concerning their diameters (4.79 mm vs. 3.78 mm and cross-sections (7.24 mm2 vs. 5.28 mm2.Cervical vagus nerve branching is considerably more frequent than described previously. The side-dependent differences of vagus nerve branching may be linked to the asymmetric effects of the vagus nerve. Cervical vagus nerve branching should be taken into account when identifying main trunk of the vagus nerve for implanting electrodes to minimize potential side effects or lacking therapeutic benefits of vagus nerve stimulation.

  19. 周围神经的MR新技术及其应用进展%The New Progress of MR Technology and its Application in Peripheral Nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨元芬

    2016-01-01

    各种原因导致外周神经病变在临床工作中占有相当的比例。如何有效、直接显示外周神经及其病变,一直是影像学研究的重要内容。随着MR技术的发展,周围神经的MR成像技术有了新的突破,其对周围神经病变的评价研究也愈受到关注。现将周围神经的成像技术及其周围神经病变应用予以综述。%A variety of reasons causing peripheral neuropathy occupied considerable proportion in clinical work. How to effectively and directly display peripheral nerve and its pathological changes, had been the important content of imaging studies. With the development of MR technology, peripheral nerve of MR imaging technology had new breakthrough. The research on the evaluation of peripheral neuropathy was also atention. Peripheral nerve imaging technology and its peripheral neuropathy application were reviewed in this paper.

  20. Cardiac Autonomic Nerve Stimulation in the Treatment of Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Mariko; Massiello, Alex; Karimov, Jamshid H.; Van Wagoner, David R.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    Research on the therapeutic modulation of cardiac autonomic tone by electrical stimulation has yielded encouraging early clinical results. Vagus nerve stimulation has reduced the rates of morbidity and sudden death from heart failure, but therapeutic vagus nerve stimulation is limited by side effects of hypotension and bradycardia. Sympathetic nerve stimulation that has been implemented in the experiment may exacerbate the sympathetic-dominated autonomic imbalance. In contrast, concurrent sti...

  1. Cardiac Autonomic Nerve Stimulation in the Treatment of Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Mariko; Massiello, Alex; Karimov, Jamshid H.; Van Wagoner, David R.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    Research on the therapeutic modulation of cardiac autonomic tone by electrical stimulation has yielded encouraging early clinical results. Vagus nerve stimulation has reduced the rates of morbidity and sudden death from heart failure, but therapeutic vagus nerve stimulation is limited by side effects of hypotension and bradycardia. Sympathetic nerve stimulation that has been implemented in the experiment may exacerbate the sympathetic-dominated autonomic imbalance. In contrast, concurrent sti...

  2. Anatomical study of the nerve regeneration after selective neurectomy in the rabbit: clinical application for esthetic calf reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang-Jae; Yoo, Ja-Young; Lee, Ju-Young; Gil, Young-Chun; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of this study were therefore to characterize the degeneration and regeneration of nerves to the calf muscles after selective neurectomy, both macroscopically and microscopically, and to determine the incidence of such regeneration in a rabbit model. Seventy four New Zealand white rabbits were used. Selective neurectomy to the triceps surae muscles was performed, and the muscles were subsequently harvested and weighed 1-4 months postneurectomy. The gastrocnemius muscles were stained with Sihler's solution to enable the macroscopic observation of any nerve regeneration that may have occurred subsequent to neurectomy. The change in triceps surae muscle weight was measured along the time course of the experiment. After neurectomy, nerve degeneration was followed by regeneration in all cases. The weight of the triceps surae muscle decreased dramatically between completion of the neurectomy and 1 month postneurectomy, but increased thereafter. The nerve branches were weakly stained with Sihler's solution until 2 months postneurectomy, and then strongly stained after 3 months. The number of myelinated axons was decreased at 2 month after neurectomy compared to nonneurectomized controls, but then gradually increased thereafter. Although there are currently no reports on the incidence of recovery after calf reduction, it may be a very common occurrence in the clinical field based on our findings. The findings of this study provide fundamental anatomical and surgical information to aid planning and practice in calf-reduction surgery.

  3. Sound Findings on Hand Dynamics: Validation and Application of Ultrasound Speckle Tracking of Tendon and Nerve Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-W.H. Korstanje (Jan-Wiebe)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDynamic imaging of the hand and wrist would give valuable insight in the complex interaction between tendons, nerves, and their surrounding tissue also called subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) during hand movements. Furthermore, it could provide clinicians and therapists with valuable

  4. Senescence in adipose-derived stem cells and its implications in nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristina Mantovani; Giorgio Terenghi; Valerio Magnaghi

    2014-01-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells, specifically adipose-derived stem cells have self-renewal and multiple differentiation potentials and have shown to be the ideal candidate for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine, particularly in peripheral nerve regeneration. Adipose-de-rived stem cells are easily harvested, although they may show the effects of aging, hence their potential in nerve repair may be limited by cellular senescence or donor age. Cellular senescence is a complex process whereby stem cells grow old as consequence of intrinsic events (e.g., DNA damage) or environmental cues (e.g., stressful stimuli or diseases), which determine a permanent growth arrest. Several mechanisms are implicated in stem cell senescence, although no one is exclusive of the others. In this review we report some of the most important factors modulating the senescence process, which can inlfuence adipose-derived stem cell morphology and function, and compromise their clinical application for peripheral nerve regenerative cell therapy.

  5. Using an end-to-side interposed sural nerve graft for facial nerve reinforcement after vestibular schwannoma resection. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samii, Madjid; Koerbel, Andrei; Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Di Rocco, Federico; Samii, Amir; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2006-12-01

    Increasing rates of facial and cochlear nerve preservation after vestibular schwannoma surgery have been achieved in the last 30 years. However, the management of a partially or completely damaged facial nerve remains an important issue. In such a case, several immediate or delayed repair techniques have been used. On the basis of recent studies of successful end-to-side neurorrhaphy, the authors applied this technique in a patient with an anatomically preserved but partially injured facial nerve during vestibular schwannoma surgery. The authors interposed a sural nerve graft to reinforce the facial nerve whose partial anatomical continuity had been preserved. On follow-up examinations 18 months after surgery, satisfactory cosmetic results for facial nerve function were observed. The end-to-side interposed nerve graft appears to be a reasonable alternative in cases of partial facial nerve injury, and might be a future therapeutic option for other cranial nerve injuries.

  6. Cannabinoid receptors in brain: pharmacogenetics, neuropharmacology, neurotoxicology, and potential therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaivi, Emmanuel S

    2009-01-01

    Much progress has been achieved in cannabinoid research. A major breakthrough in marijuana-cannabinoid research has been the discovery of a previously unknown but elaborate endogenous endocannabinoid system (ECS), complete with endocannabinoids and enzymes for their biosynthesis and degradation with genes encoding two distinct cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors (CBRs) that are activated by endocannabinoids, cannabinoids, and marijuana use. Physical and genetic localization of the CBR genes CNR1 and CNR2 have been mapped to chromosome 6 and 1, respectively. A number of variations in CBR genes have been associated with human disorders including osteoporosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), drug dependency, obesity, and depression. Other family of lipid receptors including vanilloid (VR1) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors appear to be related to the CBRs at the phylogenetic level. The ubiquitous abundance and differential distribution of the ECS in the human body and brain along with the coupling to many signal transduction pathways may explain the effects in most biological system and the myriad behavioral effects associated with smoking marijuana. The neuropharmacological and neuroprotective features of phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoid associated neurogenesis have revealed roles for the use of cannabinoids in neurodegenerative pathologies with less neurotoxicity. The remarkable progress in understanding the biological actions of marijuana and cannabinoids have provided much richer results than previously appreciated cannabinoid genomics and raised a number of critical issues on the molecular mechanisms of cannabinoid induced behavioral and biochemical alterations. These advances will allow specific therapeutic targeting of the different components of the ECS in health and disease. This review focuses on these recent advances in cannabinoid genomics and the surprising new fundamental roles that the

  7. Fibrinogen and fibrin based micro and nano scaffolds incorporated with drugs, proteins, cells and genes for therapeutic biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajangam, Thanavel; An, Seong Soo A

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, many types of natural and synthetic polymer-based micro- and nanocarriers, with exciting properties and applications, have been developed for application in various types of tissue regeneration, including bone, cartilage, nerve, blood vessels, and skin. The development of suitable polymers scaffold designs to aid the repair of specific cell types have created diverse and important potentials in tissue restoration. Fibrinogen (Fbg)- and fibrin (Fbn)-based micro- and nanostructures can provide suitable natural matrix environments. Since these primary materials are abundantly available in blood as the main coagulation proteins, they can easily interact with damaged tissues and cells through native biochemical interactions. Fbg- and Fbn-based micro and nanostructures can also be consecutively furnished/or encapsulated and specifically delivered, with multiple growth factors, proteins, and stem cells, in structures designed to aid in specific phases of the tissue regeneration process. The present review has been carried out to demonstrate the progress made with micro and nanoscaffold applications and features a number of applications of Fbg- and Fbn-based carriers in the field of biomaterials, including the delivery of drugs, active biomolecules, cells, and genes, that have been effectively used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  8. Fibrinogen and fibrin based micro and nano scaffolds incorporated with drugs, proteins, cells and genes for therapeutic biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajangam T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Thanavel Rajangam, Seong Soo A An Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam-Si, Republic of Korea Abstract: Over the past two decades, many types of natural and synthetic polymer-based micro- and nanocarriers, with exciting properties and applications, have been developed for application in various types of tissue regeneration, including bone, cartilage, nerve, blood vessels, and skin. The development of suitable polymers scaffold designs to aid the repair of specific cell types have created diverse and important potentials in tissue restoration. Fibrinogen (Fbg- and fibrin (Fbn-based micro- and nanostructures can provide suitable natural matrix environments. Since these primary materials are abundantly available in blood as the main coagulation proteins, they can easily interact with damaged tissues and cells through native biochemical interactions. Fbg- and Fbn-based micro and nanostructures can also be consecutively furnished/or encapsulated and specifically delivered, with multiple growth factors, proteins, and stem cells, in structures designed to aid in specific phases of the tissue regeneration process. The present review has been carried out to demonstrate the progress made with micro and nanoscaffold applications and features a number of applications of Fbg- and Fbn-based carriers in the field of biomaterials, including the delivery of drugs, active biomolecules, cells, and genes, that have been effectively used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Keywords: biomaterial, polymer composite, cross-linking, growth factor, drug delivery, controlled release, tissue regeneration

  9. Applications of lipid based formulation technologies in the delivery of biotechnology-based therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Lissinda H; Marais, Etienne B; Mohammed, Faruq; Kotzé, Awie F

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades several new biotechnologically-based therapeutics have been developed due to progress in genetic engineering. A growing challenge facing pharmaceutical scientists is formulating these compounds into oral dosage forms with adequate bioavailability. An increasingly popular approach to formulate biotechnology-based therapeutics is the use of lipid based formulation technologies. This review highlights the importance of lipid based drug delivery systems in the formulation of oral biotechnology based therapeutics including peptides, proteins, DNA, siRNA and vaccines. The different production procedures used to achieve high encapsulation efficiencies of the bioactives are discussed, as well as the factors influencing the choice of excipient. Lipid based colloidal drug delivery systems including liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles are reviewed with a focus on recent advances and updates. We further describe microemulsions and self-emulsifying drug delivery systems and recent findings on bioactive delivery. We conclude the review with a few examples on novel lipid based formulation technologies.

  10. [REACTIVE CHANGES IN SPINAL CORD MOTONEURONS AFTER SCIATIC NERVE INJURY AFTER HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTROSURGICAL INSTRUMENT APPLICATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsak, A; Chaikovsky, Yu; Sokurenko, L; Likhodiievskyi, V; Neverovskyi, A

    2016-02-01

    A new experimental model for tissues connection at peripheral nerve injury site in form of tissues welding was designed. In current study we investigated motoneuron state 1, 3, 6 and 12 weeks after peripheral nerve injury and surgical repair with high-frequency electrosurgical technology. Spinal cord sections was stained by Nissl method and observed with light microscopy. We found that postoperative period in animals from experimental groups characterized by qualitative changes in neurons from spinal motor centers that can be interpreted as compensatory processes as response to alteration. In animals from group with high-frequency electrosurgical technology usage stabilization processes passes more quickly comparatively to animals with epineural sutures. High-frequency electrosurgical technology usage provides less harmful effects on motoneurons than epineural suturing.

  11. A simple method for fabrication of electrospun fibers with controlled degree of alignment having potential for nerve regeneration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimal, Sunil Kumar; Ahamad, Nadim; Katti, Dhirendra S., E-mail: dsk@iitk.ac.in

    2016-06-01

    In peripheral nerve injuries where direct suturing of nerve endings is not feasible, nerve regeneration has been facilitated through the use of artificially aligned fibrous scaffolds that provide directional growth of neurons to bridge the gap. The degree of fiber alignment is crucial and can impact the directionality of cells in a fibrous scaffold. While there have been multiple approaches that have been used for controlling fiber alignment, however, they have been associated with a compromised control on other properties, such as diameter, morphology, curvature, and topology of fibers. Therefore, the present study demonstrates a modified electrospinning set-up, that enabled fabrication of electrospun fibers with controlled degree of alignment from non-aligned (NA), moderately aligned (MA, 75%) to highly aligned (HA, 95%) sub-micron fibers while keeping other physical properties unchanged. The results demonstrate that the aligned fibers (MA and HA) facilitated directional growth of human astrocytoma cells (U373), wherein the aspect ratio of cells was found to increase with an increase in degree of fibers alignment. In contrast to NA and MA fibers, the HA fibers showed improved contact guidance to U373 cells that was demonstrated by a significantly higher cell aspect ratio and nuclear aspect ratio. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated a modified electrospinning setup to fabricate differentially aligned fibrous scaffolds with the HA fibers showing potential for use in neural tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Modified electrospinning set-up for fabrication of fibers with controlled alignment • Three parameter-based control on the degree of alignment of fibers • The aligned fibers enhanced cell elongation and cell-cell contact. • The aligned fibers show potential for use in nerve regeneration.

  12. The chitosan prepared from crab tendons: II. The chitosan/apatite composites and their application to nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Isamu; Itoh, Soichiro; Suzuki, Masumi; Osaka, Akiyoshi; Tanaka, Junzo

    2003-08-01

    The chitosan tubes derived from crab tendons form a hollow tube structure, which is useful for nerve regeneration. However, in order to use the chitosan tubes effectively for nerve regeneration, there remain two problems to be solved. First, the mechanical strength of the tubes is quite high along the longitudinal axis, but is somewhat low for a pressure from side. Second, the chitosan tube walls swell to reduce the inner space of the tubes in vivo. These two problems limit the clinical use of the chitosan tubes. In this study, to solve the problems, apatite was made to react with the chitosan tubes to enhance the mechanical strength of the tube walls. Transmission electron microscopy showed that apatite crystals were formed in the walls of the chitosan tubes. The c-axis of the crystals aligned well in parallel with chitosan molecules. These results indicate that the apatite crystals grow in the tubes starting from the nucleation sites of the chitosan molecules, probably by forming complexes with amino groups of chitosan and calcium ions. Further, the tubes were thermally annealed at 120 degrees C to prevent from swelling, and simultaneously formed into a triangular shape to enhance the stabilization of the tube structure. By these treatments, the hollow tubes could keep their shape even in vivo after implantation. Animal tests using SD rats further showed that the chitosan tubes effectively induced the regeneration of nerve tissue, and were gradually degraded and absorbed in vivo.

  13. Antitumor therapeutic application of self-assembled RNAi-AuNP nanoconstructs: Combination of VEGF-RNAi and photothermal ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sejin; Kim, Namho; You, Dong Gil; Yoon, Hong Yeol; Yhee, Ji Young; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Sun Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Nucleic acid-directed self-assembly provides an attractive method to fabricate prerequisite nanoscale structures for a wide range of technological applications due to the remarkable programmability of DNA/RNA molecules. In this study, exquisite RNAi-AuNP nanoconstructs with various geometries were developed by utilizing anti-VEGF siRNA molecules as RNAi-based therapeutics in addition to their role as building blocks for programmed self-assembly. In particular, the anti-VEGF siRNA-functionalized AuNP nanoconstructs can take additional advantage of gold-nanoclusters for photothermal cancer therapeutic agent. A noticeable technical aspect of self-assembled RNAi-AuNP nanoconstructs in this study is the precise conjugation and separation of designated numbers of therapeutic siRNA onto AuNP to develop highly sophisticated RNA-based building blocks capable of creating various geometries of RNAi-AuNP nano-assemblies. The therapeutic potential of RNAi-AuNP nanoconstructs was validated in vivo as well as in vitro by combining heat generation capability of AuNP and anti-angiogenesis mechanism of siRNA. This strategy of combining anti-VEGF mechanism for depleting angiogenesis process at initial tumor progression and complete ablation of residual tumors with photothermal activity of AuNP at later tumor stage showed effective tumor growth inhibition and tumor ablation with PC-3 tumor bearing mice. PMID:28042312

  14. Facial nerve paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-12-16

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology.

  15. Use of nerve elongator to repair short-distance peripheral nerve defects: a prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair techniques for short-distance peripheral nerve defects, including adjacent joint flexion to reduce the distance between the nerve stump defects, "nerve splint" suturing, and nerve sleeve connection, have some disadvantages. Therefore, we designed a repair technique involving intraoperative tension-free application of a nerve elongator and obtained good outcomes in the repair of short-distance peripheral nerve defects in a previous animal study. The present study compared the clinical outcomes between the use of this nerve elongator and performance of the conventional method in the repair of short-distance transection injuries in human elbows. The 3-, 6-, and 12-month postoperative follow-up results demonstrated that early neurological function recovery was better in the nerve elongation group than in the conventional group, but no significant difference in long-term neurological function recovery was detected between the two groups. In the nerve elongation group, the nerves were sutured without tension, and the duration of postoperative immobilization of the elbow was decreased. Elbow function rehabilitation was significantly better in the nerve elongation group than in the control group. Moreover, there were no security risks. The results of this study confirm that the use of this nerve elongator for repair of short-distance peripheral nerve defects is safe and effective.

  16. Vagus nerve stimulation may be a sound therapeutic option in the treatment of refractory epilepsy Estimulação no nervo vago pode ser uma excelente opção no tratamento de epilepsias refratárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S. Meneses

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Refractory epilepsy accounts for 20 to 30% of epilepsy cases and remains a challenge for neurologists. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS is an option for palliative treatment. OBJECTIVE: It was to study the efficacy and tolerability of VNS in patients implanted with a stimulator at the Curitiba Institute of Neurology (INC. METHODS: A case study of six patients with refractory epilepsy submitted to a VNS procedure at the INC in the last four years was described and discussed. RESULTS: Mean age at time of implantation was 29 years. Mean follow-up was 26.6 months. Seizure frequency decreased in all patients (40-50% (n=2 and >80% (n=4. Three patients no longer required frequent hospitalizations. Two patients previously restricted to wheelchairs started to walk, probably because of improved mood. CONCLUSION: In this population, VNS proved to be a sound therapeutic option for treating refractory epilepsy.INTRODUÇÃO: Epilepsias refratárias compreendem de 20 a 30% dos casos de epilepsia e constituem desafio clínico. A neuroestimulação do nervo vago (VNS é uma opção de tratamento paliativo. OBJETIVOS: Foi estudar a eficácia e a tolerabilidade da VNS nos pacientes implantados no Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de casos de seis pacientes com epilepsia refratária, submetidos à VNS no INC em quatro anos, foi descrito e discutido. RESULTADOS: A média de idade na implantação foi 29 anos. O seguimento médio foi 26,6 meses. A frequência de crises diminuiu em todos os pacientes (40-50% em um paciente e >80% em quatro. Três pacientes deixaram de internar frequentemente. Dois pacientes restritos a cadeiras de rodas começaram a andar, provavelmente por melhora de seu humor. CONCLUSÃO: Nesta população, a VNS provou ser uma excelente opção no tratamento de epilepsia refratária.

  17. Discovery and Development of Synthetic and Natural Biomaterials for Protein Therapeutics and Medical Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Andrew J.

    Controlling nonspecific protein interactions is important for applications from medical devices to protein therapeutics. The presented work is a compilation of efforts aimed at using zwitterionic (ionic yet charge neutral) polymers to modify and stabilize the surface of sensitive biomedical and biological materials. Traditionally, when modifying the surface of a material, the stability of the underlying substrate. The materials modified in this dissertation are unique due to their unconventional amorphous characteristics which provide additional challenges. These are poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) rubber, and proteins. These materials may seem dissimilar, but both have amorphous surfaces, that do not respond well to chemical modification. PDMS is a biomaterial extensively used in medical device manufacturing, but experiences unacceptably high levels of non-specific protein fouling when used with biological samples. To reduce protein fouling, surface modification is often needed. Unfortunately conventional surface modification methods, such as Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coatings, do not work for PDMS due to its amorphous state. Herein, we demonstrate how a superhydrophilic zwitterionic material, poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (pCBMA), can provide a highly stable nonfouling coating with long term stability due to the sharp the contrast in hydrophobicity between pCBMA and PDMS. Biological materials, such as proteins, also require stabilization to improve shelf life, circulation time, and bioactivity. Conjugation of proteins with PEG is often used to increase protein stability, but has a detrimental effect on bioactivity. Here we have shown that pCBMA conjugation improves stability in a similar fashion to PEG, but also retains, or even improves, binding affinity due to enhanced protein-substrate hydrophobic interactions. Recognizing that pCBMA chemically resembles the combination of lysine (K) and glutamic acid (E) amino acids, we have shown how zwitterionic

  18. Potential therapeutic applications of differentiated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Aijing; Peng, Yuhua; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties in realizing persistent neurogenesis, inabilities in modeling pathogenesis of most cases, and a shortage of disease material for screening therapeutic agents restrict our progress to overcome challenges presented by neurodegenerative diseases. We propose that reprogramming primary somatic cells of patients into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides a new avenue to overcome these impediments. Their abilities in self-renewal and differentiation into various cell types will enable disease investigation and drug development. In this review, we introduce efficient approaches to generate iPSCs and distinct iPSCs differentiation stages, and critically discuss paradigms of iPSCs technology application to investigate neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Although iPSCs technology is in its infancy and faces many obstacles, it has great potential in helping to identify therapeutic targets for treating neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Transsacral S2-S4 nerve block for vaginal pain due to pudendal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Oya Yalcin; Eker, H Evren; Cok, Tayfun; Akin, Sule; Aribogan, Anis; Arslan, Gulnaz

    2011-01-01

    Pudendal neuralgia is a type of neuropathic pain experienced predominantly while sitting, and causes a substantial decrease in quality of life in affected patients. Pudendal nerve block is a diagnostic and therapeutic option for pudendal neuralgia. Transsacral block at S2 through S4 results in pudendal nerve block, which is an option for successful relief of pain due to pudendal nerve injury. Herein is reported blockade of S2 through S4 using lidocaine and methylprednisolone for successful treatment of pudendal neuralgia in 2 patients with severe chronic vaginal pain. The patients, aged 44 and 58 years, respectively, were referred from the Gynecology Department to the pain clinic because of burning, stabbing, electric shock-like, unilateral pain localized to the left portion of the vagina and extending to the perineum. Their initial pain scores were 9 and 10, respectively, on a numeric rating scale. Both patients refused pudendal nerve block using classical techniques. Therefore, diagnostic transsacral S2-S4 nerve block was performed using lidocaine 1%, and was repeated using lidocaine 1% and methylprednisolone 80 mg after confirming block efficiency as demonstrated by an immediate decrease in pain scores. After 1 month, pain scores were 1 and 0, respectively, and both patients were free of pain at 6-month follow up. It is suggested that blockade of S2 through S4 using lidocaine and methylprednisolone is an effective treatment option in patients with chronic pudendal neuralgia when traditional pudendal nerve block is not applicable.

  20. Fascicular nerve stimulation and recording using a novel double-aisle regenerative electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Martínez, I.; Righi, M.; Santos, D.; Cutrone, A.; Bossi, S.; D'Amico, S.; Del Valle, J.; Micera, S.; Navarro, X.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. As artificial prostheses become more refined, they are most often used as a therapeutic option for hand amputation. By contrast to extra- or intraneural interfaces, regenerative nerve electrodes are designed to enable electrical interfaces with regrowing axonal bundles of injured nerves, aiming to achieve high selectivity for recording and stimulation. However, most of the developed designs pose an obstacle to the regrowth mechanisms due to low transparency and cause impairment to the nerve regeneration. Approach. Here we present the double-aisle electrode, a new type of highly transparent, non-obstructive regenerative electrode. Using a double-side thin-film polyimide planar multi-contact electrode, two nerve fascicles can regenerate without physical impairment through two electrically isolated aisles. Main results. We show that this electrode can be used to selectively record and stimulate fascicles, acutely as well as chronically, and allow regeneration in nerve gaps of several millimeters without impairment. Significance. This multi-aisle regenerative electrode may be suitable for neuroprosthetic applications, such as prostheses, for the restoration of hand function after amputation or severe nerve injuries.

  1. Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica): health promoting properties and therapeutic applications – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek, Katarzyna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    Chia has been known for over 5,500 years. Chia seeds were one of the most important components of the diet of Mayas and Aztecs. The chemical composition and technological properties of chia give the plant a high nutritional potential. Chia is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids: omega-3 and omega-6, soluble dietary fiber. It also contains appreciable amount of proteins and phytochemicals. Nutritional value of chia is the reason why it is used in prophylaxis of several non-infectious diseases such as obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer and diabetes. Nutritional and therapeutic aspects of chia are currently being researched by many scientific centres. The aim of this article is to present the nutritional and therapeutic values of chia.

  2. The apelinergic system: the role played in human physiology and pathology and potential therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Ferreira-Martins, João; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2008-05-01

    Apelin is a recently discovered peptide, identified as an endogenous ligand of receptor APJ. Apelin and receptor APJ are expressed in a wide variety of tissues including heart, brain, kidneys and lungs. Their interaction may have relevant pathophysiologic effects in those tissues. In fact, the last decade has been rich in illustrating the possible roles played by apelin in human physiology, namely as a regulating peptide of cardiovascular, hypothalamus-hypophysis, gastrointestinal, and immune systems. The possible involvement of apelin in the pathogenesis of high prevalence conditions and comorbidities - such as hypertension, heart failure, and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (T2DM) - rank it as a likely therapeutic target to be investigated in the future. The present paper is an overview of apelin physiologic effects and presents the possible role played by this peptide in the pathogenesis of a number of conditions as well as the therapeutic implications that might, therefore, be investigated.

  3. Possible molecular targets for therapeutic applications of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in inflammation and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Murtaza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Of the various derivatives of caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE is a hydrophobic, bioactive polyphenolic ester obtained from propolis extract. The objective in writing this review article was to summarize all published studies on therapeutics of CAPE in inflammation and cancer to extract direction for future research. The possible molecular targets for the action of CAPE, include various transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB, tissue necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, Nrf2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor of activated T cells, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and signal transducers and activators of transcription. Based on the valuable data on its therapeutics in inflammation and cancer, clinical studies of CAPE should also be conducted to explore its toxicities, if any.

  4. Pathogenetic and therapeutic applications of microRNAs in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2016-01-04

    As a class of noncoding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of messenger RNAs. These miRNAs have been shown to play a critical role in higher brain functioning and actively participate in synaptic plasticity. Pre-clinical evidence demonstrates that expression of miRNAs is differentially altered during stress. On the other hand, depressed individuals show marked changes in miRNA expression in brain. MiRNAs are also target of antidepressants and electroconvulsive therapy. Moreover, these miRNAs are present in circulating blood and can be easily detected. Profiling of miRNAs in blood plasma/serum provides evidence that determination of miRNAs in blood can be used as possible diagnostic and therapeutic tool. In this review article, these aspects are critically reviewed and the role of miRNAs in possible etiopathogenesis and therapeutic implications in the context of major depressive disorder is discussed.

  5. Optimization of ultrasound parameters of myocardial cavitation microlesions for therapeutic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L; Dou, Chunyan; Owens, Gabe E; Kripfgans, Oliver D

    2014-06-01

    Intermittent high intensity ultrasound scanning with contrast microbubbles can induce scattered cavitation microlesions in the myocardium, which may be of value for tissue reduction therapy. Anesthetized rats were treated in a heated water bath with 1.5 MHz focused ultrasound pulses, guided by an 8 MHz imaging transducer. The relative efficacy with 2 or 4 MPa pulses, 1:4 or 1:8 trigger intervals and 5 or 10 cycle pulses was explored in six groups. Electrocardiogram premature complexes (PCs) induced by the triggered pulse bursts were counted, and Evans blue stained cardiomyocyte scores (SCSs) were obtained. The increase from 2 to 4 MPa produced significant increases in PCs and SCSs and eliminated an anticipated decline in the rate of PC induction with time, which might hinder therapeutic efficacy. Increased intervals and pulse durations did not yield significant increases in the effects. The results suggest that cavitation microlesion production can be refined and potentially lead to a clinically robust therapeutic method.

  6. Notch signaling and EMT in non-small cell lung cancer: biological significance and therapeutic application

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Xun; Wu, Hua; Han, Na; Xu, Hanxiao; Chu, Qian; Yu, Shiying; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer cells acquire enhanced ability of migration and invasion, stem cell like characteristics and therapeutic resistance. Notch signaling regulates cell-cell connection, cell polarity and motility during organ development. Recent studies demonstrate that Notch signaling plays an important role in lung cancer initiation and cross-talks with several transcriptional factors to enhance EMT, contributing to the progression of non-small cell lung c...

  7. The Potential Therapeutic Application of Peptides and Peptidomimetics in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Carlota; Maione, Francesco; Iqbal, Asif J; Mascolo, Nicola; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Numerous therapies are currently under investigation to improve pathological cardiovascular complications, but yet, there have been very few new medications approved for intervention/treatment. Therefore, new approaches to treat CVD are urgently required. Attempts to prevent vascular complications usually involve amelioration of contributing risk factors and underlying processes such as inflammation, obesity, hyperglycaemia, or hypercholesterolemia. Historically, the development of peptides as therapeutic agents has been avoided by the Pharmaceutical industry due to their low stability, size, rate of degradation, and poor delivery. However, more recently, resurgence has taken place in developing peptides and their mimetics for therapeutic intervention. As a result, increased attention has been placed upon using peptides that mimic the function of mediators involved in pathologic processes during vascular damage. This review will provide an overview on novel targets and experimental therapeutic approaches based on peptidomimetics for modulation in CVD. We aim to specifically examine apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoE mimetic peptides and their role in cholesterol transport during atherosclerosis, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1-derived peptides and annexin-A1 as potent inhibitors of inflammation, incretin mimetics and their function in glucose-insulin tolerance, among others. With improvements in technology and synthesis platforms the future looks promising for the development of novel peptides and mimetics for therapeutic use. However, within the area of CVD much more work is required to identify and improve our understanding of peptide structure, interaction, and function in order to select the best targets to take forward for treatment.

