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Sample records for nerve activity rsna

  1. Reflections on RSNA 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, E.; Abrams, H.L.; Sos, T.A.; Harrington, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    The annual meeting of RSNA has provided the following points. Computed tomography and ultrasound have become well established in routine medical care. Digital technology is becoming increasingly important in many fields of medicine like in radiology [digital substraction angiography], physiologic and clinical information system. Nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR] recently recognised as a more important diagnostic tool may become the technique of choice for the early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and high pressure hydroencephalus. It is also usefull for the diagnosis of cardiac and vascular diseases. (APR)

  2. Renal hemodynamic effects of activation of specific renal sympathetic nerve fiber groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBona, G F; Sawin, L L

    1999-02-01

    To examine the effect of activation of a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers on renal blood flow (RBF) dynamics, anesthetized rats were instrumented with a renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) recording electrode and an electromagnetic flow probe on the ipsilateral renal artery. Peripheral thermal receptor stimulation (external heat) was used to activate a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers and to increase total RSNA. Total RSNA was reflexly increased to the same degree with somatic receptor stimulation (tail compression). Arterial pressure and heart rate were increased by both stimuli. Total RSNA was increased to the same degree by both stimuli but external heat produced a greater renal vasoconstrictor response than tail compression. Whereas both stimuli increased spectral density power of RSNA at both cardiac and respiratory frequencies, modulation of RBF variability by fluctuations of RSNA was small at these frequencies, with values for the normalized transfer gain being approximately 0.1 at >0.5 Hz. During tail compression coherent oscillations of RSNA and RBF were found at 0.3-0.4 Hz with normalized transfer gain of 0.33 +/- 0.02. During external heat coherent oscillations of RSNA and RBF were found at both 0.2 and 0.3-0.4 Hz with normalized transfer gains of 0. 63 +/- 0.05 at 0.2 Hz and 0.53 +/- 0.04 to 0.36 +/- 0.02 at 0.3-0.4 Hz. Renal denervation eliminated the oscillations in RBF at both 0.2 and 0.3-0.4 Hz. These findings indicate that despite similar increases in total RSNA, external heat results in a greater renal vasoconstrictor response than tail compression due to the activation of a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers with different frequency-response characteristics of the renal vasculature.

  3. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Salman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n=16 were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12–13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2 and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2 activation and acute stress (open-field exposure, were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro and creatinine (Ucr levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 µV, p<0.05 and MAP (151±8 vs. 97±2 mmHg, p<0.05 compared to Lewis. MAP was negatively correlated with Ucr (r=-0.80, p=0.002 and positively correlated with RSNA (r=0.66, p=0.014, with multiple linear regression modeling indicating the strongest correlation was with Ucr. RSNA and MAP responses to activation of the central chemoreflex and open-field stress were reduced in the LPK relative to the Lewis (all p<0.05. This is the first description of dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  4. The pedunculopontine tegmentum controls renal sympathetic nerve activity and cardiorespiratory activities in nembutal-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Fink

    Full Text Available Elevated renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA accompanies a variety of complex disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Understanding pathophysiologic renal mechanisms is important for determining why hypertension is both a common sequelae and a predisposing factor of these disorders. The role of the brainstem in regulating RSNA remains incompletely understood. The pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT is known for regulating behaviors including alertness, locomotion, and rapid eye movement sleep. Activation of PPT neurons in anesthetized rats was previously found to increase splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure, in addition to altering breathing. The present study is the first investigation of the PPT and its potential role in regulating RSNA. Microinjections of DL-homocysteic acid (DLH were used to probe the PPT in 100-μm increments in Nembutal-anesthetized rats to identify effective sites, defined as locations where changes in RSNA could be evoked. A total of 239 DLH microinjections were made in 18 rats, which identified 20 effective sites (each confirmed by the ability to evoke a repeatable sympathoexcitatory response. Peak increases in RSNA occurred within 10-20 seconds of PPT activation, with RSNA increasing by 104.5 ± 68.4% (mean ± standard deviation from baseline. Mean arterial pressure remained significantly elevated for 30 seconds, increasing from 101.6 ± 18.6 mmHg to 135.9 ± 36.4 mmHg. DLH microinjections also increased respiratory rate and minute ventilation. The effective sites were found throughout the rostal-caudal extent of the PPT with most located in the dorsal regions of the nucleus. The majority of PPT locations tested with DLH microinjections did not alter RSNA (179 sites, suggesting that the neurons that confer renal sympathoexcitatory functions comprise a small component of the PPT. The study also underscores the importance of further investigation to

  5. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiradentes, R.V.; Pires, J.G.P.; Silva, N.F.; Ramage, A.G.; Santuzzi, C.H.; Futuro, H.A. Neto

    2014-01-01

    Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central

  6. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiradentes, R.V. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Pires, J.G.P. [Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Silva, N.F. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Ramage, A.G. [Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Santuzzi, C.H. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Futuro, H.A. Neto [Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2014-05-30

    Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central.

  7. Bradykinin receptor blockade restores the baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity in cisplatin-induced renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, M H; Duff, M; Swanton, H; Johns, E J

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of renal bradykinin B1 and B2 receptor blockade on the high- and low-pressure baroreceptor reflex regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in rats with cisplatin-induced renal failure. Cisplatin (5 mg/kg) or saline was given intraperitoneally 4 days prior to study. Following chloralose/urethane anaesthesia, rats were prepared for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and RSNA and received intrarenal infusions of either Lys-[des-Arg 9 , Leu 8 ]-bradykinin (LBK), a bradykinin B1 receptor blocker, or bradyzide (BZ), a bradykinin B2 receptor blocker. RSNA baroreflex gain curves and renal sympatho-inhibitory responses to volume expansion (VE) were obtained. In the control and renal failure groups, basal MAP (89 ± 3 vs. 80 ± 8 mmHg) and RSNA (2.0 ± 0.3 vs. 1.7 ± 0.6 μV.s) were similar but HR was lower in the latter group (331 ± 8 vs. 396 ± 9 beats/min). The baroreflex gain for RSNA in the renal failure rats was 39% (P renal failure rats. Intrarenal LBK infusion in the renal failure rats normalized the VE induced renal sympatho-inhibition whereas BZ only partially restored the response. These findings suggest that pro-inflammatory bradykinin acting at different receptors within the kidney generates afferent neural signals which impact differentially within the central nervous system on high- and low-pressure regulation of RSNA. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Functional role of diverse changes in sympathetic nerve activity in regulating arterial pressure during REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Misa; Yoshida, Ikue; Miki, Kenju

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether REM sleep evoked diverse changes in sympathetic outflows and, if so, to elucidate why REM sleep evokes diverse changes in sympathetic outflows. Male Wistar rats were chronically implanted with electrodes to measure renal (RSNA) and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA), electroencephalogram, electromyogram, and electrocardiogram, and catheters to measure systemic arterial and central venous pressure; these parameters were measured simultaneously and continuously during the sleep-awake cycle in the same rat. REM sleep resulted in a step reduction in RNSA by 36.1% ± 2.7% (P sleep. In contrast to REM sleep, RSNA, LSNA, systemic arterial pressure, and heart rate increased in a unidirectional manner associated with increases in physical activity levels in the order from NREM sleep, quiet awake, moving, and grooming state. Thus, the relationship between RSNA vs. LSNA and systemic arterial pressure vs. heart rate observed during REM sleep was dissociated compared with that obtained during the other behavioral states. It is suggested that the diverse changes in sympathetic outflows during REM sleep may be needed to increase systemic arterial pressure by balancing vascular resistance between muscles and vegetative organs without depending on the heart.

  9. Quantitative assessment of integrated phrenic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2016-06-01

    Integrated electrical activity in the phrenic nerve is commonly used to assess within-animal changes in phrenic motor output. Because of concerns regarding the consistency of nerve recordings, activity is most often expressed as a percent change from baseline values. However, absolute values of nerve activity are necessary to assess the impact of neural injury or disease on phrenic motor output. To date, no systematic evaluations of the repeatability/reliability have been made among animals when phrenic recordings are performed by an experienced investigator using standardized methods. We performed a meta-analysis of studies reporting integrated phrenic nerve activity in many rat groups by the same experienced investigator; comparisons were made during baseline and maximal chemoreceptor stimulation in 14 wild-type Harlan and 14 Taconic Sprague Dawley groups, and in 3 pre-symptomatic and 11 end-stage SOD1(G93A) Taconic rat groups (an ALS model). Meta-analysis results indicate: (1) consistent measurements of integrated phrenic activity in each sub-strain of wild-type rats; (2) with bilateral nerve recordings, left-to-right integrated phrenic activity ratios are ∼1.0; and (3) consistently reduced activity in end-stage SOD1(G93A) rats. Thus, with appropriate precautions, integrated phrenic nerve activity enables robust, quantitative comparisons among nerves or experimental groups, including differences caused by neuromuscular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. MO-C-BRB-03: RSNA President

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenson, R.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  11. Theobromine inhibits sensory nerve activation and cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, Omar S; Belvisi, Maria G; Patel, Hema J; Crispino, Natascia; Birrell, Mark A; Korbonits, Márta; Korbonits, Dezso; Barnes, Peter J

    2005-02-01

    Cough is a common and protective reflex, but persistent coughing is debilitating and impairs quality of life. Antitussive treatment using opioids is limited by unacceptable side effects, and there is a great need for more effective remedies. The present study demonstrates that theobromine, a methylxanthine derivative present in cocoa, effectively inhibits citric acid-induced cough in guinea-pigs in vivo. Furthermore, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in man, theobromine suppresses capsaicin-induced cough with no adverse effects. We also demonstrate that theobromine directly inhibits capsaicin-induced sensory nerve depolarization of guinea-pig and human vagus nerve suggestive of an inhibitory effect on afferent nerve activation. These data indicate the actions of theobromine appear to be peripherally mediated. We conclude theobromine is a novel and promising treatment, which may form the basis for a new class of antitussive drugs.

  12. Perceptual consequences of disrupted auditory nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Kong, Ying-Yee; Michalewski, Henry J; Starr, Arnold

    2005-06-01

    Perceptual consequences of disrupted auditory nerve activity were systematically studied in 21 subjects who had been clinically diagnosed with auditory neuropathy (AN), a recently defined disorder characterized by normal outer hair cell function but disrupted auditory nerve function. Neurological and electrophysical evidence suggests that disrupted auditory nerve activity is due to desynchronized or reduced neural activity or both. Psychophysical measures showed that the disrupted neural activity has minimal effects on intensity-related perception, such as loudness discrimination, pitch discrimination at high frequencies, and sound localization using interaural level differences. In contrast, the disrupted neural activity significantly impairs timing related perception, such as pitch discrimination at low frequencies, temporal integration, gap detection, temporal modulation detection, backward and forward masking, signal detection in noise, binaural beats, and sound localization using interaural time differences. These perceptual consequences are the opposite of what is typically observed in cochlear-impaired subjects who have impaired intensity perception but relatively normal temporal processing after taking their impaired intensity perception into account. These differences in perceptual consequences between auditory neuropathy and cochlear damage suggest the use of different neural codes in auditory perception: a suboptimal spike count code for intensity processing, a synchronized spike code for temporal processing, and a duplex code for frequency processing. We also proposed two underlying physiological models based on desynchronized and reduced discharge in the auditory nerve to successfully account for the observed neurological and behavioral data. These methods and measures cannot differentiate between these two AN models, but future studies using electric stimulation of the auditory nerve via a cochlear implant might. These results not only show the unique

  13. RSNA Meeting News: Time for Celebration, Thanksgiving, and Responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo

    2007-01-01

    From November 25 through 30, 2007, a scientific assembly and annual meeting of the Radiologic Society of North America (RSNA) were held at McCormick Place, Chicago, IL, USA. The RSNA assembly is the largest international medical meeting in the world. Every year, approximately 60,000 people from 80 countries that are radiologists, radiologic technologists, nurses, and people in the vendor companies of radiologic imaging devices or contrast medium gather together to exchange their ideas on radiology, share new techniques of interventional therapeutic procedure, and demonstrate newly-developed radiologic imaging technology. We all Korean radiologists are celebrating these epochmaking events. We achieved much and became prominent internationally as academicians, clinical radiologists, or as radiologic teachers. We owed much to our family, our medical colleagues, our hospitals, and our paramedical colleagues: specifically physicists, radiological technologists and nurses, who helped us to study hard and write good abstracts. We cannot thank them more. I am not worried about which place we will rank in the next year in terms of abstract number accepted for presentation. Can we maintain our achievement (let's say the fourth place) continually? Without further earnest and endeavor, we might not maintain the credit that we now achieved. Nothing is permanent because other countries will do their best to overtake the higher places regarding abstract numbers accepted by the RSNA. I also would like to urge all presenters to submit their papers to the Radiology, Radiographics, or other related journals to refine their abstracts into masterpiece articles

  14. Experimental study of vascularized nerve graft: evaluation of nerve regeneration using choline acetyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, M; Tamai, S; Yajima, H; Kawanishi, K

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study of nerve regeneration was performed on vascularized nerve graft (VNG) and free nerve graft (FNG) in Fischer strain rats. A segment of the sciatic nerve with vascular pedicle of the femoral artery and vein was harvested from syngeneic donor rat for the VNG group and the sciatic nerve in the same length without vascular pedicle was harvested for the FNG group. They were transplanted to a nerve defect in the sciatic nerve of syngeneic recipient rats. At 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks after operation, the sciatic nerves were biopsied and processed for evaluation of choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activity, histological studies, and measurement of wet weight of the muscle innervated by the sciatic nerve. Electrophysiological evaluation of the grafted nerve was also performed before sacrifice. The average CAT activity in the distal to the distal suture site was 383 cpm in VNG and 361 cpm in FNG at 2 weeks; 6,189 cpm in VNG and 2,264 cpm in FNG at 4 weeks; and 11,299 cpm in VNG and 9,424 cpm in FNG at 6 weeks postoperatively. The value of the VNG group was statistically higher than that of the FNG group at 4 weeks postoperatively. Electrophysiological and histological findings also suggested that nerve regeneration in the VNG group was superior to that in the FNG group during the same period. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups after 6 weeks postoperatively in any of the evaluations. The CAT measurement was useful in the experiments, because it was highly sensitive and reproducible. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Nerve-muscle activation by rotating permanent magnet configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Peter A; Nicholson, Graham M

