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Sample records for nerve head gene

  1. [Glaucoma and optic nerve drusen: Limitations of optic nerve head OCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, M; Colange, J; Goutagny, B; Sellem, E

    2017-09-01

    Optic nerve head drusen are congenital calcium deposits located in the prelaminar section of the optic nerve head. Their association with visual field defects has been classically described, but the diagnosis of glaucoma is not easy in these cases of altered optic nerve head anatomy. We describe the case of a 67-year-old man with optic nerve head drusen complicated by glaucoma, which was confirmed by visual field and OCT examination of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), but the measurement of the minimum distance between the Bruch membrane opening and the internal limiting membrane (minimum rim width, BMO-MRW) by OCT was normal. OCT of the BMO-MRW is a new diagnostic tool for glaucoma. Superficial optic nerve head drusen, which are found between the internal limiting membrane and the Bruch's membrane opening, overestimate the value of this parameter. BMO-MRW measurement is not adapted to cases of optic nerve head drusen and can cause false-negative results for this parameter, and the diagnosis of glaucoma in this case should be based on other parameters such as the presence of a fascicular defect in the retinal nerve fibers, RNFL or macular ganglion cell complex thinning, as well as visual field data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Ulnar nerve entrapment complicating radial head excision

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    Kevin Parfait Bienvenu Bouhelo-Pam

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several mechanisms are involved in ischemia or mechanical compression of ulnar nerve at the elbow. Presentation of case: We hereby present the case of a road accident victim, who received a radial head excision for an isolated fracture of the radial head and complicated by onset of cubital tunnel syndrome. This outcome could be the consequence of an iatrogenic valgus of the elbow due to excision of the radial head. Hitherto the surgical treatment of choice it is gradually been abandoned due to development of radial head implant arthroplasty. However, this management option is still being performed in some rural centers with low resources. Discussion: The radial head plays an important role in the stability of the elbow and his iatrogenic deformity can be complicated by cubital tunnel syndrome. Conclusion: An ulnar nerve release was performed with favorable outcome. Keywords: Cubital tunnel syndrome, Peripheral nerve palsy, Radial head excision, Elbow valgus

  3. Bilateral abducens nerve and right facial nerve palsy occuring after head trauma

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    ismail Boyraz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesions of the nervus abducens, the 6th cranial nerve tend to be rare, usually occur suddenly following head injuries. A 43-year-old male patient presented with a history of fall from a height due to an occupational accident on the date of 11.01.2014. Cranial tomography demonstrated bilateral epidural hematoma. The epidural hematoma was drained during the operation. After the surgery, eye examination showed no vision loss, except limited bilateral lateral gaze. When the patient was unable to walk due to diplopia, he was advised to close one eye. On the right side, there were findings suggesting central facial paralysis. There may be multiple cranial nerve damage following head injury. Therefore, all cranial nerves should be thoroughly examined. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(2.000: 110-113

  4. Isolated abducens nerve palsy after closed head trauma: a pediatric case report.

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    Janssen, Karen; Wojciechowski, Marek; Poot, Sandra; De Keyser, Katrien; Ceulemans, Berten

    2008-09-01

    Cranial nerve lessions often accompany head trauma. Nevertheless, isolated involvement of the sixth nerve without any cranial or cervical fracture is rare. Nerve injury could occur at the sites of the dural entry points and at the petrous apex during down- or upward movement of the brain caused by violent linear force to the head. Management is symptomatic. Most cases improve within three months and many resolve by six months, but spontaneous recovery does not always occur. We describe the case of a 13-year-old boy who developed isolated abducens nerve palsy after closed head trauma.

  5. Radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury

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    Bernardo Barcellos Terra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fractures of the radial head and radial neck correspond to 1.7-5.4% of all fractures and approximately 30% may present associated injuries. In the literature, there are few reports of radial head fracture with posterior interosseous nerve injury. This study aimed to report a case of radial head fracture associated with posterior interosseous nerve injury. CASE REPORT: A male patient, aged 42 years, sought medical care after falling from a skateboard. The patient related pain and limitation of movement in the right elbow and difficulty to extend the fingers of the right hand. During physical examination, thumb and fingers extension deficit was observed. The wrist extension showed a slight radial deviation. After imaging, it became evident that the patient had a fracture of the radial head that was classified as grade III in the Mason classification. The patient underwent fracture fixation; at the first postoperative day, thumb and fingers extension was observed. Although rare, posterior interosseous nerve branch injury may be associated with radial head fractures. In the present case, the authors believe that neuropraxia occurred as a result of the fracture hematoma and edema.

  6. Alterations of sympathetic nerve fibers in avascular necrosis of femoral head.

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    Li, Deqiang; Liu, Peilai; Zhang, Yuankai; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) was mainly due to alterations of bone vascularity. And noradrenaline (NA), as the neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leads to the vasoconstriction by activating its α-Receptor. This study was to explore the nerve fiber density of the femoral head in the rabbit model of ANFH. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. The rabbit model of ANFH was established by the injection of methylprednisolone acetate. The nerve fiber density and distribution in the femoral head was determined using an Olympus BH2 microscope. Significant fewer sympathetic nerve fibers was found in the ANFH intertrochanteric bone samples (P = 0.036) with osteonecrosis. The number of sympathetic nerve fibers was compared between the two groups. And less sympathetic nerve fibers were found in later stage ANFH samples in comparison with those of early stages. ANFH might be preceded by an inflammatory reaction, and an inflammatory response might lead to arthritic changes in tissue samples, which in turn reduces the number of sympathetic nerve fibers.

  7. Preoperative percutaneous cranial nerve mapping in head and neck surgery.

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    Park, Jung I

    2003-01-01

    To identify and map the course of the peripheral branches of the cranial nerve preoperatively and percutaneously. Prospective study. Preoperative percutaneous nerve mapping performed prior to the operation under deep sedation or general anesthesia without muscle paralysis. Private office surgery suite, freestanding surgery center, and regional medical centers. A total of 142 patients undergoing head and neck surgery and facial plastic surgery between August 1994 and July 1999. Monopolar probe was used for nerve stimulation. Electromyographic reading was done through intramuscular bipolar recording electrodes. The equipment used was a nerve monitor. The mandibular divisions were tested in 142 cases, the frontal division in 60 cases, the accessory nerve in 12 cases, and the hypoglossal nerve in 3 cases. Satisfactory mappings were obtained in 115 cases of the mandibular division, 49 cases of the frontal division, 8 cases of the accessory division, and 1 case of the hypoglossal nerve. Preoperative percutaneous nerve mapping is a new method of identifying the location of the peripheral branches of the cranial nerves. Identifying and mapping the course of peripheral branches of the cranial nerves safely assists the head and neck surgeon in the placement of incisions in a favorable location and in the dissection of the area involving the nerves. Mapping alerts the surgeon to an area containing a nerve and allows the surgeon to avoid just the specific area where a nerve is present, preventing large-scale abandonment of unmapped areas for fear of potential nerve damage.

  8. The optic nerve head in glaucoma

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    Rupert RA Bourne

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ll types of glaucoma involve glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The key to detection and management of glaucoma is understanding how to examine the optic nerve head (ONH. This pictorial glossary addresses the following issues: how to examine the ONH; normal characteristics of the ONH; characteristics of a glaucomatous ONH; how to tell if the glaucomatous optic neuropathy is getting worse;‘pitfalls and pearls’.

  9. Functional Nerve Preservation in Extracranial Head and Neck Schwannoma Surgery.

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    Ijichi, Kei; Kawakita, Daisuke; Maseki, Shinichiro; Beppu, Shintaro; Takano, Gaku; Murakami, Shingo

    2016-05-01

    A schwannoma is an uncommon, benign neurogenic tumor of Schwann cells. Tumor enucleation is the recommended surgical method to preserve function of the original nerve, although enucleation does not guarantee completely intact nerve function after the operation. To establish a strategy for functional preservation in extracranial head and neck schwannoma treatment by using an electromyographic (EMG) system during tumor resection. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 15 patients who underwent surgery for removal of schwannoma tumors between April 1, 2006, and March 31, 2015, at an academic tertiary referral center. Data analysis was conducted from April 3, 2006, to September 15, 2015. Neurogenic tumors were diagnosed according to preoperative findings, and during surgery tumors were exposed and given EMG-controlled electrical stimulation to analyze their origins. In motor nerve cases, the electrical activity of the muscle was measured and recorded by EMG. The tumor was then enucleated by incision along tumor fibers mapped using EMG stimulation. If a nerve bundle was visible, we incised along there and enucleated the tumor. A strategy using electrical stimulation to improve preservation of nerve function in extracranial head and neck schwannoma operations. Frequency and duration of postoperative neurologic complications associated with functional preservation surgery with tumor enucleation was evaluated using EMG monitoring according to tumor origin. Of the 15 patients with extracranial schwannoma, 9 (60%) were women (mean [SD] age, 36.3 [15.3] years). All 15 patients underwent surgery using a transcervical approach. The most common nerves of origin were the vagus nerve and the sympathetic chain. In sensory or sympathetic nerve cases, the EMG response was absent. Two of 5 patients with vagus schwannoma had postoperative temporary vocal nerve palsy. These symptoms showed improvement after 1 year. There was no tumor recurrence during the follow-up period in any

  10. Gene expression and functional studies of the optic nerve head astrocyte transcriptome from normal African Americans and Caucasian Americans donors.

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    Haixi Miao

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether optic nerve head (ONH astrocytes, a key cellular component of glaucomatous neuropathy, exhibit differential gene expression in primary cultures of astrocytes from normal African American (AA donors compared to astrocytes from normal Caucasian American (CA donors.We used oligonucleotide Affymetrix microarray (HG U133A & HG U133A 2.0 chips to compare gene expression levels in cultured ONH astrocytes from twelve CA and twelve AA normal age matched donor eyes. Chips were normalized with Robust Microarray Analysis (RMA in R using Bioconductor. Significant differential gene expression levels were detected using mixed effects modeling and Statistical Analysis of Microarray (SAM. Functional analysis and Gene Ontology were used to classify differentially expressed genes. Differential gene expression was validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Protein levels were detected by Western blots and ELISA. Cell adhesion and migration assays tested physiological responses. Glutathione (GSH assay detected levels of intracellular GSH.Multiple analyses selected 87 genes differentially expressed between normal AA and CA (P<0.01. The most relevant genes expressed in AA were categorized by function, including: signal transduction, response to stress, ECM genes, migration and cell adhesion.These data show that normal astrocytes from AA and CA normal donors display distinct expression profiles that impact astrocyte functions in the ONH. Our data suggests that differences in gene expression in ONH astrocytes may be specific to the development and/or progression of glaucoma in AA.

  11. [Cranial nerve palsy caused by tumours of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, C.P.; Verbist, B.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Cranial nerve palsy is a diagnostic guiding symptom, but often goes unrecognized. The differential diagnosis includes a variety of diseases, including malignant tumours of the head and neck. Here we describe three cases of cranial nerve palsy. In two of the cases the palsy was recognized following

  12. Oncologic safety of cervical nerve preservation in neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

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    Honda, Keigo; Asato, Ryo; Tsuji, Jun; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Kada, Shinpei; Tsujimura, Takashi; Kataoka, Michiko

    2017-09-01

    Although the functional merits of preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection for head and neck cancer have been reported, the oncologic safety has not yet been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of cervical nerve preservation. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with head and neck cancer who had been treated by neck dissection between 2009 and 2014 at Kyoto Medical Center. Management of cervical nerves and clinical results were analyzed. A total of 335 sides of neck dissection had been performed in 222 patients. Cervical nerves were preserved in 175 neck sides and resected in 160 sides. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 71%. The 5-year neck control rate was 95% in cervical nerve preserved sides and 89% in cervical nerve resected sides. Preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection is oncologically safe in selected cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Experience on treatment of acute head injury combined with optic nerve damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Heng; Feng Dongxia; Ma Yuanpin; Chen Jinqing

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic principle for the management of acute head injury combined with optic nerve damage. Method: the clinical data of treatment and prognosis from 24 patients, in which 15 received operative and 9 conservative measures were collected and analyzed. Results: In 15 operated cases, the vision of 10 cases including one with blindness before operation was improved obviously, while those of other 5 did not get any improvement. In 9 conservatively treated cases, the vision was improved in 4 cases, deteriorated in 4 case and no change in 1 case with blindness after injury. Conclusion: One the optic nerve damage has been manifested by clinical or radiological evidences in acute head injury patients, despite it was primary or secondary reason, surgical optic nerve bone canal decompression should be done as soon as possible

  14. Absence of musculocutaneous nerve and accessory head of biceps brachii: a case report

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    Arora L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During dissection of a 55-year-old female cadaver, we observed that three nerve roots contributed to the formation of Median nerve in her right upper limb. Along with this variation, absence of Musculocutaneous nerve was noticed. The muscles of front of arm i.e. Biceps Brachii, Brachialis and Coracobrachialis received their nerve supply from Median nerve. The Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm was derived from Median nerve. Also an accessory head of Biceps Brachii muscle was present in the right arm of the same cadaver. It is extremely important to be aware of these variations while planning a surgery in the region of axilla or arm as these nerves are more liable to be injured during operations.

  15. Peripapillary Choroidal Neovascularization Associated with Optic Nerve Head Drusen Treated with Anti-VEGF Agents

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    Norman A. Saffra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve head drusen can be associated with peripapillary choroidal neovascularization, in both the pediatric and adult population. These membranes can involve the macula, causing significant visual loss. Herein, we present a case that required treatment with an anti-VEGF agent. The patient failed to respond to the initial agent, but subsequently responded to a change of agent. Adult patients with macular degeneration involving peripapillary choroidal neovascularization associated with optic nerve head drusen may require individualized treatment plans.

  16. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head in mouse fetuses caused by simultaneous irradiation of x-rays and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Shoichiro; Yuguchi, Shuji; Majima, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Eye abnormalities in mouse fetuses caused by irradiation of X-rays alone, or simultaneous irradiation of X-rays and ultrasound on day 7 of gestation were histologically studied on day 18 of gestation. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head were examined in the present experiment, and the following results were obtained: 1. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head associated with developmental abnormalities of the vitreous were detected in 4 fetuses (5 eyes). In all cases, excessive mesenchymal tissue of components of the primary vitreous was found from the optic nerve head to the vitreous cavity. It was impossible to distinguish between the neuroectodermal tissue of Bergmeister's papilla and the mesodermal tissue of components of the primary vitreous. 2. In 3 fetuses (4 eyes), the fetal fissure involving the optic nerve head was open. At the peripapillary region, the inner layer of the optic cup was everted and hyperplastic. The inner neuroblastic layer of the everted portion contacted the outer coat of the eyeball, directly. In these cases, the optic nerve entrance was very wide. 3. The relation between the congenital optic nerve head anomalies encountered clinically and those observed experimentally in the mouse fetuses was discussed. It was considered that the pathogenesis of congenital optic nerve head anomalies consists of the malformation of the primitive epithelial papilla, the faulty closure of the proximal end of the fetal fissure, the anomalies of Bergmeister's papilla, the anomalies of the hyaloid system, or the abnormal differentiation and growth of the neuroectodermal cells of the optic cup. (author)

  17. Proteomics Analyses of Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes Following Biomechanical Strain*

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Ronan S.; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M.; Flanagan, John G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic me...

  18. Integrated Model of the Eye/Optic Nerve Head Biomechanical Environment

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    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, A.; Myers, J. G.; Nelson, E.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.

    2017-01-01

    Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is a concern for long-duration space flight. Previously, it has been suggested that ocular changes observed in VIIP syndrome are related to the cephalad fluid shift that results in altered fluid pressures [1]. We are investigating the impact of changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) using a combination of numerical models, which simulate the effects of various environment conditions, including finite element (FE) models of the posterior eye. The specific interest is to understand how altered pressures due to gravitational changes affect the biomechanical environment of tissues of the posterior eye and optic nerve sheath. METHODS: Additional description of the numerical modeling is provided in the IWS abstract by Nelson et al. In brief, to simulate the effects of a cephalad fluid shift on the cardiovascular and ocular systems, we utilized a lumped-parameter compartment model of these systems. The outputs of this lumped-parameter model then inform boundary conditions (pressures) for a finite element model of the optic nerve head (Figure 1). As an example, we show here a simulation of postural change from supine to 15 degree head-down tilt (HDT), with primary outcomes being the predicted change in strains at the optic nerve head (ONH) region, specifically in the lamina cribrosa (LC), retrolaminar optic nerve, and prelaminar neural tissue (PLNT). The strain field can be decomposed into three orthogonal components, denoted as the first, second and third principal strains. We compare the peak tensile (first principal) and compressive (third principal) strains, since elevated strain alters cell phenotype and induces tissue remodeling. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our lumped-parameter model predicted an IOP increase of c. 7 mmHg after 21 minutes of 15 degree HDT, which agreed with previous reports of IOP in HDT [1]. The corresponding FEM simulations predicted a relative increase in the magnitudes of the peak tensile

  19. 3T MRI evaluation of large nerve perineural spread of head and neck cancers.

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    Baulch, Justin; Gandhi, Mitesh; Sommerville, Jennifer; Panizza, Ben

    2015-10-01

    Accurate definition of the presence and extent of large nerve perineural spread (PNS) is a vital component in planning appropriate surgery and radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Our research aimed to define the sensitivity and specificity of 3T MRI in detecting the presence and extent of large nerve PNS, compared with histologic evaluation. Retrospective review of surgically proven cases of large nerve PNS in patients with preoperative 3T MRI performed as high resolution neurogram. 3T MRI had a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 84%, detecting PNS in 36 of 38 nerves and correctly identifying uninvolved nerves in 16 of 19 cases. It correctly identified the zonal extent of spread in 32 of 36 cases (89%), underestimating the extent in three cases and overestimating the extent in one case. Targeted 3T MRI is highly accurate in defining the presence and extent of large nerve PNS in head and neck cancers. However, there is still a tendency to undercall the zonal extent due to microscopic, radiologically occult involvement. Superficial large nerve involvement also remains a difficult area of detection for radiologists and should be included as a 'check area' for review. Further research is required to define the role radiation-induced neuritis plays in the presence of false-positive PNS on MRI. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  20. 3T MRI evaluation of large nerve perineural spread of head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulch, Justin; Gandhi, Mitesh; Sommerville, Jennifer; Panizza, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Accurate definition of the presence and extent of large nerve perineural spread (PNS) is a vital component in planning appropriate surgery and radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Our research aimed to define the sensitivity and specificity of 3T MRI in detecting the presence and extent of large nerve PNS, compared with histologic evaluation. Retrospective review of surgically proven cases of large nerve PNS in patients with preoperative 3T MRI performed as high resolution neurogram. 3T MRI had a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 84%, detecting PNS in 36 of 38 nerves and correctly identifying uninvolved nerves in 16 of 19 cases. It correctly identified the zonal extent of spread in 32 of 36 cases (89%), underestimating the extent in three cases and overestimating the extent in one case. Targeted 3T MRI is highly accurate in defining the presence and extent of large nerve PNS in head and neck cancers. However, there is still a tendency to undercall the zonal extent due to microscopic, radiologically occult involvement. Superficial large nerve involvement also remains a difficult area of detection for radiologists and should be included as a ‘check area’ for review. Further research is required to define the role radiation-induced neuritis plays in the presence of false-positive PNS on MRI.

  1. Congenital pits of the optic nerve head and retinochoroidal colobomas.

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    Brown, G C; Augsburger, J J

    1980-07-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with bilateral retinochoroidal colobomas associated with an inferonasal congenital pit of the optic nerve head in each eye. Different theories on the origin of such pits are discussed. This case supports the theory that some congenital optic pits occur as a result of failure of closure of the superior end of the embryonic fissure.

  2. Optic nerve head biomechanics in aging and disease.

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    Downs, J Crawford

    2015-04-01

    This nontechnical review is focused upon educating the reader on optic nerve head biomechanics in both aging and disease along two main themes: what is known about how mechanical forces and the resulting deformations are distributed in the posterior pole and ONH (biomechanics) and what is known about how the living system responds to those deformations (mechanobiology). We focus on how ONH responds to IOP elevations as a structural system, insofar as the acute mechanical response of the lamina cribrosa is confounded with the responses of the peripapillary sclera, prelaminar neural tissues, and retrolaminar optic nerve. We discuss the biomechanical basis for IOP-driven changes in connective tissues, blood flow, and cellular responses. We use glaucoma as the primary framework to present the important aspects of ONH biomechanics in aging and disease, as ONH biomechanics, aging, and the posterior pole extracellular matrix (ECM) are thought to be centrally involved in glaucoma susceptibility, onset and progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head analysis in healthy women.

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    Akar, Munire Erman; Taskin, Omur; Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Yusuf

    2004-12-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head topographic analysis in normally menstruating, healthy women. The study included single eyes selected randomly from each of 52 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination. Optic nerve head topographic analyses were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II (HRT II, software version 1.6). The analyses were repeated three times during the menstrual cycle: in the follicular phase (days 7-10 of the cycle), at ovulation, and in the late luteal phase (days 1-3 before menstrual bleeding). Serum oestradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone levels were measured at each menstrual phase. Fourteen subjects were excluded from the study. The mean age of the subjects (n = 38) was 25.6 +/- 3.7 years (range 21-34 years). Blood oestradiol levels were significantly lower in the late luteal phase (35.8 pg/ml) (p cup : disc ratio, cup : disc area ratio and the cup area were significantly higher during the luteal phase (p menstrual cycle in healthy women significantly alter neuroretinal rim area and cup variables of the optic nerve head. These findings should be taken into consideration in the clinical follow-up of young women with glaucoma.

  4. Trabeculectomy and optic nerve head topography

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    A. Paranhos Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in optic nerve head parameters, measured by confocal laser tomography, before and after trabeculectomy in order to identify outcome measures for the management of glaucoma. The optic nerve head of 22 eyes (22 patients was analyzed by confocal laser tomography with the Heidelberg retinal tomogram (HRT before and after trabeculectomy. The median time between the first HRT and surgery was 4.6 months (mean: 7.7 ± 8.3 and the median time between surgery and the second HRT was 10.8 months (mean: 12.0 ± 6.8. The patients were divided into two groups, i.e., those with the highest (group A and lowest (group B intraocular pressure (IOP change after surgery. Differences in the 12 standard topographic parameters before and after surgery for each group were evaluated by the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the differences in these parameters between the two groups were compared by the Mann-Whitney rank sum test. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of the change in IOP (deltaIOP and deltaIOP% and the changes in the other parameters. There were significant differences in the HRT measures before and after surgery in group A only for cup volume. In group B, no parameter was statistically different. The changes in group A were not significantly different than those in group B for any parameter (P > 0.004, Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. deltaIOP and deltaIOP% had a statistically significant effect on delta cup disk area, delta cup volume and delta mean cup depth. Changes in cup shape size were influenced significantly only by deltaIOP. Some optic disc parameters measured by HRT presented a significant improvement after filtering surgery, depending on the amount of IOP reduction. Long-term studies are needed to determine the usefulness of these findings as outcome measures in the management of glaucoma.

  5. Relationship between the Ulnar Nerve and the Branches of the Radial Nerve to the Medial Head of the Triceps Brachii Muscle.

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    Sh, Cho; Ih, Chung; Uy, Lee

    2018-05-17

    One branch of the radial nerve to the medial head of the triceps brachii muscle (MHN) has been described as accompanying or joining the ulnar nerve. Mostly two MHN branches have been reported, with some reports of one; however, the topographical anatomy is not well documented. We dissected 52 upper limbs from adult cadavers and found one, two, and three MHN branches in 9.6%, 80.8%, and 9.6% of cases, respectively. The MHN accompanying the ulnar nerve was always the superior MHN. The relationship between the ulnar nerve and the MHN was classified into four types according to whether the MHN was enveloped along with the ulnar nerve in the connective tissue sheath and whether it was in contact with the ulnar nerve. It contacted the ulnar nerve in 75.0% of cases and accompanied it over a mean distance of 73.6 mm (range 36-116 mm). In all cases in which the connective tissue sheath enveloped the branch of the MHN and the ulnar nerve, removing the sheath confirmed that the MHN branch originated from the radial nerve. The detailed findings and anatomical measurements of the MHN in this study will help in identifying its branches during surgical procedures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Primary oculomotor nerve palsy due to mild head injury. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuno, Makoto; Kobayashi, Shiro; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Teramoto, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Two patients with primary oculomotor nerve palsy due to direct mild head injury are reported. They presented with internal ophthalmoplegia, dilated nonreactive pupils, and very mild disturbance in consciousness. Except for the persistent oculomotor nerve palsy, both the patients recovered fully within one week. Neither demonstrated a history that was suggestive of a cause for their oculomotor nerve palsy. Initial CT scans demonstrated localized subarachnoid hemorrhage around the brain stem. One of the patients had sustained a fracture of the anterior clinoid process. As the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the oculomotor nerve palsy we suspected mild injury to the pupillomotor fibers at the anterior petroclinoidal ligament and that of the pupillary fibers at the posterior petroclinoidal ligament. We speculate that these perforating fibers at the anterior petroclinoidal ligament acted as a fulcrum due to downward displacement of the brainstem at the time of impact. (author)

  7. Optic nerve head pit-associated maculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán Sainz, Raisa Ivis; Hernández Baguer, Raisa; Gonzales Díaz, Rafael Ernesto; Hernández Martínez, Rocío; Galindo Reimond, Kenia

    2016-01-01

    A literature review was made to expand knowledge on the optic nerve head pit-related maculopathy, its physiopathology and main manifestations, clinical and angiographic diagnosis, optical coherence tomography, and to describe some of the treatments recently used worldwide. The current therapeutic tendencies were taken into account. The fundamental sources of information were scientific articles from journals in PubMED and Cochrane databases as well as basic texts which dealt with this topic in the last five years through Google search engine. Despite the rare occurrence of the disease, its management may be difficult particularly in macular effect cases. This paper confirmed that most of the studies used small samples, were retrospective, non-comparative and non-randomized. However, some therapeutic modalities were found, which have been used for years and also descriptions of new techniques that require further research. There is no consensus on the ideal treatment protocol for this disease. (author)

  8. Scanning laser topography and scanning laser polarimetry: comparing both imaging methods at same distances from the optic nerve head.

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    Kremmer, Stephan; Keienburg, Marcus; Anastassiou, Gerasimos; Schallenberg, Maurice; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; Selbach, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    To compare the performance of scanning laser topography (SLT) and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) on the rim of the optic nerve head and its surrounding area and thereby to evaluate whether these imaging technologies are influenced by other factors beyond the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). A total of 154 eyes from 5 different groups were examined: young healthy subjects (YNorm), old healthy subjects (ONorm), patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), patients with open-angle glaucoma and early glaucomatous damage (OAGE) and patients with open-angle glaucoma and advanced glaucomatous damage (OAGA). SLT and SLP measurements were taken. Four concentric circles were superimposed on each of the images: the first one measuring at the rim of the optic nerve head (1.0 ONHD), the next measuring at 1.25 optic nerve head diameters (ONHD), at 1.5 ONHD and at 1.75 ONHD. The aligned images were analyzed using GDx/NFA software. Both methods showed peaks of RNFL thickness in the superior and inferior segments of the ONH. The maximum thickness, registered by the SLT device was at the ONH rim where the SLP device tended to measure the lowest values. SLT measurements at the ONH were influenced by other tissues besides the RNFL like blood vessels and glial tissues. SLT and SLP were most strongly correlated at distances of 1.25 and 1.5 ONHD. While both imaging technologies are valuable tools in detecting glaucoma, measurements at the ONH rim should be interpreted critically since both methods might provide misleading results. For the assessment of the retinal nerve fiber layer we would like to recommend for both imaging technologies, SLT and SLP, measurements in 1.25 and 1.5 ONHD distance of the rim of the optic nerve head.

  9. Supernumerary head of biceps brachii and branching pattern of the musculocutaneous nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Basavaraj Angadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection by medical undergraduates, third head of the biceps brachii muscle was found on the left side of a 75-year-old male cadaver in a total of 48 arms dissected in Department of Anatomy Armed Forces Medical College, Pune. Biceps brachii is a muscle of arm having two heads hence the name. The most frequent variation of the muscle is in the number of heads with a prevalence range of 9.1-22.9%. The origin of the supernumerary head in this case was from the humerus, between the insertion of the coracobrachialis and the upper part of the origin of the brachialis, and also from the medial intermuscular septum. The supernumerary head joined the common belly. It was supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve which after emerging from brachialis pierced it near the middle and terminated by finally supplying the biceps belly. In our study, 2.08% (1 of 48 of male cadavers were found to have the third head of biceps. The incidence of this variation can be as much as 10% as, shown in previous studies on Indian population, as reported in standard textbooks of anatomy.

  10. Three-dimensional interactive and stereotactic atlas of head muscles and glands correlated with cranial nerves and surface and sectional neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Chua, Beng Choon; Johnson, Aleksandra; Qian, Guoyu; Poh, Lan Eng; Yi, Su Hnin Wut; Bivi, Aminah; Nowinska, Natalia G

    2013-04-30

    Three-dimensional (3D) relationships between head muscles and cranial nerves innervating them are complicated. Existing sources present these relationships in illustrations, radiologic scans, or autopsy photographs, which are limited for learning and use. Developed electronic atlases are limited in content, quality, functionality, and/or presentation. We create a truly 3D interactive, stereotactic and high quality atlas, which provides spatial relationships among head muscles, glands and cranial nerves, and correlates them to surface and sectional neuroanatomy. The head muscles and glands were created from a 3T scan by contouring them and generating 3D models. They were named and structured according to Terminologia anatomica. The muscles were divided into: extra-ocular, facial, masticatory and other muscles, and glands into mouth and other glands. The muscles, glands (and also head) were placed in a stereotactic coordinate system. This content was integrated with cranial nerves and neuroanatomy created earlier. To explore this complex content, a scalable user interface was designed with 12 modules including central nervous system (cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord), cranial nerves, muscles, glands, arterial system, venous system, tracts, deep gray nuclei, ventricles, white matter, visual system, head. Anatomy exploration operations include compositing/decompositing, individual/group selection, 3D view-index mapping, 3D labeling, highlighting, distance measuring, 3D brain cutting, and axial/coronal/sagittal triplanar display. To our best knowledge, this is the first truly 3D, stereotactic, interactive, fairly complete atlas of head muscles, and the first attempt to create a 3D stereotactic atlas of glands. Its use ranges from education of students and patients to research to potential clinical applications. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolution of an Astrocytic Hamartoma of the Optic Nerve Head in a Patient with Retinitis Pigmentosa - Photographic Documentation over 2 Years of Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukianou, Eleni; Kisma, Nacima; Pal, Bishwanathan

    2011-02-02

    To report photographically the evolution of an astrocytic hamartoma of the left optic nerve head over a 2-year follow-up in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa. A 14-year-old boy was seen in the medical retina clinic with a 3-year history of night blindness. Best corrected visual acuity was 6/18 in both eyes. Colour vision was normal in both eyes and confrontation fields showed peripheral constriction. Fundus examination revealed bone spicule pigmentary changes at the retinal mid periphery typical of retinitis pigmentosa and superficial globules at the margins of both optic nerve heads. Electrodiagnostic tests confirmed moderately severe rod cone dystrophy with macular involvement bilaterally. Two years later, the ocular examination was unchanged except for the appearance of the optic nerve head lesion in the left eye. There was an increase in the size of the lesion which was diagnosed as an astrocytic hamartoma. Further investigations were recommended to exclude neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis. Astrocytic hamartomas of the optic nerve head and optic nerve head drusen have both been described in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. They can be a diagnostic dilemma although drusen are more common (10%). To differentiate these two entities it is very important to document any growth during the follow-up period which is suggestive of astrocytic hamartoma rather than optic disc drusen.

  12. Myostatin propeptide gene delivery by gene gun ameliorates muscle atrophy in a rat model of botulinum toxin-induced nerve denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sen-Wei; Tung, Yu-Tang; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Liu, Chia-Yi; Lu, Michelle; Pai, Hui-Jing; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2016-02-01

    Muscle atrophy is a common symptom after nerve denervation. Myostatin propeptide, a precursor of myostatin, has been documented to improve muscle growth. However, the mechanism underlying the muscle atrophy attenuation effects of myostatin propeptide in muscles and the changes in gene expression are not well established. We investigated the possible underlying mechanisms associated with myostatin propeptide gene delivery by gene gun in a rat denervation muscle atrophy model, and evaluated gene expression patterns. In a rat botulinum toxin-induced nerve denervation muscle atrophy model, we evaluated the effects of wild-type (MSPP) and mutant-type (MSPPD75A) of myostatin propeptide gene delivery, and observed changes in gene activation associated with the neuromuscular junction, muscle and nerve. Muscle mass and muscle fiber size was moderately increased in myostatin propeptide treated muscles (pmyostatin propeptide gene delivery, especially the mutant-type of MSPPD75A, attenuates muscle atrophy through myogenic regulatory factors and acetylcholine receptor regulation. Our data concluded that myostatin propeptide gene therapy may be a promising treatment for nerve denervation induced muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head in diabetes: analysis by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Munire Erman; Yucel, Iclal; Erdem, Uzeyir; Taskin, Omur; Ozel, Alper; Akar, Yusuf

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare menstrual-cycle-dependent topographic changes in the optic nerve head of normally menstruating women with different grades of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied the right eyes of 123 normally menstruating women (36 with severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy [NPDR], 42 with mild NPDR and 45 healthy subjects). All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination at baseline. At 4 hormonally distinct phases of the menstrual cycle (early follicular, late follicular, mid-luteal and late luteal), we analysed the topography of the optic nerve head, using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, and measured the serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone. We excluded from analysis the data for 8 patients with severe NPDR, 10 patients with mild NPDR and 15 control subjects who were lost to follow-up examinations during the menstrual cycle. The mean age and optic disc area did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. The duration of diabetes was significantly longer in the patients with severe NPDR than in those with mild NPDR (p cup-shape measure, linear cup/disc ratio, cup/disc area ratio and cup area in the late luteal phase compared with the other phases of the menstrual cycle (p menstrual cycle. Severe NPDR is associated with significant topographic changes in the rim and cup of the optic nerve head during the menstrual cycle. This must be considered in the evaluation of women with both diabetes and glaucoma. The normal fluctuations in serum sex hormone levels during the menstrual cycle of diabetic women seem to affect the optic nerve head more when the disease is advanced.

  14. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Converges More Convexly on Normal Smaller Optic Nerve Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung In; Shin, Jeong Ah; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Park, Chan Kee

    2015-08-01

    To investigate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) configuration in the optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary area according to disc size and to determine whether it explains cup discrepancy among eyes with different disc sizes. Horizontal and vertical RNFL curvature and mean thickness were measured using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph) in 63 normal subjects grouped by disc size. Average and quadrant RNFL thickness, disc size, average cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), and convergence angle at the optic disc were also measured using Cirrus HD-optical coherence tomography. The relationships between disc size and RNFL curvature, thickness, angle at optic disc, and CDR were evaluated. RNFL curvature and convergence angle reflects convexity "on" and "into" the optic disc, respectively. CDR was smaller for small discs and was positively correlated with disc size (Poptic disc were positively correlated with disc size (POptic disc area was negatively correlated with mean RNFL thickness at the optic disc margin measured by HRT (P=0.002), but not in the peripapillary area by optical coherence tomography. Using imaging techniques, we demonstrated that the shape of the RNFLs converging "on" and entering "into" the optic disc was more convex for small optic discs compared with large discs. A low CDR for small discs could be mediated by these RNFL profiles at the ONH, which may guide the clinical evaluation of glaucomatous ONH damage.

  15. Quantitative assessment of optic nerve head pallor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilser, W; Seifert, B U; Riemer, T; Nagel, E; Weisensee, J; Hammer, M

    2008-01-01

    Ischaemia, loss of neural tissue, glial cell activation and tissue remodelling are symptoms of anterior ischaemic as well as glaucomatous optic neuropathy leading to pallor of the optic nerve head. Here, we describe a simple method for the pallor measurement using a fundus camera equipped with a colour CCD camera and a special dual bandpass filter. The reproducibility of the determined mean pallor value was 11.7% (coefficient of variation for repeated measurements in the same subject); the variation over six healthy subjects was 14.8%. A significant difference between the mean pallor of an atrophic disc and that of the contralateral eye of the same individual was found. However, even the clinically unaffected eye showed a significantly increased pallor compared to the mean of the healthy control group. Thus, optic disc pallor measurement, as described here, may be helpful in the early detection and follow-up of optic neuropathy

  16. Morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle in relation to median nerve compression at the proximal forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, I A; Altinel, L; Gayretli, O; Akgul, T; Uzun, I; Dikici, F

    2016-12-01

    The pronator syndrome is a rare compression neuropathy of the median nerve. Ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle may cause compression at proximal forearm. Detailed morphologic and morphometric studies on the anatomy of the ulnar head of pronator teres is scarce. We dissected 112 forearms of fresh cadavers. We evaluated the morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle. The average ulnar head width was 16.3±8.2mm. The median nerve passed anterior to the ulnar head at a distance of 50.4±10.7mm from the interepicondylar line. We classified the morphology of the ulnar head into 5 types. In type 1, the ulnar head was fibromuscular in 60 forearms (53.6%). In type 2, it was muscular in 23 forearms (20.5%). In type 3, it was just a fibrotic band in 18 forearms (16.1%). In type 4, it was absent in 9 forearms (8%). In type 5, the ulnar head had two arches in 2 forearms (1.8%). In 80 forearms (71.5%: types 1, 3, and 5), the ulnar head was either fibromuscular or a fibrotic band. Although the pronator syndrome is a rare compression syndrome, the ulnar head of pronator teres is reported as the major cause of entrapment in the majority of the cases. The location of the compression of the median nerve in relation to the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle and the morphology of the ulnar head is important for open or minimally-invasive surgical treatment. Sectional study. Basic science study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolution of an Astrocytic Hamartoma of the Optic Nerve Head in a Patient with Retinitis Pigmentosa – Photographic Documentation over 2 Years of Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukianou, Eleni; Kisma, Nacima; Pal, Bishwanathan

    2011-01-01

    Aim To report photographically the evolution of an astrocytic hamartoma of the left optic nerve head over a 2-year follow-up in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa. Methods A 14-year-old boy was seen in the medical retina clinic with a 3-year history of night blindness. Best corrected visual acuity was 6/18 in both eyes. Colour vision was normal in both eyes and confrontation fields showed peripheral constriction. Fundus examination revealed bone spicule pigmentary changes at the retinal mid periphery typical of retinitis pigmentosa and superficial globules at the margins of both optic nerve heads. Electrodiagnostic tests confirmed moderately severe rod cone dystrophy with macular involvement bilaterally. Results Two years later, the ocular examination was unchanged except for the appearance of the optic nerve head lesion in the left eye. There was an increase in the size of the lesion which was diagnosed as an astrocytic hamartoma. Further investigations were recommended to exclude neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis. Conclusion Astrocytic hamartomas of the optic nerve head and optic nerve head drusen have both been described in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. They can be a diagnostic dilemma although drusen are more common (10%). To differentiate these two entities it is very important to document any growth during the follow-up period which is suggestive of astrocytic hamartoma rather than optic disc drusen. PMID:21347192

  18. Evolution of an Astrocytic Hamartoma of the Optic Nerve Head in a Patient with Retinitis Pigmentosa – Photographic Documentation over 2 Years of Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Loukianou

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report photographically the evolution of an astrocytic hamartoma of the left optic nerve head over a 2-year follow-up in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa. Methods: A 14-year-old boy was seen in the medical retina clinic with a 3-year history of night blindness. Best corrected visual acuity was 6/18 in both eyes. Colour vision was normal in both eyes and confrontation fields showed peripheral constriction. Fundus examination revealed bone spicule pigmentary changes at the retinal mid periphery typical of retinitis pigmentosa and superficial globules at the margins of both optic nerve heads. Electrodiagnostic tests confirmed moderately severe rod cone dystrophy with macular involvement bilaterally. Results: Two years later, the ocular examination was unchanged except for the appearance of the optic nerve head lesion in the left eye. There was an increase in the size of the lesion which was diagnosed as an astrocytic hamartoma. Further investigations were recommended to exclude neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis. Conclusion: Astrocytic hamartomas of the optic nerve head and optic nerve head drusen have both been described in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. They can be a diagnostic dilemma although drusen are more common (10%. To differentiate these two entities it is very important to document any growth during the follow-up period which is suggestive of astrocytic hamartoma rather than optic disc drusen.

  19. [Key effect genes responding to nerve injury identified by gene ontology and computer pattern recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qian; Peng, Jin; Zhou, Xue; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2012-07-01

    In order to screen out important genes from large gene data of gene microarray after nerve injury, we combine gene ontology (GO) method and computer pattern recognition technology to find key genes responding to nerve injury, and then verify one of these screened-out genes. Data mining and gene ontology analysis of gene chip data GSE26350 was carried out through MATLAB software. Cd44 was selected from screened-out key gene molecular spectrum by comparing genes' different GO terms and positions on score map of principal component. Function interferences were employed to influence the normal binding of Cd44 and one of its ligands, chondroitin sulfate C (CSC), to observe neurite extension. Gene ontology analysis showed that the first genes on score map (marked by red *) mainly distributed in molecular transducer activity, receptor activity, protein binding et al molecular function GO terms. Cd44 is one of six effector protein genes, and attracted us with its function diversity. After adding different reagents into the medium to interfere the normal binding of CSC and Cd44, varying-degree remissions of CSC's inhibition on neurite extension were observed. CSC can inhibit neurite extension through binding Cd44 on the neuron membrane. This verifies that important genes in given physiological processes can be identified by gene ontology analysis of gene chip data.

  20. The Connective Tissue Components of Optic Nerve Head Cupping in Monkey Experimental Glaucoma Part 1: Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongli; Ren, Ruojin; Lockwood, Howard; Williams, Galen; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, Crawford; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize optic nerve head (ONH) connective tissue change within 21 monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) eyes, so as to identify its principal components. Methods Animals were imaged three to five times at baseline then every 2 weeks following chronic unilateral IOP elevation, and euthanized early through end-stage confocal scanning laser tomographic change. Optic nerve heads were serial-sectioned, three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall EG versus control eye differences were assessed by general estimating equations (GEE). Significant, animal-specific, EG eye change was required to exceed the maximum physiologic intereye differences in six healthy animals. Results Overall EG eye change was significant (P connective tissue components of ONH “cupping” in monkey EG which serve as targets for longitudinally staging and phenotyping ONH connective tissue alteration within all forms of monkey and human optic neuropathy. PMID:26641545

  1. Imaging of optic nerve head pore structure with motion corrected deeply penetrating OCT using tracking SLO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vienola, Kari V.; Braaf, Boy; Sheehy, Christy K.; Yang, Qiang; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; de Boer, Johannes F.; Roorda, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To remove the eye motion and stabilize the optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system for obtaining high quality images of the optic nerve head (ONH) and the pore structure of the lamina cribrosa. Methods An optical coherence tomography (OCT) instrument was combined with an active eye

  2. Regulation of semaphorin III/collapsin-1 gene expression during peripheral nerve regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Giger, Roman J; Verhaagen, J

    1998-01-01

    The competence of neurons to regenerate depends on their ability to initiate a program of gene expression supporting growth and on the growth-permissive properties of glial cells in the distal stump of the injured nerve. Most studies on intrinsic molecular mechanisms governing peripheral nerve

  3. The potential for tumor suppressor gene therapy in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Andrew C; Ludwig, Megan L; Spector, Matthew E; Brenner, J Chad

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma remains a highly morbid and fatal disease. Importantly, genomic sequencing of head and neck cancers has identified frequent mutations in tumor suppressor genes. While targeted therapeutics increasingly are being investigated in head and neck cancer, the majority of these agents are against overactive/overexpressed oncogenes. Therapy to restore lost tumor suppressor gene function remains a key and under-addressed niche in trials for head and neck cancer. Recent advances in gene editing have captured the interest of both the scientific community and the public. As our technology for gene editing and gene expression modulation improves, addressing lost tumor suppressor gene function in head and neck cancers is becoming a reality. This review will summarize new techniques, challenges to implementation, future directions, and ethical ramifications of gene therapy in head and neck cancer.

  4. [Gene Therapy for Inherited RETINAL AND OPTIC NERVE Disorders: Current Knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďuďáková, Ľ; Kousal, B; Kolářová, H; Hlavatá, L; Lišková, P

    The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of current gene therapy clinical trials for monogenic and optic nerve disorders.The number of genes for which gene-based therapies are being developed is growing. At the time of writing this review gene-based clinical trials have been registered for Leber congenital amaurosis 2 (LCA2), retinitis pigmentosa 38, Usher syndrome 1B, Stargardt disease, choroideremia, achromatopsia, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and X-linked retinoschisis. Apart from RPE65 gene therapy for LCA2 and MT-ND4 for LHON which has reached phase III, all other trials are in investigation phase I and II, i.e. testing the efficacy and safety.Because of the relatively easy accessibility of the retina and its ease of visualization which allows monitoring of efficacy, gene-based therapies for inherited retinal disorders represent a very promising treatment option. With the development of novel therapeutic approaches, the importance of establishing not only clinical but also molecular genetic diagnosis is obvious.Key words: gene therapy, monogenic retinal diseases, optic nerve atrophy, mitochondrial disease.

  5. Sox10 Expression in Goldfish Retina and Optic Nerve Head in Controls and after the Application of Two Different Lesion Paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The mammalian central nervous system (CNS is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve. We also analyze changes in a major component of myelin, myelin basic protein (MBP, as a marker for myelinated axons. Our results show that Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are located in the retinal nerve fiber layer and along the whole length of the optic nerve. MBP was found to occupy a similar location, although its loose appearance in the retina differed from the highly organized MBP+ axon bundles in the optic nerve. After optic nerve crushing, the number of Sox10+ cells decreased in the crushed area and in the optic nerve head. Consistent with this, myelination was highly reduced in both areas. In contrast, after cryolesion we did not find changes in the Sox10+ population, although we did detect some MBP- degenerating areas. We show that these modifications in Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are consistent with their role in oligodendrocyte identity, maintenance and survival, and we propose the optic nerve head as an excellent area for research aimed at better understanding of de- and remyelination processes.

  6. [Traumatic lesion of the optic nerve head by flying fish: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Orgül, S; Robertson, A; Flammer, J

    2004-05-01

    Traumatic lesion to the optic nerve often leads to severe and persistent functional loss. A male patient was transferred to our hospital from the University Eye Clinic of Guadeloupe 5 days after ocular injury caused by a flying fish. Visual function was light perception. The anterior part of the eye and retina were unremarkable. A computer tomography disclosed a fracture of the sphenoid sinus, with a little bone fragment (DD: foreign body) located close to the optic nerve. Therapy had been started with Aminopenicillin combined with clavulan acid (Augmentin) i. v., 500 ml methylprednisolone (Solumedrol) i. v., lysine-acetyl salicylate (Aspegic) and topical application of dexamethasone combined with neomycin/polymyxin B (Maxitrol). We continued this therapy and intensified it by adding nimodipine (Nimotop) 30 1-1-1 and acetazolamide retard (Diamox sustet) 1-0-1. Unfortunately visual function did not recover under therapy. Traumatic lesions of the optic nerve head, especially when due to axial or tangential forces, can lead to severe and irreversible functional loss. Severe traumatic lesions, even bone fractures induced by flying fish are not a seldom encounter in the Caribbean Sea.

  7. Unilateral hypoglossal nerve atrophy as a late complication of radiation therapy of head and neck carcinoma: a report of four cases and a review of the literature on peripheral and cranial nerve damages after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, V.S.T.; Schulz, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The case histories of four patients who developed hemiatrophy of the tongue from 3 to 9 years after a course of curative radiation therapy for carcinomas of the head and neck are presented. These patients were subsequently followed from 1 1 / 2 to 6 years without local recurrence of the tumor, distant metastasis, or involvement of other cranial nerves, indicative of only a unilateral hypoglossal nerve atrophy. A review of the literature showed that peripheral and cranial nerve damages after radiation therapy have been reported for the optic nerve, hypoglossal nerve, oculomotor nerve, abducens nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, brachial plexus nerves, and peripheral nerves of the extremities. Review of clinical and experimental data indicated that in most cases, the damages were probably caused by extensive connective tissue fibrosis around and infiltrating the nerve trunks. Three possible types of peripheral and cranial nerve damages after radiation therapy are identified. (U.S.)

  8. Proteomics analyses of human optic nerve head astrocytes following biomechanical strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ronan S; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M; Flanagan, John G

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic methods included nano-liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ labeling. Using controls for both stretch and time, a six-plex iTRAQ liquid chromatography- tandem MS (LC/MS/MS) experiment yielded 573 proteins discovered at a 95% confidence limit. The pathways included transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor, caspase 3, and tumor protein p53, which have all been implicated in the activation of astrocytes and are believed to play a role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Confirmation of the iTRAQ analysis was performed by Western blotting of various proteins of interest including ANXA 4, GOLGA2, and αB-Crystallin.

  9. Proteomics Analyses of Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes Following Biomechanical Strain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ronan S.; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M.; Flanagan, John G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic methods included nano-liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ labeling. Using controls for both stretch and time, a six-plex iTRAQ liquid chromatography- tandem MS (LC/MS/MS) experiment yielded 573 proteins discovered at a 95% confidence limit. The pathways included transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor, caspase 3, and tumor protein p53, which have all been implicated in the activation of astrocytes and are believed to play a role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Confirmation of the iTRAQ analysis was performed by Western blotting of various proteins of interest including ANXA 4, GOLGA2, and αB-Crystallin. PMID:22126795

  10. Genome-wide analysis of pain-, nerve- and neurotrophin -related gene expression in the degenerating human annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In spite of its high clinical relevance, the relationship between disc degeneration and low back pain is still not well understood. Recent studies have shown that genome-wide gene expression studies utilizing ontology searches provide an efficient and valuable methodology for identification of clinically relevant genes. Here we use this approach in analysis of pain-, nerve-, and neurotrophin-related gene expression patterns in specimens of human disc tissue. Control, non-herniated clinical, and herniated clinical specimens of human annulus tissue were studied following Institutional Review Board approval. Results Analyses were performed on more generated (Thompson grade IV and V) discs vs. less degenerated discs (grades I-III), on surgically operated discs vs. control discs, and on herniated vs. control discs. Analyses of more degenerated vs. less degenerated discs identified significant upregulation of well-recognized pain-related genes (bradykinin receptor B1, calcitonin gene-related peptide and catechol-0-methyltransferase). Nerve growth factor was significantly upregulated in surgical vs. control and in herniated vs. control discs. All three analyses also found significant changes in numerous proinflammatory cytokine- and chemokine-related genes. Nerve, neurotrophin and pain-ontology searches identified many matrix, signaling and functional genes which have known importance in the disc. Immunohistochemistry was utilized to confirm the presence of calcitonin gene-related peptide, catechol-0-methyltransferase and bradykinin receptor B1 at the protein level in the human annulus. Conclusions Findings point to the utility of microarray analyses in identification of pain-, neurotrophin and nerve-related genes in the disc, and point to the importance of future work exploring functional interactions between nerve and disc cells in vitro and in vivo. Nerve, pain and neurotrophin ontology searches identified numerous changes in proinflammatory cytokines and

  11. Anatomical variations of pronator teres muscle: predispositional role for nerve entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edie Benedito Caetano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess the anatomical variations of the pronator teres muscle (PTM and its implication in the compression of the median nerve, which passes through the humeral and ulnar heads of the PTM. METHODS: For the present study, 100 upper limbs from human cadavers from the anatomy laboratory were dissected. Forty-six specimens were male and four, female, whose aged ranged from 28 to 77 years; 27 were white and 23, non-white. A pilot study consisting of six hands from three fresh cadaver dissections was conducted to familiarize the authors with the local anatomy; these were not included in the present study. RESULTS: The humeral and ulnar heads of PTM were present in 86 limbs. In 72 out of the 86 limbs, the median nerve was positioned between the two heads of the PTM; in 11, it passed through the muscle belly of ulnar head of the PTM, and in three, posteriorly to both heads of the PTM. When both heads were present, the median nerve was not observed as passing through the muscle belly of the humeral head of PTM. In 14 out of the 100 dissected limbs, the ulnar head of the PTM was not observed; in this situation, the median nerve was positioned posteriorly to the humeral head in 11 limbs, and passed through the humeral head in three. In 17 limbs, the ulnar head of PTM was little developed, with a fibrous band originating from the ulnar coronoid process, associated with a distal muscle component near the union with the humeral head. In four limbs, the ulnar head of the MPR was represented by a fibrous band. In both limbs of one cadaver, a fibrous band was observed between the supinator muscle and the humeral head of the PTM, passing over median nerve. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that these anatomical variations in relationship median nerve and PTM are potential factors for median nerve compression, as they narrow the space through which the median nerve passes.

  12. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  13. Digital versus film stereo-photography for assessment of the optic nerve head in glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanreisoglu, Murat; Priel, Ethan; Naveh, Lili; Lusky, Moshe; Weinberger, Dov; Benjamini, Yoav; Gaton, Dan D

    2013-03-01

    One of the leading methods for optic nerve head assessment in glaucoma remains stereoscopic photography. This study compared conventional film and digital stereoscopy in the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the optic nerve head in glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients. Fifty patients with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma underwent stereoscopic photography of the optic nerve head with a 35-mm color slide film and a digital camera. Photographs/images were presented in random order to 3 glaucoma specialists for independent analysis using a standardized assessment form. Findings for the following parameters were compared among assessors and between techniques: cup/disc (C/D) ratio, state of the optic rim, presence of peripapillary atrophy and appearance of the retinal nerve fiber layer, blood vessels, and lamina cribrosa. The film-based and image-based diagnoses (glaucoma yes/no) were compared as well. Despite high level of agreement across graders using the same method for the horizontal and vertical C/D ratio, (intraclass correlations 0.80 to 0.83), the agreement across graders was much lower for the other parameters using the same method. Similarly the agreement between the findings of the same grader using either method was high for horizontal and vertical C/D ratio, but low for the other parameters. The latter differences were reflected in the disagreement regarding the final diagnosis: The diagnoses differed by technique for each grader in 18% to 46% of eyes, resulting in 38.5% of eyes diagnosed with glaucoma by film photography that "lost" their diagnosis on the digital images, whereas 18.7% of eyes diagnosed as nonglaucomatous by film photography were considered to have glaucoma on the digital images. Although there is consistency between 35-mm film stereoscopy and digital stereoscopy in determining the cup/disc (C/D) ratio, in all other parameters large differences exist, leading to differences in diagnosis. Differences in capturing images between

  14. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijden, T.M.G.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve (n. V), which plays an important role in the innervation of the head and neck area, together with other cranial and spinal nerves. Knowledge of the nerve’s anatomy is very important for the correct application of local anaesthetics.

  15. Characterization of Pax2 expression in the goldfish optic nerve head during retina regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The Pax2 transcription factor plays a crucial role in axon-guidance and astrocyte differentiation in the optic nerve head (ONH during vertebrate visual system development. However, little is known about its function during regeneration. The fish visual system is in continuous growth and can regenerate. Müller cells and astrocytes of the retina and ONH play an important role in these processes. We demonstrate that pax2a in goldfish is highly conserved and at least two pax2a transcripts are expressed in the optic nerve. Moreover, we show two different astrocyte populations in goldfish: Pax2(+ astrocytes located in the ONH and S100(+ astrocytes distributed throughout the retina and the ONH. After peripheral growth zone (PGZ cryolesion, both Pax2(+ and S100(+ astrocytes have different responses. At 7 days after injury the number of Pax2(+ cells is reduced and coincides with the absence of young axons. In contrast, there is an increase of S100(+ astrocytes in the retina surrounding the ONH and S100(+ processes in the ONH. At 15 days post injury, the PGZ starts to regenerate and the number of S100(+ astrocytes increases in this region. Moreover, the regenerating axons reach the ONH and the pax2a gene expression levels and the number of Pax2(+ cells increase. At the same time, S100(+/GFAP(+/GS(+ astrocytes located in the posterior ONH react strongly. In the course of the regeneration, Müller cell vitreal processes surrounding the ONH are primarily disorganized and later increase in number. During the whole regenerative process we detect a source of Pax2(+/PCNA(+ astrocytes surrounding the posterior ONH. We demonstrate that pax2a expression and the Pax2(+ astrocyte population in the ONH are modified during the PGZ regeneration, suggesting that they could play an important role in this process.

  16. Structural changes of the macula and optic nerve head in the remaining eyes after enucleation for retinoblastoma: an optical coherence tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Azza Mohamed Ahmed; Elbayomi, Ahmed Mohamed; Shaat, Ashraf Abdelsalam Kandeel

    2017-12-16

    To describe objectively the possible structural changes of the macula and optic nerve head in the free eyes of unilateral cured retinoblastoma patients and, also after enucleation using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. A cross sectional study involving 60 patients subdivided into three groups; 15 unilateral RB patients in whom enucleation was indicated as a sole treatment performed earlier in life [(study group (I)], 15 unilateral RB patients who had completely regressed disease with a preserved eye [(study group (II)] and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. The remaining and free eyes in study groups and right eyes of control group had full ophthalmological examination, static automated perimetry and optical coherence tomography of the macula and optic nerve head. In study group (II); a significant thinning of total macula, central fovea, ganglion cell layer (GCL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and some sectors of outer nuclear layer (P- values ≤0.05) was found with no significant difference in peripapillary nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and optic nerve head parameters compared to the control group and the study group (I). A significantly thickened total macula, GCL, GCC, and pRNFL in study group (I) compared to study group (II). Thickened pRNFL was significantly correlated to standard automated perimetry pattern deviations. No significant difference was found between study group (I) and control group. Retinoblastoma eyes characterized by thinning of central fovea, GCL, GCC compared to the control group. After unilateral enucleation, increased GCC and pRNFL thicknesses were detected compared to retinoblastoma group.

  17. Significant correlations between optic nerve head microcirculation and visual field defects and nerve fiber layer loss in glaucoma patients with myopic glaucomatous disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2011-12-01

    .Conclusions: Our study suggests that there is a causal relationship between the thinner RNFLT that led to the MD and reduction in the microcirculation in the optic nerve head.Keywords: glaucoma, visual field defects, optic disk, optic neuropathy, myopia, microcirculation, optic nerve head, retinal nerve fiber layer

  18. Therapeutic effectiveness of epicranial nerve blocks on post-traumatic syndrome from head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Caputi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The autor describes the case of a 53-year-old woman suffering from headache and dizziness, sometimes nausea, tinnitus in the right ear, and diffuse scalp allodynia following an occupational accident involving a head injury. Hyposensitizing treatment by anesthetic blockade at the emergence points of the epicranial nerves, which were hyperalgesic to fi nger pressure, rapidly controlled the allodynia and eventually the headache. Unexpectedly, the patient also reported reduced dizziness and resolution of the tinnitus. The unforeseen outcome highlights the unpredictable therapeutic potential of a simple and modestly invasive procedure. The neuropathophysiological interpretation is consequently very interesting.

  19. Network-Based Method for Identifying Co- Regeneration Genes in Bone, Dentin, Nerve and Vessel Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Pan, Hongying; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Feng, Kaiyan; Kong, XiangYin; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2017-10-02

    Bone and dental diseases are serious public health problems. Most current clinical treatments for these diseases can produce side effects. Regeneration is a promising therapy for bone and dental diseases, yielding natural tissue recovery with few side effects. Because soft tissues inside the bone and dentin are densely populated with nerves and vessels, the study of bone and dentin regeneration should also consider the co-regeneration of nerves and vessels. In this study, a network-based method to identify co-regeneration genes for bone, dentin, nerve and vessel was constructed based on an extensive network of protein-protein interactions. Three procedures were applied in the network-based method. The first procedure, searching, sought the shortest paths connecting regeneration genes of one tissue type with regeneration genes of other tissues, thereby extracting possible co-regeneration genes. The second procedure, testing, employed a permutation test to evaluate whether possible genes were false discoveries; these genes were excluded by the testing procedure. The last procedure, screening, employed two rules, the betweenness ratio rule and interaction score rule, to select the most essential genes. A total of seventeen genes were inferred by the method, which were deemed to contribute to co-regeneration of at least two tissues. All these seventeen genes were extensively discussed to validate the utility of the method.

  20. Premise and Prediction – How Optic Nerve Head Biomechanics Underlies the Susceptibility and Clinical Behavior of the Aged Optic Nerve Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, Claude F.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2009-01-01

    We propose that age-related alterations in optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanics underlie the clinical behavior and increased susceptibility of the aged ONH to glaucomatous damage. The literature which suggests that the aged ONH is more susceptible to glaucomatous damage at all levels of intraocular pressure is reviewed. The relevant biomechanics of the aged ONH are discussed and a biomechanical explanation for why, on average, the stiffened peripapillary scleral and lamina cribrosa connective tissues of the aged eye should lead to a shallow (senile sclerotic) form of cupping is proposed. A logic for why age-related axon loss and the optic neuropathy of glaucoma in the aged eye may overlap is discussed. Finally, we argue for a need to characterize all forms of clinical cupping into prelaminar and laminar components so as to add precision to the discussion of clinical cupping which does not currently exist. Such characterization may lead to the early detection of ONH axonal and connective tissue pathology in ocular hypertension and eventually aid in the assessment of etiology in all forms of optic neuropathy including those that may be purely age-related. PMID:18552618

  1. Microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Wonil; Yoshioka, Fumitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Rhoton, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate and review the detailed microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve and surrounding structures along its entire course and to provide its topographic measurements. Ten cadaveric heads were examined using ×3 to ×40 magnification after the arteries and veins were injected with colored silicone. Both sides of each cadaveric head were dissected using different skull base approaches to demonstrate the entire course of the abducens nerve from the pontomedullary sulcus to the lateral rectus muscle. The anatomy of the petroclival area and the cavernous sinus through which the abducens nerve passes are complex due to the high density of critically important neural and vascular structures. The abducens nerve has angulations and fixation points along its course that put the nerve at risk in many clinical situations. From a surgical viewpoint, the petrous tubercle of the petrous apex is an intraoperative landmark to avoid damage to the abducens nerve. The abducens nerve is quite different from the other nerves. No other cranial nerve has a long intradural path with angulations and fixations such as the abducens nerve in petroclival venous confluence. A precise knowledge of the relationship between the abducens nerve and surrounding structures has allowed neurosurgeon to approach the clivus, petroclival area, cavernous sinus, and superior orbital fissure without surgical complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Revisiting Factors Influencing Optic Nerve Head Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yi; Voorhees, Andrew P.; Sigal, Ian A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To model the sensitivity of the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical environment to acute variations in IOP, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), and central retinal artery blood pressure (BP). Methods We extended a previously published numerical model of the ONH to include 24 factors representing tissue anatomy and mechanical properties, all three pressures, and constraints on the optic nerve (CON). A total of 8340 models were studied to predict factor influences on 98 responses in a two-step process: a fractional factorial screening analysis to identify the 16 most influential factors, followed by a response surface methodology to predict factor effects in detail. Results The six most influential factors were, in order: IOP, CON, moduli of the sclera, lamina cribrosa (LC) and dura, and CSFP. IOP and CSFP affected different aspects of ONH biomechanics. The strongest influence of CSFP, more than twice that of IOP, was on the rotation of the peripapillary sclera. CSFP had similar influence on LC stretch and compression to moduli of sclera and LC. On some ONHs, CSFP caused large retrolamina deformations and subarachnoid expansion. CON had a strong influence on LC displacement. BP overall influence was 633 times smaller than that of IOP. Conclusions Models predict that IOP and CSFP are the top and sixth most influential factors on ONH biomechanics. Different IOP and CSFP effects suggest that translaminar pressure difference may not be a good parameter to predict biomechanics-related glaucomatous neuropathy. CON may drastically affect the responses relating to gross ONH geometry and should be determined experimentally. PMID:29332130

  3. Post-traumatic Unilateral Avulsion of the Abducens Nerve with Damage to Cranial Nerves VII and VIII: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Akiyama, Yuji; Tsumura, Ryu; Kolakshyapati, Manish; Adhikari, Rupendra Bahadur; Takayasu, Takeshi; Nosaka, Ryo; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic injuries of the abducens nerve as a consequence of facial and/or head trauma occur with or without associated cervical or skull base fracture. This is the first report on unilateral avulsion of the abducens nerve in a 29-year-old man with severe right facial trauma. In addition, he exhibited mild left facial palsy, and moderate left hearing disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) revealed avulsion of left sixth cranial nerve. We recommend thin-slice MR examination in patients with abducens palsy after severe facial and/or head trauma.