  8. Future research and therapeutic applications of human stem cells: general, regulatory, and bioethical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liras Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is much to be investigated about the specific characteristics of stem cells and about the efficacy and safety of the new drugs based on this type of cells, both embryonic as adult stem cells, for several therapeutic indications (cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, diabetes, hematopoietic diseases, liver diseases. Along with recent progress in transference of nuclei from human somatic cells, as well as iPSC technology, has allowed availability of lineages of all three germ layers genetically identical to those of the donor patient, which permits safe transplantation of organ-tissue-specific adult stem cells with no immune rejection. The main objective is the need for expansion of stem cell characteristics to maximize stem cell efficacy (i.e. the proper selection of a stem cell and the efficacy (maximum effect and safety of stem cell derived drugs. Other considerations to take into account in cell therapy will be the suitability of infrastructure and technical staff, biomaterials, production costs, biobanks, biosecurity, and the biotechnological industry. The general objectives in the area of stem cell research in the next few years, are related to identification of therapeutic targets and potential therapeutic tests, studies of cell differentiation and physiological mechanisms, culture conditions of pluripotent stem cells and efficacy and safety tests for stem cell-based drugs or procedures to be performed in both animal and human models in the corresponding clinical trials. A regulatory framework will be required to ensure patient accessibility to products and governmental assistance for their regulation and control. Bioethical aspects will be required related to the scientific and therapeutic relevance and cost of cryopreservation over time, but specially with respect to embryos which may ultimately be used for scientific uses of research as source of embryonic stem cells, in which case the bioethical conflict may be further

  9. The Therapeutic Utility of Employment in Treating Drug Addiction: Science to Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth; Holtyn, August F; Morrison, Reed

    2016-06-01

    Research on a model Therapeutic Workplace has allowed for evaluation of the use of employment in the treatment of drug addiction. Under the Therapeutic Workplace intervention, adults with histories of drug addiction are hired and paid to work. To promote drug abstinence or adherence to addiction medications, participants are required to provide drug-free urine samples or take prescribed addiction medications, respectively, to gain access to the workplace and/or to maintain their maximum rate of pay. Research has shown that the Therapeutic Workplace intervention is effective in promoting and maintaining abstinence from heroin, cocaine and alcohol and in promoting adherence to naltrexone. Three models could be used to implement and maintain employment-based reinforcement in the treatment of drug addiction: A Social Business model, a Cooperative Employer model, and a Wage Supplement model. Under all models, participants initiate abstinence in a training and abstinence initiation phase (Phase 1). Under the Social Business model, Phase 1 graduates are hired as employees in a social business and required to maintain abstinence to maintain employment and/or maximum pay. Under the Cooperative Employer model, cooperating community employers hire graduates of Phase 1 and require them to maintain abstinence to maintain employment and/or maximum pay. Under the Wage Supplement Model, graduates of Phase 1 are offered abstinence-contingent wage supplements if they maintain competitive employment in a community job. Given the severity and persistence of the problem of drug addiction and the lack of treatments that can produce lasting effects, continued development of the Therapeutic Workplace is warranted.

  10. Application of Long Noncoding RNAs in Osteosarcoma: Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy in children and adolescents. Although improvements in therapeutic strategies were achieved, the outcome remains poor for most patients with metastatic or recurrent osteosarcoma. Therefore, it is imperative to identify novel and effective prognostic biomarker and therapeutic targets for the disease. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are a novel class of RNA molecules defined as transcripts >200 nucleotides that lack protein coding potential. Many lncRNAs are deregulated in cancer and are important regulators for malignancies. Nine lncRNAs (91H, BCAR4, FGFR3-AS1, HIF2PUT, HOTTIP, HULC, MALAT-1, TUG1, UCA1 are upregulated and considered oncogenic for osteosarcoma. Loc285194 and MEG3 are two lncRNAs downregulated and as tumor suppressor for the disease. Moreover, the expressions of LINC00161 and ODRUL are associated with chemo-resistance of osteosarcoma. The mechanisms for these lncRNAs in regulating development of osteosarcoma are diverse, e.g. ceRNA, Wnt/β-catenin pathway, etc. The lncRNAs identified may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma.

  11. Ultrasound of the peripheral nerves in systemic vasculitic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alexander; Décard, Bernhard F; Bischof, Antje; Axer, Hubertus

    2014-12-15

    Ultrasound of the peripheral nerves (PNUS) can be used to visualize nerve pathologies in polyneuropathies (PNP). The aim of this study was to investigate, whether PNUS provides additional information in patients with proven systemic vasculitic neuropathies (VN). Systematic ultrasound measurements of several peripheral nerves, the vagal nerve and the 6th cervical nerve root were performed in 14 patients and 22 healthy controls. Nerve conduction studies of the corresponding nerves were undertaken. Finally, the measured results were compared to a study population of demyelinating immune-mediated and axonal neuropathies. Patients with VN displayed significant smaller amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) (pneuropathies than in other axonal neuropathies, but significantly rarer than in demyelinating neuropathies. Focal CSA enlargement in one or more nerves in electrophysiologically axonal neuropathies can be a hint for VN and thus facilitate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Therapeutic Effects of Koumine on Evoked Pain Induced by Peripheral Nerve Injury%钩吻素子抗外周神经损伤导致诱发痛的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许盈; 李苏平; 廖婉婷; 金桂林; 俞昌喜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects and time-effect relationship of Koumine on evoked pain induced peripheral nerve injury ,and to investigate w hether the spinal cord is the site of action of Kou-mine . Methods Effects of repeated subcutaneous administration of Koumine (0 .28 and 7 .0 mg/kg , twice per day ,on day 3 to day 9 post-operation) on evoked neuropathic pain were observed on rat chronic constriction injury (CCI) model by thermal hyperalgesia . Effects and time-effect relationship of a single subcutaneous administration of 7 .0 mg/kg Koumine on evoked neuropathic pain were observed at 0 .5 ,1 , 2 ,4 and 6 h post-dose on rat CCI model by thermal hyperalgesia . T he 50% effective doses (ED50 ) of Koumine on evoked neuropathic pain ,for a single subcutaneous and intrathecal administration respective-ly ,were measured by Dixon’s up-and-down method to analyze whether the spinal cord is the site of action of Koumine . Results Repeated subcutaneous administration of 7 .0 mg/kg Koumine significantly re-versed thermal hyperalgesia compared to vehicle after the first administration on post-operative day 3 and reached the maximum protective effect on post-operative day 9 (reversal rate:93 .8% ,effective rate :100% ) . Single subcutaneous administration of Koumine significantly increased pain threshold relative to vehicle at 0 .5 h post-dose (reversal rate :62 .9% ,effective rate :55 .6% ) ,reached the maximum effect at 1 h post-dose (reversal rate:70 .8% ,effective rate :77 .8% ) and then decreased w hile still significantly higher than that of vehicle at 6 h post-dose . T he ED50 of Koumine by a single intrathecal administration (41 .4 μg per rat ) was far lower than that by a single subcutaneous administration (1 .074 mg/kg ) on evoked pain of CCI rats . Conclusion Koumine has a significant therapeutic effect on evoked pain induced by peripheral nerve injury . The on-set time of a single subcutaneous Koumine was within 0 .5 h and the therapeutic effect lasted for

  13. EFFICACY OF SOFT TISSUE APPLICATION, MANUALLY-THERAPEUTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR KNEE ARTHROKINEMATICS RECOVERY COMPLEX IN PATIENTS AFTER ARTHROSCOPIC MENISCECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Rostislav V

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this article we present the final effect of the application of complex soft tissue manually-treatment system for recovery of joint kinematics in patients with moderate and minimal protective period of rehabilitation after arthroscopic meniscectomy. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in 2005-2012 into three medical centers in Bulgaria: Blagoevgrad, Sofia and Pleven. The study included a total of 110 patients divided into three groups (Control and Experimental I and Experimental Group II who studied the effect of topical application of the manual therapeutic techniques compared to traditional rehabilitation methods applied. For testing the efficacy of a treatment approach in the three groups of patients, the results have processed by the method of variational analysis. Results: After analysis of results we find significantly more fully and without residual short violations recovery for all controlled parameters in patients who have implemented comprehensive manually-therapeutic treatment compared with control group patients. Conclusion: Application of adequate physiological and pedagogically grounded complex rehabilitation is required in patients after arthroscopic meniscectomy model with motor deficits in tractable routine rehabilitation. Observations allow us to offer a methodology for implementation in general practice rehabilitation in patients after meniscal ruptures treated by arthroscopic meniscectomy and motor deficits, intractable routine rehabilitation.

  14. Evaluation of therapeutic effect of mouse nerve growth factor in adjuvant treatment of sudden deafness%鼠神经生长因子辅助治疗突发性聋的疗效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢波; 何政; 张学军

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨鼠神经生长因子(mouse nerve grouth factor,mNGF)辅助治疗突发性聋的疗效。方法回顾性分析2010年1月-2014年12月我院收治的50例采用鼠神经生长因子辅助治疗突发性聋患者的临床资料,并将同期除鼠神经生长因子外其他治疗相同病例135例作为对照,分析两组资料的构成情况,然后用SPSS软件回归分析鼠神经生长因子治疗突聋的疗效。结果治疗前后鼠神经生长因子的治疗有效(听阈提高15dB以上)率与对照组比较,差别有显著统计学意义(P<0.05),鼠神经生长因子组的治疗有效率与对照组相比有显著差别。结论鼠神经生长因子辅助治疗突发性聋能提高突发性耳聋的治疗疗效。%Objective To investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (mouse nerve grouth factor,mNGF) efficacy of adjuvant treatment of sudden deafness. Methods 50 cases with mouse nerve growth factor in adjuvant treatment of sudden deafness pa-tients clinical datas,between January 2010 and December 2014 in Jiangxi People's Hospital were analyzed retropectively and the same period in rat nerve growth factor other treatment was the same 135 cases as control ,composition analysis of two groups of data will be two groups of curative effect,and then by SPSS software regression analysis of mouse nerve growth factor in the treat-ment of sudden deafness. Results The treatment before and after the treatment of mouse nerve growth factor (threshold effectively improved more than 15dB) rate compared with the control group,there was significant difference (P<0.05),the treatment of mouse nerve growth factor group the effective rate of control group was significantly different compared with. Conclusion The rat nerve growth factor in adjuvant treatment of sudden deafness can improve the curative effect in the treatment of sudden deafness.

  15. Clinical application of peroneal nerve stimulator system using percutaneous intramuscular electrodes for correction of foot drop in hemiplegic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yoichi; Matsunaga, Toshiki; Misawa, Akiko; Ando, Shigeru; Itoi, Eiji; Konishi, Natsuo

    2006-10-01

    Objective.  To assess the orthotic effect of a functional electrical stimulation device (Akita Heel Sensor System; AHSS) in the treatment of hemiplegic gait with foot drop. Materials and Methods.  In the AHSS, a heel sensor is attached to a small plastic heel brace, and the peroneal nerve is stimulated via percutaneous intramuscular electrodes. During the swing phase of the hemiplegic gait, the common peroneal nerve is stimulated by the AHSS. Eight patients in chronic stages of hemiplegia participated in this study. Walking speeds and step cadences on a 10-m course were compared between walking with stimulation and walking without stimulation. Results.  Mean walking speed (± SD) was 0.50 ± 0.26 m/sec without stimulation and 0.64 ± 0.31 m/sec with stimulation. The mean percentage increase in walking speed with stimulation was 30.1%. Mean step cadence was 31 ± 7 steps/10 m without stimulation and 27 ± 7 steps/10 m with stimulation. By correcting foot drop, the AHSS significantly increased walking speed and decreased cadence (p AHSS can significantly improve walking in hemiplegic patients with foot drop.

  16. The effects of combined application of inorganic Martian dust simulant and carbon dots on glutamate transport rat brain nerve terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Nazarova, Anastasiya; Borysov, Arseniy; Pastukhov, Artem; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Dudarenko, Marina

    2016-07-01

    During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and can be transported to the central nervous system (Oberdorster et al., 2004). Recently, the research team of this study found the minor fractions of nanoparticles with the size ~ 50 -60 nm in Lunar and Martian dust stimulants (JSC-1a and JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin), whereas the average size of the simulants was 1 mm and 4mm, respectively (Krisanova et al., 2013). Also, the research team of this study discovered new phenomenon - the neuromodulating and neurotoxic effect of carbon nano-sized particles - Carbon dots (C-dots), originated from ash of burned carbon-containing product (Borisova et al, 2015). The aims of this study was to analyse acute effects of upgraded stimulant of inorganic Martian dust derived from volcanic ash (JSC-1a/JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin) by the addition of carbon components, that is, carbon dots, on the key characteristic of synaptic neurotransmission. Acute administration of carbon-containing Martian dust analogue resulted in a significant decrease in transporter-mediated uptake of L-[14C]glutamate (the major excitatory neurotransmitter) by isolated rat brain nerve terminals. The ambient level of the neurotransmitter in the preparation of nerve terminals increased in the presence of carbon dot-contained Martian dust analogue. These effects were associated with action of carbon component of the upgraded Martian dust stimulant but not with its inorganic constituent.

  17. Immunobiology and therapeutic applications of protein c/protein s/thrombomodulin in human and experimental allotransplantation and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, W W; Bach, F H

    1997-07-01

    Protein C (PC), protein S (PS), and thrombomodulin (TM) constitute a well-established, physiologically important anticoagulant pathway, but they also possess significant antiinflammatory and immunoregulatory properties through their ability to regulate macrophage activation. In vivo and in vitro data concerning these antiinflammatory actions are reviewed, with an emphasis on changes in the levels of these proteins during allograft and xenograft rejection, and potential therapeutic applications arising from their exogenous administration, or genetic engineering to maintain their expression, posttransplantation. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:174-183). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  18. Application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point in the local manufacture of ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C Jeya K; Xin, Janice Lim Wen

    2014-06-01

    The local manufacture of ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) is increasing, and there is a need to develop methods to ensure their safe production. We propose the application of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles to achieve this goal. The basic principles of HACCP in the production of RUTFs are outlined. It is concluded that the implementation of an HACCP system in the manufacture of RUTFs is not only feasible but also attainable. The introduction of good manufacturing practices, coupled with an effective HACCP system, will ensure that RUTFs are produced in a cost-effective, safe, and hygienic manner.

  19. Potential application of extracellular vesicles of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in Alzheimer's disease therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Takeshi; Oki, Katsuyuki; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    In the last 20 years, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have attracted attention as a versatile cell-cell communication mediator. The biological significance of EVs remains to be fully elucidated, but many reports have suggested that the functions of EVs mirror, at least in part, those of the cells from which they originate. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cell that can be isolated from connective tissue including bone marrow and adipose tissue and have emerged as an attractive candidate for cell therapy applications. Accordingly, an increasing number of reports have shown that EVs derived from MSCs have therapeutic potential in multiple diseases. We recently reported a novel therapeutic potential of EVs secreted from human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hADSCs) (also known as adipose tissue-derived stem cells; ASCs) against Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found that hADSCs secrete exosomes carrying enzymatically active neprilysin, the most important β-amyloid peptide (Aβ)-degrading enzyme in the brain. In this chapter, we describe a method by which to evaluate the therapeutic potential of hADSC-derived EVs against AD from the point of view of their Aβ-degrading capacity.

  20. Nanotechnology-Driven Therapeutic Interventions in Wound Healing: Potential Uses and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The chronic nature and associated complications of nonhealing wounds have led to the emergence of nanotechnology-based therapies that aim at facilitating the healing process and ultimately repairing the injured tissue. A number of engineered nanotechnologies have been proposed demonstrating unique properties and multiple functions that address specific problems associated with wound repair mechanisms. In this outlook, we highlight the most recently developed nanotechnology-based therapeutic agents and assess the viability and efficacy of each treatment, with emphasis on chronic cutaneous wounds. Herein we explore the unmet needs and future directions of current technologies, while discussing promising strategies that can advance the wound-healing field. PMID:28386594

  1. Application and use of Inulin as a tool for therapeutic drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Shahwar; Gillis, Richard B; Kok, M Samil; Harding, Stephen E; Adams, Gary G

    2012-01-01

    Inulin is a polysaccharide with an extensive range of therapeutic uses such as a vehicle in drug delivery vehicle, as a diagnostic/analytical tool or as a dietary fibre with additional health benefits. In the main, much research has focussed on inulin as a drug delivery carrier for colon-targeted drug delivery. The justification for this is its potential to survive the stomach's acidic environment. This unique stability and strength is utilized in many ways to deliver drugs safely to colon, where they can be easily absorbed through the gut epithelium into the blood. Inulin based hydrodynamic research will be useful to discover the potential of inulin.

  2. Transport of nanoparticles through the blood-brain barrier for imaging and therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, Malka; Motiei, Menachem; Hana, Panet; Popovtzer, Rachela

    2014-01-01

    A critical problem in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, is the incapability to overcome the restrictive mechanism of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and to deliver important therapeutic agents to the brain. During the last decade, nanoparticles have gained attention as promising drug delivery agents that can transport across the BBB and increase the uptake of appropriate drugs in the brain. In this study we have developed insulin-targeted gold nanoparticles (INS-GNPs) and investigated quantitatively the amount of INS-GNPs that cross the BBB by the receptor-mediated endocytosis process. For this purpose, INS-GNPs and control GNPs were injected into the tail vein of male BALB/c mice. Major organs were then extracted and a blood sample was taken from the mice, and thereafter analyzed for gold content by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results show that two hours post-intravenous injection, the amount of INS-GNPs found in mouse brains is over 5 times greater than that of the control, untargeted GNPs. Results of further experimentation on a rat model show that INS-GNPs can also serve as CT contrast agents to highlight specific brain regions in which they accumulate. Due to the fact that they can overcome the restrictive mechanism of the BBB, this approach could be a potentially valuable tool, helping to confront the great challenge of delivering important imaging and therapeutic agents to the brain for detection and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and diseases.

  3. Mechanistic understanding and significance of small peptides interaction with MHC class II molecules for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Saifullah; Hoessli, Daniel C; Hameed, Muhammad Waqar

    2016-07-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed by antigen-presenting cells and stimulate CD4(+) T cells, which initiate humoral immune responses. Over the past decade, interest has developed to therapeutically impact the peptides to be exposed to CD4(+) T cells. Structurally diverse small molecules have been discovered that act on the endogenous peptide exchanger HLA-DM by different mechanisms. Exogenously delivered peptides are highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage in vivo; however, it is only when successfully incorporated into stable MHC II-peptide complexes that these peptides can induce an immune response. Many of the small molecules so far discovered have highlighted the molecular interactions mediating the formation of MHC II-peptide complexes. As potential drugs, these small molecules open new therapeutic approaches to modulate MHC II antigen presentation pathways and influence the quality and specificity of immune responses. This review briefly introduces how CD4(+) T cells recognize antigen when displayed by MHC class II molecules, as well as MHC class II-peptide-loading pathways, structural basis of peptide binding and stabilization of the peptide-MHC complexes. We discuss the concept of MHC-loading enhancers, how they could modulate immune responses and how these molecules have been identified. Finally, we suggest mechanisms whereby MHC-loading enhancers could act upon MHC class II molecules.

  4. Characterization and therapeutic application of canine adipose mesenchymal stem cells to treat elbow osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriston-Pál, Éva; Czibula, Ágnes; Gyuris, Zoltán; Balka, Gyula; Seregi, Antal; Sükösd, Farkas; Süth, Miklós; Kiss-Tóth, Endre; Haracska, Lajos; Uher, Ferenc; Monostori, Éva

    2017-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (AT) obtained from surgical waste during routine ovariectomies was used as a source for isolating canine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). As determined by cytofluorimetry, passage 2 cells expressed MSC markers CD44 and CD90 and were negative for lineage-specific markers CD34 and CD45. The cells differentiated toward osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic directions. With therapeutic aims, 30 dogs (39 joints) suffering from elbow dysplasia (ED) and osteoarthritis (OA) were intra-articularly transplanted with allogeneic MSCs suspended in 0.5% hyaluronic acid (HA). A highly significant improvement was achieved without any medication as demonstrated by the degree of lameness during the follow-up period of 1 y. Control arthroscopy of 1 transplanted dog indicated that the cartilage had regenerated. Histological analysis of the cartilage biopsy confirmed that the regenerated cartilage was of hyaline type. These results demonstrate that transplantation of allogeneic adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) is a novel, noninvasive, and highly effective therapeutic tool in treating canine elbow dysplasia.

  5. Delivery and therapeutic applications of gene editing technologies ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFountaine, Justin S; Fathe, Kristin; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2015-10-15

    In recent years, several new genome editing technologies have been developed. Of these the zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-guided endonuclease system are the most widely described. Each of these technologies utilizes restriction enzymes to introduce a DNA double stranded break at a targeted location with the guide of homologous binding proteins or RNA. Such targeting is viewed as a significant advancement compared to current gene therapy methods that lack such specificity. Proof-of-concept studies have been performed to treat multiple disorders, including in vivo experiments in mammals and even early phase human trials. Careful consideration and investigation of delivery strategies will be required so that the therapeutic potential for gene editing is achieved. In this review, the mechanisms of each of these gene editing technologies and evidence of therapeutic potential will be briefly described and a comprehensive list of past studies will be provided. The pharmaceutical approaches of each of these technologies are discussed along with the current delivery obstacles. The topics and information reviewed herein provide an outline of the groundbreaking research that is being performed, but also highlights the potential for progress yet to be made using these gene editing technologies.

  6. Biomedical applications of yeast- a patent view, part one: yeasts as workhorses for the production of therapeutics and vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohvand, Farzin; Shokri, Mehdi; Abdollahpour-Alitappeh, Meghdad; Ehsani, Parastoo

    2017-08-01

    Yeasts, as Eukaryotes, offer unique features for ease of growth and genetic manipulation possibilities, making it an exceptional microbial host. Areas covered: This review provides general and patent-oriented insights into production of biopharmaceuticals by yeasts. Patents, wherever possible, were correlated to the original or review articles. The review describes applications of major GRAS (generally regarded as safe) yeasts for the production of therapeutic proteins and subunit vaccines; additionally, immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall components were reviewed for use of whole yeast cells as a new vaccine platform. The second part of the review will discuss yeast- humanization strategies and innovative applications. Expert opinion: Biomedical applications of yeasts were initiated by utilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for production of leavened (fermented) products, and advanced to serve to produce biopharmaceuticals. Higher biomass production and expression/secretion yields, more similarity of glycosylation patterns to mammals and possibility of host-improvement strategies through application of synthetic biology might enhance selection of Pichia pastoris (instead of S. cerevisiae) as a host for production of biopharmaceutical in future. Immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall β-glucans and possibility of intracellular expression of heterologous pathogen/tumor antigens in yeast cells have expanded their application as a new platform, 'Whole Yeast Vaccines'.

  7. Poly(lactide)-containing multifunctional nanoparticles: Synthesis, domain-selective degradation and therapeutic applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarajeewa, Sandani

    Construction of nanoassemblies from degradable components is desired for packaging and controlled release of active therapeutics, and eventual biodegradability in vivo. In this study, shell crosslinked micelles composed of biodegradable poly(lactide) (PLA) core were prepared by the self-assembly of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer synthesized by a combination of ring opening polymerization (ROP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Enzymatic degradation of the PLA cores of the nanoparticles was achieved upon the addition of proteinase K (PK). Kinetic analyses and comparison of the properties of the nanomaterials as a function of degradation extent will be discussed. Building upon our findings from selective-excavation of the PLA core, enzyme- and redox-responsive nanoparticles were constructed for the encapsulation and stimuli-responsive release of an antitumor drug. This potent chemotherapeutic, otherwise poorly soluble in water was dispersed into aqueous solution by the supramolecular co-assembly with an amphiphilic block copolymer, and the release from within the core of these nanoparticles were gated by crosslinking the hydrophilic shell region with a reduction-responsive crosslinker. Enzyme- and reduction-triggered release behavior of the antitumor drug was demonstrated along with their remarkably high in vitro efficacy. As cationic nanoparticles are a promising class of transfection agents for nucleic acid delivery, in the next part of the study, synthetic methodologies were developed for the conversion of the negatively-charged shell of the enzymatically-degradable shell crosslinked micelles to positively-charged cationic nanoparticles for the complexation of nucleic acids. These degradable cationic nanoparticles were found to efficiently deliver and transfect plasmid DNA in vitro. The hydrolysis of the PLA core and crosslinkers of the nanocarriers may provide a mechanism for their programmed disassembly within

  8. Biochemical engineering nerve conduits using peptide amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2012-11-10

    Peripheral nerve injury is a debilitating condition. The gold standard for treatment is surgery, requiring an autologous nerve graft. Grafts are harvested from another part of the body (a secondary site) to treat the affected primary area. However, autologous nerve graft harvesting is not without risks, with associated problems including injury to the secondary site. Research into biomaterials has engendered the use of bioartificial nerve conduits as an alternative to autologous nerve grafts. These include synthetic and artificial materials, which can be manufactured into nerve conduits using techniques inspired by nanotechnology. Recent evidence indicates that peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are promising candidates for use as materials for bioengineering nerve conduits. PAs are biocompatible and biodegradable protein-based nanomaterials, capable of self-assembly in aqueous solutions. Their self-assembly system, coupled with their intrinsic capacity for carrying bioactive epitopes for tissue regeneration, form particularly novel attributes for biochemically-engineered materials. Furthermore, PAs can function as biomimetic materials and advanced drug delivery platforms for sustained and controlled release of a plethora of therapeutic agents. Here we review the realm of nerve conduit tissue engineering and the potential for PAs as viable materials in this exciting and rapidly advancing field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Eudragit EPO nanoparticles: application in improving therapeutic efficacy and reducing ulcerogenicity of meloxicam on oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachane, Parag; Date, Abhijit A; Nagarsenker, Mangal S

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the potential of Eudragit EPO nanoparticles (EPO NP) in improving therapeutic efficacy of meloxicam (MLX). MLX loaded EPO NP were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and were characterized for particle size, encapsulation efficiency and for morphology. The in vitro dissolution profile of MLX loaded EPO NP and MLX suspension was evaluated. MLX loaded EPO NP had particle size of approximately 100 nm and the encapsulation efficiency of MLX was approximately 90%. The EPO NP significantly improved anti-inflammatory activity of MLX (P EPO NP Oral administration of MLX loaded EPO NP also resulted in lesser ulcerogenicity as compared to that of MLX suspension indicating that nanoparticles can also decrease the adverse effects associated with MLX treatment.

  10. Splicing factor gene mutations in the myelodysplastic syndromes: impact on disease phenotype and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellagatti, Andrea; Boultwood, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Splicing factor gene mutations are the most frequent mutations found in patients with the myeloid malignancy myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), suggesting that spliceosomal dysfunction plays a major role in disease pathogenesis. The aberrantly spliced target genes and deregulated cellular pathways associated with the commonly mutated splicing factor genes in MDS (SF3B1, SRSF2 and U2AF1) are being identified, illuminating the molecular mechanisms underlying MDS. Emerging data from mouse modeling studies indicate that the presence of splicing factor gene mutations can lead to bone marrow hematopoietic stem/myeloid progenitor cell expansion, impaired hematopoiesis and dysplastic differentiation that are hallmarks of MDS. Importantly, recent evidence suggests that spliceosome inhibitors and splicing modulators may have therapeutic value in the treatment of splicing factor mutant myeloid malignancies.

  11. The Role and Potential Therapeutic Application of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Allo- and Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are a heterogeneous population of cells that consists of myeloid progenitor cells and immature myeloid cells. They have been identified as a cell population that may affect the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells to regulate the immune response negatively, which makes them attractive targets for the treatment of transplantation and autoimmune diseases. Several studies have suggested the potential suppressive effect of MDSCs on allo- and autoimmune responses. Conversely, MDSCs have also been found at various stages of differentiation, accumulating during pathological situations, not only during tumor development but also in a variety of inflammatory immune responses, bone marrow transplantation, and some autoimmune diseases. These findings appear to be contradictory. In this review, we summarize the roles of MDSCs in different transplantation and autoimmune diseases models as well as the potential to target these cells for therapeutic benefit.

  12. [Experimental analysis of therapeutic properties of Rhodiola rosea L. and its possible application in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinskaite, Agne; Briedis, Vitalis; Savickas, Arūnas

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the scientific publications on Rhodiola rosea L. known for its adaptogenic characteristics. Biologically active substances salidroside, rosin, rosavin, rosarin and tyrosol, which are mainly found in plant rhizomes, demonstrate therapeutic effect. These active components effect the central nervous system by increasing the ability to concentrate, the mental and physical power; they are efficient in the asthenic states and improve general resistance of the cells and the organism against the harmful outer influence. They also prevent the heart system from stress and arrhythmias, and posses some antioxidant activity. Some data confirm that the Rhodiola rosea L. preparations stop the growth of the malignant tumors and metastases in the liver. Some preclinical and clinical data of the golden root preparations are discussed in the survey. The interaction of the herb with other medicines, its usage and effect, recommended doses, and its side effects are also reviewed in the paper.

  13. Peptide-functionalized gold nanoparticles: versatile biomaterials for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Jingyi; Cobb, Steven L; Cameron, Neil R

    2017-05-02

    Colloidal gold solutions have been used for centuries in a wide variety of applications including staining glass and in the colouring of ceramics. More recently, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been studied extensively due to their interesting size-dependent electronic and optical properties. GNPs can be functionalized easily with biomolecules that contain thiols, amines, or even phosphine moieties. For example, the reaction of thiol-containing peptides with GNPs has been used extensively to prepare novel hybrid materials for biomedical applications. A range of different types of peptides can be used to access biomaterials that are designed to perform a specific role such as cancer cell targeting. In addition, specific peptide sequences that are responsive to external stimuli (e.g. temperature or pH) can be used to stabilise/destabilise the aggregation of colloidal GNPs. Such systems have exciting potential applications in the field of colorimetric sensing (including bio-sensing) and in targeted drug delivery platforms. In this review, we will give an overview of the current methods used for preparing peptide functionalized GNPs, and we will discuss their key properties outlining the various applications of this class of biomaterial. In particular, the potential applications of peptide functionalized GNPs in areas of sensing and targeted drug delivery will be discussed.