    2016-04-01

    The standard method of magnetic nerve activation using pulses of high current in coils has drawbacks of high cost, high electrical power (of order 1 kW), and limited repetition rate without liquid cooling. Here we report a new technique for nerve activation using high speed rotation of permanent magnet configurations, generating a sustained sinusoidal electric field using very low power (of order 10 W). A high ratio of the electric field gradient divided by frequency is shown to be the key indicator for nerve activation at high frequencies. Activation of the cane toad sciatic nerve and attached gastrocnemius muscle was observed at frequencies as low as 180 Hz for activation of the muscle directly and 230 Hz for curved nerves, but probably not in straight sections of nerve. These results, employing the first prototype device, suggest the opportunity for a new class of small low-cost magnetic nerve and/or muscle stimulators. Conventional pulsed current systems for magnetic neurostimulation are large and expensive and have limited repetition rate because of overheating. Here we report a new technique for nerve activation, namely high-speed rotation of a configuration of permanent magnets. Analytical solutions of the cable equation are derived for the oscillating electric field generated, which has amplitude proportional to the rotation speed. The prototype device built comprised a configuration of two cylindrical magnets with antiparallel magnetisations, made to rotate by interaction between the magnets' own magnetic field and three-phase currents in coils mounted on one side of the device. The electric field in a rectangular bath placed on top of the device was both numerically evaluated and measured. The ratio of the electric field gradient on frequency was approximately 1 V m(-2) Hz(-1) near the device. An exploratory series of physiological tests was conducted on the sciatic nerve and attached gastrocnemius muscle of the cane toad (Bufo marinus). Activation was

  16. Renal sympathetic nerve, blood flow, and epithelial transport responses to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thad E

    2017-05-01

    Thermal stress is a profound sympathetic stress in humans; kidney responses involve altered renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renal blood flow, and renal epithelial transport. During mild cold stress, RSNA spectral power but not total activity is altered, renal blood flow is maintained or decreased, and epithelial transport is altered consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with central volume loaded state. Hypothermia decreases RSNA, renal blood flow, and epithelial transport. During mild heat stress, RSNA is increased, renal blood flow is decreased, and epithelial transport is increased consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with a central volume unloaded state. Hyperthermia extends these directional changes, until heat illness results. Because kidney responses are very difficult to study in humans in vivo, this review describes and qualitatively evaluates an in vivo human skin model of sympathetically regulated epithelial tissue compared to that of the nephron. This model utilizes skin responses to thermal stress, involving 1) increased skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), decreased skin blood flow, and suppressed eccrine epithelial transport during cold stress; and 2) increased SSNA, skin blood flow, and eccrine epithelial transport during heat stress. This model appears to mimic aspects of the renal responses. Investigations of skin responses, which parallel certain renal responses, may aid understanding of epithelial-sympathetic nervous system interactions during cold and heat stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensorimotor peripheral nerve function and physical activity in older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange-Maia, B. S.; Cauley, J A; Newman, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    We determined whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve (PN) function was associated with physical activity (PA) in older men. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study Pittsburgh, PA, site (n = 328, age 78.8 ± 4.7 years) conducted PN testing, including: peroneal motor and sural sensory nerve conduction...... (latencies, amplitudes: CMAP and SNAP for motor and sensory amplitude, respectively), 1.4g/10g monoflament (dorsum of the great toe), and neuropathy symptoms. ANOVA and multivariate linear regression modeled PN associations with PA (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly [PASE] and SenseWear Armband). After...

  18. Peripheral nerve injury induces glial activation in primary motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Troncoso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evidence suggests that peripheral facial nerve injuries are associated with sensorimotor cortex reorganization. We have characterized facial nerve lesion-induced structural changes in primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons and their relationship with glial cell density using a rodent facial paralysis model. First, we used adult transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in microglia and yellow fluorescent protein in pyramidal neurons which were subjected to either unilateral lesion of the facial nerve or sham surgery. Two-photon excitation microscopy was then used for evaluating both layer 5 pyramidal neurons and microglia in vibrissal primary motor cortex (vM1. It was found that facial nerve lesion induced long-lasting changes in dendritic morphology of vM1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons and in their surrounding microglia. Pyramidal cells’ dendritic arborization underwent overall shrinkage and transient spine pruning. Moreover, microglial cell density surrounding vM1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons was significantly increased with morphological bias towards the activated phenotype. Additionally, we induced facial nerve lesion in Wistar rats to evaluate the degree and extension of facial nerve lesion-induced reorganization processes in central nervous system using neuronal and glial markers. Immunoreactivity to NeuN (neuronal nuclei antigen, GAP-43 (growth-associated protein 43, GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, and Iba 1 (Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 were evaluated 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 35 days after either unilateral facial nerve lesion or sham surgery. Patches of decreased NeuN immunoreactivity were found bilaterally in vM1 as well as in primary somatosensory cortex (CxS1. Significantly increased GAP-43 immunoreactivity was found bilaterally after the lesion in hippocampus, striatum, and sensorimotor cortex. One day after lesion GFAP immunoreactivity increased bilaterally in hippocampus, subcortical white

  19. Facial nerve activity disrupts psychomotor rhythms in the forehead microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Peter D; O'Brien, Geraldine

    2011-10-28

    Forehead blood flow was monitored in seven participants with a unilateral facial nerve lesion during relaxation, respiratory biofeedback and a sad documentary. Vascular waves at 0.1Hz strengthened during respiratory biofeedback, in tune with breathing cycles that also averaged 0.1Hz. In addition, a psychomotor rhythm at 0.15Hz was more prominent in vascular waveforms on the denervated than intact side of the forehead, both before and during relaxation and the sad documentary. These findings suggest that parasympathetic activity in the facial nerve interferes with the psychomotor rhythm in the forehead microvasculature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transient receptor potential A1 channel contributes to activation of the muscle reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koba, Satoshi; Hayes, Shawn G; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the role played by transient receptor potential A1 channels (TRPA1) in activating the muscle reflex, a sympathoexcitatory drive originating in contracting muscle. First, we tested the hypothesis that stimulation of the TRPA1 located on muscle afferents reflexly increases sympathetic nerve activity. In decerebrate rats, allyl isothiocyanate, a TRPA1 agonist, was injected intra-arterially into the hindlimb muscle circulation. This led to a 33% increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). The effect of allyl isothiocyanate was a reflex because the response was prevented by sectioning the sciatic nerve. Second, we tested the hypothesis that blockade of TRPA1 reduces RSNA response to contraction. Thirty-second continuous static contraction of the hindlimb muscles, induced by electrical stimulation of the peripheral cut ends of L(4) and L(5) ventral roots, increased RSNA and blood pressure. The integrated RSNA during contraction was reduced by HC-030031, a TRPA1 antagonist, injected intra-arterially (163 ± 24 vs. 95 ± 21 arbitrary units, before vs. after HC-030031, P reflex. Increases in RSNA in response to injection into the muscle circulation of arachidonic acid, bradykinin, and diprotonated phosphate, which are metabolic by-products of contraction and stimulants of muscle afferents during contraction, were reduced by HC-030031. These observations suggest that the TRPA1 located on muscle afferents is part of the muscle reflex and further support the notion that arachidonic acid metabolites, bradykinin, and diprotonated phosphate are candidates for endogenous agonists of TRPA1.

  1. Laser-activated solid protein bands for peripheral nerve repair: an vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauto, A; Trickett, R; Malik, R; Dawes, J M; Owen, E R

    1997-01-01

    Severed tibial nerves in rats were repaired using a novel technique, utilizing a semiconductor diode-laser-activated protein solder applied longitudinally across the join. Welding was produced by selective laser denaturation of solid solder bands containing the dye indocyanine green. An in vivo study, using 48 adult male Wistar rats, compared conventional microsuture-repaired tibial nerves with laser solder-repaired nerves. Nerve repairs were characterised immediately after surgery and after 3 months. Successful regeneration with average compound muscle action potentials of 2.5 +/- 0.5 mV and 2.7 +/- 0.3 mV (mean and standard deviation) was demonstrated for the laser-soldered nerves and the sutured nerves, respectively. Histopathology confirmed comparable regeneration of axons in laser- and suture-operated nerves. The laser-based nerve repair technique was easier and faster than microsuture repair, minimising manipulation damage to the nerve.

  2. Effect of nerve activity on transport of nerve growth factor and dopamine β-hydroxylase antibodies in sympathetic neurones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, G.; Chubb, I.; Freeman, C.; Geffen, L.; Rush, R.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of nerve activity on the uptake and retrograde transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) antibodies was studied by injecting 125 I-labelled NGF and anti-DBH into the anterior eye chamber of guinea-pigs. Decentralization of the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG) had no significant effect on the retrograde transport of either NGF or anti-DBH. Phenoxybenzamine produced a 50% increase in anti-DBH but not NGF accumulation and this effect was prevented by prior decentralization. This demonstrates that NGF is taken up independently of the retrieval of synaptic vesicle components. (Auth.)

  3. Kidney Rehabilitation Technology by Improving Blood Flow and Nerve Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Jamil Hashim

    2016-01-01

    The rehabilitation of kidney is impossible from doctors point of view. Kidney failure happens when nephron in kidney fail to filter blood and water. Two major causes of kidney failure. First is the shrinkage of kidney and the second is the blockage of kidney medulla. Kidney shrinkage is because nephron damage due to long term diabetes (Nephrology expert point of view). Whereas blockage of kidney is due to food consume which in turn build up deposit at the blood duct connecting to the medulla. Experiment specimen own body. The rehabilitation methodology is to build up your blood flow system and nerve activation. Result from the study is through analyzing blood components such as creatinine, hemoglobin, urea and potassium. Conclusion, creatinine value has lowered and kidney shrinkage has normalize to its original size. It is hopeful I regain my health 100 % when my GFR reading achieved below 100. (author)

  4. Activity-dependent intracellular Ca2+ transients in unmyelinated nerve fibres of the isolated adult rat vagus nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächtler, J; Mayer, C; Grafe, P

    1998-04-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to follow changes in the free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in nerve fibres and adjacent Schwann cells in isolated rat vagus nerves. [Ca2+]i was monitored by the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes Calcium Green-1 and Fura Red. Intracellular Ca2+ transients were observed during repetitive (1-50 Hz) supramaximal electrical stimulation or by bath application of ATP. Trains of action potentials were more effective at elongated, fibre-like structures of the vagus nerves, whereas ATP-induced Ca2+ transients were found predominantly in regions of Schwann cell bodies. Activity-induced Ca2+ signals were unaffected by pharmacological manipulation of intracellular Ca2+ stores, during long-lasting application of purinergic receptor agonists, or by substitution of extracellular Na+ with Li+. However, they were abolished in the presence of Ca2+-free bathing solution or after the blocking of Ca2+ channels with Cd2+. Ca2+ transients were also observed during Ca2+ action potentials. Such "Ca2+ spikes" were elicited by electrical stimulation in the presence of a combination of tetrodotoxin and K+ channel blockers. These data suggest that voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, activated during short trains of Na+ action potentials, produce an increase in intra-axonal [Ca2+] of rat vagus nerves. We did not find evidence for activity-dependent Ca2+ transients in the Schwann cells surrounding the unmyelinated axons.

  5. Relief of fecal incontinence by sacral nerve stimulation linked to focal brain activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Lilli; Møller, Arne; Buntzen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence.......This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence....

  6. Laser-activated protein solder for peripheral nerve repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Rodney I.; Lauto, Antonio; Dawes, Judith M.; Owen, Earl R.

    1995-05-01

    A 100 micrometers core optical fiber-coupled 75 mW diode laser operating at a wavelength of 800 nm has been used in conjunction with a protein solder to stripe weld severed rat tibial nerves, reducing the long operating time required for microsurgical nerve repair. Welding is produced by selective laser denaturation of the albumin based solder which contains the dye indocyanine green. Operating time for laser soldering was 10 +/- 5 min. (n equals 20) compared to 23 +/- 9 min. (n equals 10) for microsuturing. The laser solder technique resulted in patent welds with a tensile strength of 15 +/- 5 g, while microsutured nerves had a tensile strength of 40 +/- 10 g. Histopathology of the laser soldered nerves, conducted immediately after surgery, displayed solder adhesion to the outer membrane with minimal damage to the inner axons of the nerves. An in vivo study is under way comparing laser solder repaired tibial nerves to conventional microsuture repair. At the time of submission 15 laser soldered nerves and 7 sutured nerves were characterized at 3 months and showed successful regeneration with compound muscle action potentials of 27 +/- 8 mV and 29 +/- 8 mW respectively. A faster, less damaging and long lasting laser based anastomotic technique is presented.

  7. Acute sex hormone suppression reduces skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Danielle S; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Bell, Christopher; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2011-10-01

    Comparisons of sympathetic nervous system activity (SNA) between young and older women have produced equivocal results, in part due to inadequate control for potential differences in sex hormone concentrations, age, and body composition. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a short-term reduction in sex hormones on tonic skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), an indirect measure of whole body SNA, using an experimental model of sex hormone deficiency in young women. We also assessed the independent effects of estradiol and progesterone add-back therapy on MSNA. MSNA was measured in 9 women (30±2 years; mean±SE) on three separate occasions: during the mid-luteal menstrual cycle phase, on the fifth day of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHant) administration, and after 5 days add-back of either estradiol (n=4) or progesterone (n=3) during continued GnRHant administration. In response to GnRHant, there were significant reductions in serum estradiol and progesterone (both psuppression attenuates MSNA and that this may be related to the suppression of progesterone rather than estradiol.

  8. Laser-activated protein bands for peripheral nerve repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauto, Antonio; Trickett, Rodney I.; Malik, Richard; Dawes, Judith M.; Owen, Earl R.