  4. What are Head Cavities? - A History of Studies on Vertebrate Head Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by the discovery of segmental epithelial coeloms, or "head cavities," in elasmobranch embryos toward the end of the 19th century, the debate over the presence of mesodermal segments in the vertebrate head became a central problem in comparative embryology. The classical segmental view assumed only one type of metamerism in the vertebrate head, in which each metamere was thought to contain one head somite and one pharyngeal arch, innervated by a set of cranial nerves serially homologous to dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves. The non-segmental view, on the other hand, rejected the somite-like properties of head cavities. A series of small mesodermal cysts in early Torpedo embryos, which were thought to represent true somite homologs, provided a third possible view on the nature of the vertebrate head. Recent molecular developmental data have shed new light on the vertebrate head problem, explaining that head mesoderm evolved, not by the modification of rostral somites of an amphioxus-like ancestor, but through the polarization of unspecified paraxial mesoderm into head mesoderm anteriorly and trunk somites posteriorly.

  5. The effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head analysis of migrainous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Munire; Durukan, A; Akar, Yusuf; Taskin, Omur; Dora, Babur; Yilmaz, Nurgul

    2005-03-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on the optic nerve head topographic analysis of normally menstruating migrainous women. Randomly selected one eye of 44 migrainous and 49 healthy control women with regular menstrual cycles were included in the study. All subjects underwent complete ocular examination. Optic nervehead topographic analysis were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, HRT II (Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II, software version 1.6;Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). They were repeated for two times during the menstrual cycle: in follicular phase (7th to 10th day of the cycle) and in the luteal phase (days 3 to 4 before the menstrual bleeding). Serum estradiol, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone measurements were repeated at each menstrual phase. The mean age of migrainous and control subjects were 31.5 + 5.1 years and 33.4 +/- 3.7 years, respectively (P > 0.05). Their mean disc areas were 2.26 +/- 0.46 mm(2) and 1.95 +/- 0.39 mm(2), respectively(P 0.05). The parameter rim volume decreased, while the parameters cup volume and cup shape measure increased significantly in the luteal phase of the migrainous women (all P values cup parameters during the menstrual cycle of the migrainous women. Further clinical trials on ocular blood flow changes during the menstrual cycle of the migrainous women may highlight the role of sex steroids in the optic nerve head of the migrainous women.

  6. Penetrating gunshot wound to the head: transotic approach to remove the bullet and masseteric-facial nerve anastomosis for early facial reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Pasquale; Tarantino, Roberto; Gennaro, Paolo; Mitro, Valeria; Valentini, Valentino; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Delfini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Gunshot wounds to the head (GSWH) account for the majority of penetrating brain injuries, and are the most lethal. Since they are rare in Europe, the number of neurosurgeons who have experienced this type of traumatic injury is decreasing, and fewer cases are reported in the literature. We describe a case of gunshot to the temporal bone in which the bullet penetrated the skull resulting in the facial nerve paralysis. It was excised with the transotic approach. Microsurgical anastomosis among the masseteric nerve and the facial nerve was performed. GSWH are often devastating. The in-hospital mortality for civilians with penetrating craniocerebral injury is very high. Survivors often have high rate of complications. When facial paralysis is present, masseteric-facial direct neurorraphy represent a good treatment.

  7. The First Experience of Triple Nerve Transfer in Proximal Radial Nerve Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Andalib, Sasan

    2018-01-01

    Injury to distal portion of posterior cord of brachial plexus leads to palsy of radial and axillary nerves. Symptoms are usually motor deficits of the deltoid muscle; triceps brachii muscle; and extensor muscles of the wrist, thumb, and fingers. Tendon transfers, nerve grafts, and nerve transfers are options for surgical treatment of proximal radial nerve palsy to restore some motor functions. Tendon transfer is painful, requires a long immobilization, and decreases donor muscle strength; nevertheless, nerve transfer produces promising outcomes. We present a patient with proximal radial nerve palsy following a blunt injury undergoing triple nerve transfer. The patient was involved in a motorcycle accident with complete palsy of the radial and axillary nerves. After 6 months, on admission, he showed spontaneous recovery of axillary nerve palsy, but radial nerve palsy remained. We performed triple nerve transfer, fascicle of ulnar nerve to long head of the triceps branch of radial nerve, flexor digitorum superficialis branch of median nerve to extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of radial nerve, and flexor carpi radialis branch of median nerve to posterior interosseous nerve, for restoration of elbow, wrist, and finger extensions, respectively. Our experience confirmed functional elbow, wrist, and finger extensions in the patient. Triple nerve transfer restores functions of the upper limb in patients with debilitating radial nerve palsy after blunt injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential gene expression in notochord and nerve cord fate segregation in the Ciona intestinalis embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Yamada, Lixy; Satou, Yutaka; Satoh, Nori

    2013-09-01

    During early embryogenesis, embryonic cells gradually restrict their developmental potential and are eventually destined to give rise to one type of cells. Molecular mechanisms underlying developmental fate restriction are one of the major research subjects within developmental biology. In this article, this subject was addressed by combining blastomere isolation with microarray analysis. During the 6th cleavage of the Ciona intestinalis embryo, from the 32-cell to the 64-cell stage, four mother cells divide into daughter cells with two distinct fates, one giving rise to notochord precursor cells and the other to nerve cord precursors. Approximately 2,200 each of notochord and nerve cord precursor cells were isolated, and their mRNA expression profiles were compared by microarray. This analysis identified 106 and 68 genes, respectively, that are differentially expressed in notochord and nerve cord precursor cells. These included not only genes for transcription factors and signaling molecules but also those with generalized functions observed in many types of cells. In addition, whole-mount in situ hybridization showed dynamic spatial expression profiles of these genes during segregation of the two fates: partitioning of transcripts present in the mother cells into either type of daughter cells, and initiation of preferential gene expression in either type of cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. In vitro efficacy of a gene-activated nerve guidance conduit incorporating non-viral PEI-pDNA nanoparticles carrying genes encoding for NGF, GDNF and c-Jun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackington, William A; Raftery, Rosanne M; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2018-06-07

    Despite the success of tissue engineered nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) for the treatment of small peripheral nerve injuries, autografts remain the clinical gold standard for larger injuries. The delivery of neurotrophic factors from conduits might enhance repair for more effective treatment of larger injuries but the efficacy of such systems is dependent on a safe, effective platform for controlled and localised therapeutic delivery. Gene therapy might offer an innovative approach to control the timing, release and level of neurotrophic factor production by directing cells to transiently sustain therapeutic protein production in situ. In this study, a gene-activated NGC was developed by incorporating non-viral polyethyleneimine-plasmid DNA (PEI-pDNA) nanoparticles (N/P 7 ratio, 2μg dose) with the pDNA encoding for nerve growth factor (NGF), glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or the transcription factor c-Jun. The physicochemical properties of PEI-pDNA nanoparticles, morphology, size and charge, were shown to be suitable for gene delivery and demonstrated high Schwann cell transfection efficiency (60±13%) in vitro. While all three genes showed therapeutic potential in terms of enhancing neurotrophic cytokine production while promoting neurite outgrowth, delivery of the gene encoding for c-Jun showed the greatest capacity to enhance regenerative cellular processes in vitro. Ultimately, this gene-activated NGC construct was shown to be capable of transfecting both Schwann cells (S42 cells) and neuronal cells (PC12 and dorsal root ganglia) in vitro, demonstrating potential for future therapeutic applications in vivo. The basic requirements of biomaterial-based nerve guidance conduits have now been well established and include being able to bridge a nerve injury to support macroscopic guidance between nerve stumps, while being strong enough to withstand longitudinal tension and circumferential compression, in addition to being mechanically sound to facilitate

  10. Computerised tomographic patterns in patients with head injury at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-15

    Apr 15, 2011 ... The clinical severity of head injury is classified based on ... head injury include road traffic accidents (RTA), assaults, ... information in the management of patients with head ... Materials and Methods ... The right cerebral hemisphere was involved in 13 cases .... Nerve palsies – 3rd, 5th, 6th cranial nerves. 3.

  11. Electroactive biodegradable polyurethane significantly enhanced Schwann cells myelin gene expression and neurotrophin secretion for peripheral nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaobin; Wang, Ling; Guo, Baolin; Shao, Yongpin; Ma, Peter X

    2016-05-01

    Myelination of Schwann cells (SCs) is critical for the success of peripheral nerve regeneration, and biomaterials that can promote SCs' neurotrophin secretion as scaffolds are beneficial for nerve repair. Here we present a biomaterials-approach, specifically, a highly tunable conductive biodegradable flexible polyurethane by polycondensation of poly(glycerol sebacate) and aniline pentamer, to significantly enhance SCs' myelin gene expression and neurotrophin secretion for peripheral nerve tissue engineering. SCs are cultured on these conductive polymer films, and the biocompatibility of these films and their ability to enhance myelin gene expressions and sustained neurotrophin secretion are successfully demonstrated. The mechanism of SCs' neurotrophin secretion on conductive films is demonstrated by investigating the relationship between intracellular Ca(2+) level and SCs' myelination. Furthermore, the neurite growth and elongation of PC12 cells are induced by adding the neurotrophin medium suspension produced from SCs-laden conductive films. These data suggest that these conductive degradable polyurethanes that enhance SCs' myelin gene expressions and sustained neurotrophin secretion perform great potential for nerve regeneration applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Impact of Ocular Pressures, Material Properties and Geometry on Optic Nerve Head Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feola, Andrew J.; Myers, Jerry G.; Raykin, Julia; Nelson, Emily S.; Samuels, Brian C.; Ethier C. Ross

    2017-01-01

    Alteration in intracranial pressure (ICP) has been associated with various diseases that cause visual impairment, including glaucoma, idiopathic intracranial hypertension and Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. However, how changes in ICP lead to vision loss is unclear, although it is hypothesized to involve deformations of the tissues in the optic nerve head (ONH). Recently, understanding the effect of ICP alterations on ocular tissues has become a major concern for NASA, where 42 of astronauts that partake in long duration space missions suffer from VIIP syndrome. Astronauts with VIIP syndrome suffer from visual impairment and changes in ocular anatomy that persist after returning to earth (1). It is hypothesized that the cephalad fluid shift that occurs upon entering microgravity increases ICP, which leads to an altered biomechanical environment in the posterior globe and optic nerve sheath, and subsequently VIIP syndrome. Our goal was to develop a finite element (FE) model to simulate the acute effects of elevated ICP on the posterior eye. Here, we simulated how inter-individual differences affect the deformation of ONH tissues. Further, we examined how several different geometries influenced deformations when exposed to elevated ICP.

  13. BDNF gene delivery mediated by neuron-targeted nanoparticles is neuroprotective in peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Cátia D F; Gonçalves, Nádia P; Gomes, Carla P; Saraiva, Maria J; Pêgo, Ana P

    2017-03-01

    Neuron-targeted gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat peripheral neuropathies. Here we propose the use of polymeric nanoparticles based on thiolated trimethyl chitosan (TMCSH) to mediate targeted gene delivery to peripheral neurons upon a peripheral and minimally invasive intramuscular administration. Nanoparticles were grafted with the non-toxic carboxylic fragment of the tetanus neurotoxin (HC) to allow neuron targeting and were explored to deliver a plasmid DNA encoding for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a peripheral nerve injury model. The TMCSH-HC/BDNF nanoparticle treatment promoted the release and significant expression of BDNF in neural tissues, which resulted in an enhanced functional recovery after injury as compared to control treatments (vehicle and non-targeted nanoparticles), associated with an improvement in key pro-regenerative events, namely, the increased expression of neurofilament and growth-associated protein GAP-43 in the injured nerves. Moreover, the targeted nanoparticle treatment was correlated with a significantly higher density of myelinated axons in the distal stump of injured nerves, as well as with preservation of unmyelinated axon density as compared with controls and a protective role in injury-denervated muscles, preventing them from denervation. These results highlight the potential of TMCSH-HC nanoparticles as non-viral gene carriers to deliver therapeutic genes into the peripheral neurons and thus, pave the way for their use as an effective therapeutic intervention for peripheral neuropathies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure-function relationships with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet-Villard, Frédéric; Chiquet, Christophe; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Noel, Christian; Aptel, Florent

    2014-05-02

    To evaluate the regional structure-function relationship between visual field sensitivity and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) measurements using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Prospective cross-sectional study conducted on patients with glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and healthy subjects. Eyes were tested on Cirrus OCT and standard achromatic perimetry. RNFL thickness of 12 peripapillary 30° sectors, neuroretinal rim thickness extracted from 36 neuroretinal rim scans, and Bruch membrane opening minimum rim width (BMO-MRW)-a recently defined parameter-extracted from 36 neuroretinal rim scans were obtained. Correlations between peripapillary RNFL thickness, neuroretinal rim thickness, all six sectors of BMO-MRW, and visual field sensitivity in the six corresponding areas were evaluated using logarithmic regression analysis. Receiver operating curve areas were calculated for each RNFL, ONH, and macular ganglion cell analysis parameter. We included 142 eyes of 142 subjects. The correlations (r(2)) between RNFL thickness, Cirrus-based neuroretinal rim thickness, BMO-MRW and visual field sensitivity ranged from 0.07 to 0.60, 0.15 to 0.49, and 0.24 to 0.66, respectively. The structure-function correlations were stronger with BMO-MRW than with Cirrus-based neuroretinal rim thickness. The largest areas under the receiver operating curve were seen for rim area (0.926 [95% confidence interval 0.875, 0.977]; P function relationship was significantly stronger with BMO-MRW than other ONH SD-OCT parameters. The best diagnostic capabilities were seen with rim area and average RNFL.

  15. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt C Danzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientific goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These findings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  16. Radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy: hypoglossal nerve and vocal cord palsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, Toru; Saito, Yasuo; Suzuki, Masayuki; Nishimura, Toshirou

    1991-01-01

    Cranial nerve palsies are an unexpected complication of radiotherapy for head and neck tumours. We present a case of this radiation-induced cranial palsy. An 18-year-old female with nasopharyngeal carcinoma developed a right hypoglossal nerve palsy 42 months after cancericidal doses of radiotherapy. In addition, she developed a bilateral vocal cord palsy 62 months after the therapy. Follow-up over four years has demonstrated no evidence of tumour recurrence and no sign of neurological improvement. (author)

  17. Effects of high-intensity interval training on optic nerve head and macular perfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Nelis, Pieter; Rolfes, Florian; Alnawaiseh, Maged; Klose, Andreas; Krüger, Michael; Eter, Nicole; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Alten, Florian

    2018-07-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been identified to be efficient for increasing health-related fitness in general and in lifestyle-induced chronic diseases such as hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate HIIT effects on optic nerve head (ONH) and macular perfusion in healthy adults using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Fifty-eight healthy participants (22.0 ± 2.02 years, 40 females (69.0%)) performed a 4-week HIIT with two exercise sessions/week: Group 1, 4 × 30 HIIT, running at maximal speed (all-out) for 4 × 30 s with 30 s active recovery, Group 2, 8 × 15 HIIT, running at maximal speed (all-out) for 8 × 15 s with 15 s active recovery. OCTA of the ONH and the macula was performed at baseline and follow-up to detect changes of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Flow density was evaluated in the superficial and deep plexus of the central macula, in the radial peripapillary capillary layer, the nerve head layer of the disc region and of the peripapillary region. The mean deep FAZ area and flow density of the superficial layer decreased by 14.00 ± 13.02% and 1.26 ± 3.20%, respectively, in response to overall HIIT (pre vs. post p HIIT may be performed to induce changes in ophthalmic measures such as FAZ and nerve head perfusion. OCTA imaging of the central retina and the ONH could represent a sensitive tool for the early detection of systemic vascular changes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bilateral optic nerve head drusen with chorioretinal coloboma in the right eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorioretinal coloboma is a congenital defect of the eye caused by improper closure of the embryonic fissure. Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD are white calcareous deposits that are generally asymptomatic. We report a very rare association of both in a healthy patient with no any systemic syndrome. A 16-year-old man was referred to our clinic from suffering blurred vision. Best corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 6/10 and 10/10 in the left one. External ocular and slit lamp examination were normal. Dilated ophthalmoscopy showed marked swelling in both optic nerves and chorioretinal coloboma in the right eye inferiorly. Ultrasonography showed an echodense structure with acoustic shadowing in both eyes consistent with buried ONHD. Visual field testing showed normal field in the left eye and moderate superior field depression in the right eye corresponding to inferior coloboma in funduscopy. Results of general medical and neurologic, cardiologic, and other examinations were normal. To the best our knowledge combination of bilateral ONHD and unilateral chorioretinal coloboma in a healthy patient with no any systemic syndrome has not been published in the literature. We reported this very rare association and recommended examine eyes and other body organs. In such cases that coloboma is associated with ONHD, we should keep in mind Noonan syndrome. The diagnosis of Noonan syndrome is clinical and confirm by the consultant pediatricians and clinical geneticists.

  19. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head characteristics in eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sunah; Jin, Sunyoung; Roh, Kyu Hwa; Hwang, Young Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) characteristics, as determined using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), in eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc. The peripapillary RNFL and the ONH were assessed in 12 eyes belonging to 6 subjects with situs inversus of the optic disc (situs inversus group) and 24 eyes in 12 age-matched, sex-matched, and refractive error-matched healthy subjects (control group) by using OCT. The average, quadrant, and clock-hour RNFL thicknesses (clock-hour 9 on the scan represented the temporal side of the optic disc in both eyes), the superior/inferior RNFL peak locations, and ONH characteristics such as disc area, rim area, cup-to-disc ratio, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, and cup volume were obtained. The differences in RNFL and ONH characteristics between the 2 groups were analyzed. The situs inversus group had a thicker RNFL in the clock-hour sectors 3 and 4, a thinner RNFL in the clock-hour sectors 7, 8, and 11, and more nasally located superior and inferior RNFL peak locations than the control group (P≤0.001). The situs inversus group had a smaller cup-to-disc area ratio, smaller vertical cup-to-disc ratio, and a lesser cup volume than the control group (Poptic disc showed different peripapillary RNFL and ONH characteristics from those without this abnormality. These findings should be considered when assessing eyes with situs inversus of the optic disc.

  20. Nerve stepping stone has minimal impact in aiding regeneration across long acellular nerve allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Hunter, Daniel A; Schellhardt, Lauren; Ee, Xueping; Snyder-Warwick, Alison K; Moore, Amy M; Mackinnon, Susan E; Wood, Matthew D

    2018-02-01

    Acellular nerve allografts (ANAs) yield less consistent favorable outcomes compared with autografts for long gap reconstructions. We evaluated whether a hybrid ANA can improve 6-cm gap reconstruction. Rat sciatic nerve was transected and repaired with either 6-cm hybrid or control ANAs. Hybrid ANAs were generated using a 1-cm cellular isograft between 2.5-cm ANAs, whereas control ANAs had no isograft. Outcomes were assessed by graft gene and marker expression (n = 4; at 4 weeks) and motor recovery and nerve histology (n = 10; at 20 weeks). Hybrid ANAs modified graft gene and marker expression and promoted modest axon regeneration across the 6-cm defect compared with control ANA (P nerve gaps with autografts. Muscle Nerve 57: 260-267, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Metamerism in cephalochordates and the problem of the vertebrate head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onai, Takayuki; Adachi, Noritaka; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The vertebrate head characteristically exhibits a complex pattern with sense organs, brain, paired eyes and jaw muscles, and the brain case is not found in other chordates. How the extant vertebrate head has evolved remains enigmatic. Historically, there have been two conflicting views on the origin of the vertebrate head, segmental and non-segmental views. According to the segmentalists, the vertebrate head is organized as a metameric structure composed of segments equivalent to those in the trunk; a metamere in the vertebrate head was assumed to consist of a somite, a branchial arch and a set of cranial nerves, considering that the head evolved from rostral segments of amphioxus-like ancestral vertebrates. Non-segmentalists, however, considered that the vertebrate head was not segmental. In that case, the ancestral state of the vertebrate head may be non-segmented, and rostral segments in amphioxus might have been secondarily gained, or extant vertebrates might have evolved through radical modifications of amphioxus-like ancestral vertebrate head. Comparative studies of mesodermal development in amphioxus and vertebrate gastrula embryos have revealed that mesodermal gene expressions become segregated into two domains anteroposteriorly to specify the head mesoderm and trunk mesoderm only in vertebrates; in this segregation, key genes such as delta and hairy, involved in segment formation, are expressed in the trunk mesoderm, but not in the head mesoderm, strongly suggesting that the head mesoderm of extant vertebrates is not segmented. Taken together, the above finding possibly adds a new insight into the origin of the vertebrate head; the vertebrate head mesoderm would have evolved through an anteroposterior polarization of the paraxial mesoderm if the ancestral vertebrate had been amphioxus-like.

  2. Radiation-induced cranial nerve palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, P.S.; Bataini, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with 35 cranial nerve palsies were seen at the Fondation Curie during follow-up after radical radiotherapy for head and neck tumors. The twelfth nerve was involved in 19 cases, the tenth in nine, and the eleventh in five; the fifth and second nerves were involved once each and in the same patient. The twelfth nerve was involved alone in 16 patients and the tenth nerve alone in three, with multiple nerves involved in the remaining six patients. The palsy was noted from 12 to 145 months after diagnosis of the tumor. The latency period could be correlated with dose so that the least square fit equation representing NSD vs delay is NSD = 2598--Delay (in months) x 4.6, with a correlation coefficient of -0.58. The distinction between tumor recurrence and radiation-induced nerve palsy is critical. It can often be inferred from the latency period but must be confirmed by observation over a period of time

  3. Diagnostic capability of optic nerve head rim width and retinal nerve fiber thickness in open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Staso, Silvio; Agnifili, Luca; Di Staso, Federico; Climastone, Hilary; Ciancaglini, Marco; Scuderi, Gian Luca

    2018-03-01

    This study was performed to test the diagnostic capability of the minimum rim width compared to peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with glaucoma. A case control, observer masked study, was conducted. Minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were assessed using the patient-specific axis traced between fovea-to-Bruch's membrane opening center axis. For both minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, the regionalization in six sectors (nasal, superior-nasal, superior-temporal, temporal, inferior-temporal, and inferior-nasal) was analyzed. Eyes with at least one sector with value below the 5% or 1% normative limit of the optical coherence tomography normative database were classified as glaucomatous. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive positive and negative values were calculated for both minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. A total of 118 eyes of 118 Caucasian subjects (80 eyes with open-angle glaucoma and 38 control eyes) were enrolled in the study. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 79.7%, 77.5%, and 84.2%, respectively, for minimum rim width and 84.7%, 82.5%, and 89.5% for retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. The positive predictive values were 0.91% and 0.94% for minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, respectively, whereas the negative predictive values were 0.64% and 0.70%. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.892 for minimum rim width and 0.938 for retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Our results indicated that the sector analysis based on Bruch's membrane opening and fovea to disk alignment is able to detect glaucomatous defects, and that Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness showed equivalent diagnostic ability.

  4. Effects of endogenous nitric oxide on adrenergic nerve-mediated vasoconstriction and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerve-mediated vasodilation in pithed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Kousuke; Zamami, Yoshito; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Takatori, Shingo

    2017-05-05

    Vascular adrenergic nerves mainly regulate the tone of blood vessels. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing (CGRPergic) vasodilator nerves also participate in the regulation of vascular tone. Furthermore, there are nitric oxide (NO)-containing (nitrergic) nerves, which include NO in blood vessels as vasodilator nerves, but it remains unclear whether nitrergic nerves participate in vascular regulation. The present study investigated the role of nitrergic nerves in vascular responses to spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and vasoactive agents in pithed rats. Wistar rats were anesthetized and pithed, and vasopressor responses to SCS and injections of norepinephrine were observed. To evaluate vasorelaxant responses, the BP was increased by a continuous infusion of methoxamine with hexamethonium to block autonomic outflow. After the elevated BP stabilized, SCS and injections of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and CGRP were intravenously administered. We then evaluated the effects of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N-ω-nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME), on these vascular responses. Pressor responses to SCS and norepinephrine in pithed rats were enhanced by L-NAME, while the combined infusion of L-NAME and L-arginine had no effect on these responses. L-NAME infusion significantly increased the release of norepinephrine evoked by SCS. In pithed rats with artificially increased BP and L-NAME infusion, depressor response to ACh (except for 0.05nmol/kg) was suppressed and SNP (only 2nmol/kg) was enhanced. However, depressor responses to SCS and CGRP were similar to control responses. The present results suggest endogenous NO regulates vascular tone through endothelium function and inhibition of adrenergic neurotransmission, but not through CGRPergic nerves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Facial nerve neurinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Jacek; Bartoszewicz, Robert; Morawski, Krzysztof; Jamróz, Barbara; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of diagnostic, surgical technique, treatment results facial nerve neurinomas and its comparison with literature was the main purpose of this study. Seven cases of patients (2005-2011) with facial nerve schwannomas were included to retrospective analysis in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw. All patients were assessed with history of the disease, physical examination, hearing tests, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, electronystagmography. Cases were observed in the direction of potential complications and recurrences. Neurinoma of the facial nerve occurred in the vertical segment (n=2), facial nerve geniculum (n=1) and the internal auditory canal (n=4). The symptoms observed in patients were analyzed: facial nerve paresis (n=3), hearing loss (n=2), dizziness (n=1). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography allowed to confirm the presence of the tumor and to assess its staging. Schwannoma of the facial nerve has been surgically removed using the middle fossa approach (n=5) and by antromastoidectomy (n=2). Anatomical continuity of the facial nerve was achieved in 3 cases. In the twelve months after surgery, facial nerve paresis was rated at level II-III° HB. There was no recurrence of the tumor in radiological observation. Facial nerve neurinoma is a rare tumor. Currently surgical techniques allow in most cases, the radical removing of the lesion and reconstruction of the VII nerve function. The rate of recurrence is low. A tumor of the facial nerve should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nerve VII paresis. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Musculocutaneous nerve substituting for the distal part of radial nerve: A case report and its embryological basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Yogesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present case, we have reported a unilateral variation of the radial and musculocutaneous nerves on the left side in a 64-year-old male cadaver. The radial nerve supplied all the heads of the triceps brachii muscle and gave cutaneous branches such as lower lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm and posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm. The radial nerve ended without continuing further. The musculocutaneous nerve supplied the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles. The musculocutaneous nerve divided terminally into two branches, superficial and deep. The deep branch of musculocutaneous nerve corresponded to usual deep branch of the radial nerve while the superficial branch of musculocutaneous nerve corresponded to usual superficial branch of the radial nerve. The dissection was continued to expose the entire brachial plexus from its origin and it was found to be normal. The structures on the right upper limb were found to be normal. Surgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing the surgeries of the upper limb.

  7. Hydrostatic Pressure–Induced Release of Stored Calcium in Cultured Rat Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Amritlal; Delamere, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Elevated intraocular pressure is associated with glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Other investigators have shown functional changes in optic nerve head astrocytes subjected to elevated hydrostatic pressure (HP) for 1 to 5 days. Recently, the authors reported ERK1/2, p90RSK and NHE1 phosphorylation after 2 hours. Here they examine calcium responses at the onset of HP to determine what precedes ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Methods. Cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured in cultured rat optic nerve astrocytes loaded with fura-2. The cells were placed in a closed imaging chamber and subjected to an HP increase of 15 mm Hg. Protein phosphorylation was detected by Western blot analysis. Results. The increase of HP caused an immediate slow increase in [Ca2+]i. The response persisted in calcium-free solution and when nickel chloride (4 mM) was added to suppress channel-mediated calcium entry. Previous depletion of the ER calcium stores by cyclopiazonic acid abolished the HP-induced calcium level increase. The HP-induced increase persisted in cells exposed to xestospongin C, an inhibitor of IP3R-mediated calcium release. In contrast, ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonist ruthenium red (10 μM) or dantrolene (25 μM) inhibited the HP-induced calcium increase. The HP-induced calcium increase was abolished when ryanodine-sensitive calcium stores were pre-depleted with caffeine (3 mM). HP caused ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The magnitude of the ERK1/2 phosphorylation response was reduced by ruthenium red and dantrolene. Conclusions. Increasing HP causes calcium release from a ryanodine-sensitive cytoplasmic store and subsequent ERK1/2 activation. Calcium store release appears to be a required early step in the initial astrocyte response to an HP increase. PMID:20071675

  8. Dynamic, mating-induced gene expression changes in female head and brain tissues of Drosophila melanogaster

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    Stirling Emma J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila melanogaster females show changes in behavior and physiology after mating that are thought to maximize the number of progeny resulting from the most recent copulation. Sperm and seminal fluid proteins induce post-mating changes in females, however, very little is known about the resulting gene expression changes in female head and central nervous system tissues that contribute to the post-mating response. Results We determined the temporal gene expression changes in female head tissues 0-2, 24, 48 and 72 hours after mating. Females from each time point had a unique post-mating gene expression response, with 72 hours post-mating having the largest number of genes with significant changes in expression. At most time points, genes expressed in the head fat body that encode products involved in metabolism showed a marked change in expression. Additional analysis of gene expression changes in dissected brain tissues 24 hours post-mating revealed changes in transcript abundance of many genes, notably, the reduced transcript abundance of genes that encode ion channels. Conclusions Substantial changes occur in the regulation of many genes in female head tissues after mating, which might underlie aspects of the female post-mating response. These results provide new insights into the physiological and metabolic changes that accompany changes in female behaviors.

  9. Influence of corneal power on circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head measurements by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Hirasawa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the influence of corneal power on circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL and optic nerve head (ONH measurements by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. METHODS: Twenty-five eyes of 25 healthy participants (mean age 23.6±3.6y were imaged by SD-OCT using horizontal raster scans. Disposable soft contact lenses of different powers (from −11 to +5 diopters including 0 diopter were worn to induce 2-diopter changes in corneal power. Differences in the cpRNFL and ONH measurements per diopter of change in corneal power were analyzed. RESULTS: As corneal power increased by 1 diopter, total and quadrant cpRNFL thicknesses, except for the nasal sector, decreased by −0.19 to −0.32 μm (P<0.01. Furthermore, the disc, cup, and rim areas decreased by −0.017, −0.007, and −0.015 mm2, respectively (P<0.001; the cup and rim volumes decreased by −0.0013 and −0.006 mm3, respectively (P<0.01; and the vertical and horizontal disc diameters decreased by −0.006 and −0.007 mm, respectively (P<0.001. CONCLUSION: For more precise OCT imaging, the ocular magnification should be corrected by considering both the axial length and corneal power. However, the effect of corneal power changes on cpRNFL thickness and ONH topography are small when compare with those of the axial length.

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene therapy improves nerve regeneration in a model of obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Matthias; Holzbach, Thomas; Matiasek, Kaspar; Schlegel, Jürgen; Giunta, Riccardo E

    2015-03-01

    The treatment of obstetric brachial plexus palsy has been limited to conservative therapies and surgical reconstruction of peripheral nerves. In addition to the damage of the brachial plexus itself, it also leads to a loss of the corresponding motoneurons in the spinal cord, which raises the need for supportive strategies that take the participation of the central nervous system into account. Based on the protective and regenerative effects of VEGF on neural tissue, our aim was to analyse the effect on nerve regeneration by adenoviral gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in postpartum nerve injury of the brachial plexus in rats. In the present study, we induced a selective crush injury to the left spinal roots C5 and C6 in 18 rats within 24 hours after birth and examined the effect of VEGF-gene therapy on nerve regeneration. For gene transduction an adenoviral vector encoding for VEGF165 (AdCMV.VEGF165) was used. In a period of 11 weeks, starting 3 weeks post-operatively, functional regeneration was assessed weekly by behavioural analysis and force measurement of the upper limb. Morphometric evaluation was carried out 8 months post-operatively and consisted of a histological examination of the deltoid muscle and the brachial plexus according to defined criteria of degeneration. In addition, atrophy of the deltoid muscle was evaluated by weight determination comparing the left with the right side. VEGF expression in the brachial plexus was quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore the motoneurons of the spinal cord segment C5 were counted comparing the left with the right side. On the functional level, VEGF-treated animals showed faster nerve regeneration. It was found less degeneration and smaller mass reduction of the deltoid muscle in VEGF-treated animals. We observed significantly less degeneration of the brachial plexus and a greater number of surviving motoneurons (P reason for these effects. The clinical use

  11. Rat optic nerve head anatomy within 3D histomorphometric reconstructions of normal control eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K; Cepurna, William O; Johnson, Elaine C; Morrison, John C; Burgoyne, Claude F

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to three-dimensionally (3D) characterize the principal macroscopic and microscopic relationships within the rat optic nerve head (ONH) and quantify them in normal control eyes. Perfusion-fixed, trephinated ONH from 8 normal control eyes of 8 Brown Norway Rats were 3D histomorphometrically reconstructed, visualized, delineated and parameterized. The rat ONH consists of 2 scleral openings, (a superior neurovascular and inferior arterial) separated by a thin connective tissue strip we have termed the "scleral sling". Within the superior opening, the nerve abuts a prominent extension of Bruch's Membrane (BM) superiorly and is surrounded by a vascular plexus, as it passes through the sclera, that is a continuous from the choroid into and through the dural sheath and contains the central retinal vein (CRV), (inferiorly). The inferior scleral opening contains the central retinal artery and three long posterior ciliary arteries which obliquely pass through the sclera to obtain the choroid. Bruch's Membrane Opening (BMO) is irregular and vertically elongated, enclosing the nerve (superiorly) and CRV and CRA (inferiorly). Overall mean BMO Depth, BMO Area, Choroidal Thickness and peripapillary Scleral Thickness were 29 μm, 56.5 × 10(3) μm(2), 57 μm and 104 μm respectively. Mean anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO) and posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO) radii were 201 ± 15 μm and 204 ± 16 μm, respectively. Mean optic nerve area at the ASCO and PSCO were 46.3 × 10(3)±4.4 × 10(3) μm(2) and 44.1 × 10(3)±4.5 × 10(3) μm(2) respectively. In conclusion, the 3D complexity of the rat ONH and the extent to which it differs from the primate have been under-appreciated within previous 2D studies. Properly understood, these anatomic differences may provide new insights into the relative susceptibilities of the rat and primate ONH to elevated intraocular pressure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of relative head position on the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block during endodontic treatment of patients with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Miglani, Sanjay

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this prospective randomized single-blind clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of tilting the head on the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Ninety-two patients were divided into two groups: the first group received IANB and the head was tilted in the direction of the block for 15 min, whereas the second group received IANB and the head was tilted to the opposite side. Access cavity preparation was initiated after 15 min. Success was defined as no pain or faint/weak/mild pain during endodontic access preparation and instrumentation. The anesthetic success rates were analyzed by Pearson chi-square test at 5% significance levels. The same side position and opposite side position yielded 41% and 30% anesthetic success rates, respectively; there was no significant difference between the two sides. Relative head position has no effect on the anesthetic success rate of IANB.

  13. Scalp Nerve Block pada Kraniotomi Evakuasi Pasien Moderate Head Injury dengan Subdural Hemorrhage dan Intracerebral Hemorrhage Frontotemporoparietal Dekstra Mencegah Stress Response Selama dan Pascabedah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Gunadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin incision and craniotomy are recognized as an acute noxious stimulation during intracranial surgery which may result in stress response causing an increase in intracranial pressure. Scalp nerve block may be effective in reducing stress response. It can also be used to provide post-operative analgesia. A twenty two years old male with moderate head injury, subdural hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage at right fronto-temporo-parietal region underwent evacuation craniotomy with combined scalp nerve block and general anesthesia at Dr. Hasan General Sadikin Hospital Bandung on August 14th 2012. After induction and before incision of the skin, a scalp nerve block was performed using 0.5% bupivacaine. Hemodynamic (blood pressure and heart rate changes after incision of the skin and craniotomy were not significant, and so was post-operative blood glucose concentration. Post-operative analgetic was given eight hours after the block. The result demonstrates that scalp nerve block using 0.5% bupivacaine successfully blunts stress response and can be used as post-operative analgesia.

  14. BDNF gene delivery within and beyond templated agarose multi-channel guidance scaffolds enhances peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingyong; Lu, Paul; Lynam, Dan; Bednark, Bridget; Campana, W. Marie; Sakamoto, Jeff; Tuszynski, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Objective. We combined implantation of multi-channel templated agarose scaffolds with growth factor gene delivery to examine whether this combinatorial treatment can enhance peripheral axonal regeneration through long sciatic nerve gaps. Approach. 15 mm long scaffolds were templated into highly organized, strictly linear channels, mimicking the linear organization of natural nerves into fascicles of related function. Scaffolds were filled with syngeneic bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) secreting the growth factor brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lentiviral vectors expressing BDNF were injected into the sciatic nerve segment distal to the scaffold implantation site. Main results. Twelve weeks after injury, scaffolds supported highly linear regeneration of host axons across the 15 mm lesion gap. The incorporation of BDNF-secreting cells into scaffolds significantly increased axonal regeneration, and additional injection of viral vectors expressing BDNF into the distal segment of the transected nerve significantly enhanced axonal regeneration beyond the lesion. Significance. Combinatorial treatment with multichannel bioengineered scaffolds and distal growth factor delivery significantly improves peripheral nerve repair, rivaling the gold standard of autografts.

  15. Gene therapy for inherited retinal and optic nerve degenerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nicholas A; Morral, Nuria; Ciulla, Thomas A; Bracha, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The eye is a target for investigational gene therapy due to the monogenic nature of many inherited retinal and optic nerve degenerations (IRD), its accessibility, tight blood-ocular barrier, the ability to non-invasively monitor for functional and anatomic outcomes, as well as its relative immune privileged state.Vectors currently used in IRD clinical trials include adeno-associated virus (AAV), small single-stranded DNA viruses, and lentivirus, RNA viruses of the retrovirus family. Both can transduce non-dividing cells, but AAV are non-integrating, while lentivirus integrate into the host cell genome, and have a larger transgene capacity. Areas covered: This review covers Leber's congenital amaurosis, choroideremia, retinitis pigmentosa, Usher syndrome, Stargardt disease, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, Achromatopsia, and X-linked retinoschisis. Expert opinion: Despite great potential, gene therapy for IRD raises many questions, including the potential for less invasive intravitreal versus subretinal delivery, efficacy, safety, and longevity of response, as well as acceptance of novel study endpoints by regulatory bodies, patients, clinicians, and payers. Also, ultimate adoption of gene therapy for IRD will require widespread genetic screening to identify and diagnose patients based on genotype instead of phenotype.

  16. Customizable rigid head fixation for infants: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayakumaran, Suhas; Onyia, Chiazor U

    2016-01-01

    The need and advantages of rigid fixation of the head in cranial surgeries are well documented (Berryhill et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121:269-273, 1999). Head fixation for neurosurgical procedures in infants and in early years has been a challenge and is fraught with risk. Despite the fact that pediatric pins are designed, rigid head fixation involving direct application of pins to the head of infants and slightly older children is still generally not safe (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). Yet, there are some surgeries in which some form of rigid fixation is required (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). We describe a simple technique to achieve rigid fixation of the head in infants for neurosurgical procedures. This involves applying a head band made of Plaster of Paris (POP) around the head and then applying the fixation pins of the fixation frame directly on to the POP. We have used this technique of head fixation successfully for infants with no complications.

  17. Clinical validation and applications for CT-based atlas for contouring the lower cranial nerves for head and neck cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Waleed F; Young, Brett M; Young, Rebekah; Blakaj, Dukagjin M; Ohri, Nitin; Shourbaji, Rania A; Manolidis, Spiros; Gámez, Mauricio; Kumar, Mahesh; Khorsandi, Azita; Khan, Majid A; Shasha, Daniel; Blakaj, Adriana; Glanzman, Jonathan; Garg, Madhur K; Hu, Kenneth S; Kalnicki, Shalom; Harrison, Louis B

    2013-09-01

    Radiation induced cranial nerve palsy (RICNP) involving the lower cranial nerves (CNs) is a serious complication of head and neck radiotherapy (RT). Recommendations for delineating the lower CNs on RT planning studies do not exist. The aim of the current study is to develop a standardized methodology for contouring CNs IX-XII, which would help in establishing RT limiting doses for organs at risk (OAR). Using anatomic texts, radiologic data, and guidance from experts in head and neck anatomy, we developed step-by-step instructions for delineating CNs IX-XII on computed tomography (CT) imaging. These structures were then contoured on five consecutive patients who underwent definitive RT for locally-advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC). RT doses delivered to the lower CNs were calculated. We successfully developed a contouring atlas for CNs IX-XII. The median total dose to the planning target volume (PTV) was 70Gy (range: 66-70Gy). The median CN (IX-XI) and (XII) volumes were 10c.c (range: 8-12c.c) and 8c.c (range: 7-10c.c), respectively. The median V50, V60, V66, and V70 of the CN (IX-XI) and (XII) volumes were (85, 77, 71, 65) and (88, 80, 74, 64) respectively. The median maximal dose to the CN (IX-XI) and (XII) were 72Gy (range: 66-77) and 71Gy (range: 64-78), respectively. We have generated simple instructions for delineating the lower CNs on RT planning imaging. Further analyses to explore the relationship between lower CN dosing and the risk of RICNP are recommended in order to establish limiting doses for these OARs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 2. Impacts of optic nerve head parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Neda; Wang, Mengyu; Wang, Hui; Jin, Qingying; Elze, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Clinicians use retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an adjunct to glaucoma diagnosis. Ametropia is accompanied by changes to the optic nerve head (ONH), which may affect how OCT machines mark RNFLT measurements as abnormal. These changes in abnormality patterns may bias glaucoma diagnosis. Here, we investigate the relationship between OCT abnormality patterns and the following ONH-related and ametropia-associated parameters on 421 eyes of glaucoma patients: optic disc tilt and torsion, central retinal vessel trunk location (CRVTL), and nasal and temporal retinal curvature adjacent to ONH, quantified as nasal/temporal slopes of the inner limiting membrane. We applied multivariate logistic regression with abnormality marks as regressands to 40,401 locations of the peripapillary region and generated spatial maps of locations of false positive/negative abnormality marks independent of glaucoma severity. Effects of torsion and temporal slope were negligible. The effect of tilt could be explained by covariation with ametropia. For CRVTL/nasal slope, abnormality pattern shifts at 7.2%/23.5% of the peripapillary region were detected, respectively, independent of glaucoma severity and ametropia. Therefore, CRVTL and nasal curvature should be included in OCT RNFLT norms. Our spatial location maps may aid clinicians to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  19. Acute Appendicitis, Somatosensory Disturbances ("Head Zones"), and the Differential Diagnosis of Anterior Cutaneous Nerve Entrapment Syndrome (ACNES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumen, Rudi M H; Vening, Wouter; Wouda, Rosanne; Scheltinga, Marc M

    2017-06-01

    Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is a neuropathic abdominal wall pain syndrome typically characterized by locally altered skin sensations. On the other hand, visceral disease may also be associated with similar painful and altered skin sensations ("Head zones"). Aim of the study was to determine if patients with acute appendicitis demonstrated somatosensory disturbances in the corresponding right lower quadrant Head zone. The presence of somatosensory disturbances such as hyperalgesia, hypoesthesia, altered cool perception, or positive pinch test was determined in 100 patients before and after an appendectomy. Potential associations between altered skin sensations and various items including age, sex, history, body temperature, C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocyte count, and type of appendicopathy (normal, inflamed, necrotic, or perforated) were assessed. A total of 39 patients demonstrated at least one right lower abdominal quadrant skin somatosensory disturbance before the laparoscopic appendectomy. However, locoregional skin sensation normalized in all but 2 patients 2 weeks postoperatively. No differences were found concerning patient characteristics or type of appendicopathy between populations with or without altered lower abdominal skin sensations. A substantial portion of patients with acute appendicitis demonstrate right lower abdominal somatosensory disturbances that are similar as observed in acute ACNES. Both may be different sides of the same coin and are possibly expressions of segmental phenomena as described by Head. McBurney's point, a landmark area of maximum pain in acute appendicitis, is possibly a trigger point within a Head zone. Differentiating acute appendicitis from acute ACNES is extremely difficult, but imaging and observation may aid in the diagnostic process.

  20. Nerve ring of the hypostome in hydra. I. Its structure, development, and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koizumi, O; Itazawa, M; Mizumoto, H

    1992-01-01

    neuronal complex consisting of a thick nerve bundle running circumferentially at the border between the hypostome and tentacle zone. Immunostaining showed that the nerve ring was heterogeneous and contained at least four different subsets of neurons. During head regeneration and budding, the nerve ring...

  1. Generalized mechanical pain sensitivity over nerve tissues in patients with strictly unilateral migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, María Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    No study has previously analyzed pressure pain sensitivity of nerve trunks in migraine. This study aimed to examine the differences in mechanical pain sensitivity over specific nerves between patients with unilateral migraine and healthy controls. Blinded investigators assessed pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the supra-orbital nerves (V1) and peripheral nerve trunks of both upper extremities (median, radial, and ulnar nerves) in 20 patients with strictly unilateral migraine and 20 healthy matched controls. Pain intensity after palpation over both supra-orbital nerves was also assessed. A pressure algometer was used to quantify PPT, whereas a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to evaluate pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve. The analysis of covariance revealed that pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve was significantly higher (P0.6). In patients with unilateral migraine, we found increased mechano-sensitivity of the supra-orbital nerve on the symptomatic side of the head. Outside the head, the same patients showed increased mechano-sensitivity of the main peripheral nerves of both upper limbs, without asymmetries. Such diffuse hypersensitivity of the peripheral nerves lends further evidence to the presence of a state of hyperexcitability of the central nervous system in patients with unilateral migraine.

  2. Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Differences Between Caribbean Black and African American Patients as Measured by Spectral Domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohini; Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Al-Aswad, Lama; Ciarleglio, Adam; Cioffi, George A; Blumberg, Dana M

    2015-01-01

    There are well-established differences in optic nerve morphology between patients of African and European descent. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning has demonstrated these differences with respect to optic disc area (DA), average cup-disc ratio, cup volume, and nerve fiber layer thickness. However, the term "African descent" describes a heterogenous group with considerable variability. This study evaluates differences in optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters as measured by Cirrus HD-OCT between Caribbean black and African American patients. A total of 25 African American subjects and 25 Caribbean black subjects with normal ocular examinations were consecutively recruited to this study. All patients received imaging of the optic nerve and nerve fiber layer with Cirrus HD-OCT. Optic nerve and RNFL parameters were evaluated for statistically significant differences using a t test. A mixed effect model for correlated data was then created to adjust outcome variables for (1) repeated measures and (2) optic nerve size. Two one-sided t tests were then utilized to determine equivalence. After adjustment for DA, RNFL thickness, cup volume, DA, inferior nerve fiber layer, and vertical cup-disc ratio demonstrated statistically significant equivalence between the 2 groups (P value fiber layer quadrant was significantly different between the 2 groups and may merit further investigation. Findings of this study suggest that optic nerve and RNFL morphology is markedly similar between Caribbean blacks and African Americans once adjusted for optic nerve size but cannot be considered equivalent in all measures, particularly in the superior nerve fiber layer.

  3. Post traumatic facial nerve palsy without temporal bone fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scuotto, A.; Cappabianca, S.; Capasso, R.; Porto, A.; D'Oria, S.; Rotondo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Facial nerve injury following head trauma is a frequent event with or without temporal bone fractures. Computed tomography is the imaging modality of choice for assessing the possible bone disruption of the facial nerve canal. Magnetic resonance is helpful in presence of a facial nerve paralysis, unexplained by computed tomography findings. We present a case of delayed post-traumatic facial nerve palsy without radiological evidence of temporal bone fractures, in which magnetic resonance was crucial for diagnosing the nerve impairment. Radiological findings in accordance both with electrodiagnostic tests and clinical presentation suggested the successful conservative management. - Highlights: • Facial nerve is more prone to damage than any other cranial nerve after trauma. • Facial nerve trauma is usually associated with temporal bone fractures. • MRI is mandatory in case of no evidence of bone disruption at CT.

  4. 3 Tesla MRI of patients with a vagus nerve stimulator: initial experience using a T/R head coil under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Krzysztof R; Bernstein, Matt A; Watson, Robert E

    2010-02-01

    To assess safety of clinical MRI of the head in patients with implanted model 100, 102, and 103 vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) Therapy Systems (Cyberonics, Inc., Houston, TX) in 3.0 Tesla MRI (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI). The distributions of the radiofrequency B(1) (+)-field produced by the clinically used transmit/receive (T/R) head coil (Advanced Imaging Research Incorporated, Cleveland, OH) and body coil were measured in a head and shoulders phantom. These measurements were supplemented by temperature measurements on the lead tips and the implantable pulse generator (IPG) of the VNS devices in a head and torso phantom with the same two coils. Clinical 3T MRI head scans were then acquired under highly controlled conditions in a series of 17 patients implanted with VNS. Phantom studies showed only weak B(1) (+) fields at the location of the VNS IPG and leads for MRI scans using the T/R head coil. The MRI-related heating on a VNS scanned in vitro at 3T was also found to be minimal (0.4-0.8 degrees C at the leads, negligible at the IPG). The patient MRI examinations were completed successfully without any adverse incidents. No patient reported any heating, discomfort, or any other unusual sensation. Safe clinical MRI head scanning of patients with implanted VNS is shown to be feasible on a GE Signa Excite 3T MRI system using one specific T/R head coil. These results apply to this particular MRI system configuration. Extrapolation or generalization of these results to more general or less controlled imaging situations without supporting data of safety is highly discouraged.

  5. Unilateral traumatic oculomotor nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, Syoji; Satoh, Toru; Yamamoto, Yuji

    1982-01-01

    The present authors report a case of unilateral traumatic oculomotor nerve paralysis which shows interesting CT findings which suggest its mechanism. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a cerebral concussion soon after a traffic accident. A CT scan was performed soon after admission. A high-density spot was noted at the medial aspect of the left cerebral peduncle, where the oculomotor nerve emerged from the midbrain, and an irregular, slender, high-density area was delineated in the right dorsolateral surface of the midbrain. Although the right hemiparesis had already improved by the next morning, the function of the left oculomotor nerve has been completely disturbed for the three months since the injury. In our case, it is speculated that an avulsion of the left oculomotor nerve rootlet occurred at the time of impact as the mechanism of the oculomotor nerve paralysis. A CT taken soon after the head injury showed a high-density spot; this was considered to be a hemorrhage occurring because of the avulsion of the nerve rootlet at the medial surface of the cerebral peduncle. (J.P.N.)

  6. Molecular cloning of a human gene that is a member of the nerve growth factor family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.R.; Reichardt, L.F. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Cell death within the developing vertebrate nervous system is regulated in part by interactions between neurons and their innervation targets that are mediated by neurotrophic factors. These factors also appear to have a role in the maintenance of the adult nervous system. Two neurotrophic factors, nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, share substantial amino acid sequence identity. The authors have used a screen that combines polymerase chain reaction amplification of genomic DNA and low-stringency hybridization with degenerate oligonucleotides to isolate human BDNF and a human gene, neurotrophin-3, that is closely related to both nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. mRNA products of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 genes were detected in the adult human brain, suggesting that these proteins are involved in the maintenance of the adult nervous system. Neurotrophin-3 is also expected to function in embryonic neural development.

  7. Morphometric Optic Nerve Head Analysis in Glaucoma Patients: A Comparison between the Simultaneous Nonmydriatic Stereoscopic Fundus Camera (Kowa Nonmyd WX3D and the Heidelberg Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (HRT III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Mariacher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the agreement between morphometric optic nerve head parameters assessed with the confocal laser ophthalmoscope HRT III and the stereoscopic fundus camera Kowa nonmyd WX3D retrospectively. Methods. Morphometric optic nerve head parameters of 40 eyes of 40 patients with primary open angle glaucoma were analyzed regarding their vertical cup-to-disc-ratio (CDR. Vertical CDR, disc area, cup volume, rim volume, and maximum cup depth were assessed with both devices by one examiner. Mean bias and limits of agreement (95% CI were obtained using scatter plots and Bland-Altman analysis. Results. Overall vertical CDR comparison between HRT III and Kowa nonmyd WX3D measurements showed a mean difference (limits of agreement of −0.06 (−0.36 to 0.24. For the CDR < 0.5 group (n=24 mean difference in vertical CDR was −0.14 (−0.34 to 0.06 and for the CDR ≥ 0.5 group (n=16 0.06 (−0.21 to 0.34. Conclusion. This study showed a good agreement between Kowa nonmyd WX3D and HRT III with regard to widely used optic nerve head parameters in patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy. However, data from Kowa nonmyd WX3D exhibited the tendency to measure larger CDR values than HRT III in the group with CDR < 0.5 group and lower CDR values in the group with CDR ≥ 0.5.

  8. Ultrasound imaging accurately identifies the intercostobrachial nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed K. Thallaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To test the hypothesis that identification and blockade of the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN can be achieved under ultrasound (US guidance using a small volume of local anesthetic. Methods: Twenty-eight adult male volunteers were examined at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from November 2012 to September 2013. Intercostobrachial nerve blockade was performed using one ml of 2% lidocaine under US guidance. A sensory map of the blocked area was developed relative to the medial aspect of the humeral head. Results: The ICBN appears as a hyper-echoic structure. The nerve diameter was 2.3±0.28 mm, and the depth was 9±0.28 mm. The measurements of the sensory-blocked area relative to the medial aspect of the humeral head were as follows: 6.3±1.6 cm anteriorly; 6.2±2.9 cm posteriorly; 9.4±2.9 cm proximally; and 9.2±4.4 cm distally. Intercostobrachial nerve blockade using one ml of local anesthetic was successful in all cases. Conclusion: The present study described the sonographic anatomical details of the ICBN and its sensory distribution to successfully perform selective US-guided ICBN blockade.

  9. Polymorphisms in human DNA repair genes and head and neck ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Genetic polymorphisms in some DNA repair proteins are associated with a number of malignant transformations like head and ... Such studies may benefit from analysis of multiple genes or polymorphisms and from the ... low survival and high morbidity when diagnosed in advanced ...... racial and/or ethnic cohort.

  10. Nerve growth factor mRNA in brain: localization by in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennert, P.D.; Heinrich, G.

    1986-01-01

    Nerve Growth Factor is a 118 amino acid polypeptide that plays an important role in the differentiation and survival of neurons. The recent discovery that a mRNA that encodes beta Nerve Growth Factor is present in brain suggests that the Nerve Growth Factor gene may not only regulate gene expression of peripheral but also of central neurons. To identify the site(s) of Nerve Growth Factor mRNA production in the brain and to determine which cells express the Nerve Growth Factor gene, the technique of in situ hybridization was employed. A 32P-labeled RNA probe complementary to Nerve Growth Factor mRNA hybridized to cells in the stratum granulosum of the dentate gyrus and the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampus. These observations identify for the first time cellular sites of Nerve Growth Factor gene expression in the central nervous system, and suggest that Nerve Growth Factor mRNA is produced by neurons

  11. Advances in gene therapy and early imaging monitoring for avascular necrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Lan Xiaoli; Zhang Yongxue; Qi Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is a method that transfers foreign gene to target cells, so as to correct or compensate the disease which is caused by the gene defects and abnormalities. As a new technology, gene therapy has been used in many fields, such as cancer, cardiovascular and nervous system disease, and it brings some hope for patients with difficult and complicated disease. Avascular necrosis of femoral head is a refractory and common disease in clinical, but the traditional surgery therapy and conservative treatment both have many shortcomings,and the effect is unsatisfactory. As a new technology,gene therapy showed bright future in orthopedics ischemic disease, and its potential feasibility has been confirmed by many animal experiments. This article focuses on the research progress of gene therapy and early monitoring in the avascular necrosis of the femoral head. (authors)

  12. Characterization of Abnormal Optic Nerve Head Morphology in Albinism Using Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Sarim; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Pilat, Anastasia; Lee, Helena; Pollheimer, Ellen; Proudlock, Frank Anthony

    2015-07-01

    To characterize abnormalities in three-dimensional optic nerve head (ONH) morphology in people with albinism (PWA) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to determine whether ONH abnormalities relate to other retinal and clinical abnormalities. Spectral-domain OCT was used to obtain three-dimensional images from 56 PWA and 60 age- and sex-matched control subjects. B-scans were corrected for nystagmus-associated motion artefacts. Disc, cup, and rim ONH dimensions and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (ppRNFL) thickness were calculated using Copernicus and ImageJ software. Median disc areas were similar in PWA (median = 1.65 mm2) and controls (1.71 mm2, P = 0.128), although discs were significantly elongated horizontally in PWA (P < 0.001). In contrast, median optic cup area in PWA (0.088 mm2) was 23.7% of that in controls (0.373 mm2, P < 0.001), with 39.4% of eyes in PWA not demonstrating a measurable optic cup. This led to significantly smaller cup to disc ratios in PWA (P < 0.001). Median rim volume in PWA (0.273 mm3) was 136.6% of that in controls (0.200 mm3). The ppRNFL was significantly thinner in PWA compared with controls (P < 0.001), especially in the temporal quadrant. In PWA, ppRNFL thickness was correlated to ganglion cell thickness at the central fovea (P = 0.007). Several ONH abnormalities, such as cup to disc ratio, were related to higher refractive errors in PWA. In PWA, ocular maldevelopment is not just limited to the retina but also involves the ONH. Reduced ppRNFL thickness is consistent with previous reports of reduced ganglion cell numbers in PWA. The thicker rim volumes may be a result of incomplete maturation of the ONH.

  13. Post-traumatic Unilateral Avulsion of the Abducens Nerve with Damage to Cranial Nerves VII and VIII: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Akiyama, Yuji; Tsumura, Ryu; Kolakshyapati, Manish; Adhikari, Rupendra Bahadur; Takayasu, Takeshi; Nosaka, Ryo; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injuries of the abducens nerve as a consequence of facial and/or head trauma occur with or without associated cervical or skull base fracture. This is the first report on unilateral avulsion of the abducens nerve in a 29-year-old man with severe right facial trauma. In addition, he exhibited mild left facial palsy, and moderate left hearing disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) revealed avulsion of left sixth cra...