  14. Application Value of High Frequency Ultrasound in Diagnosis of Nerve Fiber Tumor%观察高频超声在诊断神经纤维瘤病中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕晓亮; 刘赛超; 石杨

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察研究高频超声在诊断神经纤维瘤病变中的临床应用价值;方法应用高频超声,对本院2013~2014年收治的39例神经纤维瘤患者进行检查,并与39例健康志愿者进行超声声像图对比;结果39例健康志愿者的外周神经高频超声均显示清晰,39例神经纤维瘤患者中,高频超声可发现并准确定位肿瘤位置,经病理学证实,其中结节型神经纤维瘤32例,丛状纤维瘤4例,弥漫型神经纤维瘤3例。结论高频超声检查在神经纤维瘤的诊断时,具有较大的应用价值。%Objective To observe the clinical application of high frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis of nerve fibroma lesions value. Methods The application of high frequency ultrasound, in our hospital from 2013 to 2014 were analyzed, 39 patients with nerve fibroma to check and 39 cases of healthy volunteers with ultrasound contrast ultrasonography. Results 39 cases of healthy volunteers high frequency ultrasound have shown clearly, peripheral nerve in 39 patients with nerve fibroma, high-frequency ultrasound can be found and accurate positioning tumor location, confirmed by pathology, including nerve fibroma 32 cases of nodular type, 4 cases of the plexiform neurofibromas, dif use neurofibroma (3 cases). Conclusion High frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis of nerve fibroma, has great application value.

  15. Metabolic glycoengineering bacteria for therapeutic, recombinant protein, and metabolite production applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeui, Christopher T; Urias, Esteban; Liu, Lingshu; Mathew, Mohit P; Yarema, Kevin J

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic glycoengineering is a specialization of metabolic engineering that focuses on using small molecule metabolites to manipulate biosynthetic pathways responsible for oligosaccharide and glycoconjugate production. As outlined in this article, this technique has blossomed in mammalian systems over the past three decades but has made only modest progress in prokaryotes. Nevertheless, a sufficient foundation now exists to support several important applications of metabolic glycoengineering in bacteria based on methods to preferentially direct metabolic intermediates into pathways involved in lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, teichoic acid, or capsule polysaccharide production. An overview of current applications and future prospects for this technology are provided in this report.

  16. Kinetic modelling of GlmU reactions - prioritization of reaction for therapeutic application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K Singh

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtu, a successful pathogen, has developed resistance against the existing anti-tubercular drugs necessitating discovery of drugs with novel action. Enzymes involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis are attractive targets for antibacterial drug discovery. The bifunctional enzyme mycobacterial GlmU (Glucosamine 1-phosphate N-acetyltransferase/ N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase has been a target enzyme for drug discovery. Its C- and N- terminal domains catalyze acetyltransferase (rxn-1 and uridyltransferase (rxn-2 activities respectively and the final product is involved in peptidoglycan synthesis. However, the bifunctional nature of GlmU poses difficulty in deciding which function to be intervened for therapeutic advantage. Genetic analysis showed this as an essential gene but it is still unclear whether any one or both of the activities are critical for cell survival. Often enzymatic activity with suitable high-throughput assay is chosen for random screening, which may not be the appropriate biological function inhibited for maximal effect. Prediction of rate-limiting function by dynamic network analysis of reactions could be an option to identify the appropriate function. With a view to provide insights into biochemical assays with appropriate activity for inhibitor screening, kinetic modelling studies on GlmU were undertaken. Kinetic model of Mtu GlmU-catalyzed reactions was built based on the available kinetic data on Mtu and deduction from Escherichia coli data. Several model variants were constructed including coupled/decoupled, varying metabolite concentrations and presence/absence of product inhibitions. This study demonstrates that in coupled model at low metabolite concentrations, inhibition of either of the GlmU reactions cause significant decrement in the overall GlmU rate. However at higher metabolite concentrations, rxn-2 showed higher decrement. Moreover, with available intracellular

  17. Assessment and Therapeutic Application of the Expressive Therapies Continuum: Implications for Brain Structures and Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusebrink, Vija B.

    2010-01-01

    The Expressive Therapies Continuum (ETC) provides a theoretical model for art-based assessments and applications of media in art therapy. The three levels of the ETC (Kinesthetic/Sensory, Perceptual/Affective, and Cognitive/Symbolic) appear to reflect different functions and structures in the brain that process visual and affective information.…

  18. Therapeutic application of monoclonal antibodies in multiple sclerosis: focus on alemtuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niino M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Masaaki NiinoDepartment of Clinical Research, Hokkaido Medical Center, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: Recent progress in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS is significant, and the potential of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs for the treatment of MS has been highlighted. Natalizumab demonstrated a high level of efficacy for MS and is the first mAb to be approved for treatment of MS. Clinical trials of several types of mAbs for treatment of MS are in progress, and mAbs are expected to become the new choice of treatment for MS. Alemtuzumab is one of the most promising mAbs for treatment for MS, despite some side effects to be considered such as autoimmune hyperthyroidism, Goodpasture’s syndrome, and autoimmune idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Any therapeutic agents for MS may carry risks of short- or long-term side effects; however, information regarding the long-term side effects of these new agents is lacking. Long-term adverse effects can often be recognized after the approval of agents. Here, recent progress on mAbs for the treatment of MS is reviewed, with a focus on alemtuzumab.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, monoclonal antibody, alemtuzumab, therapy, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

  19. Potential therapeutic application of adult stem cells in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jian-xin; LI Li

    2009-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a poor prognosis in spite of the recent development of new therapeutic strategies. Cell-based therapy with stem cells has been considered as a promising way for the treatment of vital organ damage. Putative endogenous stem cells have been shown to be located within the adult lung in the basal layer of the upper airways, within or near pulmonary neu-roendocrine cell rests, at the bronchoalveolar junction, as well as within the alveolar epithelium. These stem cells are hypothesized to be the source of lung regeneration and repair. But this mechanism seems to be insufficient after lung injury. There is increasing excitement over the last few years with the suggestion that exogenous stem cells may offer new treatment options for ARDS. Exogenous stem cells have the abihty to differentiate and function as both airway and lung parenchymal epithelial cells in both in vitro and in-creasingly in vivo experiments. However, there is great con-troversy concerning the repair effect of adult stem cells in lung injury. This review evaluates the advances in endog-enous respiratory stem cells, and assesses the evidence for the use of stem cells in the repair of lung injury.

  20. Application of mild therapeutic hypothermia on stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Pamplona, Fabricio

    2012-01-01

    Background. Stroke occurs due to an interruption in cerebral blood supply affecting neuronal function. Body temperature on hospital admission is an important predictor of clinical outcome. Therapeutic hypothermia is promising in clinical settings for stroke neuroprotection. Methods. MEDLINE/PubMed, CENTRAL, Stroke Center, and ClinicalTrials.gov were systematically searched for hypothermia intervention induced by external or endovascular cooling for acute stroke. NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were the main stroke scales used, and mortality was also reported. A meta-analysis was carried out on stroke severity and mortality. Results. Seven parallel-controlled clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Sample sizes ranged from 18 to 62 patients, yielding a total of 288. Target temperature (∼33°C) was reached within 3-4 hours. Stroke severity (Cohen's d = -0.17, 95% CI: -0.42 to 0.08, P = 0.32; I(2) = 73%; Chi(2) = 21.89, P = 0.0001) and mortality (RR = 1.60, 95% CI: 0.93 to 2.78, P = 0.11; I(2) = 0%; Chi(2) = 2.88, P = 0.72) were not significantly affected by hypothermia. Discussion. Hypothermia does not significantly improve stroke severity; however, this finding should be taken with caution due to the high heterogeneity and limited number of included studies. No impact on mortality was observed.

  1. An analysis of the demarcation problem in science and its application to therapeutic touch theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, David; Roberts, Julia

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyses the demarcation problem from the perspective of four philosophers: Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos and Feyerabend. To Popper, pseudoscience uses induction to generate theories, and only performs experiments to seek to verify them. To Popper, falsifiability is what determines the scientific status of a theory. Taking a historical approach, Kuhn observed that scientists did not follow Popper's rule, and might ignore falsifying data, unless overwhelming. To Kuhn, puzzle-solving within a paradigm is science. Lakatos attempted to resolve this debate, by suggesting history shows that science occurs in research programmes, competing according to how progressive they are. The leading idea of a programme could evolve, driven by its heuristic to make predictions that can be supported by evidence. Feyerabend claimed that Lakatos was selective in his examples, and the whole history of science shows there is no universal rule of scientific method, and imposing one on the scientific community impedes progress. These positions are used in turn, to examine the scientific status of therapeutic touch theory. The paper concludes that imposing a single rule of method can impede progress, in the face of multiple epistemologies, and the choice of scientific approach should be a pragmatic one based on the aims of the programme.

  2. Targeted therapeutic delivery using engineered exosomes and its applications in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xitong, Dang; Xiaorong, Zeng

    2016-01-10

    Exosomes are 30-120 nm membrane bound vesicles secreted naturally by almost all cells and exist in all body fluids. Accumulating evidence has shown that exosomes contain proteins, lipids, DNA, mRNA, miRNA, and lncRNA that can be transferred from producer cells to recipient cells, facilitating cell-cell communication. As the natural carrier of these signal molecules, exosomes possess many other properties such as stability, biocompatibility, biological barrier permeability, low toxicity, and low immunogenicity, which make them an attractive vehicle for therapeutic delivery. How exosomes target recipient cells in vivo remains largely unknown, however, exosomes are selectively enriched in some transmembrane proteins that can be genetically engineered to display ligands/homing peptides on their surface, which confers exosome targeting capability to cells bearing cognate receptors. With the discovery of many peptides homing to diseased tissues or organs through phage display and in vivo biopanning technologies, there is ample opportunity to explore the potential use of exosome for targeted gene therapy. Here, we briefly review exosome biogenesis, mechanisms of exosome-mediated cell–cell communication, and exosome isolation and purification methods, and specifically focus on the emerging exosome targeting technologies.

  3. Inteins in pathogenic fungi: a phylogenetic tool and perspectives for therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cordeiro Theodoro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Inteins or "internal proteins" are coding sequences that are transcribed and translated with flanking sequences (exteins. After translation, the inteins are excised by an autocatalytic process and the host protein assumes its normal conformation and develops its expected function. These parasitic genetic elements have been found in important, conserved proteins in all three domains of life. Most of the eukaryotic inteins are present in the fungi kingdom and the PRP8 intein is one of the most widespread inteins, occurring in important pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans (varieties grubii and neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii, Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The knowledge of conserved and non-conserved domains in inteins have opened up new opportunities for the study of population variability in pathogenic fungi, including their phylogenetic relationships and recognition or diagnoses of species. Furthermore, inteins in pathogenic fungi should also be considered a promising therapeutic drug target, since once the autocatalytic splicing is inhibited, the host protein, which is typically vital, will not be able to perform its normal function and the fungal cell will not survive or reproduce.

  4. Mitochondria-Targeted Triphenylphosphonium-Based Compounds: Syntheses, Mechanisms of Action, and Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jacek; Joseph, Joy; Sikora, Adam; Hardy, Micael; Ouari, Olivier; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Cheng, Gang; Lopez, Marcos; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2017-08-09

    Mitochondria are recognized as one of the most important targets for new drug design in cancer, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. Currently, the most effective way to deliver drugs specifically to mitochondria is by covalent linking a lipophilic cation such as an alkyltriphenylphosphonium moiety to a pharmacophore of interest. Other delocalized lipophilic cations, such as rhodamine, natural and synthetic mitochondria-targeting peptides, and nanoparticle vehicles, have also been used for mitochondrial delivery of small molecules. Depending on the approach used, and the cell and mitochondrial membrane potentials, more than 1000-fold higher mitochondrial concentration can be achieved. Mitochondrial targeting has been developed to study mitochondrial physiology and dysfunction and the interaction between mitochondria and other subcellular organelles and for treatment of a variety of diseases such as neurodegeneration and cancer. In this Review, we discuss efforts to target small-molecule compounds to mitochondria for probing mitochondria function, as diagnostic tools and potential therapeutics. We describe the physicochemical basis for mitochondrial accumulation of lipophilic cations, synthetic chemistry strategies to target compounds to mitochondria, mitochondrial probes, and sensors, and examples of mitochondrial targeting of bioactive compounds. Finally, we review published attempts to apply mitochondria-targeted agents for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Therapeutic application of stem cells in gastroenterology: An up-date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrizia Burra; Debora Bizzaro; Rachele Ciccocioppo; Fabio Marra; Anna Chiara Piscaglia; Laura Porretti; Antonio Gasbarrini; Francesco Paolo Russo

    2011-01-01

    Adult stem cells represent the self-renewing progenitors of numerous body tissues, and they are currently classified according to their origin and differentiation ability. In recent years, the research on stem cells has expanded enormously and holds therapeutic promises for many patients suffering from currently disabling diseases. This paper focuses on the possible use of stem cells in the two main clinical settings in gastroenterology, i.e., hepatic and intestinal diseases, which have a strong impact on public health worldwide. Despite encouraging results obtained in both regenerative medicine and immune-mediated conditions, further studies are needed to fully understand the biology of stem cells and carefully assess their putative oncogenic properties. Moreover, the research on stem cells arouses fervent ethical, social and political debate. The Italian Society of Gastroenterology sponsored a workshop on stem cells held in Verona during the ⅩⅥ Congress of the Federation of Italian Societies of Digestive Diseases (March 6-9, 2010). Here, we report on the issues discussed, including liver and intestinal diseases that may benefit from stem cell therapy, the biology of hepatic and intestinal tissue repair, and stem cell usage in clinical trials.

  6. Exosome Display technology: applications to the development of new diagnostics and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcayre, Alain; Estelles, Angeles; Sperinde, Jeffrey; Roulon, Thibaut; Paz, Pedro; Aguilar, Barbara; Villanueva, Janeth; Khine, SuSu; Le Pecq, Jean-Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Exosome Display is a novel methodology enabling the manipulation of exosome protein content. This technology stems from the identification of addressing domains that mediate the specific distribution of proteins on exosomes. More particularly, Lactadherin expressed in non-mammary gland tissue has been found to localize to exosomes via binding of its C1C2 domain to exosome lipids. Exosome Display of soluble antigens and extracellular domains of membrane proteins that are not naturally found on exosomes occurs upon fusion of proteins with the Lactadherin C1C2 domain. Exosome Display of native full-length membrane proteins can also be achieved by non-restricted expression or sampling of membrane proteins on exosomes. These novel findings enable us to manipulate exosome composition and tailor exosomes with new desirable properties. The Exosome Display technology is very versatile since soluble, membrane-bound, trans-membrane or multimeric antigens that are not naturally found on exosomes can now be efficiently expressed at their surface in a native conformation. The technology was applied to the generation of antibodies against tumor biomarkers such as HLA/peptide complex. This antibody method called ExoMAb can be used to generate antibodies against any drug target candidates, notably including G-protein coupled receptors. The potential of Exosome Display technology for developing a broad range of novel diagnostics and therapeutics is discussed.

  7. Therapeutic ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Lawrence A [Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, 1013 NE 40th Street, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques. (amum lecture)

  8. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S.L. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Cancer Center; Welch, A.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Motamedi, M. [Texas Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Rastegar, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tittel, F. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Esterowitz, L. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the colloborating engineering centers at Rice University, UT-Austin, and Texas A&M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the Naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

  9. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S.L. (Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Cancer Center); Welch, A.J. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)); Motamedi, M. (Texas Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch); Rastegar, S. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)); Tittel, F. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)); Esterowitz, L. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the colloborating engineering centers at Rice University, UT-Austin, and Texas A M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the Naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

  10. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S.L. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Cancer Center; Welch, A.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Motamedi, M. [Texas Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Rastegar, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tittel, F. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Esterowitz, L. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the collaborating engineering enters at Rice University, UT-Austin, Texas A&M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

  11. Effects of the application of therapeutic massage in children with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mansilla, Juan; González-Sánchez, Blanca; Torres-Piles, Silvia; Martín, Jorge Guerrero; Jiménez-Palomares, María; Bellino, Macarena Núñez

    2017-06-08

    to learn about the effects of the use of therapeutic massage in children with cancer. systematic review of controlled clinical trials The search was conducted in November 2014 in the following databases: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane and PEDro. Inclusion criteria were: clinical trials, published in English or Spanish, analyzing the effects of massage on the different stages and types of childhood cancer (between 1 and 18 years old). of 1007 articles found, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Their authors use different massage techniques (Swedish massage, effleurage, petrissage, frictions, pressures), obtaining benefits in the symptoms present during the illness (decrease of pain, nausea, stress, anxiety and increase of white blood cells and neutrophils). therapeutic massage improves the symptoms of children with cancer, but there is a need for more research that may support the effects attributed to it. conocer los efectos del uso del masaje terapéutico en niños con cáncer. revisión sistemática de ensayos clínicos controlados la búsqueda se llevó a cabo en noviembre de 2014 en las bases de datos científicas: Pubmed, CSIC, Dialnet, Scopus, Cochrane y PEDro. Los criterios de inclusión han sido: ensayos clínicos, publicados en inglés o español, en los que se analizaran los efectos del masaje en las diferentes etapas y tipos de cáncer infantil (entre 1 y 18 años). de 1007 artículos localizados, 7 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Sus autores utilizan diferentes técnicas de masaje (masaje sueco, effleurage, petrissage, fricciones, presiones), obteniendo beneficios en los síntomas presentes durante la enfermedad (disminución del dolor, náuseas, estrés, ansiedad y aumento de glóbulos blancos y neutrófilos). el masaje terapéutico mejora los síntomas de los niños con cáncer, que respalden los efectos que se le atribuyen. conhecer os efeitos do uso da massagem terapêutica em crianças com câncer. revisão sistemática de ensaios cl

  12. The effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE on nerves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: If a critical nerve is circumferentially involved with tumor, radical surgery intended to cure the cancer must sacrifice the nerve. Loss of critical nerves may lead to serious consequences. In spite of the impressive technical advancements in nerve reconstruction, complete recovery and normalization of nerve function is difficult to achieve. Though irreversible electroporation (IRE might be a promising choice to treat tumors near or involved critical nerve, the pathophysiology of the nerve after IRE treatment has not be clearly defined. METHODS: We applied IRE directly to a rat sciatic nerve to study the long term effects of IRE on the nerve. A sequence of 10 square pulses of 3800 V/cm, each 100 µs long was applied directly to rat sciatic nerves. In each animal of group I (IRE the procedure was applied to produce a treated length of about 10 mm. In each animal of group II (Control the electrodes were only applied directly on the sciatic nerve for the same time. Electrophysiological, histological, and functional studies were performed on immediately after and 3 days, 1 week, 3, 5, 7 and 10 weeks following surgery. FINDINGS: Electrophysiological, histological, and functional results show the nerve treated with IRE can attain full recovery after 7 weeks. CONCLUSION: This finding is indicative of the preservation of nerve involving malignant tumors with respect to the application of IRE pulses to ablate tumors completely. In summary, IRE may be a promising treatment tool for any tumor involving nerves.

  13. Pathogenetic and Therapeutic Applications of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α in Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Ma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is characterized by mood, vegetative, cognitive, and even psychotic symptoms and signs that can cause substantial impairments in quality of life and functioning. Up to now, the exact pathogenesis of MDD remains poorly understood. Recent research has begun to reveal that the pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, play an integral role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and the mechanism of antidepressant treatment. On the base of several observations: it is found that subsets of MDD patients have enhanced plasma levels TNF-α; antidepressant treatments had linked with the decline of TNF-α; central administration of TNF-α gives rise to sickness behavior which shares features with depression; and a blockade of it can ameliorate depressive symptomatology in animal models and clinical trials. In this review article, we focus on recent evidence linking TNF-α and MDD looking at data from animal and clinical studies, illustrating the pathophysiological role, susceptibility and its therapeutic application in depression. We conclude by discussing future directions for research, in particular the opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics that target TNF-α. This will be very important for designing preventative strategies and for the identification of new drug targets and preventative strategies.

  14. Pathogenetic and Therapeutic Applications of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) in Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ke; Zhang, Hongxiu; Baloch, Zulqarnain

    2016-05-14

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by mood, vegetative, cognitive, and even psychotic symptoms and signs that can cause substantial impairments in quality of life and functioning. Up to now, the exact pathogenesis of MDD remains poorly understood. Recent research has begun to reveal that the pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), play an integral role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and the mechanism of antidepressant treatment. On the base of several observations: it is found that subsets of MDD patients have enhanced plasma levels TNF-α; antidepressant treatments had linked with the decline of TNF-α; central administration of TNF-α gives rise to sickness behavior which shares features with depression; and a blockade of it can ameliorate depressive symptomatology in animal models and clinical trials. In this review article, we focus on recent evidence linking TNF-α and MDD looking at data from animal and clinical studies, illustrating the pathophysiological role, susceptibility and its therapeutic application in depression. We conclude by discussing future directions for research, in particular the opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics that target TNF-α. This will be very important for designing preventative strategies and for the identification of new drug targets and preventative strategies.

  15. Newcastle Disease Virus: Potential Therapeutic Application for Human and Canine Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on oncolytic viruses has mostly been directed towards the treatment of solid tumors, which has yielded limited information regarding their activity in hematological cancer. It has also been directed towards the treatment of humans, yet veterinary medicine may also benefit. Several strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV have been used as oncolytics in vitro and in a number of in vivo experiments. We studied the cytolytic effect of NDV-MLS, a low virulence attenuated lentogenic strain, on a human large B-cell lymphoma cell line (SU-DHL-4, as well as on primary canine-derived B-cell lymphoma cells, and compared them to healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from both humans and dogs. NDV-MLS reduced cell survival in both human (42% ± 5% and dog (34% ± 12% lymphoma cells as compared to untreated controls. No significant effect on PBMC was seen. Cell death involved apoptosis as documented by flow-cytometry. NDV-MLS infections of malignant lymphoma tumors in vivo in dogs were confirmed by electron microscopy. Early (24 h biodistribution of intravenous injection of 1 × 1012 TCID50 (tissue culture infective dose in a dog with T-cell lymphoma showed viral localization only in the kidney, the salivary gland, the lung and the stomach by immunohistochemistry and/or endpoint PCR. We conclude that NDV-MLS may be a promising agent for the treatment of lymphomas. Future research is needed to elucidate the optimal therapeutic regimen and establish appropriate biosafety measures.

  16. Newcastle Disease Virus: Potential Therapeutic Application for Human and Canine Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Diana; Pelayo, Rosana; Medina, Luis Alberto; Vadillo, Eduardo; Sánchez, Rogelio; Núñez, Luis; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena

    2015-12-23

    Research on oncolytic viruses has mostly been directed towards the treatment of solid tumors, which has yielded limited information regarding their activity in hematological cancer. It has also been directed towards the treatment of humans, yet veterinary medicine may also benefit. Several strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been used as oncolytics in vitro and in a number of in vivo experiments. We studied the cytolytic effect of NDV-MLS, a low virulence attenuated lentogenic strain, on a human large B-cell lymphoma cell line (SU-DHL-4), as well as on primary canine-derived B-cell lymphoma cells, and compared them to healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from both humans and dogs. NDV-MLS reduced cell survival in both human (42% ± 5%) and dog (34% ± 12%) lymphoma cells as compared to untreated controls. No significant effect on PBMC was seen. Cell death involved apoptosis as documented by flow-cytometry. NDV-MLS infections of malignant lymphoma tumors in vivo in dogs were confirmed by electron microscopy. Early (24 h) biodistribution of intravenous injection of 1 × 10(12) TCID50 (tissue culture infective dose) in a dog with T-cell lymphoma showed viral localization only in the kidney, the salivary gland, the lung and the stomach by immunohistochemistry and/or endpoint PCR. We conclude that NDV-MLS may be a promising agent for the treatment of lymphomas. Future research is needed to elucidate the optimal therapeutic regimen and establish appropriate biosafety measures.

  17. Emerging roles of exosomes in normal and pathological conditions. New insights for diagnosis and therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta eDe Toro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available From the time when they were first described in the 1970s by the group of Johnstone and Stahl, exosomes are a target of constant research. Exosomes belong to the family of nano-vesicles which are of great interest for their many functions and potential for diagnosis and therapy in multiples diseases. Exosomes originate from the intraluminal vesicles of late endosomal compartments named multivesicular bodies and the fusion of these late endosomes with the cell membrane result in the release of the vesicles into the extracellular compartment. Moreover, their generation can be induced by many factors including extracellular stimuli, such as microbial attack and other stress conditions. The primary role attributed to exosomes was the removal of unnecessary proteins from the cells. Now, several studies have demonstrated that exosomes are involved in cell-cell communication, even though their biological function is not completely clear.The participation of exosomes in cancer is the field of microvesicle research that has expanded more over the last years. Evidence proving that exosomes derived from tumor-pulsed dendritic cells, neoplastic cells and malignant effusions, are able to present antigens to T‐cells, has led to numerous studies using them as cell free cancer vaccines.Since exosomes derive from all cell types, they contain proteins, lipids and miRNA capable of regulating a variety of target genes. Much research is being conducted, which focuses on the employment of these vesicles as biomarkers in the diagnosis of cancer in addition to innovative biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and management of cardiovascular diseases. Interesting findings indicating the role of exosomes in the pathogenesis of several diseases have encouraged researchers to consider their therapeutic potential not only in oncology but also in the treatment of autoimmune syndromes and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s disease; in addition

  18. CJD PrPsc removal by nanofiltration process: application to a therapeutic immunoglobulin solution (Lymphoglobuline).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchot, L; Arnaud, T; Bloy, C; Perret-Liaudet, A

    2006-09-01

    The characteristic of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) is an accumulation of partially protease resistant (PrP(res)) abnormal prion protein (PrP(sc)). This pathological prion protein is very resistant to conventional inactivation methods. The risk of transmission of TSE, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), by biopharmaceutical products prepared from human cells must be taken into account. The nanofiltration process has been proved to be effective in removing viruses and scrapie agent. The major advantages of this technique are flexibility and efficacy in removing infectious particles without altering biopharmaceutical characteristics and properties. This study focused on the removal of human PrP(sc) by means of a nanofiltration method after spiking a Lymphoglobuline solution with a CJD brain homogenate. Lymphoglobuline equine anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin is a selective immunosuppressive agent acting mainly on human T lymphocytes. The therapeutic indications are: immunosuppression for transplantation: prevention and treatment of graft rejection; treatment of aplastic anemia. In our study, CJD homogenate was spiked at three different dilutions (low, moderate and high) in the Lymphoglobuline product. The nanofiltration process was performed on each sample. Using the western blot technique, the PrP(res) signal detected in nanofiltrates was compared to that obtained with a reference scale (dilution series of CJD brain homogenate in Lymphoglobuline detected by western blot and elaborated on 3.3 log). After nanofiltration, the PrP(res) western blot signal was detected with a significant reduction in the less dilute sample, whereas the signal was undetectable in the two other samples. These are the first data in CJD demonstrating a clearance between 1.6 and 3.3 log with a Lymphoglobuline recovery of over 93%. The nanofiltration process confirms its relative efficacy in removing human CJD PrP(sc).

  19. Maghemite/poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolyde) composite nanoplatform for therapeutic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Artacho, Beatriz; Gallardo, Visitacion; Ruiz, M. Adolfina; Arias, Jose L., E-mail: jlarias@ugr.es [University of Granada, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    A reproducible methodology is described for the synthesis, by following the double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique, of magnetic nanocomposites (average diameter Almost-Equal-To 135 nm) consisting of maghemite nuclei and a biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) matrix. The heterogeneous structure of the nanoparticles can confer them the responsiveness to magnetic gradients, giving both the possibility of their use as a drug delivery system and adequate heating characteristics for a hyperthermia effect. The physical chemistry of the nanocomposites was extensively characterized, this establishing that their surface properties were similar to that of pure poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide). From an electrokinetic point of view, zeta potential determinations (as a function of the ionic strength, and pH) pointed out that the nanocomposites were almost indistinguishable from the copolymer. The surface thermodynamic analysis agreed with the electrophoretic one in suggesting that the coverage of the magnetic nuclei was complete, since the hydrophilic nature of maghemite was modified and the nanoparticles turned into hydrophobic, just like the copolymer, when they were embedded into poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide). The magnetic behaviours of the composite nanoparticles were also checked. Their heating properties were studied in vitro in a high-frequency alternating gradient of magnetic field: a stable maximum temperature of 47 Degree-Sign C was satisfactorily achieved within 45 min. Blood compatibility of the nanocomposites was also defined in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such kind of magnetic-sensitive nanoformulation with very promising characteristics (e.g. blood compatibility, magnetic drug targeting capabilities, and hyperthermia) has been developed for therapeutic purposes.

  20. Investigation into the actual application of the diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Antonelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: In colon cancer, the effectiveness of the cure is largely dependent on the early detection of the pathology. It is therefore useful to investigate the quality prevention programs. As a result, the Italian Healthcare System is increasingly adopting Quality Assurance by implementing diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines.
    In this study, a comparison was made between the current pathways undertaken by patients with colon cancer and the prescribed guidelines. The analysis investigates the diagnostic pathways that lead to the discovery of colon cancer, the service center where the pathway started and the therapy regimen administered to treat the cancer.

    Methods: The analysis covers all 205,000 patients who accessed one Italian Local Health Agency during the year 2007. In order to fund the costs of the services, the local regional council requested the collection of data from the Agency itself. Starting from this raw data, a data warehouse was built, the required data extracted and, eventually, the actual pathways were created.

    Results and conclusions: Only 11.2% of colon cancer patients underwent the sequence of exams recommended by the official guidelines. 54.4% of them only partly followed the sequence of recommended exams. The remaining patients underwent exams that did not comply at all with the guidelines. Furthermore, there is evidence of a lack of prevention for some patients, particularly for those that only discovered the pathology when they arrived at the Emergency Department.