    1996-01-01

    A 100 micrometer core optical fiber-coupled 75 mW diode laser operating at a wavelength of 800 nm has been used in conjunction with a protein solder to stripe weld severed rat tibial nerves, reducing the long operating time required for microsurgical nerve repair. Welding is produced by selective laser denaturation of the protein based solder which contains the dye indocyanine green. Operating time for laser soldering was 10 plus or minus 5 min. (n equals 24) compared to 23 plus or minus 9 min (n equals 13) for microsuturing. The laser solder technique resulted in patent welds with a tensile strength of 15 plus or minus 5 g, while microsutured nerves had a tensile strength of 40 plus or minus 10 g. Histopathology of the laser soldered nerves, conducted immediately after surgery, displayed solder adhesion to the outer membrane with minimal damage to the inner axons of the nerves. An in vivo study, with a total of fifty-seven adult male wistar rats, compared laser solder repaired tibial nerves to conventional microsuture repair. Twenty-four laser soldered nerves and thirteen sutured nerves were characterized at three months and showed successful regeneration with average compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) of 2.4 plus or minus 0.7 mV and 2.7 plus or minus 0.8 mV respectively. Histopathology of the in vivo study, confirmed the comparable regeneration of axons in laser and suture operated nerves. A faster, less damaging and long lasting laser based anastomotic technique is presented.

  9. Resveratrol Promotes Nerve Regeneration via Activation of p300 Acetyltransferase-Mediated VEGF Signaling in a Rat Model of Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhuofeng; Cao, Jiawei; Shen, Yu; Zou, Yu; Yang, Xin; Zhou, Wen; Guo, Qulian; Huang, Changsheng

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are generally associated with incomplete restoration of motor function. The slow rate of nerve regeneration after injury may account for this. Although many benefits of resveratrol have been shown in the nervous system, it is not clear whether resveratrol could promote fast nerve regeneration and motor repair after peripheral nerve injury. This study showed that the motor deficits caused by sciatic nerve crush injury were alleviated by daily systematic resveratrol treatment within 10 days. Resveratrol increased the number of axons in the distal part of the injured nerve, indicating enhanced nerve regeneration. In the affected ventral spinal cord, resveratrol enhanced the expression of several vascular endothelial growth factor family proteins (VEGFs) and increased the phosphorylation of p300 through Akt signaling, indicating activation of p300 acetyltransferase. Inactivation of p300 acetyltransferase reversed the resveratrol-induced expression of VEGFs and motor repair in rats that had undergone sciatic nerve crush injury. The above results indicated that daily systematic resveratrol treatment promoted nerve regeneration and led to rapid motor repair. Resveratrol activated p300 acetyltransferase-mediated VEGF signaling in the affected ventral spinal cord, which may have thus contributed to the acceleration of nerve regeneration and motor repair.

  10. Vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy activates the vocal folds maximally at therapeutic levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardesch, J.J.; Sikken, J.R.; Veltink, Petrus H.; van der Aa, H.E.; Hageman, G.; Buschman, H.P.J.

    Purpose Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for medically refractory epilepsy can give hoarseness due to stimulation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. For a group of VNS-therapy users this side-effect interferes severely with their daily activities. Our goal was to investigate the severity of

  11. Peripheral nerve injury induces glial activation in primary motor cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Julieta Troncoso; Julieta Troncoso; Efraín Buriticá; Efraín Buriticá

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that peripheral facial nerve injuries are associated with sensorimotor cortex reorganization. We have characterized facial nerve lesion-induced structural changes in primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons and their relationship with glial cell density using a rodent facial paralysis model. First, we used adult transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in microglia and yellow fluorescent protein in pyramidal neurons which were subjected to eithe...

  12. Study of sympathetic nerve activity in young Indian obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kalpana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is the culmination of a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. This energy balance can be potentially affected by the activity of autonomic nervous system (ANS. Altered sympathetic nerve function may be of importance in obesity. Objective: The present study is an attempt to pinpoint the defect (if any in the activity of sympathetic limb of the ANS in obesity, by subjecting to isometric exercise stress. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 females belonging to the age group of 18-22 years were recruited for the study. The participants were divided into two groups as normal weight and obese based on WHO guidelines for Asia Pacific region. After recording the resting blood pressure, they were subjected to isometric exercise by Handgrip dynamometer. Blood pressure was recorded again, and the difference was noted down. All recorded parameters were compared between two groups using unpaired t test. The relationship between body mass index (BMI and rise in diastolic pressure was quantified by Pearson′s correlation test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In obese, the diastolic pressure was significantly higher at rest, but showed reduced rise during handgrip test in comparison with normal weight individuals. Also, the rise in diastolic pressure exhibited a negative relation with BMI. Conclusion: The result is suggestive of impaired autonomic function at rest and reduced sympathetic activity in the group of obese when subjected to stress. This could make them more prone for future development of hypertension or other cardiovascular disorders.

  13. The role of the renal afferent and efferent nerve fibers in heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Lindsea C.; May, Clive N.; Yao, Song T.

    2015-01-01

    Renal nerves contain afferent, sensory and efferent, sympathetic nerve fibers. In heart failure (HF) there is an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), which can lead to renal vasoconstriction, increased renin release and sodium retention. These changes are thought to contribute to renal dysfunction, which is predictive of poor outcome in patients with HF. In contrast, the role of the renal afferent nerves remains largely unexplored in HF. This is somewhat surprising as there are multiple triggers in HF that have the potential to increase afferent nerve activity, including increased venous pressure and reduced kidney perfusion. Some of the few studies investigating renal afferents in HF have suggested that at least the sympatho-inhibitory reno-renal reflex is blunted. In experimentally induced HF, renal denervation, both surgical and catheter-based, has been associated with some improvements in renal and cardiac function. It remains unknown whether the effects are due to removal of the efferent renal nerve fibers or afferent renal nerve fibers, or a combination of both. Here, we review the effects of HF on renal efferent and afferent nerve function and critically assess the latest evidence supporting renal denervation as a potential treatment in HF. PMID:26483699

  14. A comparison between complete immobilisation and protected active mobilisation in sensory nerve recovery following isolated digital nerve injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, F P

    2012-06-01

    Post-operative immobilisation following isolated digital nerve repair remains a controversial issue amongst the microsurgical community. Protocols differ from unit to unit and even, as evidenced in our unit, may differ from consultant to consultant. We undertook a retrospective review of 46 patients who underwent isolated digital nerve repair over a 6-month period. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 18 months. Twenty-four were managed with protected active mobilisation over a 4-week period while 22 were immobilised over the same period. Outcomes such as return to work, cold intolerance, two-point discrimination and temperature differentiation were used as indicators of clinical recovery. Our results showed that there was no significant difference noted in either clinical assessment of recovery or return to work following either post-operative protocol, suggesting that either regime may be adopted, tailored to the patient\\'s needs and resources of the unit.

  15. Coordinated Respiratory Motor Activity in Nerves Innervating the Upper Airway Muscles in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tachikawa

    Full Text Available Maintaining the patency of the upper airway during breathing is of vital importance. The activity of various muscles is related to the patency of the upper airway. In the present study, we examined the respiratory motor activity in the efferent nerves innervating the upper airway muscles to determine the movements of the upper airway during respiration under normocapnic conditions (pH = 7.4 and in hypercapnic acidosis (pH = 7.2. Experiments were performed on arterially perfused decerebrate rats aged between postnatal days 21-35. We recorded the efferent nerve activity in a branch of the cervical spinal nerve innervating the infrahyoid muscles (CN, the hypoglossal nerve (HGN, the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN, and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN with the phrenic nerve (PN. Inspiratory nerve discharges were observed in all these nerves under normocapnic conditions. The onset of inspiratory discharges in the CN and HGN was slightly prior to those in the SLN and RLN. When the CO2 concentration in the perfusate was increased from 5% to 8% to prepare for hypercapnic acidosis, the peak amplitudes of the inspiratory discharges in all the recorded nerves were increased. Moreover, hypercapnic acidosis induced pre-inspiratory discharges in the CN, HGN, SLN, and RLN. The onset of pre-inspiratory discharges in the CN, HGN, and SLN was prior to that of discharges in the RLN. These results suggest that the securing of the airway that occurs a certain time before dilation of the glottis may facilitate ventilation and improve hypercapnic acidosis.

  16. M. leprae components induce nerve damage by complement activation: identification of lipoarabinomannan as the dominant complement activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia El Idrissi, Nawal; Das, Pranab K; Fluiter, Kees; Rosa, Patricia S; Vreijling, Jeroen; Troost, Dirk; Morgan, B Paul; Baas, Frank; Ramaglia, Valeria

    2015-05-01

    Peripheral nerve damage is the hallmark of leprosy pathology but its etiology is unclear. We previously identified the membrane attack complex (MAC) of the complement system as a key determinant of post-traumatic nerve damage and demonstrated that its inhibition is neuroprotective. Here, we determined the contribution of the MAC to nerve damage caused by Mycobacterium leprae and its components in mouse. Furthermore, we studied the association between MAC and the key M. leprae component lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in nerve biopsies of leprosy patients. Intraneural injections of M. leprae sonicate induced MAC deposition and pathological changes in the mouse nerve, whereas MAC inhibition preserved myelin and axons. Complement activation occurred mainly via the lectin pathway and the principal activator was LAM. In leprosy nerves, the extent of LAM and MAC immunoreactivity was robust and significantly higher in multibacillary compared to paucibacillary donors (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively), with a highly significant association between LAM and MAC in the diseased samples (r = 0.9601, p = 0.0001). Further, MAC co-localized with LAM on axons, pointing to a role for this M. leprae antigen in complement activation and nerve damage in leprosy. Our findings demonstrate that MAC contributes to nerve damage in a model of M. leprae-induced nerve injury and its inhibition is neuroprotective. In addition, our data identified LAM as the key pathogen associated molecule that activates complement and causes nerve damage. Taken together our data imply an important role of complement in nerve damage in leprosy and may inform the development of novel therapeutics for patients.

  17. G-CSF prevents caspase 3 activation in Schwann cells after sciatic nerve transection, but does not improve nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Hanna K; Kodama, Akira; Ekström, Per; Dahlin, Lars B

    2016-10-15

    Exogenous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has emerged as a drug candidate for improving the outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. We raised the question if exogenous G-CSF can improve nerve regeneration following a clinically relevant model - nerve transection and repair - in healthy and diabetic rats. In short-term experiments, distance of axonal regeneration and extent of injury-induced Schwann cell death was quantified by staining for neurofilaments and cleaved caspase 3, respectively, seven days after repair. There was no difference in axonal outgrowth between G-CSF-treated and non-treated rats, regardless if healthy Wistar or diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were examined. However, G-CSF treatment caused a significant 13% decrease of cleaved caspase 3-positive Schwann cells at the lesion site in healthy rats, but only a trend in diabetic rats. In the distal nerve segments of healthy rats a similar trend was observed. In long-term experiments of healthy rats, regeneration outcome was evaluated at 90days after repair by presence of neurofilaments, wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle, and perception of touch (von Frey monofilament testing weekly). The presence of neurofilaments distal to the suture line was similar in G-CSF-treated and non-treated rats. The weight ratio of ipsi-over contralateral gastrocnemius muscles, and perception of touch at any time point, were likewise not affected by G-CSF treatment. In addition, the inflammatory response in short- and long-term experiments was studied by analyzing ED1 stainable macrophages in healthy rats, but in neither case was any attenuation seen at the injury site or distal to it. G-CSF can prevent caspase 3 activation in Schwann cells in the short-term, but does not detectably affect the inflammatory response, nor improve early or late axonal outgrowth or functional recovery. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective detrusor activation by electrical sacral nerve root stimulation in spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhoff, N. J.; Wijkstra, H.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1997-01-01

    Electrical sacral nerve root stimulation can be used in spinal cord injury patients to induce urinary bladder contraction. However, existing stimulation methods activate simultaneously both the detrusor muscle and the urethral sphincter. Urine evacuation is therefore only possible using poststimulus

  19. Patterns of motor activity in the isolated nerve cord of the octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Yoram; Matzner, Henry; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2006-12-01

    The extremely flexible octopus arm provides a unique opportunity for studying movement control in a highly redundant motor system. We describe a novel preparation that allows analysis of the peripheral nervous system of the octopus arm and its interaction with the muscular and mechanosensory elements of the arm's intrinsic muscular system. First we examined the synaptic responses in muscle fibers to identify the motor pathways from the axial nerve cord of the arm to the surrounding musculature. We show that the motor axons project to the muscles via nerve roots originating laterally from the arm nerve cord. The motor field of each nerve is limited to the region where the nerve enters the arm musculature. The same roots also carry afferent mechanosensory information from the intrinsic muscle to the axial nerve cord. Next, we characterized the pattern of activity generated in the dorsal roots by electrically stimulating the axial nerve cord. The evoked activity, although far reaching and long lasting, cannot alone account for the arm extension movements generated by similar electrical stimulation. The mismatch between patterns of activity in the isolated cord and in an intact arm may stem from the involvement of mechanosensory feedback in natural arm extension.