  14. Sex-biased gene expression during head development in a sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed fly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald S Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Stalk-eyed flies (family Diopsidae are a model system for studying sexual selection due to the elongated and sexually dimorphic eye-stalks found in many species. These flies are of additional interest because their X chromosome is derived largely from an autosomal arm in other flies. To identify candidate genes required for development of dimorphic eyestalks and investigate how sex-biased expression arose on the novel X, we compared gene expression between males and females using oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA from developing eyestalk tissue or adult heads in the dimorphic diopsid, Teleopsis dalmanni. Microarray analysis revealed sex-biased expression for 26% of 3,748 genes expressed in eye-antennal imaginal discs and concordant sex-biased expression for 86 genes in adult heads. Overall, 415 female-biased and 482 male-biased genes were associated with dimorphic eyestalk development but not differential expression in the adult head. Functional analysis revealed that male-biased genes are disproportionately associated with growth and mitochondrial function while female-biased genes are associated with cell differentiation and patterning or are novel transcripts. With regard to chromosomal effects, dosage compensation occurs by elevated expression of X-linked genes in males. Genes with female-biased expression were more common on the X and less common on autosomes than expected, while male-biased genes exhibited no chromosomal pattern. Rates of protein evolution were lower for female-biased genes but higher for genes that moved on or off the novel X chromosome. These findings cannot be due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation or by constraints associated with dosage compensation. Instead, they could be consistent with sexual conflict in which female-biased genes on the novel X act primarily to reduce eyespan in females while other genes increase eyespan in both sexes. Additional information on sex-biased gene expression in other tissues and

  15. Superficial or deep implantation of motor nerve after denervation: an experimental study--superficial or deep implantation of motor nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Ibrahím; Sabuncuoglu, Bízden Tavíl

    2002-01-01

    Neurorraphy, conventional nerve grafting technique, and artificial nerve conduits are not enough for repair in severe injuries of peripheral nerves, especially when there is separation of motor nerve from muscle tissue. In these nerve injuries, reinnervation is indicated for neurotization. The distal end of a peripheral nerve is divided into fascicles and implanted into the aneural zone of target muscle tissue. It is not known how deeply fascicles should be implanted into muscle tissue. A comparative study of superficial and deep implantation of separated motor nerve into muscle tissue is presented in the gastrocnemius muscle of rabbits. In this experimental study, 30 white New Zealand rabbits were used and divided into 3 groups of 10 rabbits each. In the first group (controls, group I), only surgical exposure of the gastrocnemius muscle and motor nerve (tibial nerve) was done without any injury to nerves. In the superficial implantation group (group II), tibial nerves were separated and divided into their own fascicles. These fascicles were implanted superficially into the lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle-aneural zone. In the deep implantation group (group III), the tibial nerves were separated and divided into their own fascicles. These fascicles were implanted around the center of the muscle mass, into the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle-aneural zone. Six months later, histopathological changes and functional recovery of the gastrocnemius muscle were investigated. Both experimental groups had less muscular weight than in the control group. It was found that functional recovery was achieved in both experimental groups, and was better in the superficial implantation group than the deep implantation group. EMG recordings revealed that polyphasic and late potentials were frequently seen in both experimental groups. Degeneration and regeneration of myofibrils were observed in both experimental groups. New motor end-plates were formed in a scattered

  16. Computed tomographic study of the complication of head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Tadashi; Waga, Shiro

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is quite effective in the diagnosis of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral contusion. Two hundred and nine consecutive patients with head injury were admitted to the hospital and studied by CT in the year from 1977 to 1980. Fourty-sevenof 209 patients had the complications of head injury, including 6 patients with carotidcavernous fistula (CCF), 6 with traumatic aneurysm, 10 with pneumocephalus, 4 with intracranial foreign body, 15 with optic nerve injury, and 14 with other cranial nerve palsy. Five patients with CCF had abnormal finding on CT. Two traumatic aneurysms of the superficial temporal artery were visualized on CT after injection of contrast material, but all traumatic aneurysms of the carotid siphon were not seven on CT. CT in all 10 patients with pneumocephalus and in all 4 patients with intracranial foreign body was of diagnostic value: On CT in two patients even small air bubbles were seen in details. In the CT examination of 29 patients who presented with cranial nerve injury, we could not find out any abnormality on CT. We emphasize that CT is much less effective in the diagnosis of vascular complication of head injury and traumatic cranial nerve injury. (author)

  17. Highly preserved consensus gene modules in human papilloma virus 16 positive cervical cancer and head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianglan; Cha, In-Ho; Kim, Ki-Yeol

    2017-12-26

    In this study, we investigated the consensus gene modules in head and neck cancer (HNC) and cervical cancer (CC). We used a publicly available gene expression dataset, GSE6791, which included 42 HNC, 14 normal head and neck, 20 CC and 8 normal cervical tissue samples. To exclude bias because of different human papilloma virus (HPV) types, we analyzed HPV16-positive samples only. We identified 3824 genes common to HNC and CC samples. Among these, 977 genes showed high connectivity and were used to construct consensus modules. We demonstrated eight consensus gene modules for HNC and CC using the dissimilarity measure and average linkage hierarchical clustering methods. These consensus modules included genes with significant biological functions, including ATP binding and extracellular exosome. Eigengen network analysis revealed the consensus modules were highly preserved with high connectivity. These findings demonstrate that HPV16-positive head and neck and cervical cancers share highly preserved consensus gene modules with common potentially therapeutic targets.

  18. Nerve growth factor reduces apoptotic cell death in rat facial motor neurons after facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lian; Yuan, Jing; Ren, Zhong; Jiang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on motor neurons after induction of a facial nerve lesion, and to compare the effects of different routes of NGF injection on motor neuron survival. This study was carried out in the Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, China Medical University, Liaoning, China from October 2012 to March 2013. Male Wistar rats (n = 65) were randomly assigned into 4 groups: A) healthy controls; B) facial nerve lesion model + normal saline injection; C) facial nerve lesion model + NGF injection through the stylomastoid foramen; D) facial nerve lesion model + intraperitoneal injection of NGF. Apoptotic cell death was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Expression of caspase-3 and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) was determined by immunohistochemistry. Injection of NGF significantly reduced cell apoptosis, and also greatly decreased caspase-3 and PUMA expression in injured motor neurons. Group C exhibited better efficacy for preventing cellular apoptosis and decreasing caspase-3 and PUMA expression compared with group D (pfacial nerve injury in rats. The NGF injected through the stylomastoid foramen demonstrated better protective efficacy than when injected intraperitoneally.

  19. Promising Technique for Facial Nerve Reconstruction in Extended Parotidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ithzel Maria Villarreal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malignant tumors of the parotid gland account scarcely for 5% of all head and neck tumors. Most of these neoplasms have a high tendency for recurrence, local infiltration, perineural extension, and metastasis. Although uncommon, these malignant tumors require complex surgical treatment sometimes involving a total parotidectomy including a complete facial nerve resection. Severe functional and aesthetic facial defects are the result of a complete sacrifice or injury to isolated branches becoming an uncomfortable distress for patients and a major challenge for reconstructive surgeons.   Case Report: A case of a 54-year-old, systemically healthy male patient with a 4 month complaint of pain and swelling on the right side of the face is presented. The patient reported a rapid increase in the size of the lesion over the past 2 months. Imaging tests and histopathological analysis reported an adenoid cystic carcinoma. A complete parotidectomy was carried out with an intraoperative notice of facial nerve infiltration requiring a second intervention for nerve and defect reconstruction. A free ALT flap with vascularized nerve grafts was the surgical choice. A 6 month follow-up showed partial facial movement recovery and the facial defect mended.   Conclusion:  It is of critical importance to restore function to patients with facial nerve injury.  Vascularized nerve grafts, in many clinical and experimental studies, have shown to result in better nerve regeneration than conventional non-vascularized nerve grafts. Nevertheless, there are factors that may affect the degree, speed and regeneration rate regarding the free fasciocutaneous flap. In complex head and neck defects following a total parotidectomy, the extended free fasciocutaneous ALT (anterior-lateral thigh flap with a vascularized nerve graft is ideally suited for the reconstruction of the injured site.  Donor–site morbidity is low and additional surgical time is minimal

  20. Promising Technique for Facial Nerve Reconstruction in Extended Parotidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Ithzel Maria; Rodríguez-Valiente, Antonio; Castelló, Jose Ramon; Górriz, Carmen; Montero, Oscar Alvarez; García-Berrocal, Jose Ramon

    2015-11-01

    Malignant tumors of the parotid gland account scarcely for 5% of all head and neck tumors. Most of these neoplasms have a high tendency for recurrence, local infiltration, perineural extension, and metastasis. Although uncommon, these malignant tumors require complex surgical treatment sometimes involving a total parotidectomy including a complete facial nerve resection. Severe functional and aesthetic facial defects are the result of a complete sacrifice or injury to isolated branches becoming an uncomfortable distress for patients and a major challenge for reconstructive surgeons. A case of a 54-year-old, systemically healthy male patient with a 4 month complaint of pain and swelling on the right side of the face is presented. The patient reported a rapid increase in the size of the lesion over the past 2 months. Imaging tests and histopathological analysis reported an adenoid cystic carcinoma. A complete parotidectomy was carried out with an intraoperative notice of facial nerve infiltration requiring a second intervention for nerve and defect reconstruction. A free ALT flap with vascularized nerve grafts was the surgical choice. A 6 month follow-up showed partial facial movement recovery and the facial defect mended. It is of critical importance to restore function to patients with facial nerve injury. Vascularized nerve grafts, in many clinical and experimental studies, have shown to result in better nerve regeneration than conventional non-vascularized nerve grafts. Nevertheless, there are factors that may affect the degree, speed and regeneration rate regarding the free fasciocutaneous flap. In complex head and neck defects following a total parotidectomy, the extended free fasciocutaneous ALT (anterior-lateral thigh) flap with a vascularized nerve graft is ideally suited for the reconstruction of the injured site. Donor-site morbidity is low and additional surgical time is minimal compared with the time of a single ALT flap transfer.

  1. In vitro and in vivo gene therapy with CMV vector-mediated presumed dog beta-nerve growth factor in pyridoxine-induced neuropathy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Shin, Il Seob; Choi, Eun Wha; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Lee, Sang Koo; Youn, Hwa Young

    2008-12-01

    Due to the therapeutic potential of gene therapy for neuronal injury, many studies of neurotrophic factors, vectors, and animal models have been performed. The presumed dog beta-nerve growth factor (pdbeta-NGF) was generated and cloned and its expression was confirmed in CHO cells. The recombinant pdbeta-NGF protein reacted with a human beta-NGF antibody and showed bioactivity in PC12 cells. The pdbeta-NGF was shown to have similar bioactivity to the dog beta-NGF. The recombinant pdbeta-NGF plasmid was administrated into the intrathecal space in the gene therapy group. Twenty-four hours after the vector inoculation, the gene therapy group and the positive control group were intoxicated with excess pyridoxine for seven days. Each morning throughout the test period, the dogs' body weight was taken and postural reaction assessments were made. Electrophysiological recordings were performed twice, once before the experiment and once after the test period. After the experimental period, histological analysis was performed. Dogs in the gene therapy group had no weight change and were normal in postural reaction assessments. Electrophysiological recordings were also normal for the gene therapy group. Histological analysis showed that neither the axons nor the myelin of the dorsal funiculus of L4 were severely damaged in the gene therapy group. In addition, the dorsal root ganglia of L4 and the peripheral nerves (sciatic nerve) did not experience severe degenerative changes in the gene therapy group. This study is the first to show the protective effect of NGF gene therapy in a dog model.

  2. Functional Outcomes of Multiple Sural Nerve Grafts for Facial Nerve Defects after Tumor-Ablative Surgery

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    Myung Chul Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFunctional restoration of the facial expression is necessary after facial nerve resection to treat head and neck tumors. This study was conducted to evaluate the functional outcomes of patients who underwent facial nerve cable grafting immediately after tumor resection.MethodsPatients who underwent cable grafting from April 2007 to August 2011 were reviewed, in which a harvested branch of the sural nerve was grafted onto each facial nerve division. Twelve patients underwent facial nerve cable grafting after radical parotidectomy, total parotidectomy, or schwannoma resection, and the functional facial expression of each patient was evaluated using the Facial Nerve Grading Scale 2.0. The results were analyzed according to patient age, follow-up duration, and the use of postoperative radiation therapy.ResultsAmong the 12 patients who were evaluated, the mean follow-up duration was 21.8 months, the mean age at the time of surgery was 42.8 years, and the mean facial expression score was 14.6 points, indicating moderate dysfunction. Facial expression scores were not influenced by age at the time of surgery, follow-up duration, or the use of postoperative radiation therapy.ConclusionsThe results of this study indicate that facial nerve cable grafting using the sural nerve can restore facial expression. Although patients were provided with appropriate treatment, the survival rate for salivary gland cancer was poor. We conclude that immediate facial nerve reconstruction is a worthwhile procedure that improves quality of life by allowing the recovery of facial expression, even in patients who are older or may require radiation therapy.

  3. Electrophysiologic analysis of injury to cranial nerve XI during neck dissection.

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    Lanisnik, Bostjan; Zargi, Miha; Rodi, Zoran

    2016-04-01

    Despite preservation of the accessory nerve, a considerable number of patients report partial nerve damage after modified radical neck dissection (MRND) and selective neck dissection. Accessory nerve branches for the trapezius muscle were stimulated during neck dissection, and the M wave amplitude was measured during distinct surgical phases. The accessory nerve was mapped in 20 patients. The M wave recordings indicated that major nerve damage occurred during dissection at levels IIa and IIb in the most proximal segment of the nerve. The M waves evoked from this nerve segment decreased significantly during surgery (analysis of variance; p = .001). The most significant intraoperative injury to the accessory nerve during neck dissection occurs at anatomic nerve levels IIa and IIb. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E372-E376, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Glaucoma: Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (An AOS Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teresa C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate that video-rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) can qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) glaucomatous structural changes. To correlate quantitative SDOCT parameters with disc photography and visual fields. Methods: SDOCT images from 4 glaucoma eyes (4 patients) with varying stages of open-angle glaucoma (ie, early, moderate, late) were qualitatively contrasted with 2 age-matched normal eyes (2 patients). Of 61 other consecutive patients recruited in an institutional setting, 53 eyes (33 patients) met inclusion/exclusion criteria for quantitative studies. Images were obtained using two experimental SDOCT systems, one utilizing a superluminescent diode and the other a titanium:sapphire laser source, with axial resolutions of about 6 μm and 3 μm, respectively. Results: Classic glaucomatous ONH and RNFL structural changes were seen in SDOCT images. An SDOCT reference plane 139 μm above the retinal pigment epithelium yielded cup-disc ratios that best correlated with masked physician disc photography cup-disc ratio assessments. The minimum distance band, a novel SDOCT neuroretinal rim parameter, showed good correlation with physician cup-disc ratio assessments, visual field mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation (P values range, .0003–.024). RNFL and retinal thickness maps correlated well with disc photography and visual field testing. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this thesis presents the first comprehensive qualitative and quantitative evaluation of SDOCT images of the ONH and RNFL in glaucoma. This pilot study provides basis for developing more automated quantitative SDOCT-specific glaucoma algorithms needed for future prospective multicenter national trials. PMID:20126502

  5. The study on transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in facial nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunchun; Li Lin; Wang Quanlin; Yang Xiaochuan; He Gang; Gao Bingqing; Lin Daicheng; Liang Chuanyu

    2000-01-01

    The transport information of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in facial nerve is studied using 125 I-BDNF or 131 I-BDNF. After one lateral facial nerve trunk of adult rabbit is transected, a silicone chamber is inserted between the stumps, and labelled compounds are administered into the chamber. Bilateral facial nerve trunk and facial nerve motor neurone of brain-stem of rabbits are collected and counted respectively, and imaged at coronary position of head in live rabbit. The results show that BDNF has a retrograde transport in facial nerve, and the transport of 131 I-BDNF is marked restrained by BDNF in facial nerve

  6. A Deep Learning Approach to Digitally Stain Optical Coherence Tomography Images of the Optic Nerve Head.

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    Devalla, Sripad Krishna; Chin, Khai Sing; Mari, Jean-Martial; Tun, Tin A; Strouthidis, Nicholas G; Aung, Tin; Thiéry, Alexandre H; Girard, Michaël J A

    2018-01-01

    To develop a deep learning approach to digitally stain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the optic nerve head (ONH). A horizontal B-scan was acquired through the center of the ONH using OCT (Spectralis) for one eye of each of 100 subjects (40 healthy and 60 glaucoma). All images were enhanced using adaptive compensation. A custom deep learning network was then designed and trained with the compensated images to digitally stain (i.e., highlight) six tissue layers of the ONH. The accuracy of our algorithm was assessed (against manual segmentations) using the dice coefficient, sensitivity, specificity, intersection over union (IU), and accuracy. We studied the effect of compensation, number of training images, and performance comparison between glaucoma and healthy subjects. For images it had not yet assessed, our algorithm was able to digitally stain the retinal nerve fiber layer + prelamina, the RPE, all other retinal layers, the choroid, and the peripapillary sclera and lamina cribrosa. For all tissues, the dice coefficient, sensitivity, specificity, IU, and accuracy (mean) were 0.84 ± 0.03, 0.92 ± 0.03, 0.99 ± 0.00, 0.89 ± 0.03, and 0.94 ± 0.02, respectively. Our algorithm performed significantly better when compensated images were used for training (P deep learning algorithm can simultaneously stain the neural and connective tissues of the ONH, offering a framework to automatically measure multiple key structural parameters of the ONH that may be critical to improve glaucoma management.

  7. Delayed-onset bilateral abducens paresis after head trauma

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    Pravin Salunke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral sixth nerve paresis following closed head injury, though rare, is a known entity. However, delayed-onset post-traumatic bilateral abducens paresis is extremely rare. We present two cases. The first patient had onset of bilateral abducens paresis 2 weeks after closed head injury and the second patient after 3 days. The cause in the former was detected to be chronic subdural hematoma and in the latter is speculated to be edema/ischemia due to injury to soft tissue structures housing these nerves. The delayed onset of bilateral abducens paresis following head injury may vary according to the cause. There may be another mechanism of injury apart from direct trauma. Though rare, it needs to be evaluated and may have a treatable cause like elevated intracranial pressure.

  8. Retroauricular transmeatal approach to manage mandibular condylar head fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benech, Arnaldo; Arcuri, Francesco; Baragiotta, Nicola; Nicolotti, Matteo; Brucoli, Matteo

    2011-03-01

    There is a multitude of reported surgical approaches and technical variants with some unresolved technical problems to gain direct access to mandibular condylar head fractures; they can be divided into 2 groups: intraoral and extraoral. In 2005, Neff et al (Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir 2005;9:80), supported by a previous experimental work, reported a successful clinical study of condylar head fractures treated by a retroauricular approach; this article is in German, and the later English-language literature does not mention about this approach to open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular condylar fractures. The retroauricular transmeatal access, selected and performed by the senior author to treat 14 patients affected by highly located condylar head fracture, is illustrated in details. We collected data of 14 consecutive adult patients who, after the discussion about all options, had consented to have 16 mandibular condylar head fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation by miniplates and screws via a retroauricular transmeatal approach. We exposed the temporomandibular joint area easily and better by dissecting via a retroauricular route with identification, ligation, and transection of the retromandibular vein; because of the posterior access, the frontal branch of the facial nerve and the auriculotemporal nerve are located and protected within the substance of the anteriorly retracted flap, superficial to the retromandibular vein. The follow-up clinical examination showed temporary weakness of the frontal branch of the facial nerve in 1 case with a recovery to normal function of 1.6 months; no patients had permanent weakness of the facial nerve or injury of the auriculotemporal nerve. There was absence of any salivary fistula, sialocele, and Frey syndrome; hearing was preserved in all cases, without any auditory stenosis or aesthetic deformity, and there was absence of any infections, hematoma, or scarring. Retroauricular approach provides

  9. Investigation into Regeneration Mechanism of Hydroalcoholic Lavender (Lavandula officianalis Extract through the Evaluation of NT3 Gene Expression after Sciatic Nerve Compression in Rats

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    Fereshteh Naderi Allaf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Retrograde transport to the alpha motoneurons causes spinal degeneration. The neurotrophic factor (NT3 increases the number of myelinated axons in the dorsal root, leads to differentiation and survival of sensory neurons, parasympathetic motoneurons and prevents cell death. Lavender is a plant in the family Lamiaceae which is reported to have antioxidant, antispasmodic, diuretic, anti-asthmatic, refrigerant, and antipyretic effects. This study examined NT3 gene expression changes after sciatic nerve compression in rats, in the presence of Lavandula officinalis extract. Materials and Methods: Lavender Soxhlet hydroalcoholic extraction was prepared. 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups including control, compression and treatment (compression group + hydroalcoholic extract of Lavender injections 75mg/kg groups. In controls the muscle was opened without damage to gain access to the sciatic nerve. In compression and treatment groups, the sciatic nerve (right leg was compressed. The extract was injected intraperitoneally in two occasions. A biopsy was taken from the spinal cord segments L4-L6 on day 28, total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized and NT3 gene expression changes were analyzed by ANOVA test by using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that NT3 gene expression had a significant reduction in compression group compared to the control group (p<0.001 and it had a significant increase in treatment group compared with the compression group (p<0.001. Conclusion: A significant increase in gene expression shows that Lavandula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract improves nerve regeneration via NT3 gene expression.

  10. Imaging of muscular denervation secondary to motor cranial nerve dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Chaudhary, N.; Fareedi, S.; Woo, E.K.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of motor cranial nerve dysfunction on the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of head and neck muscles are reviewed. Patterns of denervation changes are described and illustrated for V, VII, X, XI and XII cranial nerves. Recognition of the range of imaging manifestations, including the temporal changes in muscular appearances and associated muscular grafting or compensatory hypertrophy, will avoid misinterpretation as local disease. It will also prompt the radiologist to search for underlying cranial nerve pathology, which may be clinically occult. The relevant cranial nerve motor division anatomy will be described to enable a focussed search for such a structural abnormality

  11. Imaging of muscular denervation secondary to motor cranial nerve dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sejconnor@tiscali.co.uk; Chaudhary, N. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Fareedi, S. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Woo, E.K. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    The effects of motor cranial nerve dysfunction on the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of head and neck muscles are reviewed. Patterns of denervation changes are described and illustrated for V, VII, X, XI and XII cranial nerves. Recognition of the range of imaging manifestations, including the temporal changes in muscular appearances and associated muscular grafting or compensatory hypertrophy, will avoid misinterpretation as local disease. It will also prompt the radiologist to search for underlying cranial nerve pathology, which may be clinically occult. The relevant cranial nerve motor division anatomy will be described to enable a focussed search for such a structural abnormality.

  12. EXTRACRANIAL HEAD AND NECK SCHWANNOMA: CASE REPORT

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    Ashok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schwannoma is a benign nerve sheath tumour composed of Schwan cells which normally produce the insulating myelin sheath covering peripheral nerves. Schwannoma is a homogenous tumour, consisting only of schwan cells. The tumour cells stay outside the nerve, but the tumour itself may either push the nerve aside or up against a bony structure there by producing nerve damage. They arise from peripheral, cranial and autonomic nerves and usually present as solitary well demarcated lesions. Extracranial Head and Neck schwannomas are rare tumours. They may produce secondary symptoms like nasal obstruction, dysphagia, and hoarseness of voice depending upon the location of the tumour. FNAC, Ultra sound, CT, MRI may be of limited help in the diagnosis. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Post operative histopa thological examination establishes the final diagnosis

  13. Optic nerve head and intraocular pressure in the guinea pig eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2016-05-01

    The guinea pig is becoming an increasingly popular model for studying human myopia, which carries an increased risk of glaucoma. As a step towards understanding this association, this study sought to characterize the normal, developmental intraocular pressure (IOP) profiles, as well as the anatomy of the optic nerve head (ONH) and adjacent sclera of young guinea pigs. IOP was tracked in pigmented guinea pigs up to 3 months of age. One guinea pig was imaged in vivo with OCT and one with a fundus camera. The eyes of pigmented and albino guinea pigs (ages 2 months) were enucleated and sections from the posterior segment, including the ONH and surrounding sclera, processed for histological analyses - either hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of paraffin embedded, sectioned tissue (n = 1), or cryostat sectioned tissue, processed for immunohistochemistry (n = 3), using primary antibodies against collagen types I-V, elastin, fibronectin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) studies of ONHs were also undertaken (n = 2 & 5 respectively). Mean IOPs ranged from 17.33 to 22.7 mmHg, increasing slightly across the age range studied, and the IOPs of individual animals also exhibited diurnal variations, peaking in the early morning (mean of 25.8, mmHg, ∼9 am), and decreasing across the day. H&E-stained sections showed retinal ganglion cell axons organized into fascicles in the prelaminar and laminar region of the ONHs, with immunostained sections revealing collagen types I, III, IV and V, as well as elastin, GFAP and fibronectin in the ONHs. SEM revealed a well-defined lamina cribrosa (LC), with radially-oriented collagen beams. TEM revealed collagen fibrils surrounding non-myelinated nerve fiber bundles in the LC region, with myelination and decreased collagen posterior to the LC. The adjacent sclera comprised mainly crimped collagen fibers in a crisscross arrangement. Both the sclera and LC were

  14. Somatostatin, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive intramural nerve structures of the human large intestine affected by carcinoma.

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    Jerzy Kaleczyc

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the arrangement and chemical coding of enteric nerve structures in the human large intestine affected by cancer. Tissue samples comprising all layers of the intestinal wall were collected during surgery form both morphologically unchanged and pathologically altered segments of the intestine (n=15, and fixed by immersion in buffered paraformaldehyde solution. The cryostat sections were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence to study the distribution of the intramural nerve structures (visualized with antibodies against protein gene-product 9.5 and their chemical coding using antibodies against somatostatin (SOM, substance P (SP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP. The microscopic observations revealed distinct morphological differences in the enteric nerve system structure between the region adjacent to the cancer invaded area and the intact part of the intestine. In general, infiltration of the cancer tissue resulted in the gradual (depending on the grade of invasion first decomposition and reduction to final partial or complete destruction and absence of the neuronal elements. A comparative analysis of immunohistochemically labeled sections (from the unchanged and pathologically altered areas revealed a statistically significant decrease in the number of CGRP-positive neurons and nerve fibres in both submucous and myenteric plexuses in the transitional zone between morphologically unchanged and cancer-invaded areas. In this zone, a decrease was also observed in the density of SP-positive nerve fibres in all intramural plexuses. Conversely, the investigations demonstrated statistically insignificant differences in number of SP- and SOM-positive neurons and a similar density of SOM-positive nerve fibres in the plexuses of the intact and pathologically changed areas. The differentiation between the potential adaptive changes in ENS or destruction of its elements by cancer invasion should be

  15. Time course Analysis of Gene expression patterns in ZebrafIsh Eye during Optic Nerve Regeneration

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    Amy T. Mccurley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well-established that neurons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS are terminally differentiated and, if injured, will be unable to regenerate their connections. In contrast to mammals, zebrafish and other teleosts display a robust neuroregenerative response. Following optic nerve crush (ONX, retinal ganglion cells (RGC regrow their axons to synapse with topographically correct targets in the optic tectum, such that vision is restored in ~21 days. What accounts for these differences between teleostean and mammalian responses to neural injury is not fully understood. A time course analysis of global gene expression patterns in the zebrafish eye after ONX can help to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to a successful neuroregeneration. To define different phases of regeneration after ONX, alpha tubulin 1 ( tuba1 and growth-associated protein 43 ( gap43 , markers previously shown to correspond to morphophological events, were measured by real time quantitative PCR (qPCR. Microarray analysis was then performed at defined intervals (6 hours, 1, 4, 12, and 21 days post-ONX and compared to SHAM. Results show that optic nerve damage induces multiple, phase-related transcriptional programs, with the maximum number of genes changed and highest fold-change occurring at 4 days. Several functional groups affected by optic nerve regeneration, including cell adhesion, apoptosis, cell cycle, energy metabolism, ion channel activity, and calcium signaling, were identified. Utilizing the whole eye allowed us to identify signaling contributions from the vitreous, immune and glial cells as well as the neural cells of the retina. Comparisons between our dataset and transcriptional profiles from other models of regeneration in zebrafish retina, heart and fin revealed a subset of commonly regulated transcripts, indicating shared mechanisms in different regenerating tissues. Knowledge of gene expression patterns in all

  16. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy resulting from acute traumatic tentorial subdural hematoma

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    Cui V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Cui,1 Timur Kouliev2 1Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; 2Emergency Department, Beijing United Family Hospital, Beijing, China Abstract: Acute subdural hematoma (SDH resulting from head trauma is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires expedient diagnosis and intervention to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Rapidly expanding or large hematomas, elevated intracranial pressure, and associated complications of brain herniation are associated with high mortality rates and poor recovery of neurological function. However, smaller bleeds (clot thickness <10 mm or hematomas occurring in infrequent locations, such as the tentorium cerebelli, may be difficult to recognize and patients may present with unusual or subtle signs and symptoms, including isolated cranial nerve palsies. Knowledge of neuroanatomy supported by modern neuroimaging can greatly aid in recognition and diagnosis of such lesions. In this report, we present a case of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy resulting from compressive tentorial SDH following blunt head trauma, review the literature concerning similar cases, and make recommendations regarding the diagnosis of SDH in patients presenting with isolated cranial nerve palsies. Keywords: head injury, oculomotor, palsy, subdural hematoma, trauma, tentorium, cerebral herniation, intracranial hemorrhage

  17. Expression of osteoprotegerin, RNAK and RANKL genes in femoral head avascular necrosis and related signaling pathway.

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    Miao, Qingtang; Hao, Sibin; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Fang; Wang, Xueling

    2015-01-01

    Femoral head avascular necrosis (AVN) causes the damage of hip joint and related dysfunctions, thus consisting of a clinical challenge. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL) all regulate the formation of bones via gene transcriptional regulation for the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This study thus investigated the expressional profiles of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes in AVN patients, and explored related molecular mediating pathways. Real-time qPCR was used to measure the gene expression of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes in AVN femoral head tissue samples from 42 patients, along with normal tissues. Western blotting analysis was performed to quantify protein levels of OPG and RANKL. There was a trend but not statistically significant elevation of mRNA levels of OPG in femoral head AVN tissues compared to normal tissues (P>0.05). The expression of RNAK and RNAKL, however, was significantly elevated in necrotic tissues (P<0.05). No significant difference in protein levels of OPG or RANKL between groups. The expression of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes exert a crucial role in the progression of AVN, suggesting their roles in mediating bone homeostasis and potential effects on bone destruction.

  18. Functional studies of heading date-related gene TaPRR73, a paralog of Ppd1 in common wheat

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    Wenping eZhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photoperiod response-related genes play a crucial role in duration of the plant growth. In this study, we focused on TaPRR73, a paralog of Green Revolution gene Ppd1 (TaPRR37. We found that overexpression of the truncated TaPRR73 form lacking part of the N-terminal PR domain in transgenic rice promoted heading under long day conditions. Association analysis in common wheat verified that TaPRR73 was an important agronomic photoperiod response gene that significantly affected heading date and plant height; expression analysis proved that specific alleles of TaPRR73-A1 had highly expressed levels in earlier heading lines; the distribution of haplotypes indicated that one of these alleles had been selected in breeding programs. Our results demonstrated that TaPRR73 contributed to regulation of heading date in wheat and could be useful in wheat breeding and in broadening adaptation of the crop to new regions.

  19. Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis in Ocular Hypertension and Early-Stage Glucoma Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Copernicus

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    Nilgün Solmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluation of structural alterations of the optic nerve head (ONH and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT and early-stage glaucoma and assessment of the discriminatory diagnostic performance of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT Copernicus (Optopol Technology S.A.. Materials and Methods: This study included 59 eyes of a total of 59 patients, 29 of whom were diagnosed with OHT (Group 1 and 30 with early-stage glaucoma (Group 2. The differentiation of early-stage glaucoma and OHT was carried out on the basis of standard achromatic visual field test results. Analysis of the ONH and RNFL thickness of all cases was made using SD-OCT. Group 1 and Group 2 were compared with respect to the ONH parameters and RNFL thickness. The diagnostic sensitivity of the OCT parameters was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUC. Results: The average, superior, inferior, and nasal RNFL thicknesses in early-stage glaucoma cases were approximately 10% (12-14 µm less compared to the OHT eyes, with differences being highly significant (p≤0.001. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the temporal RNFL thicknesses. The most sensitive parameter in the early diagnosis of glaucoma was average RNFL thickness corresponding to AUC: 0.852, followed by AUC: 0.816 and AUC: 0.773 values in superior and inferior RNFL thickness, respectively. In localized RNFL defects, the highest sensitivity corresponded to superior and superonasal quadrants (ACU: 0.805 and ACU: 0.781, respectively. There were not any statistically significant differences between the ONH morphological parameters of the two groups. Conclusion: RNFL analysis obtained using SD-OCT Copernicus is able to discriminate early-stage glaucoma eyes from those with OHT. However, ONH morphological parameters do not have the same diagnostic sensitivity. Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 35-41

  20. Acute sixth nerve palsy in a young man, beware of the 'red herring'.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, E C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Cranial nerve palsies has several etiologies including vascular insufficiency, neoplasm, trauma and inflammation. Isolated sixth nerve palsy is an extremely rare presenting feature of leukemia. AIM: We describe an unusual ocular presentation of a bilateral progressive sixth nerve palsy in a young male with a preceding head injury. CONCLUSION: Acquired sixth nerve palsies in young adults may be due to trauma but in the absence of a definitive history other systemic processes must be outruled. We describe a case of bilateral sixth nerve palsy in a patient with ALL with no obvious CNS involvement. Potential etiological mechanisms are discussed.

  1. Optic nerve injury demonstrated by MRI with STIR sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehara, S.; Tanaka, T.; Uemura, K.; Shinohara, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Tokuyama, T.; Satoh, A.

    1994-01-01

    We studied nine patients with optic nerve injury associated with closed head trauma by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences on 11 occasions from 4 days to 14 years after the injury: three studies were within 17 days and eight over 4 months to 14 years. MRI revealed abnormal high signal in 10 of the 11 injured nerves. MRI 4 days after the injury showed no abnormality. (orig.)

  2. Schwannomas of the head and neck

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    Anastasios Kanatas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign encapsulated nerve sheath tumors composed of Schwann cells. Malignant change in head and neck schwannomas is rare, with the incidence varying between 8 and 13.9%. In this review, we discuss the presentation and the management of head and neck schwannomas. The issues and difficulties based on our own experience as well as the experience of published reports from the literature are presented.

  3. Nerve transection repair using laser-activated chitosan in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Neel K; Khan, Taleef R; Mejias, Christopher; Paniello, Randal C

    2017-08-01

    Cranial nerve transection during head and neck surgery is conventionally repaired with microsuture. Previous studies have demonstrated recovery with laser nerve welding (LNW), a novel alternative to microsuture. LNW has been reported to have poorer tensile strength, however. Laser-activated chitosan, an adhesive biopolymer, may promote nerve recovery while enhancing the tensile strength of the repair. Using a rat posterior tibial nerve injury model, we compared four different methods of nerve repair in this pilot study. Animal study. Animals underwent unilateral posterior tibial nerve transection. The injury was repaired by potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser alone (n = 20), KTP + chitosan (n = 12), microsuture + chitosan (n = 12), and chitosan alone (n = 14). Weekly walking tracks were conducted to measure functional recovery (FR). Tensile strength (TS) was measured at 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, KTP laser alone had the best recovery (FR = 93.4% ± 8.3%). Microsuture + chitosan, KTP + chitosan, and chitosan alone all showed good FR (87.4% ± 13.5%, 84.6% ± 13.0%, and 84.1% ± 10.0%, respectively). One-way analysis of variance was performed (F(3,56) = 2.6, P = .061). A TS threshold of 3.8 N was selected as a control mean recovery. Three groups-KTP alone, KTP + chitosan, and microsuture + chitosan-were found to meet threshold 60% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.1%-88.3%), 75% (95% CI: 46.8%-91.1%), and 100% (95% CI: 75.8%-100.0%), respectively. In the posterior tibial nerve model, all repair methods promoted nerve recovery. Laser-activated chitosan as a biopolymer anchor provided good TS and appears to be a novel alternative to microsuture. This repair method may have surgical utility following cranial nerve injury during head and neck surgery. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E253-E257, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Comparison of the Deep Optic Nerve Head Structure between Normal-Tension Glaucoma and Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ji; Choi, Yun Jeong; Kim, Tae-Woo; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2016-01-01

    To compare the deep optic nerve head (ONH) structure between normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and also in healthy subjects as a control using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This prospective cross-sectional study included 21 NAION patients who had been diagnosed as NAION at least 6 months prior to study entry, and 42 NTG patients and 42 healthy controls who were matched with NAION patients in terms of age, intraocular pressure (IOP), and optic disc area. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in the affected sector was also matched between NAION and NTG patients. The ONH was imaged using SD-OCT with the EDI technique. The anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (LCD) and average prelaminar tissue (PT) thickness were measured in a sector of interest in each eye and compared among the three groups. In the sector-matched comparison, LCD was largest in NTG patients, followed by NAION patients, while PT was thinner in NTG patients than in NAION patients (all P < 0.001). NAION patients had a comparable LCD and a thinner PT relative to normal controls (P = 0.170 and < 0.001, respectively). The deep ONH configuration is strikingly different between NTG and NAION. The differing features provide comparative insight into the pathophysiology of the two diseases, and may be useful for differential diagnosis.

  5. Chicken HOXA3 Gene: Its Expression Pattern and Role in Branchial Nerve Precursor Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari-Goshima, Natsuko; Chisaka, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    In vertebrates, the proximal and distal sensory ganglia of the branchial nerves are derived from neural crest cells (NCCs) and placodes, respectively. We previously reported that in Hoxa3 knockout mouse embryos, NCCs and placode-derived cells of the glossopharyngeal nerve were defective in their migration. In this report, to determine the cell-type origin for this Hoxa3 knockout phenotype, we blocked the expression of the gene with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) specifically in either NCCs/neural tube or placodal cells of chicken embryos. Our results showed that HOXA3 function was required for the migration of the epibranchial placode-derived cells and that HOXA3 regulated this cell migration in both NCCs/neural tube and placodal cells. We also report that the expression pattern of chicken HOXA3 was slightly different from that of mouse Hoxa3. PMID:21278919

  6. Occasional head of flexor pollicis longus muscle: a study of its morphology and clinical significance.

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    Hemmady M

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A cadaveric dissection study of 54 upper extremities to determine the incidence of occurrence, morphology and relations of the occasional head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle is presented. The occasional head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle was found to be present more frequently (66.66% than absent. It mainly arose from the medical epicondyle of the humerus (55.55% and the medial border of the coronoid process of the ulna (16.66%. It was found to be in close association with the median nerve (anteriorly and the anterior interosseous nerve (posteriorly. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed viz. entrapment neuropathies of the median and anterior interosseous nerves, cicatricial contraction of the occasional head leading to flexion deformity of the thumb and the likely necessity to lengthen/release the occasional head in spastic paralysis of the flexor pollicis longus muscle.

  7. Phrenic Nerve Transfer for Reconstruction of Elbow Extension in Severe Brachial Plexus Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Leandro P; Socolovsky, Mariano

    2016-09-01

    Background Restoring elbow extension is an important objective to pursue when repairing the brachial plexus in patients with a flail arm. Based upon the good results obtained using the phrenic nerve to restore elbow flexion and shoulder stability, we hypothesized that this nerve could also be employed to reconstruct elbow extension in patients with severe brachial plexus injuries. Methods A retrospective study of 10 patients in which the phrenic nerve targeted the radial nerve (7 patients) or the branch to the long head of the triceps (3 patients) as a surgical strategy for reconstruction of the brachial plexus. Results The mean postoperative follow-up time was 34 months. At final follow-up, elbow extension graded as M4 was measured in three patients, Medical Research Council MRC M3 in five patients, and M2 in one patient, while one patient experienced no measurable recovery (M0). No patient complained or demonstrated any signs of respiratory insufficiency postoperatively. Conclusions The phrenic nerve is a reliable donor for reanimation of elbow extension in such cases, and the branch to the long head of the triceps should be considered as a better target for the nerve transfer. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Preservation of cranial nerves during removal of the brain for an enhanced student experience in neuroanatomy classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Roberts, David J H; Pickering, James D

    2014-01-01

    Neuroanatomy teaching at the University of Leeds includes the examination of isolated brains by students working in small groups. This requires the prosected brains to exhibit all 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Traditional methods of removing the brain from the skull involve elevating the frontal lobes and cutting each cranial nerve as the brain is reflected posteriorly. This can leave a substantial length of each nerve attached to the skull base rather than to the removed brain. We have found a posterior approach more successful. In this study, five adult heads were disarticulated at the level of the thyroid cartilage and placed, prone, in a head stand. A wedge of bone from the occipital region was removed before the cerebellum and brainstem were elevated to visualize the cranial nerves associated with the medulla oblongata, cerebellopontine angle and mesencephalic-pontine junction prior to cutting them as close to the skull as possible. Five brains were successfully removed from the skull, each having a full complement of cranial nerves of good length attached to them. This approach significantly increases the length and number of cranial nerves remaining attached to the brain, which supports student education. For integration into head and neck dissection courses, careful consideration will be required to ensure the necks are suitably dissected and to decide whether the cranial nerves are best left attached to the skull base or brain. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Visual loss and optic nerve head swelling in thiamine deficiency without prolonged dietary deficiency

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    Gratton SM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sean M Gratton, Byron L LamBascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Visual loss due to optic neuropathy is a rare manifestation of thiamine deficiency. We report a case of a 39-year-old woman with a body mass index (BMI of 29 kg/m2 who developed visual loss and bilateral optic nerve head swelling after a short, self-limited gastrointestinal illness. She was disoriented and inattentive and had absent ankle jerk reflexes, diminished sensation in both legs below the knees, and marked truncal ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed increased T2-signal in the medial thalami and mammillary bodies. The serum thiamine level was 8 nmol/L (normal 8–30. The diagnosis of thiamine deficiency was made, and the patient’s vision and neurologic symptoms improved significantly with intramuscular thiamine treatment. Thiamine deficiency can occur in the absence of an obvious predisposing factor such as alcoholism or low body weight. The clinician must be aware of the factors that govern vitamin availability and maintain a high index of suspicion to make the diagnosis in such cases.Keywords: optic neuropathy, nutritional deficiency

  10. A New Class of SINEs with snRNA Gene-Derived Heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kenji K

    2015-05-27

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by various transposons including short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 5' region (head) of the majority of SINEs is derived from one of the three types of RNA genes--7SL RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), or 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)--and the internal promoter inside the head promotes the transcription of the entire SINEs. Here I report a new group of SINEs whose heads originate from either the U1 or U2 small nuclear RNA gene. These SINEs, named SINEU, are distributed among crocodilians and classified into three families. The structures of the SINEU-1 subfamilies indicate the recurrent addition of a U1- or U2-derived sequence onto the 5' end of SINEU-1 elements. SINEU-1 and SINEU-3 are ancient and shared among alligators, crocodiles, and gharials, while SINEU-2 is absent in the alligator genome. SINEU-2 is the only SINE family that was active after the split of crocodiles and gharials. All SINEU families, especially SINEU-3, are preferentially inserted into a family of Mariner DNA transposon, Mariner-N4_AMi. A group of Tx1 non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons designated Tx1-Mar also show target preference for Mariner-N4_AMi, indicating that SINEU was mobilized by Tx1-Mar. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. The anatomic basis of lingual nerve trauma associated with inferior alveolar block injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher D; Rasmussen, Jared; Throckmorton, Gaylord S; Finn, Richard

    2010-11-01

    This study describes the anatomic variability in the position of the lingual nerve in the pterygomandibular space, the location of the inferior alveolar nerve block injection. Simulated standard landmark-based inferior alveolar nerve blocks were administered to 44 fixed sagitally bisected cadaver heads. Measurements were made of the diameter of the nerves and distances between the needle and selected anatomic landmarks and the nerves. Of 44 simulated injections, 42 (95.5%) passed lateral to the lingual nerve, 7 (16%) passed within 0.1 mm of the nerve, and 2 (4.5%) penetrated the nerve. The position of the lingual nerve relative to bony landmarks within the interpterygoid fascia was highly variable. Variation in the position of the lingual nerve is an important contributor to lingual nerve trauma during inferior alveolar block injections. This factor should be an important part of preoperative informed consent. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Peripheral nerve hyperexcitability with preterminal nerve and neuromuscular junction remodeling is a hallmark of Schwartz-Jampel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauché, Stéphanie; Boerio, Delphine; Davoine, Claire-Sophie; Bernard, Véronique; Stum, Morgane; Bureau, Cécile; Fardeau, Michel; Romero, Norma Beatriz; Fontaine, Bertrand; Koenig, Jeanine; Hantaï, Daniel; Gueguen, Antoine; Fournier, Emmanuel; Eymard, Bruno; Nicole, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    Schwartz-Jampel syndrome (SJS) is a recessive disorder with muscle hyperactivity that results from hypomorphic mutations in the perlecan gene, a basement membrane proteoglycan. Analyses done on a mouse model have suggested that SJS is a congenital form of distal peripheral nerve hyperexcitability resulting from synaptic acetylcholinesterase deficiency, nerve terminal instability with preterminal amyelination, and subtle peripheral nerve changes. We investigated one adult patient with SJS to study this statement in humans. Perlecan deficiency due to hypomorphic mutations was observed in the patient biological samples. Electroneuromyography showed normal nerve conduction, neuromuscular transmission, and compound nerve action potentials while multiple measures of peripheral nerve excitability along the nerve trunk did not detect changes. Needle electromyography detected complex repetitive discharges without any evidence for neuromuscular transmission failure. The study of muscle biopsies containing neuromuscular junctions showed well-formed post-synaptic element, synaptic acetylcholinesterase deficiency, denervation of synaptic gutters with reinnervation by terminal sprouting, and long nonmyelinated preterminal nerve segments. These data support the notion of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability in SJS, which would originate distally from synergistic actions of peripheral nerve and neuromuscular junction changes as a result of perlecan deficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Heritable heading time variation in wheat lines with the same number of Ppd-B1 gene copies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaničová, Zuzana; Valárik, Miroslav; Pánková, Kateřina; Trávníčková, Martina; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šafář, Jan; Milec, Zbyněk

    2017-01-01

    The ability of plants to identify an optimal flowering time is critical for ensuring the production of viable seeds. The main environmental factors that influence the flowering time include the ambient temperature and day length. In wheat, the ability to assess the day length is controlled by photoperiod (Ppd) genes. Due to its allohexaploid nature, bread wheat carries the following three Ppd-1 genes: Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1 and Ppd-D1. While photoperiod (in)sensitivity controlled by Ppd-A1 and Ppd-D1 is mainly determined by sequence changes in the promoter region, the impact of the Ppd-B1 alleles on the heading time has been linked to changes in the copy numbers (and possibly their methylation status) and sequence changes in the promoter region. Here, we report that plants with the same number of Ppd-B1 copies may have different heading times. Differences were observed among F7 lines derived from crossing two spring hexaploid wheat varieties. Several lines carrying three copies of Ppd-B1 headed 16 days later than other plants in the population with the same number of gene copies. This effect was associated with changes in the gene expression level and methylation of the Ppd-B1 gene.

  14. Heritable heading time variation in wheat lines with the same number of Ppd-B1 gene copies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Ivaničová

    Full Text Available The ability of plants to identify an optimal flowering time is critical for ensuring the production of viable seeds. The main environmental factors that influence the flowering time include the ambient temperature and day length. In wheat, the ability to assess the day length is controlled by photoperiod (Ppd genes. Due to its allohexaploid nature, bread wheat carries the following three Ppd-1 genes: Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1 and Ppd-D1. While photoperiod (insensitivity controlled by Ppd-A1 and Ppd-D1 is mainly determined by sequence changes in the promoter region, the impact of the Ppd-B1 alleles on the heading time has been linked to changes in the copy numbers (and possibly their methylation status and sequence changes in the promoter region. Here, we report that plants with the same number of Ppd-B1 copies may have different heading times. Differences were observed among F7 lines derived from crossing two spring hexaploid wheat varieties. Several lines carrying three copies of Ppd-B1 headed 16 days later than other plants in the population with the same number of gene copies. This effect was associated with changes in the gene expression level and methylation of the Ppd-B1 gene.

  15. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Maxilla

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    Puja Sahai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla. He was treated with total maxillectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a close resection margin. The tumour was of high grade with an MIB-1 labelling index of almost 60%. At six weeks following the surgery, he developed local tumour relapse. The patient succumbed to the disease at five months from the time of diagnosis. The present report underlines the locally aggressive nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla which necessitates an early therapeutic intervention. A complete resection with clear margins is the most important prognostic factor for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the head and neck region. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the local control. Future research may demarcate the role of targeted therapy for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour.

  16. Size of the Optic Nerve Head and Its Relationship with the Thickness of the Macular Ganglion Cell Complex and Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

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    Nobuko Enomoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the relationships among the optic nerve head (ONH area, macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC thickness, circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL thickness, and visual field defects in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. This retrospective study included 90 eyes of 90 patients with POAG. The ONH area, rim area, mGCC thickness, and cpRNFL thickness were measured using optical coherence tomography. Mean deviation (MD was measured using standard automated perimetry. The relationships among clinical factors including age, refraction, the ONH area, the rim area, the mGCC thickness, the cpRNFL thickness, and MD were evaluated using correlation coefficients and multiple regression analyses. Results. The significant correlation of the ONH area with refraction (r=0.362, P<0.001, the mGCC thickness (r=0.225, P=0.033, and the cpRNFL thickness (r=0.253, P=0.016 was found. Multiple regression analysis showed that the ONH area, rim area, and MD were selected as significant contributing factors to explain the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness. No factor was selected to explain MD. Conclusions. The ONH area, in other words, the disc size itself may affect the mGCC thickness and cpRNFL thickness in POAG patients.

  17. Phrenic nerve conduction studies: normative data and technical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analucia Abreu Maranhão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the present study was to define normative data of phrenic nerve conduction parameters of a healthy population. Methods: Phrenic nerve conduction studies were performed in 27 healthy volunteers. Results: The normative limits for expiratory phrenic nerve compound muscle action potential were: amplitude (0.47 mv - 0.83 mv, latency (5.74 ms - 7.10 ms, area (6.20 ms/mv - 7.20 ms/mv and duration (18.30 ms - 20.96 ms. Inspiratory normative limits were: amplitude (0.67 mv - 1.11 mv, latency (5.90 ms - 6.34 ms, area (5.62 ms/mv - 6.72 ms/mv and duration (13.77 ms - 15.37 ms. Conclusion: The best point of phrenic nerve stimulus in the neck varies among individuals between the medial and lateral border of the clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and stimulation of both sites, then choosing the best phrenic nerve response, seems to be the appropriate procedure.

  18. Phrenic nerve conduction studies: normative data and technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Analucia Abreu; Carvalho, Sonia Regina da Silva; Caetano, Marcelo Ribeiro; Alamy, Alexandre Hofke; Peixoto, Eduardo Mesquita; Filgueiras, Pedro Del Esporte Peçanha

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to define normative data of phrenic nerve conduction parameters of a healthy population. Phrenic nerve conduction studies were performed in 27 healthy volunteers. The normative limits for expiratory phrenic nerve compound muscle action potential were: amplitude (0.47 mv - 0.83 mv), latency (5.74 ms - 7.10 ms), area (6.20 ms/mv - 7.20 ms/mv) and duration (18.30 ms - 20.96 ms). Inspiratory normative limits were: amplitude (0.67 mv - 1.11 mv), latency (5.90 ms - 6.34 ms), area (5.62 ms/mv - 6.72 ms/mv) and duration (13.77 ms - 15.37 ms). The best point of phrenic nerve stimulus in the neck varies among individuals between the medial and lateral border of the clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and stimulation of both sites, then choosing the best phrenic nerve response, seems to be the appropriate procedure.

  19. Surgical anatomy of the radial nerve at the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, M; Telera, S; Tiengo, C; Stecco, C; Macchi, V; Porzionato, A; Vigato, E; Parenti, A; De Caro, R

    2009-02-01

    An anatomical study of the brachial portion of the radial nerve with surgical implications is proposed. Thirty specimens of arm from 20 fresh cadavers (11 male, 9 female) were used to examine the topographical relations of the radial nerve with reference to the following anatomical landmarks: acromion angle, medial and lateral epicondyles, point of division between the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii, lateral intermuscular septum, site of division of the radial nerve into its superficial and posterior interosseous branches and entry and exit point of the posterior interosseous branch into the supinator muscle. The mean distances between the acromion angle and the medial and lateral levels of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus were 109 (+/-11) and 157 (+/-11) mm, respectively. The mean length and calibre of the nerve in the groove were 59 (+/-4) and 6 (+/-1) mm, respectively. The division of the lateral and long heads of the triceps was found at a mean distance of 126 (+/-13) mm from the acromion angle. The mean distances between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 125 (+/-13) and 121 (+/-13) mm, respectively. The mean distance between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the entry point in the lateral intermuscular septum (LIS) was 29 (+/-6) mm. The mean distances between the entry point of the nerve in the LIS and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 133 (+/-14) and 110 (+/-23) mm, respectively. Our study provides reliable and objective data of surgical anatomy of the radial nerve which should be always kept in mind by surgeons approaching to the surgery of the arm, in order to avoid iatrogenic injuries.

  20. Genetic alterations in Ki-ras and Ha-ras genes in Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas and head and neck cancer

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    Cláudia Malheiros Coutinho

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available CONETXT: Ras gene mutations have been associated to a wide range of human solid tumors. Members of the ras gene family (Ki-ras, Ha-ras and N-ras are structurally related and code for a protein (p21 known to play an important role in the regulation of normal signal transduction and cell growth. The frequency of ras mutations is different from one type of tumor to another, suggesting that point mutations might be carcinogen-specific. OBJECTIVES: To study the occurrence of Ki-ras and Ha-ras mutations. We also studied the relative level of Ha-ras mRNA in 32 of the head and neck tumors. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: University referral unit. PARTICIPANTS: 60 head and neck tumors and in 28 Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas (JNA. DIAGNOSTIC TEST: Using PCR-SSCP we examined the occurrence of Ki-ras and Ha-ras mutations. The relative level of Ha-ras mRNA was examined by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: None of the head and neck tumors or JNA samples showed evidence of mutations within codons 12, 13, 59 and 61 of Ki-ras or Ha-ras genes. However, 17 (53% of the tumors where gene expression could be examined exhibited increased levels of Ha-ras mRNA compared with the normal tissue derived from the same patient. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate for the first time that mutations of Ki-ras and Ha-ras genes are not associated with the development of JNA and confirm previous reports indicating that activating ras mutations are absent or rarely involved in head and neck tumors from western world patients. Furthermore, our findings suggest that overexpression of Ha-ras, rather than mutations, might be an important factor in the development and progression of head and neck tumors.

  1. Ciliary body melanoma with optic nerve invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Haddab, S; Hidayat, A; Tabbara, K F

    1990-01-01

    A case of melanoma of the ciliary body is presented. Initially the patient was diagnosed and treated for uveitis, but following CT scanning and ultrasound a tumour was detected and the eye enucleated. Histopathologically it was found that the tumour had invaded the optic nerve head, apparently via Cloquet's canal. Images PMID:2310725

  2. Comparison of the Deep Optic Nerve Head Structure between Normal-Tension Glaucoma and Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

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    Eun Ji Lee

    Full Text Available To compare the deep optic nerve head (ONH structure between normal-tension glaucoma (NTG and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION and also in healthy subjects as a control using enhanced depth imaging (EDI spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.This prospective cross-sectional study included 21 NAION patients who had been diagnosed as NAION at least 6 months prior to study entry, and 42 NTG patients and 42 healthy controls who were matched with NAION patients in terms of age, intraocular pressure (IOP, and optic disc area. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in the affected sector was also matched between NAION and NTG patients. The ONH was imaged using SD-OCT with the EDI technique. The anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (LCD and average prelaminar tissue (PT thickness were measured in a sector of interest in each eye and compared among the three groups.In the sector-matched comparison, LCD was largest in NTG patients, followed by NAION patients, while PT was thinner in NTG patients than in NAION patients (all P < 0.001. NAION patients had a comparable LCD and a thinner PT relative to normal controls (P = 0.170 and < 0.001, respectively.The deep ONH configuration is strikingly different between NTG and NAION. The differing features provide comparative insight into the pathophysiology of the two diseases, and may be useful for differential diagnosis.

  3. Mastoid bone fracture presenting as unusual delayed onset of facial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ko-Chiang; Wang, Ann-Ching; Chen, Shyi-Jou

    2008-03-01

    Delayed-onset facial nerve paralysis is a rather uncommon complication of a mastoid bone fracture for children younger than 10 years. We routinely arrange a cranial computed tomography (CT) for patients encountering initial loss of consciousness, severe headache, intractable vomiting, and/or any neurologic deficit arising from trauma to the head. However, minor symptomatic cranial nerve damage may be missed and the presenting symptom diagnosed as being a peripheral nerve problem. Herein, we report a case of a young boy who presented at our emergency department (ED) 3 days subsequent to his accident, complaining of hearing loss in the right ear and paralysis of the ipsilateral face. Unpredictably, we observed his cranial CT scan revealing a linear fracture of the skull over the right temporal bone involving the right mastoid air cells. The patient was treated conservatively and recovered well without any adverse neurologic consequences. We emphasize that ED physicians should arrange a cranial CT scan for a head-injured child with symptomatic facial nerve palsy, even if there are no symptoms such as severe headache, vomiting, Battle sign, and/or initial loss of consciousness.

  4. Preliminary study of ergonomic behavior during simulated ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia using a head-mounted display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Ankeet D; Harrison, T Kyle; Howard, Steven K; Kim, T Edward; Brock-Utne, John G; Gaba, David M; Mariano, Edward R

    2012-08-01

    A head-mounted display provides continuous real-time imaging within the practitioner's visual field. We evaluated the feasibility of using head-mounted display technology to improve ergonomics in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia in a simulated environment. Two anesthesiologists performed an equal number of ultrasound-guided popliteal-sciatic nerve blocks using the head-mounted display on a porcine hindquarter, and an independent observer assessed each practitioner's ergonomics (eg, head turning, arching, eye movements, and needle manipulation) and the overall block quality based on the injectate spread around the target nerve for each procedure. Both practitioners performed their procedures without directly viewing the ultrasound monitor, and neither practitioner showed poor ergonomic behavior. Head-mounted display technology may offer potential advantages during ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia.

  5. Applied anatomy of the lingual nerve: relevance to dental anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vui Leng; Andrawos, Alice; Ghabriel, Mounir N; Townsend, Grant C

    2014-03-01

    (1) to classify the external morphology of the lingual nerve and investigate any relationship between its external and internal morphology, (2) to explore the fascicular structure, nerve tissue density and capillary density of the lingual nerve, and (3) to provide an anatomical explanation as to why adverse clinical outcomes more commonly affect the lingual nerve following local dental anaesthesia. Where possible, comparisons were made between the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves. The lingual and inferior alveolar nerves were examined in 23 hemi-sectioned heads macroscopically and microscopically 2mm above the lingula. The lingual nerve was also examined in the regions of the third and second molars. Specimens underwent histological processing and staining with Haematoxylin & Eosin, Masson's Trichrome, anti-GLUT-1 and anti-CD 34. The lingual nerve became flatter as it traversed through the pterygomandibular space. There was an increase in the connective tissue and a decrease in nerve tissue density along the lingual nerve (p<0.001). At 2mm above the lingula, the lingual nerve was uni-fascicular in 39% of cases, whilst the inferior alveolar nerve consistently had more fascicles (p<0.001). The lingual nerve fascicles had thicker perineurium but the endoneurial vascular density was not significantly different in the two nerves. The greater susceptibility of lingual nerve dysfunction during inferior alveolar nerve blocks may be due to its uni-fascicular structure and the thicker perineurium, leading to increased endoneurial pressure and involvement of all axons if oedema or haemorrhage occurs due to trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ocular complications among cases of head injury seen in a neurosurgi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EZENWUGO CHIEDOZIE OBIORA

    ocular cranial nerves were the most commonly occurring complication among the cases of head injury seen in Memphys. Hospital for Neurosurgery, Enugu. Key words: Ocular complications, head injury, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Road traffic accidents have been on the increase in Nigeria. Some studies have attributed this ...

  7. Malignant Transformation of Vagal Nerve Schwannoma in to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vagal schwannomas are benign, rare peripheral nerve sheath tumors in the head and neck region. Some physicians opt to closely observe cases of schwannoma of the neck on an outpatient basis rather than to perform radical surgery. However, there is a possibility, albeit rare, of malignant transformation of a.

  8. Determining degree of optic nerve edema from color fundus photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Jason; Wang, Jui-Kai; Kardon, Randy H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2015-03-01

    Swelling of the optic nerve head (ONH) is subjectively assessed by clinicians using the Frisén scale. It is believed that a direct measurement of the ONH volume would serve as a better representation of the swelling. However, a direct measurement requires optic nerve imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and 3D segmentation of the resulting images, which is not always available during clinical evaluation. Furthermore, telemedical imaging of the eye at remote locations is more feasible with non-mydriatic fundus cameras which are less costly than OCT imagers. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop a more quantitative analysis of optic nerve swelling on a continuous scale, similar to SD-OCT. Here, we select features from more commonly available 2D fundus images and use them to predict ONH volume. Twenty-six features were extracted from each of 48 color fundus images. The features include attributes of the blood vessels, optic nerve head, and peripapillary retina areas. These features were used in a regression analysis to predict ONH volume, as computed by a segmentation of the SD-OCT image. The results of the regression analysis yielded a mean square error of 2.43 mm3 and a correlation coefficient between computed and predicted volumes of R = 0:771, which suggests that ONH volume may be predicted from fundus features alone.

  9. Head-down posture in glaucoma suspects induces changes in IOP, systemic pressure and PERG that predict future loss of optic nerve tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciatti, Vittorio; Feuer, William J.; Monsalve, Pedro; Triolo, Giacinto; Vazquez, Luis; McSoley, John; Ventura, Lori M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To obtain pilot data on posture-induced changes of IOP, systemic pressure and pattern electroretinogram (PERG) predictive of future optic nerve tissue loss glaucoma suspects (GS). Methods Mean peripapillary retinal fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was measured with OCT two times/year in 28 GS aged 58 ± 8.9 years over 5.0 ± 0.73 years. All patients had a baseline PERG, IOP and brachial blood pressure measurements in the seated and – 10 degrees head-down-body-tilt position (HDT). Outcome measures were seated/HDT PERG amplitude and phase, IOP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and estimated ocular perfusion pressure (OPP). An additional group of 11 similarly-aged controls (SAC) aged 56.9 ± 13 years was tested for comparison. Results While all GS had initial RNFLT in the normal range, 9/28 of them developed significant (P blood pressure, together with their changes upon HDT, may have predictive value for future loss of optic nerve tissue in GS. This study supports the rationale for a full-scale clinical trial to identify patients at high-risk of development of glaucoma. PMID:28263259

  10. In Vivo Changes in Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture and Optic Nerve Head Structure in Early Experimental Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Ivers

    Full Text Available The lamina cribrosa likely plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell axon injury in glaucoma. We sought to (1 better understand optic nerve head (ONH structure and anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS microarchitecture between fellow eyes of living, normal non-human primates and (2 characterize the time-course of in vivo structural changes in the ONH, ALCS microarchitecture, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in non-human primate eyes with early experimental glaucoma (EG. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT images of the ONH were acquired cross-sectionally in six bilaterally normal rhesus monkeys, and before and approximately every two weeks after inducing unilateral EG in seven rhesus monkeys. ONH parameters and RNFLT were quantified from segmented SDOCT images. Mean ALCS pore area, elongation and nearest neighbor distance (NND were quantified globally, in sectors and regionally from adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope images. In bilaterally normal monkeys, ONH parameters were similar between fellow eyes with few inter-eye differences in ALCS pore parameters. In EG monkeys, an increase in mean ALCS Depth (ALCSD was the first structural change measured in 6 of 7 EG eyes. A decrease in mean minimum rim width (MRW simultaneously accompanied this early change in 4 of 6 EG eyes and was the first structural change in the 7th EG eye. Mean ALCS pore parameters were among the first or second changes measured in 4 EG eyes. Mean ALCS pore area and NND increased in superotemporal and temporal sectors and in central and peripheral regions at the first time-point of change in ALCS pore geometry. RNFLT and/or mean ALCS radius of curvature were typically the last parameters to initially change. Survival analyses found mean ALCSD was the only parameter to significantly show an initial change prior to the first measured loss in RNFLT across EG eyes.