  1. Engineering Bi-Layer Nanofibrous Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yiqian; Wang, Aijun; Patel, Shyam; Kurpinski, Kyle; Diao, Edward; Bao, Xuan; Kwong, George; Young, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma injuries often cause peripheral nerve damage and disability. A goal in neural tissue engineering is to develop synthetic nerve conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration having therapeutic efficacy comparable to that of autografts. Nanofibrous conduits with aligned nanofibers have been shown to promote nerve regeneration, but current fabrication methods rely on rolling a fibrous sheet into the shape of a conduit, which results in a graft with inconsistent size and a discontinuous joint or seam. In addition, the long-term effects of nanofibrous nerve conduits, in comparison with autografts, are still unknown. Here we developed a novel one-step electrospinning process and, for the first time, fabricated a seamless bi-layer nanofibrous nerve conduit: the luminal layer having longitudinally aligned nanofibers to promote nerve regeneration, and the outer layer having randomly organized nanofibers for mechanical support. Long-term in vivo studies demonstrated that bi-layer aligned nanofibrous nerve conduits were superior to random nanofibrous conduits and had comparable therapeutic effects to autografts for nerve regeneration. In summary, we showed that the engineered nanostructure had a significant impact on neural tissue regeneration in situ. The results from this study will also lead to the scalable fabrication of engineered nanofibrous nerve conduits with designed nanostructure. This technology platform can be combined with drug delivery and cell therapies for tissue engineering. PMID:21501089

  2. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Swaminathan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves.

  3. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Anuradha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2009-11-25

    Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves.

  4. Derive and conquer: sourcing and differentiating stem cells for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimanskaya, Irina; Rosenthal, Nadia; Lanza, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Although great progress has been made in the isolation and culture of stem cells, the future of stem-cell-based therapies and their productive use in drug discovery and regenerative medicine depends on two key factors: finding reliable sources of multipotent and pluripotent cells and the ability to control their differentiation to generate desired derivatives. It is essential for clinical applications to establish reliable sources of pathogen-free human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and develop suitable differentiation techniques. Here, we address some of the problems associated with the sourcing of human ESCs and discuss the current status of stem-cell differentiation technology.

  5. Vagus nerve stimulation therapy in partial epilepsy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Mariangela; Zavanone, Chiara; Dupont, Sophie; Restivo, Domenico A; Pavone, Antonino

    2016-09-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked epileptic seizures. The majority of people given a diagnosis of epilepsy have a good prognosis, but 20-30 % will develop drug-resistant epilepsy. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a neuromodulatory treatment that is used as an adjunctive therapy for treating people with medically refractory epilepsy. It consists of chronic intermittent electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve, delivered by a programmable pulse generator (Neuro-Cybernetic Prosthesis). In 1997, the Food and Drug Administration approved VNS as adjunctive treatment for medically refractory partial-onset seizures in adults and adolescents. This article reviews the literature from 1988 to nowadays. We discuss thoroughly the anatomy and physiology of vagus nerve and the potential mechanisms of actions and clinical applications involved in VNS therapy, as well as the management, safety, tolerability and effectiveness of VNS therapy. VNS for partial seizures appears to be an effective and well tolerated treatment in adult and pediatric patients. People noted improvements in feelings of well-being, alertness, memory and thinking skills, as well as mood. The adverse effect profile is substantially different from the adverse effect profile associated with antiepileptic drugs, making VNS a potential alternative for patients with difficulty tolerating antiepileptic drug adverse effects. Despite the passing years and the advent of promising neuromodulation technologies, VNS remains an efficacy treatment for people with medically refractory epilepsy. Past and ongoing investigations in other indications have provided signals of the therapeutic potential in a wide variety of conditions.

  6. Infrared neural stimulation of human spinal nerve roots in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayce, Jonathan M; Wells, Jonathon D; Malphrus, Jonathan D; Kao, Chris; Thomsen, Sharon; Tulipan, Noel B; Konrad, Peter E; Jansen, E Duco; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is a neurostimulation modality that uses pulsed infrared light to evoke artifact-free, spatially precise neural activity with a noncontact interface; however, the technique has not been demonstrated in humans. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of INS in humans in vivo. The feasibility of INS in humans was assessed in patients ([Formula: see text]) undergoing selective dorsal root rhizotomy, where hyperactive dorsal roots, identified for transection, were stimulated in vivo with INS on two to three sites per nerve with electromyogram recordings acquired throughout the stimulation. The stimulated dorsal root was removed and histology was performed to determine thermal damage thresholds of INS. Threshold activation of human dorsal rootlets occurred in 63% of nerves for radiant exposures between 0.53 and [Formula: see text]. In all cases, only one or two monitored muscle groups were activated from INS stimulation of a hyperactive spinal root identified by electrical stimulation. Thermal damage was first noted at [Formula: see text] and a [Formula: see text] safety ratio was identified. These findings demonstrate the success of INS as a fresh approach for activating human nerves in vivo and providing the necessary safety data needed to pursue clinically driven therapeutic and diagnostic applications of INS in humans.

  7. Low intensity laser treatment of nerve injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Luo, Qing-Ming

    2007-05-01

    The neural regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injuries has long been an important field in neuroscience. Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation is a novel and useful tool for the treatment of many injuries and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the role of LIL irradiation in the treatment of peripheral and central nerve injuries. Some animal experiments and clinical investigations have shown beneficial effects of LIL irradiation on neural tissues, but its therapeutic value and efficacy are controversial. Reviewing the data of experimental and clinical studies by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation in specific parameters can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral and central nerves and LIL therapy is a safe and valuable treatment for superficial peripheral nerve injuries and spinal cord injury. The biological effects of LIL treatment depend largely on laser wavelength, power and dose per site and effective irradiation doses are location-specific.

  8. Surgical access for electrical stimulation of the pudendal and dorsal genital nerves in the overactive bladder: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, F.M.J.; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Rijkhoff, N.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The anatomy of the pudendal nerve and its nerve branches, especially the dorsal nerve of the penis and clitoris (dorsal genital nerves), and the clinical application of electrical stimulation of these nerves in patients with overactive bladder syndrome and detrusor overactivity are

  9. Therapeutic application of stem cell technology toward the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Takahashi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the candidate diseases for cell transplantation therapy, since successful clinical experiments have accumulated using human fetal tissue grafting for PD patients. Although some grafted PD patients have shown drastic improvements, several issues still remain with regard to using human fetal tissue. This review highlights the recent advances in stem cell technology toward clinical applications using human pluripotent stem cells. In particular, pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are the focus as a source of cell transplantation therapy that can be used instead of human fetal tissues. Additionally, efficient methods for stem cell maintenance and differentiation have been developed and improved toward the clinical transition. These advances in the basic technologies have helped accelerate the realization of regenerative medicine. We also review the current topics regarding disease modeling and drug screening using iPSC technology. Finally, we also describe the future prospects of these stem cell research fields toward clinical application.

  10. Plant-Mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Their Characteristic Properties and Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Park, Inmyoung; Seung-Hyun, Kim; Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Rajakumar, Govindasamy

    2016-01-01

    Interest in "green nanotechnology" in nanoparticle biosynthesis is growing among researchers. Nanotechnologies, due to their physicochemical and biological properties, have applications in diverse fields, including drug delivery, sensors, optoelectronics, and magnetic devices. This review focuses on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using plant sources. Green synthesis of nanoparticles is an eco-friendly approach, which should be further explored for the potential of different plants to synthesize nanoparticles. The sizes of AgNPs are in the range of 1 to 100 nm. Characterization of synthesized nanoparticles is accomplished through UV spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. AgNPs have great potential to act as antimicrobial agents. The green synthesis of AgNPs can be efficiently applied for future engineering and medical concerns. Different types of cancers can be treated and/or controlled by phytonanotechnology. The present review provides a comprehensive survey of plant-mediated synthesis of AgNPs with specific focus on their applications, e.g., antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

  11. Modern concepts in facial nerve reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantel Mira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconstructive surgery of the facial nerve is not daily routine for most head and neck surgeons. The published experience on strategies to ensure optimal functional results for the patients are based on small case series with a large variety of surgical techniques. On this background it is worthwhile to develop a standardized approach for diagnosis and treatment of patients asking for facial rehabilitation. Conclusion A standardized approach is feasible: Patients with chronic facial palsy first need an exact classification of the palsy's aetiology. A step-by-step clinical examination, if necessary MRI imaging and electromyographic examination allow a classification of the palsy's aetiology as well as the determination of the severity of the palsy and the functional deficits. Considering the patient's desire, age and life expectancy, an individual surgical concept is applicable using three main approaches: a early extratemporal reconstruction, b early reconstruction of proximal lesions if extratemporal reconstruction is not possible, c late reconstruction or in cases of congenital palsy. Twelve to 24 months after the last step of surgical reconstruction a standardized evaluation of the therapeutic results is recommended to evaluate the necessity for adjuvant surgical procedures or other adjuvant procedures, e.g. botulinum toxin application. Up to now controlled trials on the value of physiotherapy and other adjuvant measures are missing to give recommendation for optimal application of adjuvant therapies.

  12. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; G, Natasha; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery.

  13. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; Natasha, G; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R.; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery. PMID:26422652

  14. Therapeutic application of extracellular vesicles in acute and chronic renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Jordi; Diekmann, Fritz; Campistol, Josep M; Ramírez-Bajo, María José

    2016-07-23

    A new cell-to-cell communication system was discovered in the 1990s, which involves the release of vesicles into the extracellular space. These vesicles shuttle bioactive particles, including proteins, mRNA, miRNA, metabolites, etc. This particular communication has been conserved throughout evolution, which explains why most cell types are capable of producing vesicles. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in the regulation of different physiological processes, as well as in the development and progression of several diseases. EVs have been widely studied over recent years, especially those produced by embryonic and adult stem cells, blood cells, immune system and nervous system cells, as well as tumour cells. EV analysis from bodily fluids has been used as a diagnostic tool for cancer and recently for different renal diseases. However, this review analyses the importance of EVs generated by stem cells, their function and possible clinical application in renal diseases and kidney transplantation.

  15. Inflammatory therapeutic targets in coronary atherosclerosis – from molecular biology to clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eLinden

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. Over the past two decades, it has been clearly recognized that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. Accumulating data from animal experiments have supported this hypothesis, however, clinical applications making use of this knowledge remain scarce. In spite of optimal interventional and medical therapy, the risk for recurrent myocardial infarction remains by about 20% over three years after acute coronary syndromes, novel therapies to prevent atherogenesis or treat atherosclerosis are urgently needed. This review summarizes selected potential molecu-lar inflammatory targets that may be of clinical relevance. We also review recent and ongoing clinical trails that target inflammatory processes aiming at preventing adverse cardiovascular events. Overall, it seems surprising that translation of basic science into clinical practice has not been a great success. In conclusion, we propose to focus on specific efforts that promote translational science in order to improve outcome and prognosis of patients suffering from atherosclerosis.

  16. Glucomanano: propiedades y aplicaciones terapéuticas Glucomannan: properties and therapeutic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. González Canga

    2004-02-01

    konjac plant, a member of the family Araceae found in east Asia. The chemical structure of glucomannan consists, mainly, in mannose and glucose in the ratio 8:5 linked by ß (1→ 4. glycosidic bonds. This soluble fiber has a extraordinarily high waterholding capacity, forming highly viscous solutions when dissolved in water. It has the highest molecular weight and viscosity of any known dietary fiber. It has been demonstrated that this product is highly effective in the treatment of obesity due to the satiety sensation that it produces; as a remedy for constipation, because it increases the faeces volume; as hypocholesterolemic agent, interfering in the transport of cholesterol and of bile acids and as hypoglycemic and hypoinsulinemic agent, probably, by delaying gastric emptying and slowering glucose delivery to the intestinal mucosa. To the beneficial properties of this fiber, several di sadvantages can be added as the production of flatulence, abdominal pain, esophageal obstruction, lower gastrointestinal obstruction or even the possible modification of the bioavailability of other drugs. This paper reviews the main characteristics of glucomannan, as well as its properties, physiologic effects and therapeutic uses.

  17. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to measure the speed of the nerve signals. Electromyography (recording from needles placed into the muscles) is ... Often, the nerve conduction test is followed by electromyography (EMG). In this test, needles are placed into ...

  18. Common peroneal nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toe-out movements Tests of nerve activity include: Electromyography (EMG, a test of electrical activity in muscles) Nerve ... Peroneal neuropathy. In: Preston DC, Shapiro BE, eds. Electromyography and Neuromuscular Disorders . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  19. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a promising electrospun collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinquan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To cope with the limitations faced by autograft acquisitions particularly for multiple nerve injuries, artificial nerve conduit has been introduced by researchers as a substitute for autologous nerve graft for the easy specification and availability for mass production. In order to best mimic the structures and components of autologous nerve, great efforts have been made to improve the designation of nerve conduits either from materials or fabrication techniques. Electrospinning is an easy and versatile technique that has recently been used to fabricate fibrous tissue-engineered scaffolds which have great similarity to the extracellular matrix on fiber structure. Results In this study we fabricated a collagen/poly(ε-caprolactone (collagen/PCL fibrous scaffold by electrospinning and explored its application as nerve guide substrate or conduit in vitro and in vivo. Material characterizations showed this electrospun composite material which was made of submicron fibers possessed good hydrophilicity and flexibility. In vitro study indicated electrospun collagen/PCL fibrous meshes promoted Schwann cell adhesion, elongation and proliferation. In vivo test showed electrospun collagen/PCL porous nerve conduits successfully supported nerve regeneration through an 8 mm sciatic nerve gap in adult rats, achieving similar electrophysiological and muscle reinnervation results as autografts. Although regenerated nerve fibers were still in a pre-mature stage 4 months postoperatively, the implanted collagen/PCL nerve conduits facilitated more axons regenerating through the conduit lumen and gradually degraded which well matched the nerve regeneration rate. Conclusions All the results demonstrated this collagen/PCL nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate fabricated by electrospinning could be an efficient alternative to autograft for peripheral nerve regeneration research. Due to its advantage of high surface area for cell attachment, it

  20. Gene Editing and Genetic Lung Disease. Basic Research Meets Therapeutic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapati, Deepthi; Morrisey, Edward E

    2017-03-01

    Although our understanding of the genetics and pathology of congenital lung diseases such as surfactant protein deficiency, cystic fibrosis, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is extensive, treatment options are lacking. Because the lung is a barrier organ in direct communication with the external environment, targeted delivery of gene corrective technologies to the respiratory system via intratracheal or intranasal routes is an attractive option for therapy. CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing technology is a promising approach to repairing or inactivating disease-causing mutations. Recent reports have provided proof of concept by using CRISPR/Cas9 to successfully repair or inactivate mutations in animal models of monogenic human diseases. Potential pulmonary applications of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing include gene correction of monogenic diseases in pre- or postnatal lungs and ex vivo gene editing of patient-specific airway stem cells followed by autologous cell transplant. Strategies to enhance gene-editing efficiency and eliminate off-target effects by targeting pulmonary stem/progenitor cells and the assessment of short-term and long-term effects of gene editing are important considerations as the field advances. If methods continue to advance rapidly, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing may provide a novel opportunity to correct monogenic diseases of the respiratory system.

  1. The "ouzo effect", recent developments and application to therapeutic drug carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botet, Robert

    2012-03-01

    This short review is about the spontaneous emulsification effect, aka the "ouzo effect". Under certain conditions, pouring a mixture ol a totally water-miscible solvent and a hydrophobic oil into water, generates spontaneously nanometric droplets which are stable, even without surfactant. A basic example is anise-flavored aperitif, which is known from ages in South Europe and North Africa. Then, it is an amazingly old topic, potentially important in a number of applications - such as food additives, paints, cosmetic products or pharmaceutic drugs -, though the main mechanisms are yet essentially unexplained. This phenomenon is presently under intensive investigation using both microfluidic experiments and large-scale numerical simulations, through a CNRS project grouping four laboratories in France. This presentation will give an overview of the history, context and development of the ouzo effect, as well as recent advancements and ideas in the field. This unique effect is now related to two major streams of the scientific research, namely: nano-technology and bio-technology. Consequences in the latter domain is outlined.

  2. Microfluidic production of perfluorocarbon-alginate core-shell microparticles for ultrasound therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana Rita C; Ünal, Barış; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L; Jensen, Klavs F

    2014-10-21

    The fabrication of micrometer-sized core-shell particles for ultrasound-triggered delivery offers a variety of applications in medical research. In this work, we report the design and development of a glass capillary microfluidic system containing three concentric glass capillary tubes for the development of core-shell particles. The setup enables the preparation of perfluorocarbon-alginate core-shell microspheres in a single process, avoiding the requirement for further extensive purification steps. Core-shell microspheres in the range of 110-130 μm are prepared and are demonstrated to be stable up to 21 days upon immersion in calcium chloride solution or water. The mechanical stability of the particles is tested by injecting them through a 23 gauge needle into a polyacrylamide gel to mimic the tissue matrix. The integrity of the particles is maintained after the injection process and is disrupted after ultrasound exposure for 15 min. The results suggest that the perfluorcarbon-alginate microparticles could be a promising system for the delivery of compounds, such as proteins, peptides, and small-molecule drugs in ultrasound-based therapies.

  3. Therapeutic Potential of Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells in IBD: From Animal Models to Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cabezón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gut mucosa undergoes continuous antigenic exposure from food antigens, commensal flora derived ligands, and pathogens. This constant stimulation results in controlled inflammatory responses that are effectively suppressed by multiple factors. This tight regulation, necessary to maintain intestinal homeostasis, is affected during inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD resulting in altered immune responses to harmless microorganisms. Dendritic cells (DCs are sentinels of immunity, located in peripheral and lymphoid tissues, which are essential for homeostasis of T cell-dependent immune responses. The expression of a particular set of pathogen recognition receptors allows DCs to initiate immune responses. However, in the absence of danger signals, different DC subsets can induce active tolerance by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg, inhibiting inflammatory T helper cell responses, or both. Interestingly, several protocols to generate clinical grade tolerogenic DC (tol-DCs in vitro have been described, opening the possibility to restore the intestinal homeostasis to bacterial flora by cellular therapy. In this review, we discuss different DC subsets and their role in IBD. Additionally, we will review preclinical studies performed in animal models while describing recent characterization of tol-DCs from Crohn’s disease patients for clinical application.

  4. Temperature-Responsive Smart Nanocarriers for Delivery Of Therapeutic Agents: Applications and Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Sahandi Zangabad, Parham; Ghasemi, Alireza; Amiri, Mohammad; Bahrami, Mohsen; Malekzad, Hedieh; Ghahramanzadeh Asl, Hadi; Mahdieh, Zahra; Bozorgomid, Mahnaz; Ghasemi, Amir; Rahmani Taji Boyuk, Mohammad Reza; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-08-24

    Smart drug delivery systems (DDSs) have attracted the attention of many scientists, as carriers that can be stimulated by changes in environmental parameters such as temperature, pH, light, electromagnetic fields, mechanical forces, etc. These smart nanocarriers can release their cargo on demand when their target is reached and the stimulus is applied. Using the techniques of nanotechnology, these nanocarriers can be tailored to be target-specific, and exhibit delayed or controlled release of drugs. Temperature-responsive nanocarriers are one of most important groups of smart nanoparticles (NPs) that have been investigated during the past decades. Temperature can either act as an external stimulus when heat is applied from the outside, or can be internal when pathological lesions have a naturally elevated termperature. A low critical solution temperature (LCST) is a special feature of some polymeric materials, and most of the temperature-responsive nanocarriers have been designed based on this feature. In this review, we attempt to summarize recent efforts to prepare innovative temperature-responsive nanocarriers and discuss their novel applications.

  5. Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from basic science to therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Alam, Jawed; Choi, Augustine M K

    2006-04-01

    The heme oxygenases, which consist of constitutive and inducible isozymes (HO-1, HO-2), catalyze the rate-limiting step in the metabolic conversion of heme to the bile pigments (i.e., biliverdin and bilirubin) and thus constitute a major intracellular source of iron and carbon monoxide (CO). In recent years, endogenously produced CO has been shown to possess intriguing signaling properties affecting numerous critical cellular functions including but not limited to inflammation, cellular proliferation, and apoptotic cell death. The era of gaseous molecules in biomedical research and human diseases initiated with the discovery that the endothelial cell-derived relaxing factor was identical to the gaseous molecule nitric oxide (NO). The discovery that endogenously produced gaseous molecules such as NO and now CO can impart potent physiological and biological effector functions truly represented a paradigm shift and unraveled new avenues of intense investigations. This review covers the molecular and biochemical characterization of HOs, with a discussion on the mechanisms of signal transduction and gene regulation that mediate the induction of HO-1 by environmental stress. Furthermore, the current understanding of the functional significance of HO shall be discussed from the perspective of each of the metabolic by-products, with a special emphasis on CO. Finally, this presentation aspires to lay a foundation for potential future clinical applications of these systems.

  6. Customizable de novo design strategies for DOCK: Application to HIVgp41 and other therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, William J; Fochtman, Brian C; Balius, Trent E; Rizzo, Robert C

    2017-09-22

    De novo design can be used to explore vast areas of chemical space in computational lead discovery. As a complement to virtual screening, from-scratch construction of molecules is not limited to compounds in pre-existing vendor catalogs. Here, we present an iterative fragment growth method, integrated into the program DOCK, in which new molecules are built using rules for allowable connections based on known molecules. The method leverages DOCK's advanced scoring and pruning approaches and users can define very specific criteria in terms of properties or features to customize growth toward a particular region of chemical space. The code was validated using three increasingly difficult classes of calculations: (1) Rebuilding known X-ray ligands taken from 663 complexes using only their component parts (focused libraries), (2) construction of new ligands in 57 drug target sites using a library derived from ∼13M drug-like compounds (generic libraries), and (3) application to a challenging protein-protein interface on the viral drug target HIVgp41. The computational testing confirms that the de novo DOCK routines are robust and working as envisioned, and the compelling results highlight the potential utility for designing new molecules against a wide variety of important protein targets. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Antimicrobial Peptides and Innate Lung Defenses: Role in Infectious and Noninfectious Lung Diseases and Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Pieter S; Amatngalim, Gimano D; van der Does, Anne M; Taube, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory infections are a major clinical problem, and treatment is increasingly complicated by the emergence of microbial antibiotic resistance. Development of new antibiotics is notoriously costly and slow; therefore, alternative strategies are needed. Antimicrobial peptides, central effector molecules of the immune system, are being considered as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. These peptides display a range of activities, including not only direct antimicrobial activity, but also immunomodulation and wound repair. In the lung, airway epithelial cells and neutrophils in particular contribute to their synthesis. The relevance of antimicrobial peptides for host defense against infection has been demonstrated in animal models and is supported by observations in patient studies, showing altered expression and/or unfavorable circumstances for their action in a variety of lung diseases. Importantly, antimicrobial peptides are active against microorganisms that are resistant against conventional antibiotics, including multidrug-resistant bacteria. Several strategies have been proposed to use these peptides in the treatment of infections, including direct administration of antimicrobial peptides, enhancement of their local production, and creation of more favorable circumstances for their action. In this review, recent developments in antimicrobial peptides research in the lung and clinical applications for novel therapies of lung diseases are discussed.

  8. Clinical implications of the surgical anatomy of the sural nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coert, J H; Dellon, A L

    1994-11-01

    The exact anatomy of the sural nerve remains important for many clinical situations. To better understand this anatomy, 25 embalmed and 10 fresh cadaver pairs were studied. The origin of the common sural nerve in relation to the fibular head and its medial and lateral sural components were investigated. The lateral sural nerve was absent in 4 percent of the embalmed cadavers. The lateral and medial sural nerves united in the popliteal fossa in 12 percent and in the lower third of the leg in 84 percent of the cadavers. A site was identified where the lateral sural and lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf pierced the deep fascia. This site was centered about the fibular head and may be viewed as a potential site of nerve compression. There is application of these findings to nerve grafting, neuroma prevention and treatment, and sural nerve biopsy.

  9. The early history of tubulation in nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJpma, F F A; Van De Graaf, R C; Meek, M F

    2008-10-01

    The first experiments for bridging peripheral nerve gaps using nerve tubulation emerged in the 19th century. Because Gluck (1853-1942) is said to have performed the first animal experiment of nerve tubulation in 1880, it is interesting to explore the background and veracity of this claim. The original documents on nerve tubulation in the 19th century were studied. We conclude that the conduit that was initially used for nerve tubulation was derived from a resorbable decalcified bone tube developed for wound drainage by Neuber (1850-1932) in 1879. Gluck proposed the use of the bone tube as a guided conduit for regenerating nerves in 1881 but stated briefly that his experiments failed because of scar formation. Vanlair (1839-1914) documented the first successful application of nerve tubulation using a bone tube to bridge a 3 cm sciatic nerve defect in a dog in 1882.

  10. The Physics of Nerves

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The accepted model for nerve pulse propagation in biological membranes seems insufficient. It is restricted to dissipative electrical phenomena and considers nerve pulses exclusively as a microscopic phenomenon. A simple thermodynamic model that is based on the macroscopic properties of membranes allows explaining more features of nerve pulse propagation including the phenomenon of anesthesia that has so far remained unexplained.

  11. Potential therapeutic application of intravenous autologous bone marrow infusion in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takafumi; Okumoto, Kazuo; Haga, Hiroaki; Nishise, Yuko; Ishii, Rika; Sato, Chikako; Watanabe, Hisayoshi; Okada, Akio; Ikeda, Motoki; Togashi, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao; Kawata, Sumio

    2011-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the application and efficacy of autologous bone marrow infusion (ABMi) for improvement of liver function in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC). Five subjects and 5 control patients with ALC who had abstained from alcohol intake for 24 weeks before the study were enrolled. Autologous bone marrow cells were washed and injected intravenously, and the changes in serum liver function parameters, and the level of the type IV collagen 7S domain as a marker of fibrosis, were monitored for 24 weeks. The distribution of activated bone marrow was assessed by indium-111-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy. The number of cells infused was 8.0±7.3×10(9) (mean±standard error). The serum levels of albumin and total protein and the prothrombin time were significantly higher during the follow-up period after ABMi than during the observation period in treated patients, whereas no such changes were observed in the controls. In the patients who received ABMi, the Child-Pugh score decreased in all 3 who were classified as class B; the serum levels of type IV collagen 7S domain improved in 4 of the 5 patients; and bone marrow scintigraphy demonstrated an increase of indium-111-chloride uptake in 3 of the 4 patients tested. ABMi for patients with ALC helps improve liver function parameters in comparison with observation during abstinence and ameliorates the degree of fibrosis in terms of serum markers and bone marrow activation in most cases.

  12. Engineering a Cysteine-Free Form of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 for “Second Generation” Therapeutic Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Xue; Kumru, Ozan S.; Blaber, Sachiko I.; Middaugh, C. Russell; Li, Ling; Ornitz, David M.; Sutherland, Mason A.; Tenorio, Connie A.; Blaber, Michael (FSU); (WU-MED); (Kansas)

    2016-07-06

    Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) has broad therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine but has undesirable biophysical properties of low thermostability and 3 buried cysteine (Cys) residues (at positions 16, 83, and 117) that interact to promote irreversible protein unfolding under oxidizing conditions. Mutational substitution of such Cys residues eliminates reactive buried thiols but cannot be accomplished simultaneously at all 3 positions without also introducing further substantial instability. The mutational introduction of a novel Cys residue (Ala66Cys) that forms a stabilizing disulfide bond (i.e., cystine) with one of the extant Cys residues (Cys83) effectively eliminates one Cys while increasing overall stability. This increase in stability offsets the associated instability of remaining Cys substitution mutations and permits production of a Cys-free form of FGF-1 (Cys16Ser/Ala66Cys/Cys117Ala) with only minor overall instability. The addition of a further stabilizing mutation (Pro134Ala) creates a Cys-free FGF-1 mutant with essentially wild-type biophysical properties. The elimination of buried free thiols in FGF-1 can substantially increase the protein half-life in cell culture. Here, we show that the effective cell survival/mitogenic functional activity of a fully Cys-free form is also substantially increased and is equivalent to wild-type FGF-1 formulated in the presence of heparin sulfate as a stabilizing agent. The results identify this Cys-free FGF-1 mutant as an advantageous “second generation” form of FGF-1 for therapeutic application.

  13. Application of therapeutic ultrasound in Chinese medicine%治疗超声在中医学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泞珊

    2011-01-01

    治疗超声是近10余年来发展并逐步成熟的一种无创治疗新技术,是物理科学应用于医学治疗领域的成功典范.因超声波具有方向性、穿透性和可聚焦性,可通过以下两方面的用途来达到治疗疾病的效果:一是产生非损伤性的热量或其他机械效应以刺激或加速身体对损伤的正常反映;二是对组织产生可控制的选择性杀灭.中医是指我国的传统医学,是研究人体生理、病理以及疾病的诊断和防治等的一门学科,它承载着中国古代人民同疾病作斗争的经验和理论知识.随着社会历史的发展和科学技术的进步,高新技术不断渗透到医学领域,本文主要介绍治疗超声这一无创治疗新技术在中医领域中的应用,借此表明中医的发展同样需要与时俱进,需要高新技术的推波助澜.%Therapeutic ultrasound is gradually developed and matured as a non-invasive new treatment technology in recent 10 years, which is the physical science applied to the medical field successfully. Ultrasound has the natures of direction, penetration and focus, which can achieve the therapeutic effects by the following two mechanisms; firstly, producing non-injury heat or other mechanical effects to stimulate or accelerate the body's normal reaction against injury; secondly, the tissue can be killed selectively. Chinese medicine refers to traditional medicine of China, which is used to study the human physiology, pathology, and the diagnosis and prevention of disease. With the development of society and advance of technology, high-tech permeates into the medical field gradually. This paper mainly introduces the applications of therapeutic ultrasound in the field of Chinese medicine, and to show that the development of Chinese medicine also needs to advance with the times and be fueled by high-tech.

  14. Use of nerve elongator to repair short-distance peripheral nerve defects:a prospective randomized study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Bai; Min-tao Tian; Hong Chen; Dian-ying Zhang; Zhong-guo Fu; Pei-xun Zhang; Bao-guo Jiang; Tian-bing Wang; Xin Wang; Wei-wen Zhang; Ji-hai Xu; Xiao-ming Cai; Dan-ya Zhou; Li-bing Cai; Jia-dong Pan

    2015-01-01

    Repair techniques for short-distance peripheral nerve defects, including adjacent joint lfexion to reduce the distance between the nerve stump defects, “nerve splint” suturing, and nerve sle eve connection, have some disadvantages. Therefore, we designed a repair technique involving intraoperative tension-free application of a nerve elongator and obtained good outcomes in the repair of short-distance peripheral nerve defects in a previous animal study. The present study compared the clinical outcomes between the use of this nerve elongator and performance of the conventional method in the repair of short-distance transection injuries in human elbows. The 3-, 6-, and 12-month postoperative follow-up results demonstrated that early neurological function recovery was better in the nerve elongation group than in the conventional group, but no signif-icant difference in long-term neurological function recovery was detected between the two gro ups. In the nerve elongation group, the nerves were sutured without tension, and the duration of postoperative immobilization of the elbow was decreased. Elbow function rehabilitation was signiifcantly better in the nerve elongation group than in the control group. Moreover, there were no security risks. The results of this study conifrm that the use of this nerve elongator for repair of short-distance peripheral nerve defects is safe and effective.