  20. Development of Kinematic Graphs of Median Nerve during Active Finger Motion: Implications of Smartphone Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi-Chi Woo

    Full Text Available Certain hand activities cause deformation and displacement of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel due to the gliding motion of tendons surrounding it. As smartphone usage escalates, this raises the public's concern whether hand activities while using smartphones can lead to median nerve problems.The aims of this study were to 1 develop kinematic graphs and 2 investigate the associated deformation and rotational information of median nerve in the carpal tunnel during hand activities.Dominant wrists of 30 young adults were examined with ultrasonography by placing a transducer transversely on their wrist crease. Ultrasound video clips were recorded when the subject performing 1 thumb opposition with the wrist in neutral position, 2 thumb opposition with the wrist in ulnar deviation and 3 pinch grip with the wrist in neutral position. Six still images that were separated by 0.2-second intervals were then captured from the ultrasound video for the determination of 1 cross-sectional area (CSA, 2 flattening ratio (FR, 3 rotational displacement (RD and 4 translational displacement (TD of median nerve in the carpal tunnel, and these collected information of deformation, rotational and displacement of median nerve were compared between 1 two successive time points during a single hand activity and 2 different hand motions at the same time point. Finally, kinematic graphs were constructed to demonstrate the mobility of median nerve during different hand activities.Performing different hand activities during this study led to a gradual reduction in CSA of the median nerve, with thumb opposition together with the wrist in ulnar deviation causing the greatest extent of deformation of the median nerve. Thumb opposition with the wrist in ulnar deviation also led to the largest extent of TD when compared to the other two hand activities of this study. Kinematic graphs showed that the motion pathways of median nerve during different hand activities were complex

  1. Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers., a medicinal mushroom, activates peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kah-Hui; Kanagasabapathy, Gowri; Naidu, Murali; David, Pamela; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2016-10-01

    To study the ability of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus mushroom in the treatment of nerve injury following peroneal nerve crush in Sprague-Dawley rats. Aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus was given by daily oral administration following peroneal nerve crush injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. The expression of protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways; and c-Jun and c-Fos genes were studied in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) whereas the activity of protein synthesis was assessed in peroneal nerves by immunohistochemical method. Peripheral nerve injury leads to changes at the axonal site of injury and remotely located DRG containing cell bodies of sensory afferent neurons. Immunofluorescence studies showed that DRG neurons ipsilateral to the crush injury in rats of treated groups expressed higher immunoreactivities for Akt, MAPK, c-Jun and c-Fos as compared with negative control group (P <0.05). The intensity of nuclear ribonucleoprotein in the distal segments of crushed nerves of treated groups was significantly higher than in the negative control group (P <0.05). H. erinaceus is capable of promoting peripheral nerve regeneration after injury. Potential signaling pathways include Akt, MAPK, c-Jun, and c-Fos, and protein synthesis have been shown to be involved in its action.

  2. Cranial nerve clock. Part II: functional MR imaging of brain activation during a declarative memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, K L; Welsh, R C; Eldevik, P; Bieliauskas, L A; Steinberg, B A

    2001-12-01

    The authors performed this study to assess brain activation during encoding and successful recall with a declarative memory paradigm that has previously been demonstrated to be effective for teaching students about the cranial nerves. Twenty-four students underwent functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging during encoding and recall of the name, number, and function of the 12 cranial nerves. The students viewed mnemonic graphic and text slides related to individual nerves, as well as their respective control slides. For the recall paradigm, students were prompted with the numbers 1-12 (test condition) intermixed with the number 14 (control condition). Subjects were tested about their knowledge of cranial nerves outside the MR unit before and after functional MR imaging. Students learned about the cranial nerves while undergoing functional MR imaging (mean post- vs preparadigm score, 8.1 +/- 3.4 [of a possible 12] vs 0.75 +/- 0.94, bilateral prefrontal cortex, left greater than right; P brain activation. Encoding revealed statistically significant activation in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, left greater than right [corrected]; bilateral occipital and parietal associative cortices, parahippocampus region, fusiform gyri, and cerebellum. Successful recall activated the left much more than the right prefrontal, parietal associative, and anterior cingulate cortices; bilateral precuneus and cerebellum; and right more than the left posterior cingulate. A predictable pattern of brain activation at functional MR imaging accompanies the encoding and successful recall of the cranial nerves with this declarative memory paradigm.

  3. Nerve transection repair using laser-activated chitosan in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Neel K; Khan, Taleef R; Mejias, Christopher; Paniello, Randal C

    2017-08-01

    Cranial nerve transection during head and neck surgery is conventionally repaired with microsuture. Previous studies have demonstrated recovery with laser nerve welding (LNW), a novel alternative to microsuture. LNW has been reported to have poorer tensile strength, however. Laser-activated chitosan, an adhesive biopolymer, may promote nerve recovery while enhancing the tensile strength of the repair. Using a rat posterior tibial nerve injury model, we compared four different methods of nerve repair in this pilot study. Animal study. Animals underwent unilateral posterior tibial nerve transection. The injury was repaired by potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser alone (n = 20), KTP + chitosan (n = 12), microsuture + chitosan (n = 12), and chitosan alone (n = 14). Weekly walking tracks were conducted to measure functional recovery (FR). Tensile strength (TS) was measured at 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, KTP laser alone had the best recovery (FR = 93.4% ± 8.3%). Microsuture + chitosan, KTP + chitosan, and chitosan alone all showed good FR (87.4% ± 13.5%, 84.6% ± 13.0%, and 84.1% ± 10.0%, respectively). One-way analysis of variance was performed (F(3,56) = 2.6, P = .061). A TS threshold of 3.8 N was selected as a control mean recovery. Three groups-KTP alone, KTP + chitosan, and microsuture + chitosan-were found to meet threshold 60% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.1%-88.3%), 75% (95% CI: 46.8%-91.1%), and 100% (95% CI: 75.8%-100.0%), respectively. In the posterior tibial nerve model, all repair methods promoted nerve recovery. Laser-activated chitosan as a biopolymer anchor provided good TS and appears to be a novel alternative to microsuture. This repair method may have surgical utility following cranial nerve injury during head and neck surgery. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E253-E257, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Electrophysiological study in the infraorbital nerve of the rat: Spontaneous and evoked activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlbarracIn, A L [Catedra de Neurociencias, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Av. Roca 2200, PC 4000 (Argentina); Farfan, F D [Departamento de BioingenierIa, FACET, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, INSIBIO - CONICET, CC 327, PC 4000 (Argentina); Felice, C J [Departamento de BioingenierIa, FACET, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, INSIBIO - CONICET, CC 327, PC 4000 (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    In this work we present some studies in the afferent nerve of the rat vibrissae. Studies on spontaneous activity (SA) in this sensorial system are of long data. Nevertheless, SA recordings in the nerve of a single vibrissa have not been made until present. In this work, we use an algorithm based on signal decomposition with Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) to analyse the discharges of two nerves. The action potentials of both nerves were detected and the firing rates were calculated. These results suggest that the firing rate of one vibrissa innervation is low considering that this nerve contains hundred of fibers. In addition, we present preliminary studies suggesting important effects of the hair shaft length in the afferent discharge during the vibrissae movements. The experiments consisted in recording the nerve activity after the vibrissae were sectioned at two different levels. The results showed important differences in the signal energy contents. It suggests that the hair shaft length would produce a differential activation of the mechanoreceptors located in the vibrissae follicle.

  5. Electrophysiological study in the infraorbital nerve of the rat: Spontaneous and evoked activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlbarracIn, A L; Farfan, F D; Felice, C J

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present some studies in the afferent nerve of the rat vibrissae. Studies on spontaneous activity (SA) in this sensorial system are of long data. Nevertheless, SA recordings in the nerve of a single vibrissa have not been made until present. In this work, we use an algorithm based on signal decomposition with Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) to analyse the discharges of two nerves. The action potentials of both nerves were detected and the firing rates were calculated. These results suggest that the firing rate of one vibrissa innervation is low considering that this nerve contains hundred of fibers. In addition, we present preliminary studies suggesting important effects of the hair shaft length in the afferent discharge during the vibrissae movements. The experiments consisted in recording the nerve activity after the vibrissae were sectioned at two different levels. The results showed important differences in the signal energy contents. It suggests that the hair shaft length would produce a differential activation of the mechanoreceptors located in the vibrissae follicle

  6. RESISTIN, AN ADIPOKINE WITH NON-GENERALISED ACTIONS ON SYMPATHETIC NERVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eBadoer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation has called obesity a global epidemic. There is a strong association between body weight gain and blood pressure. A major determinant of blood pressure is the level of activity in sympathetic nerves innervating cardiovascular organs. A characteristic of obesity, in both humans and in animal models, is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity to the skeletal muscle vasculature and to the kidneys. Obesity is now recognised as a chronic, low level inflammatory condition and pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated including those produced by adipose tissue. The most well known adipokine released from fat tissue is leptin. The adipokine, resistin,, is also released from adipose tissue. Resistin can act in the central nervous system to influence the sympathetic nerve activity. Here, we review the effects of resistin on sympathetic nerve activity and compare them with leptin. We build an argument that resistin and leptin may have complex interactions. Firstly, they may augment each other as both are excitatory on sympathetic nerves innervating cardiovascular organs; In contrast, they could antagonize each other’s actions on brown adipose tissue, a key metabolic organ. These interactions may be important in conditions in which leptin and resistin are elevated, such as in obesity.

  7. Active patient decision making regarding nerve sparing during radical prostatectomy: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Hugh J; Prall, David N; Abaza, Ronney

    2011-08-01

    The motivation to preserve sexual function can vary widely among patients before prostatectomy. Increasing patient involvement may allow a more personalized experience and may improve satisfaction. We assessed a strategy of surgeon deference to patient choice in regard to nerve sparing to determine to what degree patients are rational actors and capable of active decision making. A total of 150 patients treated with prostatectomy participated in a standardized preoperative discussion regarding the concept of nerve sparing, extracapsular extension and the potential need for adjuvant radiation in the event of local recurrence. Each patient was given his nomogram predicted risk of extracapsular extension and then elected nerve sparing or nonnerve sparing. The corresponding procedure was performed unless grossly invasive disease was encountered. Of the 150 patients 109 chose nerve sparing (73%) and 41 chose nonnerve sparing (27%). In patients with a nomogram predicted risk of extracapsular extension less than 20%, 20% to 50% and greater than 50%, nerve sparing was elected by 88%, 41% and 25%, respectively. Patients with lower risks of extracapsular extension electing nonnerve sparing were older and had higher rates of erectile dysfunction. Empowering patients to decide on their nerve sparing status is a reasonable strategy that did not lead to a high rate of patients with a high risk of extracapsular extension electing nerve sparing. With proper counseling informed patients made reasonable decisions, and appeared to be conservative, prioritizing cancer control in the majority of instances where extracapsular extension risk was high. In addition, they may have been overly conservative in electing nonnerve sparing when the risk was low. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Myocardial adrenergic nerve activity in valvular diseases assessed by iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Yoshihiro; Fukuyama, Takaya

    1997-01-01

    Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging was used to assess myocardial adrenergic nerve activity in patients with heart failure. MIBG planar images were obtained in 94 patients. The uptake of MIBG, calculated as the heart-to-mediastinum activity ratio in the immediate image (15 min), showed a significant decrease only in patients with severe heart failure due to cardiomyopathy, but was not changed in those with valvular diseases. Storage and release of MIBG, calculated as the percentage myocardial MIBG washout from 15 min to 4 hours after isotope injection, was substantially accelerated in both patients with cardiomyopathy and valvular diseases in proportion to the severity of heart failure. These data suggest that, in severe heart failure associated with cardiomyopathy, norepinephrine uptake is reduced. Also, myocardial adrenergic nerve activity is accelerated in proportion to the severity of heart failure independent of the underlying cause. MIBG images were analyzed in 20 patients with mitral stenosis with the same methods to clarify whether myocardial adrenergic nerve activity is different in patients with heart failure without left ventricular volume or pressure overload. Myocardial uptake of MIBG did not show any significant difference. The percentage myocardial MIBG washout was increased in patients with severe heart failure. The closest correlation was between myocardial washout and cardiac output. In heart failure due to mitral stenosis, myocardial adrenergic nerve activity is intensified. Decrease in cardiac output associated with mitral stenosis acts as a potent stimulus for this intensification. (author)

  9. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves the rest-activity rhythm in midstage Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E. J.; van Someren, E. J.; Swaab, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    Nightly restlessness in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is probably due to a disorder of circadian rhythms. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was previously reported to increase the strength of coupling of the circadian rest activity rhythm to Zeitgebers in early stage

  10. Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during endotoxemia in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westerloo, D. J.; Giebelen, I. A. J.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Daalhuisen, J.; de Vos, A. F.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; van der Poll, T.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sepsis and endotoxemia are associated with concurrent activation of inflammation and the hemostatic mechanism, which both contribute to organ dysfunction and death. Electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been found to inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha release during

  11. MO-C-BRB-03: RSNA President [Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenson, R. [RSNA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  12. Functional role of peripheral opioid receptors in the regulation of cardiac spinal afferent nerve activity during myocardial ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Thinly myelinated Aδ-fiber and unmyelinated C-fiber cardiac sympathetic (spinal) sensory nerve fibers are activated during myocardial ischemia to transmit the sensation of angina pectoris. Although recent observations showed that myocardial ischemia increases the concentrations of opioid peptides and that the stimulation of peripheral opioid receptors inhibits chemically induced visceral and somatic nociception, the role of opioids in cardiac spinal afferent signaling during myocardial ischemia has not been studied. The present study tested the hypothesis that peripheral opioid receptors modulate cardiac spinal afferent nerve activity during myocardial ischemia by suppressing the responses of cardiac afferent nerve to ischemic mediators like bradykinin and extracellular ATP. The nerve activity of single unit cardiac afferents was recorded from the left sympathetic chain (T2–T5) in anesthetized cats. Forty-three ischemically sensitive afferent nerves (conduction velocity: 0.32–3.90 m/s) with receptive fields in the left and right ventricles were identified. The responses of these afferent nerves to repeat ischemia or ischemic mediators were further studied in the following protocols. First, epicardial administration of naloxone (8 μmol), a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, enhanced the responses of eight cardiac afferent nerves to recurrent myocardial ischemia by 62%, whereas epicardial application of vehicle (PBS) did not alter the responses of seven other cardiac afferent nerves to ischemia. Second, naloxone applied to the epicardial surface facilitated the responses of seven cardiac afferent nerves to epicardial ATP by 76%. Third, administration of naloxone enhanced the responses of seven other afferent nerves to bradykinin by 85%. In contrast, in the absence of naloxone, cardiac afferent nerves consistently responded to repeated application of ATP (n = 7) or bradykinin (n = 7). These data suggest that peripheral opioid peptides suppress the

  13. Evaluation of high-density, multi-contact nerve cuffs for activation of grasp muscles in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, N. A.; Naufel, S. N.; Polasek, K.; Ethier, C.; Cheesborough, J.; Agnew, S.; Miller, L. E.; Tyler, D. J.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether nerve cuffs can selectively activate hand muscles for functional electrical stimulation (FES). FES typically involves identifying and implanting electrodes in many individual muscles, but nerve cuffs only require implantation at a single site around the nerve. This method is surgically more attractive. Nerve cuffs may also more effectively stimulate intrinsic hand muscles, which are difficult to implant and stimulate without spillover to adjacent muscles. Approach. To evaluate its ability to selectively activate muscles, we implanted and tested the flat interface nerve electrode (FINE), which is designed to selectively stimulate peripheral nerves that innervate multiple muscles (Tyler and Durand 2002 IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. 10 294-303). We implanted FINEs on the nerves and bipolar intramuscular wires for recording compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) from up to 20 muscles in each arm of six monkeys. We then collected recruitment curves while the animals were anesthetized. Main result. A single FINE implanted on an upper extremity nerve in the monkey can selectively activate muscles or small groups of muscles to produce multiple, independent hand functions. Significance. FINE cuffs can serve as a viable supplement to intramuscular electrodes in FES systems, where they can better activate intrinsic and extrinsic muscles with lower currents and less extensive surgery.