  11. Stem cells and related factors involved in facial nerve function regeneration

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    Kamil H. Nelke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The facial nerve (VII is one of the most important cranial nerves for head and neck surgeons. Its function is closely related to facial expressions that are individual for every person. After its injury or palsy, its functions can be either impaired or absent. Because of the presence of motor, sensory and parasympathetic fibers, the biology of its repair and function restoration depends on many factors. In order to achieve good outcome, many different therapies can be performed in order to restore as much of the nerve function as possible. When rehabilitation and physiotherapy are not sufficient, additional surgical procedures and therapies are taken into serious consideration. The final outcome of many of them is discussable, depending on nerve damage etiology. Stem cells in facial nerve repair are used, but long-term outcomes and results are still not fully known. In order to understand this therapeutic approach, clinicians and surgeons should understand the immunobiology of nerve repair and regeneration. In this review, potential stem cell usage in facial nerve regeneration procedures is discussed.

  12. Mapping of Ppd-B1, a Major Candidate Gene for Late Heading on Wild Emmer Chromosome Arm 2BS and Assessment of Its Interactions with Early Heading QTLs on 3AL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wu, Shasha; Ding, Mingquan; Li, Jingjuan; Shi, Zhaobin; Wei, Wei; Guo, Jialian; Zhang, Hua; Jiang, Yurong; Rong, Junkang

    2016-01-01

    Wheat heading date is an important agronomic trait determining maturation time and yield. A set of common wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring; CS)-wild emmer (T. turgidum L. subsp. dicoccoides (TDIC)) chromosome arm substitution lines (CASLs) was used to identify and allocate QTLs conferring late or early spike emergence by examining heading date. Genetic loci accelerating heading were found on TDIC chromosome arms 3AL and 7BS, while loci delaying heading were located on 4AL and 2BS. To map QTLs conferring late heading on 2BS, F2 populations derived from two cross combinations of CASL2BS × CS and CASL3AL × CASL2BS were developed and each planted at two times, constituting four F2 mapping populations. Heading date varied continuously among individuals of these four populations, suggesting quantitative characteristics. A genetic map of 2BS, consisting of 23 SSR and one single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) marker(s), was constructed using these F2 populations. This map spanned a genetic length of 53.2 cM with average marker density of 2.3 cM. The photoperiod-sensitivity gene Ppd-B1 was mapped to chromosome arm 2BS as a SSCP molecular marker, and was validated as tightly linked to a major QTL governing late heading of CASL2BS in all mapping populations. A significant dominance by additive effect of Ppd-B1 with the LUX gene located on 3AL was also detected. CS had more copies of Ppd-B1 than CASL2BS, implying that increased copy number could elevate the expression of Ppd-1 in CS, also increasing expression of LUX and FT genes and causing CS to have an earlier heading date than CASL2BS in long days.

  13. Development and Functional Organization of the Cranial Nerves in Lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombal, Manuel A; Megías, Manuel

    2018-04-16

    Lampreys, together with hagfishes, are the only extant representatives of the oldest branch of vertebrates, the agnathans, which are the sister group of gnathostomes; therefore, studies on these animals are of great evolutionary significance. Lampreys exhibit a particular life cycle with remarkable changes in their behavior, concomitant, in part, with important modifications in the head and its musculature, which might influence the development of the cranial nerves. In this context, some cranial nerves such as the optic nerve and the ocular motor nerves, which develop slowly during an extremely long larval period lasting more than five years, have been more thoroughly investigated; however, much less experimental information is available about others, such as the facial or the hypoglossal nerves. In addition, the possible existence of a "true" accessory nerve in these animals is still a matter of conjecture. Although growing in last decades, investigations on the physiology of the lamprey cranial nerves is scanty. This review focuses on past and recent findings that have contributed to characterize the anatomical organization of the cranial nerves in lampreys, including their components and nuclei, and their relations in the brain; in addition, comments on their development and functional role are also included. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of blood-activating and stasis-removing drugs combined with VEGF gene transfer on angiogenesis in ischemic necrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Hui; Wu, Ya-Ling; Ye, Jian-Hong; Ning, Ya-Gong; Yu, Hai-Ying; Peng, Zhong-Jie; Luan, Xiao-Wen

    2009-09-01

    To observe the promoting effects of blood-activating and stasis-removing Chinese drugs combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transfer on angiogenesis in ischemic necrosis of the femoral head. Forty Japanese giant-ear rabbits were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a Chinese drug group, a gene group, and a combined group. After 8 weeks of treatment, the rate of VEGF positive cell expression in the synovium of the femoral head was measured using the immunohistochemical method, and the number of blood vessels in the femoral head was measured by digital subtraction angiography. The rate of VEGF positive cell expression in the model group was significantly lower than that in the Chinese drug group (P 0.05). Either the blood-activating and stasis-removing Chinese drugs or VEGF gene transfer can promote the angiogenesis and building of collateral circulation for femoral head ischemic necrosis, and the combined therapy with Chinese drugs or VEGF gene transfer may show a better therapeutic effect. The present study provides an experimental basis for clinical application of the combined therapy with the blood-activating and stasis-removing Chinese drugs and VEGF gene transfer.

  15. Gene Expression Changes in Femoral Head Necrosis of Human Bone Tissue

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    Bernadett Balla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH is the result of an interruption of the local circulation and the injury of vascular supply of bone. Multiple factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. However the mechanism of ischemia and necrosis in non-traumatic ONFH is not clear. The aim of our investigation was to identify genes that are differently expressed in ONFH vs. non-ONFH human bone and to describe the relationships between these genes using multivariate data analysis. Six bone tissue samples from ONFH male patients and 8 bone tissue samples from non-ONFH men were examined. The expression differences of selected 117 genes were analyzed by TaqMan probe-based quantitative real-time RT-PCR system. The significance test indicated marked differences in the expression of nine genes between ONFH and non-ONFH individuals. These altered genes code for collagen molecules, an extracellular matrix digesting metalloproteinase, a transcription factor, an adhesion molecule, and a growth factor. Canonical variates analysis demonstrated that ONFH and non-ONFH bone tissues can be distinguished by the multiple expression profile analysis of numerous genes controlled via canonical TGFB pathway as well as genes coding for extracellular matrix composing collagen type molecules. The markedly altered gene expression profile observed in the ONFH of human bone tissue may provide further insight into the pathogenetic process of osteonecrotic degeneration of bone.

  16. Anatomical basis for simultaneous block of greater and third occipital nerves, with an ultrasound-guided technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, Ken; Usui, Yosuke; Higashi, Naoko; Nakamoto, Tatsuo; Shimbori, Hironobu; Terada, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Ueta, Hisashi; Kitazawa, Yusuke; Sawanobori, Yasushi; Okuda, Yasuhisa; Matsuno, Kenjiro

    2017-11-13

    In some headache disorders, for which the greater occipital nerve block is partly effective, the third occipital nerve is also suggested to be involved. We aimed to establish a simple technique for simultaneously blocking the greater and third occipital nerves. We performed a detailed examination of dorsal neck anatomy in 33 formalin-fixed cadavers, and deduced two candidate target points for blocking both the greater and third occipital nerves. These target points were tested on three Thiel-fixed cadavers. We performed ultrasound-guided dye injections into these points, examined the results by dissection, and selected the most suitable injection point. Finally, this target point was tested in three healthy volunteers. We injected 4 ml of local anesthetic and 1 ml of radiopaque material at the selected point, guided with a standard ultrasound system. Then, the pattern of local anesthetic distribution was imaged with computed tomography. We deduced that the most suitable injection point was the medial head of the semispinalis capitis muscle at the C1 level of the cervical vertebra. Both nerves entered this muscle, in close proximity, with little individual variation. In healthy volunteers, an anesthetic injected was confined to the muscle and induced anesthesia in the skin areas innervated by both nerves. The medial head of the semispinalis capitis muscle is a suitable landmark for blocking the greater and third occipital nerves simultaneously, by which occipital nerve involvement in various headache disorders may be rapidly examined and treated.

  17. A joint estimation detection of Glaucoma progression in 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography optic nerve head images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Akram; Bowd, Christopher; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.

    2014-03-01

    Glaucoma is an ocular disease characterized by distinctive changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and visual field. Glaucoma can strike without symptoms and causes blindness if it remains without treatment. Therefore, early disease detection is important so that treatment can be initiated and blindness prevented. In this context, important advances in technology for non-invasive imaging of the eye have been made providing quantitative tools to measure structural changes in ONH topography, an essential element for glaucoma detection and monitoring. 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), an optical imaging technique, has been commonly used to discriminate glaucomatous from healthy subjects. In this paper, we present a new framework for detection of glaucoma progression using 3D SD-OCT images. In contrast to previous works that the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement provided by commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomograph, we consider the whole 3D volume for change detection. To integrate a priori knowledge and in particular the spatial voxel dependency in the change detection map, we propose the use of the Markov Random Field to handle a such dependency. To accommodate the presence of false positive detection, the estimated change detection map is then used to classify a 3D SDOCT image into the "non-progressing" and "progressing" glaucoma classes, based on a fuzzy logic classifier. We compared the diagnostic performance of the proposed framework to existing methods of progression detection.

  18. Malignant Transformation of Vagal Nerve Schwannoma in to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schwannomas are benign, rare peripheral nerve sheath tumors that occur in the head and neck region. Some physicians opt to closely observe cases of schwannoma of the neck on an outpatient basis rather than to perform radical surgery. However, there is a possibility, albeit rare, of malignant transformation of a benign ...

  19. Median Nerve Palsy following Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing of a Monteggia Fracture: An Unusual Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjit Lidder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Monteggia fractures are rare in children, and subtle radial head dislocations, with minor plastic deformation of the ulna, may be missed in up to a third of cases. Complications of Monteggia fractures-dislocations include persistent radial head dislocation, forearm deformity, elbow stiffness, and nerve palsies at the time of presentation. An unusual case of median nerve palsy following elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a type I Monteggia lesion in a 6-year-old girl is presented, and we highlight that, although most nerve palsies associated with a Monteggia fracture-dislocations are treated expectantly in children, early intervention here probably provided the best outcome.

  20. Ophthalmic manifestations of head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, L

    1992-02-01

    Head injuries are frequently associated with ophthalmic problems. The commonest problems seen in this series of 161 patients with head injury were problems with poor accommodation (16% of patients; 58% of these persisted), convergence (14% of patients; 35% of these persisted), pseudomyopia (19%; 55% persisted) and optic atrophy (26% of the patients; 78% of these were mild and easily missed on routine testing, and 22% were severe). Motility disorders were common, especially cranial nerve palsies. Other less frequent motility disturbances included apparent inferior oblique palsy, comitant esotropia, and exotropia which was often of the convergence insufficiency type.

  1. Guinea pigs as an animal model for sciatic nerve injury

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    Malik Abu Rafee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwhelming use of rat models in nerve regeneration studies is likely to induce skewness in treatment outcomes. To address the problem, this study was conducted in 8 adult guinea pigs of either sex to investigate the suitability of guinea pig as an alternative model for nerve regeneration studies. A crush injury was inflicted to the sciatic nerve of the left limb, which led to significant decrease in the pain perception and neurorecovery up to the 4th weak. Lengthening of foot print and shortening of toe spread were observed in the paw after nerve injury. A 3.49 ± 0.35 fold increase in expression of neuropilin 1 (NRP1 gene and 2.09 ± 0.51 fold increase in neuropilin 2 (NRP2 gene were recorded 1 week after nerve injury as compared to the normal nerve. Ratios of gastrocnemius muscle weight and volume of the experimental limb to control limb showed more than 50% decrease on the 30th day. Histopathologically, vacuolated appearance of the nerve was observed with presence of degenerated myelin debris in digestion chambers. Gastrocnemius muscle also showed degenerative changes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loose and rough arrangement of connective tissue fibrils and presence of large spherical globules in crushed sciatic nerve. The findings suggest that guinea pigs could be used as an alternative animal model for nerve regeneration studies and might be preferred over rats due to their cooperative nature while recording different parameters.

  2. Vagal Nerve Stimulator Malfunction with Change in Neck Position: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Erin; Makler, Vyacheslav; Bauer, David F

    2018-06-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation is a safe and well-tolerated treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy. Complications and failure of the device can result from lead fracture, device malfunction, disconnection, or battery displacement and can result in a variety of symptoms. We present an interesting case of stimulator malfunction with increased impedance change seen only with a change in head position. The patient is a 25-year-old male with a vagal nerve stimulator (VNs) placed for medically refractory epilepsy who presented with neck pain and an electrical pulling sensation in his neck whenever he turned his head to the right. Initial interrogation of the VNs showed normal impedance. Subsequent interrogation with the patient's head turned found increased impedance only when the head was turned to the right. The patient had successful removal and replacement of the device with resolution of his preoperative complaints. Partial lead fracture was seen at explant. VNs malfunction can present in atypical ways. Positional maneuvers may help with its timely diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Manual therapy and neurodynamic mobilization in a patient with peroneal nerve paralysis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Pillastrini, Paolo; Borboni, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a therapeutic intervention for peroneal nerve paralysis involving the sciatic nerve. A 24-year-old man presented with peroneal nerve paralysis with decreased sensation, severe pain in the popliteal fossa, and steppage gait, which occurred 3 days prior to the consultation. Magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography confirmed lumbar disk herniation with sciatic common peroneal nerve entrapment in the popliteal fossa. A combined treatment protocol of spinal and fibular head manipulation and neurodynamic mobilization including soft tissue work of the psoas and hamstring muscles was performed. Outcome measures were assessed at pretreatment, 1 week posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up and included numeric pain rating scale, range of motion, pressure pain threshold, and manual muscle testing. Treatment interventions were applied for 3 sessions over a period of 1 week. Results showed reduction of the patient's subjective pain and considerable improvement in range of motion, strength, and sensation in his left foot, which was restored to full function. A combined program of spinal and fibular head manipulation and neurodynamic mobilization reduced pain, increased range of motion and strength, and restored full function to the left leg in this patient who had severe functional impairment related to a compressed left common peroneal nerve.

  4. Identification of regeneration-associated genes after central and peripheral nerve injury in the adult rat

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    Brook Gary A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that neurons of the peripheral nervous system have the capacity to regenerate a severed axon leading to functional recovery, whereas neurons of the central nervous system do not regenerate successfully after injury. The underlying molecular programs initiated by axotomized peripheral and central nervous system neurons are not yet fully understood. Results To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of regeneration in the nervous system, differential display polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify differentially expressed genes following axotomy of peripheral and central nerve fibers. For this purpose, axotomy induced changes of regenerating facial nucleus neurons, and non-regenerating red nucleus and Clarke's nucleus neurons have been analyzed in an intra-animal side-to-side comparison. One hundred and thirty five gene fragments have been isolated, of which 69 correspond to known genes encoding for a number of different functional classes of proteins such as transcription factors, signaling molecules, homeobox-genes, receptors and proteins involved in metabolism. Sixty gene fragments correspond to genomic mouse sequences without known function. In situ-hybridization has been used to confirm differential expression and to analyze the cellular localization of these gene fragments. Twenty one genes (~15% have been demonstrated to be differentially expressed. Conclusions The detailed analysis of differentially expressed genes in different lesion paradigms provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of regeneration and may lead to the identification of genes which play key roles in functional repair of central nervous tissues.

  5. Retinal genes are differentially expressed in areas of primary versus secondary degeneration following partial optic nerve injury.

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    Wissam Chiha

    Full Text Available Partial transection (PT of the optic nerve is an established experimental model of secondary degeneration in the central nervous system. After a dorsal transection, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs with axons in ventral optic nerve are intact but vulnerable to secondary degeneration, whereas RGCs in dorsal retina with dorsal axons are affected by primary and secondary injuries. Using microarray, we quantified gene expression changes in dorsal and ventral retina at 1 and 7 days post PT, to characterize pathogenic pathways linked to primary and secondary degeneration.In comparison to uninjured retina Cryba1, Cryba2 and Crygs, were significantly downregulated in injured dorsal retina at days 1 and 7. While Ecel1, Timp1, Mt2A and CD74, which are associated with reducing excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation, were significantly upregulated. Genes associated with oxygen binding pathways, immune responses, cytokine receptor activity and apoptosis were enriched in dorsal retina at day 1 after PT. Oxygen binding and apoptosis remained enriched at day 7, as were pathways involved in extracellular matrix modification. Fewer changes were observed in ventral retina at day 1 after PT, most associated with the regulation of protein homodimerization activity. By day 7, apoptosis, matrix organization and signal transduction pathways were enriched. Discriminant analysis was also performed for specific functional gene groups to compare expression intensities at each time point. Altered expression of selected genes (ATF3, GFAP, Ecel1, TIMP1, Tp53 and proteins (GFAP, ECEL1 and ATF3 were semi-quantitatively assessed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively.There was an acute and complex primary injury response in dorsal retina indicative of a dynamic interaction between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative events; ventral retina vulnerable to secondary degeneration showed a delayed injury response. Both primary and secondary injury resulted in the

  6. Effective gene expression in the rat dorsal root ganglia with a non-viral vector delivered via spinal nerve injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Fong; Hsieh, Jung-Hsien; Chiang, Hao; Kan, Hung-Wei; Huang, Cho-Min; Chellis, Luke; Lin, Bo-Shiou; Miaw, Shi-Chuen; Pan, Chun-Liang; Chao, Chi-Chao; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang

    2016-01-01

    Delivering gene constructs into the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is a powerful but challenging therapeutic strategy for sensory disorders affecting the DRG and their peripheral processes. The current delivery methods of direct intra-DRG injection and intrathecal injection have several disadvantages, including potential injury to DRG neurons and low transfection efficiency, respectively. This study aimed to develop a spinal nerve injection strategy to deliver polyethylenimine mixed with plasmid (PEI/DNA polyplexes) containing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Using this spinal nerve injection approach, PEI/DNA polyplexes were delivered to DRG neurons without nerve injury. Within one week of the delivery, GFP expression was detected in 82.8% ± 1.70% of DRG neurons, comparable to the levels obtained by intra-DRG injection (81.3% ± 5.1%, p = 0.82) but much higher than those obtained by intrathecal injection. The degree of GFP expression by neurofilament(+) and peripherin(+) DRG neurons was similar. The safety of this approach was documented by the absence of injury marker expression, including activation transcription factor 3 and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 for neurons and glia, respectively, as well as the absence of behavioral changes. These results demonstrated the efficacy and safety of delivering PEI/DNA polyplexes to DRG neurons via spinal nerve injection. PMID:27748450

  7. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

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    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  8. Inactivation of the Tumor Suppressor Genes Causing the Hereditary Syndromes Predisposing to Head and Neck Cancer via Promoter Hypermethylation in Sporadic Head and Neck Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ian M.; Mithani, Suhail K.; Mydlarz, Wojciech K.; Chang, Steven S.; Califano, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) and dyskeratosis congenita (DC) are rare inherited syndromes that cause head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Prior studies of inherited forms of cancer have been extremely important in elucidating tumor suppressor genes inactivated in sporadic tumors. Here, we studied whether sporadic tumors have epigenetic silencing of the genes causing the inherited forms of HNSCC. Using bisulfite sequencing, we investigated the incidence of promoter hypermethylation of the 17 Fan...

  9. Surgical outcomes following nerve transfers in upper brachial plexus injuries

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    Bhandari P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brachial plexus injuries represent devastating injuries with a poor prognosis. Neurolysis, nerve repair, nerve grafts, nerve transfer, functioning free-muscle transfer and pedicle muscle transfer are the main surgical procedures for treating these injuries. Among these, nerve transfer or neurotization is mainly indicated in root avulsion injury. Materials and Methods: We analysed the results of various neurotization techniques in 20 patients (age group 20-41 years, mean 25.7 years in terms of denervation time, recovery time and functional results. The inclusion criteria for the study included irreparable injuries to the upper roots of brachial plexus (C5, C6 and C7 roots in various combinations, surgery within 10 months of injury and a minimum follow-up period of 18 months. The average denervation period was 4.2 months. Shoulder functions were restored by transfer of spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve (19 patients, and phrenic nerve to suprascapular nerve (1 patient. In 11 patients, axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps (7 patients, intercostal nerves (2 patients, and phrenic nerve with nerve graft (2 patients. Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps (4 patients, both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves (10 patients, spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft (1 patient, intercostal nerves (3rd, 4th and 5th to musculocutaneous nerve (4 patients and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft (1 patient. Results: Motor and sensory recovery was assessed according to Medical Research Council (MRC Scoring system. In shoulder abduction, five patients scored M4 and three patients M3+. Fair results were obtained in remaining 12 patients. The achieved abduction averaged 95 degrees (range, 50 - 170

  10. ING Genes Work as Tumor Suppressor Genes in the Carcinogenesis of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Xiaohan Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is the sixth most common cancer in the world. The evolution and progression of HNSCC are considered to result from multiple stepwise alterations of cellular and molecular pathways in squamous epithelium. Recently, inhibitor of growth gene (ING family consisting of five genes, ING1 to ING5, was identified as a new tumor suppressor gene family that was implicated in the downregulation of cell cycle and chromatin remodeling. In contrast, it has been shown that ING1 and ING2 play an oncogenic role in some cancers, this situation being similar to TGF-β. In HNSCC, the ING family has been reported to be downregulated, and ING translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm may be a critical event for carcinogenesis. In this paper, we describe our recent results and briefly summarize current knowledge regarding the biologic functions of ING in HNSCC.

  11. Nerve Growth Factor Gene Therapy Activates Neuronal Responses in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszynski, Mark H.; Yang, Jennifer H.; Barba, David; U, H S.; Bakay, Roy; Pay, Mary M.; Masliah, Eliezer; Conner, James M.; Kobalka, Peter; Roy, Subhojit; Nagahara, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, and lacks effective disease modifying therapies. In 2001 we initiated a clinical trial of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) gene therapy in AD, the first effort at gene delivery in an adult neurodegenerative disorder. This program aimed to determine whether a nervous system growth factor prevents or reduces cholinergic neuronal degeneration in AD patients. We present post-mortem findings in 10 subjects with survival times ranging from 1 to 10 years post-treatment. OBJECTIVE To determine whether degenerating neurons in AD retain an ability to respond to a nervous system growth factor delivered after disease onset. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS 10 patients with early AD underwent NGF gene therapy using either ex vivo or in vivo gene transfer. The brains of all eight patients in the first Phase 1 ex vivo trial and two patients in a subsequent Phase 1 in vivo trial were examined. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Brains were immunolabeled to evaluate in vivo gene expression, cholinergic neuronal responses to NGF, and activation of NGF-related cell signaling. In two cases, NGF protein levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS Degenerating neurons in the AD brain respond to NGF. All patients exhibited a trophic response to NGF, in the form of axonal sprouting toward the NGF source. Comparing treated and non-treated sides of the brain in three patients that underwent unilateral gene transfer, cholinergic neuronal hypertrophy occurred on the NGF-treated side (P>0.05). Activation of cellular signaling and functional markers were present in two patients that underwent AAV2-mediated NGF gene transfer. Neurons exhibiting tau pathology as well as neurons free of tau expressed NGF, indicating that degenerating cells can be infected with therapeutic genes with resulting activation of cell signaling. No adverse pathological effects related to NGF were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings indicate that

  12. Intracranial schwannomas arising from cranial nerves: Case series and review of literature

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    Rashmeet Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors arising from the cranial nerve sheath are common intracranial neoplasms, with only few articles describing their imaging characteristics. In this present study of four cases of schwannomas originating from the cranial nerves in the head region, we are discussing the radiological features on imaging with the clinical presentation and contrasting them with other differentials in their respective locations. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were done in these cases and correlated with clinical and biopsy findings.

  13. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography cross-sectional image of optic nerve head during intraocular pressure elevation

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    Ji Young Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze changes of the optic nerve head (ONH and peripapillary region during intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in patients using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.METHODS: Both an optic disc 200×200 cube scan and a high-definition 5-line raster scan were obtained from open angle glaucoma patients presented with monocular elevation of IOP (≥30 mm Hg using SD-OCT. Additional baseline characteristics included age, gender, diagnosis, best-corrected visual acuity, refractive error, findings of slit lamp biomicroscopy, findings of dilated stereoscopic examination of the ONH and fundus, IOP, pachymetry findings, and the results of visual field.RESULTS: The 24 patients were selected and divided into two groups:group 1 patients had no history of IOP elevation or glaucoma (n=14, and group 2 patients did have history of IOP elevation or glaucoma (n=10. In each patient, the study eye with elevated IOP was classified into group H (high, and the fellow eye was classified into group L (low. The mean deviation (MD differed significantly between groups H and L when all eyes were considered (P=0.047 and in group 2 (P=0.042, not in group 1 (P=0.893. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL average thickness (P=0.050, rim area (P=0.015, vertical cup/disc ratio (P=0.011, cup volume (P=0.028, inferior quadrant RNFL thickness (P=0.017, and clock-hour (1, 5, and 6 RNFL thicknesses (P=0.050, 0.012, and 0.018, respectively, cup depth (P=0.008, central prelaminar layer thickness (P=0.023, mid-inferior prelaminar layer thickness (P=0.023, and nasal retinal slope (P=0.034 were significantly different between the eyes with groups H and L.CONCLUSION:RNFL average thickness, rim area, vertical cup/disc ratio, cup volume, inferior quadrant RNFL thickness, and clock-hour (1, 5, and 6 RNFL thicknesses significantly changed during acute IOP elevation.

  14. ANATOMICAL STUDY OF CRANIAL NERVE EMERGENCE AND SKULL FORAMINA IN THE HORSE USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rita; Malalana, Fernando; McConnell, James Fraser; Maddox, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For accurate interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the equine brain, knowledge of the normal cross-sectional anatomy of the brain and associated structures (such as the cranial nerves) is essential. The purpose of this prospective cadaver study was to describe and compare MRI and computed tomography (CT) anatomy of cranial nerves' origins and associated skull foramina in a sample of five horses. All horses were presented for euthanasia for reasons unrelated to the head. Heads were collected posteuthanasia and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in the transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes. Thin-slice MR sequences were also acquired using transverse 3D-CISS sequences that allowed mutliplanar reformatting. Transverse thin-slice CT images were acquired and multiplanar reformatting was used to create comparative images. Magnetic resonance imaging consistently allowed visualization of cranial nerves II, V, VII, VIII, and XII in all horses. The cranial nerves III, IV, and VI were identifiable as a group despite difficulties in identification of individual nerves. The group of cranial nerves IX, X, and XI were identified in 4/5 horses although the region where they exited the skull was identified in all cases. The course of nerves II and V could be followed on several slices and the main divisions of cranial nerve V could be distinguished in all cases. In conclusion, CT allowed clear visualization of the skull foramina and occasionally the nerves themselves, facilitating identification of the nerves for comparison with MRI images. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  15. Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR normalisation in non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, D.; Zhang, N.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Bonnema, A.B.; Hou, X.L.

    2012-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage is an important vegetable crop that includes pak choi, caixin and several Japanese vegetables like mizuna, mibuna and komatsuna. Gene expression studies are frequently used to unravel the genetics of complex traits and in such studies the proper selection of reference

  16. The Study of Effects of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Portulaca oleracea Leaves on NT3 Gene Expression in Degeneration of Alpha Neurons after Sciatic Nerve Compression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoufe Hejazi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The injuries of peripheral nervous system cause the death of a number of motor cells of the spinal cord. Neurotrophins family genes such as NT3 involve in neuronal survive after nerve injury and their expression changes after it. With due attention to the expansion of portulaca pleracea in the world study was conducted to determine the effects of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Potulaca oleracea on the NT3 gene expression after sciatic nerve compression in rat. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 88 male wistar rats that randomly were divided in 13 groups of 6 each. They consisted of control group, 4 compression groups (The sciatic nerve was compressed with locker pincer and 8 treatment groups: compression + treatment with dose of 75 mg/kg of alcoholic and aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea on days 1 and 7 (never compression was done on the first day. In all groups, Total RNA was extracted from the lumbar spinal cord segment in 1, 7, 14, 28 days and cDNA was synthesized, then NT3 expression changes were compared in groups. Results: There was a significant increase in NT3 gene expression in the compression group compared to control (p<0.001. The NT3 gene expression shows significant increase (p<0.05 in the treatment groups with alcoholic extract (except 1& 28 days. Also, there was no significant difference in gene expression between treatment group with acqueous extract and compression group in 1 and 7 days. A significant decrease was seen in the treatment groups with aqueous extract of purslane compared to compression (p<0.05. The NT3 gene expression shows significant increase in the treatment groups with alcoholic extract compared to treatment groups with aqueous extract in all days (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results reveal the Portulaca oleracea leaves extracts increase the NT3 gene expression after sciatic nerve injury. This effect is more in alcoholic extract than aqueous extract.

  17. Principle Study of Head Meridian Acupoint Massage to Stress Release via Grey Data Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Ting

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the scientific study of the effectiveness and action principle of head meridian acupoint massage by applying the grey data model analysis approach. First, the head massage procedure for massaging the important head meridian acupuncture points including Taiyang, Fengfu, Tianzhu, Fengqi, and Jianjing is formulated in a standard manner. Second, the status of the autonomic nervous system of each subject is evaluated by using the heart rate variability analyzer before and after the head massage following four weeks. Afterward, the physiological factors of autonomic nerves are quantitatively analyzed by using the grey data modeling theory. The grey data analysis can point out that the status of autonomic nervous system is greatly improved after the massage. The order change of the grey relationship weighting of physiological factors shows the action principle of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves when performing head massage. In other words, the grey data model is able to distinguish the detailed interaction of the autonomic nervous system and the head meridian acupoint massage. Thus, the stress relaxing effect of massaging head meridian acupoints is proved, which is lacked in literature. The results can be a reference principle for massage health care in practice.

  18. Genetic analysis and fine mapping of LH1 and LH2, a set of complementary genes controlling late heading in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Feng; Gao, Li Jun; Li, Jin Hua; Li, Rong Bai; Gao, Han Liang; Deng, Guo Fu; Yang, Jin Shui; Luo, Xiao Jin

    2012-12-01

    Heading date in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a critical agronomic trait with a complex inheritance. To investigate the genetic basis and mechanism of gene interaction in heading date, we conducted genetic analysis on segregation populations derived from crosses among the indica cultivars Bo B, Yuefeng B and Baoxuan 2. A set of dominant complementary genes controlling late heading, designated LH1 and LH2, were detected by molecular marker mapping. Genetic analysis revealed that Baoxuan 2 contains both dominant genes, while Bo B and Yuefeng B each possess either LH1 or LH2. Using larger populations with segregant ratios of 3 : 1, we fine-mapped LH1 to a 63-kb region near the centromere of chromosome 7 flanked by markers RM5436 and RM8034, and LH2 to a 177-kb region on the short arm of chromosome 8 between flanking markers Indel22468-3 and RM25. Some candidate genes were identified through sequencing of Bo B and Yuefeng B in these target regions. Our work provides a solid foundation for further study on gene interaction in heading date and has application in marker-assisted breeding of photosensitive hybrid rice in China.

  19. Extracranial Facial Nerve Schwannoma Treated by Hypo-fractionated CyberKnife Radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ayaka; Miyazaki, Shinichiro; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2016-09-21

    Facial nerve schwannoma is a rare intracranial tumor. Treatment for this benign tumor has been controversial. Here, we report a case of extracranial facial nerve schwannoma treated successfully by hypo-fractionated CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA) radiosurgery and discuss the efficacy of this treatment. A 34-year-old female noticed a swelling in her right mastoid process. The lesion enlarged over a seven-month period, and she experienced facial spasm on the right side. She was diagnosed with a facial schwannoma via a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the head and neck and was told to wait until the facial nerve palsy subsides. She was referred to our hospital for radiation therapy. We planned a fractionated CyberKnife radiosurgery for three consecutive days. After CyberKnife radiosurgery, the mass in the right parotid gradually decreased in size, and the facial nerve palsy disappeared. At her eight-month follow-up, her facial spasm had completely disappeared. There has been no recurrence and the facial nerve function has been normal. We successfully demonstrated the efficacy of CyberKnife radiosurgery as an alternative treatment that also preserves neurofunction for facial nerve schwannomas.

  20. The immunologic considerations in human head transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A; Furr, Allen; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-05-01

    The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft). The technical and immunologic difficulties are enormous, especially since rapid nerve and cord connections and regeneration have not yet been possible to achieve. In this article we begin by briefly reviewing neuro-immunologic issues that may favor BHT such as the blood brain barrier (BBB) and point out its shortcomings. And we touch on the cellular and humoral elements in the brain proper that differ in some respects from those in other organs and in the periphery. Based on recent successes in vascular composite allografts (VCAs), we will elaborate on potential specific advantages and difficulties in BHT of various available immunosuppressive medications already utilized in VCAs. The risk/benefit ratio of these drugs will be emphasized in relation to direct brain toxicity such as seizure disorders, interference, or promotion of nerve regeneration, and potentiation of cerebral viral infections. The final portion of this article will focus on pre-transplant immunologic manipulation of the deceased donor body along with pretreatment of the recipient. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Multiple Peripheral Nerve Blocks in a Superobese Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Kilicaslan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of obese patients has increased dramatically worldwide. Morbid obesity is associated with an increased incidence of medical comorbidities and restricts the application choices in anesthesiology. We report a successfully performed combined ultrasound-guided blockade of the femoral, tibial, and common peroneal nerve in a superobese patient. We present a case report of a 31-year-old, ASA-PS II, super obese man (190 kg, 180 cm, BMI: 58 kg/m2 admitted to the emergency department with a type II segmental tibia shaft fracture and ankle dislocation after a vehicle accident. After two failed spinal anesthesia attempts, we decided to apply a femoral block combined with a sciatic block. Femoral blocks were successfully performed with US guided in-plane technique. Separate blocks of the tibial and common peroneal nerves were planned after the sciatic nerve could not be located due to the thick subcutaneous tissue. We performed a tibial nerve block at 2 cm above the popliteal crease and common peroneal nerve at the level of the fibular head with US guided in-plane technique. The blocks were successful and no block-related complications were noted. Ultrasound guidance allows new approaches for multiple peripheral nerve blocks with low local anesthetic doses in obese patients.

  2. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin, E-mail: chengleiyx@126.com

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  3. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  4. The influence of positive margins and nerve invasion in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck treated with surgery and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garden, Adam S.; Weber, Randal S.; Morrison, William H.; Ang, K. Kian; Peters, Lester J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Surgery is the primary treatment for adenoid cystic carcinomas arising from major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck. However, local recurrence is frequent because of the infiltrative growth pattern and perineural spread associated with these tumors. At UTMDACC, we have had a long-standing policy of using postoperative radiotherapy to reduce the risk of local recurrence and to avoid the need for radical surgery; this 30-year retrospective study analyzes the results of this combined modality approach. Methods and Materials: Between 1962 and 1991, 198 patients ages 13-82 years, with adenoid cystic carcinomas of the head and neck, received postoperative radiotherapy for known or suspected microscopic residual disease following surgery. Distribution of primary sites was: parotid: 30 patients; submandibular/sublingual: 41 patients; lacrimal: 5 patients; and minor salivary glands: 122 patients. Eighty-three patients (42%) had microscopic positive margins and an additional 55 (28%) had close (≤5 mm) or uncertain margins. One hundred thirty-six patients (69%) had perineural spread with invasion of a major (named) nerve in 55 patients (28%). Using radiation techniques appropriate to the primary site, a median dose of 60 Gy (range 50-69 Gy) was delivered to the tumor bed. Follow-up ranged from 5-341 months (median, 93 months). All surviving patients had a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Results: Twenty-three patients (12%) had local recurrences with 5-, 10-, and 15-year actuarial local control rates of 95%, 86%, and 79%, respectively. Fifteen of the 83 patients (18%) with positive margins developed local recurrences, compared to 5 of 55 patients (9%) with close or uncertain margins, and 3 of 60 patients (5%) with negative margins (p 0.02). Patients with and without a major (named) nerve involved had crude failure rates of 18% (10 out of 55) and 9% (13 out of 143), respectively (p 0.02). There was a trend toward better local control with increasing dose

  5. The influence of positive margins and nerve invasion in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck treated with surgery and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garden, Adam S; Weber, Randal S; Morrison, William H; Ang, K Kian; Peters, Lester J

    1995-06-15

    Purpose: Surgery is the primary treatment for adenoid cystic carcinomas arising from major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck. However, local recurrence is frequent because of the infiltrative growth pattern and perineural spread associated with these tumors. At UTMDACC, we have had a long-standing policy of using postoperative radiotherapy to reduce the risk of local recurrence and to avoid the need for radical surgery; this 30-year retrospective study analyzes the results of this combined modality approach. Methods and Materials: Between 1962 and 1991, 198 patients ages 13-82 years, with adenoid cystic carcinomas of the head and neck, received postoperative radiotherapy for known or suspected microscopic residual disease following surgery. Distribution of primary sites was: parotid: 30 patients; submandibular/sublingual: 41 patients; lacrimal: 5 patients; and minor salivary glands: 122 patients. Eighty-three patients (42%) had microscopic positive margins and an additional 55 (28%) had close ({<=}5 mm) or uncertain margins. One hundred thirty-six patients (69%) had perineural spread with invasion of a major (named) nerve in 55 patients (28%). Using radiation techniques appropriate to the primary site, a median dose of 60 Gy (range 50-69 Gy) was delivered to the tumor bed. Follow-up ranged from 5-341 months (median, 93 months). All surviving patients had a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Results: Twenty-three patients (12%) had local recurrences with 5-, 10-, and 15-year actuarial local control rates of 95%, 86%, and 79%, respectively. Fifteen of the 83 patients (18%) with positive margins developed local recurrences, compared to 5 of 55 patients (9%) with close or uncertain margins, and 3 of 60 patients (5%) with negative margins (p 0.02). Patients with and without a major (named) nerve involved had crude failure rates of 18% (10 out of 55) and 9% (13 out of 143), respectively (p 0.02). There was a trend toward better local control with increasing dose

  6. Nerve Growth Factor Gene Therapy: Activation of Neuronal Responses in Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszynski, Mark H; Yang, Jennifer H; Barba, David; U, Hoi-Sang; Bakay, Roy A E; Pay, Mary M; Masliah, Eliezer; Conner, James M; Kobalka, Peter; Roy, Subhojit; Nagahara, Alan H

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and lacks effective disease-modifying therapies. In 2001, we initiated a clinical trial of nerve growth factor (NGF) gene therapy in AD, the first effort at gene delivery in an adult neurodegenerative disorder. This program aimed to determine whether a nervous system growth factor prevents or reduces cholinergic neuronal degeneration in patients with AD. We present postmortem findings in 10 patients with survival times ranging from 1 to 10 years after treatment. To determine whether degenerating neurons in AD retain an ability to respond to a nervous system growth factor delivered after disease onset. Patients in this anatomicopathological study were enrolled in clinical trials from March 2001 to October 2012 at the University of California, San Diego, Medical Center in La Jolla. Ten patients with early AD underwent NGF gene therapy using ex vivo or in vivo gene transfer. The brains of all 8 patients in the first phase 1 ex vivo trial and of 2 patients in a subsequent phase 1 in vivo trial were examined. Brains were immunolabeled to evaluate in vivo gene expression, cholinergic neuronal responses to NGF, and activation of NGF-related cell signaling. In 2 patients, NGF protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Among 10 patients, degenerating neurons in the AD brain responded to NGF. All patients exhibited a trophic response to NGF in the form of axonal sprouting toward the NGF source. Comparing treated and nontreated sides of the brain in 3 patients who underwent unilateral gene transfer, cholinergic neuronal hypertrophy occurred on the NGF-treated side (P < .05). Activation of cellular signaling and functional markers was present in 2 patients who underwent adeno-associated viral vectors (serotype 2)-mediated NGF gene transfer. Neurons exhibiting tau pathology and neurons free of tau expressed NGF, indicating that degenerating cells can be infected with therapeutic

  7. Deregulated genes in sporadic vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Holga Andrea; Stangerup, Sven-Eric

    2010-01-01

    In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology.......In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology....

  8. Localization of substance P, calcitonin gene related peptide and galanin in the nerve fibers of porcine cystic ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Majewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we showed that both the noradrenergic and cholinergic component of ovarian innervation is markedly changed in porcine cystic ovaries. The present study is aimed at elucidating the distribution pattern of substance P- (SP, calcitonin gene related peptide CGRP- and/or galanin (GAL-containing nerve fibers within porcine cystic ovaries. The status polycysticus was induced by dexamethasone phosphate disodium salt i.m. injections performed from the 7th until the 21st day of the first studied estrous cycle. During the same period of time, gilts of the control group received saline. All animals were slaughtered on the expected 11th day of the second studied estrous cycle, and their ovaries were collected. When compared to control gonad, a distinct difference in the distribution pattern and the density of SP-, CGRP- and/or GAL-immunoreactive (GAL-IR nerve fibers was observed. Thus, unlike in the control gonad, SP- and/or CGRP-IR perivascular nerve fibers were found to supply medullar blood vessels of polycystic ovary. Furthermore, the number of GAL-IR nerve fibers contributing to the ground plexus in polycystic ovaries was higher than that observed in the control gonads. Thus, as may be judged from the profound changes in the distribution pattern of differently chemically coded afferent terminals within polycystic gonads, it appears possible that neuropeptides released from these terminals may take part in the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 622–630

  9. Visualization of isolated trigeminal nerve invasion by lymphoma using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manon-Espaillat, R.; Lanska, D.J.; Ruff, R.L.; Cleveland Veteran's Administration Medical Center, OH; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH; Masaryk, T.; University Hospitals of Cleveland, OH; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH

    1990-01-01

    A 50-year-old man with active histiocytic lymphoma for 12 years developed an isolated right trigeminal neuropathy. Initial evaluation with head computed tomography, X-rays of the skull base, bone scan, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis including cytology were normal. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed enlargement of the proximal third of the right trigeminal nerve. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI can be useful for the early demonstration of cranial nerve invasion by lymphoma. (orig.)

  10. End-to-side neurorrhaphy repairs peripheral nerve injury: sensory nerve induces motor nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Zhang, She-Hong; Wang, Tao; Peng, Feng; Han, Dong; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2017-10-01

    End-to-side neurorrhaphy is an option in the treatment of the long segment defects of a nerve. It involves suturing the distal stump of the disconnected nerve (recipient nerve) to the side of the intimate adjacent nerve (donor nerve). However, the motor-sensory specificity after end-to-side neurorrhaphy remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate whether cutaneous sensory nerve regeneration induces motor nerves after end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Thirty rats were randomized into three groups: (1) end-to-side neurorrhaphy using the ulnar nerve (mixed sensory and motor) as the donor nerve and the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve as the recipient nerve; (2) the sham group: ulnar nerve and cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve were just exposed; and (3) the transected nerve group: cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve was transected and the stumps were turned over and tied. At 5 months, acetylcholinesterase staining results showed that 34% ± 16% of the myelinated axons were stained in the end-to-side group, and none of the myelinated axons were stained in either the sham or transected nerve groups. Retrograde fluorescent tracing of spinal motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion showed the proportion of motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the end-to-side group was 21% ± 5%. In contrast, no motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the sham group and transected nerve group were found in the spinal cord segment. These results confirmed that motor neuron regeneration occurred after cutaneous nerve end-to-side neurorrhaphy.

  11. No evidence that polymorphisms of brain regulator genes Microcephalin and ASPM are associated with general mental ability, head circumference or altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J Philippe; Vernon, Philip A; Bons, Trudy Ann

    2007-04-22

    We test the hypothesis that polymorphisms of the brain regulator genes MCPH1 and ASPM contribute to variations in human brain size and its correlates. We measured general mental ability, head circumference and social intelligence in 644 Canadian adults (496 Caucasians, 36 Orientals, 84 Mixed Race/Other and 28 Blacks; 257 men and 387 women). The gene polymorphisms were assessed from buccal DNA; mental ability by Wonderlic Personnel Test and Multidimensional Aptitude Battery; head circumference by stretchless tape; and social intelligence by prosocial attitude questionnaires. Although all measures were construct valid and the allele frequencies showed expected population differences, no relationship was found between the genes and any of the criteria. Among Caucasian 18-25 year olds, for example, the two mental ability tests correlated with each other (r=0.78, N=476, p<0.001), with head circumference (r=0.17, N=182, p<0.05) and with prosocial attitudes (r=0.23, N=182, p<0.001).

  12. Role of metallothioneins in peripheral nerve function and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceballos, D; Lago, N; Verdú, E

    2003-01-01

    The physiological role of the metallothionein (MT) family of proteins during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration was examined in Mt1+ 2 and Mt3 knockout (KO) mice. To this end, the right sciatic nerve was crushed, and the regeneration distance was evaluated by the pinch test 2-7 days....... The improved regeneration observed with the Mt3 KO mice was confirmed by compound nerve action potentials that were recorded from digital nerves at 14 dpl only in this group. We conclude that Mt3 normally inhibits peripheral nerve regeneration........ Moreover, the number of regenerating axons in the distal tibial nerve was significantly higher in Mt3KO mice than in the other two strains at 14 dpl. Immunoreactive profiles to protein gene product 9.5 were present in the epidermis and the sweat glands of the plantar skin of the hindpaw of the Mt3 KO group...

  13. Significance of head CT in neuro-ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Yuichiro; Masuyama, Yoshimasa; Nakamura, Yasuko; Fujimoto, Toshiro.

    1979-01-01

    It is important to perform CT purposefully in patients with some neuro-ophthalmological disorders. Using Hitachi CT-H250 with the finer matrix of 256 x 256 and a section thickness of 5 mm and 10 mm, we performed head CT in 98 patients with various kinds of neuro-ophthalmological disorders in these 30 months. Neuro-ophthalmological findings in these patients were visual disturbance, visual field defects (hemianopsia, quandrantanopsia, enlargement of the blind spot, central scotoma), papilledema, optic nerve atrophy, difficulties in ocular movements, and others. In 44 (44.9%) of these 98 patients, abnormal findings were displayed in the head CT, characterizing intracranial tumors, intracranial infarction, aneurysms in intracranial vessels, arterio-venous malformation, enlargement of the ventricle or the cistern. In some cases the head CT was the decisive procedure in ensuring a correct diagnosis. We presented findings in the head CT in several interesting cases. We recognized the necessity of the head CT in patients with neuro-ophthalmological disorders. (author)

  14. Two msh/msx-related genes, Djmsh1 and Djmsh2, contribute to the early blastema growth during planarian head regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannini, Linda; Deri, Paolo; Gremigni, Vittorio; Rossi, Leonardo; Salvetti, Alessandra; Batistoni, Renata

    2008-01-01

    Regeneration in planarians is an intriguing phenomenon, based on the presence of pluripotent stem cells, known as neoblasts. Following amputation, these cells activate mitotic divisions, migrate distally and undergo differentiation, giving rise to the regeneration blastema. We have identified two msh/msx-related genes, Djmsh1 and Djmsh2, which are expressed in distinct cell populations of the planarian Dugesia japonica and activated, with different patterns, during head regeneration. We demonstrate that RNA interference of Djmsh1 or Djmsh2 generates a delay in the growth of cephalic blastema, interfering with the dynamics of mitoses during its initial formation. Our data also reveal that the activity of the two planarian msh genes is required to regulate Djbmp expression during head regeneration. This study identifies, for the first time, a functional association between muscle segment homeobox (MSH) homeoproteins and BMP signaling during stem cell-based regeneration of the planarian head and provides a functional analysis of how msh genes may regulate in vivo the regenerative response of planarian stem cells.

  15. Right hypoglossal nerve paralysis after tracheal intubation for aesthetic breast surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Al-Benna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic and functional complications caused by general anesthesia have been rarely described after aesthetic surgery. We report a case of unilateral right hypoglossal nerve paralysis following the use of a cuffed endotracheal airway in a 24-year-old woman undergoing aesthetic breast surgery. Neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging of the head failed to provide additional insights into the cause of the nerve injury. Postoperatively, the patient was carefully monitored and made a full recovery within 2 weeks without any pharmacological treatment. The transient hypoglossal nerve paralysis seemed to be due to neuropraxia. In this patient, we postulate that the right hypoglossal nerve was compressed between the endotracheal tube cuff and the hyoid bone, which was inflated with 30 cm H 2 O. Patients undergoing aesthetic surgery must be appropriately and adequately informed that postoperative aesthetic and functional deficits can occur due to anesthesia as well as the surgery.

  16. The use of botulinum toxin in head and face medicine: An interdisciplinary field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laskawi Rainer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this review article different interdisciplinary relevant applications of botulinum toxin type A (BTA in the head and face region are demonstrated. Patients with head and face disorders of different etiology often suffer from disorders concerning their musculature (example: synkinesis in mimic muscles or gland-secretion. This leads to many problems and reduces their quality of life. The application of BTA can improve movement disorders like blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, synkinesis following defective healing of the facial nerve, palatal tremor, severe bruxism, oromandibular dystonias hypertrophy of the masseter muscle and disorders of the autonomous nerve system like hypersalivation, hyperlacrimation, pathological sweating and intrinsic rhinitis. Conclusion The application of botulinum toxin type A is a helpful and minimally invasive treatment option to improve the quality of life in patients with head and face disorders of different quality and etiology. Side effects are rare.

  17. Electrical stimulation accelerates axonal and functional peripheral nerve regeneration across long gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haastert-Talini, Kirsten; Schmitte, Ruth; Korte, Nele; Klode, Dorothee; Ratzka, Andreas; Grothe, Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Short-term low-frequency electrical stimulation (ESTIM) of proximal peripheral nerve stumps prior to end-to-end coaptation or tubular bridging of small distances has been reported to increase preferential motor reinnervation and functional motor recovery in animal models and human patients undergoing carpal tunnel release surgery. We investigated the effects of ESTIM on regeneration across rat sciatic nerve gaps, which exceed distances that allow spontaneous regeneration. Three different reconstruction approaches were combined with ESTIM in the experimental groups. Nerve gaps (13 mm) were bridged using (I) nerve autotransplantation, (II) transplantation of differentially filled silicone tubes, or (III) transplantation of tubular grafts containing fibroblast growth factor-2 overexpressing Schwann cells (SCs) for gene therapy. The regeneration outcome was followed for up to 8 weeks, and functionally as well as histomorphometrically analyzed in comparison to non-stimulated control groups. Combining ESTIM with nerve autotransplantation significantly increased the nerve fiber density in the regenerated nerve, and the grade of functional recovery as detected by electrodiagnostic recordings from the gastrocnemius muscle. The combination of ESTIM with transplantation of naïve SCs increased the regeneration of gap-bridging nerve tissue. Although macroscopic tissue regeneration was not further improved after combining ESTIM with FGF-2(21/23-kD) gene therapy, the latter resulted in a high rate of regenerated nerves that functionally reconnected to the target muscle. Based on our results, brief ESTIM shows high potential to accelerate axonal as well as functional (motor and sensory) outcomes in the clinical setting of peripheral nerve gap reconstruction in human patients.

  18. Hip hemiarthroplasty using major lower limb nerve blocks: A preliminary report of a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ahmad Muhammad; Ghoneim, Mohammed Abd-Elfttah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Major lower limb nerve blocks are relatively safe techniques. However, their efficacy for hip hemiarthroplasty is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of combined femoral, sciatic, obturator and lateral femoral cutaneous (LFC) nerve blocks in providing adequate anesthesia for hip hemiarthroplasty. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with fracture neck femur; who underwent hip hemiarthroplasty, participated in this observational study. In the induction room, all patients received ultrasound-guided femoral, proximal obturator, LFC and parasacral sciatic nerve blocks in addition to local infiltration at the proximal site of the skin incision. Anesthesia was considered to be adequate only if the surgery was completed without any requirement for opioid administration. Results: All patients (100% [95% confidence interval, 86-100%]) had adequate anesthesia. Seventeen patients (85% [95% confidence interval, 63-96%] had mild discomfort during the reduction of the prosthetic femur head back into the hip socket; however, no supplementary analgesics were required. Conclusion: The combined femoral, sciatic, obturator and LFC nerve blocks in addition to local infiltration at the proximal site of skin incision could provide adequate anesthesia for hip hemiarthroplasty. Light sedation before reduction of the prosthetic femur head back into the hip socket is advisable. PMID:25191186

  19. Estimation of ultrasound reference values for the lower limb peripheral nerves in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedewi, Mohamed Abdelmohsen; Abodonya, Ahmed; Kotb, Mamdouh; Kamal, Sanaa; Mahmoud, Gehan; Aldossari, Khaled; Alqabbani, Abdullah; Swify, Sherine

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the reference values for the lower limb peripheral nerves in adults.The demographics and physical characteristics of 69 adult healthy volunteers were evaluated and recorded. The estimated reference values and their correlations with the age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI) were evaluated.The cross sectional area reference values were obtained at 5 predetermined sites for 3 important lower limb peripheral nerves. Our CSA values correlated significantly with age, weight, and BMI. The normal reference values for each nerve were as follows: Tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa 19 mm ± 6.9, tibial nerve at the level of the medial malleolus 12.7 mm ± 4.5, common peroneal nerve at the popliteal fossa 9.5 mm ± 4, common peroneal nerve fibular head 8.9 mm ± 3.2, sural nerve 3.5 mm ± 1.4.The reference values for the lower limb peripheral nerves were identified. These values could be used for future management of peripheral nerve disorders.

  20. Paraganglioma of the head and neck region: treatment outcome and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, Naren; Bhaddy, Nasir; Holliday, Michael; Lee, D.-J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long term results of treating paraganglioma (glomus tumor) of the head and neck region, in terms of local control and toxicities. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 38 patients with a diagnosis of a paraganglioma of the head and neck region who had received their therapy at our hospital from 1972 to 1994. Nine patients received definitive radiotherapy (XRT), 7 had surgical resection plus postoperative XRT and 22 patients had surgical resection only. There were 11 males and 27 females. The median age was 50 years with a range of 15 to 78. XRT, either definitive or postoperative, consisted of 1.8 Gy per fraction to a total of 45 to 50.4 cGy. In terms of surgery for the postoperative XRT group, resection of the glomus tumor in the neck or temporal bone was carried out in 6, and in one patient additional suboccipital craniotomy (2-staged) for removal of the intracranial portion of the tumor was performed. For the surgery alone group, 18 patients had resection of the glomus tumor in the neck or temporal bone, and 4 patients required additional two-staged suboccipital craniotomy. Results: In the XRT group, 14 patients had glomus jugulare and 2 patients had glomus typanicum tumor. With a median follow-up of 5 years (range: 2 to 21), one of the 16 patients developed local recurrence. In the surgery only group (15 glomus jugulare, 4 glomus typanicum and 3 glomus vegalis), 5 of the 22 patients developed local recurrence, with a median follow-up of 6 years (range: 2 to 15). The difference in the local control rates was not statistically significant (Fisher's test, p= 0.18). XRT was well tolerated. One patient developed facial nerve paralysis 5 years following XRT. Whereas in the surgery only group, the long term sequela was mainly cranial nerve dysfunction which affected the facial nerve in 2, the facial nerve plus the lingual nerve in one and facial plus cranial nerves VI, IX and XII in another (p=0.28). Conclusion

  1. Healing of periodontal defects and calcitonin gene related peptide expression following inferior alveolar nerve transection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Linlin; Wang, Yanzhi; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Li, Shu

    2014-06-01

    The roles of nerve and neuropeptides in the process of bone formation and remolding have been studied previously. However, the effects of nervous system and neuropeptide on periodontal alveolar bone formation remained unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of innervation on regeneration of alveolar bone and expression levels of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) in periodontal tissues of rats, so as to have a better understanding of the effect of nerve and its related neuropeptide on periodontal tissue regeneration. Rats received transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve and a surgery to produce bilateral periodontal defect, then the alveolar tissue was obtained from animals of each group at week 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after operation, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson staining were performed to evaluate the ability to restore and repair periodontal tissues at 4, 6 and 8 after surgery. Then new bone formation area and mineralized area were quantified using imagepro-plus6.0 software after pictures were taken under the microscope and SPSS17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was applied to investigate the expression of CGRP at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Rats received transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve surgery and were then sacrificed at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 after the operation. The change of CGRP expression in periodontal tissue was detected using immunohistochemical methods. The results showed that the volume of new bone formation was not significantly difference between the experimental and control groups, but the mineralized new bone area between the two groups was statistically significant. The level of CGRP expression was lower than normal at week 1, and then it began to rise in the next stage. The plateau, at higher than normal level, was reached at 6 weeks post-surgery. Results of transection of the left inferior alveolar nerve demonstrated the expression of CGRP

  2. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is associated with lesion length in acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, K; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Sander, B

    2010-01-01

    included 41 patients with unilateral optic neuritis and 19 healthy volunteers. All patients were evaluated and examined within 28 days of onset of symptoms. The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), an objective quantitative measure of optic nerve head edema, was measured by optical...... coherence tomography and the length and location of the inflammatory optic nerve lesion were evaluated using MRI. RESULTS: Ophthalmoscopically, 34% of the patients had papillitis. The retinal nerve fiber layer in affected eyes (mean 123.1 microm) was higher during the acute phase than that of fellow eyes......BACKGROUND: Acute optic neuritis occurs with and without papillitis. The presence of papillitis has previously been thought to imply an anterior location of the neuritis, but imaging studies seeking to test this hypothesis have been inconclusive. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study...

  3. Bronchial airway gene expression in smokers with lung or head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyck, Eric; Nazarov, Petr V; Muller, Arnaud; Nicot, Nathalie; Bosseler, Manon; Pierson, Sandrine; Van Moer, Kris; Palissot, Valérie; Mascaux, Céline; Knolle, Ulrich; Ninane, Vincent; Nati, Romain; Bremnes, Roy M; Vallar, Laurent; Berchem, Guy; Schlesser, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major cause of cancers of the respiratory tract, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head and neck cancer (HNC). In order to better understand carcinogenesis of the lung and upper airways, we have compared the gene expression profiles of tumor-distant, histologically normal bronchial biopsy specimens obtained from current smokers with NSCLC or HNC (SC, considered as a single group), as well as nonsmokers (NS) and smokers without cancer (SNC). RNA from a total of 97 biopsies was used for gene expression profiling (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array). Differentially expressed genes were used to compare NS, SNC, and SC, and functional analysis was carried out using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Smoking-related cancer of the respiratory tract was found to affect the expression of genes encoding xenobiotic biotransformation proteins, as well as proteins associated with crucial inflammation/immunity pathways and other processes that protect the airway from the chemicals in cigarette smoke or contribute to carcinogenesis. Finally, we used the prediction analysis for microarray (PAM) method to identify gene signatures of cigarette smoking and cancer, and uncovered a 15-gene signature that distinguished between SNC and SC with an accuracy of 83%. Thus, gene profiling of histologically normal bronchial biopsy specimens provided insight into cigarette-induced carcinogenesis of the respiratory tract and gene signatures of cancer in smokers

  4. Cranial nerves in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and in fossil relatives (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A

    2017-02-01

    Three systems, two sensory and one protective, are present in the skin of the living Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, and in fossil lungfish, and the arrangement and innervation of the sense organs is peculiar to lungfish. Peripheral branches of nerves that innervate the sense organs are slender and unprotected, and form before any skeletal structures appear. When the olfactory capsule develops, it traps some of the anterior branches of cranial nerve V, which emerged from the chondrocranium from the lateral sphenotic foramen. Cranial nerve I innervates the olfactory organ enclosed within the olfactory capsule and cranial nerve II innervates the eye. Cranial nerve V innervates the sense organs of the snout and upper lip, and, in conjunction with nerve IX and X, the sense organs of the posterior and lateral head. Cranial nerve VII is primarily a motor nerve, and a single branch innervates sense organs in the mandible. There are no connections between nerves V and VII, although both emerge from the brain close to each other. The third associated system consists of lymphatic vessels covered by an extracellular matrix of collagen, mineralised as tubules in fossils. Innervation of the sensory organs is separate from the lymphatic system and from the tubule system of fossil lungfish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interocular symmetry of retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head parameters measured by Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography in a normal pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Neelam; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Ramakrishnan, Renagappa

    2017-10-01

    To determine interocular differences in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in a pediatric population using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). Seventy normal Indian children aged 5-17 years presenting to the Pediatric Clinic were included in this observational cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and an evaluation of the RNFL and ONH by Cirrus HD-OCT. Differences between the right and left eyes were calculated and values were compared by means of a paired t-test. Subjects were also divided into two groups based on age (under or over 10 years of age). Interocular differences in RNFL and ONH parameters together with sex and age variations for these differences were determined. The mean age of studied pediatric population was 11.83 ± 3.3 years (range 5-17). Average RNFL thickness was 94.46 ± 8.7 μm (± SD) (range 77-111). Differences in the average RNFL between right and left eyes were not statistically significant (P = 0.060). Superior quadrant RNFL was thicker in the left eye and temporal quadrant was thicker in the right eye. Among ONH parameters, there were no statistically significant differences in any parameters, except vertical cup-disc (CD) ratio which was significant (P = 0.007). The 2.5%-97.5% limits of asymmetry were 9 μm for average RNFL, 0.14 for average CD ratio, and 0.22 for vertical CD ratio. Mean interocular RNFL thickness differences in superior, superior nasal, and temporal superior quadrants were 10.61 (P sex, while only significant differences with age were observed in 12 clock hour sector analysis, mainly in nasal inferior and inferior quadrant. We report the degree of interocular symmetry of RNFL and ONH parameters measured by Cirrus HD-OCT in a healthy pediatric population. The normal interocular RNFL asymmetry should not exceed 9 μm and vertical CD ratio beyond 0.22 should be considered for further investigations. The

  6. Does optic nerve head surface topography change prior to loss of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness: a test of the site of injury hypothesis in experimental glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Fortune

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that optic nerve head (ONH deformation manifesting as changes in its mean surface height precedes thinning of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in experimental glaucoma (EG.68 rhesus macaque monkeys each had three or more baseline imaging sessions under manometric intraocular pressure (IOP control to obtain average RNFL thickness (RNFLT and the ONH surface topography parameter mean position of the disc (MPD. Laser photocoagulation was then applied to the trabecular meshwork of one eye to induce chronic, mild-to-moderate IOP elevation and bi-weekly imaging continued. Event analysis was applied to determine for each parameter when an 'endpoint' occurred (signficant change from baseline for eight different endpoint criteria. Specificity was assessed in the group of 68 fellow control eyes. Classical signal detection theory and survival analysis were used to compare MPD with RNFLT.Regardless of the endpoint criterion, endpoints were always more frequent for MPD than for RNFLT. The discriminability index (d' was 2.7 ± 0.2 for MPD and 1.9 ± 0.2 for RNFLT (p<0.0001. Endpoints were reached by MPD an average of 1-2 months earlier than by RNFLT (p<0.01. At the onset of the first specific, detectable MPD change in EG eyes, there was still no significant change in RNFLT on average (p=0.29 and only 25% of individual eyes exhibited signficant reduction. In contrast, at onset of signficant RNFLT change, MPD had already changed an average of 101 µm from baseline (p<0.0001 and 71% of the individual eyes had exhibited significant change. The magnitude of MPD change was more than could be explained on the basis of axon loss alone.This study demonstrates that the average surface height of the ONH changes prior to any detectable loss of average peripapillary RNFL thickness in non-human primate eyes with experimental glaucoma.