  15. Therapeutic effect of topical application of linoleic acid and lincomycin in combination with betamethasone valerate in melasma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mu-Hyoung; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Ha, Dong-Ju; Paik, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hong-Yong

    2002-01-01

    Melasma is an acquired symmetric hypermelanosis characterized by irregular light-to gray-brown macules and patches on sun-exposed areas. Many therapeutic agents are available but are unsatisfactory. Recently, it has been demonstrated that lincomycin (LM) and linoleic acid (LA) can inhibit melanogenesis in vitro. Our purpose was to investigate the clinical efficacy of topical application of LM and LA in combination with betamethasone valerate (BV) in melasma patients. Forty-seven Korean female adults with clinically diagnosed melasma were enrolled in a 6-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Patients were treated with one application of the vehicle (group A), 2% LM mixed with 0.05% BV (group B), or 2% LM mixed with 0.05% BV and 2% LA (group C) on the face every night. Determination of efficacy was based on the Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) score and objective assessment (no effect, mild, moderate, or excellent) at intervals of 2 weeks until the end of the study at 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, in comparison with the pre-treatment MASI score, the average MASI score of group C decreased to 68.9%, compared with 98% in group A (p<0.05) and 85.4% in group B. There was no statistically significant difference between group A and group B. Seven patients (43.7%) in group C revealed more than moderate improvement in objective assessment, compared with none in group A and two patients (12.5%) in group B. There were no significant side effects. Topical application of linoleic acid is considered to be effective in the treatment of melasma patients. PMID:12172049

  16. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  17. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch;

    2005-01-01

    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  18. Electromyographic evaluation of functional electrical stimulation to injured oculomotor nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yang; Shiting Li; Youqiang Meng; Ningxi Zhu; Xuhui Wang; Liang Wan; Wenchuan Zhang; Jun Zhong; Shugan Zhu; Massimiliano Visocchi

    2011-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation delivered early after injury to the proximal nerve stump has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for enhancing the speed and specificity of axonal regeneration following nerve injury. In this study, the injured oculomotor nerve was stimulated functionally by an implantable electrode. Electromyographic monitoring of the motor unit potential of the inferior oblique muscle was conducted for 12 weeks in two injury groups, one with and one without electric stimulation. The results revealed that, at 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks after functional electric stimulation of the injured oculomotor nerve, motor unit potentials significantly increased, such that amplitude was longer and spike duration gradually shortened. These findings indicate that the injured oculomotor nerve has the potential for regeneration and repair, but this ability is not sufficient for full functional recovery to occur. Importantly, the current results indicated that recovery and regeneration of the injured oculomotor nerve can be promoted with functional electrical stimulation.

  19. Expression of nerve growth factor and its receptor in distracted tibial nerve after limb lengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Heng; Shu, Hengsheng; Wang, Chunmei; Yuan, Wu; Li, Yunsheng

    2013-02-01

    Despite many experimental and clinical studies conducted on distraction osteogenesis (DO) in the past decade, changes in the surrounding tissues that occur after the procedure remains poorly understood. To study the biochemical changes of recovery in nerve tissues upon DO-induced nerve injury, we prepared a rabbit model of tibia lengthening to observe the expression pattern of nerve growth factor (NGF) and low-affinity NGF receptor (p75NGFR) in the distracted tibial nerve. The distracted tibial nerve was harvested at various time points during the consolidation period of new bone formation and immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the expression of NGF and p75NGFR. The expression levels of NGF and p75NGFR were found to be different at various times after DO. The changes in expression of these two cellular factors show similar tendencies with significantly elevated expression in Schwann cells at 7 and 14 days after distraction, but low or undetectable levels of expression at 0, 28, and 56 days. These results suggest that NGF and p75NGFR may play important roles in the adaptive process of the distracted nerve. NGF and p75NGFR are autocrine growth factors present in the distracted nerve during the early consolidation period. NGF interacts with p75NGFR to promote damage repair and reconstruction of nerves. Together, this study furthers the understanding of the relative mechanisms of nerve repair, as well as provides a further basis for the clinical application of neurotrophins.

  20. Let-7 microRNAs regenerate peripheral nerve regeneration by targeting nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiying; Wang, Xinghui; Gu, Yun; Chen, Chu; Wang, Yaxian; Liu, Jie; Hu, Wen; Yu, Bin; Wang, Yongjun; Ding, Fei; Liu, Yan; Gu, Xiaosong

    2015-03-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a common clinical problem. Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes peripheral nerve regeneration, but its clinical applications are limited by several constraints. In this study, we found that the time-dependent expression profiles of eight let-7 family members in the injured nerve after sciatic nerve injury were roughly similar to each other. Let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs) significantly reduced cell proliferation and migration of primary Schwann cells (SCs) by directly targeting NGF and suppressing its protein translation. Following sciatic nerve injury, the temporal change in let-7 miRNA expression was negatively correlated with that in NGF expression. Inhibition of let-7 miRNAs increased NGF secretion by primary cultured SCs and enhanced axonal outgrowth from a coculture of primary SCs and dorsal root gangalion neurons. In vivo tests indicated that let-7 inhibition promoted SCs migration and axon outgrowth within a regenerative microenvironment. In addition, the inhibitory effect of let-7 miRNAs on SCs apoptosis might serve as an early stress response to nerve injury, but this effect seemed to be not mediated through a NGF-dependent pathway. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into let-7 miRNA regulation of peripheral nerve regeneration and suggest a potential therapy for repair of peripheral nerve injury.

  1. High-yield expression of human vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF(165) in Escherichia coli and purification for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Shelly A; Gunson, Jane; Field, Matthew J; Dinges, Rachel; Khoo, Stefanie; Dalal, Milind; Lee, Michael; Kaleas, Kimberly A; Moiseff, Kathryn; Garnick, Susan; Reilly, Dorothea E; Laird, Michael W; Schmelzer, Charles H

    2010-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF(165)) is a potent mitogen that induces angiogenesis and vascular permeability in vivo and has demonstrated potential in therapeutic applications for accelerating wound healing. An industrial production method that provides high yield as well as high purity, quality, and potency is needed. The process described in this report involves a bacterial expression system capable of producing approximately 9g of rhVEGF per liter of broth and a downstream purification process consisting of protein refolding and three chromatography steps prior to formulation of the drug substance. A high cell density (HCD) fed-batch fermentation process was used to produce rhVEGF in periplasmic inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies are harvested from the cell lysate and subjected to a single-step protein solubilization and refolding operation to extract the rhVEGF for purification. Overall recovery yields observed during development, including refolding and chromatography, were 30+/-6%. Host cell impurities are consistently cleared below target levels at both laboratory and large-scale demonstrating process robustness. The structure of the refolded and purified rhVEGF was confirmed by mass spectrometry, N-terminal sequencing, and tryptic peptide mapping while product variants were analyzed by multiple HPLC assays. Biological activity was verified by the proliferation of human umbilical vein derived endothelial cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human adipose tissue stem cells: relevance in the pathophysiology of obesity and metabolic diseases and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignarelli, Angelo; Perrini, Sebastio; Ficarella, Romina; Peschechera, Alessandro; Nigro, Pasquale; Giorgino, Francesco

    2012-12-10

    Stem cells are unique cells exhibiting self-renewing properties and the potential to differentiate into multiple specialised cell types. Totipotent or pluripotent stem cells are generally abundant in embryonic or fetal tissues, but the use of discarded embryos as sources of these cells raises challenging ethical problems. Adult stem cells can also differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. In particular, adult adipose tissue contains a pool of abundant and accessible multipotent stem cells, designated as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), that are able to replicate as undifferentiated cells, to develop as mature adipocytes and to differentiate into multiple other cell types along the mesenchymal lineage, including chondrocytes, myocytes and osteocytes, and also into cells of endodermal and neuroectodermal origin, including beta-cells and neurons, respectively. An impairment in the differentiation potential and biological functions of ASCs may contribute to the development of obesity and related comorbidities. In this review, we summarise different aspects of the ASCs with special reference to the isolation and characterisation of these cell populations, their relation to the biochemical features of the adipose tissue depot of origin and to the metabolic characteristics of the donor subject and discuss some prospective therapeutic applications.

  3. [Therapeutic effect of intravaginal application of estriol tablets in the treatment of pathological cervical factor as a cause of sterility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, E

    1984-04-01

    81 women were included in a prospective randomised 12-year personal study. The "pathological cervical factor" was confirmed by periovulatory daily examination of the quality of the cervical mucus, using a new modified scheme of cervical score by examining the oestrogenic activity in the vaginal smear and results of sperm-penetration tests after Sims- Huhner , partly also by periovulatory determination of the concentration of luteinising hormone in the serum. The presence of ovulatory cycles could also be determined by regular registration of the cycle length, measurement of the basal body temperature and partly by premenstrual endometrium biopsies; these determinations were of course effected during cycles without therapy. All 81 cases with abnormal preovulatory production of cervical mucus were treated in a total of 234 cycles by intravaginal application of oestriol tablets 1 to maximal 3 mg daily for 1 or more subsequent cycles. On the basis of these criteria, the quality of cervical mucus and postcoital tests improved with a satisfying intravaginal resorption of the oestriol tablets; no side effects were seen. After this therapy, very good results were obtained with intravaginally administered oestriol tablets in 59.3% of the patients with a pregnancy rate of 27.2%; 24.7% of the cases only showed a moderate improvement of the mucus; 16.0% did not respond to oestriol treatment and, therefore, had to be considered as therapeutic failures. The present study again confirms the results of other investigators on the local effectiveness of intravaginal application of oestriol tablets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1093, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: borgalexandra@gmail.com; Casselman, Jan [Department of Radiology, A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  5. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    71. Burman S, Tejwani S, Vemuganti GK. Ophthalmic applications of preserved human amniotic membrane: a review of current indications. Cell Tissue Bank...segmental nerve deficit repair using isograft show the best performing wrap/ fixation method to be sutureless photochemical tissue bonding with the...crosslinked amnion wrap. Autograft is often unavailable in wounded warriors, due to extensive tissue damage and amputation and, importantly, we also

  6. Sox10 Expression in Goldfish Retina and Optic Nerve Head in Controls and after the Application of Two Different Lesion Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilla, Marta; León-Lobera, Fernando; Lillo, Concepción; Arévalo, Rosario; Aijón, José; Lara, Juan Manuel; Velasco, Almudena

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve. We also analyze changes in a major component of myelin, myelin basic protein (MBP), as a marker for myelinated axons. Our results show that Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are located in the retinal nerve fiber layer and along the whole length of the optic nerve. MBP was found to occupy a similar location, although its loose appearance in the retina differed from the highly organized MBP+ axon bundles in the optic nerve. After optic nerve crushing, the number of Sox10+ cells decreased in the crushed area and in the optic nerve head. Consistent with this, myelination was highly reduced in both areas. In contrast, after cryolesion we did not find changes in the Sox10+ population, although we did detect some MBP- degenerating areas. We show that these modifications in Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are consistent with their role in oligodendrocyte identity, maintenance and survival, and we propose the optic nerve head as an excellent area for research aimed at better understanding of de- and remyelination processes. PMID:27149509

  7. Sox10 Expression in Goldfish Retina and Optic Nerve Head in Controls and after the Application of Two Different Lesion Paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The mammalian central nervous system (CNS is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve. We also analyze changes in a major component of myelin, myelin basic protein (MBP, as a marker for myelinated axons. Our results show that Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are located in the retinal nerve fiber layer and along the whole length of the optic nerve. MBP was found to occupy a similar location, although its loose appearance in the retina differed from the highly organized MBP+ axon bundles in the optic nerve. After optic nerve crushing, the number of Sox10+ cells decreased in the crushed area and in the optic nerve head. Consistent with this, myelination was highly reduced in both areas. In contrast, after cryolesion we did not find changes in the Sox10+ population, although we did detect some MBP- degenerating areas. We show that these modifications in Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are consistent with their role in oligodendrocyte identity, maintenance and survival, and we propose the optic nerve head as an excellent area for research aimed at better understanding of de- and remyelination processes.

  8. Multifunctional, chitosan-based nano therapeutics: design and application for two- and three-dimensional cell culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarato, Giulia

    There is a constant demand for sensitive and effective anti-cancer drug delivery systems, capable of detecting early-stage pathological conditions and increasing patient survival. Recently, chitosan-based drug delivery nanocomplexes have shown to smartly respond to the distinctive features of the tumor microenvironment, a complex network of extracellular molecules, stromal and endothelial cells, which supports the tumor formation and its metastatic invasion. Due to biocompatibility, easy chemical tailorability, and pH-responsiveness, chitosan has emerged as a promising candidate for the formulation of supramolecular multifunctional materials. The present study focuses on the design, fabrication and characterization of fluorescently labelled, hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan nano-micelles (HGC NPs), suitably tailored for the delivery of anti-neoplastic compounds to various tumor models. Doxorubicin-loaded HGC NPs have been delivered to a bone cancer model, both in monolayer and in 3D spheroid configuration, to assess for differences in the delivery profiles and in the therapeutic efficacy. Compared to the free drug, nanocomplexes showed rapid uptake and a more homogeneous distribution in 3D spheroids, a powerful cellular tool which recapitulates some of the in vivo tumor microenvironment features. In a second part of this thesis work, with the purpose of designing an active targeting tumor-homing nano-therapeutic system, HGC NPs have been linked, via avidin-biotin interaction, with a IVS4 peptide, a small molecule with inhibitory activity on MMP-14-mediated functions. An extensive study conducted on triple negative breast cancer cells in monolayer revealed the MMP-14-IVS4-HGC association at the cancer cell membrane, the preferential uptake, and the consequent impairment of protease-associated migratory ability. As an additional application of our engineered construct, HGC micelles have been decorated with a liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a critical kinase involved

  9. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve...

  10. Raman spectroscopy of non-penetrating peripheral nerve damage in swine: a tool for spectral pathology of nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilwa, Katherine E.; Slaughter, Tiffani; Elster, Eric A.; Forsberg, Jonathan A.; Crane, Nicole J.

    2015-03-01

    Over 30% of combat injuries involve peripheral nerve injury compared to only 3% in civilian trauma. In fact, nerve dysfunction is the second leading cause of long-term disability in injured service members and is present in 37% of upper limb injuries with disability. Identification and assessment of non-penetrating nerve injury in trauma patients could improve outcome and aid in therapeutic monitoring. We report the use of Raman spectroscopy as a noninvasive, non-destructive method for detection of nerve degeneration in intact nerves due to non-penetrating trauma. Nerve trauma was induced via compression and ischemia/reperfusion injury using a combat relevant swine tourniquet model (>3 hours ischemia). Control animals did not undergo compression/ischemia. Seven days post-operatively, sciatic and femoral nerves were harvested and fixed in formalin. Raman spectra of intact, peripheral nerves were collected using a fiber-optic probe with 3 mm diameter spot size and 785 nm excitation. Data was preprocessed, including fluorescence background subtraction, and Raman spectroscopic metrics were determined using custom peak fitting MATLAB scripts. The abilities of bivariate and multivariate analysis methods to predict tissue state based on Raman spectroscopic metrics are compared. Injured nerves exhibited changes in Raman metrics indicative of 45% decreased myelin content and structural damage (pdetect nerve degeneration associated with non-penetrating injury, relevant to neurapraxic and axonotmetic injuries; future experiments will further explore the clinical utility of Raman spectroscopy to recognize neural injury.

  11. Side-to-side nerve bridges reduce muscle atrophy after peripheral nerve injury in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Jill E; Garlick, Jared W; Salama, Mohamed E; Mendenhall, Shaun D; Moran, Linh A; Agarwal, Jayant P

    2014-03-01

    Peripheral nerve injury can result in muscle atrophy and long-term disability. We hypothesize that creating a side-to-side bridge to link an injured nerve with a healthy nerve will reduce muscle atrophy and improve muscle function. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n = 7 per group). Group 1: transection only--a 10-mm gap was created in the proximal tibial nerve; group 2: transected plus repaired--the transected tibial nerve was repaired; group 3: transected plus repaired plus nerve bridge--transected nerve repaired with a distal nerve bridge between the tibial and peroneal nerves via epineurial windows; and group 4: transected plus nerve bridge--transected tibial nerve left unrepaired and distal bridge added. Gait was assessed every 2 wk. At 90 d the following measures were determined: gastrocnemius mass, muscle and nerve nuclear density, and axonal infiltration into the nerve bridge. Groups 3 and 4 had greater improvements in walking track recovery than groups 1 and 2. Group 3's gastrocnemius muscles exhibited the least amount of atrophy. Groups 1, 2, and 4 exhibited greater histologic appearance of muscle breakdown compared with group 3 and control muscle. Finally, most bridges in groups 3 and 4 had neuronal sprouting via the epineurial windows. Our study demonstrated reduced muscle atrophy with a side-to-side nerve bridge in the setting of peripheral nerve injury. These results support the application of novel side-to-side bridges in combination with traditional end-to-end neurorrhaphy to preserve muscle viability after peripheral nerve injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermo-therapeutic applications of chitosan- and PEG-coated NiFe2O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjura Hoque, S.; Tariq, Mehrin; Liba, S. I.; Salehin, F.; Mahmood, Z. H.; Khan, M. N. I.; Chattopadhayay, K.; Islam, Rafiqul; Akhter, S.

    2016-07-01

    The paper reports the thermo-therapeutic applications of chitosan- and PEG-coated nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles. In this study NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method, tuning the particle size through heat treatment in the temperature range from 200-800 °C for 3 h. XRD and TEM analysis revealed that the the ultrafine nanoparticles were of size 2-58 nm. Crystallinity of the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles in the as-dried condition with the particle size ˜2-3 nm was confirmed from the presence of a lattice fringe in the HRTEM image. VSM measurements showed that a superparamagnetic/ferromagnetic transition occurs with increasing particle size, which was further confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The nickel ferrite nanoparticles with optimum particle size of 10 nm were then coated with materials commonly used for biomedical applications, i.e. chitosan and PEG, to form homogeneous suspensions. The hydrodynamic diameter and the polydispersity index (PDI) were analyzed by dynamic light scattering at the physiological temperature of 37 °C and found to be 187 nm and 0.21 for chitosan-coated nanoparticles and 285 nm and 0.32 for PEG-coated ones. The specific loss power of rf induction heating by the set-up for hyperthermia and r 2 relaxivity by the nuclear magnetic resonance were determined. The results of induction heating measurements showed that the temperature attained by the nanoparticles of size 10 nm and concentration of about 20 mg ml-1 was >70 °C (for chitosan) and >64 °C (for PEG). It has been demonstrated that the required temperature for hyperthermia heating could be tuned by tuning the particle size, shape and magnetization and the concentration of solution. For other potential biomedical applications of the NiFe2O4 nanoparticle solution, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging, the NMR studies yielded the T 1 and T 2 relaxivities as 0.348 and 89 mM-1 s-1 respectively. The fact that the T 2 relaxivity is orders of magnitude higher

  13. 下肢皮神经-浅静脉营养血管逆行皮瓣的应用改进%Application of modified reversed neurovascular flaps nourished by Cutaneous nerve-superficial vein in lower extremity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁金龙; 李小静; 左宗宝; 张林; 朱飞; 展望; 韩光明

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application and therapeutic effect of modified neurovaseular flaps nourished by sural nerve and small saphenous venous,or saphenous nerve and great saphenous venous.Methods According to the anatomy and recipient area,we made some modifications for the two neurovascular flaps.①The small and great saphenous venous were ligated or anastomosed with the venous in recipient area;②The flap was delayed for 8~14 days if the donor area was above the middle and upper one third of leg;③The sural nerve and its branch were anastomosed to the nerve in recipient site to restore the sense of flap;④the lower turning point could be designed just 3 cm above the point of internal and external malleolus;⑤Partial gastrocnemius or soleus muscle could be included in the flap if needed;⑥Reversed cross leg flap was considered if the adjacent flap in the affected side could not be used.Sometimes,we adopted more than one modification in one patients.Results From Sep,1994 to Apr,2007,63 cases were treated,including 51 cases of sural and 12 cases of saphenous neurovaseular flaps.Partial necrosis(about 1~2 cm width)happened in the distal end of flaps in 2 cases which healed after dress changing.The patients were followed up for 3 months to 2 years with satisfied functional and cosmetic results.Conclusions These two modified flaps have reliable blood supply and survival rate.The operation is easily performed and very practical.The flaps,or combined with other methods can repair about 70%of the refractory defects in legs.%目的 探讨腓肠神经-小隐静脉营养血管逆行皮瓣、隐神经-大隐静脉营养血管逆行皮瓣修复下肢缺损的改进应用方法及效果.方法 根据其解剖学特点、受区病损情况,对该2组皮瓣进行系列改进设计:①皮瓣回流静脉干高压时予以结扎大、小隐静脉干,或与受区静脉吻合;②对供辨区超过小腿中上1/3部位时,行皮瓣延迟8~14 d;③行腓肠神经干

  14. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Photochemical bond- ing required clear access 5 mm proximal and dis- tal to coaptation sites. As a result, the maximum achievable nerve gap before...rodents for nerve gap reconstruction. Induction and maintenance anesthesia was achieved using isoflurane (Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, Ill...injury, nerve gap , nerve wrap, PTB, photosealing, Rose Bengal, amnion, nerve conduit, crosslinking, allograft, photochemistry. 3. Accomplishments

  15. Therapeutic Observation of General Balance Therapy for Cervical Spondylosis of Nerve Root Type%整体平衡疗法治疗神经根型颈椎病疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹来勇; 涂国卿; 朱玉辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of general balance therapy in treating cervical spondylosis of nerve root type.Method Totally 120 patients with cervical spondylosis of nerve root type were randomized into a treatment group and a control group, 60 cases in each group. The treatment group was intervened by general balance therapy (balance needling plus balance tuina manipulations), while the control group was by ordinary acupuncture and tuina manipulations. The cervical movement ranges were observed before and after the treatment, and the clinical efficacies were compared between the two groups. Result The cervical movement ranges (forward flexion, backward extension, lateral flexion, and turning range) were significantly changed in both groups after the treatment (P<0.05). The cervical movement ranges of the treatment group were significantly different from that of the control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 95.0% in the treatment group versus 85.0% in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01).Conclusion General balance therapy is an effective method in treating cervical spondylosis of nerve root type.%目的:观察整体平衡疗法治疗神经根型颈椎病的临床疗效。方法将120例神经根型颈椎病患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组60例。治疗组采用整体平衡疗法(平衡针刺配合平衡推拿)治疗,对照组采用常规针刺配合推拿治疗。观察两组治疗前后颈部活动度各项指标,并比较两组临床疗效。结果两组治疗后颈部活动度各项指标(颈部前屈、颈部后伸、侧屈度及旋转角度)与同组治疗前比较,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组治疗后颈部活动度各项指标与对照组比较,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组总有效率为95.0%,对照组为85.0%,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论整体平衡疗法是一种治疗神经根型颈椎病的有效方法。

  16. Application and histology-driven refinement of active contour models to functional region and nerve delineation: towards a digital brainstem atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nirmal; Sultana, Sharmin; Rashid, Tanweer; Krusienski, Dean; Audette, Michel A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the digital formatting of a printed atlas of the brainstem and the delineation of cranial nerves from this digital atlas. It also describes on-going work on the 3D resampling and refinement of the 2D functional regions and nerve contours. In MRI-based anatomical modeling for neurosurgery planning and simulation, the complexity of the functional anatomy entails a digital atlas approach, rather than less descriptive voxel or surface-based approaches. However, there is an insufficiency of descriptive digital atlases, in particular of the brainstem. Our approach proceeds from a series of numbered, contour-based sketches coinciding with slices of the brainstem featuring both closed and open contours. The closed contours coincide with functionally relevant regions, whereby our objective is to fill in each corresponding label, which is analogous to painting numbered regions in a paint-by-numbers kit. Any open contour typically coincides with a cranial nerve. This 2D phase is needed in order to produce densely labeled regions that can be stacked to produce 3D regions, as well as identifying the embedded paths and outer attachment points of cranial nerves. Cranial nerves are modeled using an explicit contour based technique called 1-Simplex. The relevance of cranial nerves modeling of this project is two-fold: i) this atlas will fill a void left by the brain segmentation communities, as no suitable digital atlas of the brainstem exists, and ii) this atlas is necessary to make explicit the attachment points of major nerves (except I and II) having a cranial origin. Keywords: digital atlas, contour models, surface models

  17. Synthesis and characterisation of neem leaf extract, 2, 3-dehydrosalanol and quercetin dihydrate mediated silver nano particles for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, Bodaballa; Venu, Ravipati; Prasad, Tollamadugu N V K V; Alpha Raj, Mekapogu; Srinivasa Rao, Kothapalli; Srilatha, Chintamaneni

    2017-06-01

    The utility of green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in veterinary medicine is steadily increasing as they have many therapeutic applications against pathogens and arthropods of livestock. In this study, green AgNPs using neem (N-AgNPs), 2,3-dehydrosalanol (2,3-DHS-AgNPs) and quercetin dihydrate (QDH-AgNPs) were synthesised and characterised. Synthesised compounds were characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy and the peak absorbance was recorded at 370 nm for neem extract. For N-AgNPs, 2,3-DHS-AgNPs and QDH-AgNPs, the maximum absorbance peaks were at 430, 230 and 220 nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis confirmed the synthesis of green AgNPs. The XRD pattern of N-AgNPs showed the peaks corresponding to whole spectra of 2 θ values ranging from 10-80. The relatively higher intensity of (111, 222) planes in face centred cubic crystalline structure supports the formation of synthesised AgNPs. In DLS analysis, the hydrodynamic diameter of neem leaf extract was found to be 259.8 nm, followed by 5.3, 6.7 and 261.8 nm for 2,3-DHS-AgNPs, N-AgNPs and QDH-AgNPs, respectively. Based on the transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy image analyses, confirmed the formation of N-AgNPs, 2,3-DHS-AgNPs and QDH-AgNPs. These eco-friendly phyto-AgNPs may be of use as an effective alternative to chemical control methods against the arthropods of livestock.

  18. Application of multi-factorial design of experiments to successfully optimize immunoassays for robust measurements of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Chad A; Patel, Vimal; Shih, Judy; Macaraeg, Chris; Wu, Yuling; Thway, Theingi; Ma, Mark; Lee, Jean W; Desilva, Binodh

    2009-02-20

    Developing a process that generates robust immunoassays that can be used to support studies with tight timelines is a common challenge for bioanalytical laboratories. Design of experiments (DOEs) is a tool that has been used by many industries for the purpose of optimizing processes. The approach is capable of identifying critical factors and their interactions with a minimal number of experiments. The challenge for implementing this tool in the bioanalytical laboratory is to develop a user-friendly approach that scientists can understand and apply. We have successfully addressed these challenges by eliminating the screening design, introducing automation, and applying a simple mathematical approach for the output parameter. A modified central composite design (CCD) was applied to three ligand binding assays. The intra-plate factors selected were coating, detection antibody concentration, and streptavidin-HRP concentrations. The inter-plate factors included incubation times for each step. The objective was to maximize the logS/B (S/B) of the low standard to the blank. The maximum desirable conditions were determined using JMP 7.0. To verify the validity of the predictions, the logS/B prediction was compared against the observed logS/B during pre-study validation experiments. The three assays were optimized using the multi-factorial DOE. The total error for all three methods was less than 20% which indicated method robustness. DOE identified interactions in one of the methods. The model predictions for logS/B were within 25% of the observed pre-study validation values for all methods tested. The comparison between the CCD and hybrid screening design yielded comparable parameter estimates. The user-friendly design enables effective application of multi-factorial DOE to optimize ligand binding assays for therapeutic proteins. The approach allows for identification of interactions between factors, consistency in optimal parameter determination, and reduced method

  19. Slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure: from modeling to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Daisuke; Asanoi, Hidetsugu; Takagawa, Junya; Ishise, Hisanari; Ueno, Hiroshi; Oda, Yoshitaka; Goso, Yukiko; Joho, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2014-10-15

    Influences of slow and deep respiration on steady-state sympathetic nerve activity remain controversial in humans and could vary depending on disease conditions and basal sympathetic nerve activity. To elucidate the respiratory modulation of steady-state sympathetic nerve activity, we modeled the dynamic nature of the relationship between lung inflation and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 11 heart failure patients with exaggerated sympathetic outflow at rest. An autoregressive exogenous input model was utilized to simulate entire responses of MSNA to variable respiratory patterns. In another 18 patients, we determined the influence of increasing tidal volume and slowing respiratory frequency on MSNA; 10 patients underwent a 15-min device-guided slow respiration and the remaining 8 had no respiratory modification. The model predicted that a 1-liter, step increase of lung volume decreased MSNA dynamically; its nadir (-33 ± 22%) occurred at 2.4 s; and steady-state decrease (-15 ± 5%), at 6 s. Actually, in patients with the device-guided slow and deep respiration, respiratory frequency effectively fell from 16.4 ± 3.9 to 6.7 ± 2.8/min (P state MSNA was decreased by 31% (P state MSNA. Thus slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with high levels of resting sympathetic tone as in heart failure.

  20. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) in dentistry- A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasat, Vikrant; Gupta, Aditi; Ladda, Ruchi; Kathariya, Mitesh; Saluja, Harish; Farooqui, Anjum-Ara

    2014-12-01

    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacological method which is widely used by medical and paramedical professionals for the management of acute and chronic pain in a variety of conditions. Similarly, it can be utilized for the management of pain during various dental procedures as well as pain due to various conditions affecting maxillofacial region. This review aims to provide an insight into clinical research evidence available for the analgesic and non analgesic uses of TENS in pediatric as well as adult patients related to the field of dentistry. Also, an attempt is made to briefly discuss history of therapeutic electricity, mechanism of action of TENS, components of TENs equipment, types, techniques of administration, advantages and contradictions of TENS. With this we hope to raise awareness among dental fraternity regarding its dental applications thereby increasing its use in dentistry. Key words:Dentistry, pain, TENS.

  1. Electrical Stimulation to Promote Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willand, Michael P; Nguyen, May-Anh; Borschel, Gregory H; Gordon, Tessa

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injury afflicts individuals from all walks of life. Despite the peripheral nervous system's intrinsic ability to regenerate, many patients experience incomplete functional recovery. Surgical repair aims to expedite this recovery process in the most thorough manner possible. However, full recovery is still rarely seen especially when nerve injury is compounded with polytrauma where surgical repair is delayed. Pharmaceutical strategies supplementary to nerve microsurgery have been investigated but surgery remains the only viable option. Brief low-frequency electrical stimulation of the proximal nerve stump after primary repair has been widely investigated. This article aims to review the currently known biological basis for the regenerative effects of acute brief low-frequency electrical stimulation on axonal regeneration and outline the recent clinical applications of the electrical stimulation protocol to demonstrate the significant translational potential of this modality for repairing peripheral nerve injuries. The review concludes with a discussion of emerging new advancements in this exciting area of research. The current literature indicates the imminent clinical applicability of acute brief low-frequency electrical stimulation after surgical repair to effectively promote axonal regeneration as the stimulation has yielded promising evidence to maximize functional recovery in diverse types of peripheral nerve injuries. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Optimization of Quantitative Proteomics Using 2-Dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis to Characterize Molecular Mechanisms of Chemical Warfare Nerve Agent Exposure in the Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    damaging effects of nerve agents. Currently, one prophylactic (pyridostigmine) and three therapeutic drugs (atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and diazepam ...and J.H. McDonough, Efficacy of biperiden and atropine as anticonvulsant treatment for organophosphorus nerve agent intoxication. Archives of

  3. Neurologic complication after anterior sciatic nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shruti; Hadzic, Admir; Vloka, Jerry D; Cafferty, Maureen S; Moucha, Calin S; Santos, Alan C

    2005-05-01

    The lack of reported complications related to lower extremity peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) may be related to the relatively infrequent application of these techniques and to the fact that most such events go unpublished. Our current understanding of the factors that lead to neurologic complications after PNBs is limited. This is partly the result of our inability to conduct meaningful retrospective studies because of a lack of standard and objective monitoring and documentation procedures for PNBs. We report a case of permanent injury to the sciatic nerve after sciatic nerve block through the anterior approach and discuss mechanisms that may have led to the injury. Intraneural injection and nerve injury can occur in the absence of pain on injection and it may be heralded by high injection pressure (resistance).

  4. A biosynthetic nerve guide conduit based on silk/SWNT/fibronectin nanocomposite for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh; Farokhi, Mehdi; Zaminy, Arash; Kokabi, Mehrdad; Soleimani, Masoud; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2013-01-01

    As a contribution to the functionality of nerve guide conduits (NGCs) in nerve tissue engineering, here we report a conduit processing technique through introduction and evaluation of topographical, physical and chemical cues. Porous structure of NGCs based on freeze-dried silk/single walled carbon nanotubes (SF/SWNTs) has shown a uniform chemical and physical structure with suitable electrical conductivity. Moreover, fibronectin (FN) containing nanofibers within the structure of SF/SWNT conduits produced through electrospinning process have shown aligned fashion with appropriate porosity and diameter. Moreover, fibronectin remained its bioactivity and influenced the adhesion and growth of U373 cell lines. The conduits were then implanted to 10 mm left sciatic nerve defects in rats. The histological assessment has shown that nerve regeneration has taken places in proximal region of implanted nerve after 5 weeks following surgery. Furthermore, nerve conduction velocities (NCV) and more myelinated axons were observed in SF/SWNT and SF/SWNT/FN groups after 5 weeks post implantation, indicating a functional recovery for the injured nerves. With immunohistochemistry, the higher S-100 expression of Schwann cells in SF/SWNT/FN conduits in comparison to other groups was confirmed. In conclusion, an oriented conduit of biocompatible SF/SWNT/FN has been fabricated with acceptable structure that is particularly applicable in nerve grafts.

  5. A biosynthetic nerve guide conduit based on silk/SWNT/fibronectin nanocomposite for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mottaghitalab

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the functionality of nerve guide conduits (NGCs in nerve tissue engineering, here we report a conduit processing technique through introduction and evaluation of topographical, physical and chemical cues. Porous structure of NGCs based on freeze-dried silk/single walled carbon nanotubes (SF/SWNTs has shown a uniform chemical and physical structure with suitable electrical conductivity. Moreover, fibronectin (FN containing nanofibers within the structure of SF/SWNT conduits produced through electrospinning process have shown aligned fashion with appropriate porosity and diameter. Moreover, fibronectin remained its bioactivity and influenced the adhesion and growth of U373 cell lines. The conduits were then implanted to 10 mm left sciatic nerve defects in rats. The histological assessment has shown that nerve regeneration has taken places in proximal region of implanted nerve after 5 weeks following surgery. Furthermore, nerve conduction velocities (NCV and more myelinated axons were observed in SF/SWNT and SF/SWNT/FN groups after 5 weeks post implantation, indicating a functional recovery for the injured nerves. With immunohistochemistry, the higher S-100 expression of Schwann cells in SF/SWNT/FN conduits in comparison to other groups was confirmed. In conclusion, an oriented conduit of biocompatible SF/SWNT/FN has been fabricated with acceptable structure that is particularly applicable in nerve grafts.

  6. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Strategies: Electrically Stimulating Polymer Based Nerve Growth Conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew; Shelke, Namdev B.; Manoukian, Ohan S.; Yu, Xiaojun; McCullough, Louise D.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of large peripheral nerve damages ranges from the use of an autologous nerve graft to a synthetic nerve growth conduit. Biological grafts, in spite of many merits, show several limitations in terms of availability and donor site morbidity, and outcomes are suboptimal due to fascicle mismatch, scarring, and fibrosis. Tissue engineered nerve graft substitutes utilize polymeric conduits in conjunction with cues both chemical and physical, cells alone and or in combination. The chemical and physical cues delivered through polymeric conduits play an important role and drive tissue regeneration. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been applied toward the repair and regeneration of various tissues such as muscle, tendon, nerve, and articular tissue both in laboratory and clinical settings. The underlying mechanisms that regulate cellular activities such as cell adhesion, proliferation, cell migration, protein production, and tissue regeneration following ES is not fully understood. Polymeric constructs that can carry the electrical stimulation along the length of the scaffold have been developed and characterized for possible nerve regeneration applications. We discuss the use of electrically conductive polymers and associated cell interaction, biocompatibility, tissue regeneration, and recent basic research for nerve regeneration. In conclusion, a multifunctional combinatorial device comprised of biomaterial, structural, functional, cellular, and molecular aspects may be the best way forward for effective peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27278739

  7. The morphological characteristic of regenerative neuroma of peripheral nerve in conditions of its injury and application of omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korsak A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was carried out on white rats, which were divided into 3 groups. Experimental trauma of the sciatic nerve was carried out in 1 end 2 groups. Standart trauma of the sciatic nerve was carried out in 3 groups. Drug correction was not applied in the first group. Omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids were applied during 3 weeks in a doze 0,04 g /kg a day in the second group of animals. Drug correction applied in the second group. Morphological characteristic of regenerative neuroma of sciatic nerve in 6 weeks after the injury in 1,2,3 groups of animals was studied. The results obtained testify, that in the group of rats with pharmacological correction by omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids process of regeneration was activated.

  8. Suprascapular nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, E; Rashkoff, E S

    1989-11-01

    Isolated traumatic suprascapular nerve palsy without associated fracture is a rare occurrence. Localized segmental muscle atrophy limited to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles associated with weakness in initiating abduction and in external rotation of the shoulder should suggest the diagnosis. Electromyography will confirm the diagnosis by excluding nerve root and brachial plexus involvement with denervation potentials limited to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles.

  9. Imaging the hypoglossal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Pedro [Department of Radiology, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central-Hospital de Sao Jose, Rua Jose Antonio Serrano, 1150-199 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail: tojais.pedro@gmail.com

    2010-05-15

    The hypoglossal nerve is a pure motor nerve. It provides motor control to the intrinsic and extrinsic tongue muscles thus being essential for normal tongue movement and coordination. In order to design a useful imaging approach and a working differential diagnosis in cases of hypoglossal nerve damage one has to have a good knowledge of the normal anatomy of the nerve trunk and its main branches. A successful imaging evaluation to hypoglossal diseases always requires high resolution studies due to the small size of the structures being studied. MRI is the preferred modality to directly visualize the nerve, while CT is superior in displaying the bony anatomy of the neurovascular foramina of the skull base. Also, while CT is only able to detect nerve pathology by indirect signs, such as bony expansion of the hypoglossal canal, MRI is able to visualize directly the causative pathological process as in the case of small tumors, or infectious/inflammatory processes affecting the nerve. The easiest way to approach the study of the hypoglossal nerve is to divide it in its main segments: intra-axial, cisternal, skull base and extracranial segment, tailoring the imaging technique to each anatomical area while bearing in mind the main disease entities affecting each segment.

  10. Acupuncture Treatment for Optic Nerve Contusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Optic nerve contusion is a commonly-seen eye injury, which is mostly caused by traffic accident, collision, and falling. Early diagnosis and timely emergency treatment can make such patients restore vision to a certain extent. Otherwise, there may appear optic atrophy or loss of vision. At present, in the treatment of this disease, cortical hormone, dehydrating agent, vasodilator, vitamin, energy mixture and neurotrophic agent, or surgical operation can all give certain therapeutic effect. In the recent 5 years, the Department of Ophthalmology of the Hospital Affiliated to Hubei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine has adopted acupuncture for treatment of optic nerve contusion, and obtained quite good therapeutic results. Some typical cases are reported in the following.

  11. Temporary Neurotrophin Treatment Prevents Deafness-Induced Auditory Nerve Degeneration and Preserves Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramekers, Dyan; Versnel, Huib; Strahl, Stefan B.; Klis, Sjaak F. L.; Grolman, Wilko

    2015-01-01

    After substantial loss of cochlear hair cells, exogenous neurotrophins prevent degeneration of the auditory nerve. Because cochlear implantation, the current therapy for profound sensorineural hearing loss, depends on a functional nerve, application of neurotrophins is being investigated. We address

  12. Optic nerve decompression for orbitofrontal fibrous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takumi; Sato, Kaneshige; Otsuka, Takaharu; Kawamura, Noriyoshi; Shimazu, Motohiko; Izumiyama, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2002-08-01

    Orbitofrontal fibrous dysplasia often involves the bony orbit and the optic canal. Although fibrous dysplasia reportedly produces compression of the optic nerve leading to visual distrubances, optic nerve decompression in patients without clinical signs of optic neuropathy is still controversial. We describe two patients with orbitofrontal fibrous dysplasia without signs of visual disturbance and one patient with McCune-Albright syndrome and progressive visual impairment. Optic nerve decompression was performed prophylactically for two patients and therapeutically for one patient through the transcranial extradural route. Dystopias and craniofacial deformities induced by fibrous dysplasia also were corrected. The micropressure suction-irrigation system was especially effective for decreasing heat transfer and thereby preventing thermal injury of the optic nerve. The orbitofrontal area was reconstructed from cranial bone, iliac bone, and ribs. Postoperative follow-up revealed no disturbances in visual function and no evidence of cerebrospinal fluid leakage. These findings suggest that optic nerve decompression may be effective in preventing visual disturbances with minimal risk of other neurological sequelae. Subsequent orbital reconstruction yielded satisfactory cosmetic results.

  13. Endocrine tumors associated with the vagus nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varoquaux, Arthur; Kebebew, Electron; Sebag, Fréderic; Wolf, Katherine; Henry, Jean-François; Pacak, Karel; Taïeb, David

    2016-09-01

    The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is the main nerve of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) are a prime example of an endocrine tumor associated with the vagus nerve. This rare, neural crest tumor constitutes the second most common site of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), most often in relation to mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D (SDHD) gene. The treatment paradigm for VPGL has progressively shifted from surgery to abstention or therapeutic radiation with curative-like outcomes. Parathyroid tissue and parathyroid adenoma can also be found in close association with the vagus nerve in intra or paravagal situations. Vagal parathyroid adenoma can be identified with preoperative imaging or suspected intraoperatively by experienced surgeons. Vagal parathyroid adenomas located in the neck or superior mediastinum can be removed via initial cervicotomy, while those located in the aortopulmonary window require a thoracic approach. This review particularly emphasizes the embryology, molecular genetics, and modern imaging of these tumors.

  14. Synergistic effects of bone mesenchymal stem cells and chondroitinase ABC on nerve regeneration after acellular nerve allograft in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Jia, Hua; Li, Wen-Yuan; Tong, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Gui-Bo; Kang, Si-Wen

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether combination therapy of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transplantation and chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) treatment further enhances axonal regeneration and functional recovery after acellular nerve allograft repair of the sciatic nerve gap in rats. Eight Sprague-Dawley rats were used as nerve donors, and 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group I: acellular rat sciatic nerve (ARSN) group; Group II: ChABC treatment; Group III: BMSCs transplantation; and Group IV: ChABC treatment and BMSCs transplantation. The results showed that compared with ARSN control group, BMSC transplantation promoted axonal regeneration, the secretion of neural trophic factors NGF, BDNF and axon angiogenesis in nerve graft. ChABC treatment degraded chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in ARSN in vitro and in vivo and improved BMSCs survival in ARSN. The combination therapy caused much better beneficial effects evidenced by increasing sciatic function index, nerve conduction velocity, restoration rate of tibialis anterior wet muscle weight, and myelinated nerve number, but did not further boost the therapeutic effects on neurotrophic factor production, axon angiogenesis, and sensory functional recovery by BMSC transplantation. Taken together, for the first time, we demonstrate the synergistic effects of BMSC transplantation and BMSCs treatment on peripheral nerve regeneration, and our findings may help establish novel strategies for cell transplantation therapy for peripheral nerve injury.

  15. 鼠神经生长因子联合甲基强的松龙治疗急性球后视神经炎的临床研究%The investigation the therapeutic effects of combined mouse nerve growth factor and methylprednisolone on acute retrobulbar neuritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆君华; 马吴波; 赵茂竹

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨鼠神经生长因子(NGF)联合甲基强的松龙治疗急性球后视神经炎(ARN)临床疗效.方法 对44例(64只眼)ARN患者治疗后的资料进行总结分析.结果 鼠NGF联合甲基强的松龙治疗后患者的视力、视野、P-VEP均有不同程度改善.治疗组有效率为93.5%,对照组有效率为69.6%.治疗组疗效优于对照组(P<0.05).结论 鼠NGF联合甲基强的松龙为ARN的治疗提供了有效方法.%Objective To Investigate the therapeutic efficacy of mouse nerve growth factor combined with methylprednisolone on acute retrobulbar neuritis (ARN).Methods To summarize and analyze the data of 44 cases (64 eyes) of acute retrobulbar neuritis that were treated with mouse nerve growth factor combined with methylprednisolone.Results After treatment,the VA,VF and P-VEP are all improved.The rate of improvement was 93.5 %,which was significantly better than the improvement rate of 69.6% in the control group (P <0.05).Conclusion Combination ofnerve growth factor and methylprednisolone is a superior treatment for acute retrobulbar neuritis than steroids alone.

  16. Peripheral nerve repair:theory and technology application%周围神经损伤的修复:理论研究与技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何新泽; 王维; 呼铁民; 马建军; 于昌玉; 高云峰; 程兴龙; 王培

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Recovery of motor and sensory function from peripheral nerve injury is relatively slow and incomplete. It is a difficult problem for orthopedic surgeons that mainly leads to the decline in the quality of life in patients. OBJECTIVE: To conclude the methods and corresponding outcomes in peripheral nerve regeneration by analyzing the new treatment means for peripheral nerve injury. METHODS:PubMed, Wanfang, CNKI databases were retrieved for relevant articles using key words of “nerve injury, regeneration”, and then retrieval data were sorted and analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:In recent years, in-depth studies on peripheral nerve repair have been made in the folowing aspects: surgical mode, drug, cytokine, gene transfer and biomaterials as wel as traditional Chinese medicine. If the detect size is four times longer than the diameter of nerves, the nerve regeneration chamber can achieve good outcomes. The methods of restoring nerve continuity folowing nerve injury are developed from surgical anastomosis to photochemohistological method, thermal laser welding, plastic repair and other emerging technologies. Studies have found that plasminogen activator, nerve growth factor, neurotrophic factor, recombinant erythropoietin, human tissue kalikrein, B vitamins and their derivatives, herbal preparations, immunosuppressive agents al can promote nerve regeneration.%背景:周围神经发生损伤后感觉、运动功能的恢复比较缓慢,且很少能够完全恢复感觉、运动功能,这一问题是困扰骨外科医师的难题,也是导致患者生活质量下降的主要原因。  目的:分析周围神经损伤再生修复的新的治疗手段,总结前人在促进周围神经损伤再生方面采用的方法及取得的效果。  方法:通过PubMed、万方、中国知网数据库查阅关键词“神经损伤”“再生”检索相关文献,整理分析数据。  结果与结论:国内外学者针对周围神经损伤

  17. Peroneal palsy after bariatric surgery: is nerve decompresion always necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Ramos-Leví

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present two patients who underwent successful bariatric surgery and developed peroneal nerve palsy six months after the procedure. This is an unusual complication which determines a significant functional limitation, mainly because of foot drop, and its presence may be a hallmark of excessive and rapid weight loss. We discuss possible pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic options, and we emphasize the important role of an adequate nutritional management, in order to avoid the need for a surgical nerve decompression.

  18. Investigating the relationship between nanomaterial hazard and physicochemical properties: Informing the exploitation of nanomaterials within therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Helinor; Brown, David; Kermanizadeh, Ali; Gubbins, Eva; Stone, Vicki

    2012-12-28

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have the potential to improve the treatment and diagnosis of disease as they are suitable candidates for a number of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. On entering the body via a variety of exposure routes, and during their translocation to secondary target sites it is inevitable that NMs interact with biological molecules, such as proteins. These interactions may influence the behaviour and toxicity of NMs following exposure. As the surface of NMs is what interacts with cells and tissues it is necessary to identify the influence of NM surface properties on their toxicity, and determine how this is influenced by the route of exposure, and physico-chemical characteristics of NMs. The term protein corona is used to describe the coating of the NM surface with protein. The protein corona is a dynamic and complex structure whose composition is dictated by the biological medium and the physico-chemical properties of NMs (such as their size, composition, hydrophobicity and charge) as this influences protein binding specificity and affinity. Depending on the route of exposure (e.g. inhalation or injection) NMs will encounter different proteins. We have observed that i) the composition of protein corona of NMs is likely to be dictated by their route of entry, ii) the translocation of NMs to secondary target sites may influence the composition of the protein corona (i.e. they encounter different proteins on their transport in the body) so that the composition of the protein corona evolves over time, iii) the physico-chemical characteristics of NMs dictate the composition of the protein corona, and the toxicity of NMs and iv) NMs can affect secondary target sites that vary according to delivery route and corona composition following exposure. These findings, and evidence from the wider literature has therefore led us to hypothesise that NM toxicity is dictated by the exposure route due to the acquisition of a surface coating (protein corona) that is

  19. Efficient Production of an Engineered Apoptin from Chicken Anemia Virus in a Recombinant E. coli for Tumor Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Meng-Shiou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptin, a nonstructural protein encoded by the VP3 gene of chicken anemia virus (CAV, has been shown to not only induce apoptosis when introduced into the precursors of chicken thymocytes, but has been found to specifically kill human cancer cells, tumor cell and transformed cells without affecting the proliferation of normal cells. This tumor-specific apoptotic characteristic of the protein potentially may allow the development of a protein drug that has applications in tumor therapy. However, several major problems, which include poor expression and poor protein solubility, have hampered the production of apoptin in bacteria. Results Significantly increased expression of recombinant full-length apoptin that originated from chicken anemia virus was demonstrated using an E. coli expression system. The CAV VP3 gene was fused with a synthetic sequence containing a trans-acting activator of transcription (TAT protein transduction domain (PTD. The resulting construct was cloned into various different expression vectors and these were then expressed in various E. coli strains. The expression of the TAT-Apoptin in E. coli was significantly increased when TAT-Apoptin was fused with GST-tag rather than a His-tag. When the various rare amino acid codons of apoptin were optimized, the expression level of the GST-TAT-Apoptinopt in E. coli BL21(DE3 was significantly further increased. The highest protein expression level obtained was 8.33 g/L per liter of bacterial culture after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG for 4 h at 25 °C. Moreover, approximately 90% of the expressed GST-TAT-Apoptinopt under these conditions was soluble. After purification by GST affinity chromatography, the purified recombinant TAT-Apoptinopt protein was used to evaluate the recombinant protein’s apoptotic activity on tumor cells. The results demonstrated that the E. coli-expressed GST-TAT-apoptinopt showed apoptotic activity and was able to induce human

  20. Simultaneous Quantification of Unmyelinated Nerve Fibers in Sural Nerve and in Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Mathilde; Magy, Laurent; Richard, Laurence; Ingrand, Pierre; Neau, Jean-Philippe; Mathis, Stéphane; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral polyneuropathies are common and their diagnosis may be challenging. We compared the results from sural-nerve and skin biopsies in 33 patients with a polyneuropathy and neuropathic pain examined in our hospital over a 6-year period. The biopsies were all from the same lower limb of each patient. Intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) densities in the skin were determined by fluorescence microscopy; unmyelinated fiber densities in sural-nerve biopsies (UFNB) were determined by electron microscopy. There was no correlation with age or gender in either biopsy type; there was a weak trend to correlation between UFNB density and IENF density, possibly because of the small sample size. The sensitivity of detection of quantitative abnormalities of unmyelinated fibers was better in the skin than in the nerves. Proximal and distal IENF densities were strongly correlated; and counts of UFNB were highly reproducible. Thus, quantification of unmyelinated fibers in sural-nerve and skin biopsies seem to be complementary. Sural-nerve biopsy may be required to confirm a specific diagnosis, to identify lesion mechanisms, and to devise therapeutic strategies, whereas skin biopsy seems to be more efficient in the follow-up of length-dependent polyneuropathies and in the diagnosis of neuropathic pain.

  1. The challenges and beauty of peripheral nerve regrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochodne, Douglas W

    2012-03-01

    This review provides an overview of selected aspects of peripheral nerve regeneration and potential avenues to explore therapeutically. The overall coordinated and orchestrated pattern of recovery from peripheral nerve injury has a beauty of execution and progress that rivals all other forms of neurobiology. It involves changes at the level of the perikaryon, coordination with important peripheral glial partners, the Schwann cells, a controlled inflammatory response, and growth that overcomes surprising intrinsic roadblocks. Both regenerative axon growth and collateral sprouting encompass fascinating aspects of this story. Better understanding of peripheral nerve regeneration may also lead to enhanced central nervous system recovery.

  2. Free Functioning Gracilis Muscle Transfer versus Intercostal Nerve Transfer to Musculocutaneous Nerve for Restoration of Elbow Flexion after Traumatic Adult Brachial Pan-Plexus Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Andrés A; Kircher, Michelle F; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2016-09-01

    After complete five-level root brachial plexus injury, free functional muscle transfer and intercostal nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve are two potential reconstructive options for elbow flexion. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of free functional muscle transfer versus intercostal nerve-to-musculocutaneous nerve transfers with respect to strength. Sixty-two patients who underwent free functional muscle transfer reconstruction or intercostal nerve-to-musculocutaneous nerve transfer for elbow flexion following a pan-plexus injury were included. The two groups were compared with respect to postoperative elbow flexion strength according to the British Medical Research Council grading system; preoperative and postoperative Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire scores. In the free functional muscle transfer group, 67.7 percent of patients achieved M3 or M4 elbow flexion. In the intercostal nerve-to-musculocutaneous nerve transfer group, 41.9 percent of patients achieved M3 or M4 elbow flexion. The difference was statistically significant (p intercostal nerves used for the musculocutaneous nerve transfer did not correlate with better elbow flexion grade. Based on this study, gracilis free functional muscle transfer reconstruction achieves better elbow flexion strength than intercostal nerve-to-musculocutaneous nerve transfer for elbow flexion after pan-plexus injury. The role of gracilis free functional muscle transfer should be carefully considered in acute reconstruction. Therapeutic, III.

  3. Changes in nerve microcirculation following peripheral nerve compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueming Gao; Changshui Weng; Xinglin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Following peripheral nerve compression, peripheral nerve microcirculation plays important roles in regulating the nerve microenvironment and neurotrophic substances, supplying blood and oxygen and maintaining neural conduction and axonal transport. This paper has retrospectively analyzed the articles published in the past 10 years that addressed the relationship between peripheral nerve compression and changes in intraneural microcirculation. In addition, we describe changes in different peripheral nerves, with the aim of providing help for further studies in peripheral nerve microcirculation and understanding its protective mechanism, and exploring new clinical methods for treating peripheral nerve compression from the perspective of neural microcirculation.

  4. Differential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ligand-binding mass spectrometry for analysis of biotransformation of protein therapeutics: application to various FGF21 modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Todd; Spahr, Chris; Xu, Jing; Salimi-Moosavi, Hossein; Hall, Michael

    2013-03-05

    Novel protein therapeutics have become increasingly important modalities for treating diseases. Such therapeutics include recombinant fusions of pharmacoactive polypeptides to half-life extenders such as monoclonal antibodies, fragments of antibodies, and albumin. Half-life extension can also be achieved via chemical attachment to polymers such as polyethylene glycol. Any of these therapeutics may be susceptible to biotransformation, most notably in vivo proteolytic truncation, and it is vital to understand this phenomenon during early drug development to ensure correct pharmacokinetic profiling and optimize the in vivo stability through re-engineering. In this paper, we describe an integrated approach that combines differential enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with ligand-binding-mass spectrometry (LB-MS) to provide a thorough understanding of the biotransformation of novel protein therapeutics. Differential ELISA allows for a fast, high-throughput means to reveal gross in vivo proteolytic liabilities. Ensuing LB-MS analysis provides higher resolution details such as specific vulnerable loci to allow design refinement of the molecule. In this work, the power of the approach is elucidated by application to the optimization of a promising drug candidate, FGF21.

  5. Anatomy and Clinical Application of Transfer of Pronator Quadratus Muscle Branch of Anterior Interosseous Nerve in Repairing Thrhenar Muscle Branch of Median Nerve and Deep Branch of Ulnar Nerve%骨间前神经旋前方肌支转位修复鱼际肌支和尺神经深支的解剖学观察和临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长青; 费起礼

    2001-01-01

    目的:了解有关应用骨间前神经旋前方肌支转位修复正中神经鱼际肌支和尺神经深支的解剖,总结应用此方法的临床效果。方法:观察6具成人上肢标本,测量其旋前方肌支、正中神经鱼际肌支和尺神经深支的横径,以及正中神经鱼际肌支起始处、尺神经深支起始处至旋前方肌上缘的距离。1996年4月~1997年3月,临床应用5例。旋前方肌支转位修复陈旧性尺神经损伤3例,陈旧性正中神经损伤1例,急性正中神经损伤1例,其中3例需游离神经移植。结果:骨间前神经旋前方肌支在旋前方肌上缘处、正中神经鱼际肌支起始处、尺神经深支起始处,神经干横径分别为1.3~1.9、1.5~2.3、1.8~2.3mm。正中神经鱼际肌支起始处、尺神经深支起始处至旋前方肌上缘的距离分别是75.2~84.8 mm、53.5~74.0 mm。临床应用经12~23个月随访,4例手内在肌功能恢复M3~M4级,1例未见恢复。结论:骨间前神经旋前方肌支转位修复正中神经鱼际肌支和尺神经深支可达到肌支-肌支修复的设想,缩短再生距离和时间,有利于手内在肌的功能恢复。%Objective:To introduce the anatoamy and clinical application of transfer of the pronator quadratus muscle(PQ)branch of anterior interosseous nerve(AIN)in repairing thenar muscle branch of median nerve (MN) and deep branch of ulnar nerve (UN). Methods: The nerve stem diameter of PQ branch of AIN, thenar muscle branch of MN, and deep branch of the UN,as well as distance between the upper margin of PQ and the origin of thenar muscle branch and deep branch of UN were measured in 6 adult forearm specimens respectively. The surgical procedures were performed in 5 cases from April 1996 to March 1997, which included 3 cases of old injury of ulnar nerve,and 1 case of old and 1 case of fresh injury of median nerve.Nerve graft was used in 3 cases. Results:The nerve stem diameter of PQ

  6. Lie Detection Technique of Brain and Reviews with Cognitive Nerve on Its Application%脑认知神经测谎技术及应用性述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何勇; 刘洪广

    2012-01-01

    本文主要回顾了当前主要的几种脑认知成像技术以及其在测谎中的尝试,介绍了这些成像技术的研究成果,并对这些测谎技术的应用性及所面临的问题等做出讨论。%The author reviewed current several imaging techniques of cognitive nerve of brain and the trial in lie detection, intro- duced research results of these imaging techniques and discussed the application of these techniques and problems.

  7. A comprehensive linear programming tool to optimize formulations of ready-to-use therapeutic foods: An application to Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the standard of care for children suffering from noncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The objective was to develop a comprehensive linear programming (LP) tool to create novel RUTF formulations for Ethiopia. A systematic approach that surveyed inter...

  8. Cochlear NMDA Receptors as a Therapeutic Target of Noise-Induced Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Bing

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that tinnitus may occur despite normal auditory sensitivity, probably linked to partial degeneration of the cochlear nerve and damage of the inner hair cell (IHC synapse. Damage to the IHC synapses and deafferentation may occur even after moderate noise exposure. For both salicylate- and noise-induced tinnitus, aberrant N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor activation and related auditory nerve excitation have been suggested as origin of cochlear tinnitus. Accordingly, NMDA receptor inhibition has been proposed as a pharmacologic approach for treatment of synaptopathic tinnitus. Methods: Round-window application of the NMDA receptor antagonist AM-101 (Esketamine hydrochloride gel; Auris Medical AG, Basel, Switzerland was tested in an animal model of tinnitus induced by acute traumatic noise. The study included the quantification of IHC ribbon synapses as a correlate for deafferentation as well as the measurement of the auditory brainstem response (ABR to close-threshold sensation level stimuli as an indication of sound-induced auditory nerve activity. Results: We have shown that AM-101 reduced the trauma-induced loss of IHC ribbons and counteracted the decline of ABR wave I amplitude generated in the cochlea/auditory nerve. Conclusion: Local round-window application of AM-101 may be a promising therapeutic intervention for the treatment of synaptopathic tinnitus.