  14. Influence of local noxious heat stimulation on sensory nerve activity in the feline dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, K F

    1978-05-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to develop an experimental model in which noxious heat stimulation was used to produce increased intradental sensory nerve activity in canine teeth of anesthetized cats. Two techniques were evaluated in which both the method of recording and the nature of the stimulus varied. Slow heating (approx 1 degree C/s) to 47 degree C of the tooth surface (combined with recording from electrodes in open dentinal cavities) did not produce any persistent nerve activity. Repeated periods of brief intense heating (approx 60 degrees C/s) (combined with recording from amalgam electrodes placed on cavity floors) resulted in an immediate response and an afterdischarge (phase 3) generally persisting for 20--60 min. Maximum phase 3 activity was characteristic for the individual cat and ranged from 0.2 to 50.2 imp/s. mean value 10.6 imp/s (S.D. +/- 9.2). A systematically higher phase 3 activity was recorded in lower compared to upper canine teeth (p less than 0.05). The maximum phase 3 response generally occurred after 3-8 stimulations; the median number of required stimuli was 3. Repeated brief heat stimulations combined with the closed cavity recording technique may be used as an experimental model by which the mechanisms behind increases in intradental sensory nerve activity associated with tissue damage can be studied.

  15. Vagus nerve stimulation magnet activation for seizures: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R S; Eggleston, K S; Wright, C W

    2015-01-01

    Some patients receiving VNS Therapy report benefit from manually activating the generator with a handheld magnet at the time of a seizure. A review of 20 studies comprising 859 subjects identified patients who reported on-demand magnet mode stimulation to be beneficial. Benefit was reported in a weighted average of 45% of patients (range 0-89%) using the magnet, with seizure cessation claimed in a weighted average of 28% (range 15-67%). In addition to seizure termination, patients sometimes reported decreased intensity or duration of seizures or the post-ictal period. One study reported an isolated instance of worsening with magnet stimulation (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 157, 2003 and 560). All of the reviewed studies assessed adjunctive magnet use. No studies were designed to provide Level I evidence of efficacy of magnet-induced stimulation. Retrospective analysis of one pivotal randomized trial of VNS therapy showed significantly more seizures terminated or improved in the active stimulation group vs the control group. Prospective, controlled studies would be required to isolate the effect and benefit of magnet mode stimulation and to document that the magnet-induced stimulation is the proximate cause of seizure reduction. Manual application of the magnet to initiate stimulation is not always practical because many patients are immobilized or unaware of their seizures, asleep or not in reach of the magnet. Algorithms based on changes in heart rate at or near the onset of the seizure provide a methodology for automated responsive stimulation. Because literature indicates additional benefits from on-demand magnet mode stimulation, a potential role exists for automatic activation of stimulation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  17. Which nerve conduction parameters can predict spontaneous electromyographic activity in carpal tunnel syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Wei; Lee, Wei-Ju; Liao, Yi-Chu; Chang, Ming-Hong

    2013-11-01

    We investigate electrodiagnostic markers to determine which parameters are the best predictors of spontaneous electromyographic (EMG) activity in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 229 patients with clinically proven and nerve conduction study (NCS)-proven CTS, as well as 100 normal control subjects. All subjects were evaluated using electrodiagnostic techniques, including median distal sensory latencies (DSLs), sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs), distal motor latencies (DMLs), compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), forearm median nerve conduction velocities (FMCVs) and wrist-palm motor conduction velocities (W-P MCVs). All CTS patients underwent EMG examination of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle, and the presence or absence of spontaneous EMG activities was recorded. Normal limits were determined by calculating the means ± 2 standard deviations from the control data. Associations between parameters from the NCS and EMG findings were investigated. In patients with clinically diagnosed CTS, abnormal median CMAP amplitudes were the best predictors of spontaneous activity during EMG examination (p95% (positive predictive rate >95%). If the median CMAP amplitude was higher than the normal limit (>4.9 mV), the rate of no spontaneous EMG activity was >94% (negative predictive rate >94%). An abnormal SNAP amplitude was the second best predictor of spontaneous EMG activity (p<0.001; OR 4.13; 95% CI 2.16-7.90), and an abnormal FMCV was the third best predictor (p=0.01; OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.20-3.67). No other nerve conduction parameters had significant power to predict spontaneous activity upon EMG examination. The CMAP amplitudes of the APB are the most powerful predictors of the occurrence of spontaneous EMG activity. Low CMAP amplitudes are strongly associated with spontaneous activity, whereas high CMAP amplitude are less associated with spontaneous activity, implying that needle EMG examination should be recommended for the detection of

  18. MR imaging and T2 measurements in peripheral nerve repair with activation of Toll-like receptor 4 of neurotmesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Wen, Xuehua; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2014-05-15

    To investigate the role of MR imaging in neurotmesis combined with surgical repair and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Forty-eight rats received subepineurial microinjection of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS, n = 24) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, n = 24) immediately after surgical repair of the transected sciatic nerve. Sequential fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging and quantitative T2 measurements were obtained at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery, with histologic assessments performed at regular intervals. T2 relaxation times and histological quantification of the distal stumps were measured and compared. The distal stumps of transected nerves treated with LPS or PBS both showed persistent enlargement and hyperintense signal. T2 values of the distal stumps showed a rapid rise to peak level followed by a rapid decline pattern in nerves treated with LPS, while exhibiting a slow rise to peak value followed by a slow decline in nerves treated with PBS. Nerves treated with LPS exhibited more prominent macrophage recruitment, faster myelin debris clearance and more pronounced nerve regeneration. Nerves treated with TLR4 activation had a characteristic pattern of T2 value change over time. Longitudinal T2 measurements can be used to detect the enhanced repair effect associated with TLR4 activation in the surgical repair of neurotmesis. (orig.)

  19. Origin and pharmacological response of atrial tachyarrhythmias induced by activation of mediastinal nerves in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J Andrew; Richer, Louis-Philippe; Pagé, Pierre; Vinet, Alain; Kus, Teresa; Vermeulen, Michel; Nadeau, Réginald; Cardinal, René

    2005-03-31

    We sought to determine the sites of origin of atrial tachyarrhythmias induced by activating mediastinal nerves, as well as the response of such arrhythmias to autonomic modulation. Under general anaesthesia, atrioventricular block was induced after thoracotomy in 19 canines. Brief trains of 5 electrical stimuli were delivered to right-sided mediastinal nerves during the atrial refractory period. Unipolar electrograms were recorded from 191 right and left atrial epicardial sites under several conditions, i.e. (i) with intact nervous systems and following (ii) acute decentralization of the intrathoracic nervous system or administration of (iii) atropine, (iv) timolol, (v) hexamethonium. Concomitant right atrial endocardial mapping was performed in 7 of these dogs. Mediastinal nerve stimulation consistently initiated bradycardia followed by atrial tachyarrhythmias. In the initial tachyarrhythmia beats, early epicardial breakthroughs were identified in the right atrial free wall (28/50 episodes) or Bachmann bundle region (22/50), which corresponded to endocardial sites of origin associated with the right atrial subsidiary pacemaker complex, i.e. the crista terminalis and dorsal locations including the right atrial aspect of the interatrial septum. Neuronally induced responses were eliminated by atropine, modified by timolol and unaffected by acute neuronal decentralization. After hexamethonium, responses to extra-pericardial but not intra-pericardial nerve stimulation were eliminated. It is concluded that concomitant activation of cholinergic and adrenergic efferent intrinsic cardiac neurons induced by right-sided efferent neuronal stimulation initiates atrial tachyarrhythmias that originate from foci anatomically related to the right atrial pacemaker complex and tissues underlying major atrial ganglionated plexuses.

  20. Neuroprotective effect of lurasidone via antagonist activities on histamine in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Baoming; Yu, Liang; Li, Suping; Xu, Fei; Yang, Lili; Ma, Shuai; Guo, Yi

    2018-04-01

    Cranial nerve involvement frequently involves neuron damage and often leads to psychiatric disorder caused by multiple inducements. Lurasidone is a novel antipsychotic agent approved for the treatment of cranial nerve involvement and a number of mental health conditions in several countries. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of lurasidone by antagonist activities on histamine was investigated in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement. The antagonist activities of lurasidone on serotonin 5‑HT7, serotonin 5‑HT2A, serotonin 5‑HT1A and serotonin 5‑HT6 were analyzed, and the preclinical therapeutic effects of lurasidone were examined in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement. The safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and preliminary antitumor activity of lurasidone were also assessed in the cranial nerve involvement model. The therapeutic dose of lurasidone was 0.32 mg once daily, administered continuously in 14‑day cycles. The results of the present study found that the preclinical prescriptions induced positive behavioral responses following treatment with lurasidone. The MTD was identified as a once daily administration of 0.32 mg lurasidone. Long‑term treatment with lurasidone for cranial nerve involvement was shown to improve the therapeutic effects and reduce anxiety in the experimental rats. In addition, treatment with lurasidone did not affect body weight. The expression of the language competence protein, Forkhead‑BOX P2, was increased, and the levels of neuroprotective SxIP motif and microtubule end‑binding protein were increased in the hippocampal cells of rats with cranial nerve involvement treated with lurasidone. Lurasidone therapy reinforced memory capability and decreased anxiety. Taken together, lurasidone treatment appeared to protect against language disturbances associated with negative and cognitive impairment in the rat model of cranial nerve involvement, providing a basis for its use in the clinical treatment of

  1. A fine structural localization of the non-specific cholinesterase activity in glomerular nerve formations (endings).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubový, P

    1990-01-01

    Snout glabrous skin (rhinarium) of the cat is innervated not only by typical simple lamellar corpuscles but also glomerular formations. In contrast to simple lamellar corpuscles, glomerular nerve formations are located away the dermal papillae. In cross sections, glomerular nerve formation consists of several axonal profiles enveloped by 1-2 cytoplasmic lamellae of Schwann cells. The space among them is filled by collagenous microfibrils and the basal lamina-like material. Capsule was composed from fibroblast-like cells without definite basal lamina. An electron-dense reaction product due to non-specific cholinesterase activity was associated with Schwann cells and their processes surrounding unmyelinated terminal portion of the sensory axons. Abundant reaction product was bound to the collagenous microfibrils and was deposited in extracellular matrix between Schwann cell processes. These results are further evidence for the presence of the non-specific cholinesterase molecules as integral component of the extracellular matrix in sensory corpuscles. On the basis of histochemical study two possible explanation are considered for functional involving of this enzyme in sensory nerve formations.

  2. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many ... viruses. Sometimes the cause is not known. Degenerative nerve diseases include Alzheimer's disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Friedreich's ...

  3. Axonal and glial currents activated during the post-tetanic hyperpolarization in non-myelinated nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, A; Jirounek, P

    1998-07-01

    Changes in membrane potential and potassium concentration in the extracellular space ([K+]e) of rabbit vagus nerve were measured simultaneously during electrical activity and during the period of recovery using a modified sucrose-gap method and potassium-sensitive microelectrodes. After stimulation for 15 s at 15 Hz the main activity-induced increase in [K+]e reached 16.9 mM. This increase in [K+]e was paralleled by a depolarization of the preparation. The period of activity was followed by a post-tetanic hyperpolarization (PTH) lasting tens of seconds, generated by the axonal electrogenic Na+-K+ pump and to a lesser extent by the pump of the surrounding Schwann cells. The amplitude of the PTH dramatically increased in experiments in which inward currents were blocked by removal of Cl– or after application of Cs+ or Ba2+, indicating that under normal conditions the current generated by the Na+-K+ pump is strongly short-circuited. A pharmacological and kinetic study showed that these currents are: (1) the hyperpolarization-activated current I h, and (2) the inwardly rectifying I KIR current. The results show that the latter originates from Schwann cells. Our data indicate that in non-myelinated nerves there is a subtle association of inward ionic channels which (1) helps the cell to maintain an optimal membrane potential after a period of activity, and (2) contributes to the removal of excess K+ from the extracellular space.

  4. Somatic modulation of spinal reflex bladder activity mediated by nociceptive bladder afferent nerve fibers in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiying; Rogers, Marc J; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Schwen, Zeyad; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2014-09-15

    The goal of the present study was to determine if supraspinal pathways are necessary for inhibition of bladder reflex activity induced by activation of somatic afferents in the pudendal or tibial nerve. Cats anesthetized with α-chloralose were studied after acute spinal cord transection at the thoracic T9/T10 level. Dilute (0.25%) acetic acid was used to irritate the bladder, activate nociceptive afferent C-fibers, and trigger spinal reflex bladder contractions (amplitude: 19.3 ± 2.9 cmH2O). Hexamethonium (a ganglionic blocker, intravenously) significantly (P reflex bladder contractions to 8.5 ± 1.9 cmH2O. Injection of lidocaine (2%, 1-2 ml) into the sacral spinal cord or transection of the sacral spinal roots and spinal cord further reduced the contraction amplitude to 4.2 ± 1.3 cmH2O. Pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) at frequencies of 0.5-5 Hz and 40 Hz but not at 10-20 Hz inhibited reflex bladder contractions, whereas tibial nerve stimulation (TNS) failed to inhibit bladder contractions at all tested frequencies (0.5-40 Hz). These results indicate that PNS inhibition of nociceptive afferent C-fiber-mediated spinal reflex bladder contractions can occur at the spinal level in the absence of supraspinal pathways, but TNS inhibition requires supraspinal pathways. In addition, this study shows, for the first time, that after acute spinal cord transection reflex bladder contractions can be triggered by activating nociceptive bladder afferent C-fibers using acetic acid irritation. Understanding the sites of action for PNS or TNS inhibition is important for the clinical application of pudendal or tibial neuromodulation to treat bladder dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Nerve cell-mimicking liposomes as biosensor for botulinum neurotoxin complete physiological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingart, Oliver G., E-mail: Oliver.Weingart@hest.ethz.ch; Loessner, Martin J.