  7. Neurovascular compression syndrome of the eighth cranial nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Akinori

    2010-01-01

    Neurovascular compression syndrome (NVCS) involves neuropathy due to intracranial blood vessels compressing the cranial nerves. NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve is less reportedly established as a clinical entity than that of the fifth and seventh cranial nerves. We report 17 cases of NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve and their clinical features. Clinical symptoms and test findings among our subjects indicated that most were aged more than 65 years, were unilateral, had intermittent tinnitus, suffered attacks lasting a few seconds dozens of times a day, experienced dizziness concomitantly with tinnitus, aggravated tinnitus and dizziness when tilting the head toward the affected side and looking downward (positional tinnitus, positional dizziness), heard specific tinnitus sounds such as crackling differing from those in cochlear tinnitus, had mild or no hearing loss, were diagnosed with retrocochlear hearing disturbance due to an interpeak latency delay between waves I and III of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), often had no nystagmus or canal paresis (CP), were found in constructive interference steady state magnetic resonance imaging (CISS MRI) to have compression of the eighth cranial nerve by the vertebral artery (VA) or the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), rarely had concomitant facial spasms, and had tinnitus and dizziness markedly suppressed by carbamazepine. With the number of elderly individuals continuing to increase, cases of NVCS due to arteriosclerotic changes in cerebral blood vessels are expected to increase, making it necessary to consider NVCS in elderly subjects with dizziness, tinnitus, and hearing loss. (author)

  8. Neurovascular compression syndrome of the eighth cranial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Akinori [Saitama Medical Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Moroyama, Saitama (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Neurovascular compression syndrome (NVCS) involves neuropathy due to intracranial blood vessels compressing the cranial nerves. NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve is less reportedly established as a clinical entity than that of the fifth and seventh cranial nerves. We report 17 cases of NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve and their clinical features. Clinical symptoms and test findings among our subjects indicated that most were aged more than 65 years, were unilateral, had intermittent tinnitus, suffered attacks lasting a few seconds dozens of times a day, experienced dizziness concomitantly with tinnitus, aggravated tinnitus and dizziness when tilting the head toward the affected side and looking downward (positional tinnitus, positional dizziness), heard specific tinnitus sounds such as crackling differing from those in cochlear tinnitus, had mild or no hearing loss, were diagnosed with retrocochlear hearing disturbance due to an interpeak latency delay between waves I and III of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), often had no nystagmus or canal paresis (CP), were found in constructive interference steady state magnetic resonance imaging (CISS MRI) to have compression of the eighth cranial nerve by the vertebral artery (VA) or the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), rarely had concomitant facial spasms, and had tinnitus and dizziness markedly suppressed by carbamazepine. With the number of elderly individuals continuing to increase, cases of NVCS due to arteriosclerotic changes in cerebral blood vessels are expected to increase, making it necessary to consider NVCS in elderly subjects with dizziness, tinnitus, and hearing loss. (author)

  9. Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Axon Regeneration After Peripheral Nerve Injuries in Animal Models and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa

    2016-04-01

    Injured peripheral nerves regenerate their lost axons but functional recovery in humans is frequently disappointing. This is so particularly when injuries require regeneration over long distances and/or over long time periods. Fat replacement of chronically denervated muscles, a commonly accepted explanation, does not account for poor functional recovery. Rather, the basis for the poor nerve regeneration is the transient expression of growth-associated genes that accounts for declining regenerative capacity of neurons and the regenerative support of Schwann cells over time. Brief low-frequency electrical stimulation accelerates motor and sensory axon outgrowth across injury sites that, even after delayed surgical repair of injured nerves in animal models and patients, enhances nerve regeneration and target reinnervation. The stimulation elevates neuronal cyclic adenosine monophosphate and, in turn, the expression of neurotrophic factors and other growth-associated genes, including cytoskeletal proteins. Electrical stimulation of denervated muscles immediately after nerve transection and surgical repair also accelerates muscle reinnervation but, at this time, how the daily requirement of long-duration electrical pulses can be delivered to muscles remains a practical issue prior to translation to patients. Finally, the technique of inserting autologous nerve grafts that bridge between a donor nerve and an adjacent recipient denervated nerve stump significantly improves nerve regeneration after delayed nerve repair, the donor nerves sustaining the capacity of the denervated Schwann cells to support nerve regeneration. These reviewed methods to promote nerve regeneration and, in turn, to enhance functional recovery after nerve injury and surgical repair are sufficiently promising for early translation to the clinic.

  10. Design and synthesis of elastin-like polypeptides for an ideal nerve conduit in peripheral nerve regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsueh, Yu-Sheng; Savitha, S.; Sadhasivam, S.; Lin, Feng-Huei; Shieh, Ming-Jium

    2014-01-01

    The study involves design and synthesis of three different elastin like polypeptide (ELP) gene monomers namely ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3 that encode for ELP proteins. The formed ELPs were assessed as an ideal nerve conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration. ELP1 was constructed with a small elongated pentapeptide carrying VPGVG sequence to mimic the natural polypeptide ELP. The ELP2 was designed by the incorporation of 4-penta peptide chains to improve the biocompatibility and mechanical strength. Thus, the third position in unique VPGVG was replaced with alanine to VPAVG and in a similar way modified to VPGKG, VPGEG and VPGIG with the substitution of lysine, glutamic acid and isoleucine. In ELP3, fibronectin C5 domain endowed with REDV sequence was introduced to improve the cell attachment. The ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3 proteins expressed by Escherichia coli were purified by inverse transition cycling (ITC). The purified ELPs were confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting. The Schwann cell (SC) morphology and cell adhesion were assessed by fabrication of ELP membrane cross-linked with glutaraledhyde. The Schwann cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 assay. Immunofluorostaining of Schwann cells was accomplished with SC specific phenotypic marker, S100. - Highlights: • Design and synthesis of three gene monomers of elastin like polypeptides (ELP1, 2 and 3) were reported. • Molecular weight of ITC purified ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3 was in the range of 37–38 kDa. • Schwann cell adhesion was found to be prominent in ELP3 and could be used as nerve conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration

  11. Design and synthesis of elastin-like polypeptides for an ideal nerve conduit in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsueh, Yu-Sheng [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Savitha, S. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Sree Sastha Institute of Engineering and Technology, Chennai (India); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Sadhasivam, S. [Division of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Lin, Feng-Huei, E-mail: double@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Division of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Shieh, Ming-Jium [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-01

    The study involves design and synthesis of three different elastin like polypeptide (ELP) gene monomers namely ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3 that encode for ELP proteins. The formed ELPs were assessed as an ideal nerve conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration. ELP1 was constructed with a small elongated pentapeptide carrying VPGVG sequence to mimic the natural polypeptide ELP. The ELP2 was designed by the incorporation of 4-penta peptide chains to improve the biocompatibility and mechanical strength. Thus, the third position in unique VPGVG was replaced with alanine to VPAVG and in a similar way modified to VPGKG, VPGEG and VPGIG with the substitution of lysine, glutamic acid and isoleucine. In ELP3, fibronectin C5 domain endowed with REDV sequence was introduced to improve the cell attachment. The ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3 proteins expressed by Escherichia coli were purified by inverse transition cycling (ITC). The purified ELPs were confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting. The Schwann cell (SC) morphology and cell adhesion were assessed by fabrication of ELP membrane cross-linked with glutaraledhyde. The Schwann cell proliferation was measured by WST-1 assay. Immunofluorostaining of Schwann cells was accomplished with SC specific phenotypic marker, S100. - Highlights: • Design and synthesis of three gene monomers of elastin like polypeptides (ELP1, 2 and 3) were reported. • Molecular weight of ITC purified ELP1, ELP2 and ELP3 was in the range of 37–38 kDa. • Schwann cell adhesion was found to be prominent in ELP3 and could be used as nerve conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  12. Dysregulated expression of death, stress and mitochondrion related genes in the sciatic nerve of presymptomatic SOD1G93A mouse model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystian Junqueira Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells are the main source of paracrine support to motor neurons. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been correlated to motor neuron death in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS. Despite the involvement of Schwann cells in early neuromuscular disruption in ALS, detailed molecular events of a dying-back triggering are unknown. Sciatic nerves of presymptomatic (60-day-old SOD1G93A mice were submitted to a high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis. DAVID demonstrated the deregulated genes related to death, stress and mitochondrion, which allowed the identification of Cell cycle, ErbB signaling, Tryptophan metabolism and Rig-I-like receptor signaling as the most representative KEGG pathways. The protein-protein interaction networks based upon deregulated genes have identified the top hubs (TRAF2, H2AFX, E2F1, FOXO3, MSH2, NGFR, TGFBR1 and bottlenecks (TRAF2, E2F1, CDKN1B, TWIST1, FOXO3. Schwann cells were enriched from the sciatic nerve of presymptomatic mice using flow cytometry cell sorting. qPCR showed the up regulated (Ngfr, Cdnkn1b, E2f1, Traf2 and Erbb3, H2afx, Cdkn1a, Hspa1, Prdx, Mapk10 and down-regulated (Foxo3, Mtor genes in the enriched Schwann cells. In conclusion, molecular analyses in the presymptomatic sciatic nerve demonstrated the involvement of death, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial pathways in the Schwann cell non-autonomous mechanisms in the early stages of ALS.

  13. 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral-domain OCT volumes of the optic nerve head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels can provide important information for detecting and tracking retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Many studies on 2-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from a variety of medical images have been performed. However, 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes, which is capable of providing geometrically accurate vessel models, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method that can automatically detect 3-D retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain OCT scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH). The proposed method utilized a fast multiscale 3-D graph search to segment retinal surfaces as well as a triangular mesh-based 3-D graph search to detect retinal blood vessels. An experiment on 30 ONH-centered OCT scans (15 right eye scans and 15 left eye scans) from 15 subjects was performed, and the mean unsigned error in 3-D of the computer segmentations compared with the independent standard obtained from a retinal specialist was 3.4 +/- 2.5 voxels (0.10 +/- 0.07 mm).

  14. Techniques for Preservation of the Frontotemporal Branch of Facial Nerve during Orbitozygomatic Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiriev, Toma; Poulsgaard, Lars; Fugleholm, Kaare

    2015-01-01

    Background During orbitozygomatic (OZ) approaches, the frontotemporal branch (FTB) of the facial nerve is exposed to injury if proper measures are not taken. This article describes in detail the nuances of the two most common techniques (interfascial and subfascial dissection). Design The FTB...... of the facial nerve was dissected and followed in its tissue planes on fresh-frozen cadaver heads. The interfascial and subfascial dissections were performed, and every step was photographed and examined. Results The interfascial dissection is safe to be started from the most anterior part of the superior...

  15. Músculo pronador redondo: variações anatômicas e predisposição para a compressão do nervo mediano Pronator teres muscle: anatomical variations and predisposition for the compression of the median nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Clóris de Carvalho

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O nervo mediano pode ser comprimido em nível de músculo pronador redondo (MPR, resultando na síndrome do pronador redondo. Objetivou-se analisar a constituição do MPR e sua relação com o nervo mediano na dissecação de 100 membros superiores humanos, oriundos de laboratórios de anatomia. Em 72% dos casos, o nervo mediano passou entre as cabeças umeral e ulnar do MPR. Em 15% a cabeça ulnar esteve ausente, com o nervo mediano passando posteriormente a cabeça umeral ou através dela. Em 9% a cabeça ulnar se fez representar por um feixe fibroso. Em 2% o nervo mediano passou através da cabeça ulnar e em 2% através da cabeça umeral, mesmo na presença da cabeça ulnar. Os dados sugerem que as variações na relação músculo/nervo representam fatores potenciais para a compressão do nervo mediano, por tornarem mais restrita a passagem desse nervo no antebraço.The median nerve can be compressed at the level of pronator teres muscle (PTM, resulting in the pronator teres syndrome. This work aim was to analyze the PTM and its relationship with the median nerve. In order to do so, we have dissected 100 human upper limbs from anatomy laboratories. In 72% of the cases, the median nerve passed between the umeral and ulnar heads of PTM. In 15% of the cases, the ulnar head was absent, with the median nerve passing behind the umeral head or through it. In 9%, a fibrous bundle represented the ulnar head. In 2%, the median nerve passed through the ulnar head and in 2% through the umeral head, even in the presence of the ulnar head. The data suggest that the variations in the relationship muscle/nerve represent potential factors for the median nerve compression, for they make the passage for this nerve in the forearm even narrower.

  16. An Optic Nerve Crush Injury Murine Model to Study Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongshu; Zhang, Shuihua; Lee, Chunsik; Kumar, Anil; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Fan; Li, Xuri

    2011-01-01

    Injury to the optic nerve can lead to axonal degeneration, followed by a gradual death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which results in irreversible vision loss. Examples of such diseases in human include traumatic optic neuropathy and optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma. It is characterized by typical changes in the optic nerve head, progressive optic nerve degeneration, and loss of retinal ganglion cells, if uncontrolled, leading to vision loss and blindness. The optic nerve crush (ONC) injury mouse model is an important experimental disease model for traumatic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, etc. In this model, the crush injury to the optic nerve leads to gradual retinal ganglion cells apoptosis. This disease model can be used to study the general processes and mechanisms of neuronal death and survival, which is essential for the development of therapeutic measures. In addition, pharmacological and molecular approaches can be used in this model to identify and test potential therapeutic reagents to treat different types of optic neuropathy. Here, we provide a step by step demonstration of (I) Baseline retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at day 1, (II) Optic nerve crush injury at day 4, (III) Harvest the retinae and analyze RGC survival at day 11, and (IV) Representative result. PMID:21540827

  17. Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  18. A CLINICAL STUDY OF OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN PATIENTS OF HEAD INJURY

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    Suhas Shamrao Sarawade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study aims to record the prevalence and pattern of various ophthalmic manifestations in patients of head injury and to attempt a correlation between the ocular signs, neurological signs and final outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Hundred and twenty patients with head injury having ocular findings, presenting from December 2014 to July 2016, were taken for study. Detailed ophthalmological examination of the patients was carried out and the results of the study are depicted in the form of percentages, graphs and charts. RESULTS The most common cause of head injury found in our study was road traffic accident. The commonest eye finding was oedema and ecchymosis of eyelids. Prime causal factors affecting visual acuity found in our study were corneal tear, globe rupture, optic nerve injury and avulsion of eyeball. CONCLUSION Head injuries with ocular manifestations occur in younger age group. Road traffic accident was the most common cause. Males have to work outside their home for their jobs more than that of females. So they are more prone to accidents. Oedema and ecchymosis of eyelids constitute the most common ocular finding. Patients with mild ocular injuries pointed towards good visual prognosis. Most of them had mild head injury and hence good prognosis in terms of survival of the patient. The patients with severe ocular injuries like corneal tear, globe rupture and optic nerve injury showed poor visual prognosis.

  19. Variant palmaris profundus enclosed by an unusual loop of the median nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOU, HSIU-CHU; JENG, HELLEN; KO, TSUI-LING; PAI, MAN-HUI; CHANG, CHIU-YUN; WU, CHING-HSIANG

    2001-01-01

    According to the usual description in most anatomy texts, the median nerve in the forearm passes between the 2 heads of pronator teres. It continues distally between flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus almost to the retinaculum. Muscular branches leave the nerve near the elbow and supply all superficial muscles of the anterior part of the forearm except flexor carpi ulnaris. Many variations of the median nerve in the forearm have been reported (Urban & Krosman, 1992). The palmaris profundus is also a rare anomaly of the forearm (Dyreby & Engber, 1982). It originates from the radial side of the common flexor tendon in the proximal forearm and inserts into the undersurface of the palmar aponeurosis. The origin of palmaris profundus may be close to the median nerve and its branches, and may be involved in compressive neuropathy of the anterior interosseous nerve. Its tendon crossing through the carpal canal has been implicated in the carpal tunnel syndrome (reviewed by Lahey & Aulicino, 1986). In some cases, palmaris profundus was found enclosed in a common fascial sheath with the median nerve (Stark, 1992; Sahinoglu et al. 1994). To indicate its close association with the median nerve, the palmaris profundus was also named ‘musculus comitans nervi mediani’ (Sahinoglu et al. 1994). This article reports an unusual loop of the median nerve encircling an anomalous palmaris profundus in the forearm, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously described. PMID:11693311

  20. Identification of potential crucial genes associated with steroid-induced necrosis of femoral head based on gene expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhe; Lin, Yongsheng

    2017-09-05

    The aim of this study was to explore potential crucial genes associated with the steroid-induced necrosis of femoral head (SINFH) and to provide valid biological information for further investigation of SINFH. Gene expression profile of GSE26316, generated from 3 SINFH rat samples and 3 normal rat samples were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using LIMMA package. After functional enrichment analyses of DEGs, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and sub-PPI network analyses were conducted based on the STRING database and cytoscape. In total, 59 up-regulated DEGs and 156 downregulated DEGs were identified. The up-regulated DEGs were mainly involved in functions about immunity (e.g. Fcer1A and Il7R), and the downregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in muscle system process (e.g. Tnni2, Mylpf and Myl1). The PPI network of DEGs consisted of 123 nodes and 300 interactions. Tnni2, Mylpf, and Myl1 were the top 3 outstanding genes based on both subgraph centrality and degree centrality evaluation. These three genes interacted with each other in the network. Furthermore, the significant network module was composed of 22 downregulated genes (e.g. Tnni2, Mylpf and Myl1). These genes were mainly enriched in functions like muscle system process. The DEGs related to the regulation of immune system process (e.g. Fcer1A and Il7R), and DEGs correlated with muscle system process (e.g. Tnni2, Mylpf and Myl1) may be closely associated with the progress of SINFH, which is still needed to be confirmed by experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Surgical anatomy of the styloid muscles and the extracranial glossopharyngeal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prades, J M; Gavid, M; Asanau, A; Timoshenko, A P; Richard, C; Martin, C H

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationships between the extracranial glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve and the muscles of the styloid diaphragm. In humans, the IX nerve is a hidden retrostyloid nerve which plays a critical role notably in swallowing and has to be preserved during infratemporal fossa and parapharyngeal spaces surgical procedures. In ten adult heads from cadavers (20 sides) fixed in formalin, dissection of the extracranial IX nerve was performed under operating microscope with special attention given to the relationships between this nerve and the styloid muscles of the styloid diaphragm. The three styloid muscles delimit three triangular intermuscular intervals which were each thoroughly explored. Different osseous landmarks were investigated for easy nerve location. The styloid process (SP) is the main superior osseous landmark for the three muscles of the styloid diaphragm. The stylohyoid muscle (SHM) is anteromedially located to the posterior belly of the digastric muscle. The styloglossus muscle (SGM) is medial and anterior to the SHM. The stylopharyngeal muscle (SPM) is the most vertical and medial of the three styloid muscles. It courses from the medial surface of the SP in a deep plane hidden between the SHM and the SGM. The extracranial IX nerve turns around the SPM superiorly with a vertical segment posterior to the SPM and inferiorly with a horizontal segment lateral to the SPM. The meeting point of the two segments of the IX nerve is about 10 mm anteriorly located from the transverse process of the atlas. The external carotid artery and some of its branches lie in contact with the lateral side of the IX nerve. Such relationships between the extracranial IX nerve, the styloid muscles and the transverse process of the atlas should be appreciated by clinician who treats patients with stylohyoid complex syndromes and by the surgeon for the parapharyngeal spaces approach.

  2. The influence of L-acetylcarnitine on reinnervation of the oculomotor nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Draicchio, F; Fernandez, E; Pallini, R

    1993-01-01

    In guinea-pigs the oral administration of L-acetylcarnitine (L-AC) markedly favours the process of reinnervation of the oculomotor nerve sectioned at intracranial level. The gains of the horizontal and vertical vestibulo-ocular reflexes (HVOR, VVOR) were taken into consideration in testing the functional recovery of the nerve. As a consequence of the drug administration, 24 weeks after the operation the gains of the treated animals were higher than those of the controls. Reduction of misalignments of the stimulus-response orientation was also observed in treated animals as compared to the controls. This suggests that L-AC potentiates motor reinnervation by enhancing the nerve-growing processes and favouring a better consolidation of the appropriate neuromuscular synapses. The increased gain, and the improvement of the alignment in ocular responses, due to L-AC would allow for an increase of visual function during head movement by optimizing gaze stability.

  3. Reciprocal Relationship between Head Size, an Autism Endophenotype, and Gene Dosage at 19p13.12 Points to AKAP8 and AKAP8L.

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    Rebecca A Nebel

    Full Text Available Microcephaly and macrocephaly are overrepresented in individuals with autism and are thought to be disease-related risk factors or endophenotypes. Analysis of DNA microarray results from a family with a low functioning autistic child determined that the proband and two additional unaffected family members who carry a rare inherited 760 kb duplication of unknown clinical significance at 19p13.12 are macrocephalic. Consideration alongside overlapping deletion and duplication events in the literature provides support for a strong relationship between gene dosage at this locus and head size, with losses and gains associated with microcephaly (p=1.11x10(-11 and macrocephaly (p=2.47x10(-11, respectively. Data support A kinase anchor protein 8 and 8-like (AKAP8 and AKAP8L as candidate genes involved in regulation of head growth, an interesting finding given previous work implicating the AKAP gene family in autism. Towards determination of which of AKAP8 and AKAP8L may be involved in the modulation of head size and risk for disease, we analyzed exome sequencing data for 693 autism families (2591 individuals where head circumference data were available. No predicted loss of function variants were observed, precluding insights into relationship to head size, but highlighting strong evolutionary conservation. Taken together, findings support the idea that gene dosage at 19p13.12, and AKAP8 and/or AKAP8L in particular, play an important role in modulation of head size and may contribute to autism risk. Exome sequencing of the family also identified a rare inherited variant predicted to disrupt splicing of TPTE / PTEN2, a PTEN homologue, which may likewise contribute to both macrocephaly and autism risk.

  4. Raman spectroscopic detection of peripheral nerves towards nerve-sparing surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2017-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery, namely nerve-sparing surgery, is now promising technique to avoid functional deficits of the limbs and organs following surgery as an aspect of the improvement of quality of life of patients. Detection of peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves is required for the nerve-sparing surgery; however, conventional nerve identification scheme is sometimes difficult to identify peripheral nerves due to similarity of shape and color to non-nerve tissues or its limited application to only motor peripheral nerves. To overcome these issues, we proposed a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerves by means of Raman spectroscopy. We found several fingerprints of peripheral myelinated and unmyelinated nerves by employing a modified principal component analysis of typical spectra including myelinated nerve, unmyelinated nerve, and adjacent tissues. We finally realized the sensitivity of 94.2% and the selectivity of 92.0% for peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves against adjacent tissues. Although further development of an intraoperative Raman spectroscopy system is required for clinical use, our proposed approach will serve as a unique and powerful tool for peripheral nerve detection for nerve-sparing surgery in the future.

  5. Development of an ultrasound-guided technique for retrobulbar nerve block in dromedary camels: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Adel M; Eshra, Eman A

    2018-03-01

    Description of an ultrasound (US)-guided technique for retrobulbar nerve blockade in dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) cadavers. Prospective experimental cadaveric study that was carried out in three phases: phase I: anatomical dissection and development of US-guided technique; phase II: methylene blue (MB) injection; phase III: contrast medium (CM), US-guided injections with computed tomography (CT) control. A total of 36 orbits from 18 heads were obtained from 18 dromedary cadavers. Phase I: anatomical dissections were carried out bilaterally, using two heads to determine needle site placement. Phase II: a US-guided, lateral, in-plane approach using one of three volumes of MB (3, 6, or 9 mL) was evaluated in six heads (four orbits per volume tested) to establish the ideal injection volume. Injections of MB that strongly stained all retrobulbar nerves were considered successful, whereas insufficient MB volumes resulted in weak or no nerve staining. Phase III: US-guided retrobulbar injection with CM was carried out using 20 orbits. Computed tomography was performed after each injection trial to determine the accuracy of needle placement and CM dispersal. An injection was judged to be successful when the CT images revealed that the needle was located within the retractor bulbi muscle cone and the CM reached the target nerves at the orbitorotundum and the optic foramina. Only injection of 9 mL of MB stained the target nerves sufficiently, whereas there was no or only weak staining with 3 and 6 mL, respectively. Therefore, 9 mL of CM was used for the US-guided injections in phase III. Subsequent CT scans revealed satisfying CM distribution within the ocular muscle cone in 18 of 20 cases (90% success rate). US-guided retrobulbar injection in dromedary cadavers is feasible. Further research is required to assess its practicality and usefulness in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and

  6. Acupuncture therapy to the head and face to treat post-trauma paralysis of peripheral fascial nerve dextra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihardja, H.; Meuratana, PA; Ibrahim, A.

    2017-08-01

    Damage to the facial nerve due to trauma from traffic accidents is the second most common cause of paralysis of the facial nerve. The treatments include both pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy. Acupuncture is a method of treatment that applies evidence-based medical principles and uses anatomy, physiology, and pathology to place needles atcertain acupuncture points. This paper describes a 26-year-old female patient with right-side facial palsy following a traffic accident who had animproved Brackmann’s score after 12 sessions of acupuncture treatment. The acupuncture points were chosen based on Liu Yan’sbrain-clearing needling technique. Acupuncture can shorten healing time and improve the effect of treatment for facial-nerve paralysis.

  7. Acellular Nerve Allografts in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy M.; MacEwan, Matthew; Santosa, Katherine B.; Chenard, Kristofer E.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Johnson, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Processed nerve allografts offer a promising alternative to nerve autografts in the surgical management of peripheral nerve injuries where short deficits exist. Methods Three established models of acellular nerve allograft (cold-preserved, detergent-processed, and AxoGen® -processed nerve allografts) were compared to nerve isografts and silicone nerve guidance conduits in a 14 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Results All acellular nerve grafts were superior to silicone nerve conduits in support of nerve regeneration. Detergent-processed allografts were similar to isografts at 6 weeks post-operatively, while AxoGen®-processed and cold-preserved allografts supported significantly fewer regenerating nerve fibers. Measurement of muscle force confirmed that detergent-processed allografts promoted isograft-equivalent levels of motor recovery 16 weeks post-operatively. All acellular allografts promoted greater amounts of motor recovery compared to silicone conduits. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that differential processing for removal of cellular constituents in preparing acellular nerve allografts affects recovery in vivo. PMID:21660979

  8. Identification of Heading Date Six (Hd6 Gene Derived from Rice Mutant Varieties

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    Aryanti Aryanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genes which were associated with flowering time to indicate the early maturity is known as heading date (Hd. Heading date six (Hd6 gene was identified from rice mutant varieties were Atomita 2, Atomita 3, Atomita 4, Bestari, Cilosari, Diah Suci, Sidenuk, Kahayan, Mayang, Meraoke, Mira-1, Pandan Putri, Superwin, Suluttan Unsrat 1, Suluttan Unsrat 2, Winongo, Woyla, Yuwono, while the rice var. Nipponbare was used as a positive control. All of rice mutant varieties derived from mutation induction by the dose of 0.2 kGy. The aim of this experiment was to find out the data base of mutant varieties which could be used as parent material with earlier maturity trait genetically. To obtain the DNA of plants, young leaves of each variety were extracted by liquid nitrogen, and then lysis and extracted by Kit Plant Genomic DNA. The amplification of DNA with 7 primers of Hd6 conducted of 40 cycles by PCR and were continues to separated by 1 % agarose. The results were shown that the rice Mira-1 and Bestari varieties obtained from mutation of Cisantana highly different from one to another on 7 primers of Hd6 used. Mayang variety from mutation of cross breeding between Cilosari and IR64, Pandan putri from Pandan wangi and Woyla from mutation of cross breeding from Atomita 2 and IR64 were highly different with those of their parents. Identification of Hd6 gene on Sidenuk variety was shown the same bands pattern with Nipponbare as control positive toward all primers used, this variety would be better for earlier maturity parent material compared to others. The information could be useful for breeding programs aiming to develop early maturing widely adaptive and high yielding rice cultivars.

  9. Effect of choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Gang-Fu; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-06-01

    The present work evaluates the effects of various levels of dietary choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed with six different experimental diets containing graded levels of choline at 165 (choline-deficient control), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg kg(-1) diet for 65 days. At the end of the feeding trail, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded over 17 days. Dietary choline significantly decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in spleen and head kidney. However, anti-superoxide anion and anti-hydroxyl radical activities in spleen and head kidney also decreased. Interestingly, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in spleen, GPx activity in head kidney, and glutathione contents in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increase of dietary choline levels up to a certain point, whereas, activities of SOD, GST and GR in head kidney showed no significantly differences among groups. Similarly, expression levels of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, GPx1a, GPx1b and GR gene in spleen and head kidney were significantly lower in group with choline level of 607 mg kg(-1) diet than those in the choline-deficient group. The relative gene expressions of Nrf2 in head kidney and Keap1a in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increasing of dietary choline up to a certain point. However, the relative gene expression of Nrf2 in spleen were not significantly affected by dietary choline. In conclusion, dietary choline decreased the oxidant damage and regulated the antioxidant system in immune organs of juvenile Jian carp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vascularized nerve grafts for lower extremity nerve reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Kostopoulos, Vasileios K

    2010-02-01

    Vascularized nerve grafts (VNG) were introduced in 1976 but since then, there have been no reports of their usage in lower extremity reconstruction systematically. The factors influencing outcomes as well as a comparison with conventional nerve grafts will be presented.Since 1981, 14 lower extremity nerve injuries in 12 patients have been reconstructed with VNG. Common peroneal nerve was injured in 12 and posterior tibial nerve in 5 patients. The level of the injury was at the knee or thigh. Twelve sural nerves were used as VNG with or without concomitant vascularized posterior calf fascia.All patients regained improved sensibility and adequate posterior tibial nerve function. For common peroneal nerve reconstructions, all patients with denervation time less than 6 months regained muscle strength of grade at least 4, even when long grafts were used for defects of 20 cm or more. Late cases, yielded inadequate muscle function even with the use of VNG.Denervation time of 6 months or less was critical for reconstruction with vascularized nerve graft. Not only the results were statistically significant compared with late cases, but also all early operated patients achieved excellent results. VNG are strongly recommended in traction avulsion injuries of the lower extremity with lengthy nerve damage.

  11. Supraorbital keyhole surgery for optic nerve decompression and dura repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Hao; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Ju, Da-Tong; Liu, Ming-Ying; Chen, Guann-Juh

    2004-07-01

    Supraorbital keyhole surgery is a limited surgical procedure with reduced traumatic manipulation of tissue and entailing little time in the opening and closing of wounds. We utilized the approach to treat head injury patients complicated with optic nerve compression and cerebrospinal fluid leakage (CSF). Eleven cases of basal skull fracture complicated with either optic nerve compression and/or CSF leakage were surgically treated at our department from February 1995 to June 1999. Six cases had primary optic nerve compression, four had CSF leakage and one case involved both injuries. Supraorbital craniotomy was carried out using a keyhole-sized burr hole plus a small craniotomy. The size of craniotomy approximated 2 x 3 cm2. The optic nerve was decompressed via removal of the optic canal roof and anterior clinoid process with high-speed drills. The defect of dura was repaired with two pieces of tensa fascia lata that were attached on both sides of the torn dural defect with tissue glue. Seven cases with optic nerve injury included five cases of total blindness and two cases of light perception before operation. Vision improved in four cases. The CSF leakage was stopped successfully in all four cases without complication. As optic nerve compression and CSF leakage are skull base lesions, the supraorbital keyhole surgery constitutes a suitable approach. The supraorbital keyhole surgery allows for an anterior approach to the skull base. This approach also allows the treatment of both CSF leakage and optic nerve compression. Our results indicate that supraorbital keyhole operation is a safe and effective method for preserving or improving vision and attenuating CSF leakage following injury.

  12. Fine Mapping and Cloning of Leafy Head Mutant Gene pla1-5 in Rice

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    Gong-neng FENG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We identified a leafy head mutant pla1-5 (plastochron 1-5 from the progeny of japonica rice cultivar Taipei 309 treated with 60Co-γ ray irradiation. The pla1-5 mutant has a dwarf phenotype and small leaves. Compared with its wild type, pla1-5 has more leaves and fewer tillers, and it fails to produce normal panicles at the maturity stage. Genetic analysis showed that the pla1-5 phenotype is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Using the map-based cloning strategy, we narrowed down the location of the target gene to a 58-kb region between simple sequence repeat markers CHR1027 and CHR1030 on the long arm of chromosome 10. The target gene cosegregated with molecular markers CHR1028 and CHR1029. There were five predicted genes in the mapped region. The results from sequencing analysis revealed that there was one base deletion in the first exon of LOC_Os10g26340 encoding cytochrome P450 CYP78A11 in the pla1-5 mutant, which might result in a downstream frame shift and premature termination. These results suggest that the P450 CYP78A11 gene is the candidate gene of PLA1-5.

  13. Ultrasound-guided axillary nerve block for ED incision and drainage of deltoid abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Claire; Herring, Andrew A

    2017-07-01

    Deltoid abscesses are common and painful, often a consequence of injection drug use and seen frequently in emergency departments (EDs). The required incision and drainage can be completed successfully with effective pain relief using a peripheral nerve block. The brachial plexus nerve block works well, however it is technically complex with a low, but potentially serious, risk of complications such as phrenic nerve paralysis. Selective blockade of the axillary nerve eliminates the risks associated with a brachial plexus block, while providing more specific anesthesia for the deltoid region. Our initial experience suggests that the axillary nerve block (ANB) is a technically simple, safe, and effective way to manage the pain of deltoid abscesses and the necessary incision and drainage (I&D). The block involves using ultrasound guidance to inject a 20mL bolus of local anesthetic into the quadrangular space surrounding the axillary nerve (inferior to the posterolateral aspect of the acromion, near the overlap of the long head of triceps brachii and teres minor). Once injected the local will anesthetize the axillary nerve resulting in analgesia of the cutaneous area of the lateral shoulder and the deeper tissues including the deltoid muscle. Further research will clarify questions about the volume and concentration of local anesthetic, the role of injected adjuncts, and expected duration of analgesia and anesthesia. Herein we present a description of an axillary nerve block successfully used for deltoid abscess I&D in the ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nerve Cross-Bridging to Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Model of Delayed Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no available options to promote nerve regeneration through chronically denervated distal nerve stumps. Here we used a rat model of delayed nerve repair asking of prior insertion of side-to-side cross-bridges between a donor tibial (TIB) nerve and a recipient denervated common peroneal (CP) nerve stump ameliorates poor nerve regeneration. First, numbers of retrogradely-labelled TIB neurons that grew axons into the nerve stump within three months, increased with the size of the perineurial windows opened in the TIB and CP nerves. Equal numbers of donor TIB axons regenerated into CP stumps either side of the cross-bridges, not being affected by target neurotrophic effects, or by removing the perineurium to insert 5-9 cross-bridges. Second, CP nerve stumps were coapted three months after inserting 0-9 cross-bridges and the number of 1) CP neurons that regenerated their axons within three months or 2) CP motor nerves that reinnervated the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle within five months was determined by counting and motor unit number estimation (MUNE), respectively. We found that three but not more cross-bridges promoted the regeneration of axons and reinnervation of EDL muscle by all the CP motoneurons as compared to only 33% regenerating their axons when no cross-bridges were inserted. The same 3-fold increase in sensory nerve regeneration was found. In conclusion, side-to-side cross-bridges ameliorate poor regeneration after delayed nerve repair possibly by sustaining the growth-permissive state of denervated nerve stumps. Such autografts may be used in human repair surgery to improve outcomes after unavoidable delays. PMID:26016986

  15. The Quantitative Measurements of Vascular Density and Flow Area of Optic Nerve Head Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazvand, Fatemeh; Mirshahi, Reza; Fadakar, Kaveh; Faghihi, Houshangh; Sabour, Siamak; Ghassemi, Fariba

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vascular density (VD) and the flow area on optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary area, and the impact of age and sex using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in healthy human subjects. Both eyes of each volunteer were scanned by an RTVue XR Avanti; Optovue with OCTA using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm technique. Masked graders evaluated enface angiodisc OCTA data. The flow area of ONH and the VD were automatically calculated. A total of 79 eyes of patients with a mean age of 37.03±11.27 were examined. The total ONH (papillary and peripapillary) area VD was 56.03%±4.55%. The flow area of the ONH was 1.74±0.10 mm/1.34 mm. The temporal and inferotemporal peripapillary VD was different between male and female patients. Increasing age causes some changes in the flow area of the ONH and the papillary VD from the third to the fourth decade (analysis of variance test; P<0.05). A normal quantitative database of the flow area and VD of the papillary and peripapillary area, obtained by RTVue XR with OCT angiography technique, is presented here.

  16. Comparison of Optic Nerve Head Blood Flow Autoregulation among Quadrants Induced by Decreased Ocular Perfusion Pressure during Vitrectomy

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    Ryuya Hashimoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to examine changes in optic nerve head (ONH blood flow autoregulation in 4 quadrants (superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal with decreased ocular perfusion pressure (OPP during vitrectomy in order to determine whether there is a significant difference of autoregulatory capacity in response to OPP decrease at each ONH quadrant. Methods. This study included 24 eyes with an epiretinal membrane or macular hole that underwent vitrectomy at Toho University Sakura Medical Center. Following vitrectomy, the tissue mean blur rate (MBR, which reflects ONH blood flow, was measured. Mean tissue MBRs in the four quadrants were generated automatically in the software analysis report. Measurements were conducted before and 5 and 10 min after intraocular pressure (IOP elevation of approximately 15 mmHg in the subjects without systemic disorders. Results. The baseline tissue MBR of the temporal quadrant was significantly lower than that of the other 3 quadrants (all P<0.05. However, the time courses of tissue MBR in response to OPP decrease were not significantly different among the four quadrants during vitrectomy (P=0.23. Conclusions. There is no significant difference in the autoregulatory capacity of the four ONH quadrants in patients without systemic disorders during vitrectomy.

  17. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    counterparts in the peripheral nervous system, in some instances without peripheral nervous system symptoms. Both hereditary and acquired demyelinating neuropathies have been studied and the effects on nerve pathophysiology have been compared with degeneration and regeneration of axons. SUMMARY: Excitability......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve...... excitability studies are relatively novel but are acquiring an increasingly important role in the study of peripheral nerves. RECENT FINDINGS: By measuring responses in nerve that are related to nodal function (strength-duration time constant, rheobase and recovery cycle) and internodal function (threshold...

  18. Replicate high-density rat genome oligonucleotide microarrays reveal hundreds of regulated genes in the dorsal root ganglion after peripheral nerve injury.

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    Mannion James W

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rat oligonucleotide microarrays were used to detect changes in gene expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG 3 days following sciatic nerve transection (axotomy. Two comparisons were made using two sets of triplicate microarrays, naïve versus naïve and naïve versus axotomy. Results Microarray variability was assessed using the naïve versus naïve comparison. These results support use of a P 1.5-fold expression change and P 1.5-fold and P in situ hybridization verified the expression of 24 transcripts. These data showed an 83% concordance rate with the arrays; most mismatches represent genes with low expression levels reflecting limits of array sensitivity. A significant correlation was found between actual mRNA differences and relative changes between microarrays (r2 = 0.8567. Temporal patterns of individual genes regulation varied. Conclusions We identify parameters for microarray analysis which reduce error while identifying many putatively regulated genes. Functional classification of these genes suggest reorganization of cell structural components, activation of genes expressed by immune and inflammatory cells and down-regulation of genes involved in neurotransmission.

  19. External laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery: is the nerve stimulator necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, E N; Hisham, A N

    2001-09-01

    To find out the incidence and type of external laryngeal nerves during operations on the thyroid, and to assess the role of a nerve stimulator in detecting them. Prospective, non-randomised study. Teaching hospital, Malaysia. 317 patients who had 447 dissections between early January 1998 and late November 1999. Number and type of nerves crossing the cricothyroid space, and the usefulness of the nerve stimulator in finding them. The nerve stimulator was used in 206/447 dissections (46%). 392 external laryngeal nerves were seen (88%), of which 196/206 (95%) were detected with the stimulator. However, without the stimulator 196 nerves were detected out of 241 dissections (81%). The stimulator detected 47 (23%) Type I nerves (nerve > 1 cm from the upper edge of superior pole); 86 (42%) Type IIa nerves (nerve edge of superior pole); and 63 (31%) Type IIb nerves (nerve below upper edge of superior pole). 10 nerves were not detected. When the stimulator was not used the corresponding figures were 32 (13%), 113 (47%), and 51 (21%), and 45 nerves were not seen. If the nerve cannot be found we recommend dissection of capsule close to the medial border of the upper pole of the thyroid to avoid injury to the nerve. Although the use of the nerve stimulator seems desirable, it confers no added advantage in finding the nerve. In the event of uncertainty about whether a structure is the nerve, the stimulator may help to confirm it. However, exposure of the cricothyroid space is most important for good exposure in searching for the external laryngeal nerve.

  20. A clear map of the lower cranial nerves at the superior carotid triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Garcia-Gonzalez, Ulises; Agrawal, Abhishek; Tavares, Paulo L M S; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2010-07-01

    The lower cranial nerves must be identified to avoid iatrogenic injury during skull base and high cervical approaches. Prompt recognition of these structures using basic landmarks could reduce surgical time and morbidity. The anterior triangle of the neck was dissected in 30 cadaveric head sides. The most superficial segments of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and its superior laryngeal nerves, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves were exposed and designated into smaller anatomic triangles. The midpoint of each nerve segment inside the triangles was correlated to the angle of the mandible (AM), mastoid tip (MT), and bifurcation of the common carotid artery. A triangle bounded by the styloglossus muscle, external carotid artery, and facial artery housed the glossopharyngeal nerve. This nerve segment was 0.06 ± 0.71 cm posterior to the AM and 2.50 ± 0.59 cm inferior to the MT. The vagus nerve ran inside the carotid sheath posterior to internal carotid artery and common carotid artery bifurcation in 48.3% of specimens. A triangle formed by the posterior belly of digastric muscle, sternocleidomastoid muscle, and internal jugular vein housed the accessory nerve, 1.90 ± 0.60 cm posterior to the AM and 2.30 ± 0.57 cm inferior to the MT. A triangle outlined by the posterior belly of digastric muscle, internal jugular vein, and common facial vein housed the hypoglossal nerve, which was 0.82 ± 0.84 cm posterior to the AM and 3.64 ± 0.70 cm inferior to the MT. Comprehensible landmarks can be defined to help expose the lower cranial nerves to avoid injury to this complex region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chitin biological absorbable catheters bridging sural nerve grafts transplanted into sciatic nerve defects promote nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Jian-Wei; Qin, Li-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Jiang, Bao-Guo

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of chitin biological absorbable catheters in a rat model of autologous nerve transplantation. A segment of sciatic nerve was removed to produce a sciatic nerve defect, and the sural nerve was cut from the ipsilateral leg and used as a graft to bridge the defect, with or without use of a chitin biological absorbable catheter surrounding the graft. The number and morphology of regenerating myelinated fibers, nerve conduction velocity, nerve function index, triceps surae muscle morphology, and sensory function were evaluated at 9 and 12 months after surgery. All of the above parameters were improved in rats in which the nerve graft was bridged with chitin biological absorbable catheters compared with rats without catheters. The results of this study indicate that use of chitin biological absorbable catheters to surround sural nerve grafts bridging sciatic nerve defects promotes recovery of structural, motor, and sensory function and improves muscle fiber morphology. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sustained Local Release of NGF from a Chitosan-Sericin Composite Scaffold for Treating Chronic Nerve Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Wen; Tao, Kaixiong; Song, Yu; Xie, Hongjian; Wang, Jian; Li, Xiaolin; Shuai, Xiaoming; Gao, Jinbo; Chang, Panpan; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2017-02-01

    Chronic nerve compression (CNC), a common form of peripheral nerve injury, always leads to chronic peripheral nerve pain and dysfunction. Current available treatments for CNC are ineffective as they usually aim to alleviate symptoms at the acute phase with limited capability toward restoring injured nerve function. New approaches for effective recovery of CNC injury are highly desired. Here we report for the first time a tissue-engineered approach for the repair of CNC. A genipin cross-linked chitosan-sericin 3D scaffold for delivering nerve growth factor (NGF) was designed and fabricated. This scaffold combines the advantages of both chitosan and sericin, such as high porosity, adjustable mechanical properties and swelling ratios, the ability of supporting Schwann cells growth, and improving nerve regeneration. The degradation products of the composite scaffold upregulate the mRNA levels of the genes important for facilitating nerve function recovery, including glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), early growth response 2 (EGR2), and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in Schwann cells, while down-regulating two inflammatory genes' mRNA levels in macrophages, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Importantly, our tissue-engineered strategy achieves significant nerve functional recovery in a preclinical CNC animal model by decreasing neuralgia, improving nerve conduction velocity (NCV), accelerating microstructure restoration, and attenuating gastrocnemius muscles dystrophy. Together, this work suggests a promising clinical alternative for treating chronic peripheral nerve compression injury.

  3. A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Maldonado, Andrés A; Stoves, Yolanda; Fries, Fabian N; Li, Rong; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Spinner, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insufficient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identified medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fibers within the SCM was documented. The cervical nerve connections were cut. Lengths of the accessory nerve were measured. Samples of the cut C-2 and C-3 nerves were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The anatomy and adjacent neural connections within the SCM are complicated. However, after the accessory nerve was "detethered" from within the SCM and following transection, the additional length of the accessory nerve increased from a mean of 6 cm to a mean of 10.5 cm (increase of 4.5 cm) after cutting the C-2 connections, and from a mean of 6 cm to a mean length of 9 cm (increase of 3.5 cm) after cutting the C-3 connections. The additional length of accessory nerve even allowed direct repair of an infraclavicular target (i.e., the proximal musculocutaneous nerve). The cervical nerve connections were shown not to contain motor fibers. CONCLUSIONS An additional length of the accessory nerve made available in the posterior cervical triangle can facilitate direct repair or neurotization procedures, thus eliminating the need for an interpositional nerve graft, decreasing the time/distance for regeneration and potentially improving clinical outcomes.

  4. Probabilistic Modeling of Intracranial Pressure Effects on Optic Nerve Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, Andrew J.; Raykin, Julia; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Samuels, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Altered intracranial pressure (ICP) is involved/implicated in several ocular conditions: papilledema, glaucoma and Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The biomechanical effects of altered ICP on optic nerve head (ONH) tissues in these conditions are uncertain but likely important. We have quantified ICP-induced deformations of ONH tissues, using finite element (FE) and probabilistic modeling (Latin Hypercube Simulations (LHS)) to consider a range of tissue properties and relevant pressures.

  5. Peroneal nerve injury in three patients with knee trauma: MR imaging and correlation with anatomic findings in volunteers and anatomic specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trappeniers, Laurence; Osteaux, Michel [Department of Radiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); De Maeseneer, Michel [Department of Radiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Department of Radiology, AZ VUB, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090, Jette (Belgium); Van Roy, Peter [Department of Experimental Anatomy, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Chaskis, Christo [Department of Neurosurgery, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this article is to report on three patients with injuries of the peroneal nerve along the posterolateral aspect of the knee. Injuries in this area are less common than the injuries occurring at the level of the fibular head. In this article we report on three patients with posterolateral knee trauma who had peroneal nerve dysfunction. To better understand the precise location of the nerve on MR images, we performed MR imaging in five volunteers, and studied the position of the nerve on anatomic dissection (n=1) and anatomic slices (n=1). The common peroneal nerve is easily depicted on MR images and has a typical location along the posterior margin of the biceps tendon. Non-visualisation of the peroneal nerve at the posterolateral aspect of the knee, as seen on MR images, is consistent with nerve injury. Scar tissue at the posterolateral aspect of the knee indicates injury of this specific area, and involvement of the peroneal nerve is likely. (orig.)

  6. Digital subtraction angiography in evaluation of vascular supply of head and neck paragangliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juszkat, R.; Szyfter, P.; Zarzecka, A.

    2008-01-01

    Paragangliomas (PGs) of the head and neck are relatively rare and represent 0.6% of all head and neck tumors and 0.03% of all tumors. There are four groups of head and neck PGs: carotid body tumors, vagal PGs, jugular PGs, and tympanic PGs. The resection of head and neck PGs carries an inherent risk of injury to cranial nerves and vascular structures which may lead to excessive bleeding. To plan the surgical strategy for PGs, detailed information about the vascular supply of the tumor is required. Between January 1998 and April 2007, 41 tumors of the head and neck were identified in 37 patients (20 females, 17 males, mean age: 38.4 years). Single tumors were observed in 33 patients, two head and neck PGs were identified in 3 patients, and 1 patient presented 3 PGs, one of which was located laterally to the aortic arch. There were 21 PGs located at the carotid bifurcation, 10 in the jugular foramen, 6 in the tympanic cavity, and 4 along the course of the vagus nerve. In all the cases of PGs located in the head and neck, the vascular supply came from branches of the external carotid artery. Vascular supply from the internal carotid and the vertebral arteries was not seen in any of the patients. The most common vascular supply in the cases of carotid body tumors and jugular PGs was the pharyngeal ascending artery. In the cases of vagal PGs it was the pharyngeal ascending artery and the posterior auricular artery and in the case of tympanic PGs the posterior auricular artery. DSA is an important tool in the diagnosis of head and neck PGs. The evaluation of its vascularization is essential in planning further treatment, both endovascular and surgical. (author)

  7. Nanofiber Nerve Guide for Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0047 TITLE: Nanofiber Nerve Guide for Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ahmet Höke...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0047 Nanofiber nerve guide for peripheral nerve repair and regeneration 5b. GRANT NUMBER...goal of this collaborative research project was to develop next generation engineered nerve guide conduits (NGCs) with aligned nanofibers and

  8. Evidence of peripheral nerve blocks for cancer-related pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klepstad, P; Kurita, G P; Mercadante, S

    2015-01-01

    The European Association for Palliative Care has initiated a comprehensive program to achieve an over-all review of the evidence of multiple cancer pain management strategies in order to extend the current guideline for treatment of cancer pain. The present systematic review analyzed the existing...... evidence of analgesic efficacy for peripheral nerve blocks in adult patients with cancer. A search strategy was elaborated with words related to cancer, pain, peripheral nerve and block. The search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane for the period until February 2014. The number of abstracts...... retrieved was 155. No controlled studies were identified. Sixteen papers presented a total of 79 cases. The blocks applied were paravertebral blocks (10 cases), blocks in the head region (2 cases), plexus blocks (13 cases), intercostal blocks (43 cases) and others (11 cases). In general, most cases reported...

  9. Radial nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - radial nerve; Radial nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy ... Damage to one nerve group, such as the radial nerve, is called mononeuropathy . Mononeuropathy means there is damage to a single nerve. Both ...

  10. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the oculomotor nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozic, D; Nagulic, M; Ostojic, J

    2006-01-01

    We present the short-term follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) studies and 1H-MR spectroscopy in a child with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the oculomotor nerve associated with other less aggressive cranial nerve schwannomas. The tumor revealed perineural extension and diffuse nerve...

  11. Scaffoldless tissue-engineered nerve conduit promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery after tibial nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aaron M. Adams; Keith W. VanDusen; Tatiana Y. Kostrominova; Jacob P. Mertens; Lisa M. Larkin

    2017-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerve tissue may cause loss of function in both the nerve and the targeted muscles it innervates. This study compared the repair capability of engineered nerve conduit (ENC), engineered fibroblast conduit (EFC), and autograft in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap. ENCs were fabricated utilizing primary fibroblasts and the nerve cells of rats on embryonic day 15 (E15). EFCs were fabricated utilizing primary fi-broblasts only. Following a 12-week recovery, nerve repair was assessed by measuring contractile properties in the medial gastrocnemius muscle, distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, and histology of muscle and nerve. The autografts, ENCs and EFCs reestablished 96%, 87% and 84% of native distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, 100%, 44% and 44% of native specific force of medical gastrocnemius, and 63%, 61% and 67% of native medial gastrocnemius mass, re-spectively. Histology of the repaired nerve revealed large axons in the autograft, larger but fewer axons in the ENC repair, and many smaller axons in the EFC repair. Muscle histology revealed similar muscle fiber cross-sectional areas among autograft, ENC and EFC repairs. In conclusion, both ENCs and EFCs promot-ed nerve regeneration in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap repair, suggesting that the E15 rat nerve cells may not be necessary for nerve regeneration, and EFC alone can suffice for peripheral nerve injury repair.

  12. Communication between radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Marathe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial nerve is usually a branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. It innervates triceps, anconeous, brachialis, brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus muscles and gives the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm, lower lateral cutaneous nerve of arm, posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm; without exhibiting any communication with the medial cutaneous nerve of forearm or any other nerve. We report communication between the radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm on the left side in a 58-year-old male cadaver. The right sided structures were found to be normal. Neurosurgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing the surgeries of axilla and upper arm.

  13. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - ulnar nerve; Ulnar nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy; Cubital tunnel syndrome ... Damage to one nerve group, such as the ulnar nerve, is called mononeuropathy . Mononeuropathy means there is damage to a single nerve. Both ...

  14. Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masud Sarmad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The incidence of damage to the individual cranial nerves and their branches associated with laryngeal mask airway use is low; there have been case reports of damage to the lingual nerve, hypoglossal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve. To the best of our knowledge we present the first reported case of inferior alveolar nerve injury associated with laryngeal mask airway use. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian man presented to our facility for elective anterior cruciate ligament repair. He had no background history of any significant medical problems. He opted for general anesthesia over a regional technique. He was induced with fentanyl and propofol and a size 4 laryngeal mask airway was inserted without any problems. His head was in a neutral position during the surgery. After surgery in the recovery room, he complained of numbness in his lower lip. He also developed extensive scabbing of the lower lip on the second day after surgery. The numbness and scabbing started improving after a week, with complete recovery after two weeks. Conclusion We report the first case of vascular occlusion and injury to the inferior alveolar nerve, causing scabbing and numbness of the lower lip, resulting from laryngeal mask airway use. This is an original case report mostly of interest for anesthetists who use the laryngeal mask airway in day-to-day practice. Excessive inflation of the laryngeal mask airway cuff could have led to this complication. Despite the low incidence of cranial nerve injury associated with the use of the laryngeal mask airway, vigilant adherence to evidence-based medicine techniques and recommendations from the manufacturer's instructions can prevent such complications.

  15. Navigation in head and neck oncological surgery: an emerging concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, P; Mastronicola, R; Cortese, S; Phulpin, B; Sergeant, C; Guillemin, F; Eluecque, H; Perrot, C; Dolivet, G

    2011-01-01

    Navigation surgery, initially applied in rhinology, neurosurgery and orthopaedic cases, has been developed over the last twenty years. Surgery based on computed tomography data has become increasingly important in the head and neck region. The technique for hardware fusion between RMI and computed tomography is also becoming more useful. We use such device since 2006 in head and neck carcinologic situation. Navigation allows control of the resection in order to avoid and protect the precise anatomical structures (vessels and nerves). It also guides biopsy and radiofrequency. Therefore, quality of life is much more increased and morbidity is decreased for these patients who undergo major and mutilating head and neck surgery. Here we report the results of 33 navigation procedures performed for 31 patients in our institution.

  16. Evolution of optic nerve and retina alterations in a child with indirect traumatic neuropathy as assessed by optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dutra Rossetto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Herein, we describe the case of a 4-year-old child with indirect traumatic optic neuropathy and serial changes of the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL documented using optical coherence tomography (OCT. Visual acuity improved despite progressive RNFL thinning and optic disc pallor. We concluded that OCT may be useful for monitoring axonal loss but may not predict the final visual outcome.

  17. Tetracycline-regulated expression of OLIG2 gene in human dental pulp stem cells lead to mouse sciatic nerve regeneration upon transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, N; Yaghoobi, M M; Shamsara, M; Esmaeili-Mahani, S

    2015-10-01

    Numerous studies have indicated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) potency to differentiate into several types of cell lineages. Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) plays an important role in the oligodendrogenic pathway. In this study, a tetracycline (Tet)-inducible system expressing OLIG2 gene was transfected into human DPSCs to direct their differentiation toward oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Following induction, the expression of stage-specific markers was studied by Reverse Transcription quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR), immunocytochemistry and western blotting. In the following, the cells were transplanted into the mouse model of local sciatic demyelination damage by lysolecithin. Recovery of lysolecithin-induced lesions in sciatic nerve was studied by treadmill exercise, von Frey filament test and hind paw withdrawal in response to a thermal stimulus. Improvement of behavioral symptoms was efficiently observed from the second week to the sixth week post-transplantation. Our findings showed that exogenous expression of the OLIG2 gene by a Tet-regulated system could be used as an efficient way to induce the differentiation of DPSCs into functional oligodendrocytes. Meanwhile, the DPSC-derived OPCs have relevant therapeutic potential in the animal model of sciatic nerve injury and therefore might represent a valuable tool for stem cell-based therapy in inflammatory and degenerative diseases of the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNSs). Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mass Casualty Response of a Modern Deployed Head and Neck Surgical Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    tures (maxilla, mandible, frontal sinus), and miscellaneous injuries such as a parotid duct injury. Based on review of the operative log, 6 patients...trained to consider subtle head and neck injuries such as facial nerve or parotid duct transection. The flexibility to operate alongside other trauma

  19. A non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve in a man undergoing thyroidectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A non-recurrent variant of the inferior laryngeal nerve has been seldom reported. These reports are mostly based on cadaveric dissection studies or large chart review studies in which the emphasis is placed on the determination of the frequency of the variation, and not on the clinical appearance of this variant. We graphically describe the intraoperative identification of a non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve. Case Presentation A 44-year old Caucasian man was referred to the Head and Neck Surgery Outpatient Clinic with the diagnosis of a nodular mass in his left thyroid lobe that had been growing for one year. A fine needle aspiration puncture was compatible with thyroid papillary cancer. It was decided that the patient should undergo total thyroidectomy. During surgery, a non-recurrent right inferior laryngeal nerve was noted. This nerve emanated from the right vagus nerve, entering the larynx 3 cm after its origin. The nerve did not show a recurrent course. The nerve on the left side had a normal configuration. The surgery and post-operative period were uneventful, and the patient had no change in his voice. Conclusion This paper allows those interested to become acquainted with the normal intraoperative appearance of a non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve. This will undoubtedly be of significance for all of those performing invasive diagnostic and surgical procedures in the neck and upper thoracic regions, in order to minimize the risk of iatrogenic injury to this nerve. This is of extreme importance, since a unilateral lesion of this nerve may result in permanent hoarseness, and a bilateral lesion may lead to aphonia and life-threatening dyspnea.

  20. The glucuronyltransferase GlcAT-P is required for stretch growth of peripheral nerves in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rahul; Blanco, Jorge; Udolph, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    During development, the growth of the animal body is accompanied by a concomitant elongation of the peripheral nerves, which requires the elongation of integrated nerve fibers and the axons projecting therein. Although this process is of fundamental importance to almost all organisms of the animal kingdom, very little is known about the mechanisms regulating this process. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of novel mutant alleles of GlcAT-P, the Drosophila ortholog of the mammalian glucuronyltransferase b3gat1. GlcAT-P mutants reveal shorter larval peripheral nerves and an elongated ventral nerve cord (VNC). We show that GlcAT-P is expressed in a subset of neurons in the central brain hemispheres, in some motoneurons of the ventral nerve cord as well as in central and peripheral nerve glia. We demonstrate that in GlcAT-P mutants the VNC is under tension of shorter peripheral nerves suggesting that the VNC elongates as a consequence of tension imparted by retarded peripheral nerve growth during larval development. We also provide evidence that for growth of peripheral nerve fibers GlcAT-P is critically required in hemocytes; however, glial cells are also important in this process. The glial specific repo gene acts as a modifier of GlcAT-P and loss or reduction of repo function in a GlcAT-P mutant background enhances VNC elongation. We propose a model in which hemocytes are required for aspects of glial cell biology which in turn affects the elongation of peripheral nerves during larval development. Our data also identifies GlcAT-P as a first candidate gene involved in growth of integrated peripheral nerves and therefore establishes Drosophila as an amenable in-vivo model system to study this process at the cellular and molecular level in more detail.

  1. The glucuronyltransferase GlcAT-P is required for stretch growth of peripheral nerves in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pandey

    Full Text Available During development, the growth of the animal body is accompanied by a concomitant elongation of the peripheral nerves, which requires the elongation of integrated nerve fibers and the axons projecting therein. Although this process is of fundamental importance to almost all organisms of the animal kingdom, very little is known about the mechanisms regulating this process. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of novel mutant alleles of GlcAT-P, the Drosophila ortholog of the mammalian glucuronyltransferase b3gat1. GlcAT-P mutants reveal shorter larval peripheral nerves and an elongated ventral nerve cord (VNC. We show that GlcAT-P is expressed in a subset of neurons in the central brain hemispheres, in some motoneurons of the ventral nerve cord as well as in central and peripheral nerve glia. We demonstrate that in GlcAT-P mutants the VNC is under tension of shorter peripheral nerves suggesting that the VNC elongates as a consequence of tension imparted by retarded peripheral nerve growth during larval development. We also provide evidence that for growth of peripheral nerve fibers GlcAT-P is critically required in hemocytes; however, glial cells are also important in this process. The glial specific repo gene acts as a modifier of GlcAT-P and loss or reduction of repo function in a GlcAT-P mutant background enhances VNC elongation. We propose a model in which hemocytes are required for aspects of glial cell biology which in turn affects the elongation of peripheral nerves during larval development. Our data also identifies GlcAT-P as a first candidate gene involved in growth of integrated peripheral nerves and therefore establishes Drosophila as an amenable in-vivo model system to study this process at the cellular and molecular level in more detail.