  9. Can the Application of the Human Rights of the Child in a Criminal Case Result in a Therapeutic Outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Coetzee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the change brought about by S v M 2007 2 SACR 539 (CC, the interests of children were only considered as a circumstance or mitigating factor of the offender during the sentencing process. The article will discuss case law in order to determine the impact that the inclusion of the human rights of the child had on the sentencing process if the offender was the primary caregiver of the child. Specific reference is made to Sections 28(2 and 28(1(b of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. The article will then consider whether this inclusion might improve therapeutic outcomes without the apprehension that the interests of justice would be forfeited. A therapeutic outcome is brought about when the attention is placed on the human, emotional and psychological side of the law. It is concluded that the Zinn triad remains the basic measure to be used by sentencing courts to determine an appropriate sentence. Should the sentence be direct imprisonment, the court has to ensure that the children receive appropriate care as prescribed by Section 28(1(b. Should a range of sentences be considered, even though the court has a wide discretion to decide which factors should be allowed to influence the measure of punishment, when the offender is a primary caregiver, Section 28(2 must be included as an independent factor. It is also concluded from the case law discussion that the inclusion of the human rights of the child in the sentencing process did not automatically give rise to a therapeutic outcome, although in some judgments it did result in a therapeutic outcome. Thus, the consideration of the human rights of the children during the sentencing process creates the opportunity for a therapeutic outcome.

  10. Potential therapeutic applications of multifunctional host-defense peptides from frog skin as anti-cancer, anti-viral, immunomodulatory, and anti-diabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Lukic, Miodrag L; Flatt, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    Frog skin constitutes a rich source of peptides with a wide range of biological properties. These include host-defense peptides with cytotoxic activities against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and mammalian cells. Several hundred such peptides from diverse species have been described. Although attention has been focused mainly on antimicrobial activity, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents remains to be realized and no compound based upon their structures has yet been adopted in clinical practice. Consequently, alternative applications are being explored. Certain naturally occurring frog skin peptides, and analogs with improved therapeutic properties, show selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells and viruses and so have potential for development into anti-cancer and anti-viral agents. Some peptides display complex cytokine-mediated immunomodulatory properties. Effects on the production of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells have been observed so that clinical applications as anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunostimulatory agents are possible. Several frog skin peptides, first identified on the basis of antimicrobial activity, have been shown to stimulate insulin release both in vitro and in vivo and so show potential as incretin-based therapies for treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review assesses the therapeutic possibilities of peptides from frogs belonging to the Ascaphidae, Alytidae, Pipidae, Dicroglossidae, Leptodactylidae, Hylidae, and Ranidae families that complement their potential role as anti-infectives for use against multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

  11. 鼠神经生长因子治疗全聋型突发性聋的疗效分析%A retrospective study on the therapeutic effect of mouse nerve growth factor on patients with profound sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红村; 胡建道; 邱小雯

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of mouse nerve growth factor (MNGF) on patients with profound sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) based on a clinical trial. Methods A retrospective study was carried out among 53 patients with profound SSNHL treated in our Hospital from Dec., 2013 to Dec., 2015 as treating group (TG), with those 45 hospitalized cases treated from Jun., 2011 to Jun., 2013 in our Hospital as controlling group (CG). Cases in TG were treated by a combined therapy with MNGF plus the routine therapy composed of batroxobin, ginkgodipyidamolum, methylprednisolone sodium succinate, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, while those in CG were treated only by the routine therapy as that for TG, with the therapeutic course lasted for 2 weeks foe both groups. Then, a comparative analysis was made between these 2 groups to evaluate the therapeutic effect on the condition in these two groups according to their changes in pure tone audiogram and grading of tinnitus before and after treatment. Results The total effective rate was 81.1% and 66.7% respectively for hearing improvement in the two groups, with no statistical significance in the difference between them (χ2=2.068, P=0.102). The effective rate of tinnitus improvement in TG was 86.0%, while it was 75.6% in CG (χ2=1.601, P=0.206), also with no statistical significance in the difference between the two groups. Conclusion Although mouse nerve growth factor can improve the hearing loss of patients with profound SSNHL to some extent, it may not be so effective to improve the overall therapeutic effect on patients with such a condition.%目的:观察鼠神经生长因子治疗全聋型突发性聋的临床疗效。方法回以2013年12月至2015年12月期间我科住院治疗的全聋型突发性聋患者为治疗组,应用鼠神经生长因子+巴曲酶+银杏达莫+甲泼尼龙+高压氧方案治疗;以2011年6月至2013年6月收治的全聋型突发性聋45例作为对照组,治疗

  12. Os efeitos do ultra-som terapêutico nas lesões por esmagamento do nervo ciático de ratos: análise funcional da marcha Effects of therapeutic ultrasound on injuries due to crushing of the sciatic nerve in rats: functional evaluation of gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VV Monte-Raso

    2006-01-01

    primeira medida e a última. As diferenças entre os grupos foram significativas no 14º e no 21º dia (p=0,02 e p=0,002, respectivamente. Conclusão: O ultra-som terapêutico de baixa intensidade acelerou a regeneração do nervo ciático do rato, demonstrável com maior significância no 21º dia pós-operatório.Background: The effects of therapeutic ultrasound irradiation on peripheral nerve regeneration are not well known, particularly regarding functional recovery. However, in rats, footprint evaluation is a well-systematized method for measuring the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI, showing close correlation with morphological regeneration of damaged sciatic nerves. Objective: To analyze the influence of therapeutic ultrasound on sciatic nerve regeneration in rats subjected to controlled crushing. Method: 20 Wistar rats (mean body weight: 300 g were divided into two experimental groups: 1 crushing only (n=10; 2 crushing followed by ultrasound irradiation (n=10. Under general anesthesia, a 5-mm segment of sciatic nerve proximal to its bifurcation in the right thigh was exposed and crushed with constant loading of 15 kg for 10 minutes, using a specially-built device. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound irradiation (1:5, 0.4 W/cm², 1 MHz, 2 minutes was started on the first postoperative day and administered for ten consecutive days. Footprints were obtained weekly (postoperative weeks 13 using a specially-designed walkway, and evaluated using specifically-developed software, according to a previously-tested method, with automatic SFI calculation. Results: The SFI progressively increased in both groups: Group 2, from 101 in the first week to 59.21 (second and 26.68 (third, i.e. 73% improvement overall; Group 1, from 98.2 (first to 79.5 (second and 44 (third, i.e. 55% improvement overall. The differences between the groups were significant for the second and third weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound accelerates the

  13. Damaged axillary nerve (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditions associated with axillary nerve dysfunction include fracture of the humerus (upper arm bone), pressure from casts or splints, and improper use of crutches. Other causes include systemic disorders that cause neuritis (inflammation of ...

  14. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  15. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get ... you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. ...

  16. Axillary nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the nerve that helps control the deltoid muscles of the shoulder and the skin around it. A problem with ... can cause difficulty moving your arm. The deltoid muscle of the shoulder may show signs of muscle atrophy . Tests that ...

  17. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  18. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  19. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Yılmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are a rare group ofcongenital anatomical anomalies. Various types of anomaliesof the lumbosacral nerve roots have been documentedin the available international literature. Ttheseanomalies may consist of a bifid, conjoined structure, ofa transverse course or of a characteristic anastomizedappearance. Firstly described as an incidental findingduring autopsies or surgical procedures performed forlumbar disk herniations and often asymptomatic, lumbosacralnerve root anomalies have been more frequentlydescribed in the last years due to the advances made inradiological diagnosis.

  20. The Application of Suggestive Therapeutics and Placebo Effect in Medical Nursing and Relevant Ethical Reflection%暗示疗法及安慰剂效应在护理中的应用和伦理思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方会玲

    2011-01-01

    探讨暗示疗法在护理中应用的方法,以及保证暗示疗法的效果的原则.安慰剂效应属于暗示疗法的应用,探讨在护理中对几类患者采用的安慰剂治疗的护理方法,以及增强安慰剂效应的措施.对暗示疗法及其安慰剂治疗进行伦理学探讨.%The author explores the application of suggestive therapeutics, and principles which guarantee its therapeutic effect. Placebo effect is one application of suggestive therapeutics. The author also discusses the nursing measures for a series of patients who received placebo therapeutics, and the measures to enhance the placebo effect. Ethical issues are also analyzed on suggestive therapeutics and placebo application.

  1. A feasibility study to a new therapeutics to bromhidrosis: the resection of intercostobrachial nerves%肋间臂神经切断术治疗腋臭的解剖学基础及临床应用可行性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印国兵; 郭丹; 刘长安; 吴诚义; 杨露; 范盛浩; 林子晶

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨肋间臂神经( Intercostobrachial nerves,ICBN)切除治疗腋臭的可行性,并提供相关解剖学基础.方法对25具成人尸体的50侧腋区进行解剖,观测腋窝被毛区的神经支配情况;另对合并腋臭的20例乳癌患者分两组进行切除或保留ICBN的手术,观察切除ICBN对腋臭的影响.结果 ICBN可分为缺如型(4%)、单干型(10%)、单干分支型(50%)、双干型(28%)及3干型(8%);95.83%的ICBN均参与腋窝被毛区的支配,其中,单干型全部分支进入腋窝被毛区,单干分支型及多干型者则由下支或下干支配腋窝被毛区,其上支、上干单独或与臂内侧皮神经汇合进入上臂内侧;34%的第3肋间神经外侧皮支可发支达腋窝被毛区.乳癌根治术中切除ICBN可消除腋臭,保留ICBN者腋臭无变化.结论 切除ICBN或其上支、上干,从而消除腋窝被毛区汗腺的分泌以治疗腋臭是可行的.%Objective To explore the feasibility of a new therapeutics to bromhidrosis: the resection of intercostobrachial nerves (ICBN), and to provide associated anatomic basis. Methods Axillary region dissection was performed on 25 adult embalmed cadavers (SO sides), including the observation of the innervations of axillary hairs regional skin. In addition, 20 breast cancer patients with bromhidrosis underwent mastectomy removing or retaining ICBN for further exploring the effect of ICBN resection on bromhidrosis. Results ICBN can be divided into five types, including vacancy type (4%), single trunk type (10%), single trunk with branches type(50%), two trunks type(28%) and three trunks type(8%). For 95.83% specimens, ICBN dominated the axillary hairs region. Among the total, single trunk type ICBN dominated axillary hairs region completely, however, only inferior trunks or branches of the other types ICBN dominated the same region, meanwhile, the upper trunks or branches entered the inner part of upper arm singly or joined with medial

  2. CT引导下经皮穿刺胸交感链阻滞治疗手汗症的临床效果%Therapeutic feasibility of percutaneous puncture and chemical neurolysis of thoracic sympathetic nerve block in palmar hyperhidrosis under the guidance of computed tomograph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冰; 姚明; 周煦燕; 曹浩强; 祝则峰; 侯健; 陆雅萍; 孙建良; 胡奕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the therapeutic feasibility of percutaneous puncture and neurolytic thoracic sympathetic nerve block under the guidance of computed tomograph (CT).Methods From September 2009 to August 2010,23 cases with primary palmar hyperhidrosis underwent percutaneous puncture and neurolytic thoracic sympathetic nerve block at our hospital.The puncture of thoracic sympathetic nerve was guided by CT through the gap of T3-4.The screen showed the direction of needle and the location of needle tip at the upper joint of costal head beside T3 body and outside of costal pleura.A mixed injection of 1% lidocaine and 30% iohexol was administered.On CT,lidocaine was found to cover the area where the thoracic sympathetic nerve was located.And after several minutes,the patient's palms turned warm and dry from cool and wet without the onset of Homer's syndrome.Then 2.5 ml of absolute alcohol was injected to block the thoracic sympathetic nerve.Results CT could guide the needle to the right position.And the injectate spreaded to the site of thoracic sympathetic nerve.At 5 min after anesthetic injection,the palmar temperature raised an average of 2.86 ℃ and the amplitude of pulse rose over 55%.Palmar hyperhidrosis was cured in 19 patients by one attempt and 4 patients required a second block with absolute alcohol.No complication occurred and there were 2 patients with tendency of recurrence during a follow-up period of 8 - 18 months.Conclusion The CT-guided therapy of percutaneous puncture and chemical neurolysis of thoracic sympathetic nerve block is both feasible and efficacious for palmar hyperhidrosis.%目的 探讨CT引导下经皮穿刺胸交感神经阻滞治疗手汗症的可行性.方法 2009年10月至2010年8月间在浙江省嘉兴市第一医院接受CT引导下经皮穿刺胸交感神经阻滞治疗的原发性手汗症患者23例,在CT引导下经胸3/4( T3/4)椎间隙穿刺,直至针尖解剖定位于第4肋骨小头上缘、第3椎体旁的壁胸

  3. [Who is responsible for the postoperative nerve injury? Anesthesia? Orthopedics? Trauma?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsaka, Ebru; Güldoğuş, Fuat; Erdoğan, Murat; Zengin, Eyüp Cağatay

    2014-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of peripheral nerve injury, mechanical as well as vascular pressure, and chemical reasons play a role. In the applications of peripheral nerve block, there can be mechanical injury due to the type of needle and intrafascicular injections. In humerus fractures, nerve injury can be seen due to the surgical retractions and close proximity of the nerves with the bone. In addition, trauma may be the reason for posttraumatic nerve injury. In this presentation, we discussed the causes of postoperative nerve damage, which is seen after the operation of the distal humerus fracture.

  4. Bridging long gap peripheral nerve injury using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuro Tamaki

    2014-01-01

    Long gap peripheral nerve injuries usually reulting in life-changing problems for patients. Skeletal muscle derived-multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs) can differentiate into Schwann and perineurial/endoneurial cells, vascular relating pericytes, and endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the damaged peripheral nerve niche. Application of the Sk-MSCs in the bridging conduit for repairing long nerve gap injury resulted favorable axonal regeneration, which showing supe-rior effects than gold standard therapy--healthy nerve autograft. This means that it does not need to sacriifce of healthy nerves or loss of related functions for repairing peripheral nerve injury.

  5. Effect of nerve growth factor on changes of myelin basic protein and functional repair of peripheral nerve following sciatic nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵阳; 马海涵; 伍亚民; 陈恒胜; 曾琳; 李民; 龙在云; 李应玉; 杨恒文

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of nerve growth factor ( NGF ) on changes of myelin basic protein (MBP) and functional repair of sensory and motor nerve following sciatic nerve injury. Methods: The sciatic nerves of rats were injured by sectioning with shaver, and divided into 3 groups: NGF group ( Group A ), group of normal saline solution ( Group B), untreated group (Group C). The time point of observation was at the 4th week after operation. Sensory evoked potential (SEP) and motor evoked potential (MEP) were detected by Model WD-4000 nerve potential working diagnosis system. Immunohistochemical analysis was used for identification of MBP. Results: The latency of SEP in the Group A at the 4th week after operation was shorter than that in the Group B ( P < 0.05). The MEP was elicited in 76 % of the Group A and was higher than that in the Group B. Results of immunohistochemistry showed that there were less MBP-positive cells in the Group A than in the Group B in one and four weeks respectively. Conclusions: NGF can improve the conductive function of injured peripheral nerve and facilitate regeneration of nerve.

  6. Treatment of proximal hamstring tendinopathy-related sciatic nerve entrapment: presentation of an ultrasound-guided “Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis” application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiussi, Gabriele; Moreno, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy-related Sciatic Nerve Entrapment (PHTrSNE) is a neuropathy caused by fibrosis interposed between the semimembranosus tendon and the sciatic nerve, at the level of the ischial tuberosity. Methods Ultrasound-guided Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis (US-guided EPI) involves galvanic current transfer within the treatment target tissue (fibrosis) via a needle 0.30 to 0.33 mm in diameter. The galvanic current in a saline solution instantly develops the chemical process of electrolysis, which in turn induces electrochemical ablation of fibrosis. In this article, the interventional procedure is presented in detail, and both the strengths and limits of the technique are discussed. Results US-guided EPI eliminates the fibrotic accumulation that causes PHTrSNE, without the semimembranosus tendon or the sciatic nerve being directly involved during the procedure. The technique is however of limited use in cases of compression neuropathy. Conclusion US-guided EPI is a technique that is quick to perform, minimally invasive and does not force the patient to suspend their activities (work or sports) to make the treatment effective. This, coupled to the fact that the technique is generally well-tolerated by patients, supports use of US-guided EPI in the treatment of PHTrSNE. PMID:27900300

  7. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Kowalska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonographic examination is frequently used for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. Part I of this article series described in detail the characteristic USG picture of peripheral nerves and the proper examination technique, following the example of the median nerve. This nerve is among the most often examined peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part presents describes the normal anatomy and ultrasound picture of the remaining large nerve branches in the upper extremity and neck – the spinal accessory nerve, the brachial plexus, the suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves. Their normal anatomy and ultrasonographic appearance have been described, including the division into individual branches. For each of them, specific reference points have been presented, to facilitate the location of the set trunk and its further monitoring. Sites for the application of the ultrasonographic probe at each reference point have been indicated. In the case of the ulnar nerve, the dynamic component of the examination was emphasized. The text is illustrated with images of probe positioning, diagrams of the normal course of the nerves as well as a series of ultrasonographic pictures of normal nerves of the upper limb. This article aims to serve as a guide in the ultrasound examination of the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. It should be remembered that a thorough knowledge of the area’s topographic anatomy is required for this type of examination.

  8. Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation: A Promising Method for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yu; Kong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS) on the auricular branch of the vagus nerve has been receiving attention due to its therapeutic potential for neuropsychiatric disorders. Although the mechanism of tVNS is not yet completely understood, studies have demonstrated the potential role of vagal afferent nerve stimulation in the regulation of mood and visceral state associated with social communication. In addition, a growing body of evidence shows that tVNS can activate the brain region...

  9. Anatomical study of sciatic nerve and common peroneal nerve compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingzhao Jia; Qing Xia; Jinmin Sun; Qiang Zhou; Weidong Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many diseases of the common peroneal nerve are a result of sciatic nerve injury. The present study addresses whether anatomical positioning of the sciatic nerve is responsible for these injuries. OBJECTIVE: To analyze anatomical causes of sciatic nerve and common peroneal nerve injury by studying the relationship between the sciatic nerve and piriformis. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Observe and measure repeatedly. The experiment was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Tianjin Medical College between January and June 2005. MATERIALS: Fifty-two adult cadavers 33 males and 19 females, with a total of 104 hemispheres, and fixed with formaldehyde, were provided by Tianjin Medical College and Tianjin Medical University. METHODS: A posterior cut was made from the lumbosacral region to the upper leg, fully exposing the piriformis and path of the sciatic nerve. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Anatomical characteristics of the tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve. (2) According to different areas where the sciatic nerve crosses the piriformis, the study was divided into two types--normal and abnormal. Normal is considered to be when the sciatic nerve passes through the infrapiriform foramen. Remaining pathways are considered to be abnormal. (3) Observe the relationship between the suprapiriform foramen, infrapiriform foramen, as well as the superior and inferior space of piriformis. RESULTS: (1) The nerve tract inside the common peroneal nerve is smaller and thinner, with less connective tissue than the tibial nerve. When pathological changes or variations of the piriformis, or over-abduction of the hip joint, occur, injury to the common peroneal nerve often arises due to blockage and compression. (2) A total of 76 hemispheres (73.08%) were normal, 28 were abnormal (26.92%). The piriformis can be injured, and the sciatic nerve can become compressed, when the hip joint undergoes intorsion, extorsion, or abduction. (3) The structures between the infrapiriform and

  10. [Anatomic study on intercostal nerve transfer to suprascapular nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bin; Hu, Shaonan; Chen, Liang; Song, Jie

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility of the 3rd-6th intercostal nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve for reconstruction of shoulder abduction. Fifteen thoracic walls (30 sides) were collected from cadavers. The 3rd-6th intercostal nerve length which can be dissected between the midaxillary line and midclavicular the transfer distance between the midaxillary line and midpoint of the clavicular bone (prepared point for neurotization) measured. In 30 sides of specimens, the 3rd and 4th intercostal nerves could be obtained between the midaxillary and midclavicular line, the available length of which was significantly greater than the transfer distance (P intercostal nerve and 16 sides of 6th intercostal nerve were covered by the costal cartilage before reaching the midclavicular line. The available length of the 5th intercostal nerve was similar to the transfer distance (P > 0.01), while the available the 6th intercostal nerve was significantly less than transfer distance (P intercostal nerve length and length (2 cm) of suprascapular nerve was significantly greater than the transfer distance (P intercostal nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve for reconstruction of shoulder abduction. And 6th intercostal nerve, longer dissociated length may be required for direct coaptation or using a graft for nerve repair.

  11. Recording nerve signals in canine sciatic nerves with a flexible penetrating microelectrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Donghak; Cho, Sung-Joon; Lee, Byeong Han; Min, Joongkee; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Sohee

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Previously, we presented the fabrication and characterization of a flexible penetrating microelectrode array (FPMA) as a neural interface device. In the present study, we aim to prove the feasibility of the developed FPMA as a chronic intrafascicular recording tool for peripheral applications. Approach. For recording from the peripheral nerves of medium-sized animals, the FPMA was integrated with an interconnection cable and other parts that were designed to fit canine sciatic nerves. The uniformity of tip exposure and in vitro electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterized. The capability of the device to acquire in vivo electrophysiological signals was evaluated by implanting the FPMA assembly in canine sciatic nerves acutely as well as chronically for 4 weeks. We also examined the histology of implanted tissues to evaluate the damage caused by the device. Main results. Throughout recording sessions, we observed successful multi-channel recordings (up to 73% of viable electrode channels) of evoked afferent and spontaneous nerve unit spikes with high signal quality (SNR  >  4.9). Also, minor influences of the device implantation on the morphology of nerve tissues were found. Significance. The presented results demonstrate the viability of the developed FPMA device in the peripheral nerves of medium-sized animals, thereby bringing us a step closer to human applications. Furthermore, the obtained data provide a driving force toward a further study for device improvements to be used as a bidirectional neural interface in humans.

  12. Optimization and Implementation of Long Nerve Allografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    nerve tissue requires a graft to restore continuity and promote nerve regeneration and recovery of function. Presently, there is no acceptable nerve ...for nerve regeneration and meaningful recovering of nerve function that, in several cases was better than autografting. Other decellularized allografts... nerve graft, allograft, nerve regeneration , rehabilitation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME

  13. Drug Delivery for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    and connect the two tubes; (b) A scanning electron microscope image of the transverse cross-sectional view of the PLGA nerve conduit. The filter is...reprints of manuscripts and abstracts, a curriculum vitae, patent applications, study questionnaires, and surveys, etc. Bioresorbable Multi-Drug

  14. Undifferentiated and differentiated adipose-derived stem cells improve nerve regeneration in a rat model of facial nerve defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Sasaki, Ryo; Matsumine, Hajime; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2017-02-01

    Autologous nerve grafting is the current procedure used for repairing facial nerve gaps. As an alternative to this method, tissue engineering cell-based therapy using induced pluripotent stem cells, Schwann cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells has been proposed. However, these cells have major problems, including tumorigenesis in induced pluripotent stem cells and invasiveness and limited tissue associated with harvesting for the other cells. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which can be harvested easily and repeatedly by a minimally invasive liposuction procedure. The ASCs had characteristics of mesenchymal tissue lineages and could differentiate into Schwann-like cells that were relatively simple to isolate and expand in culture. In an in vivo study, a silicone conduit containing undifferentiated ASCs, differentiated ASCs or Schwann cells were transplanted, embedded in a collagen gel and the efficacy of repair of a 7 mm-gap in the rat facial nerve examined. Morphometric quantification analysis of regenerated facial nerves after a regeneration period of 13 weeks showed that undifferentiated ASCs, differentiated ASCs, and Schwann cells had similar potential for nerve regeneration. Furthermore, the functional recovery of facial nerve regeneration using a rat facial palsy scoring system in the three groups was close to that in autologous nerve graft positive controls. These findings suggest that undifferentiated and differentiated ASCs may both have therapeutic potential in facial nerve regeneration as a source of Schwann cells in cell-based therapy performed as an alternative to autologous nerve grafts. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  16. Reconstruction of Multiple Facial Nerve Branches Using Skeletal Muscle-Derived Multipotent Stem Cell Sheet-Pellet Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Saito

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages, and surgical resection with wide margins is generally indicated, despite this treatment being associated with poor postoperative quality of life (QOL. We have previously reported on the therapeutic effects of skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs, which exert reconstitution capacity for muscle-nerve-blood vessel units. Recently, we further developed a 3D patch-transplantation system using Sk-MSC sheet-pellets. The aim of this study is the application of the 3D Sk-MSC transplantation system to the reconstitution of facial complex nerve-vascular networks after severe damage. Mouse experiments were performed for histological analysis and rats were used for functional examinations. The Sk-MSC sheet-pellets were prepared from GFP-Tg mice and SD rats, and were transplanted into the facial resection model (ST. Culture medium was transplanted as a control (NT. In the mouse experiment, facial-nerve-palsy (FNP scoring was performed weekly during the recovery period, and immunohistochemistry was used for the evaluation of histological recovery after 8 weeks. In rats, contractility of facial muscles was measured via electrical stimulation of facial nerves root, as the marker of total functional recovery at 8 weeks after transplantation. The ST-group showed significantly higher FNP (about three fold scores when compared to the NT-group after 2-8 weeks. Similarly, significant functional recovery of whisker movement muscles was confirmed in the ST-group at 8 weeks after transplantation. In addition, engrafted GFP+ cells formed complex branches of nerve-vascular networks, with differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Thus, Sk-MSC sheet-pellet transplantation is potentially useful for functional reconstitution therapy of large defects in facial nerve-vascular networks.

  17. Development of Nanofiber Sponges-Containing Nerve Guidance Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Binbin; Zhou, Zifei; Wu, Tong; Chen, Weiming; Li, Dawei; Zheng, Hao; El-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei; Yu, Yinxian

    2017-08-16

    In the study of hollow nerve guidance conduit (NGC), the dispersion of regenerated axons always confused researchers. To address this problem, filler-containing NGC was prepared, which showed better effect in the application of nerve tissue engineering. In this study, nanofiber sponges with abundant macropores, high porosity, and superior compressive strength were fabricated by electrospinning and freeze-drying. Poly(l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone)/silk fibroin (PLCL/SF) nanofiber sponges were used as filler to prepare three-dimensional nanofiber sponges-containing (NS-containing) NGC. In order to study the effect of fillers for nerve regeneration, hollow NGC was set as control. In vitro cell viability studies indicated that the NS-containing NGC could enhance the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs) due to the macroporous structure. The results of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and immunofluorescence staining confirmed that SCs infiltrated into the nanofiber sponges. Subsequently, the NS-containing NGC was implanted in a rat sciatic nerve defect model to evaluate the effect in vivo. NS-containing NGC group performed better in nerve function recovery than hollow NGC group. In consideration of the walking track and triceps weight analysis, NS-containing NGC was close to the autograft group. In addition, histological and morphological analyses with HE and toluidine blue (TB) staining, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were conducted. Better nerve regeneration was observed on NS-containing NGC group both quantitatively and qualitatively. Furthermore, the results of three indexes' immuno-histochemistry and two indexes' immunofluorescence all indicated good nerve regeneration of NS-containing NGC as well, compared with hollow NGC. The results demonstrated NS-containing NGC had great potential in the application of peripheral nerve repair.

  18. Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome: management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrona E

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleni Chrona,1,2 Georgia Kostopanagiotou,1 Dimitrios Damigos,3 Chrysanthi Batistaki1 1Second Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “Attikon” Hospital, Athens, 2Department of Anesthesiology, General Hospital of “Ag. Panteleimon,” Piraeus, 3Department of Medical Psychology, Medical School of Ioannina, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Abstract: Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES is a commonly underdiagnosed and undertreated chronic state of pain. This syndrome is characterized by the entrapment of the cutaneous branches of the lower thoracoabdominal intercostal nerves at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle, which causes severe, often refractory, chronic pain. This narrative review aims to identify the possible therapeutic strategies for the management of the syndrome. Seventeen studies about ACNES therapy were reviewed; of them, 15 were case–control studies, case series, or case reports, and two were randomized controlled trials. The presently available management strategies for ACNES include trigger point injections (diagnostic and therapeutic, ultrasound-guided blocks, chemical neurolysis, and surgical ­neurectomy, in combination with systemic medication, as well as some emerging techniques, such as radiofrequency ablation and neuromodulation. An increased awareness of the syndrome and the use of specific diagnostic criteria for its recognition are required to facilitate an early and successful management. This review compiles the proposed ­management strategies for ACNES. Keywords: anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome, intercostal, neuralgia, management

  19. Antiviral Polymer Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anton Allen Abbotsford

    2014-01-01

    The field of drug delivery is in essence an exercise in engineered pharmacokinetics. Methods of doing so have been developed through the introduction of a vehicle carrying the drug, either by encapsulation or covalent attachment. The emergence of polymer therapeutics in anticancer therapy has...... the examples of polymer therapeutics being applied as an antiviral treatment are few and far in-between. This work aims to explore antiviral therapeutics, specifically in context of hepatitis virus C (HCV) and HIV. The current treatment of hepatitis C consists of a combination of drugs, of which ribavirin....... Curiously, the therapeutic window of ribavirin was vastly improved in several of these polymers suggesting altered pharmacodynamics. The applicability of liver-targeting sugar moieties is likewise tested in a similarly methodical approach. The same technique of synthesis was applied with zidovudine to make...

  20. Treatment for Injury of Superior Clunial Nerves by Triple Puncture Needling with Massage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万顺; 李静

    2002-01-01

    @@ Superior clunial nerve injury occupies a high percentage in lumbocluneal tissue injuries. It is commonly seen in winter and in athletic competition and training. The authors have treated 67 cases of pain of the superior clunial nerves by triple puncture needling combined with massage and obtained satisfactory therapeutic result. A report follows.

  1. Treatment of 48 Cases of Herpes Zoster by Puncturing Nerve Stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪夕朗; 洪珏

    2008-01-01

    @@ Herpes zoster is a viral disorder involving both nerve and skin simultaneously, with the duration of about 2 to 3 weeks. The author treated 48 cases by puncturing nerve stem in recent years and obtained good therapeutic results. Now it is reported as follows.

  2. Peripheral nerve injury and TRPV1-expressing primary afferent C-fibers cause opening of the blood-brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salter Michael W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The blood-brain barrier (BBB plays the crucial role of limiting exposure of the central nervous system (CNS to damaging molecules and cells. Dysfunction of the BBB is critical in a broad range of CNS disorders including neurodegeneration, inflammatory or traumatic injury to the CNS, and stroke. In peripheral tissues, the vascular-tissue permeability is normally greater than BBB permeability, but vascular leakage can be induced by efferent discharge activity in primary sensory neurons leading to plasma extravasation into the extravascular space. Whether discharge activity of sensory afferents entering the CNS may open the BBB or blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB remains an open question. Results Here we show that peripheral nerve injury (PNI produced by either sciatic nerve constriction or transecting two of its main branches causes an increase in BSCB permeability, as assessed by using Evans Blue dye or horseradish peroxidase. The increase in BSCB permeability was not observed 6 hours after the PNI but was apparent 24 hours after the injury. The increase in BSCB permeability was transient, peaking about 24-48 hrs after PNI with BSCB integrity returning to normal levels by 7 days. The increase in BSCB permeability was prevented by administering the local anaesthetic lidocaine at the site of the nerve injury. BSCB permeability was also increased 24 hours after electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve at intensity sufficient to activate C-fibers, but not when A-fibers only were activated. Likewise, BSCB permeability increased following application of capsaicin to the nerve. The increase in permeability caused by C-fiber stimulation or by PNI was not anatomically limited to the site of central termination of primary afferents from the sciatic nerve in the lumbar cord, but rather extended throughout the spinal cord and into the brain. Conclusions We have discovered that injury to a peripheral nerve and electrical stimulation of C

  3. Electromechanical properties of biomembranes and nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimburg, T.; Blicher, A.; Mosgaard, L. D.; Zecchi, K.

    2014-12-01

    Lipid membranes are insulators and capacitors, which can be charged by an external electric field. This phenomenon plays an important role in the field of electrophysiology, for instance when describing nerve pulse conduction. Membranes are also made of polar molecules meaning that they contain molecules with permanent electrical dipole moments. Therefore, the properties of membranes are subject to changes in trans-membrane voltage. Vice versa, mechanical forces on membranes lead to changes in the membrane potential. Associated effects are flexoelectricity, piezoelectricity, and electrostriction. Lipid membranes can melt from an ordered to a disordered state. Due to the change of membrane dimensions associated with lipid membrane melting, electrical properties are linked to the melting transition. Melting of the membrane can induce changes in trans-membrane potential, and application of voltage can lead to a shift of the melting transition. Further, close to transitions membranes are very susceptible to piezoelectric phenomena. We discuss these phenomena in relation with the occurrence of lipid ion channels. Close to melting transitions, lipid membranes display step-wise ion conduction events, which are indistinguishable from protein ion channels. These channels display a voltage-dependent open probability. One finds asymmetric current-voltage relations of the pure membrane very similar to those found for various protein channels. This asymmetry falsely has been considered a criterion to distinguish lipid channels from protein channels. However, we show that the asymmetry can arise from the electromechanical properties of the lipid membrane itself. Finally, we discuss electromechanical behavior in connection with the electromechanical theory of nerve pulse transduction. It has been found experimentally that nerve pulses are related to changes in nerve thickness. Thus, during the nerve pulse a solitary mechanical pulse travels along the nerve. Due to

  4. Application of Fluorescent Protein Expressing Strains to Evaluation of Anti-Tuberculosis Therapeutic Efficacy In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Kong

    Full Text Available The slow growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB, hinders development of new diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines. Using non-invasive real-time imaging technologies to monitor the disease process in live animals would facilitate TB research in all areas. We developed fluorescent protein (FP expressing Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains for in vivo imaging, which can be used to track bacterial location, and to quantify bacterial load in live animals. We selected an optimal FP for in vivo imaging, by first cloning six FPs: tdTomato, mCherry, mPlum, mKate, Katushka and mKeima, into mycobacteria under either a mycobacterial Hsp60 or L5 promoter, and compared their fluorescent signals in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescence from each FP-expressing strain was measured with a multimode reader using the optimal excitation and emission wavelengths for the FP. After normalizing bacterial numbers with optical density, the strain expressing L5-tdTomato displayed the highest fluorescence. We used the tdTomato-labeled M. bovis BCG to obtain real-time images of pulmonary infections in living mice and rapidly determined the number of bacteria present. Further comparison between L5-tdTomato and Hsp60-tdTomato revealed that L5-tdTomato carried four-fold more tdTomato gene copies than Hsp60-tdTomato, which eventually led to higher protein expression of tdTomato. Evaluating anti-TB efficacy of rifampicin and isoniazid therapy in vitro and in vivo using the L5-tdTomato strain demonstrated that this strain can be used to identify anti-TB therapeutic efficacy as quickly as 24 h post-treatment. These M. bovis BCG reporter strains represent a valuable new tool for evaluation of therapeutics, vaccines and virulence.

  5. Research progress on the therapeutic cancer vaccines and its application%治疗性肿瘤疫苗的研究及其应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晨西; 高萍

    2015-01-01

    To eliminate cancer hazards to human health,the development of the therapeutic cancer vaccine has been given more and more attention.By contrast of tradition therapy,cancer immunotherapy take the advantage of being able to achieve target therapy and take modest harm to organism.Here,we first idiscussed the mechanisms of cancer immune escape,and reviewed the design principles of therapeutic cancer vaccine,as well as the latest research progress of therapeutic cancer vaccine and its application.%为了消除肿瘤对人类健康的危害,治疗性肿瘤疫苗的研发日益受到人们的重视.相对于传统治疗手段,肿瘤免疫治疗具有靶向性高、对机体伤害小的优点.本文首先对肿瘤的免疫逃脱机制进行了探讨,并对治疗性肿瘤疫苗的设计原则,以及各种治疗性肿瘤疫苗的最新研究进展以及应用进行了回顾,最后对肿瘤疫苗的发展进行了展望.

  6. Improvement of sciatic nerve regeneration using laminin-binding human NGF-beta.

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    Wenjie Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sciatic nerve injuries often cause partial or total loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions due to the axon discontinuity, degeneration, and eventual death which finally result in substantial functional loss and decreased quality of life. Nerve growth factor (NGF plays a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the lack of efficient NGF delivery approach limits its clinical applications. We reported here by fusing with the N-terminal domain of agrin (NtA, NGF-beta could target to nerve cells and improve nerve regeneration. METHODS: Laminin-binding assay and sustained release assay of NGF-beta fused with NtA (LBD-NGF from laminin in vitro were carried out. The bioactivity of LBD-NGF on laminin in vitro was also measured. Using the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, the nerve repair and functional restoration by utilizing LBD-NGF were tested. FINDINGS: LBD-NGF could specifically bind to laminin and maintain NGF activity both in vitro and in vivo. In the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, we found that LBD-NGF could be retained and concentrated at the nerve injury sites to promote nerve repair and enhance functional restoration following nerve damages. CONCLUSION: Fused with NtA, NGF-beta could bind to laminin specifically. Since laminin is the major component of nerve extracellular matrix, laminin binding NGF could target to nerve cells and improve the repair of peripheral nerve injuries.

  7. Early applications of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can stabilize the blood-optic-nerve barrier and ameliorate inflammation in a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yao-Tseng; Huang, Tzu-Lun; Huang, Sung-Ping; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Tsai, Rong-Kung

    2016-10-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was reported to have a neuroprotective effect in a rat model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION model). However, the therapeutic window and anti-inflammatory effects of G-CSF in a rAION model have yet to be elucidated. Thus, this study aimed to determine the therapeutic window of G-CSF and investigate the mechanisms of G-CSF via regulation of optic nerve (ON) inflammation in a rAION model. Rats were treated with G-CSF on day 0, 1, 2 or 7 post-rAION induction for 5 consecutive days, and a control group were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Visual function was assessed by flash visual evoked potentials at 4 weeks post-rAION induction. The survival rate and apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells were determined by FluoroGold labeling and TUNEL assay, respectively. ON inflammation was evaluated by staining of ED1 and Iba1, and ON vascular permeability was determined by Evans Blue extravasation. The type of macrophage polarization was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The protein levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were analyzed by western blotting. A therapeutic window during which G-CSF could rescue visual function and retinal ganglion cell survival was demonstrated at day 0 and day 1 post-infarct. Macrophage infiltration was reduced by 3.1- and 1.6-fold by G-CSF treatment starting on day 0 and 1 post-rAION induction, respectively, compared with the PBS-treated group (Pmodel. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Repair of sciatic nerve defects using tissue engineered nerves*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caishun Zhang; Gang Lv

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we constructed tissue-engineered nerves with acel ular nerve al ografts in Sprague-Dawley rats, which were prepared using chemical detergents-enzymatic digestion and mechanical methods, in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s of Wistar rats cultured in vitro, to repair 15 mm sciatic bone defects in Wistar rats. At postoperative 12 weeks, electrophysiological detection results showed that the conduction velocity of regenerated nerve after repair with tis-sue-engineered nerves was similar to that after autologous nerve grafting, and was higher than that after repair with acel ular nerve al ografts. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that motor endplates with acetylcholinesterase-positive nerve fibers were orderly arranged in the middle and superior parts of the gastrocnemius muscle;regenerated nerve tracts and sprouted branches were connected with motor endplates, as shown by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry combined with silver staining. The wet weight ratio of the tibialis anterior muscle at the affected contralateral hind limb was similar to the sciatic nerve after repair with autologous nerve grafts, and higher than that after repair with acel ular nerve al ografts. The hind limb motor function at the affected side was significantly improved, indicating that acel ular nerve al ografts combined with bone marrow me-senchymal stem cel bridging could promote functional recovery of rats with sciatic nerve defects.

  9. Dog sciatic nerve gap repaired by artificial tissue nerve graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xiaosong; ZHANG Peiyun; WANG Xiaodong; DING Fei; PENG Luping; CHENG Hongbing

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of repairing dog sciatic nerve damage by using a biodegradable artificial tissue nerve graft enriched with neuroregenerating factors is investigated. The artificial nerve graft was implanted to a 30 mm gap of the sciatic nerve damage in 7 dogs. The dogs with the same nerve damage that were repaired by interposition of the autologous nerve or were given no treatment served as control group 1 or 2, respectively. The observations include gross and morphological observations, immune reaction, electrophysiological examination, fluorescence tracing of the neuron formation and the number of the neurons at the experimental sites, etc. Results showed that 6 months after the implantation of the graft, the regenerated nerve repaired the damage of the sciatic nerve without occurrence of rejection and obvious inflammatory reaction in all 7 dogs, and the function of the sciatic nerve recovered with the nerve conduction velocity of (23.91±11.35)m/s. The regenerated neurons and the forming of axon could be observed under an electron microscope. This proves that artificial tissue nerve graft transplantation can bridge the damaged nerve ends and promote the nerve regeneration.

  10. Acellular Nerve Allografts in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy M.; MacEwan, Matthew; Santosa, Katherine B.; Chenard, Kristofer E.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Johnson, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Processed nerve allografts offer a promising alternative to nerve autografts in the surgical management of peripheral nerve injuries where short deficits exist. Methods Three established models of acellular nerve allograft (cold-preserved, detergent-processed, and AxoGen® -processed nerve allografts) were compared to nerve isografts and silicone nerve guidance conduits in a 14 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Results All acellular nerve grafts were superior to silicone nerve conduits in support of nerve regeneration. Detergent-processed allografts were similar to isografts at 6 weeks post-operatively, while AxoGen®-processed and cold-preserved allografts supported significantly fewer regenerating nerve fibers. Measurement of muscle force confirmed that detergent-processed allografts promoted isograft-equivalent levels of motor recovery 16 weeks post-operatively. All acellular allografts promoted greater amounts of motor recovery compared to silicone conduits. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that differential processing for removal of cellular constituents in preparing acellular nerve allografts affects recovery in vivo. PMID:21660979

  11. Comparative effects of wavelengths of low-power laser in regeneration of sciatic nerve in rats following crushing lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rafael Inácio; Marcolino, Alexandre Marcio; de Jesus Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto; Mazzer, Nilton; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique; de Cássia Registro Fonseca, Marisa

    2010-05-01

    Peripheral nerves are structures that, when damaged, can result in significant motor and sensory disabilities. Several studies have used therapeutic resources with the aim of promoting early nerve regeneration, such as the use of low-power laser. However, this laser therapy does not represent a consensus regarding the methodology, thus yielding controversial conclusions. The objective of our study was to investigate, by functional evaluation, the comparative effects of low-power laser (660 nm and 830 nm) on sciatic nerve regeneration following crushing injuries. Twenty-seven Wistar rats subjected to sciatic nerve injury were divided into three groups: group sham, consisting of rats undergoing simulated irradiation; a group consisting of rats subjected to gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser at 660 nm (10 J/cm(2), 30 mW and 0.06 cm(2) beam), and another one consisting of rats subjected to GaAlAs laser at 830 nm (10 J/cm(2), 30 mW and 0.116 cm(2)). Laser was applied to the lesion for 21 days. A sciatic functional index (SFI) was used for functional evaluation prior to surgery and on days 7, 14, and 21 after surgery. Differences in SFI were found between group 660 nm and the other ones at the 14th day. One can observe that laser application at 660 nm with the parameters and methods utilised was effective in promoting early functional recovery, as indicated by the SFI, over the period evaluated.

  12. Peripheral nerve regeneration with conduits: use of vein tubes

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    Rodrigo Guerra Sabongi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains a challenge to modern medicine due to the complexity of the neurobiological nerve regenerating process. There is a greater challenge when the transected nerve ends are not amenable to primary end-to-end tensionless neurorraphy. When facing a segmental nerve defect, great effort has been made to develop an alternative to the autologous nerve graft in order to circumvent morbidity at donor site, such as neuroma formation, scarring and permanent loss of function. Tubolization techniques have been developed to bridge nerve gaps and have been extensively studied in numerous experimental and clinical trials. The use of a conduit intends to act as a vehicle for moderation and modulation of the cellular and molecular ambience for nerve regeneration. Among several conduits, vein tubes were validated for clinical application with improving outcomes over the years. This article aims to address the investigation and treatment of segmental nerve injury and draw the current panorama on the use of vein tubes as an autogenous nerve conduit.

  13. Peripheral nerve regeneration with conduits:use of vein tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo Guerra Sabongi; Marcela Fernandes; Joo Baptista Gomes dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of peripheral nerve injuries remains a challenge to modern medicine due to the com-plexity of the neurobiological nerve regenerating process. There is a greater challenge when the transected nerve ends are not amenable to primary end-to-end tensionless neurorraphy. When facing a segmental nerve defect, great effort has been made to develop an alternative to the au-tologous nerve graft in order to circumvent morbidity at donor site, such as neuroma formation, scarring and permanent loss of function. Tubolization techniques have been developed to bridge nerve gaps and have been extensively studied in numerous experimental and clinical trials. The use of a conduit intends to act as a vehicle for moderation and modulation of the cellular and molecular ambience for nerve regeneration. Among several conduits, vein tubes were validated for clinical application with improving outcomes over the years. This article aims to address the investigation and treatment of segmental nerve injury and draw the current panorama on the use of vein tubes as an autogenous nerve conduit.

  14. Activated Schwann Cell-Like Cells on Aligned Fibrin-Poly(Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid) Structures: A Novel Construct for Application in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Christina M A P; Morton, Tatjana J; Banerjee, Asmita; Grasl, Christian; Schima, Heinrich; Schmidhammer, Robert; Redl, Heinz; Ruenzler, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering approaches in nerve regeneration search for ways to support gold standard therapy (autologous nerve grafts) and to improve results by bridging nerve defects with different kinds of conduits. In this study, we describe electrospinning of aligned fibrin-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fibers in an attempt to create a biomimicking tissue-like material seeded with Schwann cell-like cells (SCLs) in vitro for potential use as an in vivo scaffold. Rat adipose-derived stem cells (rASCs) were differentiated into SCLs and evaluated with flow cytometry concerning their differentiation and activation status [S100b, P75, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and protein 0 (P0)]. After receiving the proliferation stimulus forskolin, SCLs expressed S100b and P75; comparable to native, activated Schwann cells, while cultured without forskolin, cells switched to a promyelinating phenotype and expressed S100b, MAG, and P0. Human fibrinogen and thrombin, blended with PLGA, were electrospun and the alignment and homogeneity of the fibers were proven by scanning electron microscopy. Electrospun scaffolds were seeded with SCLs and the formation of Büngner-like structures in SCLs was evaluated with phalloidin/propidium iodide staining. Carrier fibrin gels containing rASCs acted as a self-shaping matrix to form a tubular structure. In this study, we could show that rASCs can be differentiated into activated, proliferating SCLs and that these cells react to minimal changes in stimulus, switching to a promyelinating phenotype. Aligned electrospun fibrin-PLGA fibers promoted the formation of Büngner-like structures in SCLs, which also rolled the fibrin-PLGA matrix into a tubular scaffold. These in vitro findings favor further in vivo testing.

  15. Fingolimod induces the transition to a nerve regeneration promoting Schwann cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, André; Beyer, Felix; Tzekova, Nevena; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Küry, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Successful regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is mainly attributed to the plastic behavior of Schwann cells. Upon loss of axons, these cells trans-differentiate into regeneration promoting repair cells which provide trophic support to regrowing axons. Among others, activation of cJun was revealed to be involved in this process, initiating the stereotypic pattern of Schwann cell phenotype alterations during Wallerian degeneration. Nevertheless, the ability of Schwann cells to adapt and therefore the nerve's potential to regenerate can be limited in particular after long term denervation or in neuropathies leading to incomplete regeneration only and thus emphasizing the need for novel therapeutic approaches. Here we stimulated primary neonatal and adult rat Schwann cells with Fingolimod/FTY720P and investigated its impact on the regeneration promoting phenotype. FTY720P activated a number of de-differentiation markers including cJun and interfered with maturation marker and myelin expression. Functionally, FTY720P treated Schwann cells upregulated growth factor expression and these cells enhanced dorsal root ganglion neurite outgrowth on inhibitory substrates. Our results therefore provide strong evidence that FTY720P application supports the generation of a repair promoting cellular phenotype and suggest that Fingolimod could be used as treatment for peripheral nerve injuries and diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Maxilla

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    Puja Sahai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla. He was treated with total maxillectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a close resection margin. The tumour was of high grade with an MIB-1 labelling index of almost 60%. At six weeks following the surgery, he developed local tumour relapse. The patient succumbed to the disease at five months from the time of diagnosis. The present report underlines the locally aggressive nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla which necessitates an early therapeutic intervention. A complete resection with clear margins is the most important prognostic factor for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the head and neck region. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the local control. Future research may demarcate the role of targeted therapy for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour.

  17. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury: regeneration law of nerve fibers in the conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-xun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair peripheral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good histocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve fibers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2-8 weeks, the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objective and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  18. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury:regeneration law of nerve ifbers in the conduit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-xun Zhang; Li-ya A; Yu-hui Kou; Xiao-feng Yin; Feng Xue#; Na Han; Tian-bing Wang; Bao-guo Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair periph-eral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good his-tocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve ifbers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2–8 weeks), the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objec-tive and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  19. Carbon nanomaterials for nerve tissue stimulation and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraczek-Szczypta, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers new perspectives in the field of innovative medicine, especially for reparation and regeneration of irreversibly damaged or diseased nerve tissues due to lack of effective self-repair mechanisms in the peripheral and central nervous systems (PNS and CNS, respectively) of the human body. Carbon nanomaterials, due to their unique physical, chemical and biological properties, are currently considered as promising candidates for applications in regenerative medicine. This chapter discusses the potential applications of various carbon nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes, nanofibers and graphene for regeneration and stimulation of nerve tissue, as well as in drug delivery systems for nerve disease therapy. © 2013.

  20. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin, E-mail: chengleiyx@126.com

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  1. Material properties and electrical stimulation regimens through polycaprolactone fumarate-polypyrrole scaffolds as potential conductive nerve conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroder, Philipp; Wang, Huan; Ruesink, Terry; Lu, Lichun; Windebank, Anthony J.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Runge, M. Brett

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical and electrical properties of polycaprolactone fumarate-polypyrrole (PCLF-PPy) scaffolds were studied under physiological conditions to evaluate their ability to maintain material properties necessary for application as conductive nerve conduits. PC12 cells cultured on PCLF-PPy scaffolds were stimulated with regimens of 10 μA of constant or 20 Hz frequency current passed through the scaffolds for 1 h/day. PC12 cellular morphologies were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy after 48 h. PCLF-PPy scaffolds exhibited excellent mechanical properties at 37°C which would allow suturing and flexibility. The surface resistivity of the scaffolds was 2kΩ and the scaffolds were electrically stable during application of electrical stimulation (ES). In vitro studies showed significant increases in percentage of neurite bearing cells, number of neurites per cell and neurite length in the presence of ES compared to no ES. Additionally, extending neurites were observed to align in the direction of the applied current. This study shows that electrically conductive PCLF-PPy scaffolds possess material properties necessary for application as nerve conduits. Additionally, the capability to significantly enhance and direct neurite extension by passing electrical current through PCLF-PPy scaffolds renders them even more promising as future therapeutic treatments for severe nerve injuries. PMID:20965280

  2. CT引导下臭氧消融术联合神经根阻滞治疗腰椎间盘突出症%The therapeutic effect analysis of lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion using ozone ablation and selected nerve root block by CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣春; 郭睛晴; 周外平

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of ozone ablation and nerve root block in the treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion. Methods Two hundred patients with lumbar disc herniation were divided into two groups:100 patients in group A were treated with ozone ablation; 100 patients in group B were treated with ozone ablation combined with nerve root block. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by comparing the value of VAS and total effective rate of therapy at the first day before treatment, and at the 3rd day ,3rd month and 6th month after treatment. Results The values of VAS in two groups at the 3rd day,3rd month and 6th month after treatment were remarkably lower than those at the first day before treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The values of VAS in B group at the 3rd day ,3rd month and 6th month after treatment were lower significantly than those in group A (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The total effective rate of therapy at the 3rd day,3rd month and 6th month after treatment was 90% ,85% and 79% in group A,and 100% ,90% and 85% in group B respectively. The total effective rate of therapy at the 3rd day ,3rd month and 6th month after treatment in group B was higher than in group A. Conclusion The total effective rate of therapy by ozone ablation combined with nerve root block treating lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion under CT at the 3rd day after treatment was 100% , and that at the 3rd month and 6th month after treatment was increased.%目的 探讨CT引导下臭氧消融术联合神经根阻滞治疗腰椎间盘突出症的穿刺的准确性、治疗的安全性以及疗效.方法 选择200例腰椎问盘突出症患者,随机分为2组:A组100例,单纯行臭氧消融术,B组:100例,臭氧消融术联合神经阻滞治疗,治疗前1d、治疗后3d、3、6个月测定疼痛视觉模拟评分(VAS),治疗总有效率来评估治疗效果(比较常用的是MacNab法评价疗效).结果 两组患者治疗后3d、3、6个月VAS值较治疗前1 d

  3. Victims' Compensation as a Tool of Therapeutic Justice: Examining the Physical and Mental Health Needs of Victim Compensation Applicants and the Role of Health in Receiving Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Leah E; Guastaferro, Wendy P; Azimi, Andia

    Victims' compensation programs are positioned to serve an important therapeutic role. Their use by persons with physical and mental health problems has not been investigated. This study evaluates the extent to which applicants have physical and mental health needs and whether receiving compensation is related to these needs. Data were part of a larger study designed to assess satisfaction with victim compensation in Georgia. The sample included 500 victim compensation applicants. Individuals were surveyed about their experiences applying for compensation as well as their current wellbeing. Descriptive and multivariate analyses investigated the link between physical and mental health problems and denial of victim compensation. Applicants for crime victim compensation in Georgia experienced a range of physical and mental health problems. Almost half of applicants had been diagnosed with a mental health condition, and 60% had been diagnosed with at least 1 physical health condition. Co-occurring disorders were common. In addition, being denied compensation was significantly related to having a mental health condition and to the number of diagnosed mental health conditions. Crime victim applicants have clear physical and mental health needs. Being denied compensation benefits is related to having a mental health disorder. These results suggest that victim compensation programs can be an intervention point for victims and their families for either receipt of direct service or referral to needed services. In addition, changes in program administration may need to be made to alleviate disparity in award benefit related to mental health status.

  4. [Peripheral facial nerve palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Y; Ukkola-Pons, E; Ballivet de Régloix, S; Champagne, C; Raynal, M; Lepage, P; Kossowski, M

    2013-06-01

    Facial palsy can be defined as a decrease in function of the facial nerve, the primary motor nerve of the facial muscles. When the facial palsy is peripheral, it affects both the superior and inferior areas of the face as opposed to central palsies, which affect only the inferior portion. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The prognosis is good in most cases. In cases with significant cosmetic sequelae, a variety of surgical procedures are available (such as hypoglossal-facial anastomosis, temporalis myoplasty and Tenzel external canthopexy) to rehabilitate facial aesthetics and function.

  5. Nerve growth factor injected into the gastric ulcer base incorporates into endothelial, neuronal, glial and epithelial cells: implications for angiogenesis, mucosal regeneration and ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, T; Ahluwalia, A; Watanabe, T; Arakawa, T; Tarnawski, A S

    2015-08-01

    A previous study has demonstrated that locally administered growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor can accelerate healing of experimental gastric ulcers in rats. That study indicates that locally administered growth factors can exert potent biological effects resulting in enhanced gastric ulcers healing. However, the fate of injected growth factors, their retention and localization to specific cellular compartments have not been examined. In our preliminary study, we demonstrated that local injection of nerve growth factor to the base of experimental gastric ulcers dramatically accelerates ulcer healing, increases angiogenesis - new blood vessel formation, and improves the quality of vascular and epithelial regeneration. Before embarking on larger, definitive and time sequence studies, we wished to determine whether locally injected nerve growth factor is retained in gastric ulcer's tissues and taken up by specific cells during gastric ulcer healing. Gastric ulcers were induced in anesthetized rats by local application of acetic acid using standard methods; and, 60 min later fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled nerve growth factor was injected locally to the ulcer base. Rats were euthanized 2, 5 and 10 days later. Gastric specimens were obtained and processed for histology. Unstained paraffin sections were examined under a fluorescence microscope, and the incorporation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled nerve growth factor into various gastric tissue cells was determined and quantified. In addition, we performed immunostaining for S100β protein that is expressed in neural components. Five and ten days after ulcer induction labeled nerve growth factor (injected to the gastric ulcer base) was incorporated into endothelial cells of blood vessels, neuronal, glial and epithelial cells, myofibroblasts and muscle cells. This study demonstrates for the first time that during gastric ulcer healing

  6. Peripheral communications of intercostobrachial nerve Peripheral communications of the intercostobrachial nerve in relation to the alar thoracic artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaifaly Madan Rustagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN is often encountered during axillary dissection for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND for diagnostic and therapeutic surgery for mastectomy. The present report is a case observed in the Department of Anatomy at Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, Delhi during routine dissection of the upper extremity of a male cadaver for first year undergraduate medical students. On the right side , the medial cord of brachial plexus gave two medial cutaneous nerves of arm. Both the nerves were seen communicating with the branches of the ICBN. The ICBN and one of its branches were surrounding the termination of an alar thoracic artery. These peripheral neural connections of the ICBN with the branches of the medial cord can be a cause of sensory impairment during axillary procedures done for mastectomy or exploration of long thoracic nerves. The alar thoracic artery found in relation to the ICBN could further be a cause of vascular complications during such procedures.

  7. Peripheral communications of intercostobrachial nerve Peripheral communications of the intercostobrachial nerve in relation to the alar thoracic artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Shaifaly Madan; Sharma, Mona; Singh, Nidhi; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh K; Rath, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) is often encountered during axillary dissection for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for diagnostic and therapeutic surgery for mastectomy. The present report is a case observed in the Department of Anatomy at Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, Delhi during routine dissection of the upper extremity of a male cadaver for first year undergraduate medical students. On the right side, the medial cord of brachial plexus gave two medial cutaneous nerves of arm. Both the nerves were seen communicating with the branches of the ICBN. The ICBN and one of its branches were surrounding the termination of an alar thoracic artery. These peripheral neural connections of the ICBN with the branches of the medial cord can be a cause of sensory impairment during axillary procedures done for mastectomy or exploration of long thoracic nerves. The alar thoracic artery found in relation to the ICBN could further be a cause of vascular complications during such procedures.

  8. Model-Based Optimization of Scaffold Geometry and Operating Conditions of Radial Flow Packed-Bed Bioreactors for Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Donato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial flow perfusion of cell-seeded hollow cylindrical porous scaffolds may overcome the transport limitations of pure diffusion and direct axial perfusion in the realization of bioengineered substitutes of failing or missing tissues. Little has been reported on the optimization criteria of such bioreactors. A steady-state model was developed, combining convective and dispersive transport of dissolved oxygen with Michaelis-Menten cellular consumption kinetics. Dimensional analysis was used to combine more effectively geometric and operational variables in the dimensionless groups determining bioreactor performance. The effectiveness of cell oxygenation was expressed in terms of non-hypoxic fractional construct volume. The model permits the optimization of the geometry of hollow cylindrical constructs, and direction and magnitude of perfusion flow, to ensure cell oxygenation and culture at controlled oxygen concentration profiles. This may help engineer tissues suitable for therapeutic and drug screening purposes.

  9. Lysine-doped polypyrrole/spider silk protein/poly(l-lactic) acid containing nerve growth factor composite fibers for neural application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Kefeng; Xing, Yiming; Yu, Qiaozhen

    2015-11-01

    Lysine-doped polypyrrole (PPy)/regenerated spider silk protein (RSSP)/poly(l-lactic) acid (PLLA)/nerve growth factor (NGF) (L-PRPN) composite scaffold was fabricated by co-axial electrospraying and electrospinning. This L-PRPN composite scaffold had a structure of microfibers with a core-shell structure as the stems and nanofibers as branches. Assessment in vitro demonstrated that the L-PRPN composite micro/nano-fibrous scaffold could maintain integrated structure for at least 4months and the pH value of PBS at about 7.28. It had good biocompatibility and cell adhesion and relatively stable conductivity. PC 12 cells cultured on this scaffold, anisotropic cell-neurite-cell-neurite or neurite-neurite sheets were formed after being cultured for 6days. Evaluations in vivo also showed that L-PRPN composite fibrous conduit was effectiv