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Sample records for nerve crush accelerates

  1. Celecoxib accelerates functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in the rat

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    Fernández-Garza Nancy E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The inflammatory response appears to be essential in the modulation of the degeneration and regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. In injured nerves, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is strongly upregulated around the injury site, possibly playing a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. In this study we investigated the effect of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in rats. Unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury was performed on 10 male Wistar rats. Animals on the experimental group (n = 5 received celecoxib (10 mg/kg ip immediately before the crush injury and daily for 7 days after the injury. Control group (n = 5 received normal saline at equal regimen. A sham group (n = 5, where sciatic nerve was exposed but not crushed, was also evaluated. Functional recovery was then assessed by calculating the sciatic functional index (SFI on days 0,1,7,14 and 21 in all groups, and registering the day of motor and walking onset. In comparison with control group, celecoxib treatment (experimental group had significant beneficial effects on SFI, with a significantly better score on day 7. Anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  2. Miconazole enhances nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

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    Lin, Tao; Qiu, Shuai; Yan, Liwei; Zhu, Shuang; Zheng, Canbin; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin

    2018-05-01

    Improving axonal outgrowth and remyelination is crucial for peripheral nerve regeneration. Miconazole appears to enhance remyelination in the central nervous system. In this study we assess the effect of miconazole on axonal regeneration using a sciatic nerve crush injury model in rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and miconazole groups. Nerve regeneration and myelination were determined using histological and electrophysiological assessment. Evaluation of sensory and motor recovery was performed using the pinprick assay and sciatic functional index. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and Western blotting were used to assess the proliferation and neurotrophic expression of RSC 96 Schwann cells. Miconazole promoted axonal regrowth, increased myelinated nerve fibers, improved sensory recovery and walking behavior, enhanced stimulated amplitude and nerve conduction velocity, and elevated proliferation and neurotrophic expression of RSC 96 Schwann cells. Miconazole was beneficial for nerve regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Muscle Nerve 57: 821-828, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Curcumin promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in diabetic rats.

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    Ma, Junxiong; Yu, Hailong; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qi; Xiang, Liangbi

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is capable of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration in normal condition. However, it is unclear whether its beneficial effect on nerve regeneration still exists under diabetic mellitus. The present study was designed to investigate such a possibility. Diabetes in rats was developed by a single dose of streptozotocin at 50 mg/kg. Immediately after nerve crush injury, the diabetic rats were intraperitoneally administrated daily for 4 weeks with curcumin (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg), or normal saline, respectively. The axonal regeneration was investigated by morphometric analysis and retrograde labeling. The functional recovery was evaluated by electrophysiological studies and behavioral analysis. Axonal regeneration and functional recovery was significantly enhanced by curcumin, which were significantly better than those in vehicle saline group. In addition, high doses of curcumin (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) achieved better axonal regeneration and functional recovery than low dose (50 mg/kg). In conclusion, curcumin is capable of promoting nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush injury in diabetes mellitus, highlighting its therapeutic values as a neuroprotective agent for peripheral nerve injury repair in diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Resveratrol Promotes Nerve Regeneration via Activation of p300 Acetyltransferase-Mediated VEGF Signaling in a Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury.

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    Ding, Zhuofeng; Cao, Jiawei; Shen, Yu; Zou, Yu; Yang, Xin; Zhou, Wen; Guo, Qulian; Huang, Changsheng

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are generally associated with incomplete restoration of motor function. The slow rate of nerve regeneration after injury may account for this. Although many benefits of resveratrol have been shown in the nervous system, it is not clear whether resveratrol could promote fast nerve regeneration and motor repair after peripheral nerve injury. This study showed that the motor deficits caused by sciatic nerve crush injury were alleviated by daily systematic resveratrol treatment within 10 days. Resveratrol increased the number of axons in the distal part of the injured nerve, indicating enhanced nerve regeneration. In the affected ventral spinal cord, resveratrol enhanced the expression of several vascular endothelial growth factor family proteins (VEGFs) and increased the phosphorylation of p300 through Akt signaling, indicating activation of p300 acetyltransferase. Inactivation of p300 acetyltransferase reversed the resveratrol-induced expression of VEGFs and motor repair in rats that had undergone sciatic nerve crush injury. The above results indicated that daily systematic resveratrol treatment promoted nerve regeneration and led to rapid motor repair. Resveratrol activated p300 acetyltransferase-mediated VEGF signaling in the affected ventral spinal cord, which may have thus contributed to the acceleration of nerve regeneration and motor repair.

  5. Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats

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    Liang Shu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S and medial gastrocnemius (MG motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of acute crush injury of rabbit sciatic nerve: correlation with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Shen, J.; Chen, J.; Wang, X.; Liu, Q.; Liang, B.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the relation between the quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the correlation with histology and functional recovery by using the rabbit sciatic nerve crush model. In New Zealand, 32 rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (group A and B); all rabbits underwent crushing injury of their left sciatic nerve. In group A (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed by using microvessel clamps with a strength of 3.61 kg. In group B (n = 16), the sciatic nerves were crushed with a strength of 10.50 kg. Right sciatic nerves were served as controls. Serial MRI of both hind limbs in each rabbit was performed before and at the time point of 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after crushed injury. The MRI protocol included T1-weighted spin-echo (T1WI), 3 dimension turbo spin-echo T2-weighted (3DT2WI), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images with spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (T2WI/SPIR), balanced fast-field echo (B-FFE) and short-time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. The coronal image of the sciatic nerve was obtained. The nerve and muscle signal ratio (SIR) on each sequence was measured. The function recovery was observed and pathological examination was performed at each time point. A signal intensity increase of the distal segment of crushed sciatic nerves was found on 3DT2WI, T2WI/SP1R, B-FFE, and STIR, but not on T,WI images. Of 32 crushed nerves, 30 nerves showed high signal intensity. The correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% with false negative-positive of 6.25%. The SIR of the crushed sciatic nerve at distal portion was higher than those of the control nerves; there was a statistically significant difference (P 0.05). The SIR between group A and group B was not found statistically significantly different (P > 0.05). The SIR of crushed nerves at distal portion increased at one week after the crush injury, subsequently further increased, and reached a maximum at 2 weeks. The pathological examination revealed myelin

  7. Baseline effects of lysophosphatidylcholine and nerve growth factor in a rat model of sciatic nerve regeneration after crush injury

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    Ryan L Wood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells play a major role in helping heal injured nerves. They help clear debris, produce neurotrophins, upregulate neurotrophin receptors, and form bands of Büngner to guide the healing nerve. But nerves do not always produce enough neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors to repair themselves. Nerve growth factor (NGF is an important neurotrophin for promoting nerve healing and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC has been shown to stimulate NGF receptors (NGFR. This study tested the administration of a single intraneural injection of LPC (1 mg/mL for single LPC injection and 10 mg/mL for multiple LPC injections at day 0 and one (day 7, two (days 5 and 7, or three (days 5, 7, and 9 injections of NGF (160 ng/mL for single injections and 80 ng/mL for multiple injections to determine baseline effects on crushed sciatic nerves in rats. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, crush, crush-NGF, and crush-LPC-NGF. The healing of the nerves was measured weekly by monitoring gait; electrophysiological parameters: compound muscle action potential (CMAP amplitudes; and morphological parameters: total fascicle areas, myelinated fiber counts, fiber densities, fiber packing, and mean g-ratio values at weeks 3 and 6. The crush, crush-NGF, and crush-LPC-NGF groups statistically differed from the control group for all six weeks for the electrophysiological parameters but only differed from the control group at week 3 for the morphological parameters. The crush, crush-NGF, and crush-LPC-NGF groups did not differ from each other over the course of the study. Single injections of LPC and NGF one week apart or multiple treatments of NGF at 5, 7 and 9 days post-injury did not alter the healing rate of the sciatic nerves during weeks 1-6 of the study. These findings are important to define the baseline effects of NGF and LPC injections, as part of a larger effort to determine the minimal dose regimen of NGF to regenerate peripheral nerves.

  8. Exercise training improves functional recovery and motor nerve conduction velocity after sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Meeteren, N.L.U.; Brakkee, J.H.; Hamers, F.P.T.; Helders, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of exercise training on recuperation of sensorimotor function in the early phase of regeneration, and to monitor the long-term effects of exercise on electrophysiological aspects of the regenerating nerve. Design: After sciatic nerve crush in 20 male Wistar rats,

  9. Degeneration and regeneration of motor and sensory nerves: a stereological study of crush lesions in rat facial and mental nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barghash, Ziad; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Al-Bishri, Awad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration of a sensory nerve and a motor nerve at the histological level after a crush injury. Twenty-five female Wistar rats had their mental nerve and the buccal branch of their facial nerve compressed unilaterally against a glass rod...... for 30 s. Specimens of the compressed nerves and the corresponding control nerves were dissected at 3, 7, and 19 days after surgery. Nerve cross-sections were stained with osmium tetroxide and toluidine blue and analysed using two-dimensional stereology. We found differences between the two nerves both...... in the normal anatomy and in the regenerative pattern. The mental nerve had a larger cross-sectional area including all tissue components. The mental nerve had a larger volume fraction of myelinated axons and a correspondingly smaller volume fraction of endoneurium. No differences were observed...

  10. The percentage of macrophage numbers in rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury

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    Satrio Wicaksono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Excessive accumulation of macrophages in sciatic nerve fascicles inhibits regeneration of peripheral nerves. The aim of this study is to determine the percentage of the macrophages inside and outside of the fascicles at the proximal, at the site of injury and at the distal segment of rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury. Thirty male 3 months age Wistar rats of 200-230 g were divided into sham-operation group and crush injury group. Termination was performed on day 3, 7, and 14 after crush injury. Immunohistochemical examination was done using anti CD68 antibody. Counting of immunopositive and immunonegative cells was done on three representative fields for extrafascicular and intrafascicular area of proximal, injury and distal segments. The data was presented as percentage of immunopositive cells. The percentage of the macrophages was significantly increased in crush injury group compared to the sham-operated group in all segments of the peripheral nerves. While the percentage of macrophages outside fascicle in all segments of sciatic nerve and within the fascicle in the proximal segment reached its peak on day 3, the percentage of macrophages within the fascicles at the site of injury and distal segments reached the peak later at day 7. In conclusions, accumulation of macrophages outside the nerve fascicles occurs at the beginning of the injury, and then followed later by the accumulation of macrophages within nerve fascicles

  11. An Optic Nerve Crush Injury Murine Model to Study Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival

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    Tang, Zhongshu; Zhang, Shuihua; Lee, Chunsik; Kumar, Anil; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Fan; Li, Xuri

    2011-01-01

    Injury to the optic nerve can lead to axonal degeneration, followed by a gradual death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which results in irreversible vision loss. Examples of such diseases in human include traumatic optic neuropathy and optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma. It is characterized by typical changes in the optic nerve head, progressive optic nerve degeneration, and loss of retinal ganglion cells, if uncontrolled, leading to vision loss and blindness. The optic nerve crush (ONC) injury mouse model is an important experimental disease model for traumatic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, etc. In this model, the crush injury to the optic nerve leads to gradual retinal ganglion cells apoptosis. This disease model can be used to study the general processes and mechanisms of neuronal death and survival, which is essential for the development of therapeutic measures. In addition, pharmacological and molecular approaches can be used in this model to identify and test potential therapeutic reagents to treat different types of optic neuropathy. Here, we provide a step by step demonstration of (I) Baseline retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at day 1, (II) Optic nerve crush injury at day 4, (III) Harvest the retinae and analyze RGC survival at day 11, and (IV) Representative result. PMID:21540827

  12. Degeneration and regeneration of motor and sensory nerves: a stereological study of crush lesions in rat facial and mental nerves.

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    Barghash, Z; Larsen, J O; Al-Bishri, A; Kahnberg, K-E

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration of a sensory nerve and a motor nerve at the histological level after a crush injury. Twenty-five female Wistar rats had their mental nerve and the buccal branch of their facial nerve compressed unilaterally against a glass rod for 30s. Specimens of the compressed nerves and the corresponding control nerves were dissected at 3, 7, and 19 days after surgery. Nerve cross-sections were stained with osmium tetroxide and toluidine blue and analysed using two-dimensional stereology. We found differences between the two nerves both in the normal anatomy and in the regenerative pattern. The mental nerve had a larger cross-sectional area including all tissue components. The mental nerve had a larger volume fraction of myelinated axons and a correspondingly smaller volume fraction of endoneurium. No differences were observed in the degenerative pattern; however, at day 19 the buccal branch had regenerated to the normal number of axons, whereas the mental nerve had only regained 50% of the normal number of axons. We conclude that the regenerative process is faster and/or more complete in the facial nerve (motor function) than it is in the mental nerve (somatosensory function). Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute sciatic nerve crush injuries in rabbits: MRI and pathological comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinchun; Chen Jianyu; Wang Xinlu; Shen Jun; Liu Qingyu; Liang Biling

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Simulating injury mechanism in human peripheral nerve, acute sciatic nerve crush injuries model was produced in rabbits to investigate the relationship between the manifestations of MRI and pathology in order to provide the information for clinical therapy and operative plan. Methods: Thirty-two adult rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: group A (n=16) and B (n=16). In group A, the left sciatic nerves were crushed with a stress of 3.61 kg; In group B, with a stress of 10.50 kg. 4 time intervals in each group were observed in 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks, respectively, and each time interval contained 4 rabbits. Left sciatic nerves were served as injured sides, right sciatic nerves were regarded as control sides. MRI was performed at different time interval after crush injury. Then the nerves were examined pathologically. Results: There were no obvious changes on T 1 WI in injured sides, but the injured distal segment of sciatic nerve thickened and twisted, showing high signal intensity on 3D T 2 WI, T 2 WI/SPIR, B-FFE, and T 2 WI/STIR. MRI could show abnormality of 30 sciatic nerves, the correct diagnostic rate was 93.75% and false negative rate was 6.25%. The distal sciatic nerve/muscle signal intensity ratio (SIR) of the injured sides was significantly higher than that of the control sides (P 0.05). SIR in injured side increased at 1 week, reached the peak at 2 weeks, at this time, nerve axons disappeared and lots of myelin degenerated, abduction function disappeared. SIR decreased during 4-8 weeks, the myelin sheath breakdown and Schwann cell proliferated obviously, and abduction functions were observed. The control sciatic nerves showed no abnormality in MRI and pathology. Conclusion: MRI can make the diagnosis of crush injury of sciatic nerve, and dynamic SIR measurement of nerve injury correlates well with the pathological and functional recovery process. MRI is an effective method to monitor degeneration, regeneration, and prognosis after

  14. Administration of Oxygen Ultra-Fine Bubbles Improves Nerve Dysfunction in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Model

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    Hozo Matsuoka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-fine bubbles (<200 nm in diameter have several unique properties and have been tested in various medical fields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen ultra-fine bubbles (OUBs on a sciatic nerve crush injury (SNC model rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 1.5 mL saline, OUBs diluted in saline, or nitrogen ultra-fine bubbles (NUBs diluted in saline three times per week for 4 weeks in four groups: (1 control, (sham operation + saline; (2 SNC, (crush + saline; (3 SNC+OUB, (crush + OUB-saline; (4 SNC+NUB, (crush + NUB-saline. The effects of the OUBs on dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and Schwann cells (SCs were examined by serial dilution of OUB medium in vitro. Sciatic functional index, paw withdrawal thresholds, nerve conduction velocity, and myelinated axons were significantly decreased in the SNC group compared to the control group; these parameters were significantly improved in the SNC+OUB group, although NUB treatment did not affect these parameters. In vitro, OUBs significantly promoted neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons by activating AKT signaling and SC proliferation by activating ERK1/2 and JNK/c-JUN signaling. OUBs may improve nerve dysfunction in SNC rats by promoting neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons and SC proliferation.

  15. Early myelin breakdown following sural nerve crush: a freeze-fracture study

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    Martinez A.M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe the early changes of the myelin sheath following surgical nerve crush. We used the freeze-fracture technique to better evaluate myelin alterations during an early stage of Wallerian degeneration. Rat sural nerves were experimentally crushed and animals were sacrificed by transcardiac perfusion 30 h after surgery. Segments of the nerves were processed for routine transmission electron microscopy and freeze-fracture techniques. Our results show that 30 h after the lesion there was asynchrony in the pattern of Wallerian degeneration, with different nerve fibers exhibiting variable degrees of axon disruption. This was observed by both techniques. Careful examination of several replicas revealed early changes in myelin membranes represented by vacuolization and splitting of consecutive lamellae, rearrangement of intramembranous particles and disappearance of paranodal transverse bands associated or not with retraction of paranodal myelin terminal loops from the axolemma. These alterations are compatible with a direct injury to the myelin sheath following nerve crush. The results are discussed in terms of a similar mechanism underlying both axon and myelin breakdown.

  16. Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush

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    Morrison, Brett M.; Tsingalia, Akivaga; Vidensky, Svetlana; Lee, Youngjin; Jin, Lin; Farah, Mohamed H.; Lengacher, Sylvain; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Pellerin, Luc; Rothsteinb, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration following injury occurs spontaneously, but many of the processes require metabolic energy. The mechanism of energy supply to axons has not previously been determined. In the central nervous system, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), expressed in oligodendroglia, is critical for supplying lactate or other energy metabolites to axons. In the current study, MCT1 is shown to localize within the peripheral nervous system to perineurial cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and Schwann cells by MCT1 immunofluorescence in wild-type mice and tdTomato fluorescence in MCT1 BAC reporter mice. To investigate whether MCT1 is necessary for peripheral nerve regeneration, sciatic nerves of MCT1 heterozygous mice are crushed and peripheral nerve regeneration was quantified electrophysiologically and anatomically. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery is delayed from a median of 21. days in wild-type mice to greater than 38. days in MCT1 heterozygote mice. In fact, half of the MCT1 heterozygote mice have no recovery of CMAP at 42. days, while all of the wild-type mice recovered. In addition, muscle fibers remain 40% more atrophic and neuromuscular junctions 40% more denervated at 42. days post-crush in the MCT1 heterozygote mice than wild-type mice. The delay in nerve regeneration is not only in motor axons, as the number of regenerated axons in the sural sensory nerve of MCT1 heterozygote mice at 4. weeks and tibial mixed sensory and motor nerve at 3. weeks is also significantly reduced compared to wild-type mice. This delay in regeneration may be partly due to failed Schwann cell function, as there is reduced early phagocytosis of myelin debris and remyelination of axon segments. These data for the first time demonstrate that MCT1 is critical for regeneration of both sensory and motor axons in mice following sciatic nerve crush.

  17. Gallic acid and exercise training improve motor function, nerve conduction velocity but not pain sense reflex after experimental sciatic nerve crush in male rats

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    Maryam Hajimoradi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of gallic acid (GA for 21 days alone and in combination with exercise on nerve conduction velocity and sensory and motor functions in rats with sciatic nerve crush. Materials and Methods: Seventy adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g were divided randomly into 7 groups with 10 in each: 1 Control (Cont, 2 Crushed + Vehicle (Cr +Veh, 3-5 Crushed + gallic acid (Cr+GA (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/2 mL, orally, 6 Crushed + exercise (Cr+Exe, and 7 Crushed + exercise + effective dose of gallic acid (Cr+Exe +GA200 for 21 days. In order to establish an animal model of sciatic nerve crush, equivalent to 7 kg of force pressed on 2-3 mm of sciatic nerve for 30 s, three times with 30 s intervals. Pain sense reflex in hot plate, motor coordination in rotarod, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (SNCV in all groups were tested. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test and pResults: Pain threshold was increased significantly in untreated crushed rats while motor function and SNCV were decreased in all groups with nerve crush (p

  18. The Effects of Phrenic Nerve Degeneration by Axotomy and Crush on the Electrical Activities of Diaphragm Muscles of Rats.

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    Alkiş, Mehmet Eşref; Kavak, Servet; Sayır, Fuat; Him, Aydin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of axotomy and crush-related degeneration on the electrical activities of diaphragm muscle strips of experimental rats. In the present study, twenty-one male Wistar-albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The animals in the first group were not crushed or axotomized and served as controls. Phrenic nerves of the rats in the second and third groups were crushed or axotomized in the diaphragm muscle. Resting membrane potential (RMP) was decreased significantly in both crush and axotomy of diaphragm muscle strips of experimental rats (p phrenic nerves may produce electrical activities in the diaphragm muscle of the rat by depolarization time and half-repolarization time prolonged in crush and axotomy rats.

  19. Dominant inheritance of retinal ganglion cell resistance to optic nerve crush in mice

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    Schlamp Cassandra L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several neurodegenerative diseases are influenced by complex genetics that affect an individual's susceptibility, disease severity, and rate of progression. One such disease is glaucoma, a chronic neurodegenerative condition of the eye that targets and stimulates apoptosis of CNS neurons called retinal ganglion cells. Since ganglion cell death is intrinsic, it is reasonable that the genes that control this process may contribute to the complex genetics that affect ganglion cell susceptibility to disease. To determine if genetic background influences susceptibility to optic nerve damage, leading to ganglion cell death, we performed optic nerve crush on 15 different inbred lines of mice and measured ganglion cell loss. Resistant and susceptible strains were used in a reciprocal breeding strategy to examine the inheritance pattern of the resistance phenotype. Because earlier studies had implicated Bax as a susceptibility allele for ganglion cell death in the chronic neurodegenerative disease glaucoma, we conducted allelic segregation analysis and mRNA quantification to assess this gene as a candidate for the cell death phenotype. Results Inbred lines showed varying levels of susceptibility to optic nerve crush. DBA/2J mice were most resistant and BALB/cByJ mice were most susceptible. F1 mice from these lines inherited the DBA/2J phenotype, while N2 backcross mice exhibited the BALB/cByJ phenotype. F2 mice exhibited an intermediate phenotype. A Wright Formula calculation suggested as few as 2 dominant loci were linked to the resistance phenotype, which was corroborated by a Punnett Square analysis of the distribution of the mean phenotype in each cross. The levels of latent Bax mRNA were the same in both lines, and Bax alleles did not segregate with phenotype in N2 and F2 mice. Conclusion Inbred mice show different levels of resistance to optic nerve crush. The resistance phenotype is heritable in a dominant fashion involving

  20. Gallic acid and exercise training improve motor function, nerve conduction velocity but not pain sense reflex after experimental sciatic nerve crush in male rats.

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    Hajimoradi, Maryam; Fazilati, Mohammad; Gharib-Naseri, Mohammad Kazem; Sarkaki, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of gallic acid (GA) for 21 days alone and in combination with exercise on nerve conduction velocity and sensory and motor functions in rats with sciatic nerve crush. Seventy adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided randomly into 7 groups with 10 in each: 1) Control (Cont), 2) Crushed + Vehicle (Cr +Veh), 3-5) Crushed + gallic acid (Cr+GA) (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/2 mL, orally), 6) Crushed + exercise (Cr+Exe), and 7) Crushed + exercise + effective dose of gallic acid (Cr+Exe +GA200) for 21 days. In order to establish an animal model of sciatic nerve crush, equivalent to 7 kg of force pressed on 2-3 mm of sciatic nerve for 30 s, three times with 30 s intervals. Pain sense reflex in hot plate, motor coordination in rotarod, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) in all groups were tested. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test and preflex latency was not changed in treated groups. Motor coordination and SNCV were improved in groups Cr+GA200 and Cr+Exe + GA200 (p<0.05, p<0.01 vs. Cr+Veh). GA, dose-dependently, may have therapeutic potential to improve the peripheral nerve degeneration, which is most likely related, at least in part, to its antioxidant and therapeutic properties.

  1. The effect of weight-bearing exercise and non-weight-bearing exercise on gait in rats with sciatic nerve crush injury.

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    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Hwangbo, Gak; Kim, Seong-Gil

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to access the effect of weight bearing exercise (treadmill exercise) and non-weight-bearing exercise (swimming exercise) on gait in the recovery process after a sciatic nerve crush injury. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were randomly divided into a swimming group (n=3) with non-weight-bearing exercise after a sciatic nerve crush and a treadmill group (n=3) with weight bearing exercise after a sciatic nerve crush. Dartfish is a program that can analyze and interpret motion through video images. The knee lateral epicondyle, lateral malleolus, and metatarsophalangeal joint of the fifth toe were marked by black dots before recording. [Results] There were significant differences in TOK (knee angle toe off) and ICK (knee angle at initial contact) in the swimming group and in TOK, ICA (ankle angle at initial contact), and ICK in the treadmill group. In comparison between groups, there were significant differences in TOA (ankle angle in toe off) and ICA at the 7th day. [Conclusion] There was no difference between weight bearing and non-weight-bearing exercise in sciatic nerve damage, and both exercises accelerated the recovery process in this study.

  2. Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat Model: A Comparative Review of Pharmacologic Interventions.

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    Haney, Nora M; Nguyen, Hoang M T; Honda, Matthew; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2018-04-01

    It is common for men to develop erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. The anatomy of the rat allows the cavernous nerve (CN) to be identified, dissected, and injured in a controlled fashion. Therefore, bilateral CN injury (BCNI) in the rat model is routinely used to study post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. To compare and contrast the available literature on pharmacologic intervention after BCNI in the rat. A literature search was performed on PubMed for cavernous nerve and injury and erectile dysfunction and rat. Only articles with BCNI and pharmacologic intervention that could be grouped into categories of immune modulation, growth factor therapy, receptor kinase inhibition, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition, and anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic interventions were included. To assess outcomes of pharmaceutical intervention on erectile function recovery after BCNI in the rat model. The ratio of maximum intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure was the main outcome measure chosen for this analysis. All interventions improved erectile function recovery after BCNI based on the ratio of maximum intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure results. Additional end-point analysis examined the corpus cavernosa and/or the major pelvic ganglion and CN. There was extreme heterogeneity within the literature, making accurate comparisons between crush injury and therapeutic interventions difficult. BCNI in the rat is the accepted animal model used to study nerve-sparing post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction. However, an important limitation is extreme variability. Efforts should be made to decrease this variability and increase the translational utility toward clinical trials in humans. Haney NM, Nguyen HMT, Honda M, et al. Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat Model: A Comparative Review of Pharmacologic Interventions. Sex Med Rev 2018;6:234-241. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  3. Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

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    Emril DR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril,1 Samekto Wibowo,2 Lucas Meliala,2 Rina Susilowati3 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, IndonesiaBackground: Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine (citicoline has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.Methods: Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT tests were used to assess motoric function.Results: The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17 compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, P<0.005. The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (P<0.001. However, the sciatic functional index analysis did not show significant differences between groups (P=0.35. The crush/citicoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18 and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume.Conclusion: In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 μmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery

  4. [The neuroprotective effect of erigeron breviscapus (vant) hand-mazz on retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bing; Jiang, You-qin

    2003-08-01

    To investigate whether a Chinese herbal medicine, erigeron breviscapus (vant) hand-mazz (EBHM), can protect the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) damaged by calibrated optic nerve crush injury. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. Calibrated optic nerve crush injury model was induced in the right eyes by a special designed optic nerve clip. The left eyes served as a control. All 42 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A consisted of the rats with calibrated optic nerve crush injury and group B consisted of rats with calibrated optic nerve crush injury treated with EBHM. In group B, EBHM solution was given once after the crush injury. According to the time interval between the optic nerve crush and the sacrifice, both groups A and B were further divided into three subgroups (day 4, day 14 and day 21). Therefore, there were 7 rats in each subgroup. Three days before sacrifice, 3% fast blue was injected into superior colliculi bilaterally. The eyes were enucleated after the rat was sacrificed, and flat mounts of the retina from both eyes were prepared on a slide and observed under a fluorescence microscope. Four photos with 400 x magnification were taken from each of the four quadrants of the retina 1 mm away from the optic disc. The labeled RGC were counted by a computerized image analyzer. The labeled RGC rate was used for statistical analysis (the labeled RGC rate = number of RGC in injured eye/control eye x 100%). In group A, the labeled RGC rate was (77.79 +/- 7.11)%, (63.76 +/- 3.79)% and (54.66 +/- 4.75)% on day 4, day 14 and day 21, respectively. In group B, the labeled RGC rate was (80.13 +/- 12.03)%, (78.17 +/- 9.19)% and (83.59 +/- 12.61)% on day 4, day 14 and day 21, respectively. In group B, which was treated with EBHM after injury, the labeled RGC rate was significantly higher than that of group A on day 14 and day 21. In the experimental optic nerve crush model in rats, EBHM therapy can increase the survival rate of

  5. Nerve crush but not displacement-induced stretch of the intra-arachnoidal facial nerve promotes facial palsy after cerebellopontine angle surgery.

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    Bendella, Habib; Brackmann, Derald E; Goldbrunner, Roland; Angelov, Doychin N

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the reasons for occurrence of facial nerve palsy after removal of cerebellopontine angle tumors. Since the intra-arachnoidal portion of the facial nerve is considered to be so vulnerable that even the slightest tension or pinch may result in ruptured axons, we tested whether a graded stretch or controlled crush would affect the postoperative motor performance of the facial (vibrissal) muscle in rats. Thirty Wistar rats, divided into five groups (one with intact controls and four with facial nerve lesions), were used. Under inhalation anesthesia, the occipital squama was opened, the cerebellum gently retracted to the left, and the intra-arachnoidal segment of the right facial nerve exposed. A mechanical displacement of the brainstem with 1 or 3 mm toward the midline or an electromagnet-controlled crush of the facial nerve with a tweezers at a closure velocity of 50 and 100 mm/s was applied. On the next day, whisking motor performance was determined by video-based motion analysis. Even the larger (with 3 mm) mechanical displacement of the brainstem had no harmful effect: The amplitude of the vibrissal whisks was in the normal range of 50°-60°. On the other hand, even the light nerve crush (50 mm/s) injured the facial nerve and resulted in paralyzed vibrissal muscles (amplitude of 10°-15°). We conclude that, contrary to the generally acknowledged assumptions, it is the nerve crush but not the displacement-induced stretching of the intra-arachnoidal facial trunk that promotes facial palsy after cerebellopontine angle surgery in rats.

  6. Protection by an oral disubstituted hydroxylamine derivative against loss of retinal ganglion cell differentiation following optic nerve crush.

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    James D Lindsey

    Full Text Available Thy-1 is a cell surface protein that is expressed during the differentiation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Optic nerve injury induces progressive loss in the number of RGCs expressing Thy-1. The rate of this loss is fastest during the first week after optic nerve injury and slower in subsequent weeks. This study was undertaken to determine whether oral treatment with a water-soluble N-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine derivative (OT-440 protects against loss of Thy-1 promoter activation following optic nerve crush and whether this effect targets the earlier quick phase or the later slow phase. The retina of mice expressing cyan fluorescent protein under control of the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-CFP mice was imaged using a blue-light confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (bCSLO. These mice then received oral OT-440 prepared in cream cheese or dissolved in water, or plain vehicle, for two weeks and were imaged again prior to unilateral optic nerve crush. Treatments and weekly imaging continued for four more weeks. Fluorescent neurons were counted in the same defined retinal areas imaged at each time point in a masked fashion. When the counts at each time point were directly compared, the numbers of fluorescent cells at each time point were greater in the animals that received OT-440 in cream cheese by 8%, 27%, 52% and 60% than in corresponding control animals at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after optic nerve crush. Similar results were obtained when the vehicle was water. Rate analysis indicated the protective effect of OT-440 was greatest during the first two weeks and was maintained in the second two weeks after crush for both the cream cheese vehicle study and water vehicle study. Because most of the fluorescent cells detected by bCSLO are RGCs, these findings suggest that oral OT-440 can either protect against or delay early degenerative responses occurring in RGCs following optic nerve injury.

  7. Protection by an oral disubstituted hydroxylamine derivative against loss of retinal ganglion cell differentiation following optic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, James D; Duong-Polk, Karen X; Dai, Yi; Nguyen, Duy H; Leung, Christopher K; Weinreb, Robert N

    2013-01-01

    Thy-1 is a cell surface protein that is expressed during the differentiation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Optic nerve injury induces progressive loss in the number of RGCs expressing Thy-1. The rate of this loss is fastest during the first week after optic nerve injury and slower in subsequent weeks. This study was undertaken to determine whether oral treatment with a water-soluble N-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine derivative (OT-440) protects against loss of Thy-1 promoter activation following optic nerve crush and whether this effect targets the earlier quick phase or the later slow phase. The retina of mice expressing cyan fluorescent protein under control of the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-CFP mice) was imaged using a blue-light confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (bCSLO). These mice then received oral OT-440 prepared in cream cheese or dissolved in water, or plain vehicle, for two weeks and were imaged again prior to unilateral optic nerve crush. Treatments and weekly imaging continued for four more weeks. Fluorescent neurons were counted in the same defined retinal areas imaged at each time point in a masked fashion. When the counts at each time point were directly compared, the numbers of fluorescent cells at each time point were greater in the animals that received OT-440 in cream cheese by 8%, 27%, 52% and 60% than in corresponding control animals at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after optic nerve crush. Similar results were obtained when the vehicle was water. Rate analysis indicated the protective effect of OT-440 was greatest during the first two weeks and was maintained in the second two weeks after crush for both the cream cheese vehicle study and water vehicle study. Because most of the fluorescent cells detected by bCSLO are RGCs, these findings suggest that oral OT-440 can either protect against or delay early degenerative responses occurring in RGCs following optic nerve injury.

  8. Time-Dependent Nerve Growth Factor Signaling Changes in the Rat Retina During Optic Nerve Crush-Induced Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells

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    Louise A. Mesentier-Louro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor (NGF is suggested to be neuroprotective after nerve injury; however, retinal ganglion cells (RGC degenerate following optic-nerve crush (ONC, even in the presence of increased levels of endogenous NGF. To further investigate this apparently paradoxical condition, a time-course study was performed to evaluate the effects of unilateral ONC on NGF expression and signaling in the adult retina. Visually evoked potential and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess axonal damage and RGC loss. The levels of NGF, proNGF, p75NTR, TrkA and GFAP and the activation of several intracellular pathways were analyzed at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after crush (dac by ELISA/Western Blot and PathScan intracellular signaling array. The progressive RGC loss and nerve impairment featured an early and sustained activation of apoptotic pathways; and GFAP and p75NTR enhancement. In contrast, ONC-induced reduction of TrkA, and increased proNGF were observed only at 7 and 14 dac. We propose that proNGF and p75NTR contribute to exacerbate retinal degeneration by further stimulating apoptosis during the second week after injury, and thus hamper the neuroprotective effect of the endogenous NGF. These findings might aid in identifying effective treatment windows for NGF-based strategies to counteract retinal and/or optic-nerve degeneration.

  9. Time-Dependent Nerve Growth Factor Signaling Changes in the Rat Retina During Optic Nerve Crush-Induced Degeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesentier-Louro, Louise A; De Nicolò, Sara; Rosso, Pamela; De Vitis, Luigi A; Castoldi, Valerio; Leocani, Letizia; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia; Santiago, Marcelo F; Tirassa, Paola; Rama, Paolo; Lambiase, Alessandro

    2017-01-05

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is suggested to be neuroprotective after nerve injury; however, retinal ganglion cells (RGC) degenerate following optic-nerve crush (ONC), even in the presence of increased levels of endogenous NGF. To further investigate this apparently paradoxical condition, a time-course study was performed to evaluate the effects of unilateral ONC on NGF expression and signaling in the adult retina. Visually evoked potential and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess axonal damage and RGC loss. The levels of NGF, proNGF, p75 NTR , TrkA and GFAP and the activation of several intracellular pathways were analyzed at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after crush (dac) by ELISA/Western Blot and PathScan intracellular signaling array. The progressive RGC loss and nerve impairment featured an early and sustained activation of apoptotic pathways; and GFAP and p75 NTR enhancement. In contrast, ONC-induced reduction of TrkA, and increased proNGF were observed only at 7 and 14 dac. We propose that proNGF and p75 NTR contribute to exacerbate retinal degeneration by further stimulating apoptosis during the second week after injury, and thus hamper the neuroprotective effect of the endogenous NGF. These findings might aid in identifying effective treatment windows for NGF-based strategies to counteract retinal and/or optic-nerve degeneration.

  10. Retrograde tracing and toe spreading after experimental autologous nerve transplantation and crush injury of the sciatic nerve: a descriptive methodological study

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    van Neerven Sabien GA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation of functional and structural recovery after peripheral nerve injury is crucial to determine the therapeutic effect of a nerve repair strategy. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the structural evaluation of regeneration by means of retrograde tracing and the functional analysis of toe spreading. Two standardized rat sciatic nerve injury models were used to address this relationship. As such, animals received either a 2 cm sciatic nerve defect (neurotmesis followed by autologous nerve transplantation (ANT animals or a crush injury with spontaneous recovery (axonotmesis; CI animals. Functional recovery of toe spreading was observed over an observation period of 84 days. In contrast to CI animals, ANT animals did not reach pre-surgical levels of toe spreading. After the observation period, the lipophilic dye DiI was applied to label sensory and motor neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG; sensory neurons and spinal cord (motor neurons, respectively. No statistical difference in motor or sensory neuron counts could be detected between ANT and CI animals. In the present study we could indicate that there was no direct relationship between functional recovery (toe spreading measured by SSI and the number of labelled (motor and sensory neurons evaluated by retrograde tracing. The present findings demonstrate that a multimodal approach with a variety of independent evaluation tools is essential to understand and estimate the therapeutic benefit of a nerve repair strategy.

  11. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae

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    Kah-Hui Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. The aim was to investigate the possible use of this mushroom in the treatment of injured nerve. Functional recovery was assessed in behavioral experiment by walking track analysis. Peroneal functional index (PFI was determined before surgery and after surgery as rats showed signs of recovery. Histological examinations were performed on peroneal nerve by immunofluorescence staining and neuromuscular junction by combined silver-cholinesterase stain. Analysis of PFI indicated that return of hind limb function occurred earlier in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin (positive control group compared to negative control group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates in extensor digitorum longus muscle in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin group developed better than in negative control group. These data suggest that daily oral administration of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery.

  12. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; David, Pamela; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2011-01-01

    Nerve crush injury is a well-established axonotmetic model in experimental regeneration studies to investigate the impact of various pharmacological treatments. Hericium erinaceus is a temperate mushroom but is now being cultivated in tropical Malaysia. In this study, we investigated the activity of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies in promoting functional recovery following an axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. The aim was to investigate the possible use of this mushroom in the treatment of injured nerve. Functional recovery was assessed in behavioral experiment by walking track analysis. Peroneal functional index (PFI) was determined before surgery and after surgery as rats showed signs of recovery. Histological examinations were performed on peroneal nerve by immunofluorescence staining and neuromuscular junction by combined silver-cholinesterase stain. Analysis of PFI indicated that return of hind limb function occurred earlier in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin (positive control) group compared to negative control group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates in extensor digitorum longus muscle in rats of aqueous extract or mecobalamin group developed better than in negative control group. These data suggest that daily oral administration of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus fresh fruiting bodies could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery. PMID:21941586

  13. The Changes in Rats with Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Supplemented with Evening Primrose Oil: Behavioural, Morphologic, and Morphometric Analysis

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    Danial Ramli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve crush injuries are commonly used models for axonotmesis to examine peripheral nerve regeneration. As evening primrose oil (EPO is rich in omega-6 essential fatty acid component and gamma-linolenic acid, studies have shown the potential role of EPO in myelination. Seventy-two healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into three groups: normal group, control group, and experimental group. The result indicates that there was significant difference in toe-spreading reflex between the normal and the control groups (1.9±0.031, p<0.05 and the normal and the EPO groups (0.4±0.031, p<0.05 and significant difference between EPO and the control groups (1.5±0.031, p<0.05. Regeneration of axons and myelin in nerve fibre in the EPO-treated group developed better and faster than in the control group. In the control group, the shape of the axon was irregular with a thinner myelin sheath. In the experimental group, the shape of the axons, the thickness of the myelin sheath, and the diameter of the axons were almost the same as in the normal group. In conclusion, EPO supplementation may be beneficial as a therapeutic option for disturbances of nerve interaction.

  14. A novel motion analysis approach reveals late recovery in C57BL/6 mice and deficits in NCAM-deficient mice after sciatic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Andreas; Schachner, Melitta; Irintchev, Andrey

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of motor abilities after sciatic nerve injury in rodents, in particular mice, relies exclusively on walking track (footprint) analysis despite known limitations of this method. Using principles employed recently for video-based motion analyses after femoral nerve and spinal cord injuries, we have designed and report here a novel approach for functional assessments after sciatic nerve lesions in mice. Functional deficits are estimated by angle and distance measurements on single video frames recorded during beam-walking and inclined ladder climbing. Analyses of adult C57BL/6J mice after crush of the sciatic, tibial, or peroneal nerve allowed the identification of six numerical parameters, detecting impairments of the plantar flexion of the foot and the toe spread. Some of these parameters, as well as footprint functional indices, revealed severe impairment after crush injury of the sciatic or tibial, but not the peroneal nerve, and complete recovery within 3 weeks after lesion. Other novel estimates, however, showed that complete recovery is reached as late as 2-3 months after sciatic nerve crush. These measures detected both tibial and peroneal dysfunction. In contrast to the complete restoration of function in wild-type mice (100%), our new parameters, in contrast to the sciatic functional index, showed incomplete recovery (85%) 90 days after sciatic nerve crush in mice deficient in the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). We conclude that the novel video-based approach is more precise, sensitive, and versatile than established tests, allowing objective numerical assessment of different motor functions in a sciatic nerve injury paradigm in mice.

  15. Engrafted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived anterior specified neural progenitors protect the rat crushed optic nerve.

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    Leila Satarian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs is a common occurrence in several eye diseases. This study examined the functional improvement and protection of host RGCs in addition to the survival, integration and neuronal differentiation capabilities of anterior specified neural progenitors (NPs following intravitreal transplantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NPs were produced under defined conditions from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs and transplanted into rats whose optic nerves have been crushed (ONC. hiPSCs were induced to differentiate into anterior specified NPs by the use of Noggin and retinoic acid. The hiPSC-NPs were labeled by green fluorescent protein or a fluorescent tracer 1,1' -dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI and injected two days after induction of ONC in hooded rats. Functional analysis according to visual evoked potential recordings showed significant amplitude recovery in animals transplanted with hiPSC-NPs. Retrograde labeling by an intra-collicular DiI injection showed significantly higher numbers of RGCs and spared axons in ONC rats treated with hiPSC-NPs or their conditioned medium (CM. The analysis of CM of hiPSC-NPs showed the secretion of ciliary neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor. Optic nerve of cell transplanted groups also had increased GAP43 immunoreactivity and myelin staining by FluoroMyelin™ which imply for protection of axons and myelin. At 60 days post-transplantation hiPSC-NPs were integrated into the ganglion cell layer of the retina and expressed neuronal markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transplantation of anterior specified NPs may improve optic nerve injury through neuroprotection and differentiation into neuronal lineages. These NPs possibly provide a promising new therapeutic approach for traumatic optic nerve injuries and loss of RGCs caused by other diseases.

  16. Ultrasound-guided plasma rich in growth factors injections and scaffolds hasten motor nerve functional recovery in an ovine model of nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Mikel; Anitua, E; Delgado, D; Prado, R; Sánchez, P; Fiz, N; Guadilla, J; Azofra, J; Pompei, O; Orive, G; Ortega, M; Yoshioka, T; Padilla, S

    2017-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the motor recovery process of peripheral nerve injury (PNI), based on electrophysiological and histomorphometric criteria, after treatment with plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) injections and scaffolds in an ovine model. Three groups of sheep underwent a nerve crush lesion: the first group (n = 3) was left to recover spontaneously (SR); the second group was administered saline injections (SI; n = 5) and a third group (n = 6) received PRGF injections and scaffolds immediately after the crush injury. At post-intervention week 8, 70% of sheep in the PRGF group were CMAP-positive, with no electrophysiological response in the rest of the groups. Histomorphometric analysis 12 weeks after the surgical intervention revealed that the average axonal density of the SR (1184 ± 864 axons/µm 2 ) and SI (3109 ± 2450 axons/µm 2 ) groups was significantly inferior to the control (8427 ± 2433 axons/µm 2 ) and also inferior to the PRGF group (5276 ± 4148 axons/µm 2 ), showing no significant differences between the control and PRGF groups. The axonal size of the SR and SI groups was significantly smaller compared with the control group (18 ± 4 µm 2 ), whereas the axonal size of the PRGF group (6 ± 5 µm 2 ) did not show statistical differences from the control. Morphometry of the target muscles indicated that the PRGF group had the lowest percentage volume reduction 12 weeks after the crush injury. The PRGF group had larger muscle fibre areas than the SI and SR groups, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. Overall, these data suggest that the PRGF injections and scaffolds hastened functional axon recovery and dampened atrophy of the target muscles in an ovine model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Sam68 promotes Schwann cell proliferation by enhancing the PI3K/Akt pathway and acts on regeneration after sciatic nerve crush

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    Wu, Weijie, E-mail: 459586768@qq.com; Liu, Yuxi, E-mail: 924013616@qq.com; Wang, Youhua, E-mail: wyouhua1516@163.com

    2016-05-13

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kD), a KH domain RNA-binding protein, is not only important in signaling transduction cascades, but crucial in a variety of cellular processes. Sam68 is reported to be involved in the phospoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways, and it is closely associated with cell proliferation, RNA metabolism, and tumor progression. However, we know little about the role of Sam68 during peripheral nervous system injury and regeneration. In this study, we investigated the expression of Sam68 and its biological significances in sciatic nerve crush. Interestingly, we found Sam68 had a co-localization with S100 (Schwann cell marker). Moreover, after crush, Sam68 had a spatiotemporal protein expression, which was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro, we also observed increased expression of Sam68 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation model. Besides, flow cytometry analyses, CCK-8, and EDU were all performed with the purpose of investigating the role of Sam68 in the regulation of Schwann cell proliferation. Even more importantly, we discovered that Sam68 could enhance the phosphorylation of Akt while LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) obviously reversed Sam68-induced cell proliferation. Finally, we detected the variance during regeneration progress through the rat walk footprint test. In summary, all these evidences demonstrated that Sam68 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation partially via PI3K/Akt pathway and also regulate regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. -- Highlights: •The dynamic changes and location of Sam68 after sciatic nerve crush. •Sam68 promoted Schwann cell proliferation via PI3K/Akt pathway. •Sam68 modulated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

  18. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I and platelet-rich plasma on sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel, Erhan; Ergün, Selma Sönmez; Kotan, Dilcan; Gürsoy, Esra Başar; Parman, Yeşim; Zengin, Asli; Nurten, Asiye

    2011-02-01

    Local administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been shown to increase the rate of axon regeneration in crush-injured and freeze-injured rat sciatic nerves. Local administration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been also shown to have a measurable effect on facial nerve regeneration after transection in a rat model. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of locally administered IGF-I and PRP on the parameters of the Sciatic Function Index (SFI), sensory function (SF), axon count, and myelin thickness/axon diameter ratio (G-ratio) in a rat model of crush-injured sciatic nerves. The right sciatic nerve of Wistar albino rats (24 animals) was crushed using a Yasargil-Phynox aneurysm clip for 45 minutes. All animals were randomly divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (control group) was treated with saline, Group 2 was treated with IGF-I, and Group 3 was treated with PRP. Injections were performed using the tissue expander's injection port with a connecting tube directed at the crush-injured site. Functional recovery was assessed with improvement in the SFI. Recovery of sensory function was using the pinch test. Histopathological examination was performed 3 months after the injury. The SFI showed an improved functional recovery in the IGF-I-treated animals (Group 2) compared with the saline-treated animals (Group 1) 30 days after the injury. In IGF-I-treated rats, sensory function returned to the baseline level significantly faster than in saline-treated and PRP-treated rats as shown in values between SF-2 and SF-7. The G-ratios were found to be significantly higher in both experimental groups than in the control group. This study suggests that the application of IGF-I to the crush-injured site may expedite the functional recovery of paralyzed muscle by increasing the rate of axon regeneration.

  19. Sam68 promotes Schwann cell proliferation by enhancing the PI3K/Akt pathway and acts on regeneration after sciatic nerve crush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Weijie; Liu, Yuxi; Wang, Youhua

    2016-01-01

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kD), a KH domain RNA-binding protein, is not only important in signaling transduction cascades, but crucial in a variety of cellular processes. Sam68 is reported to be involved in the phospoinositide3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways, and it is closely associated with cell proliferation, RNA metabolism, and tumor progression. However, we know little about the role of Sam68 during peripheral nervous system injury and regeneration. In this study, we investigated the expression of Sam68 and its biological significances in sciatic nerve crush. Interestingly, we found Sam68 had a co-localization with S100 (Schwann cell marker). Moreover, after crush, Sam68 had a spatiotemporal protein expression, which was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro, we also observed increased expression of Sam68 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation model. Besides, flow cytometry analyses, CCK-8, and EDU were all performed with the purpose of investigating the role of Sam68 in the regulation of Schwann cell proliferation. Even more importantly, we discovered that Sam68 could enhance the phosphorylation of Akt while LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) obviously reversed Sam68-induced cell proliferation. Finally, we detected the variance during regeneration progress through the rat walk footprint test. In summary, all these evidences demonstrated that Sam68 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation partially via PI3K/Akt pathway and also regulate regeneration after sciatic nerve crush. -- Highlights: •The dynamic changes and location of Sam68 after sciatic nerve crush. •Sam68 promoted Schwann cell proliferation via PI3K/Akt pathway. •Sam68 modulated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

  20. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Yang, Dar-Yu; Ho, Shu-Peng; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chen, Chung-Jung; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Chang, Ming-Hong; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2009-08-23

    Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto) was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS) was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days); Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits.

  1. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Hung-Chuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days; Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits.

  2. Deficient functional recovery after facial nerve crush in rats is associated with restricted rearrangements of synaptic terminals in the facial nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundeshagen, G; Szameit, K; Thieme, H; Finkensieper, M; Angelov, D N; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Irintchev, A

    2013-09-17

    Crush injuries of peripheral nerves typically lead to axonotmesis, axonal damage without disruption of connective tissue sheaths. Generally, human patients and experimental animals recover well after axonotmesis and the favorable outcome has been attributed to precise axonal reinnervation of the original peripheral targets. Here we assessed functionally and morphologically the long-term consequences of facial nerve axonotmesis in rats. Expectedly, we found that 5 months after crush or cryogenic nerve lesion, the numbers of motoneurons with regenerated axons and their projection pattern into the main branches of the facial nerve were similar to those in control animals suggesting precise target reinnervation. Unexpectedly, however, we found that functional recovery, estimated by vibrissal motion analysis, was incomplete at 2 months after injury and did not improve thereafter. The maximum amplitude of whisking remained substantially, by more than 30% lower than control values even 5 months after axonotmesis. Morphological analyses showed that the facial motoneurons ipsilateral to injury were innervated by lower numbers of glutamatergic terminals (-15%) and cholinergic perisomatic boutons (-26%) compared with the contralateral non-injured motoneurons. The structural deficits were correlated with functional performance of individual animals and associated with microgliosis in the facial nucleus but not with polyinnervation of muscle fibers. These results support the idea that restricted CNS plasticity and insufficient afferent inputs to motoneurons may substantially contribute to functional deficits after facial nerve injuries, possibly including pathologic conditions in humans like axonotmesis in idiopathic facial nerve (Bell's) palsy. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of Tianma Gouteng Decoction on retinal ganglion cells in rat optic nerve crush model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Tao Lyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the mechanism of Tianma Gouteng Decoction on the protein molecular level in the optic nerve crush model rats. METHODS: Totally 36 participants 36 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups(6 in every group: normal control group, negative control group, Tianma Gouteng Decoction treatment groups(con-centrations were 0.6g/mL, 1.2g/mL, 2.4g/mL respictivelyand ginkgo biloba tablets positive control group(concentrations was 1.2mg/mL. Nothing was done in the normal control group. The optic nerve of right eye in the other groups was done with the optic nerve crush model. Normal control group and negative control group was treated only with water. The average grey scale values of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B(NMDA2Breceptor protein, beta - amyloid protein(Aβin the average grey scale values were detected. RESULTS: The average grey scale value of Tianma Gouteng Decoction in low, medium and high dose groups about NMDA2B receptor protein was significantly less than that of the negative control group(all PP=0.092, 0.411, 0.676, the difference between normal control group and negative control group was significant(PP=0.030, 0.001. The low dose group than the negative control group was not obviously(P=0.614. The high dose group was not significantly different from the positive control group(P=0.927, the difference between normal control group and negative control group was significant(PCONCLUSION: Tianma Gouteng Decoction can go through the decrease of the NMDA2B receptor protein expression and the control of beta-amyloid deposition to reduce the retinal ganglion cell injury and apoptosis.

  4. Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field pretreated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote the regeneration of crush-injured rat mental nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, NaRi; Lee, Sung-Ho; Ju, Kyung Won; Woo, JaeMan; Kim, BongJu; Kim, SoungMin; Jahng, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments. In in vitro experiments, quantitative DNA analysis was performed to determine the proliferation of BMSCs, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect S100 (Schwann cell marker), glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor (neurotrophic factors) mRNA expression. In the in vivo experiments, rat models of crush-injured mental nerve established using clamp method were randomly injected with low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs, unpretreated BMSCs or PBS at the injury site (1 × 10 6 cells). DiI-labeled BMSCs injected at the injury site were counted under the fluorescence microscope to determine cell survival. One or two weeks after cell injection, functional recovery of the injured nerve was assessed using the sensory test with von Frey filaments. Two weeks after cell injection, axonal regeneration was evaluated using histomorphometric analysis and retrograde labeling of trigeminal ganglion neurons. In vitro experiment results revealed that low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs proliferated faster and had greater mRNA expression of growth factors than unpretreated BMSCs. In vivo experiment results revealed that compared with injection of unpretreated BMSCs, injection of low-frequency PEMF pretreated BMSCs led to higher myelinated axon count and axon density and

  5. Balance and coordination training, but not endurance training, enhances synaptophysin and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord after sciatic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Leandro Viçosa; Ilha, Jocemar; Schneider, Ana Paula Krauthein; Barbosa, Silvia; Faccioni-Heuser, Maria Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Numerous rehabilitation treatments have been shown to be useful for peripheral and central restoration after (PNI). After sciatic nerve crush, we investigated 4 weeks of endurance training (ET) and balance and coordination training (BCT) with sciatic function index, hind-paw stride length, and spinal cord dorsal horn synaptophysin and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity. Our results demonstrated no significant differences between the non-trained (NT), ET, and BCT groups in sciatic functional index, and in stride-length analysis, but the ET showed higher values compared with the NT group. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was higher in the BCT group compared with the NT group, and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity in the BCT group was greater compared with the other groups. BCT can positively affect spinal cord plasticity after a (PNI), and these modifications are important in the rehabilitation process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Acceleration of Regeneration of Large Gap Peripheral Nerve Injuries Using Acellular Nerve Allografts plus amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W811XWH-13-1-0310 TITLE: Acceleration of Regeneration of Large-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injuries Using Acellular Nerve Allografts...plus amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS). PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zhongyu Li, MD, PhD RECIPIENT: Wake Forest University Health Sciences...REPORT DATE September 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1Sep2015 - 31Aug2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acceleration of Regeneration of Large

  7. Effect of pigment epithelium derived factor on NO and the expression of caspase-3 in retinal tissues of model rats with optic nerve crush injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the effect of pigment epithelium derived factor(PEDFon nitrogen monoxide(NOand expression of cysteine-containing, aspartate-specific proteases-3(caspase-3in retinal tissues of model rats with optic nerve crush injury. METHODS: A total of 60 SD rats were randomly divided into the blank control group, model group and PEDF group, with 20 rats in each group. Except the blank control group, the optic nerve crush injury rat models were established in the other groups, and left eyeballs were taken as samples. After successfully modeling, the model group were treated with intravitreal injection of 5μL of balanced salt solution while PEDF group were treated with intravitreal injection of 5μL of PEDF(0.2μg/μL. Two weeks later, the retinal tissues were collected, and changes of shape were observed under microscope after HE staining. The changes of NO level were measured by colorimetry assay, the expression of caspase-3 mRNA and caspase-3 protein was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCRand Western-blot. RESULTS: HE staining showed that retinal tissues of the blank control group arranged neatly and clearly. Retinal ganglion cells(RGCsarranged in a monolayer, and cells were oval, uniform in size and distribution, the cell nuclei were clear, closely arranged, with clear boundaries. The retinal tissues of the model group were sparse in shape, RGCs showed vacuolar changes, the overall number of cells was reduced, and cell nuclei of residual RGCs showed pyknosis and uneven staining. RGCs in PEDF group were with slightly edema and arranged closely, and the degree of injury was significantly milder than that in the model group. Levels of Caspase-3 mRNA and protein and NO levels in the three groups showed the model group > PEDF group > blank control group(all P CONCLUSION: The application of PEDF can down regulate the expression of Caspase-3 and NO in rates with optic nerve injury and reduce RGCs injury.

  8. Crush Grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.Q.

    2005-01-01

    Crush Grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. In this process, a precise profile of the desired product is formed on a tungsten carbide roll. This roll slowly transfers a mirror image of the profile onto the grinding surface of a wheel. The transfer rate of the profile is between 0.001 and 0.010 inches per minute. Crush grinding is desirable since it provides consistent surface finishes and thin walls at a high production rate. In addition, it generates very sharp fillet radii. However, crush grinding is a complex process since many variables affect the final product. Therefore, the process requires more attention and knowledge beyond basic metal removal practices. While the Kansas City Plant began using these machines in 1995, a formal study regarding crush grinding has not been conducted there. In addition, very little literature is available in the grinding industry regarding this process. As a result, new engineers at the Kansas City Plant must learn the process through trial and error. The purpose of this document is to address this literature deficit while specifically promoting a better understanding of the stem crush grinding process at the Kansas City Plant.

  9. Complement inhibition accelerates regeneration in a model of peripheral nerve injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaglia, Valeria; Tannemaat, Martijn Rudolf; de Kok, Maryla; Wolterman, Ruud; Vigar, Miriam Ann; King, Rosalind Helen Mary; Morgan, Bryan Paul; Baas, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Complement (C) activation is a crucial event in peripheral nerve degeneration but its effect on the subsequent regeneration is unknown. Here we show that genetic deficiency of the sixth C component, C6, accelerates axonal regeneration and recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. Foot-flick

  10. Systemic down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase promotes muscle oxidative metabolism and accelerates muscle function recovery following nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Hussain

    Full Text Available The progressive deterioration of the neuromuscular axis is typically observed in degenerative conditions of the lower motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Neurodegeneration in this disease is associated with systemic metabolic perturbations, including hypermetabolism and dyslipidemia. Our previous gene profiling studies on ALS muscle revealed down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase, or SCD1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, knocking out SCD1 gene is known to induce hypermetabolism and stimulate fatty acid beta-oxidation. Here we investigated whether SCD1 deficiency can affect muscle function and its restoration in response to injury. The genetic ablation of SCD1 was not detrimental per se to muscle function. On the contrary, muscles in SCD1 knockout mice shifted toward a more oxidative metabolism, and enhanced the expression of synaptic genes. Repressing SCD1 expression or reducing SCD-dependent enzymatic activity accelerated the recovery of muscle function after inducing sciatic nerve crush. Overall, these findings provide evidence for a new role of SCD1 in modulating the restorative potential of skeletal muscles.

  11. Accelerating axon growth to overcome limitations in functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Chan, K Ming; Sulaiman, Olawale A R; Udina, Esther; Amirjani, Nasim; Brushart, Thomas M

    2009-10-01

    Injured peripheral nerves regenerate at very slow rates. Therefore, proximal injury sites such as the brachial plexus still present major challenges, and the outcomes of conventional treatments remain poor. This is in part attributable to a progressive decline in the Schwann cells' ability to provide a supportive milieu for the growth cone to extend and to find the appropriate target. These challenges are compounded by the often considerable delay of regeneration across the site of nerve laceration. Recently, low-frequency electrical stimulation (as brief as an hour) has shown promise, as it significantly accelerated regeneration in animal models through speeding of axon growth across the injury site. To test whether this might be a useful clinical tool, we carried out a randomized controlled trial in patients who had experienced substantial axonal loss in the median nerve owing to severe compression in the carpal tunnel. To further elucidate the potential mechanisms, we applied rolipram, a cyclic adenosine monophosphate agonist, to rats after axotomy of the femoral nerve. We demonstrated that effects similar to those observed in animal studies could also be attained in humans. The mechanisms of action of electrical stimulation likely operate through up-regulation of neurotrophic factors and cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Indeed, the application of rolipram significantly accelerated nerve regeneration. With new mechanistic insights into the influencing factors of peripheral nerve regeneration, the novel treatments described above could form part of an armament of synergistic therapies that could make a meaningful difference to patients with peripheral nerve injuries.

  12. Nerve growth factor loaded heparin/chitosan scaffolds for accelerating peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicai; Xiao, Qinzhi; Zhang, Luzhong; Zhao, Yahong; Yang, Yumin

    2017-09-01

    Artificial chitosan scaffolds have been widely investigated for peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the effect was not as good as that of autologous grafts and therefore could not meet the clinical requirement. In the present study, the nerve growth factor (NGF) loaded heparin/chitosan scaffolds were fabricated via electrostatic interaction for further improving nerve regeneration. The physicochemical properties including morphology, wettability and composition were measured. The heparin immobilization, NGF loading and release were quantitatively and qualitatively characterized, respectively. The effect of NGF loaded heparin/chitosan scaffolds on nerve regeneration was evaluated by Schwann cells culture for different periods. The results showed that the heparin immobilization and NGF loading did not cause the change of bulk properties of chitosan scaffolds except for morphology and wettability. The pre-immobilization of heparin in chitosan scaffolds could enhance the stability of subsequently loaded NGF. The NGF loaded heparin/chitosan scaffolds could obviously improve the attachment and proliferation of Schwann cells in vitro. More importantly, the NGF loaded heparin/chitosan scaffolds could effectively promote the morphology development of Schwann cells. The study may provide a useful experimental basis to design and develop artificial implants for peripheral nerve regeneration and other tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diabetes does not accelerate neuronal loss following nerve injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Kaare; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    To determine the resistance of neuronal dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells in experimental diabetes, we studied the neuronal cell loss after severe axonal injury in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats with unilateral transection of the L5 spinal nerve for 12 weeks. Fifty 18-week-old inbred male Wistar...... nondiabetic control rats at 18 weeks and five nondiabetic control rats at 30 weeks were included to determine whether DRG cell changes occur without nerve injury during the study period. In group 1, the stereologically determined number of all neuronal DRG cells was unchanged after 12 weeks of diabetes....... The mean perikaryal volume of neuronal DRG cells of the A and B subtypes was reduced by 10% each (p

  14. A Laserterapia de baixa intensidade acelera a regeneração de nervos periféricos Low-power laser therapy accelerates peripheral nerves' regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Endo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Há evidências de que a terapia com o laser pode estimular a regeneração de nervos e esta hipótese foi testada em ratos. Uma lesão por esmagamento controlado foi produzida no nervo isquiático de 20 ratos Wistar, metade dos quais foram submetidos a irradiação efetiva com o laser de arseneto de gálio (AsGa e a outra metade a irradiação simulada, durante dez dias consecutivos, começando no primeiro dia pós-operatório. Os resultados foram avaliados com três semanas pela medida do índice funcional do isquiático (IFC em intervalos semanais e pela medida do número total de fibras nervosas e da densidade de fibras dos nervos, após o sacrifício dos animais na terceira semana, com o nível de significância de 5% (pThere are evidences that laser therapy may stimulate nerve regeneration and this hypothesis was tested in rats. A controlled crush injury was produced on the sciatic nerve of 20 Wistar rats, half of which submitted to effective Ga-As laser irradiation and the other half to simulated irradiation for 10 consecutive days beginning on the first postoperative day. Results were evaluated at three weeks postoperatively by measuring the sciatic functional index (SFI at weekly intervals and the total number of nerve fibers and nerve fiber density of the sciatic nerve at three weeks (p<0.05. The SFI progressively improved for both irradiated and control nerves (69% and 45%, respectively with a significant difference between them at two weeks (p=0.04. Nerve fiber density increased for the irradiated nerves and decreased for the control nerves, with significant differences between them (p=0.001. Low intensity therapeutic ultrasound accelerates nerve regeneration, as demonstrated with significance on the 21st postoperative day.

  15. Electrical stimulation accelerates axonal and functional peripheral nerve regeneration across long gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haastert-Talini, Kirsten; Schmitte, Ruth; Korte, Nele; Klode, Dorothee; Ratzka, Andreas; Grothe, Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Short-term low-frequency electrical stimulation (ESTIM) of proximal peripheral nerve stumps prior to end-to-end coaptation or tubular bridging of small distances has been reported to increase preferential motor reinnervation and functional motor recovery in animal models and human patients undergoing carpal tunnel release surgery. We investigated the effects of ESTIM on regeneration across rat sciatic nerve gaps, which exceed distances that allow spontaneous regeneration. Three different reconstruction approaches were combined with ESTIM in the experimental groups. Nerve gaps (13 mm) were bridged using (I) nerve autotransplantation, (II) transplantation of differentially filled silicone tubes, or (III) transplantation of tubular grafts containing fibroblast growth factor-2 overexpressing Schwann cells (SCs) for gene therapy. The regeneration outcome was followed for up to 8 weeks, and functionally as well as histomorphometrically analyzed in comparison to non-stimulated control groups. Combining ESTIM with nerve autotransplantation significantly increased the nerve fiber density in the regenerated nerve, and the grade of functional recovery as detected by electrodiagnostic recordings from the gastrocnemius muscle. The combination of ESTIM with transplantation of naïve SCs increased the regeneration of gap-bridging nerve tissue. Although macroscopic tissue regeneration was not further improved after combining ESTIM with FGF-2(21/23-kD) gene therapy, the latter resulted in a high rate of regenerated nerves that functionally reconnected to the target muscle. Based on our results, brief ESTIM shows high potential to accelerate axonal as well as functional (motor and sensory) outcomes in the clinical setting of peripheral nerve gap reconstruction in human patients.

  16. Axon-Sorting Multifunctional Nerve Guides: Accelerating Restoration of Nerve Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    factor (singly & in selected combinations) in the organotypic model system for preferential sensory or motor axon extension. Use confocal microscopy to...track axon extension of labeled sensory or motor neurons from spinal cord slices (motor) or dorsal root ganglia ( DRG ) (sensory). 20 Thy1-YFP mice...RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS: • Established a system of color-coded mixed nerve tracking using GFP and RFP expressing motor and sensory neurons (Figure 1

  17. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells accelerate nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a rat model of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medialization thyroplasty or injection laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal fold paralysis cannot restore mobility of the vocal fold. Recent studies have shown that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells is effective in the repair of nerve injuries. This study investigated whether adipose-derived stem cell transplantation could repair recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Rat models of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury were established by crushing with micro forceps. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs; 8 × 105 or differentiated Schwann-like adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (dADSCs; 8 × 105 or extracellular matrix were injected at the site of injury. At 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-surgery, a higher density of myelinated nerve fiber, thicker myelin sheath, improved vocal fold movement, better recovery of nerve conduction capacity and reduced thyroarytenoid muscle atrophy were found in ADSCs and dADSCs groups compared with the extracellular matrix group. The effects were more pronounced in the ADSCs group than in the dADSCs group. These experimental results indicated that ADSCs transplantation could be an early interventional strategy to promote regeneration after recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.

  18. Effect of Exosomes from Rat Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Neurite Outgrowth and Sciatic Nerve Regeneration After Crush Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucan, Vesna; Vaslaitis, Desiree; Peck, Claas-Tido; Strauß, Sarah; Vogt, Peter M; Radtke, Christine

    2018-06-21

    Peripheral nerve injury requires optimal conditions in both macro-environment and microenvironment for promotion of axonal regeneration. However, most repair strategies of traumatic peripheral nerve injury often lead to dissatisfying results in clinical outcome. Though various strategies have been carried out to improve the macro-environment, the underlying molecular mechanism of axon regeneration in the microenvironment provided by nerve conduit remains unclear. In this study, we evaluate the effects of from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSCs) originating exosomes with respect to sciatic nerve regeneration and neurite growth. Molecular and immunohistochemical techniques were used to investigate the presence of characteristic exosome markers. A co-culture system was established to determine the effect of exosomes on neurite elongation in vitro. The in vivo walking behaviour of rats was evaluated by footprint analysis, and the nerve regeneration was assessed by immunocytochemistry. adMSCs secrete nano-vesicles known as exosomes, which increase neurite outgrowth in vitro and enhance regeneration after sciatic nerve injury in vivo. Furthermore, we showed the presence of neural growth factors transcripts in adMSC exosomes for the first time. Our results demonstrate that exosomes, constitutively produced by adMSCs, are involved in peripheral nerve regeneration and have the potential to be utilised as a therapeutic tool for effective tissue-engineered nerves.

  19. Acceleration of Regeneration of Large-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injuries Using Acellular Nerve Allografts plus amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    cells (AFS) to promote and accelerate nerve regeneration . The presence of the AFS will provide support for the regenerating axons without the...plus AFS cells . Cross sections of the distal part of the regenerated nerves were evaluated by light and electronic microscopy. ANA plus AFS group...and myelin thickness in ANA plus AFS cells treated group (Figure 2.1.1), indicating enhanced regenerating ability of the axons. Neuromuscular

  20. Omental pedicle transposition and suture repair of peripheral nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abu wael

    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of omental pedicle transposition and ... Assessment of the nerve regeneration was based on functional (motor and sensory), ..... peripheral nerve fibers regenerating after crush, multiple crush, and.

  1. Classic crush and DK crush stenting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data have supported the advantages of the double kissing (DK) crush technique, which consists of stenting the side branch (SB), balloon crush, first kissing, stenting the main vessel (MV) and final kissing balloon inflation, for complex coronary bifurcation lesions compared to other stenting techniques. Careful rewiring from the proximal cell of the MV stent to make sure the wire is in the true lumen of the SB stent is key to acquiring optimal angiographic results. Balloon anchoring from the MV, alternative inflation and each kissing inflation using large enough non-compliant balloons at high pressure, and the proximal optimisation technique are mandatory to improve both angiographic and clinical outcomes. Stratification of a given bifurcation lesion is recommended before decision making.

  2. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  3. Curcumin accelerates the repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats through reducing Schwann cells apoptosis and promoting myelinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Li, Xiaoling; Li, Qing

    2017-08-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) play an indispensable role in the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Curcumin can reduce SCs apoptosis, and promote the regeneration and functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves. However, the corresponding mechanisms are not clear. The article was aimed to explore the effect and corresponding mechanisms of curcumin on the repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats. After surgery induced sciatic nerve injury, the model rats were divided into three groups and treated with curcumin, curcumin+PD98059 and curcumin+IGF-1 respectively for 4days. The phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt, and the expression of LC3-II, Beclin 1 and p62 were measured using western blotting. After treatment for 60days, myelination of the injured sciatic nerve was evaluated by MBP immunohistochemical staining and the expression of PMP22, Fibrin and S100 were determined using qRT-PCR and western blotting. In vitro, RSC96 cells were starved for 12h to induce autophagy, and received DMSO, curcumin, PD98059+curcumin, IGF-1+curcumin and BFA1 respectively. The phosphorylation of Erk1/2、Akt and the expression of LC3-II, Beclin 1, p62, PMP22, Fibrin and S100 were measured using western blotting, and the cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Curcumin could promote injury-induced cell autophagy, remyelination and axon regeneration in sciatic nerve of rats. In vitro, curcumin could accelerate cell autophagy through regulating autophagy related Erk1/2 and Akt pathway, prevent cell apoptosis and promote expression of PMP22 and S100, and reduced deposition of Fibrin in cultured RSC96 SCs. Curcumin could accelerate injured sciatic nerve repair in rats through reducing SCs apoptosis and promoting myelinization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  5. 17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. Primary Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerves of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP expression and toluidine blue staining for myelin sheaths demonstrated that E2 treatment accelerates early remyelination in the “nerve bridge” region between the proximal and distal stumps of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT activation.

  6. 17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Guo, Wenjie; Li, Wenjuan; Cheng, Meng; Hu, Ying; Xu, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. Primary Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerves of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP) expression and toluidine blue staining for myelin sheaths demonstrated that E2 treatment accelerates early remyelination in the “nerve bridge” region between the proximal and distal stumps of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT activation. PMID:27872858

  7. Angiotensin II accelerates functional recovery in the rat sciatic nerve in vivo: role of the AT2 receptor and the transcription factor NF-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Kirstin; Lucius, Ralph; Reinecke, Alexander; Rickert, Uta; Herdegen, Thomas; Unger, Thomas

    2003-11-01

    The AT2 receptor regulates several functions of nerve cells, e.g., ionic fluxes, cell differentiation, and axonal regeneration, but also modulates programmed cell death. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II (ANG II) via its AT2 receptor not only promotes regeneration but also functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush in adult rats. ANG II (10(-7), 10(-9), 10(-11) M) applied locally via osmotic minipumps promoted functional recovery with maximal effects after the lowest concentration. The toe spread distance as a parameter for re-innervation after 20 days was significantly (Pelectrical stimulation (return of sensorimotor function) was reduced to 14.6 days vs. 17.9 days in the control group (PSchwann cells. Histological criteria, morphometric analyses, and electron microscopy confirmed the functional data. These results are the first to present direct evidence for an involvement of the AT2 receptor and NF-kappaB in peripheral nerve regeneration.

  8. Effects of local application of methylprednisolone delivered by the C/GP-hydrogel on the recovery of facial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Xiuhua; Fan, Zhaomin; Han, Yuechen; Wang, Yan; Li, Jianfeng; Chai, Renjie; Xu, Lei; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Local administration of MP delivered by the C/GP-MP-hydrogel can improve the recovery of facial nerve following crush injury. The findings suggested that locally injected MP delivered by C/GP-hydrogel might be a promising treatment for facial nerve damage. In this study, the aim is to assess the effectiveness of locally administrating methylprednisolone(MP) loaded by chitosan-β-glycerophosphate hydrogel (C/GP-hydrogel) on the regeneration of facial nerve crush injury. After the crush of left facial nerves, Wistar rats were randomly divided into four different groups. Then, four different therapies were used to treat the damaged facial nerves. At the 1(st), 2(nd), 3(rd), and 4(th) week after injury, the functional recovery of facial nerves and the morphological changes of facial nerves were assessed. The expression of growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) protein in the facial nucleus were also evaluated. Locally injected MP delivered by C/GP-hydrogel effectively accelerated the facial functional recovery. In addition, the regenerated facial nerves in the C/GP-MP group were more mature than those in the other groups. The expression of GAP-43 protein was also improved by the MP, especially in the C/GP-MP group.

  9. Effects of low-level laser therapy after nerve reconstruction in rat denervated soleus muscle adaptation Efeitos do laser de baixa potência após reconstrução nervosa na adaptação do músculo sóleo de rato

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela A Silva-Couto; Davilene Gigo-Benato; Carla R. Tim; Nivaldo A. Parizotto; Tania F. Salvini; Thiago L. Russo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) rehabilitation remains a challenge for physical therapists because PNI effects are very disabling. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been described as a physical resource that is able to influence enzymes called metallopeptidases (MMPs) associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover, thus accelerating neuromuscular recovery after nerve crush injuries. However, the effects of LLLT in the treatment of severe nerve injuries and denervated slow-twit...

  10. Evaluation of subbasal nerve morphology and corneal sensation after accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking treatment on keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgurhan, Engin Bilge; Celik, Ugur; Bozkurt, Ercument; Demirok, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the evaluation of corneal nerve fiber density and corneal sensation after accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking on keratoconus patients. The study was performed on 30 keratoconus eyes (30 participants: 16 M, 14 F; 17-32 years old) treated with accelerated collagen cross-linking for disease stabilization. Mean outcome measures were corneal sensation evaluation by Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry and subbasal nerve fiber density assessment by corneal in vivo confocal microscopy. All corneal measurements were performed using scanning slit confocal microscopy (ConfoScan 4, Nidek Technologies, Padova, Italy). The accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking procedure was performed on 30 eyes of 30 patients (19 right, 63.3%; 11 left, 27.7%). The mean age was 23.93 ± 4. The preoperative mean keratometry, apex keratometry and pachymetry values were 47.19 ± 2.82 D, 56.79 ± 5.39 and 426.1 ± 25.6 μm, respectively. Preoperative mean corneal sensation was 56.3 ± 5.4 mm (with a range from 40 to 60 mm), it was significantly decreased at 1st and 3rd month visit and increased to preoperative values after 6th month visit. Preoperative mean of subbasal nerve fiber density measurements was 22.8 ± 9.7 nerve fiber/mm(2) (with a range of 5-45 mm), it was not still at the preoperative values at 6th month (p = 0.0001), however reached to the preoperative values at 12th month (p = 0.914). Subbasal nerve fibers could reach the preoperative values at the 12th month after accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking treatment although the corneal sensation was improved at 6th month. These findings imply that the subjective healing process is faster than the objective evaluation of the keratoconus patients' cornea treated with accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking.

  11. Restoration of sensory dysfunction following peripheral nerve injury by the polysaccharide from culinary and medicinal mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr. Pers. through its neuroregenerative action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah-Hui WONG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peripheral nerves have the unique capability to regenerate after injury. Insights into regeneration of peripheral nerves after injury may have implications for neurodegenerative diseases of the nervous system. We investigated the ability of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus mushroom in the treatment of nerve injury following peroneal nerve crush in Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral administration. In sensory functional recovery test, the time taken for the rats to withdraw its hind limb from contact with the hot plate was measured. The test revealed acceleration of sensory recovery in the polysaccharide group compared to negative controls. Further, peripheral nerve injury leads to changes at the remotely located DRG containing cell bodies of sensory neurons. Immunofluorescence studies showed that Akt and p38 MAPK were expressed in DRG and strongly upregulated in polysaccharide group after peripheral nerve injury. The intensity of endothelial cells antigen-1 that recognized endothelial cells in the blood vessels of distal segments in crushed nerves was significantly higher in the treated groups than in the negative control group. Our findings suggest that H. erinaceus is capable of accelerating sensory functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury and the effect involves the activation of protein kinase signaling pathways and restoration of blood-nerve barrier.

  12. Accelerated magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging of the median nerve using simultaneous multi-slice echo planar imaging with blipped CAIPIRINHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Kenkel, David; Boss, Andreas; Manoliu, Andrei; Andreisek, Gustav; Runge, Val M.; Guggenberger, Roman [University Hospital of Zurich, University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Piccirelli, Marco [University Hospital of Zurich, Department of Neuroradiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Bhat, Himanshu [Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc, Charlestown, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    To investigate the feasibility of MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the median nerve using simultaneous multi-slice echo planar imaging (EPI) with blipped CAIPIRINHA. After federal ethics board approval, MR imaging of the median nerves of eight healthy volunteers (mean age, 29.4 years; range, 25-32) was performed at 3 T using a 16-channel hand/wrist coil. An EPI sequence (b-value, 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}; 20 gradient directions) was acquired without acceleration as well as with twofold and threefold slice acceleration. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and quality of nerve tractography (number of tracks, average track length, track homogeneity, anatomical accuracy) were compared between the acquisitions using multivariate ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Acquisition time was 6:08 min for standard DTI, 3:38 min for twofold and 2:31 min for threefold acceleration. No differences were found regarding FA (standard DTI: 0.620 ± 0.058; twofold acceleration: 0.642 ± 0.058; threefold acceleration: 0.644 ± 0.061; p ≥ 0.217) and MD (standard DTI: 1.076 ± 0.080 mm{sup 2}/s; twofold acceleration: 1.016 ± 0.123 mm{sup 2}/s; threefold acceleration: 0.979 ± 0.153 mm{sup 2}/s; p ≥ 0.074). Twofold acceleration yielded similar tractography quality compared to standard DTI (p > 0.05). With threefold acceleration, however, average track length and track homogeneity decreased (p = 0.004-0.021). Accelerated DTI of the median nerve is feasible. Twofold acceleration yields similar results to standard DTI. (orig.)

  13. Accelerated axon outgrowth, guidance, and target reinnervation across nerve transection gaps following a brief electrical stimulation paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhagat; Xu, Qing-Gui; Franz, Colin K; Zhang, Rumi; Dalton, Colin; Gordon, Tessa; Verge, Valerie M K; Midha, Rajiv; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2012-03-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerves is remarkably restrained across transection injuries, limiting recovery of function. Strategies to reverse this common and unfortunate outcome are limited. Remarkably, however, new evidence suggests that a brief extracellular electrical stimulation (ES), delivered at the time of injury, improves the regrowth of motor and sensory axons. In this work, the authors explored and tested this ES paradigm, which was applied proximal to transected sciatic nerves in mice, and identified several novel and compelling impacts of the approach. Using thy-1 yellow fluorescent protein mice with fluorescent axons that allow serial in vivo tracking of regeneration, the morphological, electrophysiological, and behavioral indices of nerve regrowth were measured. The authors show that ES is associated with a 30%-50% improvement in several indices of regeneration: regrowth of axons and their partnered Schwann cells across transection sites, maturation of regenerated fibers in gaps spanning transection zones, and entry of axons into their muscle and cutaneous target zones. In parallel studies, the authors analyzed adult sensory neurons and their response to extracellular ES while plated on a novel microelectrode array construct designed to deliver the identical ES paradigm used in vivo. The ES accelerated neurite outgrowth, supporting the concept of a neuron-autonomous mechanism of action. Taken together, these results support a robust role for brief ES following peripheral nerve injuries in promoting regeneration. Electrical stimulation has a wider repertoire of impact than previously recognized, and its impact in vitro supports the hypothesis that a neuron-specific reprogrammed injury response is recruited by the ES protocol.

  14. Accelerated magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging of the median nerve using simultaneous multi-slice echo planar imaging with blipped CAIPIRINHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filli, Lukas; Piccirelli, Marco; Kenkel, David; Boss, Andreas; Manoliu, Andrei; Andreisek, Gustav; Bhat, Himanshu; Runge, Val M; Guggenberger, Roman

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the feasibility of MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the median nerve using simultaneous multi-slice echo planar imaging (EPI) with blipped CAIPIRINHA. After federal ethics board approval, MR imaging of the median nerves of eight healthy volunteers (mean age, 29.4 years; range, 25-32) was performed at 3 T using a 16-channel hand/wrist coil. An EPI sequence (b-value, 1,000 s/mm(2); 20 gradient directions) was acquired without acceleration as well as with twofold and threefold slice acceleration. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and quality of nerve tractography (number of tracks, average track length, track homogeneity, anatomical accuracy) were compared between the acquisitions using multivariate ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Acquisition time was 6:08 min for standard DTI, 3:38 min for twofold and 2:31 min for threefold acceleration. No differences were found regarding FA (standard DTI: 0.620 ± 0.058; twofold acceleration: 0.642 ± 0.058; threefold acceleration: 0.644 ± 0.061; p ≥ 0.217) and MD (standard DTI: 1.076 ± 0.080 mm(2)/s; twofold acceleration: 1.016 ± 0.123 mm(2)/s; threefold acceleration: 0.979 ± 0.153 mm(2)/s; p ≥ 0.074). Twofold acceleration yielded similar tractography quality compared to standard DTI (p > 0.05). With threefold acceleration, however, average track length and track homogeneity decreased (p = 0.004-0.021). Accelerated DTI of the median nerve is feasible. Twofold acceleration yields similar results to standard DTI. • Standard DTI of the median nerve is limited by its long acquisition time. • Simultaneous multi-slice acquisition is a new technique for accelerated DTI. • Accelerated DTI of the median nerve yields similar results to standard DTI.

  15. Dynamic Response and Residual Helmet Liner Crush Using Cadaver Heads and Standard Headforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, S J; Luck, J F; Bass, C R; Gardiner, J C; Onar-Thomas, A; Asfour, S S; Siegmund, G P

    2017-03-01

    Biomechanical headforms are used for helmet certification testing and reconstructing helmeted head impacts; however, their biofidelity and direct applicability to human head and helmet responses remain unclear. Dynamic responses of cadaver heads and three headforms and residual foam liner deformations were compared during motorcycle helmet impacts. Instrumented, helmeted heads/headforms were dropped onto the forehead region against an instrumented flat anvil at 75, 150, and 195 J. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify maximum liner crush depth and crush volume. General linear models were used to quantify the effect of head type and impact energy on linear acceleration, head injury criterion (HIC), force, maximum liner crush depth, and liner crush volume and regression models were used to quantify the relationship between acceleration and both maximum crush depth and crush volume. The cadaver heads generated larger peak accelerations than all three headforms, larger HICs than the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), larger forces than the Hybrid III and ISO, larger maximum crush depth than the ISO, and larger crush volumes than the DOT. These significant differences between the cadaver heads and headforms need to be accounted for when attempting to estimate an impact exposure using a helmet's residual crush depth or volume.

  16. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  17. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) accelerates cutaneous wound healing and inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürgen, Seren Gülşen; Sayın, Oya; Cetin, Ferihan; Tuç Yücel, Ayşe

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and other common treatment methods used in the process of wound healing in terms of the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the study, 24 female and 24 male adult Wistar-Albino rats were divided into five groups: (1) the non-wounded group having no incision wounds, (2) the control group having incision wounds, (3) the TENS (2 Hz, 15 min) group, (4) the physiological saline (PS) group and (5) the povidone iodine (PI) group. In the skin sections, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical methods. In the non-wounded group, the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α signaling molecules was weaker in the whole tissue; however, in the control group, significant inflammatory response occurred, and strong cytokine expression was observed in the dermis, granulation tissue, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands (P TENS group, the decrease in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 immunoreaction in the skin was significant compared to the other forms of treatment (P TENS group suggest that TENS shortened the healing process by inhibating the inflammation phase.

  18. The effect of motorcycle helmet fit on estimating head impact kinematics from residual liner crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Stephanie J; Gardiner, John C; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Asfour, Shihab S; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2017-09-01

    Proper helmet fit is important for optimizing head protection during an impact, yet many motorcyclists wear helmets that do not properly fit their heads. The goals of this study are i) to quantify how a mismatch in headform size and motorcycle helmet size affects headform peak acceleration and head injury criteria (HIC), and ii) to determine if peak acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from the foam liner's maximum residual crush depth or residual crush volume. Shorty-style helmets (4 sizes of a single model) were tested on instrumented headforms (4 sizes) during linear impacts between 2.0 and 10.5m/s to the forehead region. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify residual crush depth and volume. Separate linear regression models were used to quantify how the response variables (peak acceleration (g), HIC, and impact speed (m/s)) were related to the predictor variables (maximum crush depth (mm), crush volume (cm 3 ), and the difference in circumference between the helmet and headform (cm)). Overall, we found that increasingly oversized helmets reduced peak headform acceleration and HIC for a given impact speed for maximum residual crush depths less than 7.9mm and residual crush volume less than 40cm 3 . Below these levels of residual crush, we found that peak headform acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from a helmet's residual crush. Above these crush thresholds, large variations in headform kinematics are present, possibly related to densification of the foam liner during the impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Delayed nerve stimulation promotes axon-protective neurofilament phosphorylation, accelerates immune cell clearance and enhances remyelination in vivo in focally demyelinated nerves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki A McLean

    Full Text Available Rapid and efficient axon remyelination aids in restoring strong electrochemical communication with end organs and in preventing axonal degeneration often observed in demyelinating neuropathies. The signals from axons that can trigger more effective remyelination in vivo are still being elucidated. Here we report the remarkable effect of delayed brief electrical nerve stimulation (ES; 1 hour @ 20 Hz 5 days post-demyelination on ensuing reparative events in a focally demyelinated adult rat peripheral nerve. ES impacted many parameters underlying successful remyelination. It effected increased neurofilament expression and phosphorylation, both implicated in axon protection. ES increased expression of myelin basic protein (MBP and promoted node of Ranvier re-organization, both of which coincided with the early reappearance of remyelinated axons, effects not observed at the same time points in non-stimulated demyelinated nerves. The improved ES-associated remyelination was accompanied by enhanced clearance of ED-1 positive macrophages and attenuation of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in accompanying Schwann cells, suggesting a more rapid clearance of myelin debris and return of Schwann cells to a nonreactive myelinating state. These benefits of ES correlated with increased levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the acute demyelination zone, a key molecule in the initiation of the myelination program. In conclusion, the tremendous impact of delayed brief nerve stimulation on enhancement of the innate capacity of a focally demyelinated nerve to successfully remyelinate identifies manipulation of this axis as a novel therapeutic target for demyelinating pathologies.

  20. Delayed nerve stimulation promotes axon-protective neurofilament phosphorylation, accelerates immune cell clearance and enhances remyelination in vivo in focally demyelinated nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Nikki A; Popescu, Bogdan F; Gordon, Tessa; Zochodne, Douglas W; Verge, Valerie M K

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and efficient axon remyelination aids in restoring strong electrochemical communication with end organs and in preventing axonal degeneration often observed in demyelinating neuropathies. The signals from axons that can trigger more effective remyelination in vivo are still being elucidated. Here we report the remarkable effect of delayed brief electrical nerve stimulation (ES; 1 hour @ 20 Hz 5 days post-demyelination) on ensuing reparative events in a focally demyelinated adult rat peripheral nerve. ES impacted many parameters underlying successful remyelination. It effected increased neurofilament expression and phosphorylation, both implicated in axon protection. ES increased expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and promoted node of Ranvier re-organization, both of which coincided with the early reappearance of remyelinated axons, effects not observed at the same time points in non-stimulated demyelinated nerves. The improved ES-associated remyelination was accompanied by enhanced clearance of ED-1 positive macrophages and attenuation of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in accompanying Schwann cells, suggesting a more rapid clearance of myelin debris and return of Schwann cells to a nonreactive myelinating state. These benefits of ES correlated with increased levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the acute demyelination zone, a key molecule in the initiation of the myelination program. In conclusion, the tremendous impact of delayed brief nerve stimulation on enhancement of the innate capacity of a focally demyelinated nerve to successfully remyelinate identifies manipulation of this axis as a novel therapeutic target for demyelinating pathologies.

  1. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...

  2. Acceleration of Regeneration of Large-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injuries Using Acellular Nerve Allografts Plus Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    repair in the upper extremity using processed nerve allograft. J Hand Surg Am 2012 Nov;37(11):2340-9. (9) Joo S, Ko IK, Atala A, Yoo JJ , Lee SJ. Amniotic...nerve grafts implanted with autologous mesenchymal stem cells.Exp Neurol. 2007 Apr;204(2):658-66. (18) Kim BS, Chun SY, Atala A, Soker S, Yoo JJ , Kwon TG...wounds. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2012 ;1(11):792-802 4. Joo S, Ko IK, Atala A, Yoo JJ , Lee SJ. Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in regenerative

  3. Crush Testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic crush test is required in the certification testing of some small Type B transportation packages. International Atomic Energy Agency regulations state that the test article must be 'subjected to a dynamic crush test by positioning the specimen on the target so as to suffer maximum damage.' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Transportation Technologies Group performs testing of Type B transportation packages, including the crush test, at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee (United States). This paper documents ORNL's experiences performing crush tests on several different Type B packages. ORNL has crush tested five different drum-type package designs, continuing its 60 year history of RAM package testing. A total of 26 crush tests have been performed in a wide variety of package orientations and crush plate CG alignments. In all cases, the deformation of the outer drum created by the crush test was significantly greater than the deformation damage caused by the 9 m drop test. The crush test is a highly effective means for testing structural soundness of smaller nondense Type B shipping package designs. Further regulatory guidance could alleviate the need to perform the crush test in a wide range of orientations and crush plate CG alignments.

  4. Best time window for the use of calcium-modulating agents to improve functional recovery in injured peripheral nerves-An experiment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuhui; Shen, Feng-Yi; Agresti, Michael; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Matloub, Hani S; LoGiudice, John A; Havlik, Robert; Li, Jifeng; Gu, Yu-Dong; Yan, Ji-Geng

    2017-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injury can have a devastating effect on daily life. Calcium concentrations in nerve fibers drastically increase after nerve injury, and this activates downstream processes leading to neuron death. Our previous studies showed that calcium-modulating agents decrease calcium accumulation, which aids in regeneration of injured peripheral nerves; however, the optimal therapeutic window for this application has not yet been identified. In this study, we show that calcium clearance after nerve injury is positively correlated with functional recovery in rats suffering from a crushed sciatic nerve injury. After the nerve injury, calcium accumulation increased. Peak volume is from 2 to 8 weeks post injury; calcium accumulation then gradually decreased over the following 24-week period. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) measurement from the extensor digitorum longus muscle recovered to nearly normal levels in 24 weeks. Simultaneously, real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that upregulation of calcium-ATPase (a membrane protein that transports calcium out of nerve fibers) mRNA peaked at 12 weeks. These results suggest that without intervention, the peak in calcium-ATPase mRNA expression in the injured nerve occurs after the peak in calcium accumulation, and CMAP recovery continues beyond 24 weeks. Immediately using calcium-modulating agents after crushed nerve injury improved functional recovery. These studies suggest that a crucial time frame in which to initiate effective clinical approaches to accelerate calcium clearance and nerve regeneration would be prior to 2 weeks post injury. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of skilled and unskilled training on nerve regeneration and functional recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Pagnussat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most disabling aspect of human peripheral nerve injuries, the majority of which affect the upper limbs, is the loss of skilled hand movements. Activity-induced morphological and electrophysiological remodeling of the neuromuscular junction has been shown to influence nerve repair and functional recovery. In the current study, we determined the effects of two different treatments on the functional and morphological recovery after median and ulnar nerve injury. Adult Wistar male rats weighing 280 to 330 g at the time of surgery (N = 8-10 animals/group were submitted to nerve crush and 1 week later began a 3-week course of motor rehabilitation involving either "skilled" (reaching for small food pellets or "unskilled" (walking on a motorized treadmill training. During this period, functional recovery was monitored weekly using staircase and cylinder tests. Histological and morphometric nerve analyses were used to assess nerve regeneration at the end of treatment. The functional evaluation demonstrated benefits of both tasks, but found no difference between them (P > 0.05. The unskilled training, however, induced a greater degree of nerve regeneration as evidenced by histological measurement (P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that both of the forelimb training tasks used in this study can accelerate functional recovery following brachial plexus injury.

  6. Thermal conductivity of crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    Heat transfer through an annular space filled with crushed salt depends primarily on the thermal conductivity, lambda, of the material. This report gives a formula with which lambda can be computed. The formula includes two quantities that can be influenced through screening of the salt smalls: the porosity, psi, and the fraction, alpha, of the more highly resistive heat-flow paths. The report computes and presents graphically the thermal conductivities for various values of psi and alpha. Heat-transfer properties are computed and compared for an annular space filled with crushed salt and for an air gap. The comparison shows that the properties of the annular space are larger only up to a certain temperature, because the properties of the air gap increase exponentially while those f the annular space increase only in an approximately linear way. Experimental results from Project Salt Vault in the U.S. are in good agreement with the calculations performed. Trials in Temperature Experimental Field 2 at the Asse II salt mine will provide an additional check on the calculations. 3 figures, 3 tables

  7. Use of the accelerating rotarod for assessment of motor performance decrement induced by potential anticonvulsant compounds in nerve agent poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capacio, B.R.; Harris, L.W.; Anderson, D.R.; Lennox, W.J.; Gales, V.

    1992-12-31

    The accelerating rotarod was used to assess motor performance decrement in rats after administration of candidate anticonvulsant compounds (acetazolamide, amitriptyline, chlordiazepoxide, diazepan, diazepam-lysine, lorazepam, loprazolam, midazolam, phenobarbital and scopolamine) against nerve agent poisoning. AH compounds were tested as the commercially available injectable preparation except for diazepam-lysine and loprazolam, which are not FDA approved. A peak effect time, as well as a dose to decrease performance time by 50% from control (PDD50), was determined. The calculated PDD50 (micrometer ol/kg) values and peak effect tunes were midazolam, 1.16 at 15 min; loprazolam, 1.17 at 15 min; diazepam-lysine, 4.17 at 30 min; lorazepwn, 4.98 at 15 min; diazepam, 5.27 at 15 min; phenobarbital, 101.49 at 45 min; chlordiazepoxide, 159.21 at 30 min; scopolamine, amitriptyline and acetazolamide did not demonstrate a performance decrement at any of the doses tested. The PDD50 values were compared with doses which have been utilized against nerve agent-induced convulsions or published ED50 values from standard anticonvulsant screening tests (maximal electroshock MES and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol (scMET)). I serve agents, anticonvulsants, diazepam, accelerating rotarod, motor performance.

  8. Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation Accelerates Nerve Regeneration and Prevents Neuropathic Pain Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela V. Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil (FO is the main source of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, which display relevant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Peripheral nerve injury is driven by degeneration, neuroinflammation, and neuronal plasticity which results in neuropathic pain (NP symptoms such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. We tested the preventive effect of an EPA/DHA-concentrate fish oil (CFO on NP development and regenerative features. Swiss mice received daily oral treatment with CFO 4.6 or 2.3 g/kg for 10 days after NP was induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hypernociception were assessed 5 days after injury. CFO 2.3 g/kg significantly prevented mechanical and thermal sensitization, reduced TNF levels in the spinal cord, sciatic MPO activity, and ATF-3 expression on DRG cells. CFO improved Sciatic Functional Index (SFI as well as electrophysiological recordings, corroborating the increased GAP43 expression and total number of myelinated fibers observed in sciatic nerve. No locomotor activity impairment was observed in CFO treated groups. These results point to the regenerative and possibly protective properties of a combined EPA and DHA oral administration after peripheral nerve injury, as well as its anti-neuroinflammatory activity, evidencing ω-3 PUFAs promising therapeutic outcomes for NP treatment.

  9. Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The talk summarizes the principles of particle acceleration and addresses problems related to storage rings like LEP and LHC. Special emphasis will be given to orbit stability, long term stability of the particle motion, collective effects and synchrotron radiation.

  10. Crushed stone production plant for NPP building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obolenskij, V.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    The project of the granite-crushed stone quarry - the large modern plant producing building materials, is presented. The quarry is designated for providing NPP and other power objects building with high-strength crushed stone. The plant consists of: quarry; crushing-sorting plant with maintenance objects arranged on its ground; basis and service stores of explosive materials; tail facility and purifying systems; water supply purifying stations; water storage basin. The plant is reserved for 2335 thousand m 3 yearly utoput of crushed stone; the staff consists of 535 persons, the budgeted cost of building is 26.6 million rubles. Physicochemical characteristics of granosyenites of the ''Granitnoye'' deposit - the raw material resource base of the plant and technological scheme of the crushing-sorting plant are given. Planned measures on building organization and recultivation of disturbed grounds are presented

  11. Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  12. Seismic tipping analysis of a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask sitting on a crush pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

    1998-04-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of an accidentally dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44 ft. deep cask unloading pool. Conventional analysis techniques available for evaluating a cask for tipping due to lateral seismic forces assume that the cask rests on a rigid surface. In this analysis, the cask (110 tons) sits on a stainless steel encased (0.25 in. top plate), polyurethane foam (4 ft. thick) crush pad. As the cask tends to rock due to horizontal seismic forces, the contact area between the cask and the crush pad is reduced, increasing the bearing stress, and causing the pivoting corner of the cask to depress into the crush pad. As the crush pad depresses under the cask corner, the pivot point shifts from the corner toward the cask center, which facilitates rocking and potential tipping of the cask. Subsequent rocking of the cask may deepen the depression, further contributing to the likelihood of cask tip over. However, as the depression is created, the crush pad is absorbing energy from the rocking cask. Potential tip over of the cask was evaluated by performing a non-linear, dynamic, finite element analysis with acceleration time history input. This time history analysis captured the effect of a deforming crush pad, and also eliminated conservatisms of the conventional approaches. For comparison purposes, this analysis was also performed with the cask sitting on a solid stainless steel crush pad. Results indicate that the conventional methods are quite conservative relative to the more exacting time history analysis. They also indicate that the rocking motion is less on the foam crush pad than on the solid stainless steel pad

  13. Carpal tunnel syndrome and the "double crush" hypothesis: a review and implications for chiropractic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Brent S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Upton and McComas claimed that most patients with carpal tunnel syndrome not only have compressive lesions at the wrist, but also show evidence of damage to cervical nerve roots. This "double crush" hypothesis has gained some popularity among chiropractors because it seems to provide a rationale for adjusting the cervical spine in treating carpal tunnel syndrome. Here I examine use of the concept by chiropractors, summarize findings from the literature, and critique several studies aimed at supporting or refuting the hypothesis. Although the hypothesis also has been applied to nerve compressions other than those leading to carpal tunnel syndrome, this discussion mainly examines the original application – "double crush" involving both cervical spinal nerve roots and the carpal tunnel. I consider several categories: experiments to create double crush syndrome in animals, case reports, literature reviews, and alternatives to the original hypothesis. A significant percentage of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome also have neck pain or cervical nerve root compression, but the relationship has not been definitively explained. The original hypothesis remains controversial and is probably not valid, at least for sensory disturbances, in carpal tunnel syndrome. However, even if the original hypothesis is importantly flawed, evaluation of multiple sites still may be valuable. The chiropractic profession should develop theoretical models to relate cervical dysfunction to carpal tunnel syndrome, and might incorporate some alternatives to the original hypothesis. I intend this review as a starting point for practitioners, educators, and students wishing to advance chiropractic concepts in this area.

  14. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  15. Automation for Crushing and Screening Equipment to Produce Graded Paving Crushed Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Anatoly; Velichkin, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    This paper offers analysis of factors related to production and storage of graded crushed stone, which adversely impact the service life and wear resistance of asphalt-concrete motor road pavements. The paper describes external and technology-related parameters that may cause changes of the preset ratio in graded crushed stone. Control factors are described that ensure the formulated fraction ratio in crushed stone by controlling the operation mode of the crushing and screening equipment. The paper also contains an ACS flow chart for crushing and screening equipment engaged in continuous closed-cycle two-stage technology. Performance of the ACS to maintain the preset fractionated crushed stone ratio has been confirmed with a mathematical model.

  16. Determination of dispersity of crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dejun; Fan Xianhua; Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Zhou Duo; Wang Yong

    2004-01-01

    The experimental crushed granite column breakthrough curves, using 99 Tc as spike tracer and 3 H as invariant tracer, are analyzed by different linear regression techniques. Dispersity of crushed granite and retardation factor of 99 TcO 4 - on the crushed granite are determined simultaneously by one linear regression technique. Dispersity of crushed granite is also obtained with 3 H as invariant tracer by the other linear regression technique. The dispersities found by spike source and invariant source methods are compared. The experimental results show that the dispersity found by spike source method is close to that found by invariant source method. It indicates that dispersity is only the characteristic of dispersion medium

  17. Determination of dispersity of crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental crushed granite column breakthrough curves, using 99 Tc as spike tracer and 3 H as invariant tracer, were analyzed by different linear regression techniques. Dispersity of crushed granite and the retardation factor of 99 TcO 4 - on the crushed granite were determined simultaneously by one linear regression. Dispersity of crushed granite was also obtained with 3 H as invariant tracer by the other linear regression. The dispersities found by spike source and invariant source methods are compared. Experimental results show that the dispersity found by the spike source method is close to that found by the invariant source method. This indicates that dispersity is only a characteristic of the dispersion medium. (author)

  18. Flowability in crushed sand mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study explored the relationship between mortar flowability and the voids content in crushed sand to determine the effect of grain shape and surface texture as well as dust content on the behaviour of fresh mortar. The findings revealed a close correlation between voids content and the volume of paste needed for mortar to begin to flow as a continuous material, mortar flowability and the water content needed to attain a given flowability. The comparison of the empirical findings to the results obtained with the Larrard (1, 2 model provided further information on the effect of sand grain morphology on fresh mortars.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental de la fluidez de morteros basado en el contenido de vacíos de arenas machacadas, para comprender la influencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos de arena y del contenido de polvo de las mismas sobre el estado fresco de morteros. Los resultados muestran la estrecha relación entre el contenido de vacíos entre granos y los volúmenes de pasta necesarios para iniciar el escurrimiento como un material continuo, la fluidez de los morteros, el contenido de agua para alcanzar una determinada fluidez, etc. El comportamiento evaluado se compara con resultados obtenidos aplicando el modelo de F. de Larrard (1, 2, permitiendo de este modo obtener mayor información de la influencia de la morfología de los granos de la arena sobre el estado fresco de los morteros.

  19. CRUSH1: a simplified computer program for impact analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-07-01

    In drop impact analyses for radioactive transport casks, it has become possible to perform them in detail by using interaction evaluation, computer programs, such as DYNA2D, DYNA3D, PISCES and HONDO. However, the considerable cost and computer time are necessitated to perform analyses by these programs. To meet the above requirements, a simplified computer program CRUSH1 has been developed. The CRUSH1 is a static calculation computer program capable of evaluating the maximum acceleration of cask bodies and the maximum deformation of shock absorbers using an Uniaxial Displacement Method (UDM). The CRUSH1 is a revised version of the CRUSH. Main revisions of the computer program are as follows; (1) not only main frame computer but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computer (OS Windows 3.1 or Windows NT) are available for use of the CRUSH1 and (2) input data set are revised. In the paper, brief illustration of calculation method using UDM is presented. The second section presents comparisons between UDM and the detailed method. The third section provides a use`s guide for CRUSH1. (author)

  20. CRUSH1: a simplified computer program for impact analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takeshi

    1996-07-01

    In drop impact analyses for radioactive transport casks, it has become possible to perform them in detail by using interaction evaluation, computer programs, such as DYNA2D, DYNA3D, PISCES and HONDO. However, the considerable cost and computer time are necessitated to perform analyses by these programs. To meet the above requirements, a simplified computer program CRUSH1 has been developed. The CRUSH1 is a static calculation computer program capable of evaluating the maximum acceleration of cask bodies and the maximum deformation of shock absorbers using an Uniaxial Displacement Method (UDM). The CRUSH1 is a revised version of the CRUSH. Main revisions of the computer program are as follows; (1) not only main frame computer but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computer (OS Windows 3.1 or Windows NT) are available for use of the CRUSH1 and (2) input data set are revised. In the paper, brief illustration of calculation method using UDM is presented. The second section presents comparisons between UDM and the detailed method. The third section provides a use's guide for CRUSH1. (author)

  1. Characterizing large strain crush response of redwood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most rudimentary information exists on its crush properties. The objectives of the study were to fill the information gap by collecting triaxial load-deformation data for redwood; to use these data to characterize redwood crush, assess current wood failure theories, provide developments toward a complete stress-strain theory for redwood; and to review the literature on strain-rate effects on redwood crush performance. The load-deformation responses of redwood at temperature conditions corresponding to ambient (70 degrees F), 150 degrees F, and -20 degrees F conditions were measured in approximately 100 confined compression tests for crush levels leading to material densification. Data analysis provided a more complete description of redwood crush performance and a basis for assessing proposed general orthotropic stress-strain relationships for redwood. A review of existing literature indicated that strain-rate effects cause at most a 20 percent increase in crush stress parallel to grain

  2. Crushing method for nuclear fuel powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shin-ichi; Tsuchiya, Haruo.

    1997-01-01

    A crushing medium is contained in mill pots disposed at the circumferential periphery of a main axis. The diameter of each mill pot is determined such that powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders and ground and mixed powders do not reach criticality. A plurality of mill pots are revolved in the direction of the main axis while each pots rotating on its axis. Powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders are conveyed to a supply portion of the moll pot, and an inert gas is supplied to the supply portion. The powdery nuclear fuels are supplied from the supply portion to the inside of the mill pots, and the powdery nuclear fuels containing aggregated powders are crushed by centrifugal force caused by the rotation and the revolving of the mill pots by means of the crushing medium. UO 2 powder in uranium oxide fuels can be crushed continuously. PuO 2 powder and UO 2 powder in MOX fuels can be crushed and mixed continuously. (I.N.)

  3. Micromechanics of pressure-induced grain crushing in porous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Wong, Teng-Fong; Davis, Daniel M.

    1990-01-01

    The hydrostatic compaction behavior of a suite of porous sandstones was investigated at confining pressures up to 600 MPa and constant pore pressures ranging up to 50 MPa. These five sandstones (Boise, Kayenta, St. Peter, Berea, and Weber) were selected because of their wide range of porosity (5-35%) and grain size (60-460 μm). We tested the law of effective stress for the porosity change as a function of pressure. Except for Weber sandstone (which has the lowest porosity and smallest grain size), the hydrostat of each sandstone shows an inflection point corresponding to a critical effective pressure beyond which an accelerated, irrecoverable compaction occurs. Our microstructural observations show that brittle grain crushing initiates at this critical pressure. We also observed distributed cleavage cracking in calcite and intensive kinking in mica. The critical pressures for grain crushing in our sandstones range from 75 to 380 MPa. In general, a sandstone with higher porosity and larger grain size has a critical pressure which is lower than that of a sandstone with lower porosity and smaller grain size. We formulate a Hertzian fracture model to analyze the micromechanics of grain crushing. Assuming that the solid grains have preexisting microcracks with dimensions which scale with grain size, we derive an expression for the critical pressure which depends on the porosity, grain size, and fracture toughness of the solid matrix. The theoretical prediction is in reasonable agreement with our experimental data as well as other data from soil and rock mechanics studies for which the critical pressures range over 3 orders of magnitude.

  4. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions

  5. Pinched Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Pinched Nerve Information Page Pinched Nerve Information Page What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, pinched nerves are addressed primarily through studies associated with pain ...

  6. Differential astroglial responses in the spinal cord of rats submitted to a sciatic nerve double crush treated with local injection of cultured Schwann cell suspension or lesioned spinal cord extract: implications on cell therapy for nerve repair Respostas astrocitárias na medula espinal do rato submetido ao esmagamento duplo do nervo ciático e tratado com injeção local de suspensão de células de Schwann cultivadas ou de extrato de medula espinal lesada: implicações na terapia celular para o reparo do nervo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Martins Dallo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Reactive astrocytes are implicated in several mechanisms after central or peripheral nervous system lesion, including neuroprotection, neuronal sprouting, neurotransmission and neuropathic pain. Schwann cells (SC, a peripheral glia, also react after nerve lesion favoring wound/repair, fiber outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. We investigated herein whether cell therapy for repair of lesioned sciatic nerve may change the pattern of astroglial activation in the spinal cord ventral or dorsal horn of the rat. METHODS: Injections of a cultured SC suspension or a lesioned spinal cord homogenized extract were made in a reservoir promoted by a contiguous double crush of the rat sciatic nerve. Local injection of phosphate buffered saline (PBS served as control. One week later, rats were euthanized and spinal cord astrocytes were labeled by immunohistochemistry and quantified by means of quantitative image analysis. RESULTS: In the ipsilateral ventral horn, slight astroglial activations were seen after PBS or SC injections, however, a substantial activation was achieved after cord extract injection in the sciatic nerve reservoir. Moreover, SC suspension and cord extract injections were able to promote astroglial reaction in the spinal cord dorsal horn bilaterally. Conclusion: Spinal cord astrocytes react according to repair processes of axotomized nerve, which may influence the functional outcome. The event should be considered during the neurosurgery strategies.OBJETIVO: Astrócitos reativos participam de vários mecanismos após lesões do sistema nervoso central e periférico, os quais incluem neuroproteção, brotamento neuronal, neurotransmissão e dor neuropática. As células de Schwann (CS, um tipo de glia periférica, também reagem com a lesão do nervo, podendo interferir com o reparo e cicatrização, crescimento de fibras e regeneração neuronais. Investigamos aqui a possibilidade da terapia celular para o reparo do nervo ci

  7. Studies on various characteristics of concrete structures using crushed sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimatsu, Makoto; Sugita, Hideaki; Yonemura, Masataka.

    1985-01-01

    With the recent advances of construction industry, the demands for concrete, hence for aggregate, are rising. The sand as such is in extreme shortage due to the exhaustion of river sand. Under the situation, the recent trends are for the use of crushed sand, i.e. the artificial sand obtained by crushing rocks, which have advantages of stabilized quality and adequate supplies. In building of nuclear power plants requiring large amounts of concrete, the usage of crushed sand is now unavoidable. The following are described : the situation of aggregate in Kyushu. production method of crushed sand and the quality standards, rocks used for crushed stone and sand and the properties, quality survey on crushed sand and the basic tests, characteristic tests of crushed-stone and -sand mixed concrete, the application of crushed sand in structures of the Sendai Nuclear Power Station. (Mori, K.)

  8. DK crush (double-kissing and double-crush) technique for treatment of true coronary bifurcation lesions: illustration and comparison with classic crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoliang; Zhang, Junjie; Ye, Fei; Zhu, Zhongsheng; Lin, Song; Shan, Shoujie; Kwan, Tak W

    2007-04-01

    Classic crush has a lower success rate compared to final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI). We previously reported the double-kissing (DK) crush technique that involves double-kissing along with double-crushing for the treatment of true bifurcation coronary lesions in 2005. This is a consecutive, nonrandomized, open-label study. Eighty-eight consecutive patients with single, true coronary bifurcation lesions according to Lefevre Classification2 and side branch diameter >2.0 mm were enrolled. The first 44 patients (from October 2004 to January 2005) were assigned to the classic crush treatment arm and the next 44 patients (from February 2005 to June 2005) were assigned to the DK crush technique arm, respectively. Data within 30 days were analyzed. Patients in the DK crush group, compared to those in classic crush group, were characterized by longer lesion length in the side branch (13.5 +/- 3.4 mm vs 7.8 +/- 3.1 mm; p DK crush group, as well as longer lesion length in the main vessel (24.3 +/- 8.6 mm vs 21.1 +/- 7.3 mm), though without significant differences (p >0.05). Subacute stent thrombosis was detected in 2 patients with failure of FKBI in the classic crush group (4.3%). In addition, patients in the classic crush group were characterized by a smaller minimum lumen diameter (MLD) at the side branch ostium (2.74 +/- 0.12 mm vs 3.01 +/- 0.13 mm; p DK crush has the potential to improve the clinical outcome in patients with coronary bifurcation lesions. Further randomized, prospective, multicenter studies are required to confirm these differences between the classic crush and DK crush techniques.

  9. [Experimental study on establishment of a simple model of rats crush injury-crush syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Yuehong; Xu, Wei; Qin, Tingwu; Zhao, Luping; Liu, Shuping; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Yu

    2013-01-01

    To establish a repeatable, simple, and effective model of rat crush injury and crush syndrome. A total of 42 female Sprague Dawley rats (2-month-old, (CS) so as to lay a foundation for further study on CS. weighing 160-180 g) were divided randomly into the control group (n=6) and experimental group (n=36). The rats of the experimental group were used to establish the crush injury and CS model in both lower limbs by self-made crush injury mould. The survival rate and hematuria rate were observed after decompression. The biochemical indexes of blood were measured at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after decompression. The samples of muscle, kidney, and heart were harvested for morphological observation. There was no treatment in the control group, and the same tests were performed. Seven rats died and 15 rats had hematuria during compression in the experimental group. Swelling of the lower limb and muscle tissue was observed in the survival rats after reperfusion. The liver function test results showed that the levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P congestion and swelling, renal tubular epithelial cell degeneration, edema, necrosis, and myoglobin tube type were found in the kidneys; and myocardial structure had no obvious changes. The method of the crush injury and CS model by self-made crush injury mould is a simple and effective procedure and the experimental result is stable. It is a simple method to establish an effective model of rats crush injury and CS.

  10. Distribution of crushing strength of tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of a given set of data is important since most parametric statistical tests are based on the assumption that the studied data are normal distributed. In analysis of fracture mechanics the Weibull distribution is widely used and the derived Weibull modulus is interpreted as a mate...... data from nine model tablet formulations and four commercial tablets are shown to follow the normal distribution. The importance of proper cleaning of the crushing strength apparatus is demonstrated....

  11. Sandvik sharpens in-pit crushing focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteel, K.

    2009-04-15

    Major mining equipment supplier Sandvik Mining and Construction has announced a full-fledged fully mobile crushing plant, the PF300. This is shaping up to be the decade's major addition to the large scale open-cut mining toolkit. The PF300 can be connected to a face conveyor by a loading bridge as well as by belt wagon or transfer conveyor. The article describes design features. 2 figs.

  12. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  13. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  14. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  15. Crushing strength of HTGR fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, W.J.; Stinton, D.P.; Davis, L.E.; Beatty, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The whole-particle crushing strengths of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fertile and fissile coated particles were measured and correlated with fabrication procedures. The crushing strength of Biso-coated fertile particles was increased by the following factors: (1) increasing the outer coating thickness by 10 μm increased strengths by 0.3 lb (1.3 N) for annealed particles and by 0.5 lb (2.2 N) for unannealed particles. (2) An 1800 0 C postcoating anneal increased strengths by 1 lb (4.4 N) for particles with thick outer coatings and by 2 lb (8.9 N) for particles having thin coatings. (3) Increasing the inner coating density by 0.1 g/cm 3 increased strength by 0.6 lb (2.7 N). The crushing strength of Triso-coated fissile particles was proportional to the thickness of the SiC coatings, and strength decreased on annealing by about 0.2 lb (0.9 N) when a porous plate was used to distribute the coating gas and by about 1.5 lb (6.7 N) when a conical gas distributor was used. The strengths of fertile and fissile coated particles as well as uncoated kernels appear adequate to allow fuel fabrication without excessive particle damage

  16. O ultrassom terapêutico na medula espinhal acelera a regeneração do nervo ciático de ratos Therapeutic ultrasound on the spinal cord accelerates regeneration of the sciatic nerve in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Guadallini Jatte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos da irradiação ultrassônica de baixa intensidade aplicada sobre a medula espinhal na regeneração do nervo ciático de ratos após lesão por esmagamento controlado, avaliando os resultados pelo índice funcional do ciático (SFI, medido nas imagens vídeo-filmadas das plantas das patas. MÉTODOS: Dezoito ratos foram submetidos a esmagamento controlado (do nervo ciático direito e divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o tratamento: Grupo 1 (n=9, irradiação simulada; Grupo 2 (n=9, irradiação efetiva. Irradiação ultrassônica de baixa intensidade foi iniciada no 7º dia pós-operatório e aplicada diariamente por 6 semanas. Imagens das plantas das patas dos animais foram vídeo-filmadas em uma esteira transparente sob velocidade controlada a intervalos semanais até a 6ª semana de irradiação e o correspondente SFI medido com um programa de computador específico. RESULTADOS: O SFI durante a 1ª e a 6ª semana de tratamento foi de -59,12 e -12,55 no Grupo 1, e -53,31 e -1,32 no Grupo 2, indicando uma melhora de 79% e 97%, respectivamente, mas as diferenças entre os grupos somente foram significantes (pOBJECTIVE: To study the effects of low intensity ultrasound irradiation applied on the spinal cord on the regeneration of the rat's sciatic nerve after a controlled crush injury, evaluating the functional results of the sciatic functional index as measured on the video recorded images of the foot sole. METHODS: Eighteen rats were submitted to a controlled crush injury of the right sciatic nerve and divided into two groups according to the treatment: Group 1 (n=9, simulated irradiation; Group 2 (n=9, effective irradiation. Low-intensity ultrasound irradiation was started on the 7th postoperative day and applied daily for 6 weeks. Images of the animals´ foot sole were video recorded on a see-through treadmill type walking belt machine at weekly intervals until the 6th week of irradiation and the corresponding

  17. Crushing and Fracture of Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    and Latham (1968). Good agreement between the analytical models and the experiments is found. The crushing behaviour of two high speed ferries has been analysed with the numerical and analytical methods and the results are compared with the existing regulations for high speed craft (HSC). Several failure......The overall objective of the present study has been to develop rational analytical and numerical calculation models to quantify the consequences of collision accidents. The work has primarily been focused on high speed craft (HSC) built in lightweight materials such as aluminium and sandwich...

  18. Effect of weak electromagnetic fields and ionizing radiation on mice sciatic nerve regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, A.O.; Zamuraev, I.N.

    1998-01-01

    Effect of X-ray impulses and electromagnetic (EM) impulses on sciatic nerve regeneration in mice after crush lesion was studied. Limb jerk amplitude at electric stimulation of nerve and postural reflex in thin rod in X + EM and EM groups were restored within 13th days after lesion, in control group within 15 days (p [ru

  19. Isolated marginal facial nerve paresis after TMJ discopexy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reychler, H; Mahy, P

    2011-01-01

    Isolated marginal facial nerve paresis after TMJ discopexy: a case report. This is the first report of a transient, isolated marginal facial nerve paresis after temporomandibular joint arthrotomy. The paresis seems to have resulted from a crush lesion by Backhaus forceps, placed transcutaneously during the operation to distract the intra-articular space.

  20. Electrical stimulation promotes regeneration of injured oculomotor nerves in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional recovery after oculomotor nerve injury is very poor. Electrical stimulation has been shown to promote regeneration of injured nerves. We hypothesized that electrical stimulation would improve the functional recovery of injured oculomotor nerves. Oculomotor nerve injury models were created by crushing the right oculomotor nerves of adult dogs. Stimulating electrodes were positioned in both proximal and distal locations of the lesion, and non-continuous rectangular, biphasic current pulses (0.7 V, 5 Hz were administered 1 hour daily for 2 consecutive weeks. Analysis of the results showed that electrophysiological and morphological recovery of the injured oculomotor nerve was enhanced, indicating that electrical stimulation improved neural regeneration. Thus, this therapy has the potential to promote the recovery of oculomotor nerve dysfunction.

  1. Rock Crushing Using Microwave Pre-Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee; Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Crushing and grinding are primary contributors to a high energy demand in the mining industry, yet, both are surprisingly inefficient processes, often with efficiencies as low as 1%. We analyze size reductions during crushing and grinding operations and explore the potential of multiplying internal weaknesses in rock materials by non-mechanical means. In particular, when rock blocks (wet or even dry if polycrystalline) are exposed to microwaves, internal cracks can develop along grain boundaries via differential thermal expansion between grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water in pores. Brazilian tests conducted on granite and cement mortar specimens show that the tensile strength decreases proportional to the duration of microwave treatment. Thermal changes, excessive fluid pressure buildup and induced stresses are analyzed in the context of hydro-Thermo-mechanically coupled processes. Results confirm that both differential thermal expansion of mineral grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water can generate cracks upon microwave exposure. Optimal conditions are suggested to lower the combined consumption of electric and mechanical energy.

  2. Rock Crushing Using Microwave Pre-Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee

    2016-08-11

    Crushing and grinding are primary contributors to a high energy demand in the mining industry, yet, both are surprisingly inefficient processes, often with efficiencies as low as 1%. We analyze size reductions during crushing and grinding operations and explore the potential of multiplying internal weaknesses in rock materials by non-mechanical means. In particular, when rock blocks (wet or even dry if polycrystalline) are exposed to microwaves, internal cracks can develop along grain boundaries via differential thermal expansion between grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water in pores. Brazilian tests conducted on granite and cement mortar specimens show that the tensile strength decreases proportional to the duration of microwave treatment. Thermal changes, excessive fluid pressure buildup and induced stresses are analyzed in the context of hydro-Thermo-mechanically coupled processes. Results confirm that both differential thermal expansion of mineral grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water can generate cracks upon microwave exposure. Optimal conditions are suggested to lower the combined consumption of electric and mechanical energy.

  3. Crushing of ship bows in head-on collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocakli, H.; Zhang, S.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    Semi-analytical methods for analysis of plate crushing and ship bow damage in head-on collisions are developed in this paper. Existing experimental and theoretical studies for crushing analysis of plated structures are summarized and compared. Simple formulae for determining the crushing force....... The approach developed can be used easily to determine the crushing resistance and damage extent of the ship bow when ship length and collision speed are known. The method can be used in probabilistic analysis of damage extents in ship collisions where a large number of calculations are generally required....

  4. Coke properties in relation to charge preparation techniques. [Selective crushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, O S

    1979-01-01

    Selective crushing is essential to obtain the required coke properties, so that in the coarse fractions there is a considerable reduction in the middlings and dirt normally difficult to crush. These are at the same time enriched with vitrinite so that there is an increase in the coal substance as such, reflected in improved caking capacity in the coarse size range. Various methods of selective crushing are employed, including air entrainment mills, fluidised bed systems. Other advantages claimed for selective crushing are the uniform pore distribution and air permeability and also the diminished breakage stress.

  5. Guinea pigs as an animal model for sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abu Rafee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwhelming use of rat models in nerve regeneration studies is likely to induce skewness in treatment outcomes. To address the problem, this study was conducted in 8 adult guinea pigs of either sex to investigate the suitability of guinea pig as an alternative model for nerve regeneration studies. A crush injury was inflicted to the sciatic nerve of the left limb, which led to significant decrease in the pain perception and neurorecovery up to the 4th weak. Lengthening of foot print and shortening of toe spread were observed in the paw after nerve injury. A 3.49 ± 0.35 fold increase in expression of neuropilin 1 (NRP1 gene and 2.09 ± 0.51 fold increase in neuropilin 2 (NRP2 gene were recorded 1 week after nerve injury as compared to the normal nerve. Ratios of gastrocnemius muscle weight and volume of the experimental limb to control limb showed more than 50% decrease on the 30th day. Histopathologically, vacuolated appearance of the nerve was observed with presence of degenerated myelin debris in digestion chambers. Gastrocnemius muscle also showed degenerative changes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loose and rough arrangement of connective tissue fibrils and presence of large spherical globules in crushed sciatic nerve. The findings suggest that guinea pigs could be used as an alternative animal model for nerve regeneration studies and might be preferred over rats due to their cooperative nature while recording different parameters.

  6. Remaining porosity and permeability of compacted crushed rock salt backfill in a HLW repository. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M.; Mueller, C.; Schirmer, S.

    2015-11-15

    The safe containment of radioactive waste is to be ensured by the geotechnical barriers in combination with the containment-providing rock zone (CRZ). The latter is a key element of the recently developed concept of demonstrating the integrity of the geologic barrier (Krone et al., 2013). As stipulated in the safety requirements of the regulating body the CRZ has to have strong barrier properties, and evidence needs to be provided that it retains its integrity throughout the reference period (BMU, 2010). The underground openings excavated in the rock salt will close over time due to the creep properties of the rock salt. This process causes deformations in the surrounding rock salt, which leads to a change in stress state in the virgin rock and may impair the integrity of the containment-providing rock zone. In order to limit the effects of these processes, all underground openings will be backfilled with crushed salt. Immediately after backfilling, the crushed salt will have an initial porosity of approx. 35%, which - over time - will be reduced to very low values due to the creep properties of the rock salt. The supporting pressure that builds up in the crushed salt with increasing compaction slows down the creeping of the salt. Major influencing factors are the temperature (with higher temperatures accelerating the salt creeping) and the moisture of the salt, which - due to the related decrease in the resistance of the crushed salt - facilitates its compaction. The phenomenology of these processes and dependencies is understood to a wide extent. This project investigated the duration until compaction is completed and when and under what circumstances the crushed salt will have the sealing properties necessary to ensure safe containment. Thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes play a crucial role in determining whether solutions which might enter the mine could reach the radioactive waste. This includes changes in material behaviour due to a partial or complete

  7. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  8. Interim design report: fuel particle crushing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, J.W.; Strand, J.B.; Cook, E.J.; Miller, C.M.

    1977-11-01

    The double-roll fuel particle crusher was developed to fracture the silicon carbide coatings of Fort St. Vrain (FSV) fertile and fissile and large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (LHTGR) fissile fuel particles. The report details the design task for the fuel particle crusher, including historical test information on double-roll crushers for carbide-coated fuels and the design approach selected for the cold pilot plant crusher, and shows how the design addresses the equipment goals and operational objectives. Design calculations and considerations are included to support the selection of crusher drive and gearing, the materials chosen for crushing rolls and housing, and the bearing selection. The results of the initial testing for compliance with design objectives and operational capabilities are also presented. 8 figures, 4 tables

  9. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural... fermentation but the density of the juice may not be reduced below 22 degrees Brix. However, if the juice is...

  10. Gas adsorption on crushed quartz and basalt. [in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, C.; Torkelson, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    The new surfaces generated by crushing rocks and minerals adsorb gases. Different gases are adsorbed to different extents so that both the total amount and composition of the released gases are changed. This affects the interpretation of the composition of the gases obtained by vacuum crushing lunar basalts, meteorites and minerals with fluid inclusions.

  11. Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers., a medicinal mushroom, activates peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kah-Hui; Kanagasabapathy, Gowri; Naidu, Murali; David, Pamela; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2016-10-01

    To study the ability of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus mushroom in the treatment of nerve injury following peroneal nerve crush in Sprague-Dawley rats. Aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus was given by daily oral administration following peroneal nerve crush injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. The expression of protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways; and c-Jun and c-Fos genes were studied in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) whereas the activity of protein synthesis was assessed in peroneal nerves by immunohistochemical method. Peripheral nerve injury leads to changes at the axonal site of injury and remotely located DRG containing cell bodies of sensory afferent neurons. Immunofluorescence studies showed that DRG neurons ipsilateral to the crush injury in rats of treated groups expressed higher immunoreactivities for Akt, MAPK, c-Jun and c-Fos as compared with negative control group (P <0.05). The intensity of nuclear ribonucleoprotein in the distal segments of crushed nerves of treated groups was significantly higher than in the negative control group (P <0.05). H. erinaceus is capable of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration after injury. Potential signaling pathways include Akt, MAPK, c-Jun, and c-Fos, and protein synthesis have been shown to be involved in its action.

  12. Usage of Crushed Concrete Fines in Decorative Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Anton; Bazhenova, Sofia

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the questions of usage of crushed concrete fines from concrete scrap for the production of high-quality decorative composite materials based on mixed binder. The main problem in the application of crushed concrete in the manufacture of decorative concrete products is extremely low decorative properties of crushed concrete fines itself, as well as concrete products based on them. However, crushed concrete fines could have a positive impact on the structure of the concrete matrix and could improve the environmental and economic characteristics of the concrete products. Dust fraction of crushed concrete fines contains non-hydrated cement grains, which can be opened in screening process due to the low strength of the contact zone between the hydrated and non-hydrated cement. In addition, the screening process could increase activity of the crushed concrete fines, so it can be used as a fine aggregate and filler for concrete mixes. Previous studies have shown that the effect of the usage of the crushed concrete fines is small and does not allow to obtain concrete products with high strength. However, it is possible to improve the efficiency of the crushed concrete fines as a filler due to the complex of measures prior to mixing. Such measures may include a preliminary mechanochemical activation of the binder (cement binder, iron oxide pigment, silica fume and crushed concrete fines), as well as the usage of polycarboxylate superplasticizers. The development of specific surface area of activated crushed concrete fines ensures strong adhesion between grains of binder and filler during the formation of cement stone matrix. The particle size distribution of the crushed concrete fines could achieve the densest structure of cement stone matrix and improve its resistance to environmental effects. The authors examined the mechanisms of structure of concrete products with crushed concrete fines as a filler. The results of studies of the properties of

  13. Role of metallothioneins in peripheral nerve function and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceballos, D; Lago, N; Verdú, E

    2003-01-01

    The physiological role of the metallothionein (MT) family of proteins during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration was examined in Mt1+ 2 and Mt3 knockout (KO) mice. To this end, the right sciatic nerve was crushed, and the regeneration distance was evaluated by the pinch test 2-7 days....... The improved regeneration observed with the Mt3 KO mice was confirmed by compound nerve action potentials that were recorded from digital nerves at 14 dpl only in this group. We conclude that Mt3 normally inhibits peripheral nerve regeneration........ Moreover, the number of regenerating axons in the distal tibial nerve was significantly higher in Mt3KO mice than in the other two strains at 14 dpl. Immunoreactive profiles to protein gene product 9.5 were present in the epidermis and the sweat glands of the plantar skin of the hindpaw of the Mt3 KO group...

  14. Expression patterns and role of PTEN in rat peripheral nerve development and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Xiang, Jianping; Wu, Junxia; He, Bo; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Canbin

    2018-05-29

    Studies have suggested that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) plays an important role in neuroprotection and neuronal regeneration. To better understand the potential role of PTEN with respect to peripheral nerve development and injury, we investigated the expression pattern of PTEN at different stages of rat peripheral nerve development and injury and subsequently assessed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) on axonal regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. During the early stages of development, PTEN exhibits low expression in neuronal cell bodies and axons. From embryonic day (E) 18.5 and postnatal day (P)5 to adult, PTEN protein becomes more detectable, with high expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and axons. PTEN expression is inhibited in peripheral nerves, preceding myelination during neuronal development and remyelination after acute nerve injury. Low PTEN expression after nerve injury promotes Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway activity. In vivo pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) promoted axonal regrowth, increased the number of myelinated nerve fibers, improved locomotive recovery and enhanced the amplitude response and nerve conduction velocity following stimulation in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. Thus, we suggest that PTEN may play potential roles in peripheral nerve development and regeneration and that inhibition of PTEN expression is beneficial for nerve regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Immune cell distribution and immunoglobulin levels change following sciatic nerve injury in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To investigate the systemic and local immune status of two surgical rat models of sciatic nerve injury, a crushed sciatic nerve, and a sciatic nerve transection Materials and Methods:Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation (control group, sciatic nerve crush, and sciatic nerve transaction. Sciatic nerve surgery was performed. The percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ratio were determined by flow cytometry. Serum IgM and IgG levels were analyzed by ELISA. T-cells (CD3 and macrophages (CD68 in sciatic nerve tissue sections were identified through immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared to sham-operated controls, in rats that underwent nerve injury, the percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood were significantly  decreased 7 days after surgery, serum IgM levels were increased 14 days after surgery, and serum IgG levels were increased 21 days after surgery. There were a large number of CD3+ cells and a small number of CD68+ cells in sciatic nerve tissue sections 21 days after surgery, indicating T-cell and macrophage activation and infiltration. Local IgG deposition was also detected at the nerve injury site 21 days after surgery. Conclusion: Rat humoral and cellular immune status changed following sciatic nerve injury, particularly with regard to the cellular immune response at the nerve injury site.

  16. Role of Water Sorption in Tablet Crushing Strength, Disintegration, and Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, M; Teerakapibal, R; Kim, K; Elder, E J

    2017-08-01

    Drugs formulated as tablets are subjected to accelerated stability conditions with the goal of identifying a stable formulation that will exhibit a sufficiently long shelf life. Water sorption at a condition such as 40°C/75% RH can result in significant changes in tablet properties such as a decrease in dissolution rate, the cause of which may be difficult to interpret, given the complex nature of ingredients and their interactions in a tablet. In this research, three drugs, displaying a wide range of physicochemical properties, were formulated with commonly used diluents, disintegrants, and binders, using a design of experiments approach. The tablets were stored at accelerated conditions and assessed for content, dissolution, disintegration, and crushing strength, as well as other properties. The research demonstrated many water-induced effects in tablet properties. Due to the experimental design approach that revealed many interactions, it was possible to interpret all of the changes observed in tablet crushing strength, disintegration, and dissolution for the drugs using a common set of physical principles. Specifically, the relevant factors considered were (1) mechanical properties of materials, (2) water sorption surface effects in surface diffusion and capillary condensation, (3) water sorption bulk effects for amorphous materials such as viscous flow/spreading, and (4) water-induced stress on interparticle bonding arising from volume expansion. These physical principles enable a comprehensive interpretation of the complex changes observed in tablet properties, which should be valuable in the design of tablet formulations that will be stable to accelerated storage conditions.

  17. Quality control chart for crushed granite concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa E. DESMOND

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chart for assessing in-situ grade (strength of concrete, has been developed in this study. Four grades of concrete after the Nigerian General Specification for Roads and bridges (NGSRB-C20, C25, C30 and C35, is studied at different water-cement ratios for medium and high slump range. The concrete mixes are made from crushed granite rock as coarse aggregate with river sand as fine aggregate. Compression test on specimens are conducted at curing age of 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days. Results on concrete workability from slump values, and water-cement ratios revealed that specimens with lower water-cement ratio were less workable but had higher strength, compared to mixes with higher water cement ratio. A simple algorithm using nonlinear regression analysis performed on each experimental data set produced Strength-Age (S-A curves which were used to establish a quality control chart. The accuracy of these curves were evaluated by computing average absolute error (AAS, the error of estimate (EoE and the average absolute error of estimate (Abs EoE for each concrete mix. These were done based on the actual average experimental strengths to measure how close the predicted values are to the experimental data set. The absolute average error of estimate (Abs. EoE recorded was less than ±10% tolerance zone for concrete works.

  18. Expression of growth-associated protein B-50/GAP43 in dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerve during regenerative sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der; Nielander, H.B.; Vos, J.P.; Lopes da Silva, S.; Verhaagen, J.; Oestreicher, J.; Schrama, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that B-50 is identical to the neuron- specific, growth-associated protein GAP43. The present study reports on the fate of B-50/GAP43 mRNA and B-50/GAP43 protein, determined by radioimmunoassay, in a rat model of peripheral nerve regeneration (sciatic nerve crush) over a

  19. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - ulnar nerve; Ulnar nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy; Cubital tunnel syndrome ... Damage to one nerve group, such as the ulnar nerve, is called mononeuropathy . Mononeuropathy means there is damage to a single nerve. Both ...

  20. Radial nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - radial nerve; Radial nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy ... Damage to one nerve group, such as the radial nerve, is called mononeuropathy . Mononeuropathy means there is damage to a single nerve. Both ...

  1. Multiple locations of nerve compression: an unusual cause of persistent lower limb paresthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Chia-Liang; Foo, Leon Siang Shen

    2014-01-01

    A paucity of appreciation exists that the "double crush" phenomenon can account for persistent leg symptoms even after spinal neural decompression surgery. We present an unusual case of multiple locations of nerve compression causing persistent lower limb paresthesia in a 40-year old male patient. The patient's lower limb paresthesia was persistent after an initial spinal surgery to treat spinal lateral recess stenosis thought to be responsible for the symptoms. It was later discovered that he had peroneal muscle herniations that had caused superficial peroneal nerve entrapments at 2 separate locations. The patient obtained much symptomatic relief after decompression of the peripheral nerve. The "double crush" phenomenon and multiple levels of nerve compression should be considered when evaluating lower limb neurogenic symptoms, especially after spinal nerve root surgery. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of proposed crush tests on transport containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Crush tests were performed on two AECL F112 packaging specimens, two simulated AECL-CRNL 4H packaging specimens, and on empty steel drums. The 9 m drop test was carried out on two simulated AECL-CRNL 4H packaging specimens for comparison with the effects of the crush test. The tests were filmed using high speed photography and 35mm still photographs

  3. Changes in microtubule-associated protein tau during peripheral nerve injury and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-bin Zha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tau, a primary component of microtubule-associated protein, promotes microtubule assembly and/or disassembly and maintains the stability of the microtubule structure. Although the importance of tau in neurodegenerative diseases has been well demonstrated, whether tau is involved in peripheral nerve regeneration remains unknown. In the current study, we obtained sciatic nerve tissue from adult rats 0, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after sciatic nerve crush and examined tau mRNA and protein expression levels and the location of tau in the sciatic nerve following peripheral nerve injury. The results from our quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that compared with the uninjured control sciatic nerve, mRNA expression levels for both tau and tau tubulin kinase 1, a serine/threonine kinase that regulates tau phosphorylation, were decreased following peripheral nerve injury. Our western blot assay results suggested that the protein expression levels of tau and phosphorylated tau initially decreased 1 day post nerve injury but then gradually increased. The results of our immunohistochemical labeling showed that the location of tau protein was not altered by nerve injury. Thus, these results showed that the expression of tau was changed following sciatic nerve crush, suggesting that tau may be involved in peripheral nerve repair and regeneration.

  4. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical 'cross-bridging' to promote nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Eva, Placheta; Borschel, Gregory H

    2015-10-01

    Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour period of 20 Hz electrical nerve stimulation via electrodes proximal to an injury site accelerates axon outgrowth to hasten target reinnervation in rats and humans, even after delayed surgery. A novel strategy of enticing donor axons from an otherwise intact nerve to grow through small nerve grafts (cross-bridges) into a denervated nerve stump, promotes improved axon regeneration after delayed nerve repair. The efficacy of this technique has been demonstrated in a rat model and is now in clinical use in patients undergoing cross-face nerve grafting for facial paralysis. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation, combined with the surgical technique of promoting the regeneration of some donor axons to 'protect' chronically denervated Schwann cells, improves nerve regeneration and, in turn, functional outcomes in the management of peripheral nerve injuries.

  5. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical ′cross-bridging′ to promote nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour period of 20 Hz electrical nerve stimulation via electrodes proximal to an injury site accelerates axon outgrowth to hasten target reinnervation in rats and humans, even after delayed surgery. A novel strategy of enticing donor axons from an otherwise intact nerve to grow through small nerve grafts (cross-bridges into a denervated nerve stump, promotes improved axon regeneration after delayed nerve repair. The efficacy of this technique has been demonstrated in a rat model and is now in clinical use in patients undergoing cross-face nerve grafting for facial paralysis. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation, combined with the surgical technique of promoting the regeneration of some donor axons to ′protect′ chronically denervated Schwann cells, improves nerve regeneration and, in turn, functional outcomes in the management of peripheral nerve injuries.

  6. Peripheral nerve injury causes transient expression of MHC class I antigens in rat motor neurons and skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maehlen, J; Nennesmo, I; Olsson, A B

    1989-01-01

    After a peripheral nerve lesion (rat facial and sciatic) an induction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens class I was detected immunohistochemically in skeletal muscle fibers and motor neurons. This MHC expression was transient after a nerve crush, when regeneration occurred......, but persisted after a nerve cut, when regeneration was prevented. Since the time course of MHC class I expression correlates to that of regeneration a role for this cell surface molecule in regeneration may be considered....

  7. Continuous-flow leaching studies of crushed and cored SYNROC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Bazan, F.

    1980-01-01

    Both crushed (150 to 300 μm) and cored 1.8 mm diameter) samples of SYNROC have been leached with the single-pass continuous-flow leaching equipment. Crushed samples of Cs-hollandite were also leached in a similar experiment. Temperatures used were 25 0 C and 75 0 C and leachates were 0.03 N NaHCO 3 and distilled water. Leaching rates from SYNROC C were ranked Cs > Sr greater than or equal to Ca > Ba > Zr. A comparison of leaching rates is made between crushed SYNROC, cored SYNROC, and PNL 76-68 glass beads. Problems encountered when comparing the leaching rates of different waste forms are discussed

  8. Utilization of crushed clay brick in cellular concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Aliabdo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research program is to study the effect of using crushed clay brick as an alternative aggregate in aerated concrete. Two series of mixtures were designed to investigate the physico-mechanical properties and micro-structural analysis of autoclave aerated concrete and foamed concrete, respectively. In each series, natural sand was replaced with crushed clay brick aggregate. In both series results showed a significant reduction in unit weight, thermal conductivity and sound attenuation coefficient while porosity has increased. Improvement on compressive strength of autoclave aerated concrete was observed at a percentage of 25% and 50% replacement, while in foamed concrete compressive strength gradually decreased by increasing crushed clay brick aggregate content. A comparatively uniform distribution of pore in case of foamed concrete with natural sand was observed by scanning electron microscope, while the pores were connected mostly and irregularly for mixes containing a percentage higher than 25% clay brick aggregate.

  9. Cask crush pad analysis using detailed and simplified analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST). This facility, located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is a US Department of Energy site. The basis for this study is an analysis by Uldrich and Hawkes. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate various hypothetical cask drop orientations to ensure that the crush pad design was adequate and the cask deceleration at impact was less than 100 g. It is demonstrated herein that a large spent fuel shipping cask, when dropped onto a foam crush pad, can be analyzed by either hand methods or by sophisticated dynamic finite element analysis using computer codes such as ABAQUS. Results from the two methods are compared to evaluate accuracy of the simplified hand analysis approach

  10. Research for the development of the crushed sand (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul Whan; Kang, Sun Duck; Min, Jeong Sik; Synn, Joong Ho; Park, Chan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The sand obtained from river is not sufficient in amount for the demand of construction industry. The production of sand from sea and mountain is rapidly increasing for the substitution of the river sand. The industry of the crushed sand has recently been bricked for the above. Crushing, classification and dewatering are the main processes in the crushed sand production. This report concentrates the improvement of classification technology and the quality of ready mixed concrete. Air separator with testing size for the classification in the process of dry system was developed by the Yeung Nam university. This plant has the excellent efficiency for the collection of fine powder, but needs the improvement for separating function. The collection efficiency of the testing size air separator is reached to 99% in the condition of high revolution and low feeding speed. The classification efficiency is checked about 50% maximum in the condition of 200 rpm and dry sample. Energy saving test was carried out in the production process of the dry system with the rock samples of 14-17% of water content. The classification efficiency for dewatering sample passed the heating process was analysed 91.5%. But that for high water content sample skipped the heating process was analysed more or less 77%. Even though the heating process causes the classification efficiency being high, the energy consumption can also cause the price of the crushed sand high. Water content of sample as the effective element for the optimization of classification efficiency and energy saving should be studied next year. The quality of crushed sand in the mixing design. The test was carried out with the various content in mixing, the strength of ready mixed concrete has the maximum for the mould with 50-60% content of crushed sand. This strength is higher by 5-30% than 30% content and by 20-32% than 0% content, which means that the industry has the possibility of progress. (author). 10 refs., 31 tabs., 49

  11. Assessment of Clinical Practices for Crushing Medication in Geriatric Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodil, M; Nghiem, D; Colas, M; Bourry, S; Poisson-Salomon, A-S; Rezigue, H; Trivalle, C

    2017-01-01

    To assess the modification of the form of medication and evaluate staff observance of good clinical practices. One-day assessment of clinical practices. 17 geriatrics units in the 3 Teaching Hospitals of Paris-Sud (APHP), France. Elderly in-patients with difficulties swallowing capsules and tablets. Assessment of target-patient prescriptions and direct observation of nurses' medical rounds. 155/526 in-patients (29.5%) were unable to swallow tablets or capsules: 98 (40.3%) in long-term care, 46 patients (23.8%) in the rehabilitation unit and 11 (12.2%) in the acute care unit (p = .005). In thirty-nine (27.3%) of the 143 prescriptions studied all tablets were safe to crush and all capsules were safe to open. In 104 cases, at least one medication could not be safely modified, including 26 cases (18.2%) in which none of the prescribed drugs were safe to crush or open. In 48.2% of the 110 medications that were crushed, crushing was forbidden, and presented a potential threat in 12.7% of cases or a reduced efficacy in 8.2% of cases. Crushing methods were rarely appropriate: no specific protective equipment was used (81.8%), crushing equipment was shared between patients without cleaning (95.1%), medications were spilled or lost (69.9%). The method of administration was appropriate (water, jellified water) in 25% of the cases, questionable (soup, coffee, compote, juice, cream) in 55% of the cases and unacceptable (laxative) in 21% of the cases. Management of drug prescriptions in patients with swallowing difficulties is not optimal, and may even have iatrogenic effects. In this study, 12.7% of the modifications of the drug form could have been harmful. Doctors, pharmacists and nurses need to reevaluate their practices.

  12. Study comparing the double kissing (DK) crush with classical crush for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions: the DKCRUSH-1 Bifurcation Study with drug-eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S L; Zhang, J J; Ye, F; Chen, Y D; Patel, T; Kawajiri, K; Lee, M; Kwan, T W; Mintz, G; Tan, H C

    2008-06-01

    Classical crush has a lower rate of final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI) immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The double kissing (DK) crush technique has the potential to increase the FKBI rate, and no prospective studies on the comparison of classical with DK crush techniques have been reported. Three hundred and eleven patients with true bifurcation lesions were randomly divided into classical (n = 156) and DK crush (n = 155) groups. Clinical and angiographic details at follow-up at 8 months were indexed. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including myocardial infarction, cardiac death and target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 8 months. FKBI was 76% in the classical crush group and 100% in the DK group (P DK crush group. Cumulative 8 month MACE was 24.4% in the classical crush group and 11.4% in the DK crush group (P = 0.02). The TLR-free survival rate was 75.4% in the classical crush group and 89.5% in the DK crush group (P = 0.002). DK crush technique has the potential of increasing FKBI rate and reducing stent thrombosis, with a further reduction of TLR and cumulative MACE rate at 8 months.

  13. Regeneration of unmyelinated and myelinated sensory nerve fibres studied by a retrograde tracer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Krarup, Christian; Schmalbruch, Henning

    2004-01-01

    of axons. Axonal counts do not reflect the number of regenerated neurons because of axonal branching and because myelinated axons form unmyelinated sprouts. Two days to 10 weeks after crushing, the distal sural or peroneal nerves were cut and exposed to fluoro-dextran. Large and small dorsal root ganglion...

  14. Primary amenorrhea caused by crushing trauma of the pelvis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donner, G. G.; Pel, M.; Lammes, F. B.

    2000-01-01

    An 18-year-old woman sought treatment for primary amenorrhea. Crushing trauma of the pelvis in her childhood had caused separation between the uterine corpus and the cervix. Through a combined abdominal and vaginal approach the continuity of the uterine outflow tract was restored. Years later, after

  15. Exploratory study of crushed coconut shell as partial replacement for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trend shows a decrease in strength as the quantity of CCS in the concrete cubes increases. The workability of the concrete decreased as the quantity of CSS increased with the mould slumping at 100% CSS. Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV) for CSS is 8% and that for fine sand is 17.89%,, while Aggregate Impact ...

  16. suitability of burnt and crushed cow bones as partial replacement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    3 mix ratio measuring 150x150x150mm were tested for the compressive strength at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively. ... the suitability of using waste products to produce lightweight ... suitability of machine crushed animal bones as partial or.

  17. Reduction of Biomass Moisture by Crushing/Splitting - A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Barnett; Donald L. Sirois; Colin Ashmore

    1986-01-01

    A biomass crusher/splitter concept is presented as a possible n&ant of tsafntainfng rights-of-way (ROW) or harvesting energy wood plantations. The conceptual system would cut, crush, and split small woody biomass leaving it in windrows for drying. A subsequent operation would bale and transport the dried material for use as an energy source. A survey of twenty...

  18. Cryptanalysis of an Iterated Halving-based hash function: CRUSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Nasour; Henricksen, Matt; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2009-01-01

    Iterated Halving has been suggested as a replacement to the Merkle–Damgård (MD) construction in 2004 anticipating the attacks on the MDx family of hash functions. The CRUSH hash function provides a specific instantiation of the block cipher for Iterated Halving. The authors identify structural pr...

  19. Effect of Crushed Sandstone Sand on the Properties of High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents results of the laboratory investigation on high performance concrete (HPC) using crushed sandstone sand as 20%, 40%, and 60% replacement of river sand together with superplastisizer and silica fume (SF). The fresh concrete properties such as slump, air content and fresh concrete density have been ...

  20. environmental impact of aggregate mining by crush rock industries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... in form of crushed rock and it is also an essential con- stituent of many ... of production; processing or during extraction. Since .... reserves through deep quarrying. 1.3. ...... Audit Report of Port Harcourt Flour Mill Port Har- court.

  1. Assessment of Crushed Water Hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study was conducted to evaluate and compare organic buffering capacity of crushed water hyacinth and calcium carbonate on acidic borehole water for aquaculture. Thirty, 25-litre shaded plastic tanks (20-litre filled with experimental water, pH 3.0) of three replicates per treatment of 180 g buffer agent were ...

  2. Diffusion in the pore water of compacted crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegge, Judith; Herr, Sebastian; Lauke, Thomas; Meleshyn, Artur; Miehe, Ruediger; Ruebel, Andre

    2016-07-15

    Diffusion of dissolved radionuclides in the pore water of compacted crushed salt in the long-term is the most relevant process for the release of radionuclides from a dedicated repository for high-level waste in a salt formation as has been shown in latest safety assessments and research projects /BUH 16/. So far, diffusion coefficients for free water have been applied for the diffusion in pore water in models for long-term safety assessments. This conservative assumption was used, because data on the diffusion coefficient of dissolved substances in crushed salt have been missing. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient in the pore water was assumed to be constant and independent from the degree of compaction of the crushed salt. The work presented in this report was intended to contribute to fill this gap of knowledge about how the diffusion of radionuclides takes place in the compacted backfill of a repository in salt. For the first time, the pore diffusion coefficient as well as its dependence on the porosity of the crushed salt was determined experimentally by means of through-diffusion experiments using caesium as tracer. The results achieved in this project suggest that the diffusion in compacted crushed salt is not fully comparable to that in a homogeneous, temporally stable porous medium like sand or clay. The results obtained from four diffusion experiments show a remarkably different behaviour and all yield unique concentration versus time plots which includes highly temporal variable tracer fluxes with even full interruptions of the flux for longer periods of time. This effect cannot be explained by assuming a tracer transport by diffusion in a temporarily invariant pore space and / or under temporally invariant experimental conditions. From our point of view, a restructuring of the pore space seems to lead to closed areas of pore water in the sample which may open up again after some time, leading to a variable pore space and hence variable diffusive

  3. Evaluation of crushed ticagrelor tablet doses: recovery following crushing and naso-gastric tube passage ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Barry; Finnie, Cindy; Crosby, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Orally available ticagrelor in combination with low-dose aspirin (75-100 mg/day) is indicated for adult patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, patients with swallowing difficulties may be unable to consume the currently available 90-mg tablet. It is hypothesized that ticagrelor could be given to this patient cohort as a crushed dose administered either orally or via a naso-gastric (NG) tube. To investigate the potential use of crushed ticagrelor tablets (90- and 180-mg doses) for oral dose or NG tube administration. Ticagrelor tablets (90 or 180 mg [two 90-mg tablets]) were prepared to emulate oral and NG tube administration by similar methods. For the oral dose, ticagrelor tablets were crushed using a mortar and pestle and transferred to a dosing cup. 100 mL of water was added to the mortar, stirred, and the contents were transferred to the dosing cup and stirred to form a suspension. At this stage, where the suspension would normally be administered to a patient, it was collected for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The mortar was then flushed with 100 mL of water, and the contents were again transferred to the dosing cup, stirred, and collected for HPLC analysis. For the NG dose, polyvinylchloride, polyurethane, and silicone size CH10 NG tubes were used. The tablets were crushed using a mortar and pestle, diluted with 50 mL of water, and stirred. At this stage, where the suspension would normally be administered to a patient through an NG tube using a syringe, it was collected for HPLC analysis. The mortar was then flushed with two additional 50 mL aliquots of water and the contents were passed through the NG tube. HPLC analysis examined the recoverability of ticagrelor in each of the dose suspensions and flushes and the stability of the suspension when held in a syringe for up to 2 h. One or two crushed 90-mg ticagrelor tablets, prepared for either oral or NG tube administration, delivers a mean dose of ≥97% of the original

  4. Comparison of the fastest regenerating motor and sensory myelinated axons in the same peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Sørensen, Jesper; Krarup, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Functional outcome after peripheral nerve regeneration is often poor, particularly involving nerve injuries far from their targets. Comparison of sensory and motor axon regeneration before target reinnervation is not possible in the clinical setting, and previous experimental studies addressing...... the question of differences in growth rates of different nerve fibre populations led to conflicting results. We developed an animal model to compare growth and maturation of the fastest growing sensory and motor fibres within the same mixed nerve after Wallerian degeneration. Regeneration of cat tibial nerve...... after crush (n = 13) and section (n = 7) was monitored for up to 140 days, using implanted cuff electrodes placed around the sciatic and tibial nerves and wire electrodes at plantar muscles. To distinguish between sensory and motor fibres, recordings were carried out from L6-S2 spinal roots using cuff...

  5. Optic Nerve Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The optic nerve is a bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages. You have one connecting ... retina) to your brain. Damage to an optic nerve can cause vision loss. The type of vision ...

  6. Optic Nerve Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Optic Nerve Imaging email Send this article to a friend ... measurements of nerve fiber damage (or loss). The Nerve Fiber Analyzer (GDx) uses laser light to measure ...

  7. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  8. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ulnar nerve originates from the brachial plexus and travels down arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body where ...

  9. Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Thompson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 133 Ba, 141 Ce, 152 Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and 233 U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios

  10. Regeneration of unmyelinated and myelinated sensory nerve fibres studied by a retrograde tracer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Krarup, Christian; Schmalbruch, Henning

    2004-01-01

    cells that had been labelled, i.e., that had regenerated axons towards or beyond the injection site, were counted in serial sections. Large and small neurons with presumably myelinated and unmyelinated axons, respectively, were classified by immunostaining for neurofilaments. The axonal growth rate......Regeneration of myelinated and unmyelinated sensory nerve fibres after a crush lesion of the rat sciatic nerve was investigated by means of retrograde labelling. The advantage of this method is that the degree of regeneration is estimated on the basis of sensory somata rather than the number...... of axons. Axonal counts do not reflect the number of regenerated neurons because of axonal branching and because myelinated axons form unmyelinated sprouts. Two days to 10 weeks after crushing, the distal sural or peroneal nerves were cut and exposed to fluoro-dextran. Large and small dorsal root ganglion...

  11. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrejos Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated). However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine parti...

  12. Application of Crushed Concrete in Geotechnical Engineering - Selected Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Jacek; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pilipenko, Anton; Rybak, Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    The reuse of building materials becomes an important issue in sustainable engineering. As the technical requirements for civil engineering structures changes with time and the life time is limited, the need of building new objects meets the necessity of recycling of the existing ones. In the case of steel structures, the possibility of recycling is obvious, also in the case of wooden constructions, the possibility of “burning” solves the problem. The concrete waste is generated mainly as a result of the demolition and reconstruction of residential and industrial buildings. These types of waste are basically made from crushed rocks and cement minerals and contain non-hydrated cement particles in its composition. Concrete poses a lot of problems mainly for two reasons. It is difficult to crush, heavy and hard to transport and demanding in reuse. Different fractions (particle sizes) may be used for different purposes. Starting from very fine particles which can be used in concrete production, through regular 16-300 mm fractions used to form new fills and fill the mats, up to very irregular mixtures used to form stone columns by means of Impulse Compaction or in Dynamic Replacement. The presented study juxtaposes authors experience with crushed concrete used in civil engineering, mainly in geotechnical projects. Authors’ experiences comprise the application of crushed concrete in the new concrete production in Russia, changing pulverized bridge into the fill of mesh sacks, or mattresses used as an effective way to protect the shoreline and the New Orleans East land bridge after Katrina storm (forming a new shoreline better able to withstand wave actions), and finally the use of very irregular concrete fractions to form stone columns in week soils on the example of railway and road projects in Poland. Selected case studies are presented and summarized with regard to social, technical and economic issues including energy consumption needed for proposed technologies

  13. The influence of crushed rock salt particle gradation on compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, C.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results of laboratory compaction testing to determine the influence of particle size, size gradation and moisture-content on compaction of crushed rock salt. Included is a theoretical analysis of the optimum size gradation. The objective is to evaluate the relative densities that can be achieved with tamping techniques. Initial results indicate that compaction increases with maximum particle size and compaction energy, and varies significantly with article size gradation and water content

  14. Crushing damage estimation for pavement with lightly cementitious bases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available . Department of Transport. Pretoria, South Africa. Litwinowicz and De Beer., 2013. Long term crushing performance of lightly cementitious pavement materials – update to the South African procedures. Road Materials and Pavement Design. Maina, J.W., De... Beer, M. and van Rensburg, Y., 2013. Modelling Tyre-Road Contact Stresses in Pavement Design and Analysis. Proceedings of 32nd Southern Africa transport conference, Pretoria, July 2013. pp 336-345: SAPDM, (2014). http://www.sapdm.co.za/, last...

  15. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  16. Review of evaluations of crushing results for the seedbed preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Anisch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For evaluating the work results of tillage operations today only inaccurate parameters are available which cannot be readily measured. Thus, evaluating and comparing the work results of machines and developing suitable sensors are difficult. At the Technical University of Dresden, till 1990, research projects for determining aggregate size composition of soil have been done. Based on this work, this study will show suggestions for measuring, displaying and evaluation of soil crushing results depending on tillage work conditions.

  17. Continuous-flow leaching studies of crushed and cored SYNROC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Bazan, F.

    1982-01-01

    Both crushed (150- to 300- μm) and cored (1,8- mm-diam) samples of SYNROC have been leached with single-pass continuous-flow leaching equipment. Crushed samples of cesium-hollandite were also leached in a similar experiment. Temperatures used were 25 0 and 75 0 C and leachates were 0.03 N NaHCO 3 and distilled water. Leaching rates from SYNROC-C were ranked cesium > strontium greater than or equal to calcium > barium > zirconium. A comparison of leaching rates is made between crushed SYNROC, cored SYNROC, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory 76-68 glass beads. This comparison depends on how the surface areas are determined for each sample. Based on geometric surface areas for SYNROC cores and glass beads, cesium leach rates from SYNROC compare well with both sodium and neptunium leached from the glass. The other elements leached from SYNROC are lower than sodium and neptunium leached from glass. They also vary for each element, while glass shows nearly the same leach rate for both sodium and neptunium

  18. Continuous-flow leaching studies of crushed and cored SYNROC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Bazan, F.

    1981-01-01

    Both crushed (150 to 300 μm) and cored (1.8 mm diameter) samples of SYNROC have been leached with the single-pass continuous-flow leaching equipment. Crushed samples of Cs-hollandite were also leached in a similar experiment. Temperatures used were 25 and 75 0 C and leachates were 0.03 N NaHCO 3 and distilled water. Leaching rates from SYNROC C were ranked Cs > Sr greater than or equal to Ca > Ba > Zr. A comparison of leaching rates is made between crushed SYNROC, cored SYNROC, and PNL 76-68 glass beads. This comparison depends on how the surface areas are determined for each sample. Based on geometric surface areas for SYNROC cores and glass beads Cs leach rates from SYNROC compare well with both Na and Np leached from the glass. The other elements leached from SYNROC are lower than Na and Np leached from glass. They also vary for each element while glass shows nearly the same leach rate for both Na and Np

  19. Digital radiography of crush thoracic trauma in the Sichuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhi-Hui; Shao, Heng; Chen, Tian-Wu; Chu, Zhi-Gang; Deng, Wen; Tang, Si-Shi; Chen, Jing; Yang, Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the features of crush thoracic trauma in Sichuan earthquake victims using chest digital radiography (CDR). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 772 CDR of 417 females and 355 males who had suffered crush thoracic trauma in the Sichuan earthquake. Patient age ranged from 0.5 to 103 years. CDR was performed between May 12, 2008 and June 7, 2008. We looked for injury to the thoracic cage, pulmonary parenchyma and the pleura. RESULTS: Antero-posterior (AP) and lateral CDR were obtained in 349 patients, the remaining 423 patients underwent only AP CDR. Thoracic cage fractures, pulmonary contusion and pleural injuries were noted in 331 (42.9%; 95% CI: 39.4%-46.4%), 67 and 135 patients, respectively. Of the 256 patients with rib fractures, the mean number of fractured ribs per patient was 3. Rib fractures were mostly distributed from the 3rd through to the 8th ribs and the vast majority involved posterior and lateral locations along the rib. Rib fractures had a significant positive association with non-rib thoracic fractures, pulmonary contusion and pleural injuries (P < 0.001). The number of rib fractures and pulmonary contusions were significant factors associated with patient death. CONCLUSION: Earthquake-related crush thoracic trauma has the potential for multiple fractures. The high number of fractured ribs and pulmonary contusions were significant factors which needed appropriate medical treatment. PMID:22132298

  20. Simulation and modeling of the crushing behavior of structural members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, Yutaka

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the crushing behavior (the behavior of compressive breakdown accompanied by super large deformation) of structural members is an important subject which becomes the base of the ultimate strength design of the structures which may cause collision accident such as automobiles, ships and aircrafts, and of those which are feared to be collided such as offshore structures, bridge piers and nuclear power plants. However, since it is a phenomenon of very strong nonlinearity, its analysis is accompanied by large difficulty. In this report, three kinds of the approach for this problem, that is, rigid-plastic theoretical analysis, the simulation using a rigid body and spring model and nonlinear finite element analysis, are explained, referring to the example of calculation by the authors on the non-axisymmetric crushing problem of cylindrical shells. In crushing problem, the matters of concern are the amount of collision energy which can be absorbed by the plastic deformation of structures and the amount of deformation. It can be said that the increase of calculation cost brings about the heightening of calculation accuracy. The nonlinear finite element analysis is promising because its calculation cost is expected to lower in future. (Kako, I.)

  1. Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats subjected to ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz; Właszczuk, Adam; Gendosz, Daria; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Kapustka, Bartosz; Łączyński, Mariusz; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat-content diet with insufficiency of carbohydrates that induces ketogenesis. Besides its anticonvulsant properties, many studies have shown its neuroprotective effect in central nervous system, but its influence on peripheral nervous system has not been studied yet. We examined the influence of KD on regeneration of peripheral nerves in adult rats. Fifty one rats were divided into three experimental (n = 15) and one control (n = 6) groups. Right sciatic nerve was crushed and animals were kept on standard (ST group) or ketogenic diet, the latter was introduced 3 weeks before (KDB group) or on the day of surgery (KDA group). Functional (CatWalk) tests were performed once a week, and morphometric (fiber density, axon diameter, and myelin thickness) analysis of the nerves was made after 6 weeks. Body weight and blood ketone bodies level were estimated at the beginning and the end of experiment. Functional analysis showed no differences between groups. Morphometric evaluation showed most similarities to the healthy (uncrushed) nerves in KDB group. Nerves in ST group differed mostly from all other groups. Ketone bodies were elevated in both KD groups, while post-surgery animals' body weight was lower as compared to ST group. Regeneration of sciatic nerves was improved in KD - preconditioned rats. These results suggest a neuroprotective effect of KD on peripheral nerves.

  2. Evoked electromyography to rocuronium in orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius in facial nerve injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yian; Chen, Lianhua; Li, Shitong

    2013-11-01

    Muscles innervated by the facial nerve show different sensitivities to muscle relaxants than muscles innervated by somatic nerves, especially in the presence of facial nerve injury. We compared the evoked electromyography (EEMG) response of orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius in with and without a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant in a rabbit model of graded facial nerve injury. Differences in EEMG response and inhibition by rocuronium were measured in the orbicularis oris and gastrocnemius muscles 7 to 42 d after different levels of facial nerve crush injuries in adult rabbits. Baseline EEMG of orbicularis oris was significantly smaller than those of the gastrocnemius. Gastrocnemius was more sensitive to rocuronium than the facial muscles (P rocuronium was negatively correlated with the magnitude of facial nerve injury but the sensitivity to rocuronium was not. No significant difference was found in the onset time and the recovery time of rocuronium among gastrocnemius and normal or damaged facial muscles. Muscles innervated by somatic nerves are more sensitive to rocuronium than those innervated by the facial nerve, but while facial nerve injury reduced EEMG responses, the sensitivity to rocuronium is not altered. Partial neuromuscular blockade may be a suitable technique for conducting anesthesia and surgery safely when EEMG monitoring is needed to preserve and protect the facial nerve. Additional caution should be used if there is a risk of preexisting facial nerve injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genipin-Cross-Linked Chitosan Nerve Conduits Containing TNF-α Inhibitors for Peripheral Nerve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhao, Weijia; Niu, Changmei; Zhou, Yujie; Shi, Haiyan; Wang, Yalin; Yang, Yumin; Tang, Xin

    2018-07-01

    Tissue engineered nerve grafts (TENGs) are considered a promising alternative to autologous nerve grafting, which is considered the "gold standard" clinical strategy for peripheral nerve repair. Here, we immobilized tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors onto a nerve conduit, which was introduced into a chitosan (CS) matrix scaffold utilizing genipin (GP) as the crosslinking agent, to fabricate CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits. The in vitro release kinetics of TNF-α inhibitors from the CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The in vivo continuous release profile of the TNF-α inhibitors released from the CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay over 14 days. We found that the amount of TNF-α inhibitors released decreased with time after the bridging of the sciatic nerve defects in rats. Moreover, 4 and 12 weeks after surgery, histological analyses and functional evaluations were carried out to assess the influence of the TENG on regeneration. Immunochemistry performed 4 weeks after grafting to assess early regeneration outcomes revealed that the TENG strikingly promoted axonal outgrowth. Twelve weeks after grafting, the TENG accelerated myelin sheath formation, as well as functional restoration. In general, the regenerative outcomes following TENG more closely paralleled findings observed with autologous grafting than the use of the CS matrix scaffold. Collectively, our data indicate that the CS-GP-TNF-α inhibitor nerve conduits comprised an elaborate system for sustained release of TNF-α inhibitors in vitro, while studies in vivo demonstrated that the TENG could accelerate regenerating axonal outgrowth and functional restoration. The introduction of CS-GP-TNF-α-inhibitor nerve conduits into a scaffold may contribute to an efficient and adaptive immune microenvironment that can be used to facilitate peripheral nerve repair.

  4. Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Sections What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? ... Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Treatment What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es una parálisis ...

  5. Use of Processed Nerve Allografts to Repair Nerve Injuries Greater Than 25 mm in the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Brian; Zoldos, Jozef; Weber, Renata V; Ko, Jason; Thayer, Wesley; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Leversedge, Fraser J; Safa, Bauback; Buncke, Gregory

    2017-06-01

    Processed nerve allografts (PNAs) have been demonstrated to have improved clinical results compared with hollow conduits for reconstruction of digital nerve gaps less than 25 mm; however, the use of PNAs for longer gaps warrants further clinical investigation. Long nerve gaps have been traditionally hard to study because of low incidence. The advent of the RANGER registry, a large, institutional review board-approved, active database for PNA (Avance Nerve Graft; AxoGen, Inc, Alachua, FL) has allowed evaluation of lower incidence subsets. The RANGER database was queried for digital nerve repairs of 25 mm or greater. Demographics, injury, treatment, and functional outcomes were recorded on standardized forms. Patients younger than 18 and those lacking quantitative follow-up data were excluded. Recovery was graded according to the Medical Research Council Classification for sensory function, with meaningful recovery defined as S3 or greater level. Fifty digital nerve injuries in 28 subjects were included. There were 22 male and 6 female subjects, and the mean age was 45. Three patients gave a previous history of diabetes, and there were 6 active smokers. The most commonly reported mechanisms of injury were saw injuries (n = 13), crushing injuries (n = 9), resection of neuroma (n = 9), amputation/avulsions (n = 8), sharp lacerations (n = 7), and blast/gunshots (n = 4). The average gap length was 35 ± 8 mm (range, 25-50 mm). Recovery to the S3 or greater level was reported in 86% of repairs. Static 2-point discrimination (s2PD) and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWF) were the most common completed assessments. Mean s2PD in 24 repairs reporting 2PD data was 9 ± 4 mm. For the 38 repairs with SWF data, protective sensation was reported in 33 repairs, deep pressure in 2, and no recovery in 3. These data compared favorably with historical data for nerve autograft repairs, with reported levels of meaningful recovery of 60% to 88%. There were no reported adverse effects

  6. A numerical approach to model and predict the energy absorption and crush mechanics within a long-fiber composite crush tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Leon, Jr.

    Past research has conclusively shown that long fiber structural composites possess superior specific energy absorption characteristics as compared to steel and aluminum structures. However, destructive physical testing of composites is very costly and time consuming. As a result, numerical solutions are desirable as an alternative to experimental testing. Up until this point, very little numerical work has been successful in predicting the energy absorption of composite crush structures. This research investigates the ability to use commercially available numerical modeling tools to approximate the energy absorption capability of long-fiber composite crush tubes. This study is significant because it provides a preliminary analysis of the suitability of LS-DYNA to numerically characterize the crushing behavior of a dynamic axial impact crushing event. Composite crushing theory suggests that there are several crushing mechanisms occurring during a composite crush event. This research evaluates the capability and suitability of employing, LS-DYNA, to simulate the dynamic crush event of an E-glass/epoxy cylindrical tube. The model employed is the composite "progressive failure model", a much more limited failure model when compared to the experimental failure events which naturally occur. This numerical model employs (1) matrix cracking, (2) compression, and (3) fiber breakage failure modes only. The motivation for the work comes from the need to reduce the significant cost associated with experimental trials. This research chronicles some preliminary efforts to better understand the mechanics essential in pursuit of this goal. The immediate goal is to begin to provide deeper understanding of a composite crush event and ultimately create a viable alternative to destructive testing of composite crush tubes.

  7. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs

  8. Radionuclide sorption on crushed and intact granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, Tryggve E.; Locklund, Birgitta

    1989-05-01

    The specific surface areas and distribution ratios for sorption of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 152 Eu were measured for crushed and intact granite rock. The experimental data can be accommodated by a sorption model encompassing sorption on outer and inner surface. It is clearly demonstrated that the time required to obtain reliable Kd-values for the sorption of strongly sorbing radionuclides like 152 Eu is very long due to solution depletion and slow diffusion into the rock. A combination of surface area measurements and batch sorption with small particles may therefore be preferable when studying strongly sorbing nuclides. (authors) (17 figs., 6 tabs.)

  9. Performance of PWR buidings in case of airplane crush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huby, Y.; Barbe, B.

    1992-02-01

    Safety standards for the French nuclear power plants are defined in RCC-G. For the risk estimation of airplan crush two type of planes are considered: Lear-Jet 23, and Cesna 210. For estimating the resistance to impact shock of the reactor building deformation criteria were established for concrete and steel reinforcement. A practical calculation method is recommended in RCC-G. Results contain data resulting from impact shock dependent on the military plane type and speed. Finite element method was applied as well as simplified method proposed by Comite Europeen du Breton

  10. Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2015-04-01

    Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection Elena Kuznetsova, NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF With natural (fluvial, glaciofluvial) sand/gravel resources being rapidly depleted in many countries, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards using more alternative materials for construction purpose. In Norway the development and implementation of crushed aggregate technology has been the most important way to get around the problem with increased resource scarcity. Today Norway is one the European countries with the highest percentage of crushed/manufactured aggregates. A crushed product will reveal a different particle size distribution, a sharper, more angular particle shape, and not least - a significantly different mineral composition. The latter may often be characterised by more polymineral composition, and it will also much more depend on the local bedrock. When handled with care and knowledge, these differences can give the user a lot of new opportunities relating to materials design. Norwegian road construction practice has changed significantly during the last 40 years due to the replacement of gravel by crushed rock materials in the granular layers of the pavements. The use of non-processed rock materials from blasting was allowed in the subbase layer until 2012. This was a reason for a lot of problems with frost heaving due to inhomogeneity of this material, and in practice it was difficult to control the size of large stones. Since 2012 there is a requirement that rock materials for use in the subbase layer shall be crushed (Handbook N200, 2014). During the spring 2014 The Norwegian Public Roads Administration introduced a new handbook with requirements for roads construction in Norway, including new specifications for the frost protection layer. When pavements are constructed over moist and/or frost susceptible soils in cold and humid environments, the frost protection layer also becomes a very important part

  11. In vivo assessment of peripheral nerve regeneration by diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Shinsuke; Kawai, Yuko; Umeda, Masahiro; Nishi, Mayumi; Oda, Ryo; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Yamada, Kei; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Chuzo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in assessing peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo. We assessed the changes in the DTI parameters and histological analyses after nerve injury to examine degeneration and regeneration in the rat sciatic nerves. For magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 16 rats were randomly divided into two groups: group P (permanently crushed; n = 7) and group T (temporally crushed; n = 9). Serial MRI of the right leg was performed before the operation, and then performed at the timepoints of 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after the crush injury. The changes in fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (λ(∥)), and radial diffusivity (λ(⟂)) were quantified. For histological analyses, the number of axons and the myelinated axon areas were quantified. Decreased FA and increased λ(⟂) were observed in the degenerative phase, and increased FA and decreased λ(⟂) were observed in the regenerative phase. The changes in FA and λ(⟂) were strongly correlated with histological changes, including axonal and myelin regeneration. DTI parameters, especially λ(⟂) , can be good indicators for peripheral nerve regeneration and can be applied as noninvasive diagnostic tools for a variety of neurological diseases. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Augmenting nerve regeneration with electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T; Brushart, T M; Chan, K M

    2008-12-01

    Poor functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury is generally attributed to irreversible target atrophy. In rats, we addressed the functional outcomes of prolonged neuronal separation from targets (chronic axotomy for up to 1 year) and atrophy of Schwann cells (SCs) in distal nerve stumps, and whether electrical stimulation (ES) accelerates axon regeneration. In carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients with severe axon degeneration and release surgery, we asked whether ES accelerates muscle reinnervation. Reinnervated motor unit (MUs) and regenerating neuron numbers were counted electrophysiologically and with dye-labeling after chronic axotomy, chronic SC denervation and after immediate nerve repair with and without trains of 20 Hz ES for 1 hour to 2 weeks in rats and in CTS patients. Chronic axotomy reduced regenerative capacity to 67% and was alleviated by exogenous growth factors. Reduced regeneration to approximately 10% by SC denervation atrophy was ameliorated by forskolin and transforming growth factor-beta SC reactivation. ES (1 h) accelerated axon outgrowth across the suture site in association with elevated neuronal neurotrophic factor and receptors and in patients, promoted the full reinnervation of thenar muscles in contrast to a non-significant increase in MU numbers in the control group. The rate limiting process of axon outgrowth, progressive deterioration of both neuronal growth capacity and SC support, but not irreversible target atrophy, account for observed poor functional recovery after nerve injury. Brief ES accelerates axon outgrowth and target muscle reinnervation in animals and humans, opening the way to future clinical application to promote functional recovery.

  13. Deformations during saturation of the crushed aggregate, Olkiluoto tonalite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, R.; Rathmayer, H.; Takala, J.; Toernqvist, J.

    1994-03-01

    Crushed aggregate tonalite produced of crystalline tonalite or a correspondent rock with particle size up to 8 mm (or 16 mm) will be used as backfill material in the VLJ repository caverns at Olkiluoto (in Finland). The backfill material has to retard radionuclides, to restrict the groundwater perlocation and to support mechanically the concrete structure of the repository silos. Mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of crushed tonalite when effected by stresses applied during compaction of the backfill and due to groundwater perlocation was studied at three batches having different gradations. Information about the phenomenon of settlement due to saturation and as a function of the compaction methods was obtained from a literature survey. The maximum amount of possible deformation due to compaction was analyzed with a gyratory device, known to have a good repeatability. In a group of simulation tests using a large oedometer cell the amount of compression due to the saturation process was measured. Also studies on the suitability of different compaction methods could be done with these tests. (43 refs., 49 figs., 3 tabs.)

  14. The vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoudiba, F; Toulgoat, F; Sarrazin, J-L

    2013-10-01

    The vestibulocochlear nerve (8th cranial nerve) is a sensory nerve. It is made up of two nerves, the cochlear, which transmits sound and the vestibular which controls balance. It is an intracranial nerve which runs from the sensory receptors in the internal ear to the brain stem nuclei and finally to the auditory areas: the post-central gyrus and superior temporal auditory cortex. The most common lesions responsible for damage to VIII are vestibular Schwannomas. This report reviews the anatomy and various investigations of the nerve. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Preparation-induced errors in EPR dosimetry of enamel: pre- and post-crushing sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Kenner, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    Errors in dose estimation as a function of grain size for tooth enamel has been previously shown for beta irradiation after crushing. We tested the effect of gamma radiation applied to specimens before and after crushing. We extend the previous work in that we found that post-crushing irradiation altered the slope of the dose-response curve of the hydroxyapatite signal and produced a grain-size dependent offset. No changes in the slope of the dose-response curve were seen in enamel caps irradiated before crushing

  16. Outcomes of short-gap sensory nerve injuries reconstructed with processed nerve allografts from a multicenter registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Brian D; Ingari, John V; Greenberg, Jeffrey A; Thayer, Wesley P; Safa, Bauback; Buncke, Gregory M

    2015-06-01

    Short-gap digital nerve injuries are a common surgical problem, but the optimal treatment modality is unknown. A multicenter database was queried and analyzed to determine the outcomes of nerve gap reconstructions between 5 and 15 mm with processed nerve allograft. The current RANGER registry is designed to continuously monitor and compile injury, repair, safety, and outcomes data. Centers followed their own standard of care for treatment and follow-up. The database was queried for digital nerve injuries with a gap between 5 and 15 mm reporting sufficient follow-up data to complete outcomes analysis. Available quantitative outcome measures were reviewed and reported. Meaningful recovery was defined by the Medical Research Council Classification (MRCC) scale at S3-S4 for sensory function. Sufficient follow-up data were available for 24 subjects (37 repairs) in the prescribed gap range. Mean age was 43 years (range, 23-81). Mean gap was 11 ± 3 (5-15) mm. Time to repair was 13 ± 42 (0-215) days. There were 25 lacerations, 8 avulsion/amputations, 2 gunshots, 1 crush injury, and 1 injury of unknown mechanism. Meaningful recovery, defined as S3-S4 on the MRCC scales, was reported in 92% of repairs. Sensory recovery of S3+ or S4 was observed in 84% of repairs. Static 2PD was 7.1 ± 2.9 mm (n = 19). Return to light touch was observed in 23 out of 32 repairs reporting Semmes-Weinstein monofilament outcomes (SWMF). There were no reported nerve adverse events. Sensory outcomes for processed nerve allografts were equivalent to historical controls for nerve autograft and exceed those of conduit. Processed nerve allografts provide an effective solution for short-gap digital nerve reconstructions. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Radial nerve dysfunction (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. ... the wrist and hand. The usual causes of nerve dysfunction are direct trauma, prolonged pressure on the ...

  18. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many ... viruses. Sometimes the cause is not known. Degenerative nerve diseases include Alzheimer's disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Friedreich's ...

  19. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...

  20. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... later on. Inflammation of the tendons ( tendonitis ) or joints ( arthritis ) can also put pressure on the nerve. ... how fast electrical signals move through a nerve Neuromuscular ultrasound to view problems with the muscles and ...

  1. Treatment with analgesics after mouse sciatic nerve injury does not alter expression of wound healing-associated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt C Danzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of sciatic nerve injury are commonly used to study neuropathic pain as well as axon regeneration. Administration of post-surgical analgesics is an important consideration for animal welfare, but the actions of the analgesic must not interfere with the scientific goals of the experiment. In this study, we show that treatment with either buprenorphine or acetaminophen following a bilateral sciatic nerve crush surgery does not alter the expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons of a panel of genes associated with wound healing. These findings indicate that the post-operative use of buprenorphine or acetaminophen at doses commonly suggested by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees does not change the intrinsic gene expression response of DRG neurons to a sciatic nerve crush injury, for many wound healing-associated genes. Therefore, administration of post-operative analgesics may not confound the results of transcriptomic studies employing this injury model.

  2. Optic Nerve Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  3. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeumer, T.; Grimm, A.; Schelle, T.

    2017-01-01

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [de

  4. Recent developments, new trends in seed crushing and oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kővári Katalin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil processing was considered as slowly changing “traditional” industry but the recent decades’ developments and trends resulted in a lot of changes initiated by market, industry, environment protection and consumer needs. Driving force of the developments were centralization of the industry, more and more concerns on environmental impact, increased importance of food-feed safety, and last but not least research and development activity together with improved analytical capabilities. The presentation gives an overview on the results achieved on the field of the following areas: the criteria of applicability of physical refining of seed oils, solutions for proper degumming, the effect of seed pretreatment and crushing conditions on the crude oil quality, the importance and role of bleaching and active carbon treatment, the proper practice of deacidification/deodorization.

  5. 4.7-T diffusion tensor imaging of acute traumatic peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Richard B; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Riley, D Colton; Sexton, Kevin W; Pollins, Alonda C; Shack, R Bruce; Dortch, Richard D; Nanney, Lillian B; Does, Mark D; Thayer, Wesley P

    2015-09-01

    Diagnosis and management of peripheral nerve injury is complicated by the inability to assess microstructural features of injured nerve fibers via clinical examination and electrophysiology. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been shown to accurately detect nerve injury and regeneration in crush models of peripheral nerve injury, but no prior studies have been conducted on nerve transection, a surgical emergency that can lead to permanent weakness or paralysis. Acute sciatic nerve injuries were performed microsurgically to produce multiple grades of nerve transection in rats that were harvested 1 hour after surgery. High-resolution diffusion tensor images from ex vivo sciatic nerves were obtained using diffusion-weighted spin-echo acquisitions at 4.7 T. Fractional anisotropy was significantly reduced at the injury sites of transected rats compared with sham rats. Additionally, minor eigenvalues and radial diffusivity were profoundly elevated at all injury sites and were negatively correlated to the degree of injury. Diffusion tensor tractography showed discontinuities at all injury sites and significantly reduced continuous tract counts. These findings demonstrate that high-resolution DTI is a promising tool for acute diagnosis and grading of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries.

  6. Bipolar electrocautery: A rodent model of Sunderland third-degree nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Arash; Brenner, Michael J; Whitlock, Elizabeth L; Tong, Alice Y; Luciano, Janina P; Hunter, Daniel A; Myckatyn, Terence M; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2010-01-01

    To determine the Sunderland classification of a bipolar electrocautery injury. Twenty-two rats received crush (a reproducible Sunderland second-degree injury) or bipolar electrocautery injury and were evaluated for functional, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical recovery at 21 or 42 days. Animal experiments were performed between July 3 and December 12, 2007. Axonal regeneration and end plate reinnervation were evaluated in double transgenic cyan fluorescent protein-conjugated Thy1 and green fluorescent protein-conjugated S100 mice. Compared with crush injury, bipolar electrocautery injury caused greater disruption of myelin and neurofilament architecture at the injury site and decreased nerve fiber counts and percentage of neural tissue distal to the injury (P =.007). Complete functional recovery was seen after crush but not bipolar electrocautery injury. Serial live imaging demonstrated axonal regeneration at week 1 after crush and at week 3 after bipolar electrocautery injury. Qualitative assessment of motor end plate reinnervation at 42 days demonstrated complete neuromuscular end plate reinnervation in the crush group and only limited reinnervation in the bipolar electrocautery group. Bipolar electrocautery injury in a rodent model resulted in a Sunderland third-degree injury, characterized by gradual, incomplete recovery without intervention.

  7. Effect of crushed sand on mortar and concrete rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experimental study conducted on fresh mortars and concretes made with crushed sand. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of aggregate particle shape and surface texture as well as dust content on mortar and concrete rheology. The experimental programme also addressed the impact of angular grains on chemical admixture performance and concrete bleeding. The findings showed that the use of crushed sand induces rheological behaviour that differs from the behaviour observed in natural sand and that superplasticisers can improve this behaviour considerably.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental del estado fresco de morteros y hormigones con arenas de machaqueo, orientado a la evaluación de la incidencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos del árido fino y del contenido de polvo sobre la reología de las mezclas. El programa experimental comprendió el estudio del estado fresco de hormigones con arenas con partículas angulares, la influencia de este tipo de partículas sobre la efectividad de los aditivos químicos y la evaluación de la influencia de las características físicas del árido fino sobre la exudación. Los resultados muestran que el empleo de arenas de machaqueo provoca un comportamiento reológico diferente al de hormigones con arenas naturales, y que el efecto de los aditivos superfluidificantes mejora notablemente este comportamiento.

  8. Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from -5 md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability ( -5 md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing

  9. [Experimental studies for the improvement of facial nerve regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntinas-Lichius, O; Angelov, D N

    2008-02-01

    Using a combination of the following, it is possible to investigate procedures to improve the morphological and functional regeneration of the facial nerve in animal models: 1) retrograde fluorescence tracing to analyse collateral axonal sprouting and the selectivity of reinnervation of the mimic musculature, 2) immunohistochemistry to analyse both the terminal axonal sprouting in the muscles and the axon reaction within the nucleus of the facial nerve, the peripheral nerve, and its environment, and 3) digital motion analysis of the muscles. To obtain good functional facial nerve regeneration, a reduction of terminal sprouting in the mimic musculature seems to be more important than a reduction of collateral sprouting at the lesion site. Promising strategies include acceleration of nerve regeneration, forced induced use of the paralysed face, mechanical stimulation of the face, and transplantation of nerve-growth-promoting olfactory epithelium at the lesion site.

  10. [Comparison of DK crush with classical crush technique with drug-eluting stents for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions from DKCRUSH-1 study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-liang; Zhang, Jun-jie; Ye, Fei; Chen, Yun-dai; Lü, Shu-zheng; Tan, Huaycheem; Patel, Tejas; Kenji, Kawajiri; Tamari, Israel; Shan, Shou-jie; Zhu, Zhong-sheng; Lin, Song; Tian, Nai-liang; Li, Xiao-bo; Liu, Zhi-zhong; Lee, Michael; Wei, Meng; Xu, Ya-wei; Yuan, Zheng-bai; Qian, Jun; Sun, Xue-wen; Yang, Song; Chen, Jin-guo; He, Ben; Sumit, Suji

    2008-02-01

    To determine independent factors correlated with clinical effects of DK crush and classical crush technique with drug-eluting stents on bifurcation lesions. 311 patients with bifurcation lesions were randomized to classical (C, n = 156) or double kissing (DK) crush (n = 155) stent implantation group. The primary endpoints included major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI) success rate was 76% in C and 100% in DK groups (P DK crush procedure was characterized by lower unsatisfactory FKBI rate (27.6% vs.6.3%, P DK groups (P = 0.01), respectively. Cumulative 8-month MACE was 35.9% in without-FKBI and 19.7% in with-FKBI sub-groups, and 11.4% in DK group (P = 0.02). The incidence of stent thrombosis was 3.2% in C group (5.1% without vs. 1.7% with FKBI) and 1.3% in DK group (P > 0.05). The predictive factors of MACE included minimal side branch stent lumen diameter and lack of DK crush technique. DK crush technique is an alternative of double stenting techniques in terms of improvement of restenosis and clinical outcomes.

  11. Strength Properties of Foamed Concrete Containing Crushed Steel Slag as Partial Replacement of Sand with Specific Gradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiong Hock Yong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight construction material, notably foamed concrete, had become more favourable to reduce building weight and cost, accelerate construction process, and ease handling of precast segment. Simultaneously, rapid development had result in price rising of conventional material and environmental issue due to abundant wastes, for instance steel slag. As a consequence, feasibility of steel slag to be incorporated in lightweight foamed concrete for both structural and nonstructural purpose is worth to be investigated. This paper is aimed to evaluate the effects of crushed steel slag, as partial replacement of sand with specific gradation, on performance of lightweight foamed concrete (LFC with density of 1600 kg/m3 to 1700 kg/m3 in terms of compressive and tensile strengths. Different steel slag based LFCs were developed by replacing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of steel slag for sand. Different water to cement ratios (w/c and dosages of super-plasticizer (sp were adopted to confirm certain workability, strength properties was then studied for ages of 7 and 28 days. The laboratory results showed that lightweight foamed concrete with incorporation of crushed steel slag has decreased strength; however it still achieves structural strength of 17 MPa when replacement level is less than 25% at density of 1600 kg/m3 to 1700 kg/m3.

  12. A Highly Ordered Magnetic Field in a Crushed Pulsar Wind Nebula in G327.1-1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yik Ki; Ng, Chi-Yung; Bucciantini, Niccolò; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Slane, Patrick O.; Temim, Tea

    2015-01-01

    A significant fraction of a pulsar's spin-down luminosity is in the form of a relativistic magnetized particle outflow known as a pulsar wind. Confinement of the wind by the ambient medium creates a synchrotron-emitting bubble called a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Studies of PWNe is important for understanding the physics of relativistic shocks and particle acceleration. Simulations suggest that a PWN will be crushed by the reverse shock of its surrounding supernova remnant at an age of ~10^4 yr, resulting in a turbulent environment. However, given the short timescale of the interaction stage, only a few such systems are observed.We present radio polarization observations of the PWN in supernova remnant G327.1-1.1, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Previous works suggest that this system has recently interacted with the supernova reverse shock, providing a rare example for the study of magnetic field in a crushed PWN. We found a highly ordered magnetic field in the PWN, which is unexpected given the presumed turbulent interior of the nebula. This suggests that the magnetic pressure in the PWN could play an important role in the interaction with supernova reverse shock.The Australia Telescope Compact Array is part of the Australia Telescope National Facility which is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.YKM and CYN are supported by a ECS grant of the Hong Kong Government under HKU 709713P

  13. Mitigating the Health Risks of Stone Quarrying and Crushing in India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Safety and health in the stone crushing industry : a practical manual for preventing accidents preserving health and keeping a company profitable. Études. Abstract for oral presentation : addressing health risk of communities residing close to stone quarrying and crushing unit using ecohealth framework in Central India.

  14. Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

    1998-03-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask's top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer's testing of the foam and to determine the foam's stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask

  15. Characteristics of Crushing Energy and Fractal of Magnetite Ore under Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Gan, D. Q.; Zhang, Y. B.

    2018-03-01

    The crushing mechanism of magnetite ore is a critical theoretical problem on the controlling of energy dissipation and machine crushing quality in ore material processing. Uniaxial crushing tests were carried out to research the deformation mechanism and the laws of the energy evolution, based on which the crushing mechanism of magnetite ore was explored. The compaction stage and plasticity and damage stage are two main compression deformation stages, the main transitional forms from inner damage to fracture are plastic deformation and stick-slip. In the process of crushing, plasticity and damage stage is the key link on energy absorption for that the specimen tends to saturate energy state approaching to the peak stress. The characteristics of specimen deformation and energy dissipation can synthetically reply the state of existed defects inner raw magnetite ore and the damage process during loading period. The fast releasing of elastic energy and the work done by the press machine commonly make raw magnetite ore thoroughly broken after peak stress. Magnetite ore fragments have statistical self-similarity and size threshold of fractal characteristics under uniaxial squeezing crushing. The larger ratio of releasable elastic energy and dissipation energy and the faster energy change rate is the better fractal properties and crushing quality magnetite ore has under uniaxial crushing.

  16. Effects of crushed conspecifics on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon Fabricius post larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nga, B.T.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Scheffer, M.; Nghia, T.T.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the hypothesis tested was that Penaeus monodon post-larvae (PL) experience lower growth when exposed to crushed conspecifics, which was achieved by exposing individual P. monodon PL with abundant food for 4 weeks to a gradient from 0 to 100 crushed conspecific PL L1. Both dry

  17. Fractal and Morphological Characteristics of Single Marble Particle Crushing in Uniaxial Compression Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crushing of rock particles is a phenomenon commonly encountered in geotechnical engineering practice. It is however difficult to study the crushing of rock particles using classical theory because the physical structure of the particles is complex and irregular. This paper aims at evaluating fractal and morphological characteristics of single rock particle. A large number of particle crushing tests are conducted on single rock particle. The force-displacement curves and the particle size distributions (PSD of crushed particles are analysed based on particle crushing tests. Particle shape plays an important role in both the micro- and macroscale responses of a granular assembly. The PSD of an assortment of rocks are analysed by fractal methods, and the fractal dimension is obtained. A theoretical formula for particle crushing strength is derived, utilising the fractal model, and a simple method is proposed for predicting the probability of particle survival based on the Weibull statistics. Based on a few physical assumptions, simple equations are derived for determining particle crushing energy. The results of applying these equations are tested against the actual experimental data and prove to be very consistent. Fractal theory is therefore applicable for analysis of particle crushing.

  18. A benchmark study of procedures for analysis of axial crushing of bulbous bows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    Simplified methods to estimate mean axial crushing forces of plated structures are reviewed and applied to a series of experimental results for axial crushing of large-scale bulbous bow models. Methods based on intersection unit elements such as L-, T- and X-type elements as well as methods based...

  19. Intraoperative cranial nerve monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C Michel

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of intraoperative monitoring is to preserve function and prevent injury to the nervous system at a time when clinical examination is not possible. Cranial nerves are delicate structures and are susceptible to damage by mechanical trauma or ischemia during intracranial and extracranial surgery. A number of reliable electrodiagnostic techniques, including nerve conduction studies, electromyography, and the recording of evoked potentials have been adapted to the study of cranial nerve function during surgery. A growing body of evidence supports the utility of intraoperative monitoring of cranial nerve nerves during selected surgical procedures.

  20. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  1. Cholinergic Potentiation of Restoration of Visual Function after Optic Nerve Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Chamoun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing cortical plasticity and brain connectivity may improve residual vision following a visual impairment. Since acetylcholine plays an important role in attention and neuronal plasticity, we explored whether potentiation of the cholinergic transmission has an effect on the visual function restoration. To this end, we evaluated for 4 weeks the effect of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil on brightness discrimination, visually evoked potentials, and visual cortex reactivity after a bilateral and partial optic nerve crush in adult rats. Donepezil administration enhanced brightness discrimination capacity after optic nerve crush compared to nontreated animals. The visually evoked activation of the primary visual cortex was not restored, as measured by evoked potentials, but the cortical neuronal activity measured by thallium autometallography was not significantly affected four weeks after the optic nerve crush. Altogether, the results suggest a role of the cholinergic system in postlesion cortical plasticity. This finding agrees with the view that restoration of visual function may involve mechanisms beyond the area of primary damage and opens a new perspective for improving visual rehabilitation in humans.

  2. The use of the rat as a model for studying peripheral nerve regeneration and sprouting after complete and partial nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Borschel, Gregory H

    2017-01-01

    Rat models of complete and partial injuries are the most frequently used models for analysis of the cellular and molecular processes of nerve regeneration and axon sprouting. Studies of nerve regeneration and axon sprouting after complete and partial nerve injuries, respectively, are reviewed. Special consideration is made of the peripheral nerves chosen for the studies and the outcome measures that were utilized in the studies. The studies have made important contributions to our knowledge of the degenerative and regenerative processes that occur after the peripheral nerve injuries, why functional recovery is frequently compromised after delayed surgery, the positive effects of neurotrophic factors on nerve regeneration after delayed nerve repair or after insertion of autografts between transected nerve, and how axon regeneration may be accelerated by brief periods of electrical stimulation and/or by administration of androgens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benowitz, L.I.; Shashoua, V.E.; Yoon, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with [3H]-, the other with [14C]proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain

  4. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra; Casselman, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  5. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1093, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: borgalexandra@gmail.com; Casselman, Jan [Department of Radiology, A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  6. Investigation on Compressive Strength of Special Concrete made with Crushed Waste Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sani Mohd Syahrul Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Special concrete is the type of concrete that produced by using waste material or using unusual techniques/method of preparation. Special concrete made with waste material is becoming popular in a construction site. This is because the special concrete is selected due to quality, integrity, economic factor and environmental factor. The waste glass is selected as an additional material to provide a good in compressive strength value. The compressive strength is the importance of mechanical properties of concrete and typically the concrete is sustained and stiffed in compression load. The significant issue to utilize the waste glass from the automotive windscreen is to improve the strength of concrete. The waste glass is crushed to become 5 mm size and recognised as crushed waste glass that be used in concrete as additional material. The main objective of the study is to determine the appropriate percentage of crushed waste glass in concrete grade, 30 in order to enhance the compressive strength. There are four mixes of concrete that contained of crushed waste glass with percentage of 2 %, 4 %, 6 % and 8 % and one control mix with 0 % of crushed waste glass. As the result, crushed waste glass with an additional 4 % in concrete is reported having a higher value of compressive strength in early and mature stage. In addition, if the percentage of crushed glass wastes in concrete increases and it leads to a reduction in the workability of concrete.

  7. Evaluating the Psychological Concomitants of Other-Sex Crush Experiences during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2016-01-01

    Very little empirical attention has been paid to other-sex crush experiences during adolescence. As a result, it is not known whether such experiences, which appear to be relatively common, impact psychological adjustment outcomes. This two-wave (3 month interval) longitudinal study of 268 young adolescents (48% girls; M age at Time 1 = 11.84 years) examined the psychological concomitants of other-sex crush experiences (having and being viewed by others as a crush). Anxious-withdrawal and gender were evaluated as moderators. Peer nomination measures at Time 1 assessed both types of crush experiences and mutual friendship involvement, and participants completed self-report measures of loneliness and depressive symptoms at Times 1 and 2. The results from regression analyses revealed significant associations between having an other-sex crush and depressive symptoms at Time 1, after accounting for the effects of mutual friendship. Two interaction effects also revealed that crush status was a risk factor for depressive symptoms at low levels of anxious-withdrawal but a protective factor at high levels. The findings provide the first empirical evidence that other-sex crush experiences are developmentally significant during early adolescence. PMID:26984754

  8. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoshima, Kazumitsu; Nishiura, Iwao; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1986-01-01

    Several kinds of the lumbosacral nerve root anomalies have already been recognized, and the conjoined nerve roots is the most common among them. It does not make symptoms by itself, but if there is a causation of neural entrapment, for example, disc herniation, lateral recessus stenosis, spondylolisthesis, etc., so called ''biradicular syndrome'' should occur. Anomalies of the lumbosacral nerve roots, if not properly recognized, may lead to injury of these nerves during operation of the lumbar spine. Recently, the chance of finding these anomalous roots has been increased more and more with the use of metrizamide myelography and metrizamide CT, because of the improvement of the opacification of nerve roots. We describe the findings of the anomalous roots as revealed by these two methods. They demonstrate two nerve roots running parallel and the asymmetrical wide root sleeve. Under such circumstances, it is important to distinguish the anomalous roots from the normal ventral and dorsal roots. (author)

  9. [Facial nerve neurinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Jacek; Bartoszewicz, Robert; Morawski, Krzysztof; Jamróz, Barbara; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of diagnostic, surgical technique, treatment results facial nerve neurinomas and its comparison with literature was the main purpose of this study. Seven cases of patients (2005-2011) with facial nerve schwannomas were included to retrospective analysis in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw. All patients were assessed with history of the disease, physical examination, hearing tests, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, electronystagmography. Cases were observed in the direction of potential complications and recurrences. Neurinoma of the facial nerve occurred in the vertical segment (n=2), facial nerve geniculum (n=1) and the internal auditory canal (n=4). The symptoms observed in patients were analyzed: facial nerve paresis (n=3), hearing loss (n=2), dizziness (n=1). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography allowed to confirm the presence of the tumor and to assess its staging. Schwannoma of the facial nerve has been surgically removed using the middle fossa approach (n=5) and by antromastoidectomy (n=2). Anatomical continuity of the facial nerve was achieved in 3 cases. In the twelve months after surgery, facial nerve paresis was rated at level II-III° HB. There was no recurrence of the tumor in radiological observation. Facial nerve neurinoma is a rare tumor. Currently surgical techniques allow in most cases, the radical removing of the lesion and reconstruction of the VII nerve function. The rate of recurrence is low. A tumor of the facial nerve should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nerve VII paresis. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrejos, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated). However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine particles significantly affect the flowability of most ores, increasing their cohesive strength and turning them more prone to these problems. The purpose of this article is to highlight a proven, scientific method that can be utilized to ensure reliable storage, flow and discharge of bulk solids in these equipment based on Jenike's flow-of-solids theory and laboratory testing. Knowledge of the flow properties of the material handled provides a design basis to ensure mass flow, avoid arching and prevent the formation of "ratholes". The effect of an increase in water content of the ore is discussed with experimental results.

  11. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrejos Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated. However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine particles significantly affect the flowability of most ores, increasing their cohesive strength and turning them more prone to these problems. The purpose of this article is to highlight a proven, scientific method that can be utilized to ensure reliable storage, flow and discharge of bulk solids in these equipment based on Jenike’s flow-of-solids theory and laboratory testing. Knowledge of the flow properties of the material handled provides a design basis to ensure mass flow, avoid arching and prevent the formation of “ratholes”. The effect of an increase in water content of the ore is discussed with experimental results.

  12. Utilization of crushed clay brick in concrete industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Aliabdo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive experimental program regarding the use of recycled aggregates produced from demolition of brick buildings is presented. The brick wastes were crushed, sorted and classified into coarse and fine aggregates as well as powder (CBP. The first phase of the research focuses on the effect of incorporating recycled aggregates on physico-mechanical properties of paste, mortar and concrete. Non-traditional tests including X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and micro-structural analysis (MSA were performed. The second phase of the program explores the effect of using recycled aggregates on properties of concrete masonry units. A total of 44 mixtures were utilized throughout the program. Results show cement paste when modified with 25% CBP achieves smaller pore size and lower weight loss under high temperature than reference paste. Furthermore, the use of recycled aggregates reduces the overall unit weight of concrete masonry units. Actually, modified concrete masonry units incorporating recycled aggregates achieve lower unit weight, higher thermal resistance and absorption rate than reference units. Although considerable strength reduction is noticeable by substitution, compressive strength levels meet the Egyptian specifications limitations. Critical replacement ratios are suggested to produce load bearing-concrete masonry units. Based on experimental evidences, it can be stated that the use of recycled aggregate and dust made of clay bricks is promising in many applications where the thermal resistance, cost and environmental aspects are imperative.

  13. "In Situ Vascular Nerve Graft" for Restoration of Intrinsic Hand Function: An Anatomical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Kamran; Zemoodeh, Hamid Reza; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Owji, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    In combined high median and ulnar nerve injury, transfer of the posterior interosseous nerve branches to the motor branch of the ulnar nerve (MUN) is previously described in order to restore intrinsic hand function. In this operation a segment of sural nerve graft is required to close the gap between the donor and recipient nerves. However the thenar muscles are not innervated by this nerve transfer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the superficial radial nerve (SRN) can be used as an "in situ vascular nerve graft" to connect the donor nerves to the MUN and the motor branch of median nerve (MMN) at the same time in order to address all denervated intrinsic and thenar muscles. Twenty fresh male cadavers were dissected in order to evaluate the feasibility of this modification of technique. The size of nerve branches, the number of axons and the tension at repair site were evaluated. This nerve transfer was technically feasible in all specimens. There was no significant size mismatch between the donor and recipient nerves Conclusions: The possible advantages of this modification include innervation of both median and ulnar nerve innervated intrinsic muscles, preservation of vascularity of the nerve graft which might accelerate the nerve regeneration, avoidance of leg incision and therefore the possibility of performing surgery under regional instead of general anesthesia. Briefly, this novel technique is a viable option which can be used instead of conventional nerve graft in some brachial plexus or combined high median and ulnar nerve injuries when restoration of intrinsic hand function by transfer of posterior interosseous nerve branches is attempted.

  14. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-01-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  15. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  16. Communication between radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Marathe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial nerve is usually a branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. It innervates triceps, anconeous, brachialis, brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus muscles and gives the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm, lower lateral cutaneous nerve of arm, posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm; without exhibiting any communication with the medial cutaneous nerve of forearm or any other nerve. We report communication between the radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm on the left side in a 58-year-old male cadaver. The right sided structures were found to be normal. Neurosurgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing the surgeries of axilla and upper arm.

  17. Crushed rock sand – An economical and ecological alternative to natural sand to optimize concrete mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mundra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the use of crushed rock sand as viable alternative to Natural River sand that is being conventionally used as fine aggregate in cement concrete. Various mix designs were developed for different grades of concrete based on IS, ACI and British codes using Natural River sand and crushed rock sand. In each case, the cube compressive strength test, and beam flexure tests were conducted. The results of the study show that, the strength properties of concrete using crushed rock sand are nearly similar to the conventional concrete. The study has shown that crushed stone sand can be used as economic and readily available alternative to river sand and can therefore help to arrest the detrimental effects on the environment caused due to excessive mining of river sand.

  18. Effect of crushing temperature on virgin olive oil quality and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ö. Kula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of a modified crushing process and kneading operation on the quality parameters, volatile compounds, and the fatty acid and sterol profiles of virgin olive oil from the Edremit yaglik variety. In the study, olive oil samples were produced in two different processes. The first one was produced without malaxation and the second one was produced with the malaxing process. During crushing, the effect of different temperatures was tested. The results demonstrate that different crushing temperatures generally did not affect the amount of free fatty acids, or peroxide value. Total phenol contents were positively affected by the additional malaxation process. Fatty acids and sterol composition were not significantly altered at different crushing temperatures or during the subsequent malaxation application. PCA enabled a clear classification of the oils obtained from different processing techniques.

  19. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties of Crushed Sand Concrete containing Rubber Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, the rubber wastes are an important part of municipal solid waste. This work focuses on the recycling of rubber waste, specifically rubber waste of used shoes discharged into the nature and added in the mass of crushed sand concrete with percentage (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The physical (workability, fresh density, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and thermal (thermal conductivity of different crushed sand concrete made are analyzed and compared to the respective controls. The use of rubber waste in crushed sand concrete contributes to reduce the bulk density and performance of sand concrete. Nevertheless, the use of rubber aggregate leads to a significant reduction in thermal conductivity, which improves the thermal insulation of crushed sand concrete.

  20. Recycled Asphalt Pavement and Crushed Concrete Backfill: State-of-the-Art Review and Material Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    This report describes research results from the first year of a three-year study focused on the use of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and crushed concrete (CC) as backfill for mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls.

  1. Nitrate removal from aquaculture effluents using woodchip bioreactors improved by adding sulfur granules and crushed seashells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects on nitrate removal when adding sulfur granules and crushed seashells to a woodchip bioreactor treating aquaculture effluents. Using a central composite design, the two components were added at three levels (0.000, 0.125 and 0.250 m3/m3 bioreactor volume) to 13......, the inclusion of crushed seashells together with sulfur granules helped to maintain the pH above 7.4 and prevent a production (i.e., release) of nitrite. According to the modeled response surfaces, a sulfur granule:crushed seashell:woodchip mixture ratio containing about 0.2 m3 sulfur granules and 0.1 m3...... crushed seashells per m3 reactor volume would give the best results with respect to high N removal and minimal nitrite release. In conclusion, the study showed that N removal in woodchip bioreactors may be improved by adding sulfur granules and seashells, contributing to the optimization of woodchip...

  2. Investigation of the use of waste crushed glass in the production of asphalt mixes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent study at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research in South Africa has revealed the potential to substitute depleting natural aggregates with waste crushed glass in asphalt mixes. This paper presents an investigation of the use...

  3. Isolated optic nerve pseudotumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, T.; Prasad, S.; Krishnan, A.; Laxminarayan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Isolated optic nerve involvement by the idiopathic inflammatory process is a rare finding and very few reports are available. Here a case of an isolated optic nerve inflammatory pseudotumour presenting with gradually progressive unilateral loss of vision is described. It showed dramatic response to a trial of steroids and its differential diagnoses are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  4. Axillary nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes in sensation or movement No history of injury to the area No signs of nerve damage These medicines reduce swelling and pressure on the nerve. They may be injected directly into the area or taken by mouth. Other medicines include: Over-the-counter pain ...

  5. Tibial nerve (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nerve is commonly injured by fractures or other injury to the back of the knee or the lower leg. It may be affected by systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The nerve can also be damaged by pressure from a tumor, abscess, or bleeding into the ...

  6. Dietary supplement with fermented soybeans, natto, improved the neurobehavioral deficits after sciatic nerve injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Chen, Chun-Jung; Lai, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Mu-Jung; Chang, Ming-Hong; Wang, Yeou-Chih; Yang, Dar-Yu; Ho, Shu-Peng

    2009-06-01

    Clearance of fibrin and associated inflammatory cytokines by tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is related to improved regeneration in neurological disorder. The biological activity of fermented soybean (natto) is very similar to that of t-PA. We investigated the effect of the dietary supplement of natto on peripheral nerve regeneration. The peripheral nerve injury was produced by crushing the left sciatic nerve with a vessel clamp in Sprague-Dawley rats. The injured animals were fed orally either with saline or natto (16 mg/day) for seven consecutive days after injury. Increased functional outcome such as sciatic nerve functional index, angle of ankle, compound muscle action potential and conduction latency were observed in natto-treated group. Histological examination demonstrated that natto treatment improved injury-induced vacuole formation, S-100 and vessel immunoreactivities and axon loss. Oral intake of natto prolonged prothrombin time and reduced fibrinogen but did not change activated partial thromboplastin time and bleeding time. Furthermore, natto decreased injury-induced fibrin deposition, indicating a tolerant fibrinolytic activity. The treatment of natto significantly improved injury-induced disruption of blood-nerve barrier and loss of matrix component such as laminin and fibronectin. Sciatic nerve crush injury induced elevation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production and caused apoptosis. The increased production of TNF-alpha and apoptosis were attenuated by natto treatment. These findings indicate that oral intake of natto has the potential to augment regeneration in peripheral nerve injury, possibly mediated by the clearance of fibrin and decreased production of TNF-alpha.

  7. Modeling the fate transport of cesium in crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.B.; Kuo, Y.M.; Hsu, C.N.; Li, M.H.; Cheng, H.P.; Teng, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to assess the safety of a underground radwaste repository, reactive transport models suitable for evaluating the fate and transport of radionuclides need to be established based on experimental observation and analysis. The goal of this study is to construct adequate models simulating the reactive transport of cesium (Cs) in crushed granite through a systematic analysis, where synthetic groundwater (SGW) and synthetic seawater (SSW) were employed as the liquid phase. To build such models, this study applied N 2 -BET, x-ray diffraction (XRD), polar-microscopy/ auto-radiography, and solid-phase digestion for the analysis of granite, kinetic batch tests for the characterization of sorption/desorption of Cs, and multi-stage advection-dispersion column tests for the determination of major transport processes and the calibration/validation of hypothesized reactive transport models. Based on the results of solid phase analysis and batch tests, a two-site Langmuir kinetic model has been determined capable of appropriately describing Cs sorption/desorption under test conditions. From the results of non-reactive HTO column tests, a mobile/immobile transport model was proposed to capture the major transport processes in our column system. However, the combination of the two-site Langmuir model and the mobile/immobile transport model failed to provide numerical breakthrough curves matching the Cs experimental breakthroughs. It implied that our model needs to be further refined. To achieve this, the setup of our column test needs to be modified first to reduce the volume of column connecting space, so that the effect of extra diffusion/dispersion on breakthroughs would be minimized and major transport characteristics can be clearly revealed. Moreover, more investigations on the reaction mechanisms and transport processes of the reactive transport system must be conducted. (authors)

  8. Diffusion in crushed rock and in bentonite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, M.

    1994-04-01

    Diffusion theories for porous media with sorption are reviewed to serve as a basis for considering diffusion in simple systems like sand of crushed rock. A Fickian diffusion and linear sorption model is solved both by analytical Laplance transform and Green's function methods and by numerical methods, and then applied to small-scale experiments for Finnish low- and medium-level operating waste repositories. The main properties of bentonite are reviewed. The hydraulic conductivity of compacted bentonite is so low that the major transport mechanism is diffusion. A Fickian diffusion and linear sorption model is applied to bentonite. The main component of bentonite, montmorillonite, has a high ion-exchange capacity and thus, transport in bentonite consists of interactive chemical and diffusion phenomena. A chemical equilibrium model, CHEQ, is developed for ion-exchange reactions in bentonite water systems. CHEQ is applied to some bentonite experiments with success, especially for monovalent ions. The fitted log-binding constants for sodium exchange with potassium, magnesium, and calcium were 0.27, 1.50, and 2.10, respectively. A coupled chemical and diffusion model, CHEQDIFF, is developed to take account of diffusion in pore water, surface diffusion and ion-exchange reactions. The model is applied to the same experiments as CHEQ, and validation is partly successful. In the diffusion case, the above-mentioned values for binding constants are used. The apparent diffusion (both anions and cations) and surface diffusion (only for cations) constants used are 3.0*10 -11 m 2 /s and 6.0*10 -12 m 2 /s, respectively, but these values are questionable, as experimental results good enough for fitting are not available. (orig.). (74 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.)

  9. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  10. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... analog or digital form for each sample tested. If analog data are collected, a means of converting the data to digital data must be made available. All digital data are collected at a rate consistent with... all data prior to 6.4 mm (0.25 in) of crush and after 16.5 mm (0.65 in) of crush. Divide the remaining...

  11. Effect of crushing temperature on virgin olive oil quality and composition

    OpenAIRE

    Ö. Kula; A. Yıldırım; A. Yorulmaz; M. Duran; İ. Mutlu; M. Kıvrak

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of a modified crushing process and kneading operation on the quality parameters, volatile compounds, and the fatty acid and sterol profiles of virgin olive oil from the Edremit yaglik variety. In the study, olive oil samples were produced in two different processes. The first one was produced without malaxation and the second one was produced with the malaxing process. During crushing, the effect of different temperatures was test...

  12. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  13. Effect of Raw Crushed Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Components of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Prema Ram; Jani, Rameshchandra D; Sharma, Megh Shyam

    2017-09-28

    Metabolic syndrome consists of a group of risk factors characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory conditions. Raw garlic homogenate has been reported to reduce serum lipid levels in animal model; however, no precise studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of raw crushed garlic (Allium sativum L.) on components of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of raw crushed garlic on components of metabolic syndrome. A total of 40 metabolic syndrome patients were randomly selected from the diabetic center of SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. They underwent treatment with 100 mg/kg body weight raw crushed garlic 2 times a day with standard diet for 4 weeks; their anthropometric and serum biochemical variables were measured at both the beginning and the end of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 20, and Student's paired "t" test was used to compare variables before and after treatment with garlic preparation. Raw crushed garlic significantly reduced components of metabolic syndrome including waist circumference (p .05) of patients with metabolic syndrome after consumption of raw crushed garlic for 4 weeks. Raw crushed garlic has beneficial effects on components of metabolic syndrome; therefore, it can be used as an accompanying remedy for prevention and treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  14. Nutritional parameters of steers receiving different levels of sunflower crushed in partial replacement of soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELLEN L. LIMA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To evaluate of the sunflower crushed in nutritional parameters in steers, supplemented at pasture, we used four steers in 4×4 Latin square design. The supplements were provided in 6 g/kg of body weight/animal/day, consisting of sunflower crushed, corn, soybean meal and mineral. All the supplements was isonitrogenous and soybean meal was replaced in 0, 20, 40, and 60% for sunflower crushed. The determination of ruminal pH and ammonia was at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. after feeding and for short-chain fatty acids it was collected at 0 and 6 h. post-feeding. The dry matter intake was not affected (P>0.05 by inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.59 kg/day. There was no significant effect (P>0.05 for pH for the inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.41. For contents of ruminal NH3-N was a significant effect (P <0.05 only for collection time, and ammonia peaks occurred between 2 and 4 h after feeding, with values of 22.56 and 21.40 mg/dL. The total concentration of short chain fatty acids and the C2:C3 ratio was reduced in 9.6 and 15.43%. The ruminal degradability of NDF was not affected by the supplements. The supplementation with sunflower crushed to beef steers grazing, in partial replacement of soybean meal did not alter nutrition parameters.

  15. Research of environmentally-friendly utilization methods of the crushed stone waste on granite quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levytskyi V.G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of activity of stone-mining enterprises shows the low competitiveness of crushed stone products Upgrading the quality of crushed stone and production of the European standard fractions requires to use of new technologies and equipment. The main waste of crushed stone pits is сrushed granite waste, which high percent of an exit is caused by outdated equipment and incorrectly selected technological parameters of the crushing process. Crushed-granite waste is stored in dumps which occupy large areas and negatively effect on production area ecology. In November 2017, the Government of Ukraine accepted the National Waste Management Strategy until 2030, the main aim of it is develop a strategy of the mineral raw materials balanced use and international standards introduction at the national level. Therefore, the problem of complex utilization and recycling of waste from stone-mining enterprises with receiving a qualitative secondary product is relevant. The publication presents the сrushed granite waste volumes by crushed stone pit, its properties and main directions of utilization. The ecological influence of waste dumps, in particular granite dust, on the environment and human, the strategy of using non-waste technologies and ecological features of сrushed granite waste secondary processing are considered

  16. [Hygienic assessment of metal-lurgical slag crushed stone for its use in road-building].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Iu P; Ippolitova, V P; Bezrokov, M E

    2010-01-01

    The increasing amount of industrial waste generates a need for its use as recycled materials. The paper presents the results of hygienic assessment of metallurgic slag crushed stone to be added to natural materials in highway building. The research program has included the measurement of content of water-soluble forms of metals, the evaluation of the acute toxicity of waste after oral administration to mice and rats, the study of the toxicity of waste by biotesting and the activity of natural radionuclides. The slag crushed stone virtually lacks water-soluble elements when it contains a high level of bulk forms of metals. According to acute toxicity for warm-blooded animals, the slag crushed stone belongs to Hazard Class IV by GOST 12.1.007-76 (low hazard substances). The biotesting on hydrocoles, the slag crushed stone is also referred to as Class IV (low hazard substances). In terms of the level of natural radionuclides, the slag crushed stone poses no hazard to the environment. The performed studies give grounds to recommend metallurgical slag crushed stone to be added to natural materials for highway building.

  17. Calculation of density and permeability of compacted crushed salt within an engineered shaft sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.; Statham, W.

    1997-01-01

    Crushed salt from the host Salado Formation is proposed as a sealing material in one component of a multicomponent seal system design for the shafts of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a mined geological repository for storage and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The crushed salt will be compacted and placed at a density approaching 90% of the intact density of the host Salado salt. Creep closure of the shaft will further compact the crushed salt over time, thereby reducing the crushed-salt permeability from the initial state and creating an effective long-term seal. A structural model and a fluid flow model have been developed to provide an estimate of crushed-salt reconsolidation rate as a function of depth, time, and pore pressure. Model results are obtained in terms of crushed-salt permeability as a function of time and depth within the salt column. Model results indicate that average salt column permeability will be reduced to 3.3 x 10 -20 m 2 in about 100 years, which provides for an acceptable long-term seal component

  18. Construction of nerve guide conduits from cellulose/soy protein composite membranes combined with Schwann cells and pyrroloquinoline quinone for the repair of peripheral nerve defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lihua; Gan, Li; Liu, Yongming; Tian, Weiqun; Tong, Zan; Wang, Xiong; Huselstein, Celine; Chen, Yun

    2015-02-20

    Regeneration and functional reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects remained a significant clinical challenge. Nerve guide conduits, with seed cells or neurotrophic factors (NTFs), had been widely used to improve the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was an antioxidant that can stimulate nerve growth factors (NGFs) synthesis and accelerate the Schwann cells (SCs) proliferation and growth. In present study, three kinds of nerve guide conduits were constructed: one from cellulose/SPI hollow tube (CSC), another from CSC combined with SCs (CSSC), and the third one from CSSC combined with PQQ (CSSPC), respectively. And then they were applied to bridge and repair the sciatic nerve defect in rats, using autograft as control. Effects of different nerve guide conduits on the nerve regeneration were comparatively evaluated by general analysis, sciatic function index (SFI) and histological analysis (HE and TEM). Newly-formed regenerative nerve fibers were observed and running through the transparent nerve guide conduits 12 weeks after surgery. SFI results indicated that the reconstruction of motor function in CSSPC group was better than that in CSSC and CSC groups. HE images from the cross-sections and longitudinal-sections of the harvested regenerative nerve indicated that regenerative nerve fibers had been formed and accompanied with new blood vessels and matrix materials in the conduits. TEM images also showed that lots of fresh myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers had been formed. Parts of vacuolar, swollen and abnormal axons occurred in CSC and CSSC groups, while the vacuolization and swell of axons was the least serious in CSSPC group. These results indicated that CSSPC group had the most ability to repair and reconstruct the nerve structure and functions due to the comprehensive contributions from hollow CSC tube, SCs and PQQ. As a result, the CSSPC may have the potential for the applications as nerve guide

  19. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the oculomotor nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozic, D; Nagulic, M; Ostojic, J

    2006-01-01

    We present the short-term follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) studies and 1H-MR spectroscopy in a child with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the oculomotor nerve associated with other less aggressive cranial nerve schwannomas. The tumor revealed perineural extension and diffuse nerve...

  20. Accelerator Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champelovier, Y.; Ferrari, M.; Gardon, A.; Hadinger, G.; Martin, J.; Plantier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Since the cessation of the operation of hydrogen cluster accelerator in July 1996, four electrostatic accelerators were in operation and used by the peri-nuclear teams working in multidisciplinary collaborations. These are the 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, 2,5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, 400 kV ion implanter as well as the 120 kV isotope separator

  1. Sox10 Expression in Goldfish Retina and Optic Nerve Head in Controls and after the Application of Two Different Lesion Paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The mammalian central nervous system (CNS is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve. We also analyze changes in a major component of myelin, myelin basic protein (MBP, as a marker for myelinated axons. Our results show that Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are located in the retinal nerve fiber layer and along the whole length of the optic nerve. MBP was found to occupy a similar location, although its loose appearance in the retina differed from the highly organized MBP+ axon bundles in the optic nerve. After optic nerve crushing, the number of Sox10+ cells decreased in the crushed area and in the optic nerve head. Consistent with this, myelination was highly reduced in both areas. In contrast, after cryolesion we did not find changes in the Sox10+ population, although we did detect some MBP- degenerating areas. We show that these modifications in Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are consistent with their role in oligodendrocyte identity, maintenance and survival, and we propose the optic nerve head as an excellent area for research aimed at better understanding of de- and remyelination processes.

  2. Nanofiber Nerve Guide for Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0047 TITLE: Nanofiber Nerve Guide for Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ahmet Höke...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0047 Nanofiber nerve guide for peripheral nerve repair and regeneration 5b. GRANT NUMBER...goal of this collaborative research project was to develop next generation engineered nerve guide conduits (NGCs) with aligned nanofibers and

  3. Nerve Regeneration: Understanding Biology and Its Influence on Return of Function After Nerve Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa

    2016-05-01

    Poor functional outcomes are frequent after peripheral nerve injuries despite the regenerative support of Schwann cells. Motoneurons and, to a lesser extent, sensory neurons survive the injuries but outgrowth of axons across the injury site is slow. The neuronal regenerative capacity and the support of regenerating axons by the chronically denervated Schwann cells progressively declines with time and distance of the injury from the denervated targets. Strategies, including brief low-frequency electrical stimulation that accelerates target reinnervation and functional recovery, and the insertion of cross-bridges between a donor nerve and a recipient denervated nerve stump, are effective in promoting functional outcomes after complete and incomplete injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. (--Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates NADPH-d/nNOS expression in motor neurons of rats following peripheral nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Chi-Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and large amounts of nitric oxide (NO have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuronal injury and neurodegenerative disease. Recent studies have shown that (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, one of the green tea polyphenols, has potent antioxidant effects against free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation in ischemia-induced neuronal damage. The purpose of this study was to examine whether EGCG would attenuate neuronal expression of NADPH-d/nNOS in the motor neurons of the lower brainstem following peripheral nerve crush. Thus, young adult rats were treated with EGCG (10, 25, or 50 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min prior to crushing their hypoglossal and vagus nerves for 30 seconds (left side, at the cervical level. The treatment (pre-crush doses of EGCG was continued from day 1 to day 6, and the animals were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 14 and 28. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d histochemistry and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS immunohistochemistry were used to assess neuronal NADPH-d/nNOS expression in the hypoglossal nucleus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Results In rats treated with high dosages of EGCG (25 or 50 mg/kg, NADPH-d/nNOS reactivity and cell death of the motor neurons were significantly decreased. Conclusions The present evidence indicated that EGCG can reduce NADPH-d/nNOS reactivity and thus may enhance motor neuron survival time following peripheral nerve injury.

  5. Laser de baixa intensidade (830 nm na recuperação funcional do nervo isquiático de ratos Low intensity laser (830 nm functional to recover of the sciatic nerve in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Marcio Marcolino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do laser de baixa intensidade na melhora funcional da marcha de ratos após esmagamento do nervo ciático. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 18 ratos divididos alea-to-riamente em dois grupos: controle (sham e irradiado com densidade de energia de 40J/cm², em 21 dias consecutivos, utilizando o laser 830nm (AsGaAl. Os animais foram submetidos ao esmagamento do nervo ciático direito com o dispositivo portátil de peso morto e avaliados pelo "Índice Funcional do Ciático" (IFC. As pegadas foram coletadas no pré-operatório, 7º, 14º e 21º dias pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do IFC foram significantes quando comparados os grupos no 7º e 14º dia pós-operatório (pOBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-intensity laser on functional improvement of the walking of rats after sciatic nerve axonotmesis. METHODS: We used 18 rats divided randomly in two groups: control (Sham and irradiated with an energy density of 40J/cm² for 21 consecutive days, using 830nm laser (AsGaAl. The animals were subjected to right sciatic nerve crushing by a portable device and assessed by the "Sciatic Functional Index" (SFI at an acrylic platform through video recorded by a digital camera. The footprints were collected preoperatively, and on the 7th, 14th and 21st postoperative days. RESULTS: The results of the SFI were significant when comparing the groups on the 7th and 14th postoperative day (p<0.05. On the 21st postoperative day there was no difference between groups. There were intra-group differences detected in each evaluated week (p<0.01. The irradiated animals showed improvement in motion pattern, shown by the SFI values in the initial periods, but after 3 weeks, there was a similar recovery. CONCLUSION: The low-intensity laser has shown to be effective in accelerating regeneration of the sciatic nerve of rats after crushing.

  6. Enhanced synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein E from sciatic nerves of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, S.; Yamada, N.; Oka, Y.

    1988-01-01

    To elucidate the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy, synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein E (apo E) from sciatic nerves after injury was studied in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Seven, 14, 28, 45 and 59 days after making crush injury on sciatic nerves with concomitant administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight), the nerves were taken out and incubated with [ 35 S]methionine. The [ 35 S]labeled apo E was precipitated with specific antiserum. The amounts of apo E secreted into medium by nerves of diabetic rats were 7 times greater than those of non-diabetic rats 7 days after injury. This enhanced secretion of apo E was relatively selective for this protein, since the ratio of the immunoprecipitable apo E to the TCA preciptitable protein in the medium increased in diabetic rats. Intriguing possibility deduced from these results is that the secretion of apo E is involved in the development of diabetic neuropathy

  7. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get ... you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. ...

  8. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  9. Tumors of peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Michael; Lutz, Amelie M.

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography. Review of current literature available in PubMed and MEDLINE, supplemented by the authors' own observations in clinical practice. Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  10. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  11. Assessment of crushed-recycled glass as filter media for drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutledge, S.O.; Fahie, C.; Gagnon, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the performance of a pressure filter utilizing crushed glass as the filter media. The performance of the crushed glass filter was compared to that of a sand filter. The research was conducted in Orangedale, Nova Scotia, which is a small community of with a population of approximately 500. Orangedale is located on the south shore of Bras d'Or Lakes and feeds into Miller Pond, which serves as the source the of drinking water. The Orangedale treatment plant produces an average daily flow of 35 m3/d (6.4-gpm). The treatment plant consists of coagulation (sodium aluminate and polyaluminum chloride), flocculation, dissolved air flotation (DAF), disinfection with sodium hypochlorite and dual-media filtration with anthracite and sand. In general, the particle removal capabilities of the crushed glass filter were slightly poorer than that of a sand filter, as quantified in a field application in the community of Orangedale, Nova Scotia. It was found that the crushed glass used in this project had a higher angularity and slightly higher uniformity coefficient. During initial start-up the performance of the crushed glass filter was more variable and appeared to improve as the glass began to wear. After six-months of use the crushed glass filter was able to produce a very consistent filter effluent that was only slightly greater than the silica sand filter. After six-months of use, the sand filter achieved a 1.6 log-removal of particles with diameters greater than 2 μm; whereas the crushed glass filter achieved a 1.4 log removal for the similar particle size range. The observed removal performance was particularly encouraging given that the sand used had properties that were consistent with the standards set by the American Water Works Association. The crushed glass filter media was initially sieved and washed, but had no other pre-treatment preparation. Thus the application of crushed glass shows considerable promise as filter

  12. Crush Can Behaviour as an Energy Absorber in a Frontal Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuyan, Atanu; Ganilova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The work presented is devoted to the investigation of a state-of-the-art technological solution for the design of a crush-can characterized by optimal energy absorbing properties. The work is focused on the theoretical background of the square tubes, circular tubes and inverbucktube performance under impact with the purpose of design of a novel optimized structure. The main system under consideration is based on the patent US 2008/0185851 A1 and includes a base flange with elongated crush boxes and back straps for stabilization of the crush boxes with the purpose of improvement of the energy-absorbing functionality. The modelling of this system is carried out applying both a theoretical approach and finite element analysis concentrating on the energy absorbing abilities of the crumple zones. The optimization process is validated under dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions whilst considering various modes of deformation and stress distribution along the tubular components. Energy absorbing behaviour of the crush-cans is studied concentrating on their geometrical properties and their diamond or concertina modes of deformation. Moreover, structures made of different materials, steel, aluminium and polymer composites are considered for the material effect analysis and optimization through their combination. Optimization of the crush-can behaviour is done within the limits of the frontal impact scenario with the purpose of improvement of the structural performance in the Euro NCAP tests.

  13. Crush Can Behaviour as an Energy Absorber in a Frontal Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Atanu; Ganilova, Olga

    2012-08-01

    The work presented is devoted to the investigation of a state-of-the-art technological solution for the design of a crush-can characterized by optimal energy absorbing properties. The work is focused on the theoretical background of the square tubes, circular tubes and inverbucktube performance under impact with the purpose of design of a novel optimized structure. The main system under consideration is based on the patent US 2008/0185851 A1 and includes a base flange with elongated crush boxes and back straps for stabilization of the crush boxes with the purpose of improvement of the energy-absorbing functionality. The modelling of this system is carried out applying both a theoretical approach and finite element analysis concentrating on the energy absorbing abilities of the crumple zones. The optimization process is validated under dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions whilst considering various modes of deformation and stress distribution along the tubular components. Energy absorbing behaviour of the crush-cans is studied concentrating on their geometrical properties and their diamond or concertina modes of deformation. Moreover, structures made of different materials, steel, aluminium and polymer composites are considered for the material effect analysis and optimization through their combination. Optimization of the crush-can behaviour is done within the limits of the frontal impact scenario with the purpose of improvement of the structural performance in the Euro NCAP tests.

  14. Nutritional parameters of steers receiving different levels of sunflower crushed in partial replacement of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Hellen L; Goes, Rafael H T B de; Cerilo, Sara L N; Oliveira, Euclides R de; Gressler, Maria G M; Brabes, Kelly C S

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate of the sunflower crushed in nutritional parameters in steers, supplemented at pasture, we used four steers in 4×4 Latin square design. The supplements were provided in 6 g/kg of body weight/animal/day, consisting of sunflower crushed, corn, soybean meal and mineral. All the supplements was isonitrogenous and soybean meal was replaced in 0, 20, 40, and 60% for sunflower crushed. The determination of ruminal pH and ammonia was at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. after feeding and for short-chain fatty acids it was collected at 0 and 6 h. post-feeding. The dry matter intake was not affected (P>0.05) by inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.59 kg/day). There was no significant effect (P>0.05) for pH for the inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.41). For contents of ruminal NH₃-N was a significant effect (P replacement of soybean meal did not alter nutrition parameters.

  15. Assessment of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing processes in a nuclear waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    For a nuclear waste repository in salt, two aspects of salt behavior are expected to contribute to favorable conditions for waste isolation. First, consolidation of crushed salt backfill due to creep closure of the underground openings may result in a backfill barrier with low permeability. Second, fractures created in the salt by excavation may heal under the influence of stress and temperature following sealing. This report reviews the status of knowledge regarding crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing, provides analyses which predict the rates at which the processes will occur under repository conditions, and develops requirements for future study. Analyses of the rate at which crushed salt will consolidate are found to be uncertain because of unexplained wide variation in the creep properties of crushed salt obtained from laboratory testing, and because of uncertainties in predictions of long term closure rates of openings in salt. This uncertainty could be resolved to a large degree by additional laboratory testing of crushed salt. Similarly, additional testing of fracture healing processes is required to confirm that healing will be effective under repository conditions. Extensive references, 27 figures, 5 tables

  16. Study on characteristics of printed circuit board liberation and its crushed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Cui; Li, Aimin; Gao, Ningbo

    2012-11-01

    Recycling printed circuit board waste (PCBW) waste is a hot issue of environmental protection and resource recycling. Mechanical and thermo-chemical methods are two traditional recycling processes for PCBW. In the present research, a two-step crushing process combined with a coarse-crushing step and a fine-pulverizing step was adopted, and then the crushed products were classified into seven different fractions with a standard sieve. The liberation situation and particle shape in different size fractions were observed. Properties of different size fractions, such as heating value, thermogravimetric, proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis were determined. The Rosin-Rammler model was applied to analyze the particle size distribution of crushed material. The results indicated that complete liberation of metals from the PCBW was achieved at a size less than 0.59 mm, but the nonmetal particle in the smaller-than-0.15 mm fraction is liable to aggregate. Copper was the most prominent metal in PCBW and mainly enriched in the 0.42-0.25 mm particle size. The Rosin-Rammler equation adequately fit particle size distribution data of crushed PCBW with a correlation coefficient of 0.9810. The results of heating value and proximate analysis revealed that the PCBW had a low heating value and high ash content. The combustion and pyrolysis process of PCBW was different and there was an obvious oxidation peak of Cu in combustion runs.

  17. Construction of nerve guide conduits from cellulose/soy protein composite membranes combined with Schwann cells and pyrroloquinoline quinone for the repair of peripheral nerve defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lihua [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Hubei University of Arts and Sciences, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Gan, Li; Liu, Yongming; Tian, Weiqun; Tong, Zan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Xiong; Huselstein, Celine [Ingénierie Moléculaire et Physiopathologie Articulaire (IMoPA), UMR 7365 CNRS – Université de Lorraine, Biopôle, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Yun, E-mail: yunchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-02-20

    Regeneration and functional reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects remained a significant clinical challenge. Nerve guide conduits, with seed cells or neurotrophic factors (NTFs), had been widely used to improve the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was an antioxidant that can stimulate nerve growth factors (NGFs) synthesis and accelerate the Schwann cells (SCs) proliferation and growth. In present study, three kinds of nerve guide conduits were constructed: one from cellulose/SPI hollow tube (CSC), another from CSC combined with SCs (CSSC), and the third one from CSSC combined with PQQ (CSSPC), respectively. And then they were applied to bridge and repair the sciatic nerve defect in rats, using autograft as control. Effects of different nerve guide conduits on the nerve regeneration were comparatively evaluated by general analysis, sciatic function index (SFI) and histological analysis (HE and TEM). Newly-formed regenerative nerve fibers were observed and running through the transparent nerve guide conduits 12 weeks after surgery. SFI results indicated that the reconstruction of motor function in CSSPC group was better than that in CSSC and CSC groups. HE images from the cross-sections and longitudinal-sections of the harvested regenerative nerve indicated that regenerative nerve fibers had been formed and accompanied with new blood vessels and matrix materials in the conduits. TEM images also showed that lots of fresh myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers had been formed. Parts of vacuolar, swollen and abnormal axons occurred in CSC and CSSC groups, while the vacuolization and swell of axons was the least serious in CSSPC group. These results indicated that CSSPC group had the most ability to repair and reconstruct the nerve structure and functions due to the comprehensive contributions from hollow CSC tube, SCs and PQQ. As a result, the CSSPC may have the potential for the applications as nerve guide

  18. Degradation properties of the electrostatic assembly PDLLA/CS/CHS nerve conduit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Haixing [School of Chemical Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yan Yuhua; Wan Tao; Li Shipu, E-mail: yanyuhua8@126.co [Biomedical Materials and Engineering Research Center, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2009-08-15

    A poly(d,l-lactic acid)/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan (PDLLA/CS/CHS) nerve conduit for repairing nerve defects was prepared by electrostatic assembly and the thermally induced phase separation technique. The hydrophilic characteristics of the PDLLA/CS/CHS assembly nerve conduits were improved markedly. The degradation behavior of the nerve conduit with various assembly layers was evaluated by a pH change, weight loss rate and molecular weight change. The pH of the solution of the nerve conduit could be effectively adjusted by varying the layer numbers and overcoming the acidity-caused auto-acceleration of PDLLA; the nerve conduit can retain its integrity in a phosphate buffer solution after being degraded for 3 months. After such a conduit was implanted in the rat for 3 months, obvious degradation occurred, but the regenerated nerve was integrated and it grew successfully from the proximal to distal nerve stump. All these results implied that the degradation rate of the prepared conduit can adapt to the regeneration of the peripheral nerve, which might be a new derivative of PDLLA-based biodegradable materials for repairing nerve injuries without acidity-caused irritations and acidity-induced auto-accelerating degradation behavior as shown by PDLLA.

  19. End-to-side neurorrhaphy repairs peripheral nerve injury: sensory nerve induces motor nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Zhang, She-Hong; Wang, Tao; Peng, Feng; Han, Dong; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2017-10-01

    End-to-side neurorrhaphy is an option in the treatment of the long segment defects of a nerve. It involves suturing the distal stump of the disconnected nerve (recipient nerve) to the side of the intimate adjacent nerve (donor nerve). However, the motor-sensory specificity after end-to-side neurorrhaphy remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate whether cutaneous sensory nerve regeneration induces motor nerves after end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Thirty rats were randomized into three groups: (1) end-to-side neurorrhaphy using the ulnar nerve (mixed sensory and motor) as the donor nerve and the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve as the recipient nerve; (2) the sham group: ulnar nerve and cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve were just exposed; and (3) the transected nerve group: cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve was transected and the stumps were turned over and tied. At 5 months, acetylcholinesterase staining results showed that 34% ± 16% of the myelinated axons were stained in the end-to-side group, and none of the myelinated axons were stained in either the sham or transected nerve groups. Retrograde fluorescent tracing of spinal motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion showed the proportion of motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the end-to-side group was 21% ± 5%. In contrast, no motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the sham group and transected nerve group were found in the spinal cord segment. These results confirmed that motor neuron regeneration occurred after cutaneous nerve end-to-side neurorrhaphy.

  20. Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Axon Regeneration After Peripheral Nerve Injuries in Animal Models and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa

    2016-04-01

    Injured peripheral nerves regenerate their lost axons but functional recovery in humans is frequently disappointing. This is so particularly when injuries require regeneration over long distances and/or over long time periods. Fat replacement of chronically denervated muscles, a commonly accepted explanation, does not account for poor functional recovery. Rather, the basis for the poor nerve regeneration is the transient expression of growth-associated genes that accounts for declining regenerative capacity of neurons and the regenerative support of Schwann cells over time. Brief low-frequency electrical stimulation accelerates motor and sensory axon outgrowth across injury sites that, even after delayed surgical repair of injured nerves in animal models and patients, enhances nerve regeneration and target reinnervation. The stimulation elevates neuronal cyclic adenosine monophosphate and, in turn, the expression of neurotrophic factors and other growth-associated genes, including cytoskeletal proteins. Electrical stimulation of denervated muscles immediately after nerve transection and surgical repair also accelerates muscle reinnervation but, at this time, how the daily requirement of long-duration electrical pulses can be delivered to muscles remains a practical issue prior to translation to patients. Finally, the technique of inserting autologous nerve grafts that bridge between a donor nerve and an adjacent recipient denervated nerve stump significantly improves nerve regeneration after delayed nerve repair, the donor nerves sustaining the capacity of the denervated Schwann cells to support nerve regeneration. These reviewed methods to promote nerve regeneration and, in turn, to enhance functional recovery after nerve injury and surgical repair are sufficiently promising for early translation to the clinic.

  1. Strain-rate effect on initial crush stress of irregular honeycomb under dynamic loading and its deformation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zheng, Zhijun; Liao, Shenfei; Yu, Jilin

    2018-02-01

    The seemingly contradictory understandings of the initial crush stress of cellular materials under dynamic loadings exist in the literature, and a comprehensive analysis of this issue is carried out with using direct information of local stress and strain. Local stress/strain calculation methods are applied to determine the initial crush stresses and the strain rates at initial crush from a cell-based finite element model of irregular honeycomb under dynamic loadings. The initial crush stress under constant-velocity compression is identical to the quasi-static one, but less than the one under direct impact, i.e. the initial crush stresses under different dynamic loadings could be very different even though there is no strain-rate effect of matrix material. A power-law relation between the initial crush stress and the strain rate is explored to describe the strain-rate effect on the initial crush stress of irregular honeycomb when the local strain rate exceeds a critical value, below which there is no strain-rate effect of irregular honeycomb. Deformation mechanisms of the initial crush behavior under dynamic loadings are also explored. The deformation modes of the initial crush region in the front of plastic compaction wave are different under different dynamic loadings.

  2. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  3. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Erkutlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potassium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug injection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efficacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by penicillin G potassium administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours. The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant improvement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05; at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection.

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 is downregulated in sciatic nerve by streptozotocin induced diabetes and/or treatment with minocycline: Implications for nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sumia; Driscoll, Heather E.; Newton, Victoria L.; Gardiner, Natalie J.

    2014-01-01

    Minocycline is an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and has been shown to have analgesic effects. Whilst increased expression of MMPs is associated with neuropathic pain, MMPs also play crucial roles in Wallerian degeneration and nerve regeneration. In this study we examined the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1/-2 in the sciatic nerve of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with either vehicle or minocycline by quantitative PCR and gelatin zymography. We assessed the effects of minocycline on nerve conduction velocity and intraepidermal nerve fibre (IENF) deficits in diabetic neuropathy and investigated the effects of minocycline or MMP-2 on neurite outgrowth from primary cultures of dissociated adult rat sensory neurons. We show that MMP-2 is expressed constitutively in the sciatic nerve in vivo and treatment with minocycline or diabetes leads to downregulation of MMP-2 expression and activity. The functional consequence of this is IENF deficits in minocycline-treated nondiabetic rats and an unsupportive microenvironment for regeneration in diabetes. Minocycline reduces levels of MMP-2 mRNA and nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, in vivo minocycline treatment reduces preconditioning-induced in vitro neurite outgrowth following a sciatic nerve crush. In contrast, the addition of active MMP-2 facilitates neurite outgrowth in the absence of neurotrophic support and pre-treatment of diabetic sciatic nerve substrata with active MMP-2 promotes a permissive environment for neurite outgrowth. In conclusion we suggest that MMP-2 downregulation may contribute to the regenerative deficits in diabetes. Minocycline treatment also downregulates MMP-2 activity and is associated with inhibitory effects on sensory neurons. Thus, caution should be exhibited with its use as the balance between beneficial and detrimental outcomes may be critical in assessing the benefits of using

  5. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  6. Ball mill tool for crushing coffee and cocoa beans base on fraction size sieving results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Sirait, M.; Azalea, M.; Alvin; Cahyani, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    Crushing is one of the operation units that aimed to convert the size of solid material to be smoother particle’s size. The operation unit that can be used in this crushing is ball mill. The purpose of this study is to foresee the effect of raw material mass, grinding time, and the number of balls that are used in the ball mill tool related to the amount of raw material of coffee and cocoa beans. Solid material that has become smooth is then sieved with sieve mesh with size number: 50, 70, 100, and 140. It is in order to obtain the mass fraction that escaped from each sieve mesh. From the experiment, it can be concluded that mass percentage fraction of coffee powder is bigger than cocoa powder that escaped from the mesh. Hardness and humidity of coffee beans and cocoa beans have been the important factors that made coffee beans is easier to be crushed than cocoa beans.

  7. The influence of heavy mineral crushing in analysis of U mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatang-Suherman

    2000-01-01

    The aim of experiments is to find out the influence of sample crushing in analysis of U mobile it was compared between U content of crusher and uncrushed samples. The uncrushed samples including the grain size of minus 40, 60, 80 and 100 mesh, since while the uncrushed sample was minus 60, 80, 100, 120 and 150 mesh. The U analysis was done by comparing with fluorescence of standard sample using Fluorimetric determination. The result of uncrushed samples have a same concentration in all of grain fractions and the crushed samples have a higher concentration on the smallest of grain fractions. The content of U mobile from crushed sample have significant result at - 120 mesh to - 150 mesh

  8. The classification of wood chips parameters by crushing of waste cane from different varieties of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deales with exploitatives parameters monitoring of wood shreder PEZZOLATO 110 Mb by crushing of waste cane of six varieties. The results shows that the wood shreders efficiency, fuel consumption and the wood chips elements size can be influenced by varieties characters of cane. The va­lued machines efficiency was 230–470 kg . h−1 by average volume 40.70 % water in wood. The hig­hest values by cane crushing had the variety Saint Laurent (0.47 t . h−1 and the lowest variety ­Blauer Portugieser (0.23 t . h−1. The specific consumption of petrol Natural 95 was 4.52.10−3–8.12.10−3 l . kg−1. The average middle elements lenght was 6.64 mm by crushed varieties.

  9. Axial Crushing Behaviors of Thin-Walled Corrugated and Circular Tubes - A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyaz-Ur-Rahim, Mohd.; Bharti, P. K.; Umer, Afaque

    2017-10-01

    With the help of finite element analysis, this research paper deals with the energy absorption and collapse behavior with different corrugated section geometries of hollow tubes made of aluminum alloy 6060-T4. Literature available experimental data were used to validate the numerical models of the structures investigated. Based on the results available for symmetric crushing of circular tubes, models were developed to investigate corrugated thin-walled structures behavior. To study the collapse mechanism and energy absorbing ability in axial compression, the simulation was carried in ABAQUS /EXPLICIT code. In the simulation part, specimens were prepared and axially crushed to one-fourth length of the tube and the energy diagram of crushing force versus axial displacement is shown. The effect of various parameters such as pitch, mean diameter, corrugation, amplitude, the thickness is demonstrated with the help of diagrams. The overall result shows that the corrugated section geometry could be a good alternative to the conventional tubes.

  10. Nerve Regeneration in Conditions of HSV-Infection and an Antiviral Drug Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, Alla; Rybalko, Svetlana; Ryzha, Alona; Savosko, Sergey; Labudzynskyi, Dmytro; Levchuk, Natalia; Chaikovsky, Yuri

    2018-05-05

    Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-I) is a latent neuroinfection which can cause focal brain lesion. The role of HSV-infection in nerve regeneration has not been studied so far. The aim of the work was to study sciatic nerve regeneration in the presence of HSV-infection and the influence of an antiviral drug. BALB/c line mice were divided into five groups. Group 1 animals were infected with HSV-I. After resolution of neuroinfection manifestations the sciatic nerve of these animals was crushed. Group 2 mice were administered acyclovir following the same procedures. Groups 3-5 mice served as controls. Thirty days after the operation distal nerve stumps and m.gastrocnemius were studied morphologically and biochemically. Ultrastructural organization of the sciatic nerve in control animals remained intact. Morphometric parameters of the nerves from the experimental groups have not reach control values. However, in the group 1 diameter of nerve fibers was significantly smaller than in the group 2. Both nerve regeneration and m.gastrocnemius reinnervation were confirmed. The muscle hypotrophy was found in groups 1, 2, and 3 (the muscle fibers diameter decreased). Metabolic changes in the muscles of the infected animals (groups 1 and 2) were more pronounced than in control groups 3 and 4. The levels of TBA-active products, conjugated dienes, carbonyl and SH-groups were reduced in m.gastrocnemius of the experimental groups, however no significant difference associated with acyclovir administration was found. HSV-infection is not limited to the local neurodegenerative changes in the CNS but affects regeneration of the injured sciatic nerve. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A preconditioning nerve lesion inhibits mechanical pain hypersensitivity following subsequent neuropathic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A preconditioning stimulus can trigger a neuroprotective phenotype in the nervous system - a preconditioning nerve lesion causes a significant increase in axonal regeneration, and cerebral preconditioning protects against subsequent ischemia. We hypothesized that a preconditioning nerve lesion induces gene/protein modifications, neuronal changes, and immune activation that may affect pain sensation following subsequent nerve injury. We examined whether a preconditioning lesion affects neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation after peripheral nerve injury. Results We found that a preconditioning crush injury to a terminal branch of the sciatic nerve seven days before partial ligation of the sciatic nerve (PSNL; a model of neuropathic pain induced a significant attenuation of pain hypersensitivity, particularly mechanical allodynia. A preconditioning lesion of the tibial nerve induced a long-term significant increase in paw-withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli and paw-withdrawal latency to thermal stimuli, after PSNL. A preconditioning lesion of the common peroneal induced a smaller but significant short-term increase in paw-withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli, after PSNL. There was no difference between preconditioned and unconditioned animals in neuronal damage and macrophage and T-cell infiltration into the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs or in astrocyte and microglia activation in the spinal dorsal and ventral horns. Conclusions These results suggest that prior exposure to a mild nerve lesion protects against adverse effects of subsequent neuropathic injury, and that this conditioning-induced inhibition of pain hypersensitivity is not dependent on neuroinflammation in DRGs and spinal cord. Identifying the underlying mechanisms may have important implications for the understanding of neuropathic pain due to nerve injury.

  12. Acellular Nerve Allografts in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy M.; MacEwan, Matthew; Santosa, Katherine B.; Chenard, Kristofer E.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Johnson, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Processed nerve allografts offer a promising alternative to nerve autografts in the surgical management of peripheral nerve injuries where short deficits exist. Methods Three established models of acellular nerve allograft (cold-preserved, detergent-processed, and AxoGen® -processed nerve allografts) were compared to nerve isografts and silicone nerve guidance conduits in a 14 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Results All acellular nerve grafts were superior to silicone nerve conduits in support of nerve regeneration. Detergent-processed allografts were similar to isografts at 6 weeks post-operatively, while AxoGen®-processed and cold-preserved allografts supported significantly fewer regenerating nerve fibers. Measurement of muscle force confirmed that detergent-processed allografts promoted isograft-equivalent levels of motor recovery 16 weeks post-operatively. All acellular allografts promoted greater amounts of motor recovery compared to silicone conduits. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that differential processing for removal of cellular constituents in preparing acellular nerve allografts affects recovery in vivo. PMID:21660979

  13. Transient convergence and compaction of crushed salt as incorporated in the computer code EMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Hamilton, L.F.M.; Prij, J.; Slagter, W.

    1995-11-01

    An improved model for description of the transient convergence of cavities in rock salt, together with an improved model for the compaction of crushed salt is introduced. The covergence model is based on solutions of the analytical expressions based on secondary creep for a cylindrical and spherical cavity in rock salt. For the model for compaction of crushed salt the relations based on theoretical micro mechanisms have been fitted to laboratory results. A description is given of how the improved models are incorporated into the program EMOS. (orig.)

  14. Technics study on high accuracy crush dressing and sharpening of diamond grinding wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yunhai; Lu, Xuejun; Li, Jiangang; Zhu, Lixin; Song, Yingjie

    2011-05-01

    Mechanical grinding of artificial diamond grinding wheel was traditional wheel dressing process. The rotate speed and infeed depth of tool wheel were main technics parameters. The suitable technics parameters of metals-bonded diamond grinding wheel and resin-bonded diamond grinding wheel high accuracy crush dressing were obtained by a mount of experiment in super-hard material wheel dressing grind machine and by analysis of grinding force. In the same time, the effect of machine sharpening and sprinkle granule sharpening was contrasted. These analyses and lots of experiments had extent instruction significance to artificial diamond grinding wheel accuracy crush dressing.

  15. Transient convergence and compaction of crushed salt as incorporated in the computer code EMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Hamilton, L.F.M.; Prij, J.; Slagter, W.

    1995-11-01

    An improved model for description of the transient convergence of cavities in rock salt, together with an improved model for the compaction of crushed salt is introduced. The covergence model is based on solutions of the analytical expressions based on secondary creep for a cylindrical and spherical cavity in rock salt. For the model for compaction of crushed salt the relations based on theoretical micro mechanisms have been fitted to laboratory results. A description is given of how the improved models are incorporated into the program EMOS. (orig.).

  16. Compartment and Crush Syndromes After Sleep Deprivation and a Therapeutic Dose of Zolpidem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Huecker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive review in the literature, compartment syndrome and crush syndrome remain difficult to diagnose. Trauma, toxins and reperfusion have been associated with these syndromes. Cases involving alcohol and drug abuse have described patients “found down” compressing an extremity. We present a case of a registered nurse who developed compartment syndrome in multiple limbs due to prolonged sleep after sleep deprivation and zolpidem use. To our knowledge, this is the first case of compartment syndrome or crush syndrome to have occurred in the setting of zolpidem use. Sleep disruption in healthcare workers represents a public health issue with dangerous sequelae, both acute and chronic.

  17. Effect of MSH/ACTH peptides on fast axonal transport in intact and regenerating sciatic nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crescitelli, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Fast axonal transport was examined in intact rats treated with ACTH 4-10 or ACTH 4-9 (ORG 2766), hypophysectomized rats, adrenalectomized rats, and in ACTH 4-10 treated rats with crushed regenerating sciatic nerves by injecting 3 H-leucine into the ventral horn region of the spinal cord. The distance traveled by the transported activity along the sciatic nerve and the rate of fast axonal transport were not significantly altered as a result of treatment with ACTH 4-10, ACTH 4-9 (ORG 2766), hypophysectomy, or adrenalectomy. Treatment with ACTH 4-9 (ORG 2766) at concentrations of 1 μg/Kg /day and 10 μg/Kg/day caused significant reductions (62% and 64% respectively) in the crest height of the fast axonal transport curve as compared to 0.9% saline treated control animals. No significant differences were found in comparing the distance, rate, slope, or crest height of ACTH 4-10 treated animals with crushed regenerating (7 or 14d) sciatic nerves to control animals. In the group of animals in days, the amount of radiolabeled activity was significantly increased in the ACTH 4-10 treated animals as compared to control animals. The results indicate that during regeneration the peptide acts to prolong the initially high levels of synthetic activity which occur in regenerating axons

  18. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  19. Chitin biological absorbable catheters bridging sural nerve grafts transplanted into sciatic nerve defects promote nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Jian-Wei; Qin, Li-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Jiang, Bao-Guo

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of chitin biological absorbable catheters in a rat model of autologous nerve transplantation. A segment of sciatic nerve was removed to produce a sciatic nerve defect, and the sural nerve was cut from the ipsilateral leg and used as a graft to bridge the defect, with or without use of a chitin biological absorbable catheter surrounding the graft. The number and morphology of regenerating myelinated fibers, nerve conduction velocity, nerve function index, triceps surae muscle morphology, and sensory function were evaluated at 9 and 12 months after surgery. All of the above parameters were improved in rats in which the nerve graft was bridged with chitin biological absorbable catheters compared with rats without catheters. The results of this study indicate that use of chitin biological absorbable catheters to surround sural nerve grafts bridging sciatic nerve defects promotes recovery of structural, motor, and sensory function and improves muscle fiber morphology. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 142 Key words: Brachialis, radial nerve, musculocutaneous nerve.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AWORI KIRSTEEN

    The innervation of brachialis muscle by the musculocutaneous nerve has been described as either type I or type II and the main trunk to this muscle is rarely absent. The contribution .... brachialis muscle by fiber analysis of supply nerves].

  1. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    counterparts in the peripheral nervous system, in some instances without peripheral nervous system symptoms. Both hereditary and acquired demyelinating neuropathies have been studied and the effects on nerve pathophysiology have been compared with degeneration and regeneration of axons. SUMMARY: Excitability......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve...... excitability studies are relatively novel but are acquiring an increasingly important role in the study of peripheral nerves. RECENT FINDINGS: By measuring responses in nerve that are related to nodal function (strength-duration time constant, rheobase and recovery cycle) and internodal function (threshold...

  2. Cranial nerve palsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, P.; Adelizzi, J.; Modic, M.T.; Ross, J.S.; Tkach, J.; Masaryk, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the utility of multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) of three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography data sets in the examination of patients with cranial nerve palsies. The authors hypothesis was that 3D data could be reformatted to highlight the intricate spatial relationships of vessels to adjacent neural tissues by taking advantage of the high vessel-parenchyma contrast in high-resolution 3D time-of-flight sequences. Twenty patients with cranial nerve palsies and 10 asymptomatic patients were examined with coronal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted imaging plus a gadolinium-enhanced 3D MRA sequence (40/7/15 degrees, axial 60-mm volume, 0.9-mm isotropic resolution). Cranial nerves II-VIII were subsequently evaluated on axial and reformatted coronal and/or sagittal images

  3. [Experimental study on regeneration of sciatic nerve injury with physical therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Yu, Hong; Xu, Yiming; Bai, Yuehong

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a common clinical disease, to study the effects of the physical therapy on the regeneration of the injured sciatic nerve, and provide a reference for clinical treatment. Sixty-four female adult Wistar rats (weighing 252-365 g) were chosen and randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 16): group A, group B, group C, and group D. The experimental model of sciatic nerve defect was established by crushing the right sciatic nerve in groups B, C, and D; group A served as the control group without crushing. At 2 days after injury, no treatment was given in group B, electrical stimulation in group C, and combined physical therapies (decimeter and infrared ray) in group D. At 0, 7, 14, and 30 days after treatment, the sciatic nerve function index (SFI) and the motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) were measured, and morphological and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations were done; at 30 days after treatment, the morphological evaluation analysis of axons was performed. At 0 and 7 days after treatment, the SFI values of groups B, C, and D were significantly higher than that of group A (P 0.05) at 30 days; whereas the SFI values of groups B and C decreased, showing significant difference when compared with the value of group A (P 0.05). At 0 and 7 days, only collagen and lipid were observed by TEM; at 14 and 30 days, many Schwann cells and perineurial cells in regeneration axon were observed in groups B, C, and D, especially in group D. Automated image analysis of axons showed that there was no significant difference in the number of myelinated nerve fibers, axon diameter, and myelin sheath thickness between group D and group A (P > 0.05), and the number of myelinated nerve fibers and axon diameter of group D were significantly higher than those of groups B and C (P < 0.05). Physical therapy can improve the regeneration of the injured sciatic nerve of rats.

  4. Lower cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Batra, Kiran; Blitz, Ari M; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-02-01

    Imaging evaluation of cranial neuropathies requires thorough knowledge of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic features of the cranial nerves, as well as detailed clinical information, which is necessary for tailoring the examinations, locating the abnormalities, and interpreting the imaging findings. This article provides clinical, anatomic, and radiological information on lower (7th to 12th) cranial nerves, along with high-resolution magnetic resonance images as a guide for optimal imaging technique, so as to improve the diagnosis of cranial neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influência da irradiação do laser na regeneração nervosa em diferentes locais de tratamento Influence of laser radiation in nerve regeneration in different treatment sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Fernandes de Almeida Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência do laser de baixa intensidade de AsGaAl na lesão por esmagamento do nervo peroneiro de ratos através da avaliação funcional da marcha nos diferentes locais de irradiação. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 53 ratos, divididos em seis grupos: normal, lesado não tratado, lesado e tratado placebo, lesado e tratado na medula, lesado e tratado no nervo, lesado e tratado em ambos (nervo e medula. O esmagamento do nervo peroneiro foi realizado por meio de uma pinça e subsequente tratado com laser por 28 dias consecutivos. Na avaliação funcional foram analisadas as impressões das pegadas, registradas pela câmera de vídeo em uma passarela de acrílico, no pré-operatório e aos 14º, 21º e 28º dias de pós-operatório, e avaliadas na fórmula PFI por meio do software. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação funcional da marcha foram encontradas diferenças significantes somente no 14º dia de pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: A irradiação do laser AsGaAl de baixa intensidade foi capaz de acelerar e potencializar o processo de regeneração nervosa periférica de ratos no 14º dia de pós-operatório, de acordo com a avaliação funcional da marcha, tanto para o grupo tratado na medula quanto para o grupo tratado no nervo.OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to determine, through functional gait assessment in different irradiation sites, the influence of a low-intensity GaAsAl laser beam on an injury caused by crushing the peroneal nerve in rats. METHODS: 53 rats were used, which were divided into six groups: normal, injured and untreated, injured and treated using placebo, injured and treated in the bone marrow, injured and treated in the nerve, and injured and treated in both (nerve and bone marrow. The peroneal nerve was crushed using a pair of tweezers, and subsequently treated with laser for 28 consecutive days. The functional gait evaluation analyzed the footprints, which were recorded with a video camera on an acrylic bridge in the

  6. Age-Dependent Schwann Cell Phenotype Regulation Following Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wayne A; Luo, T David; Barnwell, Jonathan C; Smith, Thomas L; Li, Zhongyu

    2017-12-01

    Schwann cells are integral to the regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system, which declines after adolescence. The mechanisms underlying this decline are poorly understood. This study sought to compare the protein expression of Notch, c-Jun, and Krox-20 after nerve crush injury in adolescent and young adult rats. We hypothesized that these Schwann cell myelinating regulatory factors are down-regulated after nerve injury in an age-dependent fashion. Adolescent (2 months old) and young adult (12 months old) rats (n = 48) underwent sciatic nerve crush injury. Protein expression of Notch, c-Jun, and Krox-20 was quantified by Western blot analysis at 1, 3, and 7 days post-injury. Functional recovery was assessed in a separate group of animals (n = 8) by gait analysis (sciatic functional index) and electromyography (compound motor action potential) over an 8-week post-injury period. Young adult rats demonstrated a trend of delayed onset of the dedifferentiating regulatory factors, Notch and c-Jun, corresponding to the delayed functional recovery observed in young adult rats compared to adolescent rats. Compound motor action potential area was significantly greater in adolescent rats relative to young adult rats, while amplitude and velocity trended toward statistical significance. The process of Schwann cell dedifferentiation following peripheral nerve injury shows different trends with age. These trends of delayed onset of key regulatory factors responsible for Schwann cell myelination may be one of many possible factors mediating the significant differences in functional recovery between adolescent and young adult rats following peripheral nerve injury.

  7. The role of neurotrophic factors in nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa

    2009-02-01

    This review considers the 2 sources of neurotrophic factors in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the neurons and the nonneuronal cells in the denervated distal nerve stumps, and their role in axon regeneration. Morphological assessment of regenerative success in response to administration of exogenous growth factors after nerve injury and repair has indicated a role of the endogenous neurotrophic factors from Schwann cells in the distal nerve stump. However, the increased number of axons may reflect more neurons regenerating their axons and/or increased numbers of axon sprouts from the same number of neurons. Using fluorescent dyes to count neurons that regenerated their axons across a suture site and into distal nerve stumps, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were found not to increase the number of neurons that regenerated their axons after immediate nerve repair. Nevertheless, the factors did reverse the deleterious effect of delayed nerve repair, indicating that the axons that regenerate into the distal nerve stump normally have access to sufficient levels of endogenous neurotrophic factors to sustain their regeneration, while neurons that do not have access to these factors require exogenous factors to sustain axon regeneration. Neurons upregulate neurotrophic factors after axotomy. The upregulation is normally slow, beginning after 7 days and occurring in association with a protracted period of axonal regeneration in which axons grow out from the proximal nerve stump across a suture site over a period of 1 month in rodents. This staggered axon regeneration across the suture site is accelerated by a 1-hour period of low-frequency electrical stimulation that simultaneously accelerates the expression of BDNF and its trkB receptor in the neurons. Elevation of the level of BDNF after 2 days to > 3 times that found in unstimulated neurons was accompanied by elevation of the level of cAMP and followed by

  8. Tumors of the optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A variety of lesions may involve the optic nerve. Mainly, these lesions are inflammatory or vascular lesions that rarely necessitate surgery but may induce significant visual morbidity. Orbital tumors may induce proptosis, visual loss, relative afferent pupillary defect, disc edema and optic...... atrophy, but less than one-tenth of these tumors are confined to the optic nerve or its sheaths. No signs or symptoms are pathognomonic for tumors of the optic nerve. The tumors of the optic nerve may originate from the optic nerve itself (primary tumors) as a proliferation of cells normally present...... in the nerve (e.g., astrocytes and meningothelial cells). The optic nerve may also be invaded from tumors originating elsewhere (secondary tumors), invading the nerve from adjacent structures (e.g., choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma) or from distant sites (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration and distant...

  9. Recovery of salmonella serovar enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

  10. Modeling of the endosperm crush response profile of hard red spring wheat using a single kernel characterization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a wheat endosperm is crushed the force profile shows viscoelastic response and the modulus of elasticity is an important parameter that might have substantial influence on wheat milling. An experiment was performed to model endosperm crush response profile (ECRP) and to determine the modulus o...

  11. A standardized method to create peripheral nerve injury in dogs using an automatic non-serrated forceps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuhui Wang; Shiting Li; Liang Wan; Xinyuan Li; Youqiang Meng; Ningxi Zhu; Min Yang; Baohui Feng; Wenchuan Zhang; Shugan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a method that not only generates an automatic and standardized crush injury in the skull base, but also provides investigators with the option to choose from a range of varying pressure levels. We designed an automatic, non-serrated forceps that exerts a varying force of 0 to 100 g and lasts for a defined period of 0 to 60 seconds. This device was then used to generate a crush injury to the right oculomotor nerve of dogs with a force of 10 g for 15 seconds, resulting in a deficit in the pupil-light reflex and ptosis. Further testing of our model with Toluidine-blue staining demonstrated that, at 2 weeks post-surgery disordered oculomotor nerve fibers, axonal loss, and a thinner than normal myelin sheath were visible. Electrophysiological examination showed occasional spontaneous potentials. Together, these data verified that the model for oculomotor nerve injury was successful, and that the forceps we designed can be used to establish standard mechanical injury models of peripheral nerves.

  12. Hyperbaric oxygenation therapy for crush injuries reduces the risk of complications: research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Noriaki; Toyoda, Izumi; Doi, Tomoaki; Kumada, Keisuke; Kato, Hisaaki; Yoshida, Shozo; Shirai, Kunihiro; Kanda, Norihide; Ogura, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy has been adopted for crush injuries, but there are few studies supporting its use. We therefore investigated the effects of HBO2 on management of patients with complicated crush injuries. This historic cohort study included patients with crush injuries and open fractures with severities greater than or equal to Gustilo class IIIA. We divided the patients into two groups: Control and HBO2. The control group received conventional treatment, while the HBO2 group received conventional treatment plus HBO2. We compared the groups with respect to the incidence of infection, need for additional surgery, and length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays. There were 16 patients in the HBO2 group and 13 in the control group. There were no patients with infections in the HBO2 group, whereas in the control group six patients had infections and five needed another drainage procedure. These incidences were significantly lower in the HBO2 group (p = 0.003 and 0.013). However, the durations of ICU and hospital stays were similar across the two groups. HBO2 is effective in the management of crush injuries from the viewpoint of reducing complications and reoperations. These observations should be verified in additional studies with larger sample sizes because the patient number is limited.

  13. Optimal energy control of a crushing process based on vertical shaft impactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numbi, B.P.; Xia, X.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy optimal control strategy of a VSI crushing process is modeled. • Potential of a daily energy cost saving of about 49.7% is shown. • Potential of a daily energy saving of about 15.3% is shown. • Most of energy cost saving is due to the optimal load shifting under time-of-use tariff. • Energy saving is due to the operation of the process at the boundary of the admissible region. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimal control model to improve the operation energy efficiency of a vertical shaft impact (VSI) crushing process. The optimal control model takes the energy cost as the performance index to be minimized by accounting for the time-of-use tariff and process constraints such as storage capacity of the VSI crusher hopper, capacity of the main storage system, flow rate limits, cascade ratio setting, production requirement and product quality requirement. The control variables in the developed model are the belt conveyor feed rate, the material feed rate into the VSI crusher rotor, the bi-flow or cascade feed rate and the rotor tip speed of the crusher. These four control variables are optimally coordinated in order to improve the operation energy efficiency of the VSI crushing process. Simulation results based on a crushing process in a coal-fired power plant demonstrate a potential of a daily energy cost saving of about 49.7% and energy saving of about 15.3% in a high-demand season weekday.

  14. Sea Dredged Gravel versus Crushed Granite as Coarse Aggregate for Self Compacting Concrete in Aggressive Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Kristensen, Lasse Frølich

    2007-01-01

    Properties of self compacting concrete (SCC) with two types of coarse aggregate - sea dredged gravel with smooth and rounded particles and crushed granite with rough and angular particles - have been studied. Sea gravel allowed a higher aggregate proportion in the concrete leading to a higher...

  15. Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, N.S.

    1994-03-01

    Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25 degrees C

  16. Mitigating the Health Risks of Stone Quarrying and Crushing in India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Pratapura Industrial Area (Tikamgarh district, Bundelkhand region, Madhya ... In the context of weak regulatory enforcement, worksite health and safety measures are not ... involved in stone quarrying and crushing through better ecosystem management. ... et les défis futurs dans la communauté économique de l'ASEAN.

  17. Mitigating the Health Risks of Stone Quarrying and Crushing in India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Pratapura Industrial Area (Tikamgarh district, Bundelkhand region, Madhya Pradesh), stone quarrying and crushing is carried out by labor-intensive units employing unskilled workers on a seasonal basis complementing the agricultural cycle. In the context of weak regulatory enforcement, worksite health and safety ...

  18. Cross-section crushing behaviour of hat-sections (Part II: Analytical modelling)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeyer, H.

    2005-01-01

    Hat-sections are often used to experimentally investigate building sheeting subject to a concentrated load and bending. In car doors, hat-sections are used for side-impact protection. Their crushing behaviour can partly be explained by only observing their cross-sectional behaviour [1]. This

  19. Sustainable normal and high strength recycled aggregate concretes using crushed tested cylinders as coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal S. Hamad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on a research program that was designed at the American University of Beirut (AUB to investigate the fresh and hardened mechanical properties of a high performance concrete mix produced with partial or full substitution of crushed natural lime-stone aggregates with recycled aggregates from crushed tested cylinders in batching plants. Choosing crushed cylinders as source of recycling would result in reusing portion of the waste products of the concrete production industry. An extensive concrete batching and testing program was conducted to achieve two optimum normal and high strength concrete mixes. The variables were the nominal concrete strength (28 or 60 MPa and the percentage replacement of natural coarse aggregates with recycled aggregates from crushed tested cylinders (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100%. Normal strength tested cylinders were used as source of the recycled aggregates for the normal strength concrete (NSC mix and high strength tested cylinders were used for the high strength concrete (HSC mix. Tests on the trial batches included plastic state slump and hardened state mechanical properties including cylinder compressive strength, cylinder splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and standard beams flexural strength. The results indicated no significant effect on the slump and around 10% average reduction in the hardened mechanical properties for both investigated levels of concrete compressive strength.

  20. Mitigating the Health Risks of Stone Quarrying and Crushing in India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Pratapura Industrial Area (Tikamgarh district, Bundelkhand region, Madhya ... In the context of weak regulatory enforcement, worksite health and safety ... in stone quarrying and crushing through better ecosystem management. ... India, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia ... LVIF announces five more funded projects.

  1. J. Crush and D.A. McDonald. (eds). 2002. Transnationalism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. Crush and D.A. McDonald. (eds). 2002. Transnationalism and New African Immigration to South Africa. Cape Town. Southern African Migration Project and the Canadian Association of African Studies. IV + 188 pp. ISBN 0-88911-926-0.

  2. Use of waste crushed glass for the production of hot-mix asphalt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available presents the development and evaluation of a new asphalt concrete mix that utilizes a sustainable crushed glass as a replacement material of a natural aggregate. The ultimate goal is to produce a cost-effective asphalt wearing course with comparative...

  3. The crush and spray: a patented design for herbicide application with less waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Adam H. Wiese

    2009-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service recently patented an equipment design to deliver herbicides more efficiently and cost-effectively. Towed by a standard all-terrain vehicle, the Crush and Spray can access out-of-the-way or wet locations. An adjustable roller first knocks down the unwanted plants. A low-set spray boom with wide angle sprayer nozzles then provides precise, close-...

  4. Axial Crush of the Tubular Structure with Various Cee-Shaped Cross-Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshar, Reza; Ali, Aidy; Sahari, B B; Bayat, M

    2011-01-01

    Tubular structure with various Cee-shaped cross sections is numerically investigated in order to find the centre of gravity (COG) under axial crush by using program code of ANSYS/LS-DYNA. A subroutine is developed using this code to obtain the COG of deformed shape, during and after crush deformation. The effect of wall thickness of the structure on displacement of COG is also studied. Subsequently, the effect of opening angle of Cee become more prominent as the wall thickness of the structure decreases and as the thickness increases, displacement of the COG in crush direction almost stabilizes for all opening angle of Cee in the range of (10 0 - 90 0 ). Furthermore, Variation of I yy of structure with thicker wall for different cases of applied weight is approximately identical. The value of mass moment of inertia with respect to X and Z axes through the model COG (I zx ) in comparison with I yy can be neglected in the case of axial crush along Y direction.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF PROCESSING OF DUMP SAND-CLAY MIXES BY THE CENTRIFUGAL AND SHOCK CRUSHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vorobev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental research of processing of centrifugal and shock crushing of dump sandy-clay mixes are given. Use of products of processing of received mixes in foundry production and in production of asphalt concrete mixes allows to exclude transportation of the mix to dumping.

  6. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijden, T.M.G.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve (n. V), which plays an important role in the innervation of the head and neck area, together with other cranial and spinal nerves. Knowledge of the nerve’s anatomy is very important for the correct application of local anaesthetics.

  7. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic

  8. Electrostatic accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We ...

  9. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  10. Heparin-Poloxamer Thermosensitive Hydrogel Loaded with bFGF and NGF Enhances Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Li, Yiyang; Wu, Yanqing; Zhao, Yingzheng; Chen, Huanwen; Yuan, Yuan; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Hongyu; Lu, Yingfeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Xiaokun; Jia, Xiaofeng; Xiao, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a major burden to society with limited therapeutic options, and novel biomaterials have great potential for shifting the current paradigm of treatment. With a rising prevalence of chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus (DM), treatment of PNI is further complicated, and only few studies have proposed therapies suitable for peripheral nerve regeneration in DM. To provide a supportive environment to restore structure and/or function of nerves in DM, we developed a novel thermo-sensitive heparin-poloxamer (HP) hydrogel co-delivered with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in diabetic rats with sciatic nerve crush injury. The delivery vehicle not only had a good affinity for large amounts of growth factors (GFs), but also controlled their release in a steady fashion, preventing degradation in vitro. In vivo, compared with HP hydrogel alone or direct GFs administration, GFs-HP hydrogel treatment is more effective at facilitating Schwann cell (SC) proliferation, leading to an increased expression of nerve associated structural proteins, enhanced axonal regeneration and remyelination, and improved recovery of motor function (all p nerve regeneration in patients with DM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Curcumin upregulates S100 expression and improves regeneration of the sciatic nerve following its complete amputation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-min Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The repair of peripheral nerve injury after complete amputation is difficult, and even with anastomosis, the rapid recovery of nerve function remains challenging. Curcumin, extracted from plants of the genus Curcuma, has been shown to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and to improve sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. Here, we determined whether curcumin had neuroprotective effects following complete peripheral nerve amputation injury. BALB/c mice underwent complete sciatic nerve amputation, followed by an immediate epineurium anastomosis. Mice were intragastrically administered curcumin at doses of 40 (high, 20 (moderate, and 10 mg/kg/d (low for 1 week. We found that myelin in the mice of the high- and moderate-dose curcumin groups appeared with regular shape, uniform thickness, clear boundary, and little hyperplasia surrounding the myelin. High and moderate doses of curcumin markedly improved both action potential amplitude of the sciatic nerves and the conduction velocity of the corresponding motor neurons, and upregulated mRNA and protein expression of S100, a marker for Schwann cell proliferation, in L4–6 spinal cord segments. These results suggest that curcumin is effective in promoting the repair of complete sciatic nerve amputation injury and that the underlying mechanism may be associated with upregulation of S100 expression.

  12. Electrostatic accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We sketch possible applications and the progress in the development of electrostatic accelerators.

  13. Accelerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Because the use of accelerated heavy ions would provide many opportunities for new and important studies in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, as well as other disciplines, both the Chemistry and Physics Divisions are supporting the development of a heavy-ion accelerator. The design of greatest current interest includes a tandem accelerator with a terminal voltage of approximately 25 MV injecting into a linear accelerator with rf superconducting resonators. This combined accelerator facility would be capable of accelerating ions of masses ranging over the entire periodic table to an energy corresponding to approximately 10 MeV/nucleon. This approach, as compared to other concepts, has the advantages of lower construction costs, lower operating power, 100 percent duty factor, and high beam quality (good energy resolution, good timing resolution, small beam size, and small beam divergence). The included sections describe the concept of the proposed heavy-ion accelerator, and the development program aiming at: (1) investigation of the individual questions concerning the superconducting accelerating resonators; (2) construction and testing of prototype accelerator systems; and (3) search for economical solutions to engineering problems. (U.S.)

  14. Electrical stimulation enhanced remyelination of injured sciatic nerves by increasing neurotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, L D; Xia, R; Ding, W L

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that electrical stimulation (ES) enhances axonal regeneration following central and peripheral nerve injury. However, the effect of ES on peripheral remyelination after nerve damage has been investigated less, and the mechanism underlying its action remains unclear. In the present study, neuron/Schwann cell (SC) co-cultures in vitro and crush-injured sciatic nerves in rats were subjected to 1 h of continuous ES (20 Hz, 100 micros, 3 V). Electron microscopy and nerve morphometry were performed to investigate the extent of regenerated nerve myelination. The expression profiles of P0, Par-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in vitro and in vivo were examined by western blotting. We reported that 20 Hz ES increased the number of regenerated and myelinated axons at 4 and 8 weeks after injury. P0 level in the ES-treated groups, as well as myelin sheath thickness, were enhanced compared with the controls. The earlier peak Par-3 in the ES-treated groups indicated earlier initiation of SC myelination. Moreover, the similar results were achieved in the cell co-culture. Additionally, brief ES significantly elevated BDNF expression in co-cultured cells and nerve tissues. In conclusion, ES of the site of nerve injury potentiates axonal regrowth and myelin maturation during peripheral nerve regeneration. Further, the therapeutic actions of ES on myelination that is mediated via enhanced BDNF signals, which driving the promyelination effect on SCs at the onset of myelination. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of nerve regeneration across nerve allografts treated with tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisheng, Han; Songjie, Zuo; Xin, Li

    2008-01-01

    Although regeneration of nerve allotransplant is a major concern in the clinic, there have been few papers quantitatively assessing functional recovery of animals' nerve allografts in the long term. In this study, functional recovery, histopathological study, and immunohistochemistry changes of rat nerve allograft with FK506 were investigated up to 12 weeks without slaughtering. C57 and SD rats were used for transplantation. The donor's nerve was sliced and transplanted into the recipient. The sciatic nerve was epineurally sutured with 10-0 nylon. In total, 30 models of transplantation were performed and divided into 3 groups that were either treated with FK506 or not. Functional recovery of the grafted nerve was serially assessed by the pin click test, walking track analysis and electrophysiological evaluations. A histopathological study and immunohistochemistry study were done in the all of the models. Nerve allografts treated with FK506 have no immune rejection through 12 weeks. Sensibility had similarly improved in both isografts and allografts. There has been no difference in each graft. Walk track analysis demonstrates significant recovery of motor function of the nerve graft. No histological results of difference were found up to 12 weeks in each graft. In the rodent nerve graft model, FK506 prevented nerve allograft rejection across a major histocompatibility barrier. Sensory recovery seems to be superior to motor function. Nerve isograft and allograft treated with FK506 have no significant difference in function recovery, histopathological result, and immunohistochemistry changes.

  16. Mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of compacting crushed salt backfill at low porosities. Project REPOPERM. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroehn, Klaus-Peter; Czaikowski, Oliver; Wieczorek, Klaus; Zhang, Chun-Liang; Moog, Helge; Friedenberg, Larissa [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany); Stuehrenberg, Dieter; Heemann, Ulrich [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Jobmann, Michael; Mueller, Christian; Schirmer, Sonja [DBE Technology GmbH (DBE TEC), Peine (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The compaction behavior of crushed salt has been extensively investigated by means of experimental as well as theoretical work. The readiness of numerical tools for the application to modeling the complex coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the crushed salt backfilled in a repository in salt rock has also been demonstrated. Compaction tests were performed under repository-relevant conditions. These tests were supplemented by laboratory work aiming at specific aspects of compaction. The following list covers the topics of these investigations as well as the main results. - Revisiting the determination of the porosity in relevant, past experiments (BGR). - Influence of the grain size distribution on compaction (BGR). - Triaxial compaction test with dry material at low porosities (BGR). - Investigation of the influence of humidity on compaction covers several subtopics. - Permeability associated with low porosity includes two subtopics. - Constitutive equations for two -phase flow (GRS). - Microstructural Investigations (DBE TEC). Parallel to the experimental work attention focussed on several aspects of the basics for modelling the compaction of crushed salt. This work covers checking the validity of the established numerical tools as well as exploring new methods. Topics and main results are listed here: - Development/definition and comparison of constitutive models (BGR). - Benchmark calculations (BGR and GRS). - Capability of scaling-rules for capillary pressure from the oil industry (GRS). - Application of discrete element codes to compacting crushed salt (DBE TEC). Finally, repository-relevant scenarios are discussed as a basis for a realistic but generic numerical model of brine inflow in to a converging back filled drift under a thermal gradient (GRS). This exercise demonstrates the feasibility of modelling crushed salt compaction as a fully coupled thermohydraulic-mechanical process including two-phase flow effects.

  17. Mechanical and hydraulic behaviour of compacting crushed salt backfill at low porosities. Project REPOPERM. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroehn, Klaus-Peter; Czaikowski, Oliver; Wieczorek, Klaus; Zhang, Chun-Liang; Moog, Helge; Friedenberg, Larissa; Stuehrenberg, Dieter; Heemann, Ulrich; Jobmann, Michael; Mueller, Christian; Schirmer, Sonja

    2017-02-01

    The compaction behavior of crushed salt has been extensively investigated by means of experimental as well as theoretical work. The readiness of numerical tools for the application to modeling the complex coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the crushed salt backfilled in a repository in salt rock has also been demonstrated. Compaction tests were performed under repository-relevant conditions. These tests were supplemented by laboratory work aiming at specific aspects of compaction. The following list covers the topics of these investigations as well as the main results. - Revisiting the determination of the porosity in relevant, past experiments (BGR). - Influence of the grain size distribution on compaction (BGR). - Triaxial compaction test with dry material at low porosities (BGR). - Investigation of the influence of humidity on compaction covers several subtopics. - Permeability associated with low porosity includes two subtopics. - Constitutive equations for two -phase flow (GRS). - Microstructural Investigations (DBE TEC). Parallel to the experimental work attention focussed on several aspects of the basics for modelling the compaction of crushed salt. This work covers checking the validity of the established numerical tools as well as exploring new methods. Topics and main results are listed here: - Development/definition and comparison of constitutive models (BGR). - Benchmark calculations (BGR and GRS). - Capability of scaling-rules for capillary pressure from the oil industry (GRS). - Application of discrete element codes to compacting crushed salt (DBE TEC). Finally, repository-relevant scenarios are discussed as a basis for a realistic but generic numerical model of brine inflow in to a converging back filled drift under a thermal gradient (GRS). This exercise demonstrates the feasibility of modelling crushed salt compaction as a fully coupled thermohydraulic-mechanical process including two-phase flow effects.

  18. Biocompatibility of Different Nerve Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Felix; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Fansa, Hisham

    2009-01-01

    Bridging nerve gaps with suitable grafts is a major clinical problem. The autologous nerve graft is considered to be the gold standard, providing the best functional results; however, donor site morbidity is still a major disadvantage. Various attempts have been made to overcome the problems of autologous nerve grafts with artificial nerve tubes, which are “ready-to-use” in almost every situation. A wide range of materials have been used in animal models but only few have been applied to date clinically, where biocompatibility is an inevitable prerequisite. This review gives an idea about artificial nerve tubes with special focus on their biocompatibility in animals and humans.

  19. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  20. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Foer, Bert; Kenis, Christoph; Van Melkebeke, Deborah; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe; Somers, Thomas; Pouillon, Marc; Offeciers, Erwin; Casselman, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  1. Disruption of spinal cord white matter and sciatic nerve geometry inhibits axonal growth in vitro in the absence of glial scarring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crutcher Keith A

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axons within the mature mammalian central nervous system fail to regenerate following injury, usually resulting in long-lasting motor and sensory deficits. Studies involving transplantation of adult neurons into white matter implicate glial scar-associated factors in regeneration failure. However, these studies cannot distinguish between the effects of these factors and disruption of the spatial organization of cells and molecular factors (disrupted geometry. Since white matter can support or inhibit neurite growth depending on the geometry of the fiber tract, the present study sought to determine whether disrupted geometry is sufficient to inhibit neurite growth. Results Embryonic chick sympathetic neurons were cultured on unfixed longitudinal cryostat sections of mature rat spinal cord or sciatic nerve that had been crushed with forceps ex vivo then immediately frozen to prevent glial scarring. Neurite growth on uncrushed portions of spinal cord white matter or sciatic nerve was extensive and highly parallel with the longitudinal axis of the fiber tract but did not extend onto crushed portions. Moreover, neurite growth from neurons attached directly to crushed white matter or nerve tissue was shorter and less parallel compared with neurite growth on uncrushed tissue. In contrast, neurite growth appeared to be unaffected by crushed spinal cord gray matter. Conclusions These observations suggest that glial scar-associated factors are not necessary to block axonal growth at sites of injury. Disruption of fiber tract geometry, perhaps involving myelin-associated neurite-growth inhibitors, may be sufficient to pose a barrier to regenerating axons in spinal cord white matter and peripheral nerves.

  2. RECIRCULATING ACCELERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERG, J.S.; GARREN, A.A.; JOHNSTONE, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares various types of recirculating accelerators, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. The accelerators are characterized according to the types of arcs they use: whether there is a single arc for the entire recirculator or there are multiple arcs, and whether the arc(s) are isochronous or non-isochronous

  3. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  4. Accelerating Inspire

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2266999

    2017-01-01

    CERN has been involved in the dissemination of scientific results since its early days and has continuously updated the distribution channels. Currently, Inspire hosts catalogues of articles, authors, institutions, conferences, jobs, experiments, journals and more. Successful orientation among this amount of data requires comprehensive linking between the content. Inspire has lacked a system for linking experiments and articles together based on which accelerator they were conducted at. The purpose of this project has been to create such a system. Records for 156 accelerators were created and all 2913 experiments on Inspire were given corresponding MARC tags. Records of 18404 accelerator physics related bibliographic entries were also tagged with corresponding accelerator tags. Finally, as a part of the endeavour to broaden CERN's presence on Wikipedia, existing Wikipedia articles of accelerators were updated with short descriptions and links to Inspire. In total, 86 Wikipedia articles were updated. This repo...

  5. Renal sympathetic nerve ablation for treatment-resistant hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krum, Henry; Schlaich, Markus; Sobotka, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for increased cardiovascular events with accelerated sympathetic nerve activity implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of disease. Blood pressure is not adequately controlled in many patients, despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapy. Novel procedure- as well as device-based strategies, such as percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve denervation, have been developed to improve blood pressure in these refractory patients. Renal sympathetic denervation not only reduces blood pressure but also renal as well as systemic sympathetic nerve activity in such patients. The reduction in blood pressure appears to be sustained over 3 years after the procedure, which suggests absence of re-innervation of renal sympathetic nerves. Safety appears to be adequate. This approach may also have potential in other disorders associated with enhanced sympathetic nerve activity such as congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome. This review will focus on the current status of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve denervation, clinical efficacy and safety outcomes and prospects beyond refractory hypertension. PMID:23819768

  6. Vascularized nerve grafts for lower extremity nerve reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Kostopoulos, Vasileios K

    2010-02-01

    Vascularized nerve grafts (VNG) were introduced in 1976 but since then, there have been no reports of their usage in lower extremity reconstruction systematically. The factors influencing outcomes as well as a comparison with conventional nerve grafts will be presented.Since 1981, 14 lower extremity nerve injuries in 12 patients have been reconstructed with VNG. Common peroneal nerve was injured in 12 and posterior tibial nerve in 5 patients. The level of the injury was at the knee or thigh. Twelve sural nerves were used as VNG with or without concomitant vascularized posterior calf fascia.All patients regained improved sensibility and adequate posterior tibial nerve function. For common peroneal nerve reconstructions, all patients with denervation time less than 6 months regained muscle strength of grade at least 4, even when long grafts were used for defects of 20 cm or more. Late cases, yielded inadequate muscle function even with the use of VNG.Denervation time of 6 months or less was critical for reconstruction with vascularized nerve graft. Not only the results were statistically significant compared with late cases, but also all early operated patients achieved excellent results. VNG are strongly recommended in traction avulsion injuries of the lower extremity with lengthy nerve damage.

  7. Crushed tablets: does the administration of food vehicles and thickened fluids to aid medication swallowing alter drug release?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Yady J; Lee, Danielle J; Islam, Faiza; Nissen, Lisa M; Cichero, Julie A Y; Stokes, Jason R; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of co-administered vehicles on in vitro dissolution in simulated gastric fluid of crushed immediate release tablets as an indicator for potential drug bioavailability compromise. Release and dissolution of crushed amlodipine, atenolol, carbamazepine and warfarin tablets were tested with six foods and drinks that are frequently used in the clinical setting as mixers for crushed medications (water, orange juice, honey, yoghurt, strawberry jam and water thickened with Easythick powder) in comparison to whole tablets. Five commercial thickening agents (Easythick Advanced, Janbak F, Karicare, Nutilis, Viscaid) at three thickness levels were tested for their effect on the dissolution of crushed atenolol tablets. Atenolol dissolution was unaffected by mixing crushed tablets with thin fluids or food mixers in comparison to whole tablets or crushed tablets in water, but amlodipine was delayed by mixing with jam. Mixing crushed warfarin and carbamazepine tablets with honey, jam or yoghurt caused them to resemble the slow dissolution of whole tablets rather than the faster dissolution of crushed tablets in water or orange juice. Crushing and mixing any of the four medications with thickened water caused a significant delay in dissolution. When tested with atenolol, all types of thickening agents at the greatest thickness significantly restricted dissolution, and products that are primarily based on xanthan gum also delayed dissolution at the intermediate thickness level. Dissolution testing, while simplistic, is a widely used and accepted method for comparing drug release from different formulations as an indicator for in vivo bioavailability. Thickened fluids have the potential to retard drug dissolution when used at the thickest levels. These findings highlight potential clinical implications of the addition of these agents to medications for the purpose of dose delivery and indicate that further investigation of thickened fluids and their

  8. Optic nerve hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savleen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65% than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED.

  9. FMIT accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    A 35-MeV 100-mA cw linear accelerator is being designed by Los Alamos for use in the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Essential to this program is the design, construction, and evaluation of performance of the accelerator's injector, low-energy beam transport, and radio-frequency quadrupole sections before they are shipped to the facility site. The installation and testing of some of these sections have begun as well as the testing of the rf, noninterceptive beam diagnostics, computer control, dc power, and vacuum systems. An overview of the accelerator systems and the performance to date is given

  10. Electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan.

    1981-01-01

    The USSR produces an electron accelerator family of a simple design powered straight from the mains. The specifications are given of accelerators ELITA-400, ELITA-3, ELT-2, TEUS-3 and RIUS-5 with maximum electron energies of 0.3 to 5 MeV, a mean power of 10 to 70 kW operating in both the pulsed and the continuous (TEUS-3) modes. Pulsed accelerators ELITA-400 and ELITA-3 and RIUS-5 in which TESLA resonance transformers are used are characterized by their compact size. (Ha)

  11. Sensation, mechanoreceptor, and nerve fiber function after nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Rosén, Birgitta; Boeckstyns, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Sensation is essential for recovery after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relationship between sensory modalities and function of regenerated fibers is uncertain. We have investigated the relationships between touch threshold, tactile gnosis, and mechanoreceptor and sensory fiber...... function after nerve regeneration. Methods: Twenty-one median or ulnar nerve lesions were repaired by a collagen nerve conduit or direct suture. Quantitative sensory hand function and sensory conduction studies by near-nerve technique, including tactile stimulation of mechanoreceptors, were followed for 2...... years, and results were compared to noninjured hands. Results: At both repair methods, touch thresholds at the finger tips recovered to 81 ± 3% and tactile gnosis only to 20 ± 4% (p nerve action potentials (SNAPs) remained dispersed and areas recovered to 23 ± 2...

  12. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Spinal Accessory and Hypoglossal Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stino, Amro M; Smith, Benn E

    2018-01-01

    Multiple techniques have been developed for the electrodiagnostic evaluation of cranial nerves XI and XII. Each of these carries both benefits and limitations, with more techniques and data being available in the literature for spinal accessory than hypoglossal nerve evaluation. Spinal accessory and hypoglossal neuropathy are relatively uncommon cranial mononeuropathies that may be evaluated in the outpatient electrodiagnostic laboratory setting. A review of available literature using PubMed was conducted regarding electrodiagnostic technique in the evaluation of spinal accessory and hypoglossal nerves searching for both routine nerve conduction studies and repetitive nerve conduction studies. The review provided herein provides a resource by which clinical neurophysiologists may develop and implement clinical and research protocols for the evaluation of both of these lower cranial nerves in the outpatient setting.

  13. Adaptation of oral medication in people institutionalized in nursing homes for whom medication is crushed: The ADECUA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Apolo Carvajal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of pharmacist interventions in the adaptation of pharmaceutical forms in elders institutionalized in nursing homes whose medicines are crushed, which may have a clinical relevance. Methods: Quasi-experimental, multicenter, transversal and prospective study carried out in 10 nursing homes. Subjects for whom drugs were being crushed were identified. Their treatments were reviewed in order to identify drugs that should not be crushed. In these cases, we proposed an alternative to the physician and we evaluated the degree of acceptance, its association to other variables and the pre-post adaptation index (tablets that can be crushed and capsules that can be opened/ total number of tablets and capsules before and after the intervention. Moreover, health professionals received a training course. Results: Medication was being crushed for 33% (618/1875 of residents (mean: 5 drugs susceptible of crushing. 220 pharmaceutical interventions were performed, mostly in extended release or gastro-resistant drugs (48% were accepted. Switch was the type of intervention more frequent (79%, mainly to Purpose: To evaluate the effect of pharmacist interventions in the adaptation of pharmaceutical forms in elders institutionalized in nursing homes whose medicines are crushed, which may have a clinical relevance. Methods: Quasi-experimental, multicenter, transversal and prospective study carried out in 10 nursing homes. Subjects for whom drugs were being crushed were identified. Their treatments were reviewed in order to identify drugs that should not be crushed. In these cases, we proposed an alternative to the physician and we evaluated the degree of acceptance, its association to other variables and the pre-post adaptation index (tablets that can be crushed and capsules that can be opened/ total number of tablets and capsules before and after the intervention. Moreover, health professionals received a training course. Results

  14. Selective recurrent laryngeal nerve stimulation using a penetrating electrode array in the feline model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Yarah M; Sahyouni, Ronald; Moshtaghi, Omid; Wang, Beverly Y; Djalilian, Hamid R; Middlebrooks, John C; Verma, Sunil P; Lin, Harrison W

    2017-10-31

    Laryngeal muscles (LMs) are controlled by the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), injury of which can result in vocal fold (VF) paralysis (VFP). We aimed to introduce a bioelectric approach to selective stimulation of LMs and graded muscle contraction responses. Acute experiments in cats. The study included six anesthetized cats. In four cats, a multichannel penetrating microelectrode array (MEA) was placed into an uninjured RLN. For RLN injury experiments, one cat received a standardized hemostat-crush injury, and one cat received a transection-reapproximation injury 4 months prior to testing. In each experiment, three LMs (thyroarytenoid, posterior cricoarytenoid, and cricothyroid muscles) were monitored with an electromyographic (EMG) nerve integrity monitoring system. Electrical current pulses were delivered to each stimulating channel individually. Elicited EMG voltage outputs were recorded for each muscle. Direct videolaryngoscopy was performed for visualization of VF movement. Stimulation through individual channels led to selective activation of restricted nerve populations, resulting in selective contraction of individual LMs. Increasing current levels resulted in rising EMG voltage responses. Typically, activation of individual muscles was successfully achieved via single placement of the MEA by selection of appropriate stimulation channels. VF abduction was predominantly observed on videolaryngoscopy. Nerve histology confirmed injury in cases of RLN crush and transection experiments. We demonstrated the ability of a penetrating MEA to selectively stimulate restricted fiber populations within the feline RLN and selectively elicit contractions of discrete LMs in both acute and injury-model experiments, suggesting a potential role for intraneural MEA implantation in VFP management. NA Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Evaluation of steel slag and crushed limestone mixtures as subbase material in flexible pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel slag is produced as a by-product during the oxidation of steel pellets in an electric arc furnace. This by-product that mainly consists of calcium carbonate is broken down to smaller sizes to be used as aggregates in pavement layers. They are particularly useful in areas where a good-quality aggregate is scarce. This research study was conducted to evaluate the effect of quantity of steel slag on the mechanical properties of blended mixes with crushed limestone aggregates, which used as subbase material in Egypt. Moreover, a theoretical analysis was employed to estimate the resistance for failure factors such as vertical deformations, vertical and radial stresses and vertical strains of subbase under overweight trucks loads. These loads cause severe deterioration to the pavement and thus reduce its life. The results indicated that the mechanical characteristics, and the resistance factors were improved by adding steel slag to the crushed limestone.

  16. Study of the fracture behavior of mortar and concretes with crushed rock or pebble aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the fracture energy of mortar and concretes produced with crushed rock and pebble aggregates using zero, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of aggregates mixed with standard mortar and applying the wedge splitting method to achieve stable crack propagation. The samples were cast in a special mold and cured for 28 days, after which they were subjected to crack propagation tests by the wedge splitting method to determine the fracture energies of the mortar and concrete. The concretes showed higher fracture energy than the mortar, and the concretes containing crushed rock showed higher resistance to crack propagation than all the compositions containing pebbles. The fracture energy varied from 38 to 55 J.m-2. A comparison of the number of aggregates that separated from the two concrete matrices with the highest fracture energies indicated that the concrete containing pebbles crumbled more easily and was therefore less resistant to crack propagation.

  17. Clay modified crushed salt for shaft sealing elements. Material optimization and evaluation in field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaubach, Uwe; Hofmann, Martin; Gruner, Matthias; Kudla, Wolfram [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Mining and Special Civil Engineering

    2015-07-01

    Salt-based materials are intended to use for backfill and sealing systems in geotechnical barriers in underground HLW-repositories. Due to the creep of the saliniferous host rock, the salt backfill will be compacted during several hundreds or thousands years of operation to a minimum of porosity resp. permeability. To raise the sealing potential of a salt-based backfill, the porosity after construction should be minimized by optimal material performance and compaction performance. A procedure to optimize the grain size distribution of crushed salt and its water and clay content is described. The optimized salt fraction gets a better compaction behavior than straight mine-run salt. The addition of a filler-like material (e.g. Friedland Clay Powder) reduces the total porosity and permeability. Backfill columns made from crushed salt and clay probably include an instant sealing function.

  18. Effect of shape and surface texture of aggregates during high intensity vertical shaft impact autogeneous crushing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samayamutthirian Palaniandy; Khairun Azizi Mohd Azizli

    2002-01-01

    The demand for quarry industry to produce high quality aggregates is increasing parallel with the demand of high strength concrete. Focus on the high quality aggregates production is very essential as 70% of the concrete consist of aggregates. High quality aggregate is characterised according to its shape, surface texture and its size distribution. The cubical and more equidimensional aggregates are characterised as high quality aggregates. Besides photomicrograph of aggregates, Flakiness and Elongation indices are important empirical measurements to determine the quality of the aggregates. The Barmac Rock On Rock Vertical Shaft Impactor proved that the shape of the aggregates can be improved by various crushing mechanisms as the EI and FI values were low and 75% of the cubical particles were observed in the crushed aggregates. (Author)

  19. IMPACT OF ROCK HARDNESS ON FRAGMENTATION BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER AND CRUSHING IN JAW CRUSHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical characteristics of intact rocks depend on the way of their formation, sustained deformations and the process of wearing a specific rock has been exposed to. These characteristics have a rather high influence on the technological process of extraction and dressing of mineral raw materials. However, the mechanical characteristics of rocks due to use of explosives for their extraction in the open pit have a more significant impact. The rock blocks extracted by blasting which are larger than the opening of the primary crusher are usually fragmented by hydraulic hammer. The paper presents the results of the testing of impact of rock hardness on fragmentation of rocks by means of hydraulic hammer and during crushing in jaw crusher. The testing was carried out on the rock samples from five quarries. According to the obtained results the hardness has a considerably larger impact on the fragmentation energy by hydraulic hammer than on the crushing energy in jaw crusher.

  20. Experimental Characterization of the Energy Absorption of Functionally Graded Foam Filled Tubes Under Axial Crushing Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Saeed; Vahdatazad, Nader; Liaghat, Gholamhossein

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with the energy absorption characterization of functionally graded foam (FGF) filled tubes under axial crushing loads by experimental method. The FGF tubes are filled axially by gradient layers of polyurethane foams with different densities. The mechanical properties of the polyurethane foams are firstly obtained from axial compressive tests. Then, the quasi-static compressive tests are carried out for empty tubes, uniform foam filled tubes and FGF filled tubes. Before to present the experimental test results, a nonlinear FEM simulation of the FGF filled tube is carried out in ABAQUS software to gain more insight into the crush deformation patterns, as well as the energy absorption capability of the FGF filled tube. A good agreement between the experimental and simulation results is observed. Finally, the results of experimental test show that an FGF filled tube has excellent energy absorption capacity compared to the ordinary uniform foam-filled tube with the same weight.

  1. Concrete manufactured with crushed asphalt as partial replacement of natural aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Coppola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the reuse of crushed asphalt (GA as a partial replacement (up to 20% of natural aggregates for concrete manufacture. Addition of GA aggregates produced a positive effect on workability loss. The GA mixes, however, showed a significant tendency to bleed and segregate at the highest replacement percentage applied. GA led to a decrease of compressive strength in concrete (with respect to that of the reference concrete up to 50% due to the weakness of the cement paste / recycled aggregate interface. To compensate for this negative effect, a reduction of w/c for the GA concretes was necessary. A decrease of w/c allowed the GA concretes to show drying shrinkage values substantially similar to those of reference concrete with the same cement factor. The experimental results confirmed the possibility of partial substitution (max. 15% of natural aggregates with crushed asphalt for making concrete.

  2. A study on the crushing behavior of basalt fiber reinforced composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, A.; Veerasimman, A. P.; Vairavan, M.; Francisco, C.; Sultan, M. T. H.

    2016-10-01

    The crushing behavior and energy absorption capacity of basalt fiber reinforced hollow square structure composites are studied under axial compression. Using the hand layup technique, basalt fiber reinforced composites were fabricated using general purpose (GP) polyester resin with the help of wooden square shaped mould of varying height (100 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm). For comparison, similar specimens of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites were also fabricated and tested. Axial compression load is applied over the top end of the specimen with cross head speed as 2 mm/min using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). From the experimental results, the load-deformation characteristics of both glass fiber and basalt fiber composites were investigated. Crashworthiness and mode of collapse for the composites were determined from load-deformation curve, and they were then compared to each other in terms of their crushing behaviors.

  3. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  4. Acceleration theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields can be separated into near and far components. Near fields are extensions of static fields. They do not radiate, and they fall off more rapidly from a source than far fields. Near fields can accelerate particles, but the ratio of acceleration to source fields at a distance R, is always less than R/λ or 1, whichever is smaller. Far fields can be represented as sums of plane parallel, transversely polarized waves that travel at the velocity of light. A single such wave in a vacuum cannot give continuous acceleration, and it is shown that no sums of such waves can give net first order acceleration. This theorem is proven in three different ways; each method showing a different aspect of the situation

  5. Nerves and nerve endings in the skin of tropical cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakiri, S F; Ozoya, S E; Ogunnaike, P O

    1978-01-01

    The nerves and nerve endings in the skin of tropical cattle were studied using histological and histochemical techniques. Many nerve trunks and fibres were present in the reticular and papillary dermis in both hairy and non-hairy skin sites. In non-hairy skin locations such as the muzzle and lower lip, encapsulated endings akin to Krause and Ruffini end bulbs, which arise from myelinated nerve trunks situated lower down the dermis were observed at the upper papillary layer level. Some fibre trunks seen at this level extended upwards to terminate within dermal papillae as bulb-shaped longitudinally lamellated Pacinian-type endings, while other onion-shaped lamellated nerve structures were located either within dermal papillae or near the dermo-epidermal area. Intraepidermal free-ending nerve fibres, appearing non-myelinated were observed in areas with thick epidermis. Intraepidermal free-ending nerve fibres, appearing non-myelinated were observed in areas with thick epidermis. On hairy skin sites, however, organized nerve endings or intraepidermal nerve endings were not readily identifiable.

  6. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Cranial Nerves IX and X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto R M; Martins, Melina P; Moreira, Ana Lucila; Martins, Carlos R; Kimaid, Paulo A T; França, Marcondes C

    2018-01-01

    The cranial nerves IX and X emerge from medulla oblongata and have motor, sensory, and parasympathetic functions. Some of these are amenable to neurophysiological assessment. It is often hard to separate the individual contribution of each nerve; in fact, some of the techniques are indeed a composite functional measure of both nerves. The main methods are the evaluation of the swallowing function (combined IX and X), laryngeal electromyogram (predominant motor vagal function), and heart rate variability (predominant parasympathetic vagal function). This review describes, therefore, the techniques that best evaluate the major symptoms presented in IX and X cranial nerve disturbance: dysphagia, dysphonia, and autonomic parasympathetic dysfunction.

  7. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  8. Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S.; Connolly, J.R.

    1996-06-01

    A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m 3 at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m 2 /s to 6.6 x 10-7 m 2 /s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed

  9. Mix proportioning and performance of a crushed limestone sand-concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Makhloufi Zoubir; Bouziani Tayeb; Bédérina Madani; Hadjoudja Mourad

    2014-01-01

    Satisfying the ever-growing demand of concrete aggregates poses a problem in many parts of the world due to shortage of natural sand. Moreover, to conserve natural resources and protect civil engineering infrastructures, there is a need to find alternative materials. Crushed stone sand has been identified as a potential substitute material for natural sand in making good quality concrete. The main objective of the present investigation is to determine an adequate mix design method and evaluat...

  10. Discrete element modeling of cemented sand and particle crushing at high pressures

    OpenAIRE

    de Bono, John Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to provide an insight into the behaviour of cemented sand under high pressures, and to further the understanding of the role of particle crushing. The discrete element method is used to investigate the micro mechanics of sand and cemented sand in high-pressure triaxial tests and one-dimensional normal compression. Using the software PFC3D, a new triaxial model has been developed, which features an effective flexible membrane that allows free deformation of the specimen ...

  11. Regenerative Potential of D-δ-Tocotrienol Rich Fraction on Crushed Skeletal Muscle of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijo Elsy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed muscle growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle in diabetics is believed to be due to diabetic myopathy because of alteration in the skeletal muscle homeostatis. Since vitamin E is a natural antioxidant and is also important for the integrity of sarcolemma, the present study was designed to explore the muscle regenerative potency of d-δ-tocotrienol-rich fraction (d-δ-TRF on crushed skeletal muscle in healthy and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced through single subcutaneous injection of alloxan (100 mg/kg. Twenty-four albino rats were divided into four groups; healthy control, diabetic control, healthy treated, and diabetic treated. Treated groups received injections orally, daily (200 mg/kg for 3 weeks. A horizontal skin incision was made on the shaved right mid-thigh region, by splitting the fascia between gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata, and gluteus maximus was crushed with Kocher’s forceps. Skin wound was closed with an absorbable suture. The crushed muscle changes were studied by assessing the histopathological features, histomorphological measurements, and biochemical analyses on 3rd week following induction of injury. One-way “ANOVA” followed by Tukey’s test and Student t-test were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: Results obtained through various methods indicate that the d-δ-TRF treated groups have controlled glycemic status, improved antioxidant capacity, faster revascularization, re-innervation, regeneration of myofibers, and connective tissue remodeling. Conclusion: It is, therefore, concluded that the d-δ-TRF is a beneficial nutritional adjuvant for skeletal muscles’ structural and functional recovery after crushed injury in both healthy and diabetics. [J Interdiscip Histopathol 2017; 5(2.000: 36-42

  12. Effect of crumb rubber on the mechanical properties of crushed recycled pavement materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Saberian, Mohammad; Nguyen, Bao Thach

    2018-07-15

    The low-carbon footprint of using recycled construction and demolition (C&D) aggregates in civil engineering infrastructure applications has been considered to be a significant solution for the replacement of conventional pavement aggregates. Investigations regarding the use of crumb rubber in the base and subbase layers of pavement have been well documented. However, information on the effects of crumb rubber and its size within C&D aggregates as the base/subbase layers is still very limited. In this study, crumb rubber with particle sizes ranging from 400 to 600 μm (fine) to 10-15 mm (coarse), 20 mm recycled crushed concrete (RCC), and 20 mm crushed rock (CR) were used. The crumb rubber was added to the two groups of C&D aggregates at 0.5, 1 and 2% by weight percentages of the aggregates. The effect of crumb rubber on the mechanical properties (such as California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength, aggregate crushing value, dynamic lightweight cone penetrometer, Clegg impact value, Los Angeles abrasion values, and resilient modulus) of the C&D aggregates was then examined. Based on the experimental test results, it was found that crumb rubber can be recycled as a waste material for the base and subbase layers in the pavement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Crushing Candy: The Free-to-Play Game in Its Connective Commodity Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Nieborg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to add a complementary perspective to the study of social network sites by surveying how the political economy of social media platforms relates to the structure of free-to-play games in their commodity form. Drawing on the theory of multisided markets and critical political economy, this article surveys the political economy of game apps and investigates how it is symbiotically related to the technological and economic logic underlying connective platforms operated by Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon. These social media platforms operate app stores that sustain the transformation of games as fixed, physically distributed products that follow a transaction logic, into digitally distributed, freely accessible, or “free-to-play” apps. Through a case study of the popular casual game Candy Crush Saga it is contended that the connective properties of social media platforms affect the form and format of game apps as cultural commodities. Candy Crush Saga developer King Digital Entertainment has been able to attract hundreds of millions of players and build a business model that combines the commodification of virtual items, connectivity, user attention, user data, and play. It is argued that the free-to-play commodity form comprises three commodity types: the product commodity, the “prosumer commodity,” and the player commodity. Furthermore, Candy Crush Saga ’s commodity form is structured by a platformed modality of cultural production and circulation and therefore embedded in the political economy of its host platform.

  14. Whole and crushed nutlets of chia (Salvia hispanica from Mexico as a source of functional gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Segura-Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and functional properties of Mexican chia (Salvia hispanica gums extracted from defatted whole and crushed nutlets using the Soxhlet and SFE-CO2 methods. Chia gums have interesting chemical and functional properties for the food industry. The oil and gum yields were in the range of 1.98-16.42% and 5.81-12.60%, respectively. The defatting procedure did not affect significantly the oil and gum extraction; the nutlet type (whole or crushed was the only parameter influencing the yield. The proximate composition and the protein and fiber contents of chia gum were evaluated. Low contents of protein and fiber and high NFE levels were found in whole nutlet gums. The functional properties of chia gum extracted from whole and crushed nutlets with the Soxhlet and SFE-COs methods showed the following ranges of water absorption capacity of 62.64 to 143.66 g/g, water adsorption capacity of 0.69 to 1.35 g/g, and water and oil holding capacity of 100 to 149.28 g/g and19.5 to 40.4 g/g, respectively. The rheological behavior exhibited by the gums was pseudoplastic or shear thinning. From a functional perspective, chia gum is an important food component due its emulsifier and stabilizer potentials.

  15. Analysis of the crush environment for lightweight air-transportable accident-resistant containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.; Hartman, W.F.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the longitudinal dynamic crush environment for a Lightweight Air-Transportable Accident-Resistant Container (LAARC, now called PAT-2) that can be used to transport small quantities of radioactive material. The analysis of the crush environment involves evaluation of the forces imposed upon the LAARC package during the crash of a large, heavily loaded, cargo aircraft. To perform the analysis, a cargo load column was defined which consisted of a longitudinal prism of cargo of cross-sectional area equal to the projected area of the radioactive-material package and length equal to the longitudinal extent of the cargo compartment in a commercial cargo jet aircraft. To bound the problem, two analyses of the cargo load column were performed, a static stability analysis and a dynamic analysis. The results of these analyses can be applied to other packaging designs and suggest that the physical limits or magnitude of the longitudinal crush forces, which are controlled in part by the yield strength of the cargo and the package size, are much smaller than previously estimated

  16. Cement Type Influence on Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete with Crushed Gravel Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkauskas, A.; Nagrockienė, D.; Skripkiūnas, G.

    2017-10-01

    Alkali-silica reaction is one of the chemical reactions which have a significant influence for durability of concrete. During alkali and silica reaction, silicon located in aggregates of the concrete, reacts with high alkali content. This way in the micropores of concrete is forming hygroscopic gel, which at wet environment, expanding and slowly but strongly destroying concrete structures. The goal of this paper- to determine the influence of cement type on alkali-silica reaction of mortars with crushed gravel. In the study crushed gravel with fraction 4/16 mm was used and four types of cements tested: CEM I 42.5 R; CEM I 42.5 SR; CEM II/A-S 42.5; CEM II/A-V 52.5. This study showed that crushed gravel is low contaminated on reactive particles containing of amorphous silica dioxide. The expansion after 14 days exceed 0.054 %, by RILEM AAR-2 research methodology (testing specimen dimension 40×40×160 mm). Continuing the investigation to 56 days for all specimens occurred alkaline corrosion features: microcracking and the surface plaque of gel. The results showed that the best resistance to alkaline corrosion after 14 days was obtained with cement CEM I 42.5 SR containing ash additive, and after 56 days with cement CEM II/A-V 52.5 containing low alkali content. The highest expansion after 14 and 56 days was obtained with cement CEM I 42.5 R without active mineral additives.

  17. Evaluation of using crushed brick as coarse aggregate in concrete layer within rigid highway pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwash Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the present studies related to the field of highway pavement construction technique tend to make use of the local available materials as substitutes for the imported and necessary materials for some of the practical application. For this reason this research aims at looking for the prospect of used locally available aggregate such as crushed clay bricks for the aim of producing proper concrete with suitable thermal and mechanical properties. Experimental investigations have been carried out to asses the effect of partial replacement of coarse aggregate by free manually crushed Brick with percentages (10, 20, 30 and 40% of virgin coarse aggregate in concrete mix for highway rigid pavement. While the percentage (0% replacement represent reference mix. Mix proportion based on the target of compressive strength for all replacement percentage of (33 MPa at (28 days to achieve AASHTO requirement for highway concrete rigid pavement .The results of flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density and thermal conductivity refers to better performance (less thickness of concrete layer with large spacing between contraction or expansion joints and less stresses due to warping induced concrete layer for concrete mix with 20% crushed brick as replacement of coarse aggregate.

  18. Myelination and nodal formation of regenerated peripheral nerve fibers following transplantation of acutely prepared olfactory ensheathing cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Mary A.; Sasaki, Masanori; Lankford, Karen L.; Kocsis, Jeffery D.; Radtke, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) into injured spinal cord results in improved functional outcome. Mechanisms suggested to account for this functional improvement include axonal regeneration, remyelination and neuroprotection. OECs transplanted into transected peripheral nerve have been shown to modify peripheral axonal regeneration and functional outcome. However, little is known of the detailed integration of OECs at the transplantation site in peripheral nerve. To address this issue cells populations enriched in OECs were isolated from the olfactory bulbs of adult green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing transgenic rats and transplanted into a sciatic nerve crush lesion which transects all axons. Five weeks to six months after transplantation the nerves were studied histologically. GFP-expressing OECs survived in the lesion and distributed longitudinally across the lesion zone. The internodal regions of individual teased fibers distal to the transection site were characterized by GFP expression in the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of cells surrounding the axons. Immuno-electron microscopy for GFP indicated that the transplanted OECs formed peripheral type myelin. Immunostaining for sodium channel and Caspr revealed a high density of Nav1.6 at the newly formed nodes of Ranvier which were flanked by paranodal Caspr staining. These results indicate that transplanted OECs extensively integrate into transected peripheral nerve and form myelin on regenerated peripheral nerve fibers, and that nodes of Ranvier of these axons display proper sodium channel organization. PMID:17112480

  19. Nerve Cross-Bridging to Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Model of Delayed Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no available options to promote nerve regeneration through chronically denervated distal nerve stumps. Here we used a rat model of delayed nerve repair asking of prior insertion of side-to-side cross-bridges between a donor tibial (TIB) nerve and a recipient denervated common peroneal (CP) nerve stump ameliorates poor nerve regeneration. First, numbers of retrogradely-labelled TIB neurons that grew axons into the nerve stump within three months, increased with the size of the perineurial windows opened in the TIB and CP nerves. Equal numbers of donor TIB axons regenerated into CP stumps either side of the cross-bridges, not being affected by target neurotrophic effects, or by removing the perineurium to insert 5-9 cross-bridges. Second, CP nerve stumps were coapted three months after inserting 0-9 cross-bridges and the number of 1) CP neurons that regenerated their axons within three months or 2) CP motor nerves that reinnervated the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle within five months was determined by counting and motor unit number estimation (MUNE), respectively. We found that three but not more cross-bridges promoted the regeneration of axons and reinnervation of EDL muscle by all the CP motoneurons as compared to only 33% regenerating their axons when no cross-bridges were inserted. The same 3-fold increase in sensory nerve regeneration was found. In conclusion, side-to-side cross-bridges ameliorate poor regeneration after delayed nerve repair possibly by sustaining the growth-permissive state of denervated nerve stumps. Such autografts may be used in human repair surgery to improve outcomes after unavoidable delays. PMID:26016986

  20. Analysis of the engine fragment threat and the crush environment for small packages carried on U.S. commercial jet aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, W.F.; McClure, J.D.; von Riesemann, W.A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of two separate analyses are reported. The engine fragment analysis determined the probability of a small package being in the path of a fragment from a failure in a gas turbine engine. The calculated values show that, depending on aircraft type, the incidence rate varies by approximately an order of magnitude from a high of about once per 5 million flights to a low of nearly once every 40 million package flights for a flight of five hours' duration. The analysis of the crush environment consisted of an examination of two principal crush modes, i.e., vertical and longitudinal crush. The vertical crush mode was examined by formulating a structural model of the cargo deck beams of the aircraft. The longitudinal crush mode was studied by using dynamic models of the aircraft cargo and the radioactive material package (RAM). The results of the analysis of these crush modes provided the basis for the formulation of a 310 kN/(70,000 lb) crush test to simulate vertical crush. The longitudinal crush analysis indicated that it was possible, under infrequently occurring conditions, to produce extremely large crush forces and hence it was recommended that RAM packages be located in the aft end of aircraft cargo compartments to minimize the effects of longitudinal crush

  1. The role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy in facial nerve damage

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Methods: Rat models of facia...

  2. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  3. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: Low-temperature impact crushing, leaching and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, G.; Vigreux, B.; Caillol, A.; Koehly, G.

    1987-01-01

    Reprocessing plants, hot laboratories and fuel fabrication plants produce solid wastes containing residual amounts of plutonium and uranium in nitrate and oxide form at concentrations up to several tens of grams per m/sup 3/. Dismantling of nuclear facilities having handled these radioelements also generates large volumes of solid wastes highly contaminated with alpha emitters. It is desirable to process these alpha wastes to recover valuable fissile materials and/or permit surface storage. Solid waste treatment by low-temperature impact crushing and then leaching, after minimal sorting and classifying at the sites of production, meets the corresponding requirements for high volume reduction plus fissile material recovery or waste decontamination. Additional volume reduction of crushed wastes containing mainly combustible materials can be obtained by incineration. This is facilitated by the low fissile material content after low-temperature impact crushing and leaching. Sorted wastes can also be leached or incinerated directly after, in most cases, crushing by more conventional techniques

  4. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters low-temperature impact crushing/leaching and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.; Bertolotti, G.

    1986-01-01

    Reprocessing plants, hot laboratories, fuel fabrication plants all produce waste containing residual quantities of plutonium and uranium in oxide form which often reach some tens of grammes per m 3 . Appropriate treatment recovers an appreciable amount of fissile material, which could lead to the waste being declassified and able to be disposed of in near ground-level facilities. After a summary sorting at production level, waste can be sent to a low-temperature impact crushing/leaching unit which considerably reduces volumes to be stored. We call this process cryo-crushing/leaching. For burnable crushed particles, a further volume reduction may be obtained by incineration, an operation which is made easier by the low fissile material residue content. Incineration can, of course also be applied directly to burnable solid waste sorted at source and crushed following more conventional methods [fr

  5. Transient femoral nerve palsy following ilioinguinal nerve block for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Surgery ... Background: Elective inguinal hernia repair in young fit patients is preferably done under ilioinguinal nerve block anesthesia in the ambulatory setting to improve ... Conclusion: TFNP is a rare complication of ilioinguinal nerve block which delays patient discharge postambulatory hernioplasty.

  6. A local isotropic/global orthotropic finite element technique for modeling the crush of wood in impact limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaway, S.W.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    Wood is often used as the energy absorbing material in impact limiters, because it begins to crush at low strains, then maintains a near constant crush stress up to nearly 60% volume reduction, and then locks up. Hill (Hill and Joseph, 1974) has performed tests that show that wood is an excellent absorber. However, wood's orthotropic behavior for large crush is difficult to model. In the past, analysts have used isotropic foam-like material models for modeling wood. A new finite element technique is presented in this paper that gives a better model of wood crush than the model currently in use. The orthotropic technique is based on locally isotropic, but globally orthotropic (LIGO) (Attaway, 1988) assumptions in which alternating layers of hard and soft crushable material are used. Each layer is isotropic; however, by alternating hard and soft thin layers, the resulting global behavior is orthotropic. In the remainder of this paper, the new technique for modeling orthotropic wood crush will be presented. The model is used to predict the crush behavior for different grain orientations of balsa wood. As an example problem, an impact limiter containing balsa wood as the crushable material is analyzed using both an isotropic model and the LIGO model

  7. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Trigeminal and Facial Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Iryna M; Estephan, Bachir

    2018-01-01

    The clinical examination of the trigeminal and facial nerves provides significant diagnostic value, especially in the localization of lesions in disorders affecting the central and/or peripheral nervous system. The electrodiagnostic evaluation of these nerves and their pathways adds further accuracy and reliability to the diagnostic investigation and the localization process, especially when different testing methods are combined based on the clinical presentation and the electrophysiological findings. The diagnostic uniqueness of the trigeminal and facial nerves is their connectivity and their coparticipation in reflexes commonly used in clinical practice, namely the blink and corneal reflexes. The other reflexes used in the diagnostic process and lesion localization are very nerve specific and add more diagnostic yield to the workup of certain disorders of the nervous system. This article provides a review of commonly used electrodiagnostic studies and techniques in the evaluation and lesion localization of cranial nerves V and VII.

  8. Side Effects: Nerve Problems (Peripheral Neuropathy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve problems, such as peripheral neuropathy, can be caused by cancer treatment. Learn about signs and symptoms of nerve changes. Find out how to prevent or manage nerve problems during cancer treatment.

  9. [Facial nerve injuries cause changes in central nervous system microglial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, Jeimmy; Troncoso, Julieta

    2016-12-01

    Our research group has described both morphological and electrophysiological changes in motor cortex pyramidal neurons associated with contralateral facial nerve injury in rats. However, little is known about those neural changes, which occur together with changes in surrounding glial cells. To characterize the effect of the unilateral facial nerve injury on microglial proliferation and activation in the primary motor cortex. We performed immunohistochemical experiments in order to detect microglial cells in brain tissue of rats with unilateral facial nerve lesion sacrificed at different times after the injury. We caused two types of lesions: reversible (by crushing, which allows functional recovery), and irreversible (by section, which produces permanent paralysis). We compared the brain tissues of control animals (without surgical intervention) and sham-operated animals with animals with lesions sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 21 or 35 days after the injury. In primary motor cortex, the microglial cells of irreversibly injured animals showed proliferation and activation between three and seven days post-lesion. The proliferation of microglial cells in reversibly injured animals was significant only three days after the lesion. Facial nerve injury causes changes in microglial cells in the primary motor cortex. These modifications could be involved in the generation of morphological and electrophysiological changes previously described in the pyramidal neurons of primary motor cortex that command facial movements.

  10. Accelerator microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.

    1997-01-01

    Particle accelerators have been developed more than sixty years ago to investigate nuclear and atomic phenomena. A major shift toward applications of accelerators in the study of materials structure and composition in inter-disciplinary projects has been witnessed in the last two decades. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has developed advanced research programs based on the use of particle and photon beams. Atmospheric pollution problems are investigated at the 3 MV Van de Graff accelerator using ion beam analysis techniques to detect toxic elements in aerosol particles. High temperature superconductor and semiconductor materials are characterised using the recoil of iodine and other heavy ions produced at ANTARES, the 10-MV Tandem accelerator. A heavy-ion microprobe is presently being developed at ANTARES to map elemental concentrations of specific elements with micro-size resolution. An Accelerator mass Spectrometry (AMS) system has been developed at ANSTO for the ultra-sensitive detection of Carbon-14, Iodine-129 and other long-lived radioisotopes. This AMS spectrometer is a key instrument for climate change studies and international safeguards. ANSTO is also managing the Australian Synchrotron Research program based on facilities developed at the Photon Factory (Japan) and at the Advanced Photon Source (USA). Advanced projects in biology, materials chemistry, structural condensed matter and other disciplines are being promoted by a consortium involving Australian universities and research institutions. This paper will review recent advances in the use of particle accelerators, with a particular emphasis on applications developed at ANSTO and related to problems of international concern, such as global environmental change, public health and nuclear proliferation

  11. Efficient Healing Takes Some Nerve: Electrical Stimulation Enhances Innervation in Cutaneous Human Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Elaine

    2017-03-01

    Cutaneous nerves extend throughout the dermis and epidermis and control both the functional and reparative capacity of the skin. Denervation of the skin impairs cutaneous healing, presenting evidence that nerves provide cues essential for timely wound repair. Sebastian et al. demonstrate that electrical stimulation promotes reinnervation and neural differentiation in human acute wounds, thus accelerating wound repair. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery of colonic transit following extrinsic nerve damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Timothy J; Tong, Wei Dong; Kosinski, Lauren; Takahashi, Toku; Ludwig, Kirk A

    2011-06-01

    Injury to pelvic sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves from surgical and obstetrical trauma has long been cited as a cause for abnormal colorectal motility in humans. Using a rat model, acute transaction of these extrinsic nerves has been shown to effect colorectal motility. The aim of this study is to determine in a rat model how transection of these extrinsic nerves affects colonic transit over time. Eighty-two Sprague-Dawley rats underwent placement of a tunneled catheter into the proximal colon. Bilateral hypogastric, pelvic nerves (HGN and PN) or both were transected in 66 rats. The remaining 16 rats received a sham operation. Colonic transit was evaluated at postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 7 by injecting and calculating the geometric center (GC) of the distribution of (51)Cr after 3 h of propagation. At POD 1, transection of PNs significantly delayed colonic transit (GC = 4.9, p < 0.05), while transection of HGNs (GC = 8.5, p < 0.05) or transection of both nerves (GC = 7.8, p < 0.05) significantly accelerated colonic transit, when compared with sham operation (GC = 6.0). A significant trend toward recovery was noted in both the HGN and PN transection groups at POD 7. Damage to the extrinsic sympathetic and/or parasympathetic PNs affects colonic transit acutely. These changes in large bowel motor function normalize over time implicating a compensatory mechanism within the bowel itself.

  13. Tolerance of cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus to radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishler, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E. III; Kooy, H.M.; Lunsford, L.D.; Duma, C.; Flickinger, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is becoming a more accepted treatment option for benign, deep seated intracranial lesions. However, little is known about the effects of large single fractions of radiation on cranial nerves. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of radiosurgery on the cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus. The authors examined the tolerance of cranial nerves (II-VI) following radiosurgery for 62 patients (42/62 with meningiomas) treated for lesions within or near the cavernous sinus. Twenty-nine patients were treated with a modified 6 MV linear accelerator (Joint Center for Radiation Therapy) and 33 were treated with the Gamma Knife (University of Pittsburgh). Three-dimensional treatment plans were retrospectively reviewed and maximum doses were calculated for the cavernous sinus and the optic nerve and chiasm. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 3-49). New cranial neuropathies developed in 12 patients from 3-41 months following radiosurgery. Four of these complications involved injury to the optic system and 8 (3/8 transient) were the result of injury to the sensory or motor nerves of the cavernous sinus. There was no clear relationship between the maximum dose to the cavernous sinus and the development of complications for cranial nerves III-VI over the dose range used (1000-4000 cGy). For the optic apparatus, there was a significantly increased incidence of complications with dose. Four of 17 patients (24%) receiving greater than 800 cGy to any part of the optic apparatus developed visual complications compared with 0/35 who received less than 800 cGy (p = 0.009). Radiosurgery using tumor-controlling doses of up to 4000 cGy appears to be a relatively safe technique in treating lesions within or near the sensory and motor nerves (III-VI) of the cavernous sinus. The dose to the optic apparatus should be limited to under 800 cGy. 21 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography; Diagnostische Nervensonographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeumer, T. [Universitaet zu Luebeck CBBM, Haus 66, Institut fuer Neurogenetik, Luebeck (Germany); Grimm, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Schelle, T. [Staedtisches Klinikum Dessau, Neurologische Klinik, Dessau (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Diagnostik von Nervenlaesionen ist ein bildgebendes Verfahren zur Darstellung des peripheren Nervs und seiner ihn umgebenden Strukturen fuer eine aetiologische Einordnung erforderlich. Mit der klinisch-neurologischen Untersuchung und Elektrophysiologie ist eine funktionelle Aussage ueber die Nervenlaesion moeglich. In der Standard-MRT-Untersuchung wird der periphere Nerv nur unzureichend gut dargestellt. Die MRT-Neurographie ist ein sehr gutes, aber auch zeit- und ressourcenintensives Verfahren. Nutzung des Ultraschalls fuer die

  15. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

  16. Accelerator operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  17. CNSTN Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habbassi, Afifa; Trabelsi, Adel

    2010-01-01

    This project give a big idea about the measurement of the linear accelerator in the CNSTN. During this work we control dose distribution for different product. For this characterisation we have to make an installation qualification ,operational qualification,performance qualification and of course for every step we have to control temperature and the dose ,even the distribution of the last one.

  18. Accelerators course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA; Métral, E

    2006-01-01

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges

  19. Accelerator operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Operations of the SuperHILAC, the Bevatron/Bevalac, and the 184-inch Synchrocyclotron during the period from October 1977 to September 1978 are discussed. These include ion source development, accelerator facilities, the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System, and Bevelac biomedical operations

  20. Accelerator update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    When the Accelerator Conference, combined International High Energy and US Particle versions, held in Dallas in May, was initially scheduled, progress nearby for the US Superconducting Supercollider was high on the preliminary agenda. With the SSC voted down by Congress in October 1993, this was no longer the case. However the content of the meeting, in terms of both its deep implications for ambitious new projects and the breadth of its scope, showed that the worldwide particle accelerator field is far from being moribund. A traditional feature of such accelerator conferences is the multiplicity of parallel sessions. No one person can attend all sessions, so that delegates can follow completely different paths and emerge with totally different impressions. Despite this overload, and despite the SSC cancellation, the general picture is one of encouraging progress over a wide range of major new projects throughout the world. At the same time, spinoff from, and applications of, accelerators and accelerator technology are becoming increasingly important. Centrestage is now CERN's LHC proton-proton collider, where a test string of superconducting magnets is operating over long periods at the nominal LHC field of 8.36 tesla or more. The assignment of the underground areas in the existing 27- kilometre LEP tunnel is now quasidefinitive (see page 3). For CERN's existing big machine, the LEP electron-positron collider, ongoing work concentrates on boosting performance using improved optics and bunch trains. But the main objective is the LEP2 scheme using superconducting accelerating cavities to boost the beam energy (see page 6). After some initial teething problems, production and operation of these cavities appears to have been mastered, at least under test conditions. A highlight at CERN last year was the first run with lead ions (December 1994, page 15). Handling these heavy particles with systems originally designed for protons calls for ingenuity. The SPS

  1. Accelerator update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-15

    When the Accelerator Conference, combined International High Energy and US Particle versions, held in Dallas in May, was initially scheduled, progress nearby for the US Superconducting Supercollider was high on the preliminary agenda. With the SSC voted down by Congress in October 1993, this was no longer the case. However the content of the meeting, in terms of both its deep implications for ambitious new projects and the breadth of its scope, showed that the worldwide particle accelerator field is far from being moribund. A traditional feature of such accelerator conferences is the multiplicity of parallel sessions. No one person can attend all sessions, so that delegates can follow completely different paths and emerge with totally different impressions. Despite this overload, and despite the SSC cancellation, the general picture is one of encouraging progress over a wide range of major new projects throughout the world. At the same time, spinoff from, and applications of, accelerators and accelerator technology are becoming increasingly important. Centrestage is now CERN's LHC proton-proton collider, where a test string of superconducting magnets is operating over long periods at the nominal LHC field of 8.36 tesla or more. The assignment of the underground areas in the existing 27- kilometre LEP tunnel is now quasidefinitive (see page 3). For CERN's existing big machine, the LEP electron-positron collider, ongoing work concentrates on boosting performance using improved optics and bunch trains. But the main objective is the LEP2 scheme using superconducting accelerating cavities to boost the beam energy (see page 6). After some initial teething problems, production and operation of these cavities appears to have been mastered, at least under test conditions. A highlight at CERN last year was the first run with lead ions (December 1994, page 15). Handling these heavy particles with systems originally designed for protons calls for ingenuity. The SPS has managed

  2. The "hierarchical" Scratch Collapse Test for identifying multilevel ulnar nerve compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidge, Kristen M; Gontre, Gil; Tang, David; Boyd, Kirsty U; Yee, Andrew; Damiano, Marci S; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2015-09-01

    The Scratch Collapse Test (SCT) is used to assist in the clinical evaluation of patients with ulnar nerve compression. The purpose of this study is to introduce the hierarchical SCT as a physical examination tool for identifying multilevel nerve compression in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome. A prospective cohort study (2010-2011) was conducted of patients referred with primary cubital tunnel syndrome. Five ulnar nerve compression sites were evaluated with the SCT. Each site generating a positive SCT was sequentially "frozen out" with a topical anesthetic to allow determination of both primary and secondary ulnar nerve entrapment points. The order or "hierarchy" of compression sites was recorded. Twenty-five patients (mean age 49.6 ± 12.3 years; 64 % female) were eligible for inclusion. The primary entrapment point was identified as Osborne's band in 80 % and the cubital tunnel retinaculum in 20 % of patients. Secondary entrapment points were also identified in the following order in all patients: (1) volar antebrachial fascia, (2) Guyon's canal, and (3) arcade of Struthers. The SCT is useful in localizing the site of primary compression of the ulnar nerve in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome. It is also sensitive enough to detect secondary compression points when primary sites are sequentially frozen out with a topical anesthetic, termed the hierarchical SCT. The findings of the hierarchical SCT are in keeping with the double crush hypothesis described by Upton and McComas in 1973 and the hypothesis of multilevel nerve compression proposed by Mackinnon and Novak in 1994.

  3. ATF3 upregulation in glia during Wallerian degeneration: differential expression in peripheral nerves and CNS white matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coffin Robert S

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many changes in gene expression occur in distal stumps of injured nerves but the transcriptional control of these events is poorly understood. We have examined the expression of the transcription factors ATF3 and c-Jun by non-neuronal cells during Wallerian degeneration following injury to sciatic nerves, dorsal roots and optic nerves of rats and mice, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results Following sciatic nerve injury – transection or transection and reanastomosis – ATF3 was strongly upregulated by endoneurial, but not perineurial cells, of the distal stumps of the nerves by 1 day post operation (dpo and remained strongly expressed in the endoneurium at 30 dpo when axonal regeneration was prevented. Most ATF3+ cells were immunoreactive for the Schwann cell marker, S100. When the nerve was transected and reanastomosed, allowing regeneration of axons, most ATF3 expression had been downregulated by 30 dpo. ATF3 expression was weaker in the proximal stumps of the injured nerves than in the distal stumps and present in fewer cells at all times after injury. ATF3 was upregulated by endoneurial cells in the distal stumps of injured neonatal rat sciatic nerves, but more weakly than in adult animals. ATF3 expression in transected sciatic nerves of mice was similar to that in rats. Following dorsal root injury in adult rats, ATF3 was upregulated in the part of the root between the lesion and the spinal cord (containing Schwann cells, beginning at 1 dpo, but not in the dorsal root entry zone or in the degenerating dorsal column of the spinal cord. Following optic nerve crush in adult rats, ATF3 was found in some cells at the injury site and small numbers of cells within the optic nerve displayed weak immunoreactivity. The pattern of expression of c-Jun in all types of nerve injury was similar to that of ATF3. Conclusion These findings raise the possibility that ATF3/c-Jun heterodimers may play a role in

  4. The axial crushes behaviour on foam-filled round Jute/Polyester composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ismail, A. E.

    2018-04-01

    The present paper investigates the effect of axial loading compression on jute fibre reinforced polyester composite round tubes. The specimen of composite tube was fabricated by hand lay-up method of 120 mm length with fix 50.8 mm inner diameter to determine the behaviour of energy absorption on number of layers of 450 angle fibre and internally reinforced with and without foam filler material. The foam filler material used in this studies were polyurethane (PU) and polystyrene (PE) with average of 40 and 45 kg/m3 densities on the axial crushing load against displacement relations and on the failure modes. The number of layers of on this study were two; three and four were selected to calculate the crush force efficiency (CFE) and the specific energy absorption (SEA) of the composite tubes. Result indicated that the four layers’ jute/polyester show significant value in term of crushing load compared to 2 and 3 layers higher 60% for 2 layer and 3% compared to 3 layers. It has been found that the specific energy absorption of the jute/polyester tubes with polystyrene foam-filled is found higher respectively 10% to 12% than empty and polyurethane (PU) foam tubes. The increase in the number of layers from two to four increases the mean axial load from 1.01 KN to 3.60 KN for empty jute/polyester and from 2.11 KN to 4.26 KN for the polyurethane (PU) foam-filled jute/polyester tubes as well as for 3.60 KN to 5.58 KN for the polystyrene (PE) foam-filled jute/polyester. The author’s found that the failure of mechanism influence the characteristic of curve load against displacement obtained and conclude that an increasing number of layers and introduce filler material enhance the capability of specific absorbed energy.

  5. Sealing performance assessments of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Shoung.

    1990-01-01

    Bentonite and mixtures of bentonite and crushed rock are potential sealing materials for high level nuclear waste repositories. The materials have been used to form cap layers to reduce infiltration for mined waste tailings and can also be used to construct clay liners for municipal as well as industrial waste managements. American Colloid C/S granular dentonite and Apache Leap tuff have been mixed to prepare samples for laboratory flow testing. Bentonite weight percent and crushed tuff gradation are the major variables studied. The sealing performance assessments include high injection pressure flow tests, polyaxial flow tests, high temperature flow tests, and piping tests. The results indicate that an appropriate composition would have at least 25% bentonite by weight mixed with well-graded crushed rock. Hydraulic properties of the mixture plugs may be highly anisotropic if significant particle segregation occurs during sample installation and compaction. Temperature has no negative effects on the sealing performance within the test range from room temperature to 60C. The piping damage to the sealing performance is small if the maximum hydraulic gradient does not exceed 120 and 280 for 25 and 35% bentonite content, respectively. The hydraulic gradients above which flow of bentonite may take place are deemed critical. Analytical work includes the introduction of bentonite occupancy percentage and water content at saturation as two major parameters for the plug design. A permeability model developed is useful for the prediction of permeability in clays. A piping model permits the estimation of critical hydraulic gradient allowed before the flow of bentonite takes place. It can also be used to define the maximum allowable pore diameter of a protective filter layer

  6. Trends of Serum Electrolyte Changes in Crush syndrome patients of Bam Earthquake; a Cross sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electrolyte imbalances are very common among crushed earthquake victims but there is notenough data regarding their trend of changes. The present study was designed to evaluate the trend of changesin sodium, calcium, and phosphorus ions among crush syndrome patients. Methods: In this retrospectivecross-sectional study, using the database of Bam earthquake victims, which was developed by Iranian Society ofNephrology following Bam earthquake, Iran, 2003, the 10-day trend of sodium, calcium, and phosphorus ionschanges in > 15 years old crush syndrome patients was evaluated. Results: 118 patients with the mean age of25.6 § 6.9 yearswere studied (57.3 male. On the first day of admission, 52.5% (95% CI: 42.7 - 62.3 of the patientshad hyponatremia, which reached 43.9% (95% CI: 28.5 - 59.3 on day 10. 100.0% of patients were hypocalcemicon admission and serum calcium level did not change dramatically during the 10 days of hospitalization. Theprevalence of hyperphosphatemia on the first day was 90.5% (95% CI: 81.5 - 99.5 and on the 10th day of hospitalization66.7% (95% CI: 48.5 - 84.8 of the patients were still affected. Conclusion: The results of the presentstudy shows the 52.5%prevalence of hyponatremia, 100% hypocalcemia, and 90.5% hyperphosphatemia amongcrush syndrome patients of Bam earthquake victims on the first day of admission. Evaluation of 10-day trendshows a slow decreasing pattern of these imbalances as after 10 days, 43.9% still remain hyponatremic, 92.3%hypocalcemic, and 66.7% hypophosphatemic.

  7. COMPARISON OF HEMATOXYLIN AND EOSIN STAINING WITH AND WITHOUT PRE TREATMENT WITH MARCHI’S SOLUTION ON NERVE SAMPLES FOR NERVE DEGENERATION AND REGENERATION STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abu Rafee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on four healthy guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus of either sex in which the nerve was identified and subjected to crush injury with the tip (3mm of a curved hemostatic forceps. 30 days after the injury nerve samples were collected and subjected to Hematoxylin and Eosin staining with or without pretreatment with Marchi’s solution. The routine Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E stained all neural elements in various intensities of pink and in purple and the degenerative changes were seen as vacuoles ranging from vacuolated foci- containing eosinophilic material and associated with a distorted cell nucleus to larger, multilocular, linear array of compartmentalized digestion chambers supposed to contain myelin debris .The myelin on the other hand appeared as empty zones in H&E staining. Combining Marchi’s and H & E procedures revealed the presence black aggregates/ deposits in the vacuoles and digestion chambers. This method confirmed the presence of degenerated myelin inside the vacuoles and digestion chambers and thus may allow better analysis of nerve damage and regeneration.

  8. Comments on US approach to backfilling: Thermochemical characterization of crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.; Hume, H.

    1988-01-01

    From recent studies and calculations, it has become apparent that expected brine in a United States salt repository would not seriously detract from the usefulness of rock salt as backfill. It also has been shown that adding clay to the salt might add to the pressure on the emplaced waste packages. Nevertheless, the Salt Repository Project has planned to evaluate a betonite/salt mixture during the next few years. The following items have also been discussed: advantages of backfilling, variables affecting crushed salt behavior, and the general approach to a preliminary testing program

  9. Study on the Elasticity-Plasticity-Stickiness of the Railway Crushed Stone Ballast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Liang

    2004-01-01

    This paper is mainly aimed at the mechanics characteristic elas of ticity-plasticitystickiness existed in the CWR (continuously welded rails) track plane of the railway crushed stone ballast. As an important mechanics parameter of the CWR track plane, the ballast resistance is mainly influenced by this mechanics characteristic. Through the systematic experimental research and the theoretical analysis, this mechanics characteristic of the ballast resistance is revealed and a reasonable theoretical model is built for it. This study set a sound foundation for further studying the CWR track deformation property. It will be beneficial to the development of high-speed railway in China.

  10. [Fatal incidents by crowd crush during mass events. (Un)preventable phenomenon?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U; Fälker, A; Wenzel, V

    2013-01-01

    Crowd crushes with dozens or even hundreds of casualties have occurred several times at the Hajj in Saudi Arabia and also in soccer stadiums in Western Europe. As fatal accidents after human stampedes during mass events occur very rarely and are usually accompanied by many years of criminal court proceedings in order to identify underlying responsible mechanisms and culprits, it is very difficult to draw conclusions and formulate precautions from an emergency medical point of view. This study analyzed a fatal crowd crush which occurred on 4 December 1999 following the "Air & Style" snowboard contest with approximately 22,000 people attending in the Bergisel stadium in Innsbruck, Austria. Firstly, focused interviews were conducted with professional rescuers, police and physicians and secondly publicly available court records dealing with this incident in the district court of Innsbruck, Austria were analyzed. During the snowboard contest 87 emergency medical technicians, 6 emergency physicians, 1 leading emergency physician, 21 policemen and 140 security personnel were present. Following the accident additionally some 100 emergency medical technicians, 36 emergency medical service vehicles and 4 physician-staffed emergency medical service vehicles responded to the scene. The deadly crowd crush resulting in 6 fatalities, 4 patients still in a vegetative state and 38 injured, was due to a severe crowd accumulation at one stadium exit, which was not recognized and dispersed in time. Construction of the exit in line with darkness, steep slope and slippery surface contributed adversely to this dangerous situation, although panic did not occur at any time. Unfortunately, there is no patent remedy to completely prevent fatal accidents by a crowd crush at mass events. If planning is initiated early, sufficient material and personnel reserves are kept in reserve and despite conflicting interests of the organizers, the host community, security, police and emergency medical

  11. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    and developing the best business ideas and support the due diligence process. Even universities are noticing that the learning experience of the action learning approach is an effective way to develop capabilities and change cultures. Accelerators related to what has historically been associated...

  12. Sensory nerve function and auto-mutilation after reconstruction of various gap lengths with nerve guides and autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dunnen, WFA; Meek, MF

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sensory nerve recovery and auto-mutilation after reconstruction of various lengths of nerve gaps in the sciatic nerve of the rat, using different techniques. Group 4, in which the longest nerve gap (15 mm) was reconstructed with a thin-walled

  13. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  14. Laser acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental idea of LaserWakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wake fields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ∼ c and ultra fastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nano materials is also emerging.

  15. Accelerating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David M D; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Johnson, Neil F

    2007-01-01

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  16. Microsurgical reconstruction of large nerve defects using autologous nerve grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoutis, N K; Gerostathopoulos, N E; Efstathopoulos, D G; Misitizis, D P; Bouchlis, G N; Anagnostou, S K

    1994-01-01

    Between 1986 and 1993, 643 patients with peripheral nerve trauma were treated in our clinic. Primary neurorraphy was performed in 431 of these patients and nerve grafting in 212 patients. We present the functional results after nerve grafting in 93 patients with large nerve defects who were followed for more than 2 years. Evaluation of function was based on the Medical Research Council (MRC) classification for motor and sensory recovery. Factors affecting functional outcome, such as age of the patient, denervation time, length of the defect, and level of the injury were noted. Good results according to the MRC classification were obtained in the majority of cases, although function remained less than that of the uninjured side.

  17. Electrophysiology of Extraocular Cranial Nerves: Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Praveen; Balzer, Jeffery R; Anetakis, Katherine; Crammond, Donald J; Thirumala, Parthasarathy D

    2018-01-01

    The utility of extraocular cranial nerve electrophysiologic recordings lies primarily in the operating room during skull base surgeries. Surgical manipulation during skull base surgeries poses a risk of injury to multiple cranial nerves, including those innervating extraocular muscles. Because tumors distort normal anatomic relationships, it becomes particularly challenging to identify cranial nerve structures. Studies have reported the benefits of using intraoperative spontaneous electromyographic recordings and compound muscle action potentials evoked by electrical stimulation in preventing postoperative neurologic deficits. Apart from surgical applications, electromyography of extraocular muscles has also been used to guide botulinum toxin injections in patients with strabismus and as an adjuvant diagnostic test in myasthenia gravis. In this article, we briefly review the rationale, current available techniques to monitor extraocular cranial nerves, technical difficulties, clinical and surgical applications, as well as future directions for research.

  18. Intrapontine malignant nerve sheath tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozić, Dusko; Nagulić, Mirjana; Samardzić, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    . On pathological examination, the neoplasm appeared to be an intrapontine nerve sheath tumor originating most likely from the intrapontine segment of one of the cranial nerve fibres. The tumor showed exophytic growth, with consequent spread to adjacent subaracnoid space. MR spectroscopy revealed the presence......The primary source of malignant intracerebral nerve sheath tumors is still unclear We report the imaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a 39-year-old man with a very rare brain stem tumor MR examination revealed the presence of intraaxial brain stem tumor with a partial exophytic growth...

  19. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, A [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be taken and where it is then processed in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. The project started in the end of year 1995. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis of existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and results analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions. In the year 1996 the main stage was development of system components; especially crushing. Results of running slow-speed big crushers were collected, analysed and the main development details determined. Additionally, particle size distribution from different crushing methods were analyzed using also primary and secondary crushing. Development of a heavy-duty 2-rotor ECO-Crusher and a crushing screen was started. Regarding to the development of the REF-system, different alternatives have been analyzed and possible demonstration places have been searched. The first multi-crushing line will be demonstrated in Sweden. (orig.)

  20. Sustained Local Release of NGF from a Chitosan-Sericin Composite Scaffold for Treating Chronic Nerve Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Wen; Tao, Kaixiong; Song, Yu; Xie, Hongjian; Wang, Jian; Li, Xiaolin; Shuai, Xiaoming; Gao, Jinbo; Chang, Panpan; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin

    2017-02-01

    Chronic nerve compression (CNC), a common form of peripheral nerve injury, always leads to chronic peripheral nerve pain and dysfunction. Current available treatments for CNC are ineffective as they usually aim to alleviate symptoms at the acute phase with limited capability toward restoring injured nerve function. New approaches for effective recovery of CNC injury are highly desired. Here we report for the first time a tissue-engineered approach for the repair of CNC. A genipin cross-linked chitosan-sericin 3D scaffold for delivering nerve growth factor (NGF) was designed and fabricated. This scaffold combines the advantages of both chitosan and sericin, such as high porosity, adjustable mechanical properties and swelling ratios, the ability of supporting Schwann cells growth, and improving nerve regeneration. The degradation products of the composite scaffold upregulate the mRNA levels of the genes important for facilitating nerve function recovery, including glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), early growth response 2 (EGR2), and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in Schwann cells, while down-regulating two inflammatory genes' mRNA levels in macrophages, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Importantly, our tissue-engineered strategy achieves significant nerve functional recovery in a preclinical CNC animal model by decreasing neuralgia, improving nerve conduction velocity (NCV), accelerating microstructure restoration, and attenuating gastrocnemius muscles dystrophy. Together, this work suggests a promising clinical alternative for treating chronic peripheral nerve compression injury.

  1. The effect of cargo on the crush loading of RAM transportation packages in ship collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radloff, H.D.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1998-03-01

    Recent intercontinental radioactive material shipping campaigns have focused public and regulatory attention on the safety of transport of this material by ocean-going vessels. One major concern is the response of the vessel and onboard radioactive material (RAM) packages during a severe ship-to-ship collision. These collisions occur at velocities less than the velocity obtained in the Type B package regulatory impact event and the bow of the striking ship is less rigid than the unyielding target used in those tests (Ammerman and Daidola, 1996). This implies that ship impact is not a credible scenario for damaging the radioactive material packages during ship collisions. It is possible, however, for these collisions to generate significant amounts of crush force by the bow of the impacting ship overrunning the package. It is the aim of this paper to determine an upper bound on the magnitude of this crush force taking into account the strength of the radioactive material carrying vessel and any other cargo that may be stowed in the same hold as the radioactive material

  2. Dissolution of Intact, Divided and Crushed Circadin Tablets: Prolonged vs. Immediate Release of Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ming Chua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadin 2 mg prolonged-release tablet is the only licensed melatonin product available in the UK. Circadin is indicated for patients with primary insomnia aged 55 and over, but is more widely used “off-label” to treat sleep disorders especially in the paediatric population. Children and older people often have difficulty swallowing tablets and dividing the tablet is sometimes required to ease administration. The aim of this study was to measure the release profile of melatonin from Circadin tablets when divided or crushed, and compare this with release from intact tablets. Dissolution testing was also performed for unlicensed melatonin products for comparison. Dissolution tests were performed using the pharmacopoeial paddle apparatus, with melatonin release analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Melatonin content, hardness, friability, and disintegration of the products were also evaluated. The prolonged release of melatonin from Circadin tablets was unlike that of any other product tested. When divided into halves, Circadin preserved most of the prolonged-release characteristic (f2 = 58, whereas quarter-cut and crushed tablet had a more immediate melatonin release profile. Circadin is significantly less expensive and should be preferred to unlicensed medicines which are not pharmaceutically equivalent and offer less quality assurance.

  3. Impact of crushed mineral aggregate on the pumpability of concrete during transport and placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topličić-Ćurčić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the spirit of the sustainable buildings, and with the goal of protection of river courses, in the near future an already announced directive ordering closing down of a large number of river aggregate dredging operations will be adopted. For that reason, usage of crushed mineral aggregate in concrete mixes is increasing. Irrespective of downsides of the fined crushed mineral aggregate, such as the presence of fine particles bordering the upper permissible limit and the unfavorable shape of the grain of the course aggregate for obtaining liquid consistency required for the pumpable concrete, the demanded pumpability of concrete during transport and placement has been achieved. By adding admixtures to concrete, the required concrete properties, such as: frost resistance, simultaneous frost and salt resistance and water tightness have been achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36017: Utilization of by - products and recycled waste materials in concrete composites in the scope of sustainable construction development in Serbia: investigation and environmental assessment of possible applications

  4. Sorption and desorption reactions of radionuclides with a crushed basalt-bentonite packing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Lane, D.L.; Allen, C.C.; Jones, T.E.

    1985-04-01

    Current design of waste packages for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in underground basalt formations includes a layer of packing material that surrounds the waste container. One of the functions of this material is to limit the release of radionuclides from a breached container into groundwater by providing a low hydraulic conductivity zone and by sorbing dissolved radionuclides. The objective of this study was to assess the radionuclide sorption capability of a proposed packing material composed of 25% sodium bentonite and 75% crushed basalt (by weight). Sorption and desorption reactions of several important waste radioelements (neptunium, uranium, plutonium, technetium, selenium, and radium) were investigated in the absence of air at 90 0 C. Uranium and neptunium were sorbed by slow reactions that follow first-order kinetics. The reaction rates are probably controlled by reduction of weakly sorbed uranium(VI) and neptunium(V) by ferrous iron in the crushed basalt component. Technetium(VII) was not reduced or sorbed under these conditions. Freundlich sorption and desorption isotherms for a given radionuclide were non-singular and show a strong tendency for sorption hysteresis. Applying the isotherm data to a one-dimensional transport model indicated that hysteretic sorption on the packing material provides an important safety factor in controlling releases of some radionuclides

  5. The production of pig iron from crushing plant waste using hot blast cupola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusno Isnugroho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A production of pig iron has been conducted from crushing plant waste. The process of preparing pig iron was using hot blast cupola (HBC furnace which was injected with charcoal powder to improve temperature process and reduction zone in the furnace. The process was started by washing process and magnetic separation of raw material as an effort to improve iron content degree from crushing plant waste. The next process was preparing the composite pellet with the particle size of −80 + 100 mesh and with the composition of 80% iron ore, 15% wood charcoal, and 5% bentonite. The result of pellet size was 2.5–4.0 mm. The experiment was continued to reduce pellet composite in the HBC furnace. The pig iron produced from this process contained of 93.62%Fe, 3.5%C, 1.55%Si, 0.87%Mn, 0.05%P, and 0.087%S.With this result, the pig iron produced already fulfill the metallurgical specification to be used in smelting industry. Keywords: Pig iron, Pellet, Injection, Charcoal, Hot blast cupola

  6. Fugitive emissions control on dry copper tailing with crushed rock armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    Four inactive copper tailing impoundments totalling 1,900 acres near Ajo in southwestern Arizona were covered on horizontal surfaces with a 2 in. nominal thickness of crushed rock to control particulate emissions. The tailings are typically dominated by sand-sized particles but may also include significant PM 10 fractions towards the centers of the impoundments. The technology was selected by Phelps Dodge Corporation, after investigation of several alternatives, as a permanent and practical cover that essentially eliminates fugitive emissions. It simulates the natural desert pavement that characterizes this arid area of the Sonoran Desert. Rocky overburden was crushed to minus 3 in. diameter and broadcast on dry surfaces of tailing impoundments with all-terrain, balloon-tired spreaders. Stony residues in the rock armor tend to cement together following rainfall, forming a crust that enhances surface stability and erosion control. Slopes with windblown tailing deposition were covered to a nominal 6 in. thickness by conventional dozer pushing and blading of minus 10 in. rock over the sides. Athel trees, planted extensively since 1970 on two of the four inactive impoundments, provided partial control of fugitives, but were subjected to harsh environmental conditions, including abrasion from saltating particles. The rock armor functions as a mulch which is expected to improve water relations for existing vegetation and areas seeded with native species. New surface microenvironments, and the virtual elimination of surface creep and saltation, are expected to support native plant growth under favorable climatic conditions

  7. A big step change : new mobile slurry preparation and crushing technology on the horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2007-09-15

    The efficiency and productivity of the trucks used in oil sands mining operations can be compromised by unstable terrain, and they consume large amount of fuel. Hydro-transport systems with slurry preparation facilities may soon eliminate the expenses associated with truck and shovel processes. The slurry preparation facilities use on-board reject handling systems to remove large pieces of ore that can't be used in crushers. However, they are hard to move. Researchers are now focusing on the development of a semi-mobile slurry preparation facility that uses mobile crushing and sizing equipment. The equipment uses large tractor tracks instead of wheels and tires, and can accomplish the same amount of work as 6 trucks. Using the system, mine scoop shovels dump ore into a hopper on the mobile unit. The ore is then conveyed to the mobile unit's onboard primary crusher or sizer. Staged crushing is combined with water addition and mixing at the mine site to prepare an oil and slurry ready for hydro-transport. It was concluded that the system may significantly reduce the use of shovel and truck operations in the oil sands industry. 2 figs.

  8. Influence of variables on the consolidation and unconfined compressive strength of crushed salt: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Senseny, P.E.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    Eight hydrostatic compression creep tests were performed on crushed salt specimens fabricated from Avery Island dome salt. Following the creep test, each specimen was tested in unconfined compression. The experiments were performed to assess the influence of the following four variables on the consolidation and unconfined strength of crushed salt: grain size distribution, temperature, time, and moisture content. The experiment design comprised a half-fraction factorial matrix at two levels. The levels of each variable investigated were grain size distribution, uniform-graded and well-graded (coefficient of uniformity of 1 and 8); temperature 25 0 C and 100 0 C; time, 3.5 x 10 3 s and 950 x 10 3 s (approximately 60 minutes and 11 days, respectively); and moisture content, dry and wet (85% relative humidity for 24 hours). The hydrostatic creep stress was 10 MPa. The unconfined compression tests were performed at an axial strain rate of 1 x 10 -5 s -1 . Results show that the variables time and moisture content have the greatest influence on creep consolidation, while grain size distribution and, to a somewhat lesser degree, temperature have the greatest influence on total consolidation. Time and moisture content and the confounded two-factor interactions between either grain size distribution and time or temperature and moisture content have the greatest influence on unconfined strength. 7 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

  9. Crush performance of redwood for developing design procedures for impact limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C.; McMurtry, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most simplistic information exists on its crush properties. Tbe stress-strain interrelationship for any wood species subject to three-dimensional stresses is largely unknown for any all stress condition and wood behavior at both high strains and high strain-rates is known only in general terms. Both stress-strain and crush failure theories have been developed based only on uniaxial load tests. The anisotropy of wood adds an additional complexity to measuring wood response and developing suitable theories to describe it. A long history of wood utilization in the building industry has led to design procedures and property information related to simple uniaxial loadings that do not inflict damage to the wood. This lack of knowledge may be surprising for a material that has a long history of engineered use, but the result is difficulty in utilizing wood in more sophisticated designs such as impact limiters. This study provides a step toward filling the information gap on wood material response for high performance applications such as impact limiters

  10. Numerical Investigation on Dynamic Crushing Behavior of Auxetic Honeycombs with Various Cell-Wall Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-chun Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxetic honeycombs have proven to be an attractive advantage in actual engineering applications owing to their unique mechanical characteristic and better energy absorption ability. The in-plane dynamic crushing behaviors of the honeycombs with various cell-wall angles are studied by means of explicit dynamic finite element simulation. The influences of the cell-wall angle, the impact velocity, and the edge thickness on the macro/microdeformation behaviors, the plateau stresses, and the specific energy absorption of auxetic honeycombs are discussed in detail. Numerical results show, that except for the impact velocity and the edge thickness, the in-plane dynamic performances of auxetic honeycombs also rely on the cell-wall angle. The “> <”-mode local deformation bands form under low- or moderate-velocity impacting, which results in lateral compression shrinkage and shows negative Poisson's ratio during the crushing. For the given impact velocity, the plateau stress at the proximal end and the energy-absorbed ability can be improved by increasing the negative cell angle, the relative density, the impact velocity, and the matrix material strength. When the microcell parameters are the constant, the plateau stresses are proportional to the square of impact velocity.

  11. Volume reduction and plutonium recovery in alpha wastes by cryogenic crushing and lixiviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, T.; Pajot, J.

    1986-06-01

    The industry of plutonium generates solid alpha wastes of medium activity called ''technological wastes''. They are mainly produced during the fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels and they are of a wide variety i.e: vinyl bags, gloves, glass, steel materials used in glove box operation, etc... These wastes contain relevant residual quantities of uranium and plutonium in the form of oxides or nitrates, reaching up to several dozen grams per cubic meter. Up to the beginning of the eighties, they were conditionned without any treatment and stored as such on the production site. However, for an economic and safe storage, recovering of the plutonium contained in these waste streams and reduction of their volume is of obvious importance. At the plutonium ''Complexe de Fabrication des Combustibles de Cadarache'' was developed a new technical solution of this problem that combines cryogenic crushing of the solid waste and plutonium recovery from the crushed material by chemical lixiviation. The first results obtained in applying this system on the industrial scale are reported briefly

  12. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations

  13. POROSITY OF THE WALL OF A NEUROLAC (R) NERVE CONDUIT HAMPERS NERVE REGENERATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, Marcel F.; Den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2009-01-01

    One way to improve nerve regeneration and bridge longer nerve gaps may be the use of semipermeable/porous conduits. With porosity less biomaterial is used for the nerve conduit. We evaluated the short-term effects of porous Neurolac (R) nerve conduits for in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration. In 10

  14. Poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guides perform better than autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DenDunnen, WFA; VanderLei, B; Schakenraad, JM; Stokroos, [No Value; Blaauw, E; Pennings, AJ; Robinson, PH; Bartels, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the speed and quality of nerve regeneration after reconstruction using a biodegradable nerve guide or an autologous nerve graft. We evaluated nerve regeneration using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. Nerve regeneration

  15. Scaffoldless tissue-engineered nerve conduit promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery after tibial nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aaron M. Adams; Keith W. VanDusen; Tatiana Y. Kostrominova; Jacob P. Mertens; Lisa M. Larkin

    2017-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerve tissue may cause loss of function in both the nerve and the targeted muscles it innervates. This study compared the repair capability of engineered nerve conduit (ENC), engineered fibroblast conduit (EFC), and autograft in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap. ENCs were fabricated utilizing primary fibroblasts and the nerve cells of rats on embryonic day 15 (E15). EFCs were fabricated utilizing primary fi-broblasts only. Following a 12-week recovery, nerve repair was assessed by measuring contractile properties in the medial gastrocnemius muscle, distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, and histology of muscle and nerve. The autografts, ENCs and EFCs reestablished 96%, 87% and 84% of native distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, 100%, 44% and 44% of native specific force of medical gastrocnemius, and 63%, 61% and 67% of native medial gastrocnemius mass, re-spectively. Histology of the repaired nerve revealed large axons in the autograft, larger but fewer axons in the ENC repair, and many smaller axons in the EFC repair. Muscle histology revealed similar muscle fiber cross-sectional areas among autograft, ENC and EFC repairs. In conclusion, both ENCs and EFCs promot-ed nerve regeneration in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap repair, suggesting that the E15 rat nerve cells may not be necessary for nerve regeneration, and EFC alone can suffice for peripheral nerve injury repair.

  16. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  17. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process

  18. Bilateral absence of musculocutaneous nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathada V Ravishankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus is an important group of spinal nerve plexus that supplies the muscles of the upper limb via the ventral rami of the Cervical 5 - Thoracic 1 fibers of the spinal nerves. It is not uncommon to notice the variations during cadaveric dissections in many regions of the body, at different levels, such as, roots, trunks, division, cords, communications, and branches as reported in the literature. Although the nerve supply of the body musculature takes place in the fetal life itself, its course, branching pattern, innervations, and communication can show variable patterns as the fetal development progresses. One such anomaly was noticed during our routine cadaveric dissection in the Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum, showing bilateral absence of the musculocutaneous nerve, which obviously drew the attention of the students of medicine, physiotherapy, and learning clinicians as well.

  19. Imaging of the facial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veillon, F. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francis.Veillon@chru-strasbourg.fr; Ramos-Taboada, L.; Abu-Eid, M. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Charpiot, A. [Service d' ORL, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Riehm, S. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2010-05-15

    The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

  20. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    These antimicrobial peptides are implicated in the resistance of epithelial surfaces to microbial colonisation and have been shown to be upregulated...be equivalent to standard autograft repair in rodent models. Outcomes have now been validated in a large animal (swine) model with 5 cm ulnar nerve...Goals of the Project Task 1– Determine mechanical properties, seal strength and resistance to biodegradation of candidate photochemical nerve wrap

  1. Outcome of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Aboshanif; Omi, Eigo; Honda, Kohei; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Ishikawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: There is no technique of facial nerve reconstruction that guarantees facial function recovery up to grade III. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques. Methods: Facial nerve reconstruction was performed in 22 patients (facial nerve interpositional graft in 11 patients and hypoglossal-facial nerve transfer in another 11 patients). All patients had facial function House-Brackmann (HB) grade VI, either caused by...

  2. Neurophysiological approach to disorders of peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Clarissa; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of the peripheral nerve system (PNS) are heterogeneous and may involve motor fibers, sensory fibers, small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers and autonomic nerve fibers, with variable anatomical distribution (single nerves, several different nerves, symmetrical affection of all nerves......, plexus, or root lesions). Furthermore pathological processes may result in either demyelination, axonal degeneration or both. In order to reach an exact diagnosis of any neuropathy electrophysiological studies are crucial to obtain information about these variables. Conventional electrophysiological...

  3. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    in Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve...... juxtapapillary tumors invading the optic nerve because of simple proximity to the nerve. A neurotropic subtype invades the optic nerve and retina in a diffuse fashion unrelated to tumor size or location. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan...

  4. Ring accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, G.; Faehl, R.

    1983-01-01

    We present two-dimensional simulations in (r-z) and r-theta) cylinderical geometries of imploding-liner-driven accelerators of rings of charged particles. We address issues of azimuthal and longitudinal stability of the rings. We discuss self-trapping designs in which beam injection and extraction is aided by means of external cusp fields. Our simulations are done with the 2-1/2-D particle-in-cell plasma simulation code CLINER, which combines collisionless, electromagnetic PIC capabilities with a quasi-MHD finite element package

  5. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  6. A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Maldonado, Andrés A; Stoves, Yolanda; Fries, Fabian N; Li, Rong; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Spinner, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insufficient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identified medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fibers within the SCM was documented. The cervical nerve connections were cut. Lengths of the accessory nerve were measured. Samples of the cut C-2 and C-3 nerves were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The anatomy and adjacent neural connections within the SCM are complicated. However, after the accessory nerve was "detethered" from within the SCM and following transection, the additional length of the accessory nerve increased from a mean of 6 cm to a mean of 10.5 cm (increase of 4.5 cm) after cutting the C-2 connections, and from a mean of 6 cm to a mean length of 9 cm (increase of 3.5 cm) after cutting the C-3 connections. The additional length of accessory nerve even allowed direct repair of an infraclavicular target (i.e., the proximal musculocutaneous nerve). The cervical nerve connections were shown not to contain motor fibers. CONCLUSIONS An additional length of the accessory nerve made available in the posterior cervical triangle can facilitate direct repair or neurotization procedures, thus eliminating the need for an interpositional nerve graft, decreasing the time/distance for regeneration and potentially improving clinical outcomes.

  7. Geo-Engineering Evaluation of Rock Masses for Crushed Rock and Cut Stones in Khartoum State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirelseed, E. E.; Ming, T. H.; Abdalla, S. B.

    The purpose of this study is to find artificial coarse aggregates and cut stones around Khartoum. To meat the objectives of the study, data from both field and laboratory are collected. The field data includes geological investigations based on different methods and samples collection, whereas the laboratory tests consists of specific gravity, water absorption, impact value, crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion, soundness tests. The field and laboratory results were weighed and compiled together to reveal the engineering performance of the different rock masses in term of cut stone and crushed aggregates. The results show that most of the examined rock masses are suitable for crushing, building and dressed stones. For decorative slabs only foliated granite and syenite masses can be used.

  8. Rapid detection of toxic metals in non-crushed oyster shells by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou Ju, E-mail: Ju.Chou@selu.ed [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402 (United States); Clement, Garret; Bursavich, Bradley; Elbers, Don [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402 (United States); Cao Baobao; Zhou Weilie [Advanced Material Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The aim of this study was the multi-elemental detection of toxic metals such as lead (Pb) in non-crushed oyster shells by using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. A rapid, simultaneous multi-element analytical methodology for non-crushed oyster shells has been developed using a portable XRF which provides a quick, quantitative, non-destructive, and cost-effective mean for assessment of oyster shell contamination from Pb. Pb contamination in oyster shells was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results indicated that Pb is distributed in-homogeneously in contaminated shells. Oyster shells have a lamellar structure that could contribute to the high accumulation of Pb on oyster shells. - A rapid, simultaneous multi-element analytical methodology for non-crushed oyster shells has been developed using XRF and contamination of lead on oyster shells was confirmed by XRF and SEM-EDS.

  9. Rapid detection of toxic metals in non-crushed oyster shells by portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou Ju; Clement, Garret; Bursavich, Bradley; Elbers, Don; Cao Baobao; Zhou Weilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was the multi-elemental detection of toxic metals such as lead (Pb) in non-crushed oyster shells by using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer. A rapid, simultaneous multi-element analytical methodology for non-crushed oyster shells has been developed using a portable XRF which provides a quick, quantitative, non-destructive, and cost-effective mean for assessment of oyster shell contamination from Pb. Pb contamination in oyster shells was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results indicated that Pb is distributed in-homogeneously in contaminated shells. Oyster shells have a lamellar structure that could contribute to the high accumulation of Pb on oyster shells. - A rapid, simultaneous multi-element analytical methodology for non-crushed oyster shells has been developed using XRF and contamination of lead on oyster shells was confirmed by XRF and SEM-EDS.

  10. Unilateral traumatic oculomotor nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, Syoji; Satoh, Toru; Yamamoto, Yuji

    1982-01-01

    The present authors report a case of unilateral traumatic oculomotor nerve paralysis which shows interesting CT findings which suggest its mechanism. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a cerebral concussion soon after a traffic accident. A CT scan was performed soon after admission. A high-density spot was noted at the medial aspect of the left cerebral peduncle, where the oculomotor nerve emerged from the midbrain, and an irregular, slender, high-density area was delineated in the right dorsolateral surface of the midbrain. Although the right hemiparesis had already improved by the next morning, the function of the left oculomotor nerve has been completely disturbed for the three months since the injury. In our case, it is speculated that an avulsion of the left oculomotor nerve rootlet occurred at the time of impact as the mechanism of the oculomotor nerve paralysis. A CT taken soon after the head injury showed a high-density spot; this was considered to be a hemorrhage occurring because of the avulsion of the nerve rootlet at the medial surface of the cerebral peduncle. (J.P.N.)

  11. The First Experience of Triple Nerve Transfer in Proximal Radial Nerve Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Andalib, Sasan

    2018-01-01

    Injury to distal portion of posterior cord of brachial plexus leads to palsy of radial and axillary nerves. Symptoms are usually motor deficits of the deltoid muscle; triceps brachii muscle; and extensor muscles of the wrist, thumb, and fingers. Tendon transfers, nerve grafts, and nerve transfers are options for surgical treatment of proximal radial nerve palsy to restore some motor functions. Tendon transfer is painful, requires a long immobilization, and decreases donor muscle strength; nevertheless, nerve transfer produces promising outcomes. We present a patient with proximal radial nerve palsy following a blunt injury undergoing triple nerve transfer. The patient was involved in a motorcycle accident with complete palsy of the radial and axillary nerves. After 6 months, on admission, he showed spontaneous recovery of axillary nerve palsy, but radial nerve palsy remained. We performed triple nerve transfer, fascicle of ulnar nerve to long head of the triceps branch of radial nerve, flexor digitorum superficialis branch of median nerve to extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of radial nerve, and flexor carpi radialis branch of median nerve to posterior interosseous nerve, for restoration of elbow, wrist, and finger extensions, respectively. Our experience confirmed functional elbow, wrist, and finger extensions in the patient. Triple nerve transfer restores functions of the upper limb in patients with debilitating radial nerve palsy after blunt injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cosmic ray acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1982-09-01

    We present a brief summary of some of the most popular theories of cosmic ray acceleration: Fermi acceleration, its application to acceleration by shocks in a scattering medium, and impulsive acceleration by relativistic shocks

  13. Sensory outcome of fingertip replantations without nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Ismail Bulent; Tuncer, Serdar; Purisa, Husrev; Sezer, Ilker; Mersa, Berkan; Kabakas, Fatih; Celikdelen, Pinar

    2008-01-01

    The sensory recovery outcomes of fingertip replantations without nerve repair were retrospectively studied. Between 2000 and 2006, 112 fingertip replantations with only arterial repair were carried out in 98 patients. About 76 of the replants survived totally, with a success rate of 67.8%. Evaluation of sensory recovery was possible in 31 patients (38 replantations). Sensory evaluation was made with Semmes-Weinstein, static and dynamic two-point discrimination, and vibration sense tests. Fingertip atrophy, nail deformities, and return to work were also evaluated. According to the Semmes-Weinstein test, 29.0% (11/38) of the fingers had normal sense, 60.5% (23/38) had diminished light touch, 7.9% (3/38) had diminished protective sensation, and 2.6% (1/38) had loss of protective sensation. Mean static and dynamic two-point discriminations were 7.2 mm (3-11 mm), and 4.60 mm (3-6 mm), respectively. Vibratory testing revealed increased vibration in 42.1% of the fingers, decreased vibration in 36.8%, and equal vibration when compared with the non-injured fingers in 21.1%. Atrophy was present in 14 (36.8%) fingers and negatively affected the results. Nail deformities, cold intolerance, return to work, and the effect of sensory education were investigated. Comparison of crush and clean cut injuries did not yield any significant difference in any of the parameters. Patients who received sensory education had significantly better results in sensory testing. The results were classified as excellent, good, and poor based on results of two-point discrimination tests. The outcome was excellent in 18 fingers and good in 20 fingers. Overall, satisfactory sensory recovery was achieved in fingertip replantations without nerve repair. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Influence of technical parameters of disk-shaped reactor on productivity of heat treatment of crushed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safin, R. R.; Khasanshin, R. R.; Mukhametzyanov, S. R.

    2018-03-01

    The existing installations for heat treatment of the crushed wood are analyzed. The technology of heat treatment of the crushed wood in the devices of disk-shaped type is offered. The results of modeling for the purpose of determination of interrelation of the key design and technological parameters of the disk-shaped device are presented. It is established that the major factors, affecting duration of stay of the material in a device, are the speed of rotation of the mixer, the number of mixers and the number of rakes on the mixer.

  15. The Role of Nerve Exploration in Supracondylar Humerus Fracture in Children with Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar RIM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The supracondylar humerus fracture (SCHF in children is common and can be complicated with nerve injury either primarily immediate post-trauma or secondarily posttreatment. The concept of neurapraxic nerve injury makes most surgeons choose to ‘watch and see’ the nerve recovery before deciding second surgery if the nerve does not recover. We report three cases of nerve injury in SCHF, all of which underwent nerve exploration for different reasons. Early reduction in the Casualty is important to release the nerve tension before transferring the patient to the operation room. If close reduction fails, we proceed to explore the nerve together with open reduction of the fracture. In iatrogenic nerve injury, we recommend nerve exploration to determine the surgical procedure that is causing the injury. Primary nerve exploration will allow early assessment of the injured nerve and minimize subsequent surgery.

  16. Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells as adjunct cell therapy for peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Christine; Wewetzer, Konstantin; Reimers, Kerstin; Vogt, Peter M

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic events, such as work place trauma or motor vehicle accident violence, result in a significant number of severe peripheral nerve lesions, including nerve crush and nerve disruption defects. Transplantation of myelin-forming cells, such as Schwann cells (SCs) or olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), may be beneficial to the regenerative process because the applied cells could mediate neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects by secretion of chemokines. Moreover, myelin-forming cells are capable of bridging the repair site by establishing an environment permissive to axonal regeneration. The cell types that are subject to intense investigation include SCs and OECs either derived from the olfactory bulb or the olfactory mucosa, stromal cells from bone marrow (mesenchymal stem cells, MSCs), and adipose tissue-derived cells. OECs reside in the peripheral and central nervous system and have been suggested to display unique regenerative properties. However, so far OECs were mainly used in experimental studies to foster central regeneration and it was not until recently that their regeneration-promoting activity for the peripheral nervous system was recognized. In the present review, we summarize recent experimental evidence regarding the regenerative effects of OECs applied to the peripheral nervous system that may be relevant to design novel autologous cell transplantation therapies. © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.

  17. The effect of aging on efferent nerve fibers regeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, E; Butí, M; Navarro, X

    1995-10-23

    This study evaluates the influence of aging on nerve regeneration and reinnervation of target organs in mice aged 2, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. In animals of each age group the sciatic nerve was subjected to crush, section or section and suture. Reinnervation of plantar muscles and sweat glands (SG) was evaluated over three months after operation by functional methods. Reappearance of SG secretion and motor responses occurred slightly earlier in young than older mice. The degree of motor and sudomotor reinnervation, with respect to preoperative control values, was also significantly higher in young than old animals. The differences were more pronounced after 12 months of age. The degree of recovery progressively decreased with the severity of the lesion, differences being more marked in older mice. Neurorraphy improved recovery, comparatively more in older than in young mice. These results indicate that, after injuries of peripheral nerves, axonal regeneration and reinnervation are maintained throughout life, but tend to be more delayed and slightly less effective with aging.

  18. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical ?cross-bridging? to promote nerve regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Tessa; Eva, Placheta; Borschel, Gregory H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour per...

  19. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering ′excellent′ and ′good′ muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  20. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Xun-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Li, Su-Rong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yue

    2015-02-01

    Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering 'excellent' and 'good' muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  1. Effect of crushed mussel shell addition on bacterial growth in acid polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Calviño, David; Garrido-Rodríguez, B.; Arias-Estévez, M.

    2015-01-01

    We applied three different doses of crushed mussel shell (CMS) on two Cu-polluted acid soils to study the effect of these amendments on the growth of the bacterial community during 730 days. Soil pH increased in the short and medium term due to CMS addition. In a first stage, bacterial growth...... was lower in the CMS-amended than in the un-amended samples. Thereafter, bacterial growth increased slowly. The soil having the highest initial pH value (4.5) showed the first significant increase in bacterial growth 95 days after the CMS amendment. However, in the soil with the lowest initial pH value (3...... as an agronomic sound practice for strongly acid soils (pH

  2. Use of Crushed Granite Fine as Replacement to River Sand in Concrete Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasseh JOEL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of Crushed granite fine (CGF to replace river sand in concrete production for use in rigid pavement was investigated. Slump, compressive and indirect tensile strength tests were performed on fresh and hardened concrete.28 days Peak compressive and indirect tensile strength values of 40.70N/mm2 and 2.30N/mm2 respectively was obtained, with the partial replacement of river sand with 20% CGF, as against values of 35.00N/mm2 and 1.75N/mm2, obtained with the use of river sand as fine aggregate. Based on economic analysis and results of tests, river sand replaced with 20% CGF is recommended for use in the production of concrete for use in rigid pavement. Conservation of river sand in addition to better ways of disposing wastes from the quarry sites are some of the merits of using CGF.

  3. Modeling of Waves Propagating in Water with a Crushed Ice Layer on the Free Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmidt, Kazimierz

    2017-12-01

    A transformation of gravitational waves in fluid of constant depth with a crushed ice layer floating on the free fluid surface is considered. The propagating waves undergo a slight damping along their path of propagation. The main goal of the study is to construct an approximate descriptive model of this phenomenon.With regard to small displacements of the free surface, a viscous type model of damping is considered, which corresponds to a continuous distribution of dash-pots at the free surface of the fluid. A constant parameter of the dampers is assumed in advance as known parameter of damping. This parameter may be obtained by means of experiments in a laboratory flume.

  4. European origin of placodont marine reptiles and the evolution of crushing dentition in Placodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neenan, James M; Klein, Nicole; Scheyer, Torsten M

    2013-01-01

    Sauropterygia was the most successful marine reptile radiation in history, spanning almost the entire Mesozoic and exploiting a wide range of habitats and ecological niches. Here we report a new, exceptionally preserved skull of a juvenile stem placodont from the early Middle Triassic of the Netherlands, thus indicating a western Tethyan (European) origin for Placodontia, the most basal group of sauropterygians. A single row of teeth on an enlarged palatine supports this close relationship, although these are small and pointed instead of broad and flat, as is the case in placodonts, which demonstrate the strongest adaptation to a durophagous diet known in any reptile. Peg-like, slightly procumbent premaxillary teeth and an 'L-shaped' jugal also confirm a close relationship to basal placodonts. The new taxon provides insight into the evolution of placodont dentition, representing a transitional morphology between the plesiomorphic diapsid condition of palatal denticles and the specialized crushing teeth of placodonts.

  5. Shape Effect of Crushed Sand Filler on Rheology: A Preliminary Experimental and Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, Jon; Cepuritis, Rolands; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Two types of filler from crushed sand were mixed with cement paste with constant superplasticizer dosage per mass of cement to investigate how their shape affects the rheology. The fillers were mylonitic quartz diorite and limestone produced using Vertical Shaft Impact (VSI) crusher and air...... was quantified with the slump flow test (i.e. mini cone). The shape effect was isolated in the experiments by the use of non overlapping bimodal particle distributions of cement particles with a number average diameter of approximate to 0.01 mm and filler particles with a number average diameter of approximate...... to 0.1 mm. The two filler types were tested with a range of chi-values (volume of cement divided by total volume of solids). The flowability of the matrix increased with decreasing aspect ratios of the filler. However, the chi-value at which the maximum volume fraction threshold was obtained varied...

  6. SHAPING AND REDESTINATION OF EXCAVATED AREAS IN THE COURSE OF THE EXPLOITATION OF CRUSHED STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerko Nuić

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the construction of devastated and demolished country the want for crushed stone is ever more greater. The opening of new quarryes is subject to strict ecological norms. The location of activity as well as the concept of the mining works represent a matter of consideration. Excavated areas should be shaped in a way to be integrated into immediate and wider environment most conveniently and then be redestinated with the purpose of the economic, sporting-recreation or some other usage. On the existing model in nature (»Široki Čelac« quarry, Novalja on the island of Pag, the specific characteristics of the locality and region have been respected. There have been also given adequate solutions for a possible deposit of communal waste (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T.

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent

  8. Separating and recycling metals from mixed metallic particles of crushed electronic wastes by vacuum metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-09-15

    During the treatment of electronic wastes, a crushing process is usually used to strip metals from various base plates. Several methods have been applied to separate metals from nonmetals. However, mixed metallic particles obtained from these processes are still a mixture of various metals, including some toxic heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. With emphasis on recovering copper and other precious metals, there have hitherto been no satisfactory methods to recover these toxic metals. In this paper, the criterion of separating metals from mixed metallic particles by vacuum metallurgy is built. The results show that the metals with high vapor pressure have been almost recovered completely, leading to a considerable reduction of environmental pollution. In addition, the purity of copper in mixed particles has been improved from about 80 wt % to over 98 wt %.

  9. Saturday night palsy or Sunday morning hangover? A case report of alcohol-induced Crush Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Devitt, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    Saturday night palsy is a colloquial term given to brachial plexus injuries of the arm resulting from stretching or direct pressure against a firm object, often after alcohol or drug consumption. In most circumstances, this condition gives rise to a temporary plexopathy, which generally resolves. However, if the compression is severe and prolonged, a more grave form of this condition known as \\'Crush Syndrome\\' may occur. Skeletal muscle injury, brought about by protracted immobilization, leads to muscle decay, causing rhabdomyolysis, which may in turn precipitate acute renal failure. This condition is potentially fatal and has an extremely high morbidity. The case presented below demonstrates the drastic consequences that can result following an episode of \\'binge\\' drinking in a young man. What is most concerning is that this trend is increasing across society and cases like this may not be as rare in the future.

  10. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

  11. [Age-related changes of sensory peripheral nerve system in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitenkov, V B; Ekusheva, E V; Komancev, V N; Skripchenko, N V; Grigoryev, S G; Klimkin, A V; Aksenova, A I

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to present and evaluate age-related changes of peripheral nerves of limbs on a huge population of healthy subjects of different ages. In 2009-2016 subjects aged from 1months to 90 years were studied by nerve conduction velocity studies (NCV). Data of those confirmed healthy was included in our study. In total there were 372 healthy subjects. NCV for nn. Medianus et Ulnaris was registered, with NCV and amplitude of compound sensory action potential (CSAP) being analyzed. There were significant differences on both these parameters between different age groups. Since the childhood the improvement of conduction (which was reflected in rising of CSAP amplitudes and NCV quickening) was registered; from 40-50 years steady decline of both these parameters were observed in both nerves. Conduction studies of peripheral nerves may be implemented in gerontology for early detection of neurophysiology patterns reflecting physiological aging. Also our results may be implemented for accelerated aging detection.

  12. Hydro-mechanical behaviour of crushed COx argillite used as backfilling material in HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chaosheng; Shi Bin; Cui Yujun; Anh-Minh Tang

    2010-01-01

    At present, the crushed Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite powder is proposed as an alternative backfilling material in France, which will be constructed in the engineering barrier of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. In this investigation, the compression behavior of two crushed COx argillite powders (coarser one and finer one) was studied by running l-D compression tests with several loading-unloading cycles. After the final dry density 2.0 g/cm 3 was reached, the specimen was flooding with distilled water and the evolution of axial stress was studied during saturation process. The effects of initial axial stress level and grain size distribution (GSD) on hydro-mechanical behaviour of compacted specimen were analyzed. The results show that the compression curves are significantly influenced by the GSD of the soils. To obtain the same degree of compaction, the axial stress applied to finer soil is much higher than that of coarser soil. In addition, the compression index of the finer soil is bigger than that of coarser soil. The swelling index at initial water content increases with the dry density and seems to be independent of the GSD. During saturation, the initial lower axial stress causes obvious swelling behavior for both the coarser and finer powder samples and the corresponding axial stress increase gradually. At initial higher axial stress condition, monotone collapse behavior is observed for the coarser powder samples. Whereas the axial stress decrease firstly, then increase and finally decrease again for the finer powder samples. After saturation, the equilibrium axial stresses of finer powder samples are higher than that of coarser powder samples. (authors)

  13. The changing face of oilsands mining : mobile crushing systems on the way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.L.M.

    2007-06-15

    The mobile crushing system (MCS) is a new technology used in oil sand mining. With MCS, the crusher is moved right to the mine face where it is continuously loaded by shovel. The ore is then crushed on site and transported by a mobile conveyor for further processing. MMD Mineral Sizing (Canada) and Krupp Canada are the only 2 manufacturers that currently build MCS for the oilsands sector. Suncor, Albian Sands and Syncrude Canada are the 3 major oilsands operators currently using MCS. The benefits and challenges of MCS were presented. The use of large mobile surface mining equipment such as the MCS means that ground stability issues associated with large mobile truck and shovel mining operations will be reduced. In addition, given the current worker shortage in the mining industry, using single-stream mobile surface mining equipment means operators can reduce their labour force. However, some challenges remain. The sheer size and weight of the unit means it can deform the ground surface and sink under adverse conditions. Alternative tire and suspension concepts that may alleviate some of these stability issues are currently being researched. Other issues that may affect the performance of MCS include the oil sand density and viscosity around material flow. Syncrude Canada is considering the use of MCS technology to mitigate common oilsands-related environmental issues. It is also testing compact slurry preparation technology in which shovels will feed the oilsands directly into a MCS and then into the in-pit bitumen production system slurry equipment. The MCS unit at Suncor's mine cost $150 million. It has been running at 5,000 tonnes of ore per hour, equivalent to 15 loads of ore in the large trucks. Given the success of the unit, plans are in place for 5 more units to be in operation over the next 5 years. 4 figs.

  14. Crushing of Subglacial Lake Sediment as a Source of Bio-utilisable Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill Olivas, B.; Telling, J.; Michaud, A. B.; Skidmore, M. L.; Priscu, J. C.; Tranter, M.

    2017-12-01

    Recent research has shown microbial ecosystems exist under glaciers and ice sheets. The sources of energy to support these ecosystems are still not fully understood, particularly beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet, where direct access to the atmosphere and in-washed organic matter and oxidising agents does not occur. Hence, sub-ice sheet energy sources are restricted to those in subglacial environments, except for ice-margin environments. This study focuses on sediments from Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW), the first subglacial lake to be directly and cleanly sampled. Sediment from three depths in a shallow core extracted from SLW were used to assess the possible energy contributions from mechanochemical reactions to this subglacial ecosystem. To do this, the samples were crushed under an anoxic atmosphere using a ball mill. The sediments were then transferred into serum bottles under anoxic conditions. They were wetted and the headspace gas was subsequently sampled and analysed during a 40 day incubation. Results show the release of substantial amounts of hydrogen, which could potentially serve as an abiotic source of energy to microbes, in particular, methanogenic archaea. Significant amounts of short chain hydrocarbons (including methane and ethylene), possibly from the reactivation of ancient organic carbon, were also observed. Crushed samples showed a significant concentration of hydrogen peroxide produced on contact with water, as well as significant amounts of Si radicals, showing comminution of these sediments unlocks the potential for a wide range of redox conditions and reactions to develop within glacially eroded sediment under ice. This in turn provides a previously overlooked source of nutrients and energy for microbes to utilise.

  15. Imaging the ocular motor nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Teresa [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: T.A.Ferreira@lumc.nl; Verbist, Berit [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: B.M.Verbist@lumc.nl; Buchem, Mark van [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.A.van_Buchem@lumc.nl; Osch, Thijs van [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.J.P.van_Osch@lumc.nl; Webb, Andrew [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: A.Webb@lumc.nl

    2010-05-15

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0 T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.

  16. Electrodiagnosis and nerve conduction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posuniak, E A

    1984-08-01

    The use of electrodiagnostic techniques in evaluation of complaints in the lower extremities provides an objective method of assessment. A basic understanding of principles of neurophysiology, EMG and NCV methodology, and neuropathology of peripheral nerves greatly enhances physical diagnosis and improves the state of the art in treatment of the lower extremity, especially foot and ankle injuries. Familiarity with the method of reporting electrodiagnostic studies and appreciation of the electromyographer's interpretation of the EMG/NCV studies also reflects an enhanced fund of knowledge, skills, and attitudes as pertains to one's level of professional expertise. Information regarding the etiology of positive sharp waves, fibrillation potentials, fasciculation, and normal motor action potentials and conduction studies serves as a sound basis for the appreciation of the categories of nerve injury. Competence in understanding the degree of axonal or myelin function or dysfunction in a nerve improve one's effectiveness not only in medical/surgical treatment but in prognostication of recovery of function. A review of the entrapment syndromes in the lower extremity with emphasis on tarsal tunnel syndrome summarizes the most common nerve entrapments germane to the practice of podiatry. With regard to tarsal tunnel syndrome, the earliest electrodiagnostic study to suggest compression was reported to be the EMG of the foot and leg muscles, even before prolonged nerve latency was noted.

  17. Intraoperative Ultrasound for Peripheral Nerve Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsey, Matthew; Wilson, Thomas J; Henning, Phillip Troy; Yang, Lynda J-S

    2017-10-01

    Offering real-time, high-resolution images via intraoperative ultrasound is advantageous for a variety of peripheral nerve applications. To highlight the advantages of ultrasound, its extraoperative uses are reviewed. The current intraoperative uses, including nerve localization, real-time evaluation of peripheral nerve tumors, and implantation of leads for peripheral nerve stimulation, are reviewed. Although intraoperative peripheral nerve localization has been performed previously using guide wires and surgical dyes, the authors' approach using ultrasound-guided instrument clamps helps guide surgical dissection to the target nerve, which could lead to more timely operations and shorter incisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gala, Foram

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies

  19. Nerve ultrasound shows subclinical peripheral nerve involvement in neurofibromatosis type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telleman, Johan A; Stellingwerff, Menno D; Brekelmans, Geert J; Visser, Leo H

    2018-02-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is mainly associated with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Peripheral nerve involvement is described in symptomatic patients, but evidence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement is scarce. We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study in 2 asymptomatic and 3 minimally symptomatic patients with NF2 to detect subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. Patients underwent clinical examination, nerve conduction studies (NCS), and high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS). A total of 30 schwannomas were found, divided over 20 nerve segments (33.9% of all investigated nerve segments). All patients had at least 1 schwannoma. Schwannomas were identified with HRUS in 37% of clinically unaffected nerve segments and 50% of nerve segments with normal NCS findings. HRUS shows frequent subclinical peripheral nerve involvement in NF2. Clinicians should consider peripheral nerve involvement as a cause of weakness and sensory loss in the extremities in patients with this disease. Muscle Nerve 57: 312-316, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Use of Degradable Nerve Conduits for Human Nerve Repair: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Meek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major clinical challenge. The most widely used technique for bridging defects in peripheral nerves is the use of autologous nerve grafts. This technique, however, has some disadvantages. Many alternative experimental techniques have thus been developed, such as degradable nerve conduits. Degradable nerve guides have been extensively studied in animal experimental studies. However, the repair of human nerves by degradable nerve conduits has been limited to only a few clinical studies. In this paper, an overview of the available international published literature on degradable nerve conduits for bridging human peripheral nerve defects is presented for literature available until 2004. Also, the philosophy on the use of nerve guides and nerve grafts is given.

  1. Axial Crushing and Energy Absorption of Empty and Foam Filled Jute-glass/ Epoxy Bi-tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Asad A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental work on the axial crushing of empty and polyurethane foam filled bi-tubular composite cone-tube has been carried out. Hand lay-up method was used to fabricate the bi-tubes using woven roving glass, jute and hybrid jute-glass/epoxy materials. The tubes were of 56 mm diameter, and the cones top diameters were 65 mm. Cone semi-apical angles of 5°, 10°, 15°, 20° and 25° were examined. Height of 120 mm was maintained for all the fabricated specimens. Effects of material used, cone semi apical angle and foam filler on the load-displacement relation, maximum load, crush force efficiency, and the specific energy absorption and failure mode were investigated. Results show that the foam filler improved the progressive crushing process, increased the maximum load and the absorbed energy of the bi-tubes. The maximum crushing load and the specific energy absorption increased with increasing the cone semi apical angle up to 20° for the empty bi-tubes and up to 25° for the foam filled bi-tubes. Progressive failure mode with fiber and matrix cracking was observed at the top narrow side of the fractured bi-tubes as well as at the bottom surface of 20° and 25° cone semi-apical angle bi-tubes.

  2. Characterisation of extra virgin olive oils from Galician autochthonous varieties and their co-crushings with Arbequina and Picual cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Fregapane, G; Salvador, M D; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-06-01

    The current trend of the olive oil market is the production of high quality extra from traditional minor olive varieties with peculiar and differentiated characteristics (especially with respect to the aromatic and phenolic composition). In this way, the interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering old autochthonous Local olive fruits has increased substantially in recent years. In order to investigate the potential of the Local olives by either producing high quality monovarietal oils or mixing with the most widespread olives in Galicia (Arbequina and Picual cv.), quality indices, and fatty acid composition as well as volatile and phenolic profiles were determined and compared. All EVOOs studied in this work can be considered as "extra virgin olive oil" due to quality indices fell within the ranges established in legislation. Picual and Local olive oils as well as those resulting from their co-crushing reach values which are required by EU legislation to add the specific health claim on the oil label. Co-crushing Picual:Local (80:20) provided a significant enhancement of grass and apple nuances and a decrease of banana notes with respect to Picual oils. The co-crushing process improved sensory and health properties of Picual extra virgin olive oils. The effect of co-crushing on phenolics, ester volatiles and banana nuances cannot be easily modulated, contrary to quality indices and fatty acid composition, both changing linearly in strict correlation with the fruit mass ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigations into the residual strength of a 2.5 m wide Bushveld Merensky Reef crush pillar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Watson, BP

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available of falls of ground in already dangerous areas, and the larger pillars decrease the extraction ratio. This paper describes the evaluation of stress measurements conducted in two boreholes over a crush pillar with dimensions 2.5 m x 4.0 m, and a height of 1...

  4. Interaction between an Eco-Spiral Bolt and Crushed Rock in a Borehole Evaluated by Pull-Out Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Seung Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between an eco-spiral bolt and crushed rocks in a borehole were evaluated by pull-out testing in a laboratory and numerical analysis. The porosity of the crushed rock surrounding the bolt depended on the size of the eco-spiral bolt and affected the eco-spiral bolt’s axial resistance force. The axial resistance force and the porosity of the crushed rocks in the borehole showed an inverse relationship. The porosity was also related to the size of the eco-spiral bolt. The maximum principal stress between the bolt and the rock was related to the porosity of the crushed rock and the size difference between the eco-spiral bolt and the borehole. At low porosity the experimental and numerical analyses show similar relationships between the axial resistance force and the displacement. However, at high porosity, the numerical results deviated greatly from the experimental observation. The initial agreement is attributed to the state of residual resistance after the maximum axial resistance force, and the latter divergence was due to the decreasing axial resistance force owing to slippage.

  5. Raman spectroscopic detection of peripheral nerves towards nerve-sparing surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2017-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery, namely nerve-sparing surgery, is now promising technique to avoid functional deficits of the limbs and organs following surgery as an aspect of the improvement of quality of life of patients. Detection of peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves is required for the nerve-sparing surgery; however, conventional nerve identification scheme is sometimes difficult to identify peripheral nerves due to similarity of shape and color to non-nerve tissues or its limited application to only motor peripheral nerves. To overcome these issues, we proposed a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerves by means of Raman spectroscopy. We found several fingerprints of peripheral myelinated and unmyelinated nerves by employing a modified principal component analysis of typical spectra including myelinated nerve, unmyelinated nerve, and adjacent tissues. We finally realized the sensitivity of 94.2% and the selectivity of 92.0% for peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves against adjacent tissues. Although further development of an intraoperative Raman spectroscopy system is required for clinical use, our proposed approach will serve as a unique and powerful tool for peripheral nerve detection for nerve-sparing surgery in the future.

  6. Facial nerve paralysis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445

  7. Dilong: Role in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ming Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilong, also known as earthworm, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for thousands of years. Schwann cell migration and proliferation are critical for the regeneration of injured nerves and Schwann cells provide an essentially supportive role for neuron regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms of migration and proliferation induced by dilongs in Schwann cells remain unclear. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that includes (i migration signaling, MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases, mediated PAs and MMP2/9 pathway; (ii survival and proliferative signaling, IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I-mediated PI3K/Akt pathways and (iii cell cycle regulation. Dilong stimulate RSC96 cell proliferation and migration. It can induce phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, but not JNK, and activate the downstream signaling expression of PAs (plasminogen activators and MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases in a time-dependent manner. In addition, Dilong stimulated ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation was attenuated by pretreatment with chemical inhibitors (U0126 and SB203580, and small interfering ERK1/2 and p38 RNA, resulting in migration and uPA-related signal pathway inhibition. Dilong also induces the phosphorylation of IGF-I-mediated PI3K/Akt pathway, activates protein expression of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell cycle regulatory proteins (cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A in a time-dependent manner. In addition, it accelerates G1-phase progression with earlier S-phase entry and significant numbers of cells entered the S-phase. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of PI3K that significantly reduces PI3K protein expression levels, resulting in Bcl2 survival factor reduction, revealing a marked blockage of G1 to S transition in proliferating cells. These results reveal the unknown RSC96 cell migration and proliferation mechanism induced by dilong, which find use as a new medicine for nerve regeneration.

  8. The diffusivity of cesium, strontium, carbon and nickel in concrete and mixtures of sodium bentonite and crushed rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Penttilae-Hiltunen, P.; Rantanen, J.

    1986-07-01

    The engineering barriers suggested to be used for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes in Finland are concrete and crushed rock or mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite. In the repository the barriers are saturated by groundwater and radionuclides may be released by diffusion through the barries. For safety analysis, the mechanisms by which the nuclides migrate and corresponding parameters should be known. In this study diffusion measurements on different types of concrete and mixtures of sodium bentonite and crushed rock were carried out. Radioactive isotopes of cesium, strontium, carbon and nickel were used as tracers. The apparent diffusivities (Dsub(a)) were evaluated on the basis of the measurements. The apparent diffusivity of cesium in concretes was 10 -14 ...10 -15 m 2 /s. Strontium was mainly sorbed on cement where it diffuses slowly. Part of strontium propably penetrates in the rock ballast by diffusion. The diffusivities of carbon and nickel in the concrete was low. The upper limit was evaluated to be Dsub(a) -14 m 2 /s. The diffusivity of cesium in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite varies between 0.5x10 -12 and 7x10 -12 m 2 /s. Cesium was mainly sorbed on the rock. The diffusivity of strontium was 2x10 -11 ...2x10 -12 m 2 /s. Strontium was mainly sorbed on bentonite. The diffusion of the sorbed ions (surface diffusion) seems to be a additional migration mechanism in the case of cesium and strontium in the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock. The diffusivity of carbon in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite was 6x10 -11 ...4x10 -12 m 2 /s. No sorption was found in the case of carbon. The measured Dsub(a) of nickel in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite was 4x10 -14 ...2x10 -15 m 2 /s. The experimental arrangement was not, however, in the stationary state and the more correct values would propably be 10 -13 ...10 -14 m 2 /s. No surface diffusion was found in the case of nickel. (author)

  9. Ocular Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and NGF Eye Drop Application as Paradigms to Investigate NGF Neuroprotective and Reparative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirassa, Paola; Rosso, Pamela; Iannitelli, Angela

    2018-01-01

    The eye is a central nervous system structure that is uniquely accessible to local treatment. Through the ocular surface, it is possible to access the retina, optic nerve, and brain. Animal models of retina degeneration or optic nerve crush could thus serve as tools to investigate whether and how factors, which are anterogradely or retrogradely transported through the optic nerve, might contribute to activate neuroprotection and eventually regeneration. Among these factors, nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role during development of the visual system, as well as during the entire life span, and in pathological conditions. The ability of NGF to exert survival and trophic actions on the retina and brain cells when applied intraocularly and topically as eye drops is critically reviewed here, together with the effects of ocular neurotrophins on neuronal pathways influencing body rhythm, cognitions, and behavioral functions. The latest data from animal models and humans are presented, and the mechanism of action of ocularly administered NGF is discussed. NGF eye drops are proposed as an experimental strategy to investigate the role and cellular targets of neurotrophins in the mechanism(s) underlying neurodegeneration/regeneration and their involvement in the regulation of neurological and behavioral dysfunctions.

  10. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  11. Enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration through asymmetrically porous nerve guide conduit with nerve growth factor gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Tae Ho; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Lee, Jin Ho

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a nerve guide conduit (NGC) with nerve growth factor (NGF) gradient along the longitudinal direction by rolling a porous polycaprolactone membrane with NGF concentration gradient. The NGF immobilized on the membrane was continuously released for up to 35 days, and the released amount of the NGF from the membrane gradually increased from the proximal to distal NGF ends, which may allow a neurotrophic factor gradient in the tubular NGC for a sufficient period. From the in vitro cell culture experiment, it was observed that the PC12 cells sense the NGF concentration gradient on the membrane for the cell proliferation and differentiation. From the in vivo animal experiment using a long gap (20 mm) sciatic nerve defect model of rats, the NGC with NGF concentration gradient allowed more rapid nerve regeneration through the NGC than the NGC itself and NGC immobilized with uniformly distributed NGF. The NGC with NGF concentration gradient seems to be a promising strategy for the peripheral nerve regeneration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 52-64, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Imaging of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Minerva [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)], E-mail: minerva.becker@hcuge.ch; Masterson, Karen [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Viallon, Magalie [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Vargas, Maria-Isabel [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Becker, Christoph D. [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This article provides an overview of the imaging findings of diseases affecting the optic nerve with special emphasis on clinical-radiological correlation and on the latest technical developments in MR imaging and CT. The review deals with congenital malformations, tumors, toxic/nutritional and degenerative entities, inflammatory and infectious diseases, compressive neuropathy, vascular conditions and trauma involving the optic nerve from its ocular segment to the chiasm. The implications of imaging findings on patient management and outcome and the importance of performing high-resolution tailored examinations adapted to the clinical situation are discussed.

  13. Imaging of the optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Minerva; Masterson, Karen; Delavelle, Jacqueline; Viallon, Magalie; Vargas, Maria-Isabel; Becker, Christoph D.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the imaging findings of diseases affecting the optic nerve with special emphasis on clinical-radiological correlation and on the latest technical developments in MR imaging and CT. The review deals with congenital malformations, tumors, toxic/nutritional and degenerative entities, inflammatory and infectious diseases, compressive neuropathy, vascular conditions and trauma involving the optic nerve from its ocular segment to the chiasm. The implications of imaging findings on patient management and outcome and the importance of performing high-resolution tailored examinations adapted to the clinical situation are discussed.

  14. Intravenous mesenchymal stem cell therapy after recurrent laryngeal nerve injury: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Michael Z; Matsushita, Takashi; Lankford, Karen L; Radtke, Christine; Kocsis, Jeffery D; Young, Nwanmegha O

    2014-11-01

    Intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been recently shown to enhance functional recovery after stroke and spinal cord injury. The therapeutic properties of MSCs are attributed to their secretion of a variety of potent antiinflammatory and neurotrophic factors. We hypothesize that intravenous administration of MSCs after recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury in the rat may enhance functional recovery. Animal Research. Twelve 250-gram Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a controlled crush injury to the left RLN. After confirming postoperative vocal fold immobility, each rat was intravenously infused with either green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs or control media in a randomized and blinded fashion. Videolaryngoscopy was performed weekly. The laryngoscopy video recordings were reviewed and rated by a fellowship-trained laryngologist who remained blinded to the intervention using a 0 to 3 scale. At 1 week postinjury, the MSC-infused group showed a trend for higher average functional recovery scores compared to the control group (2.2 vs 1.3), but it did not reach statistical significance (P value of 0.06). By 2 weeks, however, both groups exhibited complete return of function. These pilot data indicate that with complete nerve transection by crush injury of the RLN in rat, there is complete recovery of vocal fold mobility at 2 weeks. At 1 week postinjury, animals receiving intravenous infusion of MSCs showed a trend for greater functional recovery, suggesting a potential beneficial effect of MSCs; however, this did not reach statistical significance. Therefore, no definite conclusions can be drawn from these data and further study is required. N/A. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Fine-Needle Aspiration, Touch Imprint, and Crush Preparation Cytology for Diagnosing Thyroid Malignancies in Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadinejad, Mojtaba; Aliepour, Asghar; Anbari, Khatereh; Kaviani, Mojhgan; Ganjizadeh, Hasan; Nadri, Sedigheh; Foroutani, Niloufar; Meysami, Masoumeh; Almasi, Vahid

    2015-12-01

    Several methods are used to evaluate the thyroid nodules. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, false positive and negative rates, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of touch imprint, crush preparation, and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) methods. This cross-sectional study was done in Shohada-ye Ashayer University Hospital in Khorramabad. All the patients who underwent thyroid surgery due to thyroid nodules in this hospital between March and September 2011 were evaluated. The thyroid nodules of all the patients were evaluated by touch imprint, crush preparation, FNA, and permanent pathology methods. Finally, the results of the first three methods were compared with the result of permanent pathology method. The mean age of 104 patients who underwent thyroid surgery was 42.6 ± 11.9 years old. Based on permanent pathology, touch imprint, crush preparation, and FNA methods, 15.3, 6.25, 6.25, and 4.4 % of thyroid nodules were malignant, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, false negative rate, PPV, and NPV of FNA biopsy were 62.5, 100, 0, 37.5, 100, and 95.3 %, respectively. Also, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, false negative rate, PPV, and NPV of touch imprint and crush preparation were equal and were 80, 100, 0, 20, 100, and 96.7 %, respectively. Using touch imprint and crush preparation in evaluation of thyroid nodules for rapid evaluation of these nodules in operating rooms seems to be logical, and it can prevent further surgeries.

  16. Reducing the startup time of aerobic granular sludge reactors through seeding floccular sludge with crushed aerobic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijuan, Maite; Werner, Ursula; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2011-10-15

    One of the main challenging issues for the aerobic granular sludge technology is the long startup time when dealing with real wastewaters. This study presents a novel strategy to reduce the time required for granulation while ensuring a high level of nutrient removal. This new approach consists of seeding the reactor with a mixture of crushed aerobic granules and floccular sludge. The effectiveness of the strategy was demonstrated using abattoir wastewater, containing nitrogen and phosphorus at approximately 250 mgN/L and 30 mgP/L, respectively. Seven different mixtures of crushed granules and floccular sludge at granular sludge fractions (w/w in dry mass) of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25%, 30% and 50% were used to start eight granulation processes. The granulation time (defined as the time when the 10th percentile bacterial aggregate size is larger than 200 μm) displayed a strong dependency on the fraction of granular sludge. The shortest granulation time of 18 days was obtained with 50% crushed granules, in comparison with 133 days with 5% crushed granules. Full granulation was not achieved in the two trials without seeding with crushed granules. In contrast to the 100% floccular sludge cases, where a substantial loss of biomass occurred during granulation, the biomass concentration in all other trails did not decrease during granulation. This allowed that good nitrogen removal was maintained in all the reactors during the granulation process. However, enhanced biological phosphorus removal was achieved in only one of the eight trials. This was likely due to the temporary accumulation of nitrite, a strong inhibitor of polyphosphate accumulating organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Insight into the labeling mechanism of acceleration selective arterial spin labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Sophie; Petersen, Esben T; Van Osch, Matthias J P

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Acceleration selective arterial spin labeling (AccASL) is a spatially non-selective labeling technique, used in traditional ASL methods, which labels spins based on their flow acceleration rather than spatial localization. The exact origin of the AccASL signal within the vasculature......-ASL, combined AccASL and VS-ASL signal, and signal from one module with crushing from the other. RESULTS: The label created with AccASL has an overlap of approximately 50% in the vascular region with VS-ASL, but also originates from smaller vessels closer to the capillaries. CONCLUSION: AccASL is able to label...

  18. Transient Femoral Nerve Palsy Following Ilioinguinal Nerve Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-20

    Apr 20, 2018 ... a 3‑year period under ilioinguinal nerve block only were assessed for evidence of TFNP. All patients ... loss over the anterior aspect of the thigh, weakness of extension at the knee joint, .... and may result in falls with fractures which carry severe ... recovery of the palsy and subsequently discharged same.

  19. Functional nerve recovery after bridging a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve with a biodegradable nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Klok, F; Robinson, PH; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of nerve function was evaluated after bridging a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in 51 rats with a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide. Recovery of function was investigated by analysing the footprints, by analysing video recordings of gait, by electrically eliciting the

  20. Nerve supply to the pelvis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nerves that branch off the central nervous system (CNS) provide messages to the muscles and organs for normal ... be compromised. In multiple sclerosis, the demyelinization of nerve cells may lead to bowel incontinence, bladder problems ...