  2. Anatomic assessment of sympathetic peri-arterial renal nerves in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Kenichi; Ladich, Elena; Cheng, Qi; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Fowler, David R; Kolodgie, Frank D; Virmani, Renu; Joner, Michael

    2014-08-19

    Although renal sympathetic denervation therapy has shown promising results in patients with resistant hypertension, the human anatomy of peri-arterial renal nerves is poorly understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the anatomic distribution of peri-arterial sympathetic nerves around human renal arteries. Bilateral renal arteries were collected from human autopsy subjects, and peri-arterial renal nerve anatomy was examined by using morphometric software. The ratio of afferent to efferent nerve fibers was investigated by dual immunofluorescence staining using antibodies targeted for anti-tyrosine hydroxylase and anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide. A total of 10,329 nerves were identified from 20 (12 hypertensive and 8 nonhypertensive) patients. The mean individual number of nerves in the proximal and middle segments was similar (39.6 ± 16.7 per section and 39.9 ± 1 3.9 per section), whereas the distal segment showed fewer nerves (33.6 ± 13.1 per section) (p = 0.01). Mean subject-specific nerve distance to arterial lumen was greatest in proximal segments (3.40 ± 0.78 mm), followed by middle segments (3.10 ± 0.69 mm), and least in distal segments (2.60 ± 0.77 mm) (p renal sympathetic nerve fibers is lower in distal segments and dorsal locations. There is a clear predominance of efferent nerve fibers, with decreasing prevalence of afferent nerves from proximal to distal peri-arterial and renal parenchyma. Understanding these anatomic patterns is important for refinement of renal denervation procedures. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. One-stage human acellular nerve allograft reconstruction for digital nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-yuan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human acellular nerve allografts have a wide range of donor origin and can effectively avoid nerve injury in the donor area. Very little is known about one-stage reconstruction of digital nerve defects. The present study observed the feasibility and effectiveness of human acellular nerve allograft in the reconstruction of < 5-cm digital nerve defects within 6 hours after injury. A total of 15 cases of nerve injury, combined with nerve defects in 18 digits from the Department of Emergency were enrolled in this study. After debridement, digital nerves were reconstructed using human acellular nerve allografts. The patients were followed up for 6-24 months after reconstruction. Mackinnon-Dellon static two-point discrimination results showed excellent and good rates of 89%. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test demonstrated that light touch was normal, with an obvious improvement rate of 78%. These findings confirmed that human acellular nerve allograft for one-stage reconstruction of digital nerve defect after hand injury is feasible, which provides a novel trend for peripheral nerve reconstruction.

  4. Nerves and nerve endings in the skin of tropical cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakiri, S F; Ozoya, S E; Ogunnaike, P O

    1978-01-01

    The nerves and nerve endings in the skin of tropical cattle were studied using histological and histochemical techniques. Many nerve trunks and fibres were present in the reticular and papillary dermis in both hairy and non-hairy skin sites. In non-hairy skin locations such as the muzzle and lower lip, encapsulated endings akin to Krause and Ruffini end bulbs, which arise from myelinated nerve trunks situated lower down the dermis were observed at the upper papillary layer level. Some fibre trunks seen at this level extended upwards to terminate within dermal papillae as bulb-shaped longitudinally lamellated Pacinian-type endings, while other onion-shaped lamellated nerve structures were located either within dermal papillae or near the dermo-epidermal area. Intraepidermal free-ending nerve fibres, appearing non-myelinated were observed in areas with thick epidermis. Intraepidermal free-ending nerve fibres, appearing non-myelinated were observed in areas with thick epidermis. On hairy skin sites, however, organized nerve endings or intraepidermal nerve endings were not readily identifiable.

  5. Ultrasound of the elbow with emphasis on detailed assessment of ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maeseneer, Michel; Brigido, Monica Kalume; Antic, Marijana; Lenchik, Leon; Milants, Annemieke; Vereecke, Evie; Jager, Tjeerd; Shahabpour, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    . Slightly more distally the ulnar nerve courses between the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris. An accessory muscle, the anconeus epitrochlearis can cover the ulnar nerve at the cubital tunnel, and is easily identified on ultrasound. The radial nerve divides in a superficial sensory branch and a deep motor branch. The motor branch, the posterior interosseous nerve, courses under the arcade of Frohse where it enters the supinator muscle. At the level of the dorsal wrist the posterior interosseous nerve is located at the deep aspect of the extensor tendons. The median nerve may be compressed at various sites, including the lacertus fibrosis, between the pronator teres heads, and the sublimis bridge. These compression sites can be identified with ultrasound

  6. Ultrasound of the elbow with emphasis on detailed assessment of ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Maeseneer, Michel, E-mail: Michel.demaeseneer@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Brigido, Monica Kalume, E-mail: Mbrigido@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Antic, Marijana, E-mail: Misscroa@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Lenchik, Leon, E-mail: Llenchik@wakehealth.edu [Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Milants, Annemieke, E-mail: Annemieke.Milants@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Vereecke, Evie, E-mail: Evie.Vereecke@kuleuven-kulak.be [Department of Anatomy, KULAK, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Campus Kortrijk, Kortrijk (Belgium); Jager, Tjeerd [Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Aalst (Belgium); Shahabpour, Maryam, E-mail: Maryam.Shahabpour@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-04-15

    . Slightly more distally the ulnar nerve courses between the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris. An accessory muscle, the anconeus epitrochlearis can cover the ulnar nerve at the cubital tunnel, and is easily identified on ultrasound. The radial nerve divides in a superficial sensory branch and a deep motor branch. The motor branch, the posterior interosseous nerve, courses under the arcade of Frohse where it enters the supinator muscle. At the level of the dorsal wrist the posterior interosseous nerve is located at the deep aspect of the extensor tendons. The median nerve may be compressed at various sites, including the lacertus fibrosis, between the pronator teres heads, and the sublimis bridge. These compression sites can be identified with ultrasound.

  7. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeumer, T.; Grimm, A.; Schelle, T.

    2017-01-01

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [de

  8. PERFORATION OF INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BY MAXILLARY ARTERY. Perforation of inferior alveolar nerve by maxillary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash B Billakanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La fosa infratemporal es un área anatómica clínicamente importante para la administración de agentes anestésicos locales en odontología y cirugía maxilofacial. Fueron estudiadas variaciones en la anatomía del nervio alveolar inferior y la arteria maxilar en la disección infratemporal. Durante la disección rutinaria de la cabeza en el cadáver de un varón adulto, fue observada una variación excepcional en el origen del nervio alveolar inferior y su relación con las estructuras circundantes. El nervio alveolar inferior se originaba en el nervio mandibular por dos raíces y la primera parte de la arteria maxilar estaba incorporada entre ambas. El origen embriológico de esta variación y sus implicaciones clínicas es debatido. Dado que la arteria maxilar transcurría entre las dos raíces del nervio alveolar inferior, y el nervio estaba fijado entre el foramen oval y el foramen mandibular, el atrapamiento vásculo-nervioso pudo causar entume-cimiento o dolor de cabeza e interferir con la inyección de anestésicos locales en la fosa infratemporal.  Variaciones anatómicas en esta región deben ser tenidas en cuenta, especialmente en casos de tratamiento fallido de neuralgia del trigémino. Infratemporal fossa is clinically important anatomical area for the delivery of local anesthetic agents in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Variations in the anatomy of the inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary artery were studied in infratemporal dissection. During routine dissection of the head in an adult male cadaver an unusual variation in the origin of the inferior alveolar nerve and its relationship with the surrounding structures was observed. The inferior alveolar nerve originated from the mandibular nerve by two roots and the first part of the maxillary artery was incorporated between them. An embryologic origin of this variation and its clinical implications is discussed. Because the maxillary artery runs between the two roots of

  9. Nerve ultrasound shows subclinical peripheral nerve involvement in neurofibromatosis type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telleman, Johan A; Stellingwerff, Menno D; Brekelmans, Geert J; Visser, Leo H

    2018-02-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is mainly associated with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Peripheral nerve involvement is described in symptomatic patients, but evidence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement is scarce. We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study in 2 asymptomatic and 3 minimally symptomatic patients with NF2 to detect subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. Patients underwent clinical examination, nerve conduction studies (NCS), and high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS). A total of 30 schwannomas were found, divided over 20 nerve segments (33.9% of all investigated nerve segments). All patients had at least 1 schwannoma. Schwannomas were identified with HRUS in 37% of clinically unaffected nerve segments and 50% of nerve segments with normal NCS findings. HRUS shows frequent subclinical peripheral nerve involvement in NF2. Clinicians should consider peripheral nerve involvement as a cause of weakness and sensory loss in the extremities in patients with this disease. Muscle Nerve 57: 312-316, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Polymeric Nerve Conduits with Contact Guidance Cues Used in Nerve Repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G DAI; X NIU; J YIN

    2016-01-01

    In the modern life, the nerve injury frequently happens due to mechanical, chemical or thermal accidents. In the trivial injuries, the peripheral nerves can regenerate on their own; however, in most of the cases the clinical treatments are required, where relatively large nerve injury gaps are formed. Currently, the nerve repair can be accomplished by direct suture when the injury gap is not too large;while the autologous nerve graft working as the gold standard of peripheral nerve injury treatment for nerve injuries with larger gaps. However, the direct suture is limited by heavy tension at the suture sites, and the autologous nerve graft also has the drawbacks of donor site morbidity and insufifcient donor tissue. Recently, artiifcial nerve conduits have been developed as an alternative for clinical nerve repair to overcome the limitations associated with the above treatments. In order to further improve the efifciency of nerve conduits, various guidance cues are incorporated, including physical cues, biochemical signals, as well as support cells. First, this paper reviewed the contact guidance cues applied in nerve conduits, such as lumen ifllers, multi-channels and micro-patterns on the inner surface. Then, the paper focused on the polymeric nerve conduits with micro inner grooves. The polymeric nerve conduits were fabricated using the phase inversion-based ifber spinning techniques. The smart spinneret with grooved die was designed in the spinning platform, while different spinning conditions, including flow rates, air-gap distances, and polymer concentrations, were adjusted to investigate the inlfuence of fabrication conditions on the geometry of nerve conduits. The inner groove size in the nerve conduits can be precisely controlled in our hollow ifber spinning process, which can work as the efifcient contact guidance cue for nerve regeneration.

  11. Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional fibrillar collagen microstructure within the normal, aged and glaucomatous human optic nerve head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H J; Girard, M J; White, N; Fautsch, M P; Morgan, J E; Ethier, C R; Albon, J

    2015-05-06

    The aim of this study was to quantify connective tissue fibre orientation and alignment in young, old and glaucomatous human optic nerve heads (ONH) to understand ONH microstructure and predisposition to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Transverse (seven healthy, three glaucomatous) and longitudinal (14 healthy) human ONH cryosections were imaged by both second harmonic generation microscopy and small angle light scattering (SALS) in order to quantify preferred fibre orientation (PFO) and degree of fibre alignment (DOFA). DOFA was highest within the peripapillary sclera (ppsclera), with relatively low values in the lamina cribrosa (LC). Elderly ppsclera DOFA was higher than that in young ppsclera (p < 0.00007), and generally higher than in glaucoma ppsclera. In all LCs, a majority of fibres had preferential orientation horizontally across the nasal-temporal axis. In all glaucomatous LCs, PFO was significantly different from controls in a minimum of seven out of 12 LC regions (p < 0.05). Additionally, higher fibre alignment was observed in the glaucomatous inferior-temporal LC (p < 0.017). The differences between young and elderly ONH fibre alignment within regions suggest that age-related microstructural changes occur within the structure. The additional differences in fibre alignment observed within the glaucomatous LC may reflect an inherent susceptibility to glaucomatous optic neuropathy, or may be a consequence of ONH remodelling and/or collapse.

  12. Tissue-engineered spiral nerve guidance conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei; Shah, Munish B; Lee, Paul; Yu, Xiaojun

    2018-06-01

    Recently in peripheral nerve regeneration, preclinical studies have shown that the use of nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) with multiple longitudinally channels and intra-luminal topography enhance the functional outcomes when bridging a nerve gap caused by traumatic injury. These features not only provide guidance cues for regenerating nerve, but also become the essential approaches for developing a novel NGC. In this study, a novel spiral NGC with aligned nanofibers and wrapped with an outer nanofibrous tube was first developed and investigated. Using the common rat sciatic 10-mm nerve defect model, the in vivo study showed that a novel spiral NGC (with and without inner nanofibers) increased the successful rate of nerve regeneration after 6 weeks recovery. Substantial improvements in nerve regeneration were achieved by combining the spiral NGC with inner nanofibers and outer nanofibrous tube, based on the results of walking track analysis, electrophysiology, nerve histological assessment, and gastrocnemius muscle measurement. This demonstrated that the novel spiral NGC with inner aligned nanofibers and wrapped with an outer nanofibrous tube provided a better environment for peripheral nerve regeneration than standard tubular NGCs. Results from this study will benefit for future NGC design to optimize tissue-engineering strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration. We developed a novel spiral nerve guidance conduit (NGC) with coated aligned nanofibers. The spiral structure increases surface area by 4.5 fold relative to a tubular NGC. Furthermore, the aligned nanofibers was coated on the spiral walls, providing cues for guiding neurite extension. Finally, the outside of spiral NGC was wrapped with randomly nanofibers to enhance mechanical strength that can stabilize the spiral NGC. Our nerve histological data have shown that the spiral NGC had 50% more myelinated axons than a tubular structure for nerve regeneration across a 10 mm gap in a rat sciatic nerve

  13. A novel mutation in the nerve-specific 5'UTR of the GJB1 gene causes X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Sinéad M

    2011-03-01

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1X) is the second most common cause of CMT, and is usually caused by mutations in the gap junction protein beta 1 (GJB1) gene which codes for connexin 32 (CX32). CX32 has three tissue-specific promoters, P1 which is specific for liver and pancreas, P1a specific for liver, oocytes and embryonic stem cells, and P2 which is nerve-specific. Over 300 mutations have been described in GJB1, spread throughout the coding region. We describe two families with X-linked inheritance and a phenotype consistent with CMT1X who did not have mutations in the GJB1 coding region. The non-coding region of GJB1 was sequenced and an upstream exon-splicing variant found at approximately - 373G>A which segregated with the disease in both families and was not present in controls. This substitution is located at the last base of the nerve-specific 5\\'UTR and thus may disrupt splicing of the nerve-specific transcript. Online consensus splice-site programs predict a reduced score for the mutant sequence vs. the normal sequence. It is likely that other mutations within the GJB1 non-coding regions account for the CMT1X families who do not have coding region mutations.

  14. Sensation, mechanoreceptor, and nerve fiber function after nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Rosén, Birgitta; Boeckstyns, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Sensation is essential for recovery after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relationship between sensory modalities and function of regenerated fibers is uncertain. We have investigated the relationships between touch threshold, tactile gnosis, and mechanoreceptor and sensory fiber...... function after nerve regeneration. Methods: Twenty-one median or ulnar nerve lesions were repaired by a collagen nerve conduit or direct suture. Quantitative sensory hand function and sensory conduction studies by near-nerve technique, including tactile stimulation of mechanoreceptors, were followed for 2...... years, and results were compared to noninjured hands. Results: At both repair methods, touch thresholds at the finger tips recovered to 81 ± 3% and tactile gnosis only to 20 ± 4% (p nerve action potentials (SNAPs) remained dispersed and areas recovered to 23 ± 2...

  15. The role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy in facial nerve damage

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Methods: Rat models of facia...

  16. From genes to pain: nerve growth factor and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsoni, Simona

    2014-02-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V (HSAN V) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the loss of deep pain perception. The anomalous pain and temperature sensations are due to the absence of nociceptive sensory innervation. The neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), by binding to tropomyosin receptor A (TrkA) and p75NTR receptors, is essential for the development and survival of sensory neurons, and for pain perception during adulthood. Recently a homozygous missense mutation (R100W) in the NGF gene has been identified in HSAN V patients. Interestingly, alterations in NGF signalling, due to mutations in the NGF TRKA gene, have also been involved in another congenital insensitivity to pain, HSAN IV, characterized not only by absence of reaction to painful stimuli, but also anhidrosis and mental retardation. These symptoms are absent in HSAN V patients. Unravelling the mechanisms that underlie the differences between HSAN IV and V could assist in better understanding NGF biology. This review highlights the recent key findings in the understanding of HSAN V, including insights into the molecular mechanisms of the disease, derived from genetic studies of patients with this disorder. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy in facial nerve damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Rat models of facial nerve cut (FC), facial nerve end to end anastomosis (FF), facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy (FG), and control (Ctrl) were established. Apex nasi amesiality observation, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays were employed to investigate the function and mechanism. In apex nasi amesiality observation, it was found apex nasi amesiality of FG group was partly recovered. Additionally, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays revealed that facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy could transfer nerve impulse and express AChR which was better than facial nerve cut and worse than facial nerve end to end anastomosis. The present study indicated that great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy is a substantial solution for facial lesion repair, as it is efficiently preventing facial muscles atrophy by generating neurotransmitter like ACh.

  18. Pinched Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Pinched Nerve Information Page Pinched Nerve Information Page What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, pinched nerves are addressed primarily through studies associated with pain ...

  19. The Natural History and Treatment Outcomes of Perineural Spread of Malignancy within the Head and Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Timothy A; Nagle, Christina M; Bowman, James; Panizza, Benedict J

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the natural history of diseases enables the clinician to better diagnose and treat their patients. Perineural spread of head and neck cancers are poorly understood and often diagnosis is delayed resulting in poorer outcomes and more debilitating treatments. This article reviews a large personal series of head and neck malignancy presenting with perineural spread along almost exclusively the trigeminal and/or facial nerves. A detailed analysis of squamous cell carcinoma of cutaneous origin is presented including an analysis of likely primaries, which most often have occurred months to years prior. The importance of early detection is reinforced by the highly significant (p < 0.0001) differences in disease specific survival, which occur, depending on how far along a cranial nerve the disease has been allowed to spread.

  20. The intracranial facial nerve as seen through different surgical windows: an extensive anatomosurgical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Antonio; Evins, Alexander I; Visca, Anna; Stieg, Phillip E

    2013-06-01

    The facial nerve has a short intracranial course but crosses critical and frequently accessed surgical structures during cranial base surgery. When performing approaches to complex intracranial regions, it is essential to understand the nerve's conventional and topographic anatomy from different surgical perspectives as well as its relationship with surrounding structures. To describe the entire intracranial course of the facial nerve as observed via different neurosurgical approaches and to provide an analytical evaluation of the degree of nerve exposure achieved with each approach. Anterior petrosectomies (middle fossa, extended middle fossa), posterior petrosectomies (translabyrinthine, retrolabyrinthine, transcochlear), a retrosigmoid, a far lateral, and anterior transfacial (extended maxillectomy, mandibular swing) approaches were performed on 10 adult cadaveric heads (20 sides). The degree of facial nerve exposure achieved per segment for each approach was assessed and graded independently by 3 surgeons. The anterior petrosal approaches offered good visualization of the nerve in the cerebellopontine angle and intracanalicular portion superiorly, whereas the posterior petrosectomies provided more direct visualization without the need for cerebellar retraction. The far lateral approach exposed part of the posterior and the entire inferior quadrants, whereas the retrosigmoid approach exposed parts of the superior and inferior quadrants and the entire posterior quadrant. Anterior and anteroinferior exposure of the facial nerve was achieved via the transfacial approaches. The surgical route used must rely on the size, nature, and general location of the lesion, as well as on the capability of the particular approach to better expose the appropriate segment of the facial nerve.

  1. Treatment and Follow Up Outcomes of Patients with Peroneal Nerve Injury: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Dagistan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Trap neuropathy is characterized by compression of the peripheral nerve into fibro osseous channels in trespassing areas of body segments. Peroneal nerve is the most frequently injured nerve in traumatic injuries of the lower extremities. In the present study, we investigated functional results of surgical treatment of patients with peroneal nerve injury who delayed visiting our clinics after the damage; we also aimed to observe the effects of this delay on prognosis. We interpreted postoperative results of the patients with EMG and physical examination findings. Material and Method: Subjects with peroneal nerve damage who visited our clinics between 2012 and 2015 were included in the present study. EMG and muscle motor strength tests were conducted pre and postoperatively for clinical assessment. Results: Of the 16 patients in the study population, 7 were men and 9 were women. The median age of the subjects was 49.6 years (14-77 years. Admission time was 9 months after injury. Causes of the peroneal nerve damage were as follows: prosthesis surgery in 4 (25%, ankle damage in 2 (12.5%, excessive squatting by agriculture workers in 4 (25%, aggressive exercise in 2 (12.5%, bone fracture in 2 (12.5%, and unknown origin in 2 (12.5%. Discussion: Peroneal nerve injury usually occurs by compression of the nerve at the head or neck of the fibula. Results of decompression surgery are usually compromising in non-traumatic nerve palsies. Period of duration between injury and diagnosis and muscular atrophy are main factors associated with success of treatment.

  2. Facial nerve ganglioneuroblastoma in a feline leukemia virus-positive cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Reis Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Neuroblastic tumors can originate from the central neuraxis, olfactory epithelium, adrenal medullary region or autonomous system. Ganglioneuroblastoma are a type of neuroblastic tumor, with very few case descriptions in animals. Diagnosis of facial nerve ganglioneuroblastoma was made in a feline leukemia virus-positive 11-month-old cat. The cat had hyporexia, left head tilt, depressed mental state, horizontal nystagmus, inability to retract the pinched left lip, anisocoria, ptosis, and absence of the menace reflex. Gross necropsy showed a mass at the left facial nerve root region. Histological examination of this mass showed neoplastic proliferation of neuroblasts arranged in a cohesive pattern and mature ganglion cells. Ganglion cells were positive for neurofilament, neuron-specific enolase, S100, and glial fibrillary acidic protein by immunohistochemistry, while neuroblasts were positive for vimentin, S100, neuron-specific enolase and feline leukemia virus.

  3. Sonoanatomical Change of Phrenic Nerve According to Posture During Ultrasound-Guided Stellate Ganglion Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeng, Eui Soo; Jeong, Young Cheol; Park, Bum Jun; Kang, Seok; Yang, Seung Nam; Yoon, Joon Shik

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the risk of phrenic nerve injury during ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block (US-SGB) according to sonoanatomy of the phrenic nerve, and determine a safer posture for needle insertion by assessing its relationship with surrounding structure according to positional change. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent ultrasound in two postures, i.e., supine position with the neck extension and head rotation, and lateral decubitus position. The transducer was placed at the anterior tubercle of the C6 level to identify phrenic nerve. The cross-sectional area (CSA), depth from skin, distance between phrenic nerve and anterior tubercle of C6 transverse process, and the angle formed by anterior tubercle, posterior tubercle and phrenic nerve were measured. The phrenic nerve was clearly identified in the intermuscular fascia layer between the anterior scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles. The distance between the phrenic nerve and anterior tubercle was 10.33±3.20 mm with the supine position and 9.20±3.31 mm with the lateral decubitus position, respectively. The mean CSA and skin depth of phrenic nerve were not statistically different between the two positions. The angle with the supine position was 48.37°±27.43°, and 58.89°±30.02° with the lateral decubitus position. The difference of angle between the two positions was statistically significant. Ultrasound is a useful tool for assessing the phrenic nerve and its anatomical relation with other cervical structures. In addition, lateral decubitus position seems to be safer by providing wider angle for needle insertion than the supine position in US-SGB.

  4. Assessment of nerve regeneration across nerve allografts treated with tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisheng, Han; Songjie, Zuo; Xin, Li

    2008-01-01

    Although regeneration of nerve allotransplant is a major concern in the clinic, there have been few papers quantitatively assessing functional recovery of animals' nerve allografts in the long term. In this study, functional recovery, histopathological study, and immunohistochemistry changes of rat nerve allograft with FK506 were investigated up to 12 weeks without slaughtering. C57 and SD rats were used for transplantation. The donor's nerve was sliced and transplanted into the recipient. The sciatic nerve was epineurally sutured with 10-0 nylon. In total, 30 models of transplantation were performed and divided into 3 groups that were either treated with FK506 or not. Functional recovery of the grafted nerve was serially assessed by the pin click test, walking track analysis and electrophysiological evaluations. A histopathological study and immunohistochemistry study were done in the all of the models. Nerve allografts treated with FK506 have no immune rejection through 12 weeks. Sensibility had similarly improved in both isografts and allografts. There has been no difference in each graft. Walk track analysis demonstrates significant recovery of motor function of the nerve graft. No histological results of difference were found up to 12 weeks in each graft. In the rodent nerve graft model, FK506 prevented nerve allograft rejection across a major histocompatibility barrier. Sensory recovery seems to be superior to motor function. Nerve isograft and allograft treated with FK506 have no significant difference in function recovery, histopathological result, and immunohistochemistry changes.

  5. Evaluating mice lacking serum carboxylesterase as a behavioral model for nerve agent intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Emily N; Ferrara-Bowens, Teresa M; Chachich, Mark E; Honnold, Cary L; Rothwell, Cristin C; Hoard-Fruchey, Heidi M; Lesyna, Catherine A; Johnson, Erik A; Cerasoli, Douglas M; McDonough, John H; Cadieux, C Linn

    2018-06-07

    Mice and other rodents are typically utilized for chemical warfare nerve agent research. Rodents have large amounts of carboxylesterase in their blood, while humans do not. Carboxylesterase nonspecifically binds to and detoxifies nerve agent. The presence of this natural bioscavenger makes mice and other rodents poor models for studies identifying therapeutics to treat humans exposed to nerve agents. To obviate this problem, a serum carboxylesterase knockout (Es1 KO) mouse was created. In this study, Es1 KO and wild type (WT) mice were assessed for differences in gene expression, nerve agent (soman; GD) median lethal dose (MLD) values, and behavior prior to and following nerve agent exposure. No expression differences were detected between Es1 KO and WT mice in more than 34 000 mouse genes tested. There was a significant difference between Es1 KO and WT mice in MLD values, as the MLD for GD-exposed WT mice was significantly higher than the MLD for GD-exposed Es1 KO mice. Behavioral assessments of Es1 KO and WT mice included an open field test, a zero maze, a Barnes maze, and a sucrose preference test (SPT). While sex differences were observed in various measures of these tests, overall, Es1 KO mice behaved similarly to WT mice. The two genotypes also showed virtually identical neuropathological changes following GD exposure. Es1 KO mice appear to have an enhanced susceptibility to GD toxicity while retaining all other behavioral and physiological responses to this nerve agent, making the Es1 KO mouse a more human-like model for nerve agent research.

  6. The MRI appearance of the optic nerve sheath following fenestration for benign intracranial hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallomi, D.; Taylor, H.; Hibbert, J.; Sanders, M.D.; Spalton, D.J.; Tonge, K. [Guys and St. Thomas` Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-01

    Optic nerve fenestration is carried out in cases of severe benign intracranial hypertension. This study aimed to monitor the optic nerve sheath appearances and orbital changes that occur following this procedure. The eight patients were all female with an average age of 37.3 years and a range of 20-58 years. The duration of symptoms was 2-6 years. Symptoms included headaches, diplopia and visual obscurations. Examination revealed severe papilledema. All investigations, including MRI, biochemical and immunological tests, were negative. Patients had fenestration of a 2 mm x 3 mm segment of the medial aspect of the optic nerve sheath. Imaging was obtained with a 1 T MRI machine using a head coil. Coronal, axial and sagittal 3 mm contiguous sections using STIR sequences with TR 4900 ms, IT 150 ms and TE 60 ms were obtained. Five patients showed clinical improvement. The post-operative MRI findings in four of these included a decreased volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) around the optic nerve sheaths and a localized collection of fluid within the orbit. There were no MRI changes in the three patients with no clinical improvement. Decreased CSF volume around the optic nerve and a fluid collection within the orbit may indicate a favorable outcome in optic nerve fenestration. (orig.) With 3 figs., 12 refs.

  7. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of alien introgressions with gene Fhb3 for resistance to Fusarium head blight disease of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance was identified in the alien species Leymus racemosus, and wheat-Leymus introgression lines with FHB resistance were reported previously. Detailed molecular cytogenetic analysis of alien introgressions T01, T09, and T14 and the mapping of Fhb3, a new gene for FHB...

  8. Peripheral nerve regeneration through P(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Dunnen, WFA; Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Schakernraad, JM

    1998-01-01

    P(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides can be used perfectly for short nerve gaps in rats, and are even better than short autologous nerve grafts. The tube dimensions, such as the internal diameter and wall thickness, are very important for the final outcome of peripheral nerve regeneration, as well as the

  9. Intention tremor after head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwadate, Yasuo; Saeki, Naokatsu; Namba, Hiroki; Odaki, Masaru; Oka, Nobuo.

    1989-01-01

    Eight cases of intention tremor as a late complication of head injury were investigated. The patients ranged in age from 3 to 24 years. All received severe head injuries and lapsed into coma immediately afterward (Glasgow Coma Scale scores ≤8). Six patients exhibited decerebration or decortication. Hemiparesis was present in six cases and oculomotor nerve palsy in four. In the chronic stage, all patients displayed some degree of impairment of higher cortical function and five had dysarthria and/or ataxia. Initial computed tomography (CT) scans within 3 hours after the injury were obtained in five cases, of which four showed a hemorrhagic lesion in the midbrain or its surroundings. Other CT findings were diffuse cerebral swelling (four cases), intraventricular hemorrhage (three), and multiple hemorrhagic lesions (two). In the chronic stage, generalized cortical atrophy or ventricular enlargement was noted in five cases. These clinical features and CT findings indicate diffuse brain damage as well as midbrain damage and may reflect shearing injury. (author)

  10. Subtotal resection for management of large jugular paragangliomas with functional lower cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanna, George B; Sweeney, Alex D; Carlson, Matthew L; Latuska, Richard F; Rivas, Alejandro; Bennett, Marc L; Netterville, James L; Haynes, David S

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate tumor control following subtotal resection of advanced jugular paragangliomas in patients with functional lower cranial nerves and to investigate the utility of salvage radiotherapy for residual progressive disease. Case series with planned chart review. Tertiary academic referral center. Patients who presented with advanced jugular paragangliomas and functional lower cranial nerves were analyzed. Primary outcome measures included extent of resection, long-term tumor control, need for additional treatment, and postoperative lower cranial nerve function. Twelve patients (mean age, 46.2 years; 7 women, 58.3%) who met inclusion criteria were evaluated between 1999 and 2013. The mean postoperative residual tumor volume was 27.7% (range, 3.5%-75.0%) of the preoperative volume. When the residual tumor volume was less than 20% of the preoperative volume, no tumor growth occurred over an average of 44.6 months of follow-up (P cranial neuropathy as a result of surgery. Subtotal resection of jugular paragangliomas with preservation of the lower cranial nerves is a viable management strategy. If more than 80% of the preoperative tumor volume is resected, the residual tumor seems less likely to grow. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  11. Progranulin promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and reinnervation: role of notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Christine; Vasic, Verica; Hardt, Stefanie; Heidler, Juliana; Häussler, Annett; Wittig, Ilka; Schmidt, Mirko H H; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2016-10-22

    Peripheral nerve injury is a frequent cause of lasting motor deficits and chronic pain. Although peripheral nerves are capable of regrowth they often fail to re-innervate target tissues. Using newly generated transgenic mice with inducible neuronal progranulin overexpression we show that progranulin accelerates axonal regrowth, restoration of neuromuscular synapses and recovery of sensory and motor functions after injury of the sciatic nerve. Oppositely, progranulin deficient mice have long-lasting deficits in motor function tests after nerve injury due to enhanced losses of motor neurons and stronger microglia activation in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Deep proteome and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that the proteins upregulated in progranulin overexpressing mice were involved in 'regulation of transcription' and 'response to insulin' (GO terms). Transcription factor prediction pointed to activation of Notch signaling and indeed, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that progranulin bound to the extracellular domain of Notch receptors, and this was functionally associated with higher expression of Notch target genes in the dorsal root ganglia of transgenic mice with neuronal progranulin overexpression. Functionally, these transgenic mice recovered normal gait and running, which was not achieved by controls and was stronger impaired in progranulin deficient mice. We infer that progranulin activates Notch signaling pathways, enhancing thereby the regenerative capacity of partially injured neurons, which leads to improved motor function recovery.

  12. Genetic alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic alterations observed in head and neck cancer are mainly due to oncogene activation (gain of function mutations and tumor suppressor gene inactivation (loss of function mutations, leading to deregulation of cell proliferation and death. These genetic alterations include gene amplification and overexpression of oncogenes such as myc, erbB-2, EGFR and cyclinD1 and mutations, deletions and hypermethylation leading to p16 and TP53 tumor suppressor gene inactivation. In addition, loss of heterozygosity in several chromosomal regions is frequently observed, suggesting that other tumor suppressor genes not yet identified could be involved in the tumorigenic process of head and neck cancers. The exact temporal sequence of the genetic alterations during head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC development and progression has not yet been defined and their diagnostic or prognostic significance is controversial. Advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of head and neck cancer should help in the identification of new markers that could be used for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of the disease.

  13. Anatomical variations between the sciatic nerve and the piriformis muscle: a contribution to surgical anatomy in piriformis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Konstantinidis, George A; Paraskevas, George; Piagkou, Maria; Koebke, Juergen

    2014-04-01

    To detect the variable relationship between sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle and make surgeons aware of certain anatomical features of each variation that may be useful for the surgical treatment of the piriformis syndrome. The gluteal region of 147 Caucasian cadavers (294 limbs) was dissected. The anatomical relationship between the sciatic nerve and the piriformis muscle was recorded and classified according to the Beaton and Anson classification. The literature was reviewed to summarize the incidence of each variation. The sciatic nerve and piriformis muscle relationship followed the typical anatomical pattern in 275 limbs (93.6 %). In 12 limbs (4.1 %) the common peroneal nerve passed through and the tibial nerve below a double piriformis. In one limb (0.3 %) the common peroneal nerve coursed superior and the tibial nerve below the piriformis. In one limb (0.3 %) both nerves penetrated the piriformis. In one limb (0.3 %) both nerves passed above the piriformis. Four limbs (1.4 %) presented non-classified anatomical variations. When a double piriformis muscle was present, two different arrangements of the two heads were observed. Anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve around the piriformis muscle were present in 6.4 % of the limbs examined. When dissection of the entire piriformis is necessary for adequate sciatic nerve decompression, the surgeon should explore for the possible existence of a second tendon, which may be found either inferior or deep to the first one. Some rare, unclassified variations of the sciatic nerve should be expected during surgical intervention of the region.

  14. A nerve stimulation method to selectively recruit smaller motor-units in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bolhuis, A I; Holsheimer, J; Savelberg, H H

    2001-05-30

    Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerve results in a motor-unit recruitment order opposite to that attained by natural neural control, i.e. from large, fast-fatiguing to progressively smaller, fatigue-resistant motor-units. Yet animal studies involving physiological exercise protocols of low intensity and long duration require minimal fatigue. The present study sought to apply a nerve stimulation method to selectively recruit smaller motor-units in rat skeletal muscle. Two pulse generators were used, independently supplying short supramaximal cathodal stimulating pulses (0.5 ms) and long subthreshold cathodal inactivating pulses (1.5 s) to the sciatic nerve. Propagation of action potentials was selectively blocked in nerve fibres of different diameter by adjusting the strength of the inactivating current. A tensile-testing machine was used to gauge isometric muscle force of the plantaris and both heads of the gastrocnemius muscle. The order of motor-unit recruitment was estimated from twitch characteristics, i.e. peak force and relaxation time. The results showed prolonged relaxation at lower twitch peak forces as the intensity of the inactivating current increased, indicating a reduction of the number of large motor-units to force production. It is shown that the nerve stimulation method described is effective in mimicking physiological muscle control.

  15. HPV and high-risk gene expression profiles predict response to chemoradiotherapy in head and neck cancer, independent of clinical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Monique C. de; Pramana, Jimmy; Knegjens, Joost L.; Balm, Alfons J.M.; Brekel, Michiel W.M. van den; Hauptmann, Michael; Begg, Adrian C.; Rasch, Coen R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to combine gene expression profiles and clinical factors to provide a better prediction model of local control after chemoradiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer. Material and methods: Gene expression data were available for a series of 92 advanced stage head and neck cancer patients treated with primary chemoradiotherapy. The effect of the Chung high-risk and Slebos HPV expression profiles on local control was analyzed in a model with age at diagnosis, gender, tumor site, tumor volume, T-stage and N-stage and HPV profile status. Results: Among 75 patients included in the study, the only factors significantly predicting local control were tumor site (oral cavity vs. Pharynx, hazard ratio 4.2 [95% CI 1.4-12.5]), Chung gene expression status (high vs. Low risk profile, hazard ratio 4.4 [95% CI 1.5-13.3]) and HPV profile (negative vs. Positive profile, hazard ratio 6.2 [95% CI 1.7-22.5]). Conclusions: Chung high-risk expression profile and a negative HPV expression profile were significantly associated with increased risk of local recurrence after chemoradiotherapy in advanced pharynx and oral cavity tumors, independent of clinical factors.

  16. Neuro-ophthalmological approach to facial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelinha, Joana; Passarinho, Maria Picoto; Costa, João Marques

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is associated with significant morbidity and can have different etiologies. The most common causes are Bell's palsy, Ramsay-Hunt syndrome and trauma, including surgical trauma. Incidence varies between 17 and 35 cases per 100,000. Initial evaluation should include accurate clinical history, followed by a comprehensive investigation of the head and neck, including ophthalmological, otological, oral and neurological examination, to exclude secondary causes. Routine laboratory testing and diagnostic imaging is not indicated in patients with new-onset Bell's palsy, but should be performed in patients with risk factors, atypical cases or in any case without resolution within 4 months. Many factors are involved in determining the appropriate treatment of these patients: the underlying cause, expected duration of nerve dysfunction, anatomical manifestations, severity of symptoms and objective clinical findings. Systemic steroids should be offered to patients with new-onset Bell's palsy to increase the chance of facial nerve recovery and reduce synkinesis. Ophthalmologists play a pivotal role in the multidisciplinary team involved in the evaluation and rehabilitation of these patients. In the acute phase, the main priority should be to ensure adequate corneal protection. Treatment depends on the degree of nerve lesion and on the risk of the corneal damage based on the amount of lagophthalmos, the quality of Bell's phenomenon, the presence or absence of corneal sensitivity and the degree of lid retraction. The main therapy is intensive lubrication. Other treatments include: taping the eyelid overnight, botulinum toxin injection, tarsorrhaphy, eyelid weight implants, scleral contact lenses and palpebral spring. Once the cornea is protected, longer term planning for eyelid and facial rehabilitation may take place. Spontaneous complete recovery of Bell's palsy occurs in up to 70% of cases. Long-term complications include aberrant regeneration with

  17. Morphology of nerve endings in vocal fold of human newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva Leite, Janaina; Costa Cavalcante, Maria Luzete; Fechine-Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo; de Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria; Leite, José Alberto Dias; Nascimento Coelho, Dulce Maria; Rabelo de Freitas, Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Sensory receptors are distributed throughout the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Laryngeal sensitivity is crucial for maintaining safe swallowing, thus avoiding silent aspiration. Morphologic description of different receptor types present in larynx vary because of the study of many different species, from mouse to humans. The most commonly sensory structures described in laryngeal mucosa are free nerve endings, taste buds, muscle spindles, glomerular and corpuscular receptors. This study aimed at describing the morphology and the distribution of nerve endings in premature newborn glottic region. Transversal serial frozen sections of the whole vocal folds of three newborns were analyzed using an immuno-histochemical process with a pan-neuronal marker anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). Imaging was done using a confocal laser microscope. Nerve fiber density in vocal cord was calculated using panoramic images in software Morphometric Analysis System v1.0. Some sensory structures, i.e. glomerular endings and intraepithelial free nerve endings were found in the vocal cord mucosa. Muscle spindles, complex nerve endings (Meissner-like, spherical, rectangular and growing) spiral-wharves nerve structures were identified in larynx intrinsic muscles. Nervous total mean density in vocal cord was similar in the three newborns, although they had different gestational age. The mean nerve fiber density was higher in the posterior region than anterior region of vocal cord. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of different morphotypes of sensory corpuscles and nerve endings premature newborn glottic region and provide information on their sensory systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. BDNF is required for taste axon regeneration following unilateral chorda tympani nerve section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingbin; Huang, Tao; Sun, Chengsan; Hill, David L; Krimm, Robin

    2017-07-01

    Taste nerves readily regenerate to reinnervate denervated taste buds; however, factors required for regeneration have not yet been identified. When the chorda tympani nerve is sectioned, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) remains high in the geniculate ganglion and lingual epithelium, despite the loss of taste buds. These observations suggest that BDNF is present in the taste system after nerve section and may support taste nerve regeneration. To test this hypothesis, we inducibly deleted Bdnf during adulthood in mice. Shortly after Bdnf gene recombination, the chorda tympani nerve was unilaterally sectioned causing a loss of both taste buds and neurons, irrespective of BDNF levels. Eight weeks after nerve section, however, regeneration was differentially affected by Bdnf deletion. In control mice, there was regeneration of the chorda tympani nerve and taste buds reappeared with innervation. In contrast, few taste buds were reinnervated in mice lacking normal Bdnf expression such that taste bud number remained low. In all genotypes, taste buds that were reinnervated were normal-sized, but non-innervated taste buds remained small and atrophic. On the side of the tongue contralateral to the nerve section, taste buds for some genotypes became larger and all taste buds remained innervated. Our findings suggest that BDNF is required for nerve regeneration following gustatory nerve section. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Spinal Accessory and Hypoglossal Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stino, Amro M; Smith, Benn E

    2018-01-01

    Multiple techniques have been developed for the electrodiagnostic evaluation of cranial nerves XI and XII. Each of these carries both benefits and limitations, with more techniques and data being available in the literature for spinal accessory than hypoglossal nerve evaluation. Spinal accessory and hypoglossal neuropathy are relatively uncommon cranial mononeuropathies that may be evaluated in the outpatient electrodiagnostic laboratory setting. A review of available literature using PubMed was conducted regarding electrodiagnostic technique in the evaluation of spinal accessory and hypoglossal nerves searching for both routine nerve conduction studies and repetitive nerve conduction studies. The review provided herein provides a resource by which clinical neurophysiologists may develop and implement clinical and research protocols for the evaluation of both of these lower cranial nerves in the outpatient setting.

  20. Evaluation of Morphological and Functional Nerve Recovery of Rat Sciatic Nerve with a Hyaff11-Based Nerve Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jansen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of a Hyaff11-based nerve guide was studied in rats. Functional tests were performed to study motor nerve recovery. A withdrawal reflex test was performed to test sensory recovery. Morphology was studied by means of histology on explanted tissue samples. Motor nerve recovery was established within 7 weeks. Hereafter, some behavioral parameters like alternating steps showed an increase in occurence, while others remained stable. Sensory function was observed within the 7 weeks time frame. Nerve tissue had bridged the 10-mm gap within 7 weeks. The average nerve fiber surface area increased significantly in time. In situ degradation of the nerve conduit was fully going on at week 7 and tubes had collapsed by then. At weeks 15 and 21, the knitted tube wall structure was completely surrounded by macrophages and giant cells, and matrix was penetrating the tube wall. We conclude that a Hyaff11-based nerve guide can be used to bridge short peripheral nerve defects in rat. However, adaptations need to be made.

  1. Bilateral irradiation of head and neck induces and enhanced expression of substance P in the parasympathetic innervation of the submandibular gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsgren, S; Franzen, L; Funegard, U; Gustafsson, H; Henriksson, R [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Anatomy and Oto-laryngology

    1992-01-01

    Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are present in nerve fibers innervating the submandibular gland. Radiotherapy of tumours in the head and neck region usually embraces the salivary glands in the irradiated field and consequently a dramatic decrease in salivary function is seen. In this study, the submandibular glands and ganglia of rats subjected to fractionated irradiation were examined by use of immunohistochemical techniques for demonstration of substance P and CGRP. Irradiation was given on five consecutive days with unilateral or bilateral irradiation techniques. Specimens of control and experimental animals were processed in parallel. A marked increase in the expression of substance P in the ganglionic cells-presumably parasympathetic-and in the number of fibers showing substance P-like immunoreactivity in association with acini and small ducts was seen in response to bilateral irradiation. No changes in the pattern of CGRP immunoreactivity occurred. In the trigeminal ganglion, which supplies the submandibular gland with the majority of the sensory substance P-and CGRP-containing nerve fibers, no changes in the expression of substance P or CGRP immunoreactivity were seen. The results suggest that bilateral irradiation leads to an increase in the synthesis of substance P-like substance in the parasympathetic ganglionic cells supplying the submandibular gland with secretory nerves, and can thus be an additional factor in explaining the altered secretory capacity of salivary glands. (author).

  2. Use of superficial peroneal nerve graft for treating peripheral nerve injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ribak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical results from treating chronic peripheral nerve injuries using the superficial peroneal nerve as a graft donor source. METHODS: This was a study on eleven patients with peripheral nerve injuries in the upper limbs that were treated with grafts from the sensitive branch of the superficial peroneal nerve. The mean time interval between the dates of the injury and surgery was 93 days. The ulnar nerve was injured in eight cases and the median nerve in six. There were three cases of injury to both nerves. In the surgery, a longitudinal incision was made on the anterolateral face of the ankle, thus viewing the superficial peroneal nerve, which was located anteriorly to the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Proximally, the deep fascia between the extensor digitorum longus and the peroneal longus muscles was dissected. Next, the motor branch of the short peroneal muscle (one of the branches of the superficial peroneal nerve was identified. The proximal limit of the sensitive branch was found at this point. RESULTS: The average space between the nerve stumps was 3.8 cm. The average length of the grafts was 16.44 cm. The number of segments used was two to four cables. In evaluating the recovery of sensitivity, 27.2% evolved to S2+, 54.5% to S3 and 18.1% to S3+. Regarding motor recovery, 72.7% presented grade 4 and 27.2% grade 3. There was no motor deficit in the donor area. A sensitive deficit in the lateral dorsal region of the ankle and the dorsal region of the foot was observed. None of the patients presented complaints in relation to walking. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the superficial peroneal nerve as a graft source for treating peripheral nerve injuries is safe and provides good clinical results similar to those from other nerve graft sources.

  3. Hypoglossal-Facial Nerve Reconstruction Using a Y-Tube-Conduit Reduces Aberrant Synkinetic Movements of the Orbicularis Oculi and Vibrissal Muscles in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Kaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The facial nerve is the most frequently damaged nerve in head and neck trauma. Patients undergoing facial nerve reconstruction often complain about disturbing abnormal synkinetic movements of the facial muscles (mass movements, synkinesis which are thought to result from misguided collateral branching of regenerating motor axons and reinnervation of inappropriate muscles. Here, we examined whether use of an aorta Y-tube conduit during reconstructive surgery after facial nerve injury reduces synkinesis of orbicularis oris (blink reflex and vibrissal (whisking musculature. The abdominal aorta plus its bifurcation was harvested (N = 12 for Y-tube conduits. Animal groups comprised intact animals (Group 1, those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end coaptation alone (HFA; Group 2, and those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve reconstruction using a Y-tube (HFA-Y-tube, Group 3. Videotape motion analysis at 4 months showed that HFA-Y-tube group showed a reduced synkinesis of eyelid and whisker movements compared to HFA alone.

  4. Hypoglossal-facial nerve reconstruction using a Y-tube-conduit reduces aberrant synkinetic movements of the orbicularis oculi and vibrissal muscles in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yasemin; Ozsoy, Umut; Turhan, Murat; Angelov, Doychin N; Sarikcioglu, Levent

    2014-01-01

    The facial nerve is the most frequently damaged nerve in head and neck trauma. Patients undergoing facial nerve reconstruction often complain about disturbing abnormal synkinetic movements of the facial muscles (mass movements, synkinesis) which are thought to result from misguided collateral branching of regenerating motor axons and reinnervation of inappropriate muscles. Here, we examined whether use of an aorta Y-tube conduit during reconstructive surgery after facial nerve injury reduces synkinesis of orbicularis oris (blink reflex) and vibrissal (whisking) musculature. The abdominal aorta plus its bifurcation was harvested (N = 12) for Y-tube conduits. Animal groups comprised intact animals (Group 1), those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end coaptation alone (HFA; Group 2), and those receiving hypoglossal-facial nerve reconstruction using a Y-tube (HFA-Y-tube, Group 3). Videotape motion analysis at 4 months showed that HFA-Y-tube group showed a reduced synkinesis of eyelid and whisker movements compared to HFA alone.

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the cranial and anterior spinal nerves in early tadpoles of Xenopus laevis (Pipidae, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Benjamin; Olsson, Lennart

    2018-04-01

    Xenopus laevis is one of the most widely used model organism in neurobiology. It is therefore surprising, that no detailed and complete description of the cranial nerves exists for this species. Using classical histological sectioning in combination with fluorescent whole mount antibody staining and micro-computed tomography we prepared a detailed innervation map and a freely-rotatable three-dimensional (3D) model of the cranial nerves and anterior-most spinal nerves of early X. laevis tadpoles. Our results confirm earlier descriptions of the pre-otic cranial nerves and present the first detailed description of the post-otic cranial nerves. Tracing the innervation, we found two previously undescribed head muscles (the processo-articularis and diaphragmatico-branchialis muscles) in X. laevis. Data on the cranial nerve morphology of tadpoles are scarce, and only one other species (Discoglossus pictus) has been described in great detail. A comparison of Xenopus and Discoglossus reveals a relatively conserved pattern of the post-otic and a more variable morphology of the pre-otic cranial nerves. Furthermore, the innervation map and the 3D models presented here can serve as an easily accessible basis to identify alterations of the innervation produced by experimental studies such as genetic gain- and loss of function experiments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical 'cross-bridging' to promote nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Eva, Placheta; Borschel, Gregory H

    2015-10-01

    Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour period of 20 Hz electrical nerve stimulation via electrodes proximal to an injury site accelerates axon outgrowth to hasten target reinnervation in rats and humans, even after delayed surgery. A novel strategy of enticing donor axons from an otherwise intact nerve to grow through small nerve grafts (cross-bridges) into a denervated nerve stump, promotes improved axon regeneration after delayed nerve repair. The efficacy of this technique has been demonstrated in a rat model and is now in clinical use in patients undergoing cross-face nerve grafting for facial paralysis. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation, combined with the surgical technique of promoting the regeneration of some donor axons to 'protect' chronically denervated Schwann cells, improves nerve regeneration and, in turn, functional outcomes in the management of peripheral nerve injuries.

  7. Polymorphism of regulatory region of GHRL gene (-2531C>T) as a promising predictive factor for radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with head neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Anna; Homa-Mlak, Iwona; Mlak, Radosław; Gołębiowski, Paweł; Mazurek, Marcin; Ciesielka, Marzanna; Małecka-Massalska, Teresa

    2018-03-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; rs1629816) in the regulatory region (c.-2531C>T) of the ghrelin (GHRL) gene and the occurrence and severity of oral mucositis caused by radiotherapy (RT) in patients with head and neck cancer. Oral mucositis in 65 patients with head and neck cancer who underwent irradiation were assessed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) scale. The DNA from patients with head and neck cancer was isolated from whole blood. The genotypes were determined using the minisequencing method (SNaPshot PCR). The frequency of occurrence of the GHRL gene (c.-2531C>T, rs1629816) genotypes were as follows: AA = 21.5%; GA = 40%; and GG = 38.5%. In case of AA genotype, there was a 7-fold decrease of the risk of occurrence of oral mucositis (of grades 2 and 3) in the sixth week of RT (AA vs GA or GG, respectively: 17.9% vs 82.1% patients; odds ratio [OR] 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.98; P = .0481). No statistically significant differences were observed between the volume of oral cavity contours (V30, V40, and V50) depending on the GHRL genotype in patients with head and neck cancer. The study results have demonstrated an association between the AA genotype of the GHRL gene and the risk of more severe oral mucositis attributed to RT in patients with head and neck cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Sensory nerve function and auto-mutilation after reconstruction of various gap lengths with nerve guides and autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dunnen, WFA; Meek, MF

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sensory nerve recovery and auto-mutilation after reconstruction of various lengths of nerve gaps in the sciatic nerve of the rat, using different techniques. Group 4, in which the longest nerve gap (15 mm) was reconstructed with a thin-walled

  9. Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers., a medicinal mushroom, activates peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kah-Hui; Kanagasabapathy, Gowri; Naidu, Murali; David, Pamela; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2016-10-01

    To study the ability of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus mushroom in the treatment of nerve injury following peroneal nerve crush in Sprague-Dawley rats. Aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus was given by daily oral administration following peroneal nerve crush injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. The expression of protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways; and c-Jun and c-Fos genes were studied in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) whereas the activity of protein synthesis was assessed in peroneal nerves by immunohistochemical method. Peripheral nerve injury leads to changes at the axonal site of injury and remotely located DRG containing cell bodies of sensory afferent neurons. Immunofluorescence studies showed that DRG neurons ipsilateral to the crush injury in rats of treated groups expressed higher immunoreactivities for Akt, MAPK, c-Jun and c-Fos as compared with negative control group (P <0.05). The intensity of nuclear ribonucleoprotein in the distal segments of crushed nerves of treated groups was significantly higher than in the negative control group (P <0.05). H. erinaceus is capable of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration after injury. Potential signaling pathways include Akt, MAPK, c-Jun, and c-Fos, and protein synthesis have been shown to be involved in its action.

  10. Tissue-engineered rhesus monkey nerve grafts for the repair of long ulnar nerve defects: similar outcomes to autologous nerve grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-qing Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acellular nerve allografts can help preserve normal nerve structure and extracellular matrix composition. These allografts have low immunogenicity and are more readily available than autologous nerves for the repair of long-segment peripheral nerve defects. In this study, we repaired a 40-mm ulnar nerve defect in rhesus monkeys with tissue-engineered peripheral nerve, and compared the outcome with that of autograft. The graft was prepared using a chemical extract from adult rhesus monkeys and seeded with allogeneic Schwann cells. Pathomorphology, electromyogram and immunohistochemistry findings revealed the absence of palmar erosion or ulcers, and that the morphology and elasticity of the hypothenar eminence were normal 5 months postoperatively. There were no significant differences in the mean peak compound muscle action potential, the mean nerve conduction velocity, or the number of neurofilaments between the experimental and control groups. However, outcome was significantly better in the experimental group than in the blank group. These findings suggest that chemically extracted allogeneic nerve seeded with autologous Schwann cells can repair 40-mm ulnar nerve defects in the rhesus monkey. The outcomes are similar to those obtained with autologous nerve graft.

  11. Tissue-engineered rhesus monkey nerve gratfs for the repair of long ulnar nerve defects:similar outcomes to autologous nerve gratfs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-qing Jiang; Jun Hu; Jian-ping Xiang; Jia-kai Zhu; Xiao-lin Liu; Peng Luo

    2016-01-01

    Acellular nerve allogratfs can help preserve normal nerve structure and extracellular matrix composition. These allogratfs have low immu-nogenicity and are more readily available than autologous nerves for the repair of long-segment peripheral nerve defects. In this study, we repaired a 40-mm ulnar nerve defect in rhesus monkeys with tissue-engineered peripheral nerve, and compared the outcome with that of autogratf. The gratf was prepared using a chemical extract from adult rhesus monkeys and seeded with allogeneic Schwann cells. Pathomo-rphology, electromyogram and immunohistochemistry ifndings revealed the absence of palmar erosion or ulcers, and that the morphology and elasticity of the hypothenar eminence were normal 5 months postoperatively. There were no signiifcant differences in the mean peak compound muscle action potential, the mean nerve conduction velocity, or the number of neuroiflaments between the experimental and control groups. However, outcome was signiifcantly better in the experimental group than in the blank group. These ifndings suggest that chemically extracted allogeneic nerve seeded with autologous Schwann cells can repair 40-mm ulnar nerve defects in the rhesus monkey. The outcomes are similar to those obtained with autologous nerve gratf.

  12. Endocrine tumors associated with the vagusnerve

    OpenAIRE

    Varoquaux, Arthur; Kebebew, Electron; Sebag, Fréderic; Wolf, Katherine; Henry, Jean-François; Pacak, Karel; Taïeb, David

    2016-01-01

    The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is the main nerve of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) are a prime example of an endocrine tumor associated with the vagus nerve. This rare, neural-crest tumor constitutes the second most common site of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), most often in relation to mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene. The treatment paradigm for VPGL has progressively shifted from ...

  13. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  14. Interleaved 3D-CNNs for joint segmentation of small-volume structures in head and neck CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuhua; Xiang, Lei; Nie, Dong; Shao, Yeqin; Zhang, Huan; Shen, Dinggang; Wang, Qian

    2018-02-26

    Accurate 3D image segmentation is a crucial step in radiation therapy planning of head and neck tumors. These segmentation results are currently obtained by manual outlining of tissues, which is a tedious and time-consuming procedure. Automatic segmentation provides an alternative solution, which, however, is often difficult for small tissues (i.e., chiasm and optic nerves in head and neck CT images) because of their small volumes and highly diverse appearance/shape information. In this work, we propose to interleave multiple 3D Convolutional Neural Networks (3D-CNNs) to attain automatic segmentation of small tissues in head and neck CT images. A 3D-CNN was designed to segment each structure of interest. To make full use of the image appearance information, multiscale patches are extracted to describe the center voxel under consideration and then input to the CNN architecture. Next, as neighboring tissues are often highly related in the physiological and anatomical perspectives, we interleave the CNNs designated for the individual tissues. In this way, the tentative segmentation result of a specific tissue can contribute to refine the segmentations of other neighboring tissues. Finally, as more CNNs are interleaved and cascaded, a complex network of CNNs can be derived, such that all tissues can be jointly segmented and iteratively refined. Our method was validated on a set of 48 CT images, obtained from the Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) Challenge 2015. The Dice coefficient (DC) and the 95% Hausdorff Distance (95HD) are computed to measure the accuracy of the segmentation results. The proposed method achieves higher segmentation accuracy (with the average DC: 0.58 ± 0.17 for optic chiasm, and 0.71 ± 0.08 for optic nerve; 95HD: 2.81 ± 1.56 mm for optic chiasm, and 2.23 ± 0.90 mm for optic nerve) than the MICCAI challenge winner (with the average DC: 0.38 for optic chiasm, and 0.68 for optic nerve; 95HD: 3.48 for

  15. Positive effects of bFGF modified rat amniotic epithelial cells transplantation on transected rat optic nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Xin Xie

    Full Text Available Effective therapy for visual loss caused by optic nerve injury or diseases has not been achieved even though the optic nerve has the regeneration potential after injury. This study was designed to modify amniotic epithelial cells (AECs with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF gene, preliminarily investigating its effect on transected optic nerve.A human bFGF gene segment was delivered into rat AECs (AECs/hbFGF by lentiviral vector, and the gene expression was examined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The AECs/hbFGF and untransfected rat AECs were transplanted into the transected site of the rat optic nerve. At 28 days post transplantation, the survival and migration of the transplanted cells was observed by tracking labeled cells; meanwhile retinal ganglion cells (RGCs were observed and counted by employing biotin dextran amine (BDA and Nissl staining. Furthermore, the expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43 within the injury site was examined with immunohistochemical staining.The AECs/hbFGF was proven to express bFGF gene and secrete bFGF peptide. Both AECs/hbFGF and AECs could survive and migrate after transplantation. RGCs counting implicated that RGCs numbers of the cell transplantation groups were significantly higher than that of the control group, and the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group. Moreover GAP-43 integral optical density value in the control group was significantly lower than that of the cell transplantation groups, and the value in the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group.AECs modified with bFGF could reduce RGCs loss and promote expression of GAP-43 in the rat optic nerve transected model, facilitating the process of neural restoration following injury.

  16. The Role of Nerve Exploration in Supracondylar Humerus Fracture in Children with Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar RIM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The supracondylar humerus fracture (SCHF in children is common and can be complicated with nerve injury either primarily immediate post-trauma or secondarily posttreatment. The concept of neurapraxic nerve injury makes most surgeons choose to ‘watch and see’ the nerve recovery before deciding second surgery if the nerve does not recover. We report three cases of nerve injury in SCHF, all of which underwent nerve exploration for different reasons. Early reduction in the Casualty is important to release the nerve tension before transferring the patient to the operation room. If close reduction fails, we proceed to explore the nerve together with open reduction of the fracture. In iatrogenic nerve injury, we recommend nerve exploration to determine the surgical procedure that is causing the injury. Primary nerve exploration will allow early assessment of the injured nerve and minimize subsequent surgery.

  17. Remodeling of peripheral nerve ensheathment during the larval-to-adult transition in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Aswati; Siefert, Matthew; Banerjee, Soumya; Vishal, Kumar; Bergmann, Kayla A; Curts, Clay C M; Dorr, Meredith; Molina, Camillo; Fernandes, Joyce

    2017-10-01

    Over the course of a 4-day period of metamorphosis, the Drosophila larval nervous system is remodeled to prepare for adult-specific behaviors. One example is the reorganization of peripheral nerves in the abdomen, where five pairs of abdominal nerves (A4-A8) fuse to form the terminal nerve trunk. This reorganization is associated with selective remodeling of four layers that ensheath each peripheral nerve. The neural lamella (NL), is the first to dismantle; its breakdown is initiated by 6 hours after puparium formation, and is completely removed by the end of the first day. This layer begins to re-appear on the third day of metamorphosis. Perineurial glial (PG) cells situated just underneath the NL, undergo significant proliferation on the first day of metamorphosis, and at that stage contribute to 95% of the glial cell population. Cells of the two inner layers, Sub-Perineurial Glia (SPG) and Wrapping Glia (WG) increase in number on the second half of metamorphosis. Induction of cell death in perineurial glia via the cell death gene reaper and the Diptheria toxin (DT-1) gene, results in abnormal bundling of the peripheral nerves, suggesting that perineurial glial cells play a role in the process. A significant number of animals fail to eclose in both reaper and DT-1 targeted animals, suggesting that disruption of PG also impacts eclosion behavior. The studies will help to establish the groundwork for further work on cellular and molecular processes that underlie the co-ordinated remodeling of glia and the peripheral nerves they ensheath. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 1144-1160, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Genomic and Expression Profiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    DAMD17-03-1-0297 Title: Genomic and Expression Pr ofiling of Benign and Malignant Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Patients...have determined the gene expression signature for benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and found that the major trend in transformation...However, EGFR data in soft tissue neoplasms is limited. Using a variety of benign and malignant spindle cell neoplasms, we assessed EGFR status by

  19. Poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guides perform better than autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DenDunnen, WFA; VanderLei, B; Schakenraad, JM; Stokroos, [No Value; Blaauw, E; Pennings, AJ; Robinson, PH; Bartels, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the speed and quality of nerve regeneration after reconstruction using a biodegradable nerve guide or an autologous nerve graft. We evaluated nerve regeneration using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. Nerve regeneration

  20. Neural stem cells enhance nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Zhou, Shuai; Feng, Guo-Ying; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Sun, Yi; Liu, Qian; Huang, Fei

    2012-10-01

    With the development of tissue engineering and the shortage of autologous nerve grafts in nerve reconstruction, cell transplantation in a conduit is an alternative strategy to improve nerve regeneration. The present study evaluated the effects and mechanism of brain-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) on sciatic nerve injury in rats. At the transection of the sciatic nerve, a 10-mm gap between the nerve stumps was bridged with a silicon conduit filled with 5 × 10(5) NSCs. In control experiments, the conduit was filled with nerve growth factor (NGF) or normal saline (NS). The functional and morphological properties of regenerated nerves were investigated, and expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and NGF was measured. One week later, there was no connection through the conduit. Four or eight weeks later, fibrous connections were evident between the proximal and distal segments. Motor function was revealed by measurement of the sciatic functional index (SFI) and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (NCV). Functional recovery in the NSC and NGF groups was significantly more advanced than that in the NS group. NSCs showed significant improvement in axon myelination of the regenerated nerves. Expression of NGF and HGF in the injured sciatic nerve was significantly lower in the NS group than in the NSCs and NGF groups. These results and other advantages of NSCs, such as ease of harvest and relative abundance, suggest that NSCs could be used clinically to enhance peripheral nerve repair.

  1. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Grisold, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required. PMID:26167022

  2. Using Eggshell Membrane as Nerve Guide Channels in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Farjah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:  The aim of this study was to evaluate the final outcome of nerve regeneration across the eggsell membrane (ESM tube conduit in comparison with autograft. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male rats (250-300 g were randomized into (1 ESM conduit, (2 autograft, and (3 sham surgery groups. The eggs submerged in 5% acetic acid. The decalcifying membranes were cut into four pieces, rotated over the teflon mandrel and dried at   37°C. The left sciatic nerve was surgically cut. A 10-mm nerve segment was cut and removed. In the ESM group, the proximal and distal cut ends of the sciatic nerve were telescoped into the nerve guides. In the autograft group, the 10 mm nerve segment was reversed and used as an autologous nerve graft. All animals were evaluated by sciatic functional index (SFI and electrophysiology testing.  Results:The improvement in SFI from the first to the last evalution in ESM and autograft groups were evaluated. On days 49 and 60 post-operation, the mean SFI of ESM group was significantly greater than the autograft group (P 0.05. Conclusion:These findings demonstrate that ESM effectively enhances nerve regeneration and promotes functional recovery in injured sciatic nerve of rat.

  3. An analysis of facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated facial nerve grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul D.; Eshleman, Jeffrey S.; Foote, Robert L.; Strome, Scott E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of high-dose radiation therapy on facial nerve grafts is controversial. Some authors believe radiotherapy is so detrimental to the outcome of facial nerve graft function that dynamic or static slings should be performed instead of facial nerve grafts in all patients who are to receive postoperative radiation therapy. Unfortunately, the facial function achieved with dynamic and static slings is almost always inferior to that after facial nerve grafts. In this retrospective study, we compared facial nerve function in irradiated and unirradiated nerve grafts. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 818 patients with neoplasms involving the parotid gland who received treatment between 1974 and 1997 were reviewed, of whom 66 underwent facial nerve grafting. Fourteen patients who died or had a recurrence less than a year after their facial nerve graft were excluded. The median follow-up for the remaining 52 patients was 10.6 years. Cable nerve grafts were performed in 50 patients and direct anastomoses of the facial nerve in two. Facial nerve function was scored by means of the House-Brackmann (H-B) facial grading system. Twenty-eight of the 52 patients received postoperative radiotherapy. The median time from nerve grafting to start of radiotherapy was 5.1 weeks. The median and mean doses of radiation were 6000 and 6033 cGy, respectively, for the irradiated grafts. One patient received preoperative radiotherapy to a total dose of 5000 cGy in 25 fractions and underwent surgery 1 month after the completion of radiotherapy. This patient was placed, by convention, in the irradiated facial nerve graft cohort. Results: Potential prognostic factors for facial nerve function such as age, gender, extent of surgery at the time of nerve grafting, preoperative facial nerve palsy, duration of preoperative palsy if present, or number of previous operations in the parotid bed were relatively well balanced between irradiated and unirradiated patients. However

  4. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical nerve identification. Preliminary ex vivo results for feedback controlled oral and maxillofacial laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Zam, Azhar; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schmidt, Michael

    Objective: Laser surgery has many advantages. However, due to a lack of haptic feedback it is accompanied by the risk of iatrogenic nerve damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of optical nerve identification by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to set the base for a feedback control system to enhance nerve preservation in oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. Materials and Methods: Diffuse reflectance spectra of nerve tissue, skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone (15120 spectra) of ex vivo pig heads were acquired in the wavelength range of 350-650 nm. Tissue differentiation was performed by principal components analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Specificity and sensitivity were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Results: Nerve tissue could correctly be identified and differed from skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone in more than 90% of the cases (AUC results) with a specificity of over 78% and a sensitivity of more than 86%. Conclusion: Nerve tissue can be identified by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with high precision and reliability. The results may set the base for a feedback system to prevent iatrogenic nerve damage performing oral and maxillofacial laser surgery.

  5. Optic Nerve Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Optic Nerve Imaging email Send this article to a friend ... measurements of nerve fiber damage (or loss). The Nerve Fiber Analyzer (GDx) uses laser light to measure ...

  6. POROSITY OF THE WALL OF A NEUROLAC (R) NERVE CONDUIT HAMPERS NERVE REGENERATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, Marcel F.; Den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2009-01-01

    One way to improve nerve regeneration and bridge longer nerve gaps may be the use of semipermeable/porous conduits. With porosity less biomaterial is used for the nerve conduit. We evaluated the short-term effects of porous Neurolac (R) nerve conduits for in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration. In 10

  7. Complement components of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid influence the microenvironment of nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-shuai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve regeneration conditioned fluid is secreted by nerve stumps inside a nerve regeneration chamber. A better understanding of the proteinogram of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid can provide evidence for studying the role of the microenvironment in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, we used cylindrical silicone tubes as the nerve regeneration chamber model for the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics technology and western blot analysis confirmed that there were more than 10 complement components (complement factor I, C1q-A, C1q-B, C2, C3, C4, C5, C7, C8ß and complement factor D in the nerve regeneration conditioned fluid and each varied at different time points. These findings suggest that all these complement components have a functional role in nerve regeneration.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in the head and neck tumor diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Masahito; Miyata, Mamoru; Sonoda, Tetsushi; Miyoshi, Shunji; Hiraide, Fumihisa; Morita, Mamoru; Tanaka, Osamu

    1987-06-01

    MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a new diagnostic technique that is being applied to study disease processes that involve the upper aero-digestive tract and cranial nerves of interest to otolaryngologist. Seventy four patients with head and neck tumor were enrolled to study the diagnostic efficacy of MRI in comparison with X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT). Five cases of head and neck tumors were presented. Characteristic findings of MRI were discussed. T2 weighted images are very useful in the diagnosis of head and neck tumors. Tumors in the areas surrounded by bone tissue were clearly imaged without such artifacts as recognized in X-ray CT. Information from mutiplane imaging, especially from coronal and sagittal sections, made it easier to determine the type and extent of the lesion. High signal linear parts which are in the periphery of the tumor offer important information that no adhesion is present.

  9. Nerve fibre studies in skin biopsies in peripheral neuropathies. I. Immunohistochemical analysis of neuropeptides in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberger, M; Schröder, H D; Schultzberg, M

    1989-01-01

    Standardised skin biopsies followed by immunohistochemical examination for the presence of terminal nerve fibres reacting for neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were evaluated. Healthy subjects regularly displayed free nerve endings of both fibre types in th...... a sensitive tool in evaluation of patients with peripheral neuropathies....

  10. Molecular analysis of the nerve growth factor receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempstead, B.; Patil, N.; Olson, K.; Chao, M.

    1988-01-01

    An essential molecule in the translocation of information by nerve growth factor (NGF) to responsive cells is the cell-surface receptor for NGF. This paper presents information on the genomic structure of the NGF receptor gene, NGF receptor models, and transfection of NGF receptors. Equilibrium binding of [ 125 I]NGF to cells reveals two distinct affinity states for the NGF receptor. The human NGF receptor gene is a single-copy gene, consisting of six exons that span 23 kb. The receptor gene is capable of being transferred to fibroblast cells from human genomic DNA and expressed at high levels. The constitutive nature of the receptor promoter sequence is a partial explanation of why this tissue-specific gene is expressed efficiently in a variety of nonneuronal cells after genomic gene transfer. The two kinetic forms of the NGF receptor appear to be encoded by the same protein, which is the product of a single gene

  11. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical ?cross-bridging? to promote nerve regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Tessa; Eva, Placheta; Borschel, Gregory H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour per...

  12. Retroperitoneal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, Ayse Nur; Bayar, Mehmet Akif; Caydere, Muzaffer; Deger, Hakki; Tayfur, Mahir

    2015-09-01

    Malignant nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are rare neoplasias and retroperitoneal cases are fairly rare and clinically difficult to be detected, but they are very agressive neoplasias. MPNST are frequently seen in head, neck and upper extremities. In patients with NF1; MPNST, a poor-prognostic lesion, may result from a malignant degeneration of a former plexiform neurofibroma. It is necessary to be aware of a potential malignancy in patients diagnosed with plexiform neurofibroma. We present a 21-year-old female with a diagnosis of MPNST. The patient was admited to the hospital because of a tumour in the subcutaneous region on her left buttock. The surgeon's clinical diagnosis was lipoma. After the pathological examination of biopsy specimen, the lesion was identified as "plexiform neurofibroma" and then the patient was diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). Simultaneously, another mass on the retroperitoneal region was identified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST).

  13. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Trigeminal and Facial Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Iryna M; Estephan, Bachir

    2018-01-01

    The clinical examination of the trigeminal and facial nerves provides significant diagnostic value, especially in the localization of lesions in disorders affecting the central and/or peripheral nervous system. The electrodiagnostic evaluation of these nerves and their pathways adds further accuracy and reliability to the diagnostic investigation and the localization process, especially when different testing methods are combined based on the clinical presentation and the electrophysiological findings. The diagnostic uniqueness of the trigeminal and facial nerves is their connectivity and their coparticipation in reflexes commonly used in clinical practice, namely the blink and corneal reflexes. The other reflexes used in the diagnostic process and lesion localization are very nerve specific and add more diagnostic yield to the workup of certain disorders of the nervous system. This article provides a review of commonly used electrodiagnostic studies and techniques in the evaluation and lesion localization of cranial nerves V and VII.

  14. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃ improves myelination and recovery after nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Chabas

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated i that ergocalciferol (vitamin D2 increases axon diameter and potentiates nerve regeneration in a rat model of transected peripheral nerve and ii that cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 improves breathing and hyper-reflexia in a rat model of paraplegia. However, before bringing this molecule to the clinic, it was of prime importance i to assess which form - ergocalciferol versus cholecalciferol - and which dose were the most efficient and ii to identify the molecular pathways activated by this pleiotropic molecule. The rat left peroneal nerve was cut out on a length of 10 mm and autografted in an inverted position. Animals were treated with either cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol, at the dose of 100 or 500 IU/kg/day, or excipient (Vehicle, and compared to unlesioned rats (Control. Functional recovery of hindlimb was measured weekly, during 12 weeks, using the peroneal functional index. Ventilatory, motor and sensitive responses of the regenerated axons were recorded and histological analysis was performed. In parallel, to identify the genes regulated by vitamin D in dorsal root ganglia and/or Schwann cells, we performed an in vitro transcriptome study. We observed that cholecalciferol is more efficient than ergocalciferol and, when delivered at a high dose (500 IU/kg/day, cholecalciferol induces a significant locomotor and electrophysiological recovery. We also demonstrated that cholecalciferol increases i the number of preserved or newly formed axons in the proximal end, ii the mean axon diameter in the distal end, and iii neurite myelination in both distal and proximal ends. Finally, we found a modified expression of several genes involved in axogenesis and myelination, after 24 hours of vitamin supplementation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that vitamin D acts on myelination via the activation of several myelin-associated genes. It paves the way for future randomised controlled clinical trials for peripheral

  15. Miconazole enhances nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Qiu, Shuai; Yan, Liwei; Zhu, Shuang; Zheng, Canbin; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin

    2018-05-01

    Improving axonal outgrowth and remyelination is crucial for peripheral nerve regeneration. Miconazole appears to enhance remyelination in the central nervous system. In this study we assess the effect of miconazole on axonal regeneration using a sciatic nerve crush injury model in rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and miconazole groups. Nerve regeneration and myelination were determined using histological and electrophysiological assessment. Evaluation of sensory and motor recovery was performed using the pinprick assay and sciatic functional index. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and Western blotting were used to assess the proliferation and neurotrophic expression of RSC 96 Schwann cells. Miconazole promoted axonal regrowth, increased myelinated nerve fibers, improved sensory recovery and walking behavior, enhanced stimulated amplitude and nerve conduction velocity, and elevated proliferation and neurotrophic expression of RSC 96 Schwann cells. Miconazole was beneficial for nerve regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Muscle Nerve 57: 821-828, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical ′cross-bridging′ to promote nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour period of 20 Hz electrical nerve stimulation via electrodes proximal to an injury site accelerates axon outgrowth to hasten target reinnervation in rats and humans, even after delayed surgery. A novel strategy of enticing donor axons from an otherwise intact nerve to grow through small nerve grafts (cross-bridges into a denervated nerve stump, promotes improved axon regeneration after delayed nerve repair. The efficacy of this technique has been demonstrated in a rat model and is now in clinical use in patients undergoing cross-face nerve grafting for facial paralysis. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation, combined with the surgical technique of promoting the regeneration of some donor axons to ′protect′ chronically denervated Schwann cells, improves nerve regeneration and, in turn, functional outcomes in the management of peripheral nerve injuries.

  17. Optic Nerve Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The optic nerve is a bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages. You have one connecting ... retina) to your brain. Damage to an optic nerve can cause vision loss. The type of vision ...

  18. A preconditioning nerve lesion inhibits mechanical pain hypersensitivity following subsequent neuropathic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A preconditioning stimulus can trigger a neuroprotective phenotype in the nervous system - a preconditioning nerve lesion causes a significant increase in axonal regeneration, and cerebral preconditioning protects against subsequent ischemia. We hypothesized that a preconditioning nerve lesion induces gene/protein modifications, neuronal changes, and immune activation that may affect pain sensation following subsequent nerve injury. We examined whether a preconditioning lesion affects neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation after peripheral nerve injury. Results We found that a preconditioning crush injury to a terminal branch of the sciatic nerve seven days before partial ligation of the sciatic nerve (PSNL; a model of neuropathic pain induced a significant attenuation of pain hypersensitivity, particularly mechanical allodynia. A preconditioning lesion of the tibial nerve induced a long-term significant increase in paw-withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli and paw-withdrawal latency to thermal stimuli, after PSNL. A preconditioning lesion of the common peroneal induced a smaller but significant short-term increase in paw-withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli, after PSNL. There was no difference between preconditioned and unconditioned animals in neuronal damage and macrophage and T-cell infiltration into the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs or in astrocyte and microglia activation in the spinal dorsal and ventral horns. Conclusions These results suggest that prior exposure to a mild nerve lesion protects against adverse effects of subsequent neuropathic injury, and that this conditioning-induced inhibition of pain hypersensitivity is not dependent on neuroinflammation in DRGs and spinal cord. Identifying the underlying mechanisms may have important implications for the understanding of neuropathic pain due to nerve injury.

  19. Primary neurolymphomatosis of the lower cranial nerves presenting as Dysphagia and hoarseness: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Naoto; Ito-Yamashita, Tae; Takahashi, Goro; Baba, Satoshi; Koizumi, Shinichiro; Yamasaki, Tomohiro; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Namba, Hiroki

    2014-08-01

    Primary neurolymphomatosis is an extremely rare tumor. We report the case of a 74-year-old patient presenting with dysphagia and hoarseness. Initial contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the head, neck, and chest did not reveal any lesions. His symptoms improved with short-term administration of prednisone but recurred and deteriorated. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a tumor along the ninth and tenth cranial nerves across the jugular foramen. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography indicated this was a primary tumor. Repeated MR imaging after 2 months revealed considerable tumor enlargement. A left suboccipital craniotomy was performed to remove the tumor that infiltrated the ninth and tenth cranial nerves. The histopathologic diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Although focal radiation therapy was administered to ensure complete eradication of the tumor, the patient died of aspiration pneumonia with systemic metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary neurolymphomatosis in the lower cranial nerves.

  20. Shorter CAG repeat length in the AR gene is associated with poor outcome in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, Fabíola Encinas; dos Santos, Rodrigo Mattos; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia

    2007-01-01

    microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in these tumors. DESIGN: Matched samples of blood and head and neck tumors were evaluated using two methodologies, silver-stained gels to perform the analyses of MSI and LOH, and automated analysis to confirm these results and for genotyping...... of the AR [CAG](n) repeat length. Sixty-nine individuals without cancer were used as a control group for both procedures. The Log-rank test was used to compare overall survival and disease-free survival curves. The Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed to determine the [CAG](n) repeats......: These results suggest that short [CAG](n) repeat length (poor prognosis in a subset of male patients with head and neck cancer and that AR gene microsatellite instability is uncommon in these tumors....

  1. Progress of nerve bridges in the treatment of peripheral nerve disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Ao,Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Qiang Ao Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Fundamental Science, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, Peoples’ Republic of China Abstract: Clinical repair of a nerve defect is one of the most challenging surgical problems. Autologous nerve grafting remains the gold standard treatment in addressing peripheral nerve injuries that cannot be bridged by direct epineural suturing. However, the autologous nerve graft is not readily available, and the process of harvesting...

  2. Optic Nerve Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  3. Heritability of the morphology of optic nerve head and surrounding structures: The Healthy Twin Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Chul Han

    Full Text Available Optic nerve head (ONH and surrounding structures such as β-zone peripapillary atrophy (PPA are important structures in glaucomatous pathogenesis. Thus, for understanding genetic components in glaucoma pathogenesis, it is necessary to evaluate the heritability of ONH and surrounding structures. The present study investigated the genetic influences on ONH and surrounding structures such as β-zone PPA and retinal vessels.A total of 1,205 adult twins and their family members (362 monozygotic (MZ twin subjects (181 pairs, 64 dizygotic (DZ twin subjects (32 pairs, and 779 singletons from 261 families, were part of the Korean Healthy Twin Study. ONH parameters including the vertical cup-to-disc ratio, the presence, the area and the location of β-zone PPA and the angular location of retinal vein were measured. The genetic influences on the structures were evaluated using variance-component methods.The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC values of axial length were highest among the parameters. The ICCs of the area and location of PPA were similar to those of vertical cup-to-disc ratio. However, retinal vessel angular locations showed low ICC values even in MZ twins. After age and sex adjustment, for axial length, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, the presence, area and location of PPA, the estimated narrow-sense heritability was 0.85, 0.48, 0.76, 0.50 and 0.65 in the right eye and 0.84, 0.47, 0.72, 0.46 and 0.72 in the left eye, respectively. The estimated narrow-sense heritability of angular location of the superior and inferior vein was 0.17 and 0.12 in the right eye and 0.13 and 0.05 in the left eye, respectively.ONH and surrounding structures such as vertical cup-to-disc ratio and the presence, the area and the location of β-zone PPA seemed to be determined by the substantial genetic influence, whereas the venous angular location did not.

  4. The vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoudiba, F; Toulgoat, F; Sarrazin, J-L

    2013-10-01

    The vestibulocochlear nerve (8th cranial nerve) is a sensory nerve. It is made up of two nerves, the cochlear, which transmits sound and the vestibular which controls balance. It is an intracranial nerve which runs from the sensory receptors in the internal ear to the brain stem nuclei and finally to the auditory areas: the post-central gyrus and superior temporal auditory cortex. The most common lesions responsible for damage to VIII are vestibular Schwannomas. This report reviews the anatomy and various investigations of the nerve. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Functional nerve recovery after bridging a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve with a biodegradable nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Klok, F; Robinson, PH; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of nerve function was evaluated after bridging a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in 51 rats with a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide. Recovery of function was investigated by analysing the footprints, by analysing video recordings of gait, by electrically eliciting the

  6. The Use of Degradable Nerve Conduits for Human Nerve Repair: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Meek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major clinical challenge. The most widely used technique for bridging defects in peripheral nerves is the use of autologous nerve grafts. This technique, however, has some disadvantages. Many alternative experimental techniques have thus been developed, such as degradable nerve conduits. Degradable nerve guides have been extensively studied in animal experimental studies. However, the repair of human nerves by degradable nerve conduits has been limited to only a few clinical studies. In this paper, an overview of the available international published literature on degradable nerve conduits for bridging human peripheral nerve defects is presented for literature available until 2004. Also, the philosophy on the use of nerve guides and nerve grafts is given.

  7. LONGITUDINAL CHANGES IN THICKNESSES OF THE MACULA, GANGLION CELL-INNER PLEXIFORM LAYER, AND RETINAL NERVE FIBER LAYER AFTER VITRECTOMY: A 12-Month Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyung-Bin; Lee, Min-Woo; Kwak, Baek-Soo; Jo, Young-Joon; Kim, Jung-Yeul

    2018-01-01

    To analyze longitudinal changes in the thicknesses of the macula, ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL), and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) after vitrectomy. Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation without evidence of other vitreoretinal diseases were included. They underwent conventional vitrectomy and IOL transscleral fixation, with a follow-up of 12 months. Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography, the thicknesses of the macula, GC-IPL, and peripapillary RNFL in the vitrectomized and fellow control eyes were measured. Various optic nerve head parameters were also determined. Optical coherence tomography showed that there were no significant differences in postoperative central macular thickness compared with baseline values. The average GC-IPL thickness increased 1 month after surgery from baseline (P = 0.038). The average RNFL thickness increased from baseline at 1 month (P = 0.001) and 3 months (P = 0.011) after vitrectomy. The mean foveal, GC-IPL, and RNFL thicknesses of the study eyes compared with the fellow control eyes increased at 1 month (P = 0.034), 1 month (P = 0.048), and 1 month (P = 0.013) to 3 months (P = 0.038), respectively, after surgery. However, no significant differences were found in intraocular pressure or optic nerve head parameters between the study and fellow control eyes at 12 months after surgery. Transient increases in the thickness of the macula and GC-IPL were observed at 1 month after vitrectomy, and the postoperative RNFL thickness increased until 3 months after surgery, after which it returned to preoperative levels. There was no significant change in intraocular pressure or optic nerve head parameters before and after surgery.

  8. Transient facial nerve palsy after occipital nerve block: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Lauren; Loder, Elizabeth; Rizzoli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Occipital nerve blocks are commonly performed to treat a variety of headache syndromes and are generally believed to be safe and well tolerated. We report the case of an otherwise healthy 24-year-old woman with left side-locked occipital, parietal, and temporal pain who was diagnosed with probable occipital neuralgia. She developed complete left facial nerve palsy within minutes of blockade of the left greater and lesser occipital nerves with a solution of bupivicaine and triamcinolone. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with gadolinium contrast showed no abnormalities, and symptoms had completely resolved 4-5 hours later. Unintended spread of the anesthetic solution along tissue planes seems the most likely explanation for this adverse event. An aberrant course of the facial nerve or connections between the facial and occipital nerves also might have played a role, along with the patient's prone position and the use of a relatively large injection volume of a potent anesthetic. Clinicians should be aware that temporary facial nerve palsy is a possible complication of occipital nerve block. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  9. Ocular Causes of Abnormal Head Position: Strabismus Clinic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Erkan Turan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the most common ocular causes and types of abnormal head position (AHP and describe their clinical features. Materials and Methods: Patients with AHP who had been followed in the strabismus unit were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic features and orthoptic characteristics were recorded. Results: A total of 163 patients including 61 women (37.4% and 102 men (62.6%, with a mean age of 19.9±18.3 were recruited. The most common causes of AHP were determined as fourth cranial nerve palsy (33.7%, Duane retraction syndrome (21.5%, sixth cranial nerve palsy (11%, nystagmus blockage syndrome (9.8% and Brown syndrome (6.7%. Other less frequent causes were A-V pattern strabismus, comitant strabismus, thyroid orbitopathy and third cranial nerve palsy. The most common types of AHP were head tilt (45.4% and face turn (36.8%. Out of 142 patients whose visual acuity could be evaluated, 28.2% had amblyopia. The frequency of amblyopia varied depending on the diagnosis (p<0.001, while there was no relation between amblyopia and different types of AHP (p=0.497. Stereopsis and fusion could be tested in 128 patients and 43.8% of them had stereopsis and fusion. The presence of stereopsis and fusion was found to be related with the diagnosis (p=0.001, whereas it was not related with the types of AHP (p=0.580. The presence of amblyopia was not significantly associated with fusion (p=1.000 or stereopsis (p=0.602. Conclusion: There are many ocular pathologies that cause AHP. Patients with similar diagnoses may have different types of AHP. Patients may have amblyopia and impaired binocularity despite AHP. Therefore, all patients with AHP should be examined in detail and these points should be considered in the treatment plan.

  10. 142 Key words: Brachialis, radial nerve, musculocutaneous nerve.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AWORI KIRSTEEN

    The innervation of brachialis muscle by the musculocutaneous nerve has been described as either type I or type II and the main trunk to this muscle is rarely absent. The contribution .... brachialis muscle by fiber analysis of supply nerves].

  11. Facial reanimation by muscle-nerve neurotization after facial nerve sacrifice. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, A; Labbé, D; Babin, E; Fromager, G

    2016-12-01

    Recovering a certain degree of mimicry after sacrifice of the facial nerve is a clinically recognized finding. The authors report a case of hemifacial reanimation suggesting a phenomenon of neurotization from muscle-to-nerve. A woman benefited from a parotidectomy with sacrifice of the left facial nerve indicated for recurrent tumor in the gland. The distal branches of the facial nerve, isolated at the time of resection, were buried in the masseter muscle underneath. The patient recovered a voluntary hémifacial motricity. The electromyographic analysis of the motor activity of the zygomaticus major before and after block of the masseter nerve showed a dependence between mimic muscles and the masseter muscle. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the spontaneous reanimation of facial paralysis. The clinical case makes it possible to argue in favor of muscle-to-nerve neurotization from masseter muscle to distal branches of the facial nerve. It illustrates the quality of motricity that can be obtained thanks to this procedure. The authors describe a simple implantation technique of distal branches of the facial nerve in the masseter muscle during a radical parotidectomy with facial nerve sacrifice and recovery of resting tone but also a quality voluntary mimicry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The longitudinal epineural incision and complete nerve transection method for modeling sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-long Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury severity, operative technique and nerve regeneration are important factors to consider when constructing a model of peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a novel peripheral nerve injury model and compare it with the complete sciatic nerve transection method. In the experimental group, under a microscope, a 3-mm longitudinal incision was made in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve to reveal the nerve fibers, which were then transected. The small, longitudinal incision in the epineurium was then sutured closed, requiring no stump anastomosis. In the control group, the sciatic nerve was completely transected, and the epineurium was repaired by anastomosis. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, Wallerian degeneration was observed in both groups. In the experimental group, at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, distinct medullary nerve fibers and axons were observed in the injured sciatic nerve. Regular, dense myelin sheaths were visible, as well as some scarring. By 12 weeks, the myelin sheaths were normal and intact, and a tight lamellar structure was observed. Functionally, limb movement and nerve conduction recovered in the injured region between 4 and 12 weeks. The present results demonstrate that longitudinal epineural incision with nerve transection can stably replicate a model of Sunderland grade IV peripheral nerve injury. Compared with the complete sciatic nerve transection model, our method reduced the difficulties of micromanipulation and surgery time, and resulted in good stump restoration, nerve regeneration, and functional recovery.

  13. An anatomical study of porcine peripheral nerve and its potential use in nerve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilic, Leyla; Garner, Philippa E; Yu, Tong; Roman, Sabiniano; Haycock, John W; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Current nerve tissue engineering applications are adopting xenogeneic nerve tissue as potential nerve grafts to help aid nerve regeneration. However, there is little literature that describes the exact location, anatomy and physiology of these nerves to highlight their potential as a donor graft. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the structural and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of porcine peripheral nerves in the hind leg. Methods included the dissection of porcine nerves, localisation, characterisation and quantification of the ECM components and identification of nerve cells. Results showed a noticeable variance between porcine and rat nerve (a commonly studied species) in terms of fascicle number. The study also revealed that when porcine peripheral nerves branch, a decrease in fascicle number and size was evident. Porcine ECM and nerve fascicles were found to be predominately comprised of collagen together with glycosaminoglycans, laminin and fibronectin. Immunolabelling for nerve growth factor receptor p75 also revealed the localisation of Schwann cells around and inside the fascicles. In conclusion, it is shown that porcine peripheral nerves possess a microstructure similar to that found in rat, and is not dissimilar to human. This finding could extend to the suggestion that due to the similarities in anatomy to human nerve, porcine nerves may have utility as a nerve graft providing guidance and support to regenerating axons. PMID:26200940

  14. Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Sections What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? ... Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Treatment What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es una parálisis ...

  15. Engineering a multimodal nerve conduit for repair of injured peripheral nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, A. F.; Bulluss, K. J.; Kyratzis, I. L. B.; Gilmore, K.; Mysore, T.; Schirmer, K. S. U.; Kennedy, E. L.; O'Shea, M.; Truong, Y. B.; Edwards, S. L.; Peeters, G.; Herwig, P.; Razal, J. M.; Campbell, T. E.; Lowes, K. N.; Higgins, M. J.; Moulton, S. E.; Murphy, M. A.; Cook, M. J.; Clark, G. M.; Wallace, G. G.; Kapsa, R. M. I.

    2013-02-01

    Injury to nerve tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) results in long-term impairment of limb function, dysaesthesia and pain, often with associated psychological effects. Whilst minor injuries can be left to regenerate without intervention and short gaps up to 2 cm can be sutured, larger or more severe injuries commonly require autogenous nerve grafts harvested from elsewhere in the body (usually sensory nerves). Functional recovery is often suboptimal and associated with loss of sensation from the tissue innervated by the harvested nerve. The challenges that persist with nerve repair have resulted in development of nerve guides or conduits from non-neural biological tissues and various polymers to improve the prognosis for the repair of damaged nerves in the PNS. This study describes the design and fabrication of a multimodal controlled pore size nerve regeneration conduit using polylactic acid (PLA) and (PLA):poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) fibers within a neurotrophin-enriched alginate hydrogel. The nerve repair conduit design consists of two types of PLGA fibers selected specifically for promotion of axonal outgrowth and Schwann cell growth (75:25 for axons; 85:15 for Schwann cells). These aligned fibers are contained within the lumen of a knitted PLA sheath coated with electrospun PLA nanofibers to control pore size. The PLGA guidance fibers within the nerve repair conduit lumen are supported within an alginate hydrogel impregnated with neurotrophic factors (NT-3 or BDNF with LIF, SMDF and MGF-1) to provide neuroprotection, stimulation of axonal growth and Schwann cell migration. The conduit was used to promote repair of transected sciatic nerve in rats over a period of 4 weeks. Over this period, it was observed that over-grooming and self-mutilation (autotomy) of the limb implanted with the conduit was significantly reduced in rats implanted with the full-configuration conduit compared to rats implanted with conduits containing only an alginate

  16. The head-regeneration transcriptome of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Planarian flatworms can regenerate their head, including a functional brain, within less than a week. Despite the enormous potential of these animals for medical research and regenerative medicine, the mechanisms of regeneration and the molecules involved remain largely unknown. Results To identify genes that are differentially expressed during early stages of planarian head regeneration, we generated a de novo transcriptome assembly from more than 300 million paired-end reads from planarian fragments regenerating the head at 16 different time points. The assembly yielded 26,018 putative transcripts, including very long transcripts spanning multiple genomic supercontigs, and thousands of isoforms. Using short-read data from two platforms, we analyzed dynamic gene regulation during the first three days of head regeneration. We identified at least five different temporal synexpression classes, including genes specifically induced within a few hours after injury. Furthermore, we characterized the role of a conserved Runx transcription factor, smed-runt-like1. RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown and immunofluorescence analysis of the regenerating visual system indicated that smed-runt-like1 encodes a transcriptional regulator of eye morphology and photoreceptor patterning. Conclusions Transcriptome sequencing of short reads allowed for the simultaneous de novo assembly and differential expression analysis of transcripts, demonstrating highly dynamic regulation during head regeneration in planarians. PMID:21846378

  17. Anthropometric Study of the Piriformis Muscle and Sciatic Nerve: A Morphological Analysis in a Polish Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haładaj, Robert; Pingot, Mariusz; Polguj, Michał; Wysiadecki, Grzegorz; Topol, Mirosław

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine relationships between piriformis muscle (PM) and sciatic nerve (SN) with reference to sex and anatomical variations. Material/Methods Deep dissection of the gluteal region was performed on 30 randomized, formalin-fixed human lower limbs of adults of both sexes of the Polish population. Anthropometric measurements were taken and then statistically analyzed. Results The conducted research revealed that, apart from the typical structure of the piriformis muscle, the most common variation was division of the piriformis muscle into two heads, with the common peroneal nerve running between them (20%). The group with anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course displayed greater diversity of morphometric measurement results. There was a statistically significant correlation between the lower limb length and the distance from the sciatic nerve to the greater trochanter in the male specimens. On the other hand, in the female specimens, a statistically significant correlation was observed between the lower limb length and the distance from the sciatic nerve to the ischial tuberosity. The shortest distance from the sciatic nerve to the greater trochanter measured at the level of the inferior edge of the piriformis was 21 mm, while the shortest distance to the ischial tuberosity was 63 mm. Such correlations should be taken into account during invasive medical procedures performed in the gluteal region. Conclusions It is possible to distinguish several anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve course within the deep gluteal region. The statistically significant correlations between some anthropometric measurements were only present within particular groups of male and female limbs. PMID:26629744

  18. Transfer of obturator nerve for femoral nerve injury: an experiment study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Depeng; Zhou, Jun; Lin, Yaofa; Xie, Zheng; Chen, Huihao; Yu, Ronghua; Lin, Haodong; Hou, Chunlin

    2018-07-01

    Quadriceps palsy is mainly caused by proximal lesions in the femoral nerve. The obturator nerve has been previously used to repair the femoral nerve, although only a few reports have described the procedure, and the outcomes have varied. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of this treatment in a rodent model using the randomized control method. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: the experimental group, wherein rats underwent femoral neurectomy and obturator nerve transfer to the femoral nerve motor branch; and the control group, wherein rats underwent femoral neurectomy without nerve transfer. Functional outcomes were measured using the BBB score, muscle mass, and histological assessment. At 12 and 16 weeks postoperatively, the rats in the experimental group exhibited recovery to a stronger stretch force of the knee and higher BBB score, as compared to the control group (p nerve with myelinated and unmyelinated fibers was observed in the experimental group. No significant differences were observed between groups at 8 weeks postoperatively (p > 0.05). Obturator nerve transfer for repairing femoral nerve injury was feasible and effective in a rat model, and can hence be considered as an option for the treatment of femoral nerve injury.

  19. Microarray and cDNA sequence analysis of transcription during nerve-dependent limb regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Susan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray analysis and 454 cDNA sequencing were used to investigate a centuries-old problem in regenerative biology: the basis of nerve-dependent limb regeneration in salamanders. Innervated (NR and denervated (DL forelimbs of Mexican axolotls were amputated and transcripts were sampled after 0, 5, and 14 days of regeneration. Results Considerable similarity was observed between NR and DL transcriptional programs at 5 and 14 days post amputation (dpa. Genes with extracellular functions that are critical to wound healing were upregulated while muscle-specific genes were downregulated. Thus, many processes that are regulated during early limb regeneration do not depend upon nerve-derived factors. The majority of the transcriptional differences between NR and DL limbs were correlated with blastema formation; cell numbers increased in NR limbs after 5 dpa and this yielded distinct transcriptional signatures of cell proliferation in NR limbs at 14 dpa. These transcriptional signatures were not observed in DL limbs. Instead, gene expression changes within DL limbs suggest more diverse and protracted wound-healing responses. 454 cDNA sequencing complemented the microarray analysis by providing deeper sampling of transcriptional programs and associated biological processes. Assembly of new 454 cDNA sequences with existing expressed sequence tag (EST contigs from the Ambystoma EST database more than doubled (3935 to 9411 the number of non-redundant human-A. mexicanum orthologous sequences. Conclusion Many new candidate gene sequences were discovered for the first time and these will greatly enable future studies of wound healing, epigenetics, genome stability, and nerve-dependent blastema formation and outgrowth using the axolotl model.

  20. Enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration through asymmetrically porous nerve guide conduit with nerve growth factor gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Tae Ho; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Lee, Jin Ho

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a nerve guide conduit (NGC) with nerve growth factor (NGF) gradient along the longitudinal direction by rolling a porous polycaprolactone membrane with NGF concentration gradient. The NGF immobilized on the membrane was continuously released for up to 35 days, and the released amount of the NGF from the membrane gradually increased from the proximal to distal NGF ends, which may allow a neurotrophic factor gradient in the tubular NGC for a sufficient period. From the in vitro cell culture experiment, it was observed that the PC12 cells sense the NGF concentration gradient on the membrane for the cell proliferation and differentiation. From the in vivo animal experiment using a long gap (20 mm) sciatic nerve defect model of rats, the NGC with NGF concentration gradient allowed more rapid nerve regeneration through the NGC than the NGC itself and NGC immobilized with uniformly distributed NGF. The NGC with NGF concentration gradient seems to be a promising strategy for the peripheral nerve regeneration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 52-64, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Relationship of the Facial Nerve to the Condylar Process: A Cadaveric Study with Implications for Open Reduction Internal Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Barham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The mandibular condyle is the most common site of mandibular fracture. Surgical treatment of condylar fractures by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF demands direct visualization of the fracture. This project aimed to investigate the anatomic relationship of the tragus to the facial nerve and condylar process. Materials and Methods. Twelve fresh hemicadavers heads were used. An extended retromandibular/preauricular approach was utilized, with the incision being based parallel to the posterior edge of the ramus. Measurements were obtained from the tragus to the facial nerve and condylar process. Results. The temporozygomatic division of the facial nerve was encountered during each approach, crossing the mandible at the condylar neck. The mean tissue depth separating the facial nerve from the condylar neck was 5.5 mm (range: 3.5 mm–7 mm, SD 1.2 mm. The upper division of the facial nerve crossed the posterior border of the condylar process on average 2.31 cm (SD 0.10 cm anterior to the tragus. Conclusions. This study suggests that the temporozygomatic division of the facial nerve will be encountered in most approaches to the condylar process. As visualization of the relationship of the facial nerve to condyle is often limited, recognition that, on average, 5.5 mm of tissue separates condylar process from nerve should help reduce the incidence of facial nerve injury during this procedure.

  2. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  3. Primary nerve-sheath tumours of the trigeminal nerve: clinical and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majoie, C.B.L.M.; Hulsmans, F.J.H.; Sie, L.H.; Castelijns, J.A.; Valk, J.; Walter, A.; Albrecht, K.W.

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed the clinical and MRI findings in primary nerve-sheath tumours of the trigeminal nerve. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records, imaging and histological specimens of 10 patients with 11 primary tumours of the trigeminal nerve. We assessed whether tumour site, size, morphology or signal characteristics were related to symptoms and signs or histological findings. Histological proof was available for 8 of 11 tumours: six schwannomas and two plexiform neurofibromas. The other three tumours were thought to be schwannomas, because they were present in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 and followed the course of the trigeminal nerve. Uncommon MRI appearances were observed in three schwannomas and included a large intratumoral haemorrhage, a mainly low-signal appearance on T2-weighted images and a rim-enhancing, multicystic appearance. Only four of nine schwannomas caused trigeminal nerve symptoms, including two with large cystic components, one haemorrhagic and one solid tumor. Of the five schwannomas which did not cause any trigeminal nerve symptoms, two were large. Only one of the plexiform neurofibromas caused trigeminal nerve symptoms. Additional neurological symptoms and signs, not related to the trigeminal nerve, could be attributed to the location of the tumour in three patients. (orig.)

  4. Treatment of peroneal nerve injuries with simultaneous tendon transfer and nerve exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Bryant; Khan, Zubair; Switaj, Paul J; Ochenjele, George; Fuchs, Daniel; Dahl, William; Cederna, Paul; Kung, Theodore A; Kadakia, Anish R

    2014-08-06

    Common peroneal nerve palsy leading to foot drop is difficult to manage and has historically been treated with extended bracing with expectant waiting for return of nerve function. Peroneal nerve exploration has traditionally been avoided except in cases of known traumatic or iatrogenic injury, with tendon transfers being performed in a delayed fashion after exhausting conservative treatment. We present a new strategy for management of foot drop with nerve exploration and concomitant tendon transfer. We retrospectively reviewed a series of 12 patients with peroneal nerve palsies that were treated with tendon transfer from 2005 to 2011. Of these patients, seven were treated with simultaneous peroneal nerve exploration and repair at the time of tendon transfer. Patients with both nerve repair and tendon transfer had superior functional results with active dorsiflexion in all patients, compared to dorsiflexion in 40% of patients treated with tendon transfers alone. Additionally, 57% of patients treated with nerve repair and tendon transfer were able to achieve enough function to return to running, compared to 20% in patients with tendon transfer alone. No patient had full return of native motor function resulting in excessive dorsiflexion strength. The results of our limited case series for this rare condition indicate that simultaneous nerve repair and tendon transfer showed no detrimental results and may provide improved function over tendon transfer alone.

  5. A STUDY OF TUMOURS OF THE CRANIAL NERVE AND PARASPINAL NERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION One of the frequent sites of tumour formation is the cranial nerves and paraspinal nerves. The cranial nerves perform a plethora of functions and so the signs and symptoms caused may be different. They are mainly classified into four different types. The aim of the study is: 1. To study the tumours arising from the cranial nerves in an epidemiological point of view. 2. To study the tumours histopathologically. 3. To classify the tumours according to WHO classification. Thirty-eight brain tumor cases were studied in the Department of Medicine, A. J. Shetty Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore. Cranial nerve tumours accounts for 4(10% among the intracranial tumours. Schwannomas makes up 3(7.39% among the Intracranial tumours. and constituted 3(75% among cranial nerve tumours. All the 3 schwannomas were located in CP angle. The geographic distribution of cases was found to be 28 cases from Mangalore and 10 cases from Kerala.

  6. Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Axon Regeneration After Peripheral Nerve Injuries in Animal Models and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    Injured peripheral nerves regenerate their lost axons but functional recovery in humans is frequently disappointing. This is so particularly when injuries require regeneration over long distances and/or over long time periods. Fat replacement of chronically denervated muscles, a commonly accepted explanation, does not account for poor functional recovery. Rather, the basis for the poor nerve regeneration is the transient expression of growth-associated genes that accounts for declining regene...

  7. Infraorbital nerve block within the Pterygopalatine fossa of the horse: anatomical landmarks defined by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, S.; Hagen, G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide anaesthesia of the equine maxillary cheek teeth, a local nerve block of the infraorbital nerve in the pterygopalatine fossa had been proposed, which is referred to as the 'Palatine Bone Insertion' (PBI). As several complications with this method were reported, our study was designed to recommend a modified injection technique which avoids the risk of puncturing of relevant anatomical structures. Five cadaver heads and two living horses were examined by contrast medium injections and subsequent computed tomography (CT). Spinal needles were inserted using two different insertion techniques: The above mentioned (PBI), and a modification called 'Extraperiorbital Fat Body Insertion' (EFBI). Both techniques (PBI and EFBI) provide a consistent distribution of contrast medium around the infraorbital nerve. However, only the EFBI technique is appropriate to minimize the risk of complications. This study is an example for the permanent challenge of anatomists to supply a basis for clinical and surgical procedures

  8. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Cranial Nerves IX and X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto R M; Martins, Melina P; Moreira, Ana Lucila; Martins, Carlos R; Kimaid, Paulo A T; França, Marcondes C

    2018-01-01

    The cranial nerves IX and X emerge from medulla oblongata and have motor, sensory, and parasympathetic functions. Some of these are amenable to neurophysiological assessment. It is often hard to separate the individual contribution of each nerve; in fact, some of the techniques are indeed a composite functional measure of both nerves. The main methods are the evaluation of the swallowing function (combined IX and X), laryngeal electromyogram (predominant motor vagal function), and heart rate variability (predominant parasympathetic vagal function). This review describes, therefore, the techniques that best evaluate the major symptoms presented in IX and X cranial nerve disturbance: dysphagia, dysphonia, and autonomic parasympathetic dysfunction.

  9. Perturbed desmosomal cadherin expression in grainy head-like 1-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilanowski, Tomasz; Caddy, Jacinta; Ting, Stephen B; Hislop, Nikki R; Cerruti, Loretta; Auden, Alana; Zhao, Lin-Lin; Asquith, Stephen; Ellis, Sarah; Sinclair, Rodney; Cunningham, John M; Jane, Stephen M

    2008-03-19

    In Drosophila, the grainy head (grh) gene plays a range of key developmental roles through the regulation of members of the cadherin gene family. We now report that mice lacking the grh homologue grainy head-like 1 (Grhl1) exhibit hair and skin phenotypes consistent with a reduction in expression of the genes encoding the desmosomal cadherin, desmoglein 1 (Dsg1). Grhl1-null mice show an initial delay in coat growth, and older mice exhibit hair loss as a result of poor anchoring of the hair shaft in the follicle. The mice also develop palmoplantar keratoderma, analogous to humans with DSG1 mutations. Sequence analysis, DNA binding, and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that the human and mouse Dsg1 promoters are direct targets of GRHL1. Ultrastructural analysis reveals reduced numbers of abnormal desmosomes in the interfollicular epidermis. These findings establish GRHL1 as an important regulator of the Dsg1 genes in the context of hair anchorage and epidermal differentiation, and suggest that cadherin family genes are key targets of the grainy head-like genes across 700 million years of evolution.

  10. Sensitivity and specificity of monochromatic photography of the ocular fundus in differentiating optic nerve head drusen and optic disc oedema: optic disc drusen and oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gili, Pablo; Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Yangüela, Julio; Orduña-Azcona, Javier; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores

    2013-03-01

    Evaluation of the efficacy of monochromatic photography of the ocular fundus in differentiating optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and optic disc oedema (ODE). Sixty-six patients with ONHD, 31 patients with ODE and 70 healthy subjects were studied. Colour and monochromatic fundus photography with different filters (green, red and autofluorescence) were performed. The results were analysed blindly by two observers. The sensitivity, specificity and interobserver agreement (k) of each test were assessed. Colour photography offers 65.5 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for the diagnosis of ONHD. Monochromatic photography improves sensitivity and specificity and provides similar results: green filter (71.20 % sensitivity, 96.70 % specificity), red filter (80.30 % sensitivity, 96.80 % specificity), and autofluorescence technique (87.8 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity). The interobserver agreement was good with all techniques used: autofluorescence (k = 0.957), green filter (k = 0.897), red filter (k = 0.818) and colour (k = 0.809). Monochromatic fundus photography permits ONHD and ODE to be differentiated, with good sensitivity and very high specificity. The best results were obtained with autofluorescence and red filter study.

  11. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering ′excellent′ and ′good′ muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  12. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Xun-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Li, Su-Rong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yue

    2015-02-01

    Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering 'excellent' and 'good' muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  13. Does Laser Surgery Interfere with Optical Nerve Identification in Maxillofacial Hard and Soft Tissue?—An Experimental Ex Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Bergauer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The protection of sensitive structures (e.g., nerves from iatrogenic damage is of major importance when performing laser surgical procedures. Especially in the head and neck area both function and esthetics can be affected to a great extent. Despite its many benefits, the surgical utilization of a laser is therefore still limited to superficial tissue ablation. A remote feedback system which guides the laser in a tissue-specific way would provide a remedy. In this context, it has been shown that nerval structures can be specifically recognized by their optical diffuse reflectance spectra both before and after laser ablation. However, for a translation of these findings to the actual laser ablation process, a nerve protection within the laser pulse is of utmost significance. Thus, it was the aim of the study to evaluate, if the process of Er:YAG laser surgery—which comes with spray water cooling, angulation of the probe (60° and optical process emissions—interferes with optical tissue differentiation. For the first time, no stable conditions but the ongoing process of laser tissue ablation was examined. Therefore, six different tissue types (nerve, skin, muscle, fat, cortical and cancellous bone were acquired from 15 pig heads. Measurements were performed during Er:YAG laser ablation. Diffuse reflectance spectra (4500, wavelength range: 350–650 nm where acquired. Principal component analysis (PCA and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA were calculated for classification purposes. The clinical highly relevant differentiation between nerve and bone was performed correctly with an AUC of 95.3% (cortial bone respectively 92.4% (cancellous bone. The identification of nerve tissue against the biological very similar fat tissue yielded good results with an AUC value of 83.4% (sensitivity: 72.3%, specificity: of 82.3%. This clearly demonstrates that nerve identification by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy works reliably in the ongoing process of

  14. Clinical and anatomical observations of a two-headed lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K R; Partlow, G D; Walker, A F

    1986-04-01

    The clinical and anatomical features of a live-born diprosopic lamb are described. There are no complete anatomical analyses of two-faced lambs in the literature despite the frequency of conjoined twinning in sheep. The lamb had two heads fused in the occipital region. Each head had two eyes. The pinnae of the medial ears were fused. Caudal to the neck the lamb appeared grossly normal. The lamb was unable to raise its heads or stand. Both heads showed synchronous sucking motions and cranial reflexes were present. Nystagmus, strabismus, and limb incoordination were present. The respiratory and heart rates were elevated. There was a grade IV murmur over the left heart base and a palpable thrill on the left side. Each head possessed a normal nasopharynx, oropharynx, and tongue. There was a singular laryngopharnyx and esophagus although the hyoid apparatus was partially duplicated. The cranial and cervical musculature reflected the head duplications. The aortic trunk emerged from the right ventricle just to the right of the conus arteriosus. A ventricular septal defect, patent foramen ovale, and ductus arteriosus were present along with malformed atrioventricular valves. Brainstem fusion began at the cranial medulla oblongata between cranial nerves IX and XII. The cerebella were separate but small. The ventromedial structures from each medulla oblongata were compressed into an extraneous midline remnant of tissue which extended caudally to the level of T2. The clinical signs therefore reflected the anatomical anomalies. A possible etiology for this diprosopus might be the presence early in development of an excessively large block of chordamesoderm. This would allow for the formation of two head folds and hence two "heads."

  15. Pulse-Wave Analysis of Optic Nerve Head Circulation Is Significantly Correlated with Kidney Function in Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Tomoaki Shiba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine whether there is a significant correlation between the optic nerve head (ONH circulation determined by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG and kidney function. Materials. Seventy-one subjects were investigated. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR and serum creatinine, cystatin C, and urinary albumin excretion were measured. The ONH circulation was determined by an analysis of the pulse wave of LSFG, and this parameter was named blowout time (BOT. Chronic kidney disease (CKD was defined to be present when the estimated GFR was <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between the BOT and the kidney function. We also examined whether there were significant differences in all parameters in patients with and without CKD. Results. BOT was significantly correlated with the level of creatinine (r=-0.24, P=0.04, the estimated GFR (r=0.42, P=0.0003, cystatin C (r=-0.29, P=0.01, and urinary albumin excretion (r=-0.29, P=0.01. The BOT level in subjects with CKD was significantly lower than that in subjects without CKD (P=0.002. Conclusion. BOT in ONH by LSFG can detect the organ damage such as kidney dysfunction, CKD.

  16. An update-tissue engineered nerve grafts for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nitesh P; Lyon, Kristopher A; Huang, Jason H

    2018-05-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) are caused by a range of etiologies and result in a broad spectrum of disability. While nerve autografts are the current gold standard for the reconstruction of extensive nerve damage, the limited supply of autologous nerve and complications associated with harvesting nerve from a second surgical site has driven groups from multiple disciplines, including biomedical engineering, neurosurgery, plastic surgery, and orthopedic surgery, to develop a suitable or superior alternative to autografting. Over the last couple of decades, various types of scaffolds, such as acellular nerve grafts (ANGs), nerve guidance conduits, and non-nervous tissues, have been filled with Schwann cells, stem cells, and/or neurotrophic factors to develop tissue engineered nerve grafts (TENGs). Although these have shown promising effects on peripheral nerve regeneration in experimental models, the autograft has remained the gold standard for large nerve gaps. This review provides a discussion of recent advances in the development of TENGs and their efficacy in experimental models. Specifically, TENGs have been enhanced via incorporation of genetically engineered cells, methods to improve stem cell survival and differentiation, optimized delivery of neurotrophic factors via drug delivery systems (DDS), co-administration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and pretreatment with chondroitinase ABC (Ch-ABC). Other notable advancements include conduits that have been bioengineered to mimic native nerve structure via cell-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and the development of transplantable living nervous tissue constructs from rat and human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Grafts composed of non-nervous tissues, such as vein, artery, and muscle, will be briefly discussed.

  17. Silk fibroin enhances peripheral nerve regeneration by improving vascularization within nerve conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyang; Jia, Yachao; Yang, Weichao; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Kuihua; Chai, Yimin

    2018-07-01

    Silk fibroin (SF)-based nerve conduits have been widely used to bridge peripheral nerve defects. Our previous study showed that nerve regeneration in a SF-blended poly (l-lactide-co-ɛ-caprolactone) [P(LLA-CL)] nerve conduit is better than that in a P(LLA-CL) conduit. However, the involved mechanisms remain unclarified. Because angiogenesis within a nerve conduit plays an important role in nerve regeneration, vascularization of SF/P(LLA-CL) and P(LLA-CL) conduits was compared both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we observed that SF/P(LLA-CL) nanofibers significantly promoted fibroblast proliferation, and vascular endothelial growth factor secreted by fibroblasts seeded in SF/P(LLA-CL) nanofibers was more than seven-fold higher than that in P(LLA-CL) nanofibers. Conditioned medium of fibroblasts in the SF/P(LLA-CL) group stimulated more human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to form capillary-like networks and promoted faster HUVEC migration. The two kinds of nerve conduits were used to bridge 10-mm-length nerve defects in rats. At 3 weeks of reparation, the blood vessel area in the SF/P(LLA-CL) group was significantly larger than that in the P(LLA-CL) group. More regenerated axons and Schwann cells were also observed in the SF/P(LLA-CL) group, which was consistent with the results of blood vessels. Collectively, our data revealed that the SF/P(LLA-CL) nerve conduit enhances peripheral nerve regeneration by improving angiogenesis within the conduit. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 2070-2077, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Pre-differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in combination with a microstructured nerve guide supports peripheral nerve regeneration in the rat sciatic nerve model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Arne Hendrik; van Neerven, Sabien Geraldine Antonia; Scheffel, Juliane; Tank, Julian; Altinova, Haktan; Seidensticker, Katrin; Deumens, Ronald; Tolba, Rene; Weis, Joachim; Brook, Gary Anthony; Pallua, Norbert; Bozkurt, Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    Many bioartificial nerve guides have been investigated pre-clinically for their nerve regeneration-supporting function, often in comparison to autologous nerve transplantation, which is still regarded as the current clinical gold standard. Enrichment of these scaffolds with cells intended to support axonal regeneration has been explored as a strategy to boost axonal regeneration across these nerve guides Ansselin et al. (1998). In the present study, 20 mm rat sciatic nerve defects were implanted with a cell-seeded microstructured collagen nerve guide (Perimaix) or an autologous nerve graft. Under the influence of seeded, pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells, axons regenerated well into the Perimaix nerve guide. Myelination-related parameters, like myelin sheath thickness, benefitted from an additional seeding with pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells. Furthermore, both the number of retrogradely labelled sensory neurons and the axon density within the implant were elevated in the cell-seeded scaffold group with pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells. However, a pre-differentiation had no influence on functional recovery. An additional cell seeding of the Perimaix nerve guide with mesenchymal stromal cells led to an extent of functional recovery, independent of the differentiation status, similar to autologous nerve transplantation. These findings encourage further investigations on pre-differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells as a cellular support for peripheral nerve regeneration. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Should we routinely expose recurrent laryngeal nerve(s) during thyroid surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Aurangzeb, A.; Rashid, A.Z.; Qureshi, M.A.; Iqbal, N.; Boota, M.; Ashfaq, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the frequency of recurrent laryngeal nerve(s) (RLNs) palsy after various thyroid procedures with and without identification of recurrent laryngeal nerve during the operation. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from August 2008 to April 2010. Methodology: Patients undergoing indirect laryngoscopy with normal vocal cords and those with carcinoma and re-do surgery having normal vocal cord were included in the study. Patients with hoarseness of voice, abnormal vocal cord movements and with solitary nodule in the isthmus were excluded. These patients were randomly divided into 2 groups of 50 each using random number tables. RLN was identified by exposing the inferior thyroid artery and traced along its entire course in group-A. Whereas, in group-B, nerves were not identified during the operations. Immediate postoperative direct laryngoscopy was performed by a surgeon with the help of an anaesthesiologist for the assessment of vocal cords. Patients with persistent hoarseness of voice were followed-up with indirect laryngoscopy at 3 and 6 months. Results: Temporary unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies occurred in 2 (4%) patients in group-A where the voice and cord movements returned to normal in 6 months. In group-B, it occurred in 8 (16%) patients, 2 bilateral (4%) injuries requiring tracheostomy and 6 unilateral injuries (12%). Among the 2 bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries, the tracheostomy was removed in one case after 6 months with persistent hoarseness of voice but no respiratory difficulty during routine activities. Tracheostomy was permanent in the other case. Among the 6 cases of unilateral nerve injuries, the voice improved considerably in 4 cases within 6 months but in 2 cases hoarseness persisted even after 6 months. Frequency of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies was significantly lower in group-A as compared to group-B (p = 0

  20. Intraoperative cranial nerve monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C Michel

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of intraoperative monitoring is to preserve function and prevent injury to the nervous system at a time when clinical examination is not possible. Cranial nerves are delicate structures and are susceptible to damage by mechanical trauma or ischemia during intracranial and extracranial surgery. A number of reliable electrodiagnostic techniques, including nerve conduction studies, electromyography, and the recording of evoked potentials have been adapted to the study of cranial nerve function during surgery. A growing body of evidence supports the utility of intraoperative monitoring of cranial nerve nerves during selected surgical procedures.

  1. Short-term observations of the regenerative potential of injured proximal sensory nerves crossed with distal motor nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-xiu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor nerves and sensory nerves conduct signals in different directions and function in different ways. In the surgical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, the best prognosis is obtained by keeping the motor and sensory nerves separated and repairing the nerves using the suture method. However, the clinical consequences of connections between sensory and motor nerves currently remain unknown. In this study, we analyzed the anatomical structure of the rat femoral nerve, and observed the motor and sensory branches of the femoral nerve in the quadriceps femoris. After ligation of the nerves, the proximal end of the sensory nerve was connected with the distal end of the motor nerve, followed by observation of the changes in the newly-formed regenerated nerve fibers. Acetylcholinesterase staining was used to distinguish between the myelinated and unmyelinated motor and sensory nerves. Denervated muscle and newly formed nerves were compared in terms of morphology, electrophysiology and histochemistry. At 8 weeks after connection, no motor nerve fibers were observed on either side of the nerve conduit and the number of nerve fibers increased at the proximal end. The proportion of newly-formed motor and sensory fibers was different on both sides of the conduit. The area occupied by autonomic nerves in the proximal regenerative nerve was limited, but no distinct myelin sheath was visible in the distal nerve. These results confirm that sensory and motor nerves cannot be effectively connected. Moreover, the change of target organ at the distal end affects the type of nerves at the proximal end.

  2. Adult Stem Cell Based Enhancement of Nerve Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    accompanied by injuries to peripheral nerves; if not repaired, the trauma can lead to significant dysfunction and disability . While nerves have the ability to...recovery, minimized disability , and increased quality of life for our wounded warriors. 2. KEYWORDS: Stem Cell, Nerve Conduit, Peripheral Nerve...would be a paradigm shift away from ordering X-rays at 10-12 weeks and only ordering a CT scan. It has the potential to change the standard of care

  3. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness parameters in myopic population using scanning laser polarimetry (GDxVCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Tanuj; Aggarwal, A; Bali, S J; Sharma, A; Shah, B M; Angmo, D; Panda, A

    2013-01-01

    Myopia presents a significant challenge to the ophthalmologist as myopic discs are often large, tilted, with deep cups and have a thinner neuroretinal rim all of which may mimic glaucomatous optic nerve head changes causing an error in diagnosis. To evaluate the retinal fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in low, moderate and high myopia using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC). One hundred eyes of 100 emmetropes, 30 eyes of low myopes (0 to - 4 D spherical equivalent(SE), 45 eyes with moderate myopia (- 4 to - 8D SE), and 30 eyes with high myopia (- 8 to - 15D SE) were subjected to retinal nerve fiber layer assessment using the scanning laser polarimetry (GDxVCC) in all subjects using the standard protocol. Subjects with IOP > 21 mm Hg, optic nerve head or visual field changes suggestive of glaucoma were excluded from the study. The major outcome parameters were temporal-superior-nasal-inferiortemporal (TSNIT) average, the superior and inferior average and the nerve fibre indicator (NFI). The TSNIT average (p = 0.009), superior (p = 0.001) and inferior average (p = 0.008) were significantly lower; the NFI was higher (P less than 0.001) in moderate myopes as compared to that in emmetropes. In high myopia the RNFL showed supranormal values; the TSNIT average, superior and inferior average was significantly higher(p less than 0.001) as compared to that in emmetropes. The RNFL measurements on scanning laser polarimetry are affected by the myopic refractive error. Moderate myopes show a significant thinning of the RNFL. In high myopia due to peripapillary chorioretinal atrophy and contribution of scleral birefringence, the RNFL values are abnormally high. These findings need to be taken into account while assessing and monitoring glaucoma damage in moderate to high myopes on GDxVCC. © NEPjOPH.

  4. Microsurgical reconstruction of large nerve defects using autologous nerve grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoutis, N K; Gerostathopoulos, N E; Efstathopoulos, D G; Misitizis, D P; Bouchlis, G N; Anagnostou, S K

    1994-01-01

    Between 1986 and 1993, 643 patients with peripheral nerve trauma were treated in our clinic. Primary neurorraphy was performed in 431 of these patients and nerve grafting in 212 patients. We present the functional results after nerve grafting in 93 patients with large nerve defects who were followed for more than 2 years. Evaluation of function was based on the Medical Research Council (MRC) classification for motor and sensory recovery. Factors affecting functional outcome, such as age of the patient, denervation time, length of the defect, and level of the injury were noted. Good results according to the MRC classification were obtained in the majority of cases, although function remained less than that of the uninjured side.

  5. Gradual nerve elongation affects nerve cell bodies and neuro-muscular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuo Ikeda, K I; Masaki Matsuda, M M; Daisuke Yamauchi, D Y; Katsuro Tomita, K T; Shigenori Tanaka, S T

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the reactions of the neuro-muscular junction and nerve cell body to gradual nerve elongation. The sciatic nerves of Japanese white rabbits were lengthened by 30 mm in increments of 0.8 mm/day, 2.0 mm/day and 4.0 mm/day. A scanning electron microscopic examination showed no degenerative change at the neuro-muscular junction, even eight weeks after elongation in the 4-mm group. Hence, neuro-muscular junction is not critical for predicting damage from gradual nerve elongation. There were no axon reaction cells in the 0.8-mm group, a small amount in the 2-mm group, and a large amount in the 4-mm group. The rate of growth associated protein-43 positive nerve cells was significant in the 4-mm group. Hence, the safe speed for nerve cells appeared to be 0.8-mm/day, critical speed to be 2.0-mm/day, and dangerous speed to be 4.0-mm/day in this elongation model.

  6. [Primary malignant schwannoma of the buccal branch of facial nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumine, M; Thiery, G; Harroudi, T; Amrani, M; El Othmany, A; Rzin, A

    2012-06-01

    Primary malignant schwannomas are rare neoplasms of nerve sheath origin, especially in the location of the head and neck where few cases are described in the literature. We report the case of a 65-year-old male diagnosed with malignant schwannoma in the left cheek. The patient underwent surgery with wide local excision, reconstruction were made later by skin graft. The treatment of choice is radical excision of the lesion with wide margins. In fact, to reduce local tumor recurrence, the use of adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy is still controversial. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A novel PLP1 mutation associated with optic nerve enlargement in two siblings with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease: A new MRI finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, Efterpi; Ramachandran, Vijaya; Govender, Veronica; Wilson, Clare; Das, Rini; Vlachou, Victoria; Pavlou, Evangelos; Saggar, Anand; Mankad, Kshitij; Kinali, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a rare, X-linked disorder characterized by hypomyelination of the Central Nervous System due to mutations in the PLP1 gene. Certain mutations of the PLP1 gene correlate with specific clinical phenotypes and neuroimaging findings. We herein report a novel mutation of the PLP1 gene in two siblings with PMD associated with a rare and protean neuroimaging finding of optic nerve enlargement. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that this novel mutation H133P of PLP1 gene is identified and clinically associated with optic nerve enlargement in PMD patients. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulsed Radiofrequency Applied to the Sciatic Nerve Improves Neuropathic Pain by Down-regulating The Expression of Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide in the Dorsal Root Ganglion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hao; Jin, Hailong; Jia, Zipu; Ji, Nan; Luo, Fang

    2018-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies have shown that applying pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) to the neural stem could relieve neuropathic pain (NP), albeit through an unclear analgesic mechanism. And animal experiments have indicated that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is involved in generating and maintaining NP. In this case, it is uncertain whether PRF plays an analgesic role by affecting CGRP expression in DRG. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups: Groups A, B, C, and D. In Groups C and D, the right sciatic nerve was ligated to establish the CCI model, while in Groups A and B, the sciatic nerve was isolated without ligation. After 14 days, the right sciatic nerve in Groups B and D re-exposed and was treated with PRF on the ligation site. Thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and hindpaw withdrawal threshold (HWT) were measured before PRF treatment (Day 0) as well as after 2, 4, 8, and 14 days of treatment. At the same time points of the behavioral tests, the right L4-L6 DRG was sampled and analyzed for CGRP expression using RT-qPCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Fourteen days after sciatic nerve ligation, rats in Groups C and D had a shortened TWL (P 0.05). On the 8th and 14th days, the mRNA levels in Group D were restored to those of Groups A and B. Meanwhile, the CGRP content of Group D gradually dropped over time, from 76.4 pg/mg (Day 0) to 57.5 pg/mg (Day 14). Conclusions: In this study, we found that, after sciatic nerve ligation, rats exhibited apparent hyperalgesia and allodynia, and CGRP mRNA and CGRP contents in the L4-L6 DRG increased significantly. Through lowering CGRP expression in the DRG, PRF treatment might relieve the pain behaviors of NP. PMID:29333099

  9. Comparison of percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and ultrasound imaging for nerve localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegener, J. T.; Boender, Z. J.; Preckel, B.; Hollmann, M. W.; Stevens, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Percutaneous nerve stimulation (PNS) is a non-invasive technique to localize superficial nerves before performing peripheral nerve blocks, but its precision has never been evaluated by high-resolution ultrasound. This study compared stimulating points at the skin with the position of

  10. ATF3 upregulation in glia during Wallerian degeneration: differential expression in peripheral nerves and CNS white matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coffin Robert S

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many changes in gene expression occur in distal stumps of injured nerves but the transcriptional control of these events is poorly understood. We have examined the expression of the transcription factors ATF3 and c-Jun by non-neuronal cells during Wallerian degeneration following injury to sciatic nerves, dorsal roots and optic nerves of rats and mice, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results Following sciatic nerve injury – transection or transection and reanastomosis – ATF3 was strongly upregulated by endoneurial, but not perineurial cells, of the distal stumps of the nerves by 1 day post operation (dpo and remained strongly expressed in the endoneurium at 30 dpo when axonal regeneration was prevented. Most ATF3+ cells were immunoreactive for the Schwann cell marker, S100. When the nerve was transected and reanastomosed, allowing regeneration of axons, most ATF3 expression had been downregulated by 30 dpo. ATF3 expression was weaker in the proximal stumps of the injured nerves than in the distal stumps and present in fewer cells at all times after injury. ATF3 was upregulated by endoneurial cells in the distal stumps of injured neonatal rat sciatic nerves, but more weakly than in adult animals. ATF3 expression in transected sciatic nerves of mice was similar to that in rats. Following dorsal root injury in adult rats, ATF3 was upregulated in the part of the root between the lesion and the spinal cord (containing Schwann cells, beginning at 1 dpo, but not in the dorsal root entry zone or in the degenerating dorsal column of the spinal cord. Following optic nerve crush in adult rats, ATF3 was found in some cells at the injury site and small numbers of cells within the optic nerve displayed weak immunoreactivity. The pattern of expression of c-Jun in all types of nerve injury was similar to that of ATF3. Conclusion These findings raise the possibility that ATF3/c-Jun heterodimers may play a role in

  11. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra; Casselman, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  12. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1093, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: borgalexandra@gmail.com; Casselman, Jan [Department of Radiology, A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  13. Expression profile of osteoprotegerin, RANK and RANKL genes in the femoral head of patients with avascular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Stavroula; Dailiana, Zoe; Chassanidis, Christos; Koromila, Theodora; Papatheodorou, Loukia; Malizos, Konstantinos N; Kollia, Panagoula

    2014-02-01

    Femoral head avascular necrosis (AVN) is a recalcitrant disease of the hip that leads to joint destruction. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANKL) regulate the balance between osteoclasts-osteoblasts. The expression of these genes affects the maturation and function of osteoblasts-osteoclasts and bone remodeling. In this study, we investigated the molecular pathways leading to AVN by studying the expression profile of OPG, RANK and RANKL genes. Quantitative Real Time-PCR was performed for evaluation of OPG, RANK and RANKL expression. Analysis was based on parallel evaluation of mRNA and protein levels in normal/necrotic sites of 42 osteonecrotic femoral heads (FHs). OPG and RANKL protein levels were estimated by western blotting. The OPG mRNA levels were higher (insignificantly) in the necrotic than the normal site (p > 0.05). Although the expression of RANK and RANKL was significantly lower than OPG in both sites, RANK and RANKL mRNA levels were higher in the necrotic part than the normal (p < 0.05). Protein levels of OPG and RANKL showed no remarkable divergence. Our results indicate that differential expression mechanisms for OPG, RANK and RANKL that could play an important role in the progress of bone remodeling in the necrotic area, disturbing bone homeostasis. This finding may have an effect on the resulting bone destruction and the subsequent collapse of the hip joint. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Astrocytes as gate-keepers in optic nerve regeneration--a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Dana M; Koke, Joseph R

    2009-02-01

    Animals that develop without extra-embryonic membranes (anamniotes--fish, amphibians) have impressive regenerative capacity, even to the extent of replacing entire limbs. In contrast, animals that develop within extra-embryonic membranes (amniotes--reptiles, birds, mammals) have limited capacity for regeneration as adults, particularly in the central nervous system (CNS). Much is known about the process of nerve development in fish and mammals and about regeneration after lesions in the CNS in fish and mammals. Because the retina of the eye and optic nerve are functionally part of the brain and are accessible in fish, frogs, and mice, optic nerve lesion and regeneration (ONR) has been extensively used as a model system for study of CNS nerve regeneration. When the optic nerve of a mouse is severed, the axons leading into the brain degenerate. Initially, the cut end of the axons on the proximal, eye-side of the injury sprout neurites which begin to grow into the lesion. Simultaneously, astrocytes of the optic nerve become activated to initiate wound repair as a first step in reestablishing the structural integrity of the optic nerve. This activation appears to initiate a cascade of molecular signals resulting in apoptotic cell death of the retinal ganglion cells axons of which make up the neural component of the optic nerve; regeneration fails and the injury is permanent. Evidence specifically implicating astrocytes comes from studies showing selective poisoning of astrocytes at the optic nerve lesion, along with activation of a gene whose product blocks apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells, creates conditions favorable to neurites sprouting from the cut proximal stump, growing through the lesion and into the distal portion of the injured nerve, eventually reaching appropriate targets in the brain. In anamniotes, astrocytes ostensibly present no such obstacle since optic nerve regeneration occurs without intervention; however, no systematic study of glial involvement

  15. Annotation of nerve cord transcriptome in earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanthakumar Ponesakki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In annelid worms, the nerve cord serves as a crucial organ to control the sensory and behavioral physiology. The inadequate genome resource of earthworms has prioritized the comprehensive analysis of their transcriptome dataset to monitor the genes express in the nerve cord and predict their role in the neurotransmission and sensory perception of the species. The present study focuses on identifying the potential transcripts and predicting their functional features by annotating the transcriptome dataset of nerve cord tissues prepared by Gong et al., 2010 from the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Totally 9762 transcripts were successfully annotated against the NCBI nr database using the BLASTX algorithm and among them 7680 transcripts were assigned to a total of 44,354 GO terms. The conserve domain analysis indicated the over representation of P-loop NTPase domain and calcium binding EF-hand domain. The COG functional annotation classified 5860 transcript sequences into 25 functional categories. Further, 4502 contig sequences were found to map with 124 KEGG pathways. The annotated contig dataset exhibited 22 crucial neuropeptides having considerable matches to the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, suggesting their possible role in neurotransmission and neuromodulation. In addition, 108 human stem cell marker homologs were identified including the crucial epigenetic regulators, transcriptional repressors and cell cycle regulators, which may contribute to the neuronal and segmental regeneration. The complete functional annotation of this nerve cord transcriptome can be further utilized to interpret genetic and molecular mechanisms associated with neuronal development, nervous system regeneration and nerve cord function.

  16. PAMP induced expression of immune relevant genes in head kidney leukocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Raida, Martin Kristian; Holten-Andersen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    ) on the surface of the invader. Phagocytic cells are known to initiate a respiratory burst following an exposure to the pathogen, but the underlying and associated specific elements are poorly elucidated in fish. The present study describes the differential response of head kidney leukocytes from rainbow trout...... (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to different PAMPs mimicking viral (poly I:C), bacterial (flagellin and LPS) and fungal infections (zymosan and ß-glucan). Transcript of cytokines related to inflammation (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-a) was highly up-regulated following LPS exposure whereas flagellin or poly I:C induced...... merely moderate reactions. In contrast, IFN-¿ expression was significantly higher in the poly I:C stimulated group compared to the LPS group. When head kidney cells were exposed to zymosan or ß-glucan, genes encoding IL-1ß, TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-10 became up-regulated. Their level of up...

  17. Some questions of the treatment of injuries of extremities peripheral nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Александрович Вишневский

    2015-11-01

    ,4 %, and in area of radial bone head resection. In the forearm lower one-third were often injured ulnar and median nerves – 7 cases (10,0 %, on the lower extremities – peroneal nerve – 9 cases (12,9 %.According to our analysis from 70 patients 52 (74,3 % were operated, 18 (25,7 % underwent conservative treatment.Special attention must be paid to the choice of surgical technique especially concerning nerves of combined structure. To detect injuries of fascicles within trunk it is recommended to use electro-optic equipment on surgical table. According to the author the most favorable period for surgical treatment is 3 month from the moment of trauma or during 2–3 weeks from the wound healing. The method of so-called “legitimate expectations” of operation on the nerve trunks in 4-6 month was not proved its value. Author did not notice the significant improvement of the nerve motor function over time.Conclusion: an analysis allows us to offer differentiated approach to treatment of injuries of extremities peripheral nerves and make the next conclusions:1. Patients with EPN (extremities peripheral nerves trauma must be sent in specialized department or clinic when the neurosurgical intervention on nerves is more reasonable. The main requirement to surgical access is a possibility of sufficient vision of nerve at the injury level in proximal and distal directions. It gives a possibility to manipulate on the nerve trunk, to assess the character and size of injury and to carry out an intervention sufficient by volume.2. At squeeze of the nerve trunk it is necessary to use neurolysis and in its anatomical pause – neurography with application of epineural and epiperineural stitch and in several cases to use fascicular stitch. At impossibility to match the ends of injured nerve at its mobilization to carry out autoplasty taking into account the fascicular nerve structure with monothread 7/0, best of all with synthetic one 0/00.3. All patients underwent the course of

  18. Application of the capsaicin 8% cutaneous patch in neuropathic pain of the head and face: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, Charly; Resch, Sonja

    2015-05-01

    Treatment of neuropathic or neuralgic head and facial pain due to dental, traumatic or surgical nerve lesions or post-herpetic neuropathy is often challenging. We are reporting on four patients with neuropathic pain syndromes successfully treated with a capsaicin 8% patch in the affected area of the head or face. Treatment with the capsaicin 8% patch seems to be effective and safe for application to the facial and head region. The capsaicin 8% patch might be an additional treatment option if first-line treatment with anticonvulsants or antidepressants was ineffective or limited by side effects. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Transient femoral nerve palsy following ilioinguinal nerve block for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Surgery ... Background: Elective inguinal hernia repair in young fit patients is preferably done under ilioinguinal nerve block anesthesia in the ambulatory setting to improve ... Conclusion: TFNP is a rare complication of ilioinguinal nerve block which delays patient discharge postambulatory hernioplasty.

  20. Integrated Metabolo-Transcriptomics Reveals Fusarium Head Blight Candidate Resistance Genes in Wheat QTL-Fhb2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Dhokane

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by Fusarium graminearum not only causes severe losses in yield, but also reduces quality of wheat grain by accumulating mycotoxins. Breeding for host plant resistance is considered as the best strategy to manage FHB. Resistance in wheat to FHB is quantitative in nature, involving cumulative effects of many genes governing resistance. The poor understanding of genetics and lack of precise phenotyping has hindered the development of FHB resistant cultivars. Though more than 100 QTLs imparting FHB resistance have been reported, none discovered the specific genes localized within the QTL region, nor the underlying mechanisms of resistance.In our study recombinant inbred lines (RILs carrying resistant (R-RIL and susceptible (S-RIL alleles of QTL-Fhb2 were subjected to metabolome and transcriptome profiling to discover the candidate genes. Metabolome profiling detected a higher abundance of metabolites belonging to phenylpropanoid, lignin, glycerophospholipid, flavonoid, fatty acid, and terpenoid biosynthetic pathways in R-RIL than in S-RIL. Transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of several receptor kinases, transcription factors, signaling, mycotoxin detoxification and resistance related genes. The dissection of QTL-Fhb2 using flanking marker sequences, integrating metabolomic and transcriptomic datasets, identified 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL, callose synthase (CS, basic Helix Loop Helix (bHLH041 transcription factor, glutathione S-transferase (GST, ABC transporter-4 (ABC4 and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD as putative resistance genes localized within the QTL-Fhb2 region.Some of the identified genes within the QTL region are associated with structural resistance through cell wall reinforcement, reducing the spread of pathogen through rachis within a spike and few other genes that detoxify DON, the virulence factor, thus eventually reducing disease severity. In conclusion, we report that the wheat

  1. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration by Secretomes of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura-Wakayama, Yukiko; Katagiri, Wataru; Osugi, Masashi; Kawai, Takamasa; Ogata, Kenichi; Sakaguchi, Kohei; Hibi, Hideharu

    2015-11-15

    Peripheral nerve regeneration across nerve gaps is often suboptimal, with poor functional recovery. Stem cell transplantation-based regenerative therapy is a promising approach for axon regeneration and functional recovery of peripheral nerve injury; however, the mechanisms remain controversial and unclear. Recent studies suggest that transplanted stem cells promote tissue regeneration through a paracrine mechanism. We investigated the effects of conditioned media derived from stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED-CM) on peripheral nerve regeneration. In vitro, SHED-CM-treated Schwann cells exhibited significantly increased proliferation, migration, and the expression of neuron-, extracellular matrix (ECM)-, and angiogenesis-related genes. SHED-CM stimulated neuritogenesis of dorsal root ganglia and increased cell viability. Similarly, SHED-CM enhanced tube formation in an angiogenesis assay. In vivo, a 10-mm rat sciatic nerve gap model was bridged by silicon conduits containing SHED-CM or serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. Light and electron microscopy confirmed that the number of myelinated axons and axon-to-fiber ratio (G-ratio) were significantly higher in the SHED-CM group at 12 weeks after nerve transection surgery. The sciatic functional index (SFI) and gastrocnemius (target muscle) wet weight ratio demonstrated functional recovery. Increased compound muscle action potentials and increased SFI in the SHED-CM group suggested sciatic nerve reinnervation of the target muscle and improved functional recovery. We also observed reduced muscle atrophy in the SHED-CM group. Thus, SHEDs may secrete various trophic factors that enhance peripheral nerve regeneration through multiple mechanisms. SHED-CM may therefore provide a novel therapy that creates a more desirable extracellular microenvironment for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  2. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ulnar nerve originates from the brachial plexus and travels down arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body where ...

  3. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the mastoid facial nerve canal mimicking a facial nerve schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew L; Bharatha, Aditya; Aviv, Richard I; Nedzelski, Julian; Chen, Joseph; Bilbao, Juan M; Wong, John; Saad, Reda; Symons, Sean P

    2009-07-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma of the skull base is a rare entity. Involvement of the temporal bone is particularly rare. We present an unusual case of progressive facial nerve paralysis with imaging and clinical findings most suggestive of a facial nerve schwannoma. The lesion was tubular in appearance, expanded the mastoid facial nerve canal, protruded out of the stylomastoid foramen, and enhanced homogeneously. The only unusual imaging feature was minor calcification within the tumor. Surgery revealed an irregular, cystic lesion. Pathology diagnosed a chondromyxoid fibroma involving the mastoid portion of the facial nerve canal, destroying the facial nerve.

  4. Hemifacial Pain and Hemisensory Disturbance Referred from Occipital Neuralgia Caused by Pathological Vascular Contact of the Greater Occipital Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Byung-Chul; Choi, Jin-Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a unique case of chronic occipital neuralgia caused by pathological vascular contact of the left greater occipital nerve. After 12 months of left-sided, unremitting occipital neuralgia, a hypesthesia and facial pain developed in the left hemiface. The decompression of the left greater occipital nerve from pathological contacts with the occipital artery resulted in immediate relief for hemifacial sensory change and facial pain, as well as chronic occipital neuralgia. Although referral of pain from the stimulation of occipital and cervical structures innervated by upper cervical nerves to the frontal head of V1 trigeminal distribution has been reported, the development of hemifacial sensory change associated with referred trigeminal pain from chronic occipital neuralgia is extremely rare. Chronic continuous and strong afferent input of occipital neuralgia caused by pathological vascular contact with the greater occipital nerve seemed to be associated with sensitization and hypersensitivity of the second-order neurons in the trigeminocervical complex, a population of neurons in the C2 dorsal horn characterized by receiving convergent input from dural and cervical structures.

  5. The role of neurotrophic factors in nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa

    2009-02-01

    accelerated upregulation of growth-associated genes, tubulin, actin, and GAP-43 and downregulation of neurofilament protein. Elevation of cAMP levels via rolipram inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 mimicked the effect of the low-frequency electrical stimulation. In conclusion, the enhanced upregulation of neurotrophic factors in the electrically stimulated axotomized neurons accelerates axon outgrowth into the distal nerve stumps where endogenous sources of growth factors in the Schwann cells support the regeneration of the axons toward the denervated targets. The findings provide strong support for endogenous neurotrophic factors of axotomized neurons and of denervated Schwann cells playing a critical role in supporting axon regeneration in the PNS.

  6. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  7. Efficacy of electroacupuncture compared with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation for functional constipation: Study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Xinwei; Jiao, Ruimin; Liu, Zhishun

    2018-05-01

    To treat functional constipation, both electroacupuncture (EA) therapy and transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) are safe and effective. However, no head-to-head comparison trial has been conducted. This trial compares the efficacy of electroacupuncture relative to transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation for functional constipation. Individuals with functional constipation will be randomly allocated to receive either EA or TENS (n = 51, each), 3 times per week for 8 weeks. The primary outcome is the percentage of participants with an average increase from baseline of 1 or more complete spontaneous bowel movements at week 8. The secondary outcome measures are the following: at the time of visits, changes in the number of complete spontaneous bowel movements, number of spontaneous bowel movements, stool character, difficulty in defecation, patients' assessment of quality of life regarding constipation (self-report questionnaire), and use of auxiliary defecation methods. The results of this trial should verify whether EA is more efficacious than TENS for relieving symptoms of functional constipation. The major limitation of the study is the lack of blinding of the participants and acupuncturist.

  8. End-to-side nerve suture – a technique to repair peripheral nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lateral sprouting from an intact nerve into an attached nerve does occur, and functional recovery (sensory and motor) has been demonstrated. We have demonstrated conclusively that ETSNS in the human is a viable option in treating peripheral nerve injuries, including injuries to the brachial plexus. Among the many ...

  9. Tumors of the optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A variety of lesions may involve the optic nerve. Mainly, these lesions are inflammatory or vascular lesions that rarely necessitate surgery but may induce significant visual morbidity. Orbital tumors may induce proptosis, visual loss, relative afferent pupillary defect, disc edema and optic...... atrophy, but less than one-tenth of these tumors are confined to the optic nerve or its sheaths. No signs or symptoms are pathognomonic for tumors of the optic nerve. The tumors of the optic nerve may originate from the optic nerve itself (primary tumors) as a proliferation of cells normally present...... in the nerve (e.g., astrocytes and meningothelial cells). The optic nerve may also be invaded from tumors originating elsewhere (secondary tumors), invading the nerve from adjacent structures (e.g., choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma) or from distant sites (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration and distant...

  10. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Berta; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-06-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is currently increasingly used in imaging peripheral nerves, serving to supplement the physical examination, electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive and well-tolerated by patients. The typical ultrasonographic picture of peripheral nerves as well as the examination technique have been discussed in part I of this article series, following the example of the median nerve. Part II of the series presented the normal anatomy and the technique for examining the peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part of the article series focuses on the anatomy and technique for examining twelve normal peripheral nerves of the lower extremity: the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, the pudendal, sciatic, tibial, sural, medial plantar, lateral plantar, common peroneal, deep peroneal and superficial peroneal nerves. It includes diagrams showing the proper positioning of the sonographic probe, plus USG images of the successively discussed nerves and their surrounding structures. The ultrasonographic appearance of the peripheral nerves in the lower limb is identical to the nerves in the upper limb. However, when imaging the lower extremity, convex probes are more often utilized, to capture deeply-seated nerves. The examination technique, similarly to that used in visualizing the nerves of upper extremity, consists of locating the nerve at a characteristic anatomic reference point and tracking it using the "elevator technique". All 3 parts of the article series should serve as an introduction to a discussion of peripheral nerve pathologies, which will be presented in subsequent issues of the "Journal of Ultrasonography".

  11. Cutaneous lesions sensory impairment recovery and nerve regeneration in leprosy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Illarramendi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the mechanisms that enable peripheral neurons to regenerate after nerve injury in order to identify methods of improving this regeneration. Therefore, we studied nerve regeneration and sensory impairment recovery in the cutaneous lesions of leprosy patients (LPs before and after treatment with multidrug therapy (MDT. The skin lesion sensory test results were compared to the histopathological and immunohistochemical protein gene product (PGP 9.5 and the p75 nerve growth factor receptors (NGFr findings. The cutaneous neural occupation ratio (CNOR was evaluated for both neural markers. Thermal and pain sensations were the most frequently affected functions at the first visit and the most frequently recovered functions after MDT. The presence of a high cutaneous nerve damage index did not prevent the recovery of any type of sensory function. The CNOR was calculated for each biopsy, according to the presence of PGP and NGFr-immunostained fibres and it was not significantly different before or after the MDT. We observed a variable influence of MDT in the recovery from sensory impairment in the cutaneous lesions of LPs. Nociception and cold thermosensation were the most recovered sensations. The recovery of sensation in the skin lesions appeared to be associated with subsiding inflammation rather than with the regenerative activity of nerve fibres.

  12. Semaphorin-1a is required for Aedes aegypti embryonic nerve cord development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Haugen

    Full Text Available Although mosquito genome projects have uncovered orthologues of many known developmental regulatory genes, extremely little is known about mosquito development. In this study, the role of semaphorin-1a (sema1a was investigated during vector mosquito embryonic ventral nerve cord development. Expression of sema1a and the plexin A (plexA receptor are detected in the embryonic ventral nerve cords of Aedes aegypti (dengue vector and Anopheles gambiae (malaria vector, suggesting that Sema1a signaling may regulate mosquito nervous system development. Analysis of sema1a function was investigated through siRNA-mediated knockdown in A. aegypti embryos. Knockdown of sema1a during A. aegypti development results in a number of nerve cord phenotypes, including thinning, breakage, and occasional fusion of the longitudinal connectives, thin or absent commissures, and general distortion of the nerve cord. Although analysis of Drosophila melanogaster sema1a loss-of-function mutants uncovered many similar phenotypes, aspects of the longitudinal phenotypes differed between D. melanogaster and A. aegypti. The results of this investigation suggest that Sema1a is required for development of the insect ventral nerve cord, but that the developmental roles of this guidance molecule have diverged in dipteran insects.

  13. Control of nerve cord formation by Engrailed and Gooseberry-Neuro: A multi-step, coordinated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneaud, Nathalie; Layalle, Sophie; Colomb, Sophie; Jourdan, Christophe; Ghysen, Alain; Severac, Dany; Dantec, Christelle; Nègre, Nicolas; Maschat, Florence

    2017-12-15

    One way to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the construction of a nervous system is to identify the downstream effectors of major regulatory proteins. We previously showed that Engrailed (EN) and Gooseberry-Neuro (GsbN) transcription factors act in partnership to drive the formation of posterior commissures in the central nervous system of Drosophila. In this report, we identified genes regulated by both EN and GsbN through chromatin immunoprecipitation ("ChIP on chip") and transcriptome experiments, combined to a genetic screen relied to the gene dose titration method. The genomic-scale approaches allowed us to define 175 potential targets of EN-GsbN regulation. We chose a subset of these genes to examine ventral nerve cord (VNC) defects and found that half of the mutated targets show clear VNC phenotypes when doubly heterozygous with en or gsbn mutations, or when homozygous. This strategy revealed new groups of genes never described for their implication in the construction of the nerve cord. Their identification suggests that, to construct the nerve cord, EN-GsbN may act at three levels, in: (i) sequential control of the attractive-repulsive signaling that ensures contralateral projection of the commissural axons, (ii) temporal control of the translation of some mRNAs, (iii) regulation of the capability of glial cells to act as commissural guideposts for developing axons. These results illustrate how an early, coordinated transcriptional control may orchestrate the various mechanisms involved in the formation of stereotyped neuronal networks. They also validate the overall strategy to identify genes that play crucial role in axonal pathfinding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radial nerve measurements in nonsymptomatic upper extremities of Filipinos: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Consuelo B; Dones, Valentin C; Grimmer, Karen; Thoirs, Kerry; Milanese, Steven; Atlas, Alvin

    2015-10-01

    Despite reports on the association of radial nerve (RN) size and lateral epicondylalgia (LE), Filipino normative values on RN size in healthy elbows are not established. An association with upper extremity anthropometric measurements is likewise not reported. Musculoskeletal ultrasound measurements of the RN at the level of the lateral epicondyle (RN-LE), posterior interosseous nerve at the level of the radial head and supinator (PIN-RH and PIN-sup), and superficial RN (SRN) in the elbows of healthy Filipinos were made in Manila from January-September 2011. A total of 198 elbows of 99 healthy participants aged 43 years (range, 33-48 years) [median(IQR)] were investigated. Men have larger PIN-RH, PIN-sup, and SRN compared with women. Arm length was associated with PIN-RH, PIN-sup, and SRN (P values can now be used for comparison in elbows with LE. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Electrophysiological Assessment of a Peptide Amphiphile Nanofiber Nerve Graft for Facial Nerve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jacqueline J; McClendon, Mark T; Stephanopoulos, Nicholas; Álvarez, Zaida; Stupp, Samuel I; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2018-04-27

    Facial nerve injury can cause severe long-term physical and psychological morbidity. There are limited repair options for an acutely transected facial nerve not amenable to primary neurorrhaphy. We hypothesize that a peptide amphiphile nanofiber neurograft may provide the nanostructure necessary to guide organized neural regeneration. Five experimental groups were compared, animals with 1) an intact nerve, 2) following resection of a nerve segment, and following resection and immediate repair with either a 3) autograft (using the resected nerve segment), 4) neurograft, or 5) empty conduit. The buccal branch of the rat facial nerve was directly stimulated with charge balanced biphasic electrical current pulses at different current amplitudes while nerve compound action potentials (nCAPs) and electromygraphic (EMG) responses were recorded. After 8 weeks, the proximal buccal branch was surgically re-exposed and electrically evoked nCAPs were recorded for groups 1-5. As expected, the intact nerves required significantly lower current amplitudes to evoke an nCAP than those repaired with the neurograft and autograft nerves. For other electrophysiologic parameters such as latency and maximum nCAP, there was no significant difference between the intact, autograft and neurograft groups. The resected group had variable responses to electrical stimulation, and the empty tube group was electrically silent. Immunohistochemical analysis and TEM confirmed myelinated neural regeneration. This study demonstrates that the neuroregenerative capability of peptide amphiphile nanofiber neurografts is similar to the current clinical gold standard method of repair and holds potential as an off-the-shelf solution for facial reanimation and potentially peripheral nerve repair. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Optic nerve sheath diameter remains constant during robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Verdonck

    Full Text Available During robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP, a CO2 pneumoperitoneum (CO2PP is applied and the patient is placed in a head-down position. Intracranial pressure (ICP is expected to acutely increase under these conditions. A non-invasive method, the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD measurement, may warn us that the mechanism of protective cerebrospinal fluid (CSF shifts becomes exhausted.After obtaining IRB approval and written informed consent, ONSD was measured by ocular ultrasound in 20 ASA I-II patients at various stages of the RALRP procedure: baseline awake, after induction, after applying the CO2PP, during head-down position, after resuming the supine position, in the postoperative anaesthesia care unit, and on day one postoperatively. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP was calculated as the mean arterial (MAP minus central venous pressure (CVP.The ONSD did not change during head-down position, although the CVP increased from 4.2(2.5 mm Hg to 27.6(3.8 mm Hg. The CPP was decreased 70 min after assuming the head-down position until 15 min after resuming the supine position, but remained above 60 mm Hg at all times.Even though ICP has been documented to increase during CO2PP and head-down positioning, we did not find any changes in ONSD during head-down position. These results indicate that intracranial blood volume does not increase up to a point that CSF migration as a compensation mechanism becomes exhausted, suggesting any increases in ICP are likely to be small.

  17. Carotid artery and lower cranial nerve exposure with increasing surgical complexity to the parapharyngeal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos-Rodriguez, Ana M; Sreenath, Satyan B; Rawal, Rounak B; Overton, Lewis J; Farzal, Zainab; Zanation, Adam M

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the extent of carotid artery exposure attained, including the identification of the external carotid branches and lower cranial nerves in five sequential external approaches to the parapharyngeal space, and to provide an anatomical algorithm. Anatomical study. Six latex-injected adult cadaver heads were dissected in five consecutive approaches: transcervical approach with submandibular gland removal, posterior extension of the transcervical approach, transcervical approach with parotidectomy, parotidectomy with lateral mandibulotomy, and parotidectomy with mandibulectomy. The degree of carotid artery exposure attained, external carotid branches, and lower cranial nerves visualized was documented. The transcervical approach exposed 1.5 cm (Standard Deviation (SD) 0.5) of internal carotid artery (ICA) and 1.25 cm (SD 0.25) of external carotid artery (ECA). The superior thyroid and facial arteries and cranial nerve XII and XI were identified. The posterior extension exposed 2.9 cm (SD 0.7) of ICA and 2.7 cm (SD 1.0) of ECA. Occipital and ascending pharyngeal arteries were visualized. The transparotid approach exposed 4.0 cm (SD 1.1) of ICA and 3.98 cm (SD 1.8) of ECA. Lateral mandibulotomy exposed the internal maxillary artery, cranial nerve X, the sympathetic trunk, and 4.6 cm (SD 2.4) of ICA. Mandibulectomy allowed for complete ECA exposure, cranial nerve IX, lingual nerve, and 6.9 cm (SD 1.3) of ICA. Approaches for the parapharyngeal space must be based on anatomic and biological patient factors. This study provides a guide for the skull base surgeon for an extended approach based on the desired anatomic exposure. N/A. Laryngoscope, 127:585-591, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Combined application of neutrophin-3 gene and neural stem cells is ameliorative to delay of denervated skeletal muscular atrophy after tibial nerve transection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Xu, Jianguang; Hu, Shaonan; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Yang; Gu, Yudong

    2011-01-01

    Examination of the therapeutic efficacy of neural stem cells (NSCs) has recently become the focus of much investigation. In this study we present an insight of the effects of combined application with neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and NSCs that derived from rat embryo spinal cord on delaying denervated skeletal muscular atrophy after tibial nerve was severed. NT-3 gene was amplified by PCR and subcloned into lentiviral vector pWPXL-MOD to construct a lentiviral expression vector pWPXL-MOD-NT-3. A positive clone expressing NT-3 (named NSCs-NT-3) was obtained and used for differentiation in vitro and transplantation. Sixty adult rats, whose tibial nerves were sectioned, were divided into two groups: one grafted with NSCs-NT-3 (experimental group, n = 30) and the other with NSCs transfected by pWPXL-MOD (control group, n = 30). The cell survival and differentiation, NT-3 gene expression, and effect of delaying denervated skeletal muscular atrophy were examined through immunohistostaining, RT-PCR, Western blot, electrophysiological analysis, and mean cross-sectional area (CSA) of gastrocnemius, respectively. The results show that the NT-3 gene, which is comprised of 777 bp, was cloned and significantly different expression were detected between NSCs and NSCs-NT-3 in vitro. Quantitative analysis of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunopositive cells revealed a significant increase in experimental group compared to the control group 4 weeks after implantation (p ChAT immunopositive cells were detected near the engrafted region only in experimental group. Furthermore, the effect in delaying denervated skeletal muscular atrophy is indicated in the EMG examination and mean CSA of gastrocnemius. These findings suggest that the neural stem cells expressing NT-3 endogenously would be a better graft candidate for the delay of denervated skeletal muscular atrophy.

  19. Facial Nerve Palsy: An Unusual Presenting Feature of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Yildiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world and is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women; it is responsible for 1.3 million deaths annually worldwide. It can metastasize to any organ. The most common site of metastasis in the head and neck region is the brain; however, it can also metastasize to the oral cavity, gingiva, tongue, parotid gland and lymph nodes. This article reports a case of small cell lung cancer presenting with metastasis to the facial nerve.

  20. Nerve growth factor receptor immunostaining suggests an extrinsic origin for hypertrophic nerves in Hirschsprung's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, H; O'Briain, D S; Puri, P

    1994-01-01

    The expression of nerve growth factor receptor in colon from 20 patients with Hirshsprung's disease and 10 controls was studied immunohistochemically. The myenteric and submucous plexuses in the ganglionic bowel and hypertrophic nerve trunks in the aganglionic bowel displayed strong expression of nerve growth factor receptor. The most important finding was the identical localisation of nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity on the perineurium of both hypertrophic nerve trunks in Hirshs...

  1. Experimental study of vascularized nerve graft: evaluation of nerve regeneration using choline acetyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, M; Tamai, S; Yajima, H; Kawanishi, K

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study of nerve regeneration was performed on vascularized nerve graft (VNG) and free nerve graft (FNG) in Fischer strain rats. A segment of the sciatic nerve with vascular pedicle of the femoral artery and vein was harvested from syngeneic donor rat for the VNG group and the sciatic nerve in the same length without vascular pedicle was harvested for the FNG group. They were transplanted to a nerve defect in the sciatic nerve of syngeneic recipient rats. At 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks after operation, the sciatic nerves were biopsied and processed for evaluation of choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activity, histological studies, and measurement of wet weight of the muscle innervated by the sciatic nerve. Electrophysiological evaluation of the grafted nerve was also performed before sacrifice. The average CAT activity in the distal to the distal suture site was 383 cpm in VNG and 361 cpm in FNG at 2 weeks; 6,189 cpm in VNG and 2,264 cpm in FNG at 4 weeks; and 11,299 cpm in VNG and 9,424 cpm in FNG at 6 weeks postoperatively. The value of the VNG group was statistically higher than that of the FNG group at 4 weeks postoperatively. Electrophysiological and histological findings also suggested that nerve regeneration in the VNG group was superior to that in the FNG group during the same period. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups after 6 weeks postoperatively in any of the evaluations. The CAT measurement was useful in the experiments, because it was highly sensitive and reproducible. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. QTL replication and targeted association highlight the nerve growth factor gene for nonverbal communication deficits in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, A T-H; Yoon, J; Geschwind, D H; Cantor, R M

    2013-02-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has a heterogeneous etiology that is genetically complex. It is defined by deficits in communication and social skills and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors. Genetic analyses of heritable quantitative traits that correlate with ASD may reduce heterogeneity. With this in mind, deficits in nonverbal communication (NVC) were quantified based on items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised. Our previous analysis of 228 families from the Autism Genetics Research Exchange (AGRE) repository reported 5 potential quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here we report an NVC QTL replication study in an independent sample of 213 AGRE families. One QTL was replicated (Panalysis of 476 haplotype blocks with 708 AGRE families using the Family Based Association Test (FBAT). Blocks in two QTL genes were associated with NVC with a P-value of 0.001. Three associated haplotype blocks were intronic to the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) gene (P=0.001, 0.001, 0.002), and one was intronic to KCND3 (P=0.001). Individual haplotypes within the associated blocks drove the associations (0.003, 0.0004 and 0.0002) for NGF and 0.0001 for KCND3. Using the same methods, these genes were tested for association with NVC in an independent sample of 1517 families from an Autism Genome Project (AGP). NVC was associated with a haplotype in an adjacent NGF block (P=0.0005) and one 46 kb away from the associated block in KCND3 (0.008). These analyses illustrate the value of QTL and targeted association studies for genetically complex disorders such as ASD. NGF is a promising risk gene for NVC deficits.

  3. Recurrent unilateral facial nerve palsy in a child with dehiscent facial nerve canal

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    Christopher Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The dehiscent facial nerve canal has been well documented in histopathological studies of temporal bones as well as in clinical setting. We describe clinical and radiologic features of a child with recurrent facial nerve palsy and dehiscent facial nerve canal. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 5-year-old male was referred to the otolaryngology clinic for evaluation of recurrent acute otitis media and hearing loss. He also developed recurrent left peripheral FN palsy associated with episodes of bilateral acute otitis media. High resolution computed tomography of the temporal bones revealed incomplete bony coverage of the tympanic segment of the left facial nerve. Conclusions: Recurrent peripheral FN palsy may occur in children with recurrent acute otitis media in the presence of a dehiscent facial nerve canal. Facial nerve canal dehiscence should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children with recurrent peripheral FN palsy.

  4. Reconstruction of the abdominal vagus nerve using sural nerve grafts in canine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbo; Wang, Jun; Luo, Fen; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Recently, vagus nerve preservation or reconstruction of vagus has received increasing attention. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of reconstructing the severed vagal trunk using an autologous sural nerve graft. Ten adult Beagle dogs were randomly assigned to two groups of five, the nerve grafting group (TG) and the vagal resection group (VG). The gastric secretion and emptying functions in both groups were assessed using Hollander insulin and acetaminophen tests before surgery and three months after surgery. All dogs underwent laparotomy under general anesthesia. In TG group, latency and conduction velocity of the action potential in a vagal trunk were measured, and then nerves of 4 cm long were cut from the abdominal anterior and posterior vagal trunks. Two segments of autologous sural nerve were collected for performing end-to-end anastomoses with the cut ends of vagal trunk (8-0 nylon suture, 3 sutures for each anastomosis). Dogs in VG group only underwent partial resections of the anterior and posterior vagal trunks. Laparotomy was performed in dogs of TG group, and latency and conduction velocity of the action potential in their vagal trunks were measured. The grafted nerve segment was removed, and stained with anti-neurofilament protein and toluidine blue. Latency of the action potential in the vagal trunk was longer after surgery than before surgery in TG group, while the conduction velocity was lower after surgery. The gastric secretion and emptying functions were weaker after surgery in dogs of both groups, but in TG group they were significantly better than in VG group. Anti-neurofilament protein staining and toluidine blue staining showed there were nerve fibers crossing the anastomosis of the vagus and sural nerves in dogs of TG group. Reconstruction of the vagus nerve using the sural nerve is technically feasible.

  5. Reconstruction of the abdominal vagus nerve using sural nerve grafts in canine models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, vagus nerve preservation or reconstruction of vagus has received increasing attention. The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of reconstructing the severed vagal trunk using an autologous sural nerve graft. METHODS: Ten adult Beagle dogs were randomly assigned to two groups of five, the nerve grafting group (TG and the vagal resection group (VG. The gastric secretion and emptying functions in both groups were assessed using Hollander insulin and acetaminophen tests before surgery and three months after surgery. All dogs underwent laparotomy under general anesthesia. In TG group, latency and conduction velocity of the action potential in a vagal trunk were measured, and then nerves of 4 cm long were cut from the abdominal anterior and posterior vagal trunks. Two segments of autologous sural nerve were collected for performing end-to-end anastomoses with the cut ends of vagal trunk (8-0 nylon suture, 3 sutures for each anastomosis. Dogs in VG group only underwent partial resections of the anterior and posterior vagal trunks. Laparotomy was performed in dogs of TG group, and latency and conduction velocity of the action potential in their vagal trunks were measured. The grafted nerve segment was removed, and stained with anti-neurofilament protein and toluidine blue. RESULTS: Latency of the action potential in the vagal trunk was longer after surgery than before surgery in TG group, while the conduction velocity was lower after surgery. The gastric secretion and emptying functions were weaker after surgery in dogs of both groups, but in TG group they were significantly better than in VG group. Anti-neurofilament protein staining and toluidine blue staining showed there were nerve fibers crossing the anastomosis of the vagus and sural nerves in dogs of TG group. CONCLUSION: Reconstruction of the vagus nerve using the sural nerve is technically feasible.

  6. Electrophysiology of Extraocular Cranial Nerves: Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Praveen; Balzer, Jeffery R; Anetakis, Katherine; Crammond, Donald J; Thirumala, Parthasarathy D

    2018-01-01

    The utility of extraocular cranial nerve electrophysiologic recordings lies primarily in the operating room during skull base surgeries. Surgical manipulation during skull base surgeries poses a risk of injury to multiple cranial nerves, including those innervating extraocular muscles. Because tumors distort normal anatomic relationships, it becomes particularly challenging to identify cranial nerve structures. Studies have reported the benefits of using intraoperative spontaneous electromyographic recordings and compound muscle action potentials evoked by electrical stimulation in preventing postoperative neurologic deficits. Apart from surgical applications, electromyography of extraocular muscles has also been used to guide botulinum toxin injections in patients with strabismus and as an adjuvant diagnostic test in myasthenia gravis. In this article, we briefly review the rationale, current available techniques to monitor extraocular cranial nerves, technical difficulties, clinical and surgical applications, as well as future directions for research.

  7. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in entrapment and compressive neuropathy - what, where, and how to see the peripheral nerves on the musculoskeletal magnetic resonance image: part 1. Overview and lower extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungjun [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Hanyang University, Kuri Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Kuri City, Kyunggi-do (Korea); Choi, Jin-Young; Huh, Yong-Min; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Sung-Ah [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Seung Min [Yonsei University, Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Suh, Jin-Suck [Yonsei University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University, Research Institute of Radiological Science, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-01-15

    The diagnosis of nerve entrapment and compressive neuropathy has been traditionally based on the clinical and electrodiagnostic examinations. As a result of improvements in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modality, it plays not only a fundamental role in the detection of space-occupying lesions but also a compensatory role in clinically and electrodiagnostically inconclusive cases. Although ultrasound has undergone further development in the past decades and shows high resolution capabilities, it has inherent limitations due to its operator dependency. We review the general concepts that should be known to evaluate the entrapment and compressive neuropathy in MR imaging. We also review the course of normal peripheral nerves, as well as various clinical demonstrations and pathological features of compressed and entrapped nerves in the lower extremities on MR imaging, according to the nerves involved. The common sites of nerve entrapment of the lower extremity are as follows: sciatic nerve around the piriformis muscle; tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa and tarsal tunnel, common peroneal nerve around the fibular neck, and digital nerve near the metatarsal head. Although MR imaging can depict the peripheral nerves in the extremities effectively, radiologists should be familiar with nerve pathways, common sites of nerve compression, and common space-occupying lesions resulting in nerve compression in MR imaging. (orig.)

  8. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in entrapment and compressive neuropathy - what, where, and how to see the peripheral nerves on the musculoskeletal magnetic resonance image: part 1. Overview and lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sungjun; Choi, Jin-Young; Huh, Yong-Min; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Sung-Ah; Kim, Seung Min; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of nerve entrapment and compressive neuropathy has been traditionally based on the clinical and electrodiagnostic examinations. As a result of improvements in the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modality, it plays not only a fundamental role in the detection of space-occupying lesions but also a compensatory role in clinically and electrodiagnostically inconclusive cases. Although ultrasound has undergone further development in the past decades and shows high resolution capabilities, it has inherent limitations due to its operator dependency. We review the general concepts that should be known to evaluate the entrapment and compressive neuropathy in MR imaging. We also review the course of normal peripheral nerves, as well as various clinical demonstrations and pathological features of compressed and entrapped nerves in the lower extremities on MR imaging, according to the nerves involved. The common sites of nerve entrapment of the lower extremity are as follows: sciatic nerve around the piriformis muscle; tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa and tarsal tunnel, common peroneal nerve around the fibular neck, and digital nerve near the metatarsal head. Although MR imaging can depict the peripheral nerves in the extremities effectively, radiologists should be familiar with nerve pathways, common sites of nerve compression, and common space-occupying lesions resulting in nerve compression in MR imaging. (orig.)

  9. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoshima, Kazumitsu; Nishiura, Iwao; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1986-01-01

    Several kinds of the lumbosacral nerve root anomalies have already been recognized, and the conjoined nerve roots is the most common among them. It does not make symptoms by itself, but if there is a causation of neural entrapment, for example, disc herniation, lateral recessus stenosis, spondylolisthesis, etc., so called ''biradicular syndrome'' should occur. Anomalies of the lumbosacral nerve roots, if not properly recognized, may lead to injury of these nerves during operation of the lumbar spine. Recently, the chance of finding these anomalous roots has been increased more and more with the use of metrizamide myelography and metrizamide CT, because of the improvement of the opacification of nerve roots. We describe the findings of the anomalous roots as revealed by these two methods. They demonstrate two nerve roots running parallel and the asymmetrical wide root sleeve. Under such circumstances, it is important to distinguish the anomalous roots from the normal ventral and dorsal roots. (author)

  10. Transcriptional responses of the nerve agent-sensitive brain regions amygdala, hippocampus, piriform cortex, septum, and thalamus following exposure to the organophosphonate anticholinesterase sarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyerhoff James L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the acute toxicity of organophosphorus nerve agents is known to result from acetylcholinesterase inhibition, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of neuropathology following nerve agent-induced seizure are not well understood. To help determine these pathways, we previously used microarray analysis to identify gene expression changes in the rat piriform cortex, a region of the rat brain sensitive to nerve agent exposure, over a 24-h time period following sarin-induced seizure. We found significant differences in gene expression profiles and identified secondary responses that potentially lead to brain injury and cell death. To advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in sarin-induced toxicity, we analyzed gene expression changes in four other areas of the rat brain known to be affected by nerve agent-induced seizure (amygdala, hippocampus, septum, and thalamus. Methods We compared the transcriptional response of these four brain regions to sarin-induced seizure with the response previously characterized in the piriform cortex. In this study, rats were challenged with 1.0 × LD50 sarin and subsequently treated with atropine sulfate, 2-pyridine aldoxime methylchloride, and diazepam. The four brain regions were collected at 0.25, 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after seizure onset, and total RNA was processed for microarray analysis. Results Principal component analysis identified brain region and time following seizure onset as major sources of variability within the dataset. Analysis of variance identified genes significantly changed following sarin-induced seizure, and gene ontology analysis identified biological pathways, functions, and networks of genes significantly affected by sarin-induced seizure over the 24-h time course. Many of the molecular functions and pathways identified as being most significant across all of the brain regions were indicative of an inflammatory response. There

  11. Extensive molecular differences between anterior- and posterior-half-sclerotomes underlie somite polarity and spinal nerve segmentation

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    Keynes Roger J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polarization of somite-derived sclerotomes into anterior and posterior halves underlies vertebral morphogenesis and spinal nerve segmentation. To characterize the full extent of molecular differences that underlie this polarity, we have undertaken a systematic comparison of gene expression between the two sclerotome halves in the mouse embryo. Results Several hundred genes are differentially-expressed between the two sclerotome halves, showing that a marked degree of molecular heterogeneity underpins the development of somite polarity. Conclusion We have identified a set of genes that warrant further investigation as regulators of somite polarity and vertebral morphogenesis, as well as repellents of spinal axon growth. Moreover the results indicate that, unlike the posterior half-sclerotome, the central region of the anterior-half-sclerotome does not contribute bone and cartilage to the vertebral column, being associated instead with the development of the segmented spinal nerves.

  12. Ultrasound-guided approach for axillary brachial plexus, femoral nerve, and sciatic nerve blocks in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy, Luis; Bezuidenhout, Abraham J; Gleed, Robin D; Martin-Flores, Manuel; Raw, Robert M; Santare, Carrie L; Jay, Ariane R; Wang, Annie L

    2010-03-01

    To describe an ultrasound-guided technique and the anatomical basis for three clinically useful nerve blocks in dogs. Prospective experimental trial. Four hound-cross dogs aged 2 +/- 0 years (mean +/- SD) weighing 30 +/- 5 kg and four Beagles aged 2 +/- 0 years and weighing 8.5 +/- 0.5 kg. Axillary brachial plexus, femoral, and sciatic combined ultrasound/electrolocation-guided nerve blocks were performed sequentially and bilaterally using a lidocaine solution mixed with methylene blue. Sciatic nerve blocks were not performed in the hounds. After the blocks, the dogs were euthanatized and each relevant site dissected. Axillary brachial plexus block Landmark blood vessels and the roots of the brachial plexus were identified by ultrasound in all eight dogs. Anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the four ventral nerve roots (C6, C7, C8, and T1) and the axillary vessels. Three roots (C7, C8, and T1) were adequately stained bilaterally in all dogs. Femoral nerve block Landmark blood vessels (femoral artery and femoral vein), the femoral and saphenous nerves and the medial portion of the rectus femoris muscle were identified by ultrasound in all dogs. Anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the femoral vessels, femoral nerve, and the rectus femoris muscle. The femoral nerves were adequately stained bilaterally in all dogs. Sciatic nerve block. Ultrasound landmarks (semimembranosus muscle, the fascia of the biceps femoris muscle and the sciatic nerve) could be identified in all of the dogs. In the four Beagles, anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the biceps femoris muscle, the semimembranosus muscle, and the sciatic nerve. In the Beagles, all but one of the sciatic nerves were stained adequately. Ultrasound-guided needle insertion is an accurate method for depositing local anesthetic for axillary brachial plexus, femoral, and sciatic nerve blocks.

  13. Stress associated gene expression in blood cells is related to outcome in radiotherapy treated head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bøhn, Siv K; Blomhoff, Rune; Russnes, Kjell M; Sakhi, Amrit K; Thoresen, Magne; Holden, Marit; Moskaug, JanØ; Myhrstad, Mari C; Olstad, Ole K; Smeland, Sigbjørn

    2012-01-01

    We previously observed that a radiotherapy-induced biochemical response in plasma was associated with favourable outcome in head and neck squamous carcinoma cancer (HNSCC) patients. The aim of the present study was to compare stress associated blood cell gene expression between two sub-groups of HNSCC patients with different biochemical responses to radiotherapy. Out of 87 patients (histologically verified), 10 biochemical ‘responders’ having a high relative increase in plasma oxidative damage and a concomitant decrease in plasma antioxidants during radiotherapy and 10 ‘poor-responders’ were selected for gene-expression analysis and compared using gene set enrichment analysis. There was a significant induction of stress-relevant gene-sets in the responders following radiotherapy compared to the poor-responders. The relevance of the involvement of similar stress associated gene expression for HNSCC cancer and radioresistance was verified using two publicly available data sets of 42 HNSCC cases and 14 controls (GEO GSE6791), and radiation resistant and radiation sensitive HNSCC xenografts (E-GEOD-9716). Radiotherapy induces a systemic stress response, as revealed by induction of stress relevant gene expression in blood cells, which is associated to favourable outcome in a cohort of 87 HNSCC patients. Whether these changes in gene expression reflects a systemic effect or are biomarkers of the tumour micro-environmental status needs further study. Raw data are available at ArrayExpress under accession number E-MEXP-2460

  14. Inhibition of KLF7-Targeting MicroRNA 146b Promotes Sciatic Nerve Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Ting; Cheng, Yong-Xia; Liu, Yan-Cui; Zhai, Feng-Guo; Sun, Ping; Li, Hui-Ting; Deng, Ling-Xiao; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Ying

    2018-06-01

    A previous study has indicated that Krüppel-like factor 7 (KLF7), a transcription factor that stimulates Schwann cell (SC) proliferation and axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, is a promising therapeutic transcription factor in nerve injury. We aimed to identify whether inhibition of microRNA-146b (miR-146b) affected SC proliferation, migration, and myelinated axon regeneration following sciatic nerve injury by regulating its direct target KLF7. SCs were transfected with miRNA lentivirus, miRNA inhibitor lentivirus, or KLF7 siRNA lentivirus in vitro. The expression of miR146b and KLF7, as well as SC proliferation and migration, were subsequently evaluated. In vivo, an acellular nerve allograft (ANA) followed by injection of GFP control vector or a lentiviral vector encoding an miR-146b inhibitor was used to assess the repair potential in a model of sciatic nerve gap. miR-146b directly targeted KLF7 by binding to the 3'-UTR, suppressing KLF7. Up-regulation of miR-146b and KLF7 knockdown significantly reduced the proliferation and migration of SCs, whereas silencing miR-146b resulted in increased proliferation and migration. KLF7 protein was localized in SCs in which miR-146b was expressed in vivo. Similarly, 4 weeks after the ANA, anti-miR-146b increased KLF7 and its target gene nerve growth factor cascade, promoting axonal outgrowth. Closer analysis revealed improved nerve conduction and sciatic function index score, and enhanced expression of neurofilaments, P0 (anti-peripheral myelin), and myelinated axon regeneration. Our findings provide new insight into the regulation of KLF7 by miR-146b during peripheral nerve regeneration and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for peripheral nerve injury.

  15. Distribution of sensory nerve endings around the human sinus tarsi: a cadaver study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Susanne; Manthey, Suzanne; Zwipp, Hans; Witt, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the pattern of sensory nerve endings and blood vessels around the sinus tarsi. The superficial and deep parts of the fat pads at the inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) as well as the subtalar joint capsule inside the sinus tarsi from 13 cadaver feet were dissected. The distribution of the sensory nerve endings and blood vessels were analysed in the resected specimens as the number per cm2 after staining with haematoxylin-eosin, S100 protein, low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75, and protein gene product 9.5 using the classification of Freeman and Wyke. Free nerve endings were the predominant sensory ending (P < 0.001). Ruffini and Golgi-like endings were rarely found and no Pacini corpuscles were seen. Significantly more free nerve endings (P < 0.001) and blood vessels (P = 0.01) were observed in the subtalar joint capsule than in the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER. The deep part of the fat pad at the IER had significantly more blood vessels than the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER (P = 0.012). Significantly more blood vessels than free nerve endings were seen in all three groups (P < 0.001). No significant differences in distribution were seen in terms of right or left side, except for free nerve endings in the superficial part of the fat pad at the IER (P = 0.003). A greater number of free nerve endings correlated with a greater number of blood vessels. The presence of sensory nerve endings between individual fat cells supports the hypothesis that the fat pad has a proprioceptive role monitoring changes and that it is a source of pain in sinus tarsi syndrome due to the abundance of free nerve endings. PMID:24472004

  16. Secondary digital nerve repair in the foot with resorbable p(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve conduits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Nicolai, JPA; Robinson, PH

    Nerve guides are increasingly being used in peripheral nerve repair. In the last decade, Much preclinical research has been undertaken into a resorbable nerve guide composed of p(DLLA-epsilon-CL). This report describes the results of secondary digital nerve reconstruction in the foot in a patient

  17. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...

  18. Functionality of the baroreceptor nerves in heart rate regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.; Olufsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    are a consequence of the memory encapsulated by the models, and the nonlinearity gives rise to sigmoidal response curves. The nonlinear afferent baroreceptor models are coupled with an effector model, and the coupled model has been used to predict baroreceptor feedback regulation of heart rate during postural...... change from sitting to standing and during head-up tilt. The efferent model couples the afferent nerve paths to the sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow, and subsequently predicts the build up of an action potential at the sinus knot of the heart. In this paper, we analyze the nonlinear afferent model...... and show that the coupled model is able to predict heart rate regulation using blood pressure data as an input...

  19. Genipin-Cross-Linked Chitosan Nerve Conduits Containing TNF-α Inhibitors for Peripheral Nerve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhao, Weijia; Niu, Changmei; Zhou, Yujie; Shi, Haiyan; Wang, Yalin; Yang, Yumin; Tang, Xin

    2018-07-01

    Tissue engineered nerve grafts (TENGs) are considered a promising alternative to autologous nerve grafting, which is considered the "gold standard" clinical strategy for peripheral nerve repair. Here, we immobilized tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors onto a nerve conduit, which was introduced into a chitosan (CS) matrix scaffold utilizing genipin (GP) as the crosslinking agent, to fabricate CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits. The in vitro release kinetics of TNF-α inhibitors from the CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The in vivo continuous release profile of the TNF-α inhibitors released from the CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay over 14 days. We found that the amount of TNF-α inhibitors released decreased with time after the bridging of the sciatic nerve defects in rats. Moreover, 4 and 12 weeks after surgery, histological analyses and functional evaluations were carried out to assess the influence of the TENG on regeneration. Immunochemistry performed 4 weeks after grafting to assess early regeneration outcomes revealed that the TENG strikingly promoted axonal outgrowth. Twelve weeks after grafting, the TENG accelerated myelin sheath formation, as well as functional restoration. In general, the regenerative outcomes following TENG more closely paralleled findings observed with autologous grafting than the use of the CS matrix scaffold. Collectively, our data indicate that the CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits comprised an elaborate system for sustained release of TNF-α inhibitors in vitro, while studies in vivo demonstrated that the TENG could accelerate regenerating axonal outgrowth and functional restoration. The introduction of CS-GP-TNF-α-inhibitor nerve conduits into a scaffold may contribute to an efficient and adaptive immune microenvironment that can be used to facilitate peripheral nerve repair.

  20. [Does intraoperative nerve monitoring reduce the rate of recurrent nerve palsies during thyroid surgery?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, W; Dralle, H; Hamelmann, W; Thomusch, O; Sekulla, C; Meyer, Th; Timm, S; Thiede, A

    2002-05-01

    Two different aspects of the influence of neuromonitoring on the possible reduction of post-operative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies require critical examination: the nerve identification and the monitoring of it's functions. Due to the additional information from the EMG signals, neuromonitoring is the best method for identifying the nerves as compared to visual identification alone. There are still no randomized studies available that compare the visual and electrophysiological recurrent laryngeal nerve detection in thyroid operations with respect to the postoperative nerve palsies. Nevertheless, comparisons with historical collectives show that a constant low nerve-palsy-rate was achieved with electrophysiological detection in comparison to visual detection. The rate of nerve identification is normally very high and amounts to 99 % in our own patients. The data obtained during the "Quality assurance of benign and malignant Goiter" study show that in hemithyreoidectomy and subtotal resection, lower nerve-palsy-rates are achieved with neuromonitoring as compared to solely visual detection. Following subtotal resection, this discrepancy becomes even statistically significant. While monitoring the nerve functions with the presently used neuromonitoring technique, it is possible to observe the EMG-signal remaining constant or decreasing in volume. Assuming that a constant neuromonitoring signal represents a normal vocal cord, our evaluation shows that there is a small percentage of false negative and positive results. Looking at the permanent recurrent nerve palsy rates, this method has a specificity of 98 %, a sensitivity of 100 %, a positive prognostic value of 10 %, and a negative prognostic value of 100 %. Although an altered neuromonitoring signal can be taken as a clear indication of eventual nerve damage, an absolutely reliable statement about the postoperative vocal cord function is presently not possible with intraoperative neuromonitoring.