    2016-12-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most toxic substances known, and their neurotoxic properties and paralysing effects are exploited for medical treatment of a wide spectrum of disorders. To accurately quantify the potency of a pharmaceutical BoNT preparation, its physiological key activities (binding to membrane receptor, translocation, and proteolytic degradation of SNARE proteins) need to be determined. To date, this was only possible using animal models, or, to a limited extent, cell-based assays. We here report a novel in vitro system for BoNT/B analysis, based on nerve-cell mimicking liposomes presenting motoneuronal membrane receptors required for BoNT binding. Following triggered membrane translocation of the toxin's Light Chain, the endopeptidase activity can be quantitatively monitored employing a FRET-based reporter assay within the functionalized liposomes. We were able to detect BoNT/B physiological activity at picomolar concentrations in short time, opening the possibility for future replacement of animal experimentation in pharmaceutical BoNT testing. - Highlights: • A cell-free in vitro system was used to measure BoNT/B physiological function. • The system relies on nerve-cell mimicking liposomes as a novel detection system. • A FRET-based reporter assay is used as final readout of the test system. • BoNT/B physiological activity was detected at picogram quantities in short time. • The method opens the possibility to replace animal experimentation in BoNT testing.

  6. Inhibition of micturition reflex by activation of somatic afferents in posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Changfeng; Shen, Bing; Mally, Abhijith D; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Shouguo; Wang, Jicheng; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C

    2012-10-01

    This study determined if activation of somatic afferents in posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (PFCN) could modulate the micturition reflex recorded under isovolumetric conditions in α-chloralose anaesthetized cats. PFCN stimulation inhibited reflex bladder activity and significantly (P acid (AA). The optimal frequency for PFCN stimulation-induced bladder inhibition was between 3 and 10 Hz, and a minimal stimulation intensity of half of the threshold for inducing anal twitching was required. Bilateral pudendal nerve transection eliminated PFCN stimulation-induced anal twitching but did not change the stimulation-induced bladder inhibition, excluding the involvement of pudendal afferent or efferent axons in PFCN afferent inhibition.Mechanical or electrical stimulation on the skin surface in the PFCN dermatome also inhibited bladder activity. Prolonged (2 × 30 min) PFCN stimulation induced a post-stimulation inhibition that persists for at least 2 h. This study revealed a new cutaneous-bladder reflex activated by PFCN afferents. Although the mechanisms and physiological functions of this cutaneous-bladder reflex need to be further studied, our data raise the possibility that stimulation of PFCN afferents might be useful clinically for the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms.

  7. Nerve cell-mimicking liposomes as biosensor for botulinum neurotoxin complete physiological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingart, Oliver G.; Loessner, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most toxic substances known, and their neurotoxic properties and paralysing effects are exploited for medical treatment of a wide spectrum of disorders. To accurately quantify the potency of a pharmaceutical BoNT preparation, its physiological key activities (binding to membrane receptor, translocation, and proteolytic degradation of SNARE proteins) need to be determined. To date, this was only possible using animal models, or, to a limited extent, cell-based assays. We here report a novel in vitro system for BoNT/B analysis, based on nerve-cell mimicking liposomes presenting motoneuronal membrane receptors required for BoNT binding. Following triggered membrane translocation of the toxin's Light Chain, the endopeptidase activity can be quantitatively monitored employing a FRET-based reporter assay within the functionalized liposomes. We were able to detect BoNT/B physiological activity at picomolar concentrations in short time, opening the possibility for future replacement of animal experimentation in pharmaceutical BoNT testing. - Highlights: • A cell-free in vitro system was used to measure BoNT/B physiological function. • The system relies on nerve-cell mimicking liposomes as a novel detection system. • A FRET-based reporter assay is used as final readout of the test system. • BoNT/B physiological activity was detected at picogram quantities in short time. • The method opens the possibility to replace animal experimentation in BoNT testing.

  8. Characterizing biological variability in livestock blood cholinesterase activity for biomonitoring organophosphate nerve agent exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbrook, R.S.; Shugart, L.R.; Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B.; Linnabary, R.D. (Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States))

    1992-09-01

    A biomonitoring protocol, using blood cholinesterase (ChE) activity in livestock as a monitor of potential organophosphate nerve agent exposure during the planned destruction of US unitary chemical warfare agent stockpiles, is described. The experimental design included analysis of blood ChE activity in individual healthy sheep, horses, and dairy and beef cattle during a 10- to 12-month period. Castrated and sexually intact males, pregnant and lactating females, and adult and immature animals were examined through at least one reproductive cycle. The same animals were used throughout the period of observation and were not exposed to ChE-inhibiting organophosphate or carbamate compounds. A framework for an effective biomonitoring protocol within a monitoring area includes establishing individual baseline blood ChE activity for a sentinel group of 6 animals on the bases of blood samples collected over a 6-month period, monthly collection of blood samples for ChE-activity determination during monitoring, and selection of adult animals as sentinels. Exposure to ChE-inhibiting compounds would be suspected when all blood ChE activity of all animals within the sentinel group are decreased greater than 20% from their own baseline value. Sentinel species selection is primarily a logistical and operational concern; however, sheep appear to be the species of choice because within-individual baseline ChE activity and among age and gender group ChE activity in sheep had the least variability, compared with data from other species. This protocol provides an effective and efficient means for detecting abnormal depressions in blood ChE activity in livestock and can serve as a valuable indicator of the extent of actual plume movement and/or deposition in the event of organophosphate nerve agent release.

  9. Beneficial effects of gamma linolenic acid supplementation on nerve conduction velocity, Na+, K+ ATPase activity, and membrane fatty acid composition in sciatic nerve of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, T; Pierlovisi, M; Leonardi, J; Dufayet, D; Gerbi, A; Lafont, H; Vague, P; Raccah, D

    1999-07-01

    Metabolic and vascular abnormalities are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Two principal metabolic defects are altered lipid metabolism resulting from the impairment of delta-6-desaturase, which converts linoleic acid (LA) into gamma linolenic acid (GLA), and reduced nerve Na+, K+ ATPase activity. This reduction may be caused by a lack of incorporation of (n-6) fatty acids in membrane phospholipids. Because this ubiquitous enzyme maintains the membrane electrical potential and allows repolarization, disturbances in its activity can alter the process of nerve conduction velocity (NCV). We studied the effects of supplementation with GLA (260 mg per day) on NCV, fatty acid phospholipid composition, and Na+, K+ ATPase activity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Six groups of 10 rats were studied. Two groups served as controls supplemented with GLA or sunflower oil (GLA free). Two groups with different durations of diabetes were studied: 6 weeks with no supplementation and 12 weeks supplemented with sunflower oil. To test the ability of GLA to prevent or reverse the effects of diabetes, two groups of diabetic rats were supplemented with GLA, one group for 12 weeks and one group for 6 weeks, starting 6 weeks after diabetes induction. Diabetes resulted in a 25% decrease in NCV (P < 0.0001), a 45% decrease in Na+, K+ ATPase activity (P < 0.0001), and an abnormal phospholipid fatty acid composition. GLA restored NCV both in the prevention and reversal studies and partially restored Na+, K+ ATPase activity in the preventive treatment group (P < 0.0001). These effects were accompanied by a modification of phospholipid fatty acid composition in nerve membranes. Overall, the results suggest that membrane fatty acid composition plays a direct role in NCV and confirm the beneficial effect of GLA supplementation in diabetic neuropathy.

  10. Remote-Activated Electrical Stimulation via Piezoelectric Scaffold System for Functional Peripheral and Central Nerve Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Karen Gail

    2017-01-01

    A lack of therapeutic technologies that enable electrically stimulating nervous tissues in a facile and clinically relevant manner has partly hindered the advancement in treating nerve injuries for full functional recovery. Currently, the gold standard for nerve repair is autologous nerve grafting. However, this method has several disadvantages, such as necessity for multiple surgeries, creation of functionally impaired region where graft was taken from, disproportion of graft to nerve tissue...

  11. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrsa Bergmann Sverrisdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from animal studies indicates the importance of an interaction between the sympathetic nervous system and the endothelium for cardiovascular regulation. However the interaction between these two systems remains largely unexplored in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether directly recorded sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 10 healthy normotensive subjects (3 f/7 m, (age 37+/-11 yrs, (BMI 24+/-3 kg/m(2 direct recordings of sympathetic action potentials to the muscle vascular bed (MSNA were performed and endothelial function estimated with the Reactive Hyperaemia- Peripheral Arterial Tonometry (RH-PAT technique. Blood samples were taken and time spent on leisure-time physical activities was estimated. In all subjects the rate between resting flow and the maximum flow, the Reactive Hyperemic index (RH-PAT index, was within the normal range (1.9-3.3 and MSNA was as expected for age and gender (13-44 burst/minute. RH-PAT index was inversely related to MSNA (r = -0.8, p = 0.005. RH-PAT index and MSNA were reciprocally related to time (h/week spent on physical activity (p = 0.005 and p = 0.006 respectively and platelet concentration (PLT (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy normotensive individuals, indicating that sympathetic outflow may be modulated by changes in endothelial function. In this study time spent on physical activity is identified as a predictor of sympathetic nerve activity and endothelial function in a group of healthy individuals. The results are of importance in understanding mechanisms underlying sympathetic activation in conditions associated with endothelial dysfunction and emphasise the importance of a daily exercise routine for maintenance of cardiovascular

  12. Traditional Chinese herbal formula relieves snoring by modulating activities of upper airway related nerves in aged rats

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    Chung KT

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Kou-Toung Chung,* Chih-Hsiang Hsu,* Ching-Lung Lin, Sheue-Er Wang, Chung-Hsin WuDepartment of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAim: The present study investigated whether intraperitoneal treatment with the herbal formula B210 ([B210]; a herbal composition of Gastrodia elata and Cinnamomum cassia can reduce snoring in aged rats. Also, we studied possible neural mechanisms involved in B210 treatment and subsequent reduced snoring in rats.Methods and result: We compared pressure and frequency of snoring, activities of phrenic nerve (PNA, activities of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLNA and activities of hypoglossal nerve (HNA, inspiratory time (TI and expiratory time (TE of PNA, and pre-inspiratory time (Pre-TI of HNA in aged rats between sham and B210 treatment groups (30 mg/mL dissolved in DMSO. We found that aged rats that received B210 treatment had significantly reduced pressure and frequency of snoring than rats who received sham treatment. Also, we observed that aged rats that received B210 treatment had significantly increased PNA, RLNA, and HNA, extended TI and TE of PNA, and prolonged Pre-TI of HNA compared to rats that received sham treatment. In other words, B210 treatment may relieve snoring through modulating activities and breathing time of upper airway related nerves in aged rats.Conclusion: We suggested that the B210 might be a potential herbal formula for snoring remission.Keywords: Chinese herbal medicine, snoring remission, upper airway, phrenic nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, hypoglossal nerve

  13. Radiosensitizing activity and pharmacokinetics of multiple dose administered KU-2285 in peripheral nerve tissue in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Hiroyuki; Matsuno, Etsuko; Sasai, Keisuke; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    1994-01-01

    In a clinical trial in which a 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizer was administered repeatedly, the dose-limiting toxicity was found to be peripheral neuropathy. In the present study, the in vivo radiosensitizing activity of KU-2285 in combination with radiation dose fractionation, and the pharmacokinetics of cumulative dosing of KU-2285 in the peripheral nerves were examined. The ability of three nitroimidazoles, misonidazole (MISO), etanidazole (SR-2508) and KU-2285, to sensitize SCCVII tumors to radiation treatment has been compared for drug doses in the range 0-200 mg/kg. Single radiation doses or two different fractionation schedules (6 Gy/fractions x three fractions/48 h or 5 Gy/fractions x five fractions/48 h) were used; the tumor cell survival was determined using an in vivo/in vitro colony assay. The pharmacokinetics in the sciatic nerves were undertaken, when KU-2285 or etanidazole were injected at a dose of 200 mg/kg intravenously one, two, three, or four times at 2-h intervals. At less than 100 mg/kg, KU-2285 sensitized SCCVII tumors more than MISO and SR-2508 by fractionated irradiation. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics in the peripheral nerves showed that the apparent biological half-life of SR-2508 increased with the increases in the number of administrations, whereas that of KU-2285 became shorter. Since most clinical radiotherapy is given in small multiple fractions, KU-2285 appears to be a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer that could be useful in such regimens, and that poses no risk of chronic peripheral neurotoxicity. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. A structure-activity analysis of the variation in oxime efficacy against nerve agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, Donald M.; Koplovitz, Irwin; Worek, Franz; Sweeney, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    A structure-activity analysis was used to evaluate the variation in oxime efficacy of 2-PAM, obidoxime, HI-6 and ICD585 against nerve agents. In vivo oxime protection and in vitro oxime reactivation were used as indicators of oxime efficacy against VX, sarin, VR and cyclosarin. Analysis of in vivo oxime protection was conducted with oxime protective ratios (PR) from guinea pigs receiving oxime and atropine therapy after sc administration of nerve agent. Analysis of in vitro reactivation was conducted with second-order rate contants (k r2 ) for oxime reactivation of agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from guinea pig erythrocytes. In vivo oxime PR and in vitro k r2 decreased as the volume of the alkylmethylphosphonate moiety of nerve agents increased from VX to cyclosarin. This effect was greater with 2-PAM and obidoxime (> 14-fold decrease in PR) than with HI-6 and ICD585 ( r2 as the volume of the agent moiety conjugated to AChE increased was consistent with a steric hindrance mechanism. Linear regression of log (PR-1) against log (k r2 · [oxime dose]) produced two offset parallel regression lines that delineated a significant difference between the coupling of oxime reactivation and oxime protection for HI-6 and ICD585 compared to 2-PAM and obidoxime. HI-6 and ICD585 appeared to be 6.8-fold more effective than 2-PAM and obidoxime at coupling oxime reactivation to oxime protection, which suggested that the isonicotinamide group that is common to both of these oximes, but absent from 2-PAM and obidoxime, is important for oxime efficacy

  15. Persistent alterations in active and passive electrical membrane properties of regenerated nerve fibers of man and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Alvarez Herrero, Susana; Rosberg, Mette R.

    2016-01-01

    Excitability of regenerated fibers remains impaired due to changes in both passive cable properties and alterations in the voltage-dependent membrane function. These abnormalities were studied by mathematical modeling in human regenerated nerves and experimental studies in mice. In three adult male...... activity protocol triggered partial Wallerian degeneration in regenerated nerves but not in control nerves from age-matched mice. The current data suggest that the nodal voltage-gated ion channel machinery is restored in regenerated axons, although the electrical separation from the internodal compartment...... remains compromised. Due to the persistent increase in number of nodes, the increased activity-dependent Na+ influx could lead to hyperactivity of the Na+/K+ pump resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and neurotoxic energy insufficiency during strenuous activity....

  16. Study of the Peripheral Nerve Fibers Myelin Structure Changes during Activation of Schwann Cell Acetylcholine Receptors.

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    Ekaterina E Verdiyan

    Full Text Available In the present paper we consider a new type of mechanism by which neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh regulates the properties of peripheral nerve fibers myelin. Our data show the importance of the relationship between the changes in the number of Schwann cell (SC acetylcholine receptors (AChRs and the axon excitation (different intervals between action potentials (APs. Using Raman spectroscopy, an effect of activation of SC AChRs on the myelin membrane fluidity was investigated. It was found, that ACh stimulates an increase in lipid ordering degree of the myelin lipids, thus providing evidence for specific role of the "axon-SC" interactions at the axon excitation. It was proposed, that during the axon excitation, the SC membrane K+- depolarization and the Ca2+-influx led to phospholipase activation or exocytosis of intracellular membrane vesicles and myelin structure reorganization.

  17. TRPA1 activation by lidocaine in nerve terminals results in glutamate release increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, L.-H.; Fujita, Tsugumi; Jiang, C.-Y.; Liu Tao; Yue, H.-Y.; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of local anesthetics lidocaine and procaine on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices with whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Bath-applied lidocaine (1-5 mM) dose-dependently and reversibly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) in SG neurons. Lidocaine activity was unaffected by the Na + -channel blocker, tetrodotoxin, and the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, but was inhibited by the TRP antagonist, ruthenium red. In the same neuron, the TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate, and lidocaine both increased sEPSC frequency. In contrast, procaine did not produce presynaptic enhancement. These results indicate that lidocaine activates TRPA1 in nerve terminals presynaptic to SG neurons to increase the spontaneous release of L-glutamate.

  18. Evoked bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve of white rats in experimental menopause

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    Rodinsky A.G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was analysis of the bioelectrical activity of efferent fibers of the sciatic nerve in experimental menopause condition. Experiments were performed on 25 female white rats, divided into experimental and control groups. Menopause was modeled by total ovariohysterectomy. In 120 days after modeling we had recorded evoked action potentials of fibers of isolated ventral root L5 induced by stimulation of sciatic nerve with rectangular pulses. Threshold, chronaxia, latency, amplitude and duration of the action potential (AP were analysed. Refractory phenomenon was investigated by applying paired stimuli at intervals of 2 to 20 ms. In the context of long-term hypoestrogenemy threshold of AP appearance was 55,32±7,69%, chronaxy – 115,09±2,67%, latent period – 112,62±1,74% as compared with the control animals (p<0.01. In conditions of paired stimuli applying the amplitude of response to the testing stimulus in animals with ovariohysterectomy at intervals 3 and 4 ms was 61,25±36,45% and 53,48±18,64% (p<0.05 respectively.

  19. Contributions of central command and muscle feedback to sympathetic nerve activity in contracting human skeletal muscle

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    Daniel eBoulton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During voluntary contractions, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA to contracting muscles increases in proportion to force but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. To shed light on these mechanisms, particularly the influences of central command and muscle afferent feedback, the present study tested the hypothesis that MSNA is greater during voluntary compared with electrically-evoked contractions. Seven male subjects performed a series of 1-minute isometric dorsiflexion contractions (left leg separated by 2-minute rest periods, alternating between voluntary and electrically-evoked contractions at similar forces (5-10 % of maximum. MSNA was recorded continuously (microneurography from the left peroneal nerve and quantified from cardiac-synchronised, negative-going spikes in the neurogram. Compared with pre-contraction values, MSNA increased by 51 ± 34 % (P 0.05. MSNA analysed at 15-s intervals revealed that this effect of voluntary contraction appeared 15-30 s after contraction onset (P < 0.01, remained elevated until the end of contraction, and disappeared within 15 s after contraction. These findings suggest that central command, and not feedback from contracting muscle, is the primary mechanism responsible for the increase in MSNA to contracting muscle. The time-course of MSNA suggests that there is a longer delay in the onset of this effect compared with its cessation after contraction.

  20. The search of the target of promotion: Phenylbenzoate esterase activities in hen peripheral nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, A.; Nicolli, A.; Lotti, M.

    2007-01-01

    Certain esterase inhibitors, such as carbamates, phosphinates and sulfonyl halides, do not cause neuropathy as some organophosphates, but they may exacerbate chemical or traumatic insults to axons. This phenomenon is called promotion of axonopathies. Given the biochemical and toxicological characteristics of these compounds, the hypothesis was made that the target of promotion is a phenyl valerate (PV) esterase similar to neuropathy target esterase (NTE), the target of organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy. However, attempts to identify a PV esterase in hen peripheral nerve have been, so far, unsuccessful. We tested several esters, other than PV, as substrates of esterases from crude homogenate of the hen peripheral nerve. The ideal substrate should be poorly hydrolysed by NTE but extensively by enzyme(s) that are insensitive to non-promoters, such as mipafox, and sensitive to promoters, such as phenyl methane sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). When phenyl benzoate (PB) was used as substrate, about 65% of total activity was resistant to the non-promoter mipafox (up to 0.5 mM, 20 min, pH 8.0), that inhibits NTE and other esterases. More than 90% of this resistant activity was sensitive to the classical promoter PMSF (1 mM, 20 min, pH 8.0) with an IC 50 of about 0.08 mM (20 min, pH 8.0). On the contrary, the non-promoter p-toluene sulfonyl fluoride caused only about 10% inhibition at 0.5 mM. Several esterase inhibitors including, paraoxon, phenyl benzyl carbamate, di-n-butyl dichlorovinyl phosphate and di-isopropyl fluorophosphate, were tested both in vitro and in vivo for inhibition of this PB activity. Mipafox-resistant PMSF-sensitive PB esterase activity(ies) was inhibited by promoters but not by non promoters and neuropathic compounds

  1. A local anesthetic, ropivacaine, suppresses activated microglia via a nerve growth factor-dependent mechanism and astrocytes via a nerve growth factor-independent mechanism in neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakamoto Atsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local anesthetics alleviate neuropathic pain in some cases in clinical practice, and exhibit longer durations of action than those predicted on the basis of the pharmacokinetics of their blocking effects on voltage-dependent sodium channels. Therefore, local anesthetics may contribute to additional mechanisms for reversal of the sensitization of nociceptive pathways that occurs in the neuropathic pain state. In recent years, spinal glial cells, microglia and astrocytes, have been shown to play critical roles in neuropathic pain, but their participation in the analgesic effects of local anesthetics remains largely unknown. Results Repetitive epidural administration of ropivacaine reduced the hyperalgesia induced by chronic constrictive injury of the sciatic nerve. Concomitantly with this analgesia, ropivacaine suppressed the increases in the immunoreactivities of CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the dorsal spinal cord, as markers of activated microglia and astrocytes, respectively. In addition, epidural administration of a TrkA-IgG fusion protein that blocks the action of nerve growth factor (NGF, which was upregulated by ropivacaine in the dorsal root ganglion, prevented the inhibitory effect of ropivacaine on microglia, but not astrocytes. The blockade of NGF action also abolished the analgesic effect of ropivacaine on neuropathic pain. Conclusions Ropivacaine provides prolonged analgesia possibly by suppressing microglial activation in an NGF-dependent manner and astrocyte activation in an NGF-independent manner in the dorsal spinal cord. Local anesthetics, including ropivacaine, may represent a new approach for glial cell inhibition and, therefore, therapeutic strategies for neuropathic pain.

  2. Phrenic and hypoglossal nerve activity during respiratory response to hypoxia in 6-OHDA unilateral model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Kryspin; Budzińska, Krystyna; Kaczyńska, Katarzyna

    2017-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients apart from motor dysfunctions exhibit respiratory disturbances. Their mechanism is still unknown and requires investigation. Our research was designed to examine the activity of phrenic (PHR) and hypoglossal (HG) nerves activity during a hypoxic respiratory response in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of PD. Male adult Wistar rats were injected unilaterally with 6-OHDA (20μg) or the vehicle into the right medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Two weeks after the surgery the activity of the phrenic and hypoglossal nerve was registered in anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated rats under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Lesion effectiveness was confirmed by the cylinder test, performed before the MFB injection and 14days after, before the respiratory experiment. 6-OHDA lesioned animals showed a significant increase in normoxic inspiratory time. Expiratory time and total time of the respiratory cycle were prolonged in PD rats after hypoxia. The amplitude of the PHR activity and its minute activity were increased in comparison to the sham group at recovery time and during 30s of hypoxia. The amplitude of the HG activity was increased in response to hypoxia in 6-OHDA lesioned animals. The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons decreased the pre-inspiratory/inspiratory ratio of the hypoglossal burst amplitude during and after hypoxia. Unilateral MFB lesion changed the activity of the phrenic and hypoglossal nerves. The altered pre-inspiratory hypoglossal nerve activity indicates modifications to the central mechanisms controlling the activity of the HG nerve and may explain respiratory disorders seen in PD, i.e. apnea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of renal sympathetic nerve activity in prenatal programming of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Prenatal insults, such as maternal dietary protein deprivation and uteroplacental insufficiency, lead to small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. Epidemiological studies from many different parts of the world have shown that SGA neonates are at increased risk for hypertension and early death from cardiovascular disease as adults. Animal models, including prenatal administration of dexamethasone, uterine artery ligation and maternal dietary protein restriction, result in SGA neonates with fewer nephrons than controls. These models are discussed in this educational review, which provides evidence that prenatal insults lead to altered sodium transport in multiple nephron segments. The factors that could result in increased sodium transport are discussed, focusing on new information that there is increased renal sympathetic nerve activity that may be responsible for augmented renal tubular sodium transport. Renal denervation abrogates the hypertension in programmed rats but has no effect on control rats. Other potential factors that could cause hypertension in programmed rats, such as the renin-angiotensin system, are also discussed.

  4. Losartan reduces the immediate and sustained increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity after hyperacute intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouett, Noah P; Moralez, Gilbert; Raven, Peter B; Smith, Michael L

    2017-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxemia, which produces elevations in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and associated hypertension in experimental models that persist beyond the initial exposure. We tested the hypotheses that angiotensin receptor blockade in humans using losartan attenuates the immediate and immediately persistent increases in 1 ) SNA discharge and 2 ) mean arterial pressure (MAP) after hyperacute intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) using a randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures experimental design. We measured ECG and photoplethysmographic arterial pressure in nine healthy human subjects, while muscle SNA (MSNA) was recorded in seven subjects using microneurography. Subjects were exposed to a series of hypoxic apneas in which they inhaled two to three breaths of nitrogen, followed by a 20-s apnea and 40 s of room air breathing every minute for 20 min. Hyperacute IHT produced substantial and persistent elevations in MSNA burst frequency (baseline: 15.3 ± 1.8, IHT: 24 ± 1.5, post-IHT 20.0 ± 1.3 bursts/min, all P 0.70). This investigation confirms the role of angiotensin II type 1a receptors in the immediate and persistent sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses to IHT. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that losartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), abrogates the acute and immediately persistent increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in response to acute intermittent hypoxia. This investigation, along with others, provides important beginning translational evidence for using ARBs in treatment of the intermittent hypoxia observed in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Pinched Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Pinched Nerve Information Page Pinched Nerve Information Page What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, pinched nerves are addressed primarily through studies associated with pain ...

  6. Sacral nerve stimulation increases activation of the primary somatosensory cortex by anal canal stimulation in an experimental model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, K M

    2011-08-01

    Sacral and posterior tibial nerve stimulation may be used to treat faecal incontinence; however, the mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish whether sensory activation of the cerebral cortex by anal canal stimulation was increased by peripheral neuromodulation.

  7. Effect of Atorvastatin vs. Rosuvastatin on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in non-diabetic patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutamoto, Takayoshi; Ibe, Kunihiro [Toyosato Hospital, Toyosato, Shiga (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Masayuki; Kawahara, Chiho; Nakae, Ichiro; Fujii, Masanori; Yamamoto, Takashi; Horie, Minoru [Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Otsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Effects of statin therapy on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have not previously been evaluated. To compare the effects of lipophilic atorvastatin and hydrophilic rosuvastatin on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in CHF patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 63 stable outpatients with DCM, who were already receiving standard therapy for CHF, were randomized to atorvastatin (n=32) or rosuvastatin (n=31). We evaluated cardiac sympathetic nerve activity by cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, hemodynamic parameters and neurohumoral factors before and after 6 months of treatment. There were no differences in the baseline characteristics of the 2 groups. In the rosuvastatin group, there were no changes in MIBG parameters, left ventricular ejection fraction or plasma levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) after 6 months of treatment. In contrast, the atorvastatin group showed a significant increase in the delayed heart/mediastinum count ratio (2.18{+-}0.4 vs. 2.36{+-}0.4, P<0.0001), and the washout rate was significantly decreased (34.8{+-}5.7 vs. 32.6{+-}6.3%, P=0.0001) after 6 months of treatment compared with the baseline values. The plasma NT-proBNP level was also significantly decreased (729{+-}858 vs. 558{+-}747 pg/ml, P=0.0139). Lipophilic atorvastatin but not hydrophilic rosuvastatin improves cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in CHF patients with DCM. (author)

  8. Increase in Operator's Sympathetic Nerve Activity during Complicated Hepatobiliary Surgery: Evidence for Surgeons' Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Kosho; Hayashida, Naomi; Kuba, Sayaka; Sakimura, Chika; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Togo, Michita; Katayama, Noritada; Takamura, Noboru; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    Surgeons often experience stress during operations. The heart rate variability (HRV) is the variability in the beat-to-beat interval, which has been used as parameters of stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mental stress of surgeons before, during and after operations, especially during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Additionally, the parameters were compared in various procedures during the operations. By frequency domain method using electrocardiograph, we measured the high frequency (HF) component, representing the parasympathetic activity, and the low frequency (LF)/HF ratio, representing the sympathetic activity. In all 5 cases of PD, the surgeon showed significantly lower HF component and higher LF/HF during operation, indicating predominance of sympathetic nervous system and increased stress, than those before the operation (p operation. Out of the 4 LDLT cases, the value of HF was decreased in two and the LF/HF increased in three cases (p operation compared to those before the operation. In all cases, the value of HF was decreased and/or the LF/HF increased significantly during the reconstruction of the vessels or bile ducts than during the removal of the liver. Thus, sympathetic nerve activity increased during hepatobiliary surgery compared with the level before the operation, and various procedures during the operations induced diverse changes in the autonomic nervous activities. The HRV analysis could assess the chronological changes of mental stress by measuring the autonomic nervous balances.

  9. Activation of afferent renal nerves modulates RVLM-projecting PVN neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xuefei; Patel, Kaushik P

    2015-05-01

    Renal denervation for the treatment of hypertension has proven to be successful; however, the underlying mechanism/s are not entirely clear. To determine if preautonomic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) respond to afferent renal nerve (ARN) stimulation, extracellular single-unit recording was used to investigate the contribution of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)-projecting PVN (PVN-RVLM) neurons to the response elicited during stimulation of ARN. In 109 spontaneously active neurons recorded in the PVN of anesthetized rats, 25 units were antidromically activated from the RVLM. Among these PVN-RVLM neurons, 84% (21/25) were activated by ARN stimulation. The baseline discharge rate was significantly higher in these neurons than those PVN-RVLM neurons not activated by ARN stimulation (16%, 4/25). The responsiveness of these neurons to baroreflex activation induced by phenylephrine and activation of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) was also examined. Almost all of the PVN neurons that responded to ARN stimulation were sensitive to baroreflex (95%) and CSAR (100%). The discharge characteristics for nonevoked neurons (not activated by RVLM antidromic stimulation) showed that 23% of these PVN neurons responded to ARN stimulation. All the PVN neurons that responded to ARN stimulation were activated by N-methyl-D-aspartate, and these responses were attenuated by the glutamate receptor blocker AP5. These experiments demonstrated that sensory information originating in the kidney is integrated at the level of preautonomic neurons within the PVN, providing a novel mechanistic insight for use of renal denervation in the modulation of sympathetic outflow in disease states such as hypertension and heart failure. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Evaluation of Na+/K+ pump function following repetitive activity in mouse peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Krarup, Christian

    2006-01-01

    excitability measures simultaneously from the evoked plantar compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and sciatic compound nerve action potential (CNAP). Three minutes after repetitive supramaximal stimulation maximal CMAP and CNAP amplitudes recovered but the threshold was increased approximately 40% for motor...

  11. Broadband Prosthetic Interfaces: Combining Nerve Transfers and Implantable Multichannel EMG Technology to Decode Spinal Motor Neuron Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin D. Bergmeister

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern robotic hands/upper limbs may replace multiple degrees of freedom of extremity function. However, their intuitive use requires a high number of control signals, which current man-machine interfaces do not provide. Here, we discuss a broadband control interface that combines targeted muscle reinnervation, implantable multichannel electromyographic sensors, and advanced decoding to address the increasing capabilities of modern robotic limbs. With targeted muscle reinnervation, nerves that have lost their targets due to an amputation are surgically transferred to residual stump muscles to increase the number of intuitive prosthetic control signals. This surgery re-establishes a nerve-muscle connection that is used for sensing nerve activity with myoelectric interfaces. Moreover, the nerve transfer determines neurophysiological effects, such as muscular hyper-reinnervation and cortical reafferentation that can be exploited by the myoelectric interface. Modern implantable multichannel EMG sensors provide signals from which it is possible to disentangle the behavior of single motor neurons. Recent studies have shown that the neural drive to muscles can be decoded from these signals and thereby the user's intention can be reliably estimated. By combining these concepts in chronic implants and embedded electronics, we believe that it is in principle possible to establish a broadband man-machine interface, with specific applications in prosthesis control. This perspective illustrates this concept, based on combining advanced surgical techniques with recording hardware and processing algorithms. Here we describe the scientific evidence for this concept, current state of investigations, challenges, and alternative approaches to improve current prosthetic interfaces.

  12. Nerve growth factor enhances the CRE-dependent transcriptional activity activated by nobiletin in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takito, Jiro; Kimura, Junko; Kajima, Koji; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Makoto; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Masanori; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2016-07-01

    Prevention and treatment of Alzheimer disease are urgent problems for elderly people in developed countries. We previously reported that nobiletin, a poly-methoxylated flavone from the citrus peel, improved the symptoms in various types of animal models of memory loss and activated the cAMP responsive element (CRE)-dependent transcription in PC12 cells. Nobiletin activated the cAMP/PKA/MEK/Erk/MAPK signaling pathway without using the TrkA signaling activated by nerve growth factor (NGF). Here, we examined the effect of combination of nobiletin and NGF on the CRE-dependent transcription in PC12 cells. Although NGF alone had little effect on the CRE-dependent transcription, NGF markedly enhanced the CRE-dependent transcription induced by nobiletin. The NGF-induced enhancement was neutralized by a TrkA antagonist, K252a. This effect of NGF was effective on the early signaling event elicited by nobiletin. These results suggested that there was crosstalk between NGF and nobiletin signaling in activating the CRE-dependent transcription in PC12 cells.

  13. Sympathetic network drive during water deprivation does not increase respiratory or cardiac rhythmic sympathetic nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbein, Walter W; Toney, Glenn M

    2013-06-15

    Effects of water deprivation on rhythmic bursting of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were investigated in anesthetized, bilaterally vagotomized, euhydrated (control) and 48-h water-deprived (WD) rats (n = 8/group). Control and WD rats had similar baseline values of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal CO2, and central respiratory drive. Although integrated splanchnic SNA (sSNA) was greater in WD rats than controls (P analysis of respiratory rhythmic bursting of sSNA revealed that inspiratory rhythmic burst amplitude was actually smaller (P analysis revealed that water deprivation had no effect on either the amplitude or periodicity of the cardiac rhythmic oscillation of sSNA. Collectively, these data indicate that the increase of sSNA produced by water deprivation is not attributable to either increased respiratory or cardiac rhythmic burst discharge. Thus the sympathetic network response to acute water deprivation appears to differ from that of chronic sympathoexcitation in neurogenic forms of arterial hypertension, where increased respiratory rhythmic bursting of SNA and baroreflex adaptations have been reported.

  14. Newer N-phthaloyl GABA derivatives with antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic activities in both sciatic nerve and spinal nerve ligation models of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogeeswari, Perumal; Ragavendran, Jegadeesan Vaigunda; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Kavya, Ramkumar; Vanitha, Kaliappan; Neelakantan, Harshini

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable research evidence supporting a palliative role for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurotransmission and voltage-gated sodium channel blockade in neuropathic pain conditions. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the peripheral analgesic, antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic activities of the synthesized structural analogues of GABA. The screening study included acute tissue injury, chronic constriction injury (CCI), and spinal nerve ligation (SNL) models of neuropathic pain. All of the tested compounds sup-pressed the acetic acid-induced writhing response significantly in comparison to the control. In particular, compound JVP-8 was observed to be the most active compound with percent inhibition greater than that of the standard drug aspirin (97.8% inhibition of writhing response as against 97.0% shown by aspirin). In neuropathic pain studies, compound JVP-5 (100 mg/kg i.p.) emerged as the most active compound affording maximum protection against dynamic allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia in the CCI model, and against spontaneous pain and mechanical hyperalgesia in SNL rats. In this study, we have demonstrated that combining phthalimide pharmacophore with GABA has evolved compounds effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The Effects of Phrenic Nerve Degeneration by Axotomy and Crush on the Electrical Activities of Diaphragm Muscles of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkiş, Mehmet Eşref; Kavak, Servet; Sayır, Fuat; Him, Aydin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of axotomy and crush-related degeneration on the electrical activities of diaphragm muscle strips of experimental rats. In the present study, twenty-one male Wistar-albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The animals in the first group were not crushed or axotomized and served as controls. Phrenic nerves of the rats in the second and third groups were crushed or axotomized in the diaphragm muscle. Resting membrane potential (RMP) was decreased significantly in both crush and axotomy of diaphragm muscle strips of experimental rats (p phrenic nerves may produce electrical activities in the diaphragm muscle of the rat by depolarization time and half-repolarization time prolonged in crush and axotomy rats.

  16. Chronic renin inhibition lowers blood pressure and reduces upright muscle sympathetic nerve activity in hypertensive seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Jarvis, Sara S; Best, Stuart A; Bivens, Tiffany B; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk remains high in patients with hypertension even with adequate blood pressure (BP) control. One possible mechanism may be sympathetic activation via the baroreflex. We tested the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of renin reduces BP without sympathetic activation, but diuresis augments sympathetic activity in elderly hypertensives. Fourteen patients with stage-I hypertension (66 ± 5 (SD) years) were treated with a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren (n= 7), or a diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide (n= 7), for 6 months. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), BP, direct renin and aldosterone were measured during supine and a graded head-up tilt (HUT; 5 min 30° and 20 min 60°), before and after treatment. Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed. Both groups had similar BP reductions after treatment (all P < 0.01), while MSNA responses were different between hydrochlorothiazide and aliskiren (P= 0.006 pre/post × drug). Both supine and upright MSNA became greater after hydrochlorothiazide treatment (supine, 72 ± 18 post vs. 64 ± 15 bursts (100 beats)−1 pre; 60° HUT, 83 ± 10 vs. 78 ± 13 bursts (100 beats)−1; P= 0.002). After aliskiren treatment, supine MSNA remained unchanged (69 ± 13 vs. 64 ± 8 bursts (100 beats)−1), but upright MSNA was lower (74 ± 15 vs. 85 ± 10 bursts (100 beats)−1; P= 0.012 for pre/post × posture). Direct renin was greater after both treatments (both P < 0.05), while upright aldosterone was greater after hydrochlorothiazide only (P= 0.002). The change in upright MSNA by the treatment was correlated with the change of aldosterone (r= 0.74, P= 0.002). Upright sympathetic BRS remained unchanged after either treatment. Thus, chronic renin inhibition may reduce upright MSNA through suppressed renin activity, while diuresis may evoke sympathetic activation via the upregulated renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, without changing intrinsic sympathetic baroreflex function in elderly hypertensive

  17. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity.

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    Yumie Morimoto-Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-α-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-α-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-α-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the β-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA. Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional

  18. Selective activation of microglia in spinal cord but not higher cortical regions following nerve injury in adult mouse

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    Shang Yuze

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuronal plasticity along the pathway for sensory transmission including the spinal cord and cortex plays an important role in chronic pain, including inflammatory and neuropathic pain. While recent studies indicate that microglia in the spinal cord are involved in neuropathic pain, a systematic study has not been performed in other regions of the central nervous system (CNS. In the present study, we used heterozygous Cx3cr1GFP/+mice to characterize the morphological phenotypes of microglia following common peroneal nerve (CPN ligation. We found that microglia showed a uniform distribution throughout the CNS, and peripheral nerve injury selectively activated microglia in the spinal cord dorsal horn and related ventral horn. In contrast, microglia was not activated in supraspinal regions of the CNS, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, prefrontal cortex (PFC, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1 and S2, insular cortex (IC, amygdala, hippocampus, periaqueductal gray (PAG and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM. Our results provide strong evidence that nerve injury primarily activates microglia in the spinal cord of adult mice, and pain-related cortical plasticity is likely mediated by neurons.

  19. Nerve Growth Factor Gene Therapy Activates Neuronal Responses in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszynski, Mark H.; Yang, Jennifer H.; Barba, David; U, H S.; Bakay, Roy; Pay, Mary M.; Masliah, Eliezer; Conner, James M.; Kobalka, Peter; Roy, Subhojit; Nagahara, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, and lacks effective disease modifying therapies. In 2001 we initiated a clinical trial of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) gene therapy in AD, the first effort at gene delivery in an adult neurodegenerative disorder. This program aimed to determine whether a nervous system growth factor prevents or reduces cholinergic neuronal degeneration in AD patients. We present post-mortem findings in 10 subjects with survival times ranging from 1 to 10 years post-treatment. OBJECTIVE To determine whether degenerating neurons in AD retain an ability to respond to a nervous system growth factor delivered after disease onset. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS 10 patients with early AD underwent NGF gene therapy using either ex vivo or in vivo gene transfer. The brains of all eight patients in the first Phase 1 ex vivo trial and two patients in a subsequent Phase 1 in vivo trial were examined. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Brains were immunolabeled to evaluate in vivo gene expression, cholinergic neuronal responses to NGF, and activation of NGF-related cell signaling. In two cases, NGF protein levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS Degenerating neurons in the AD brain respond to NGF. All patients exhibited a trophic response to NGF, in the form of axonal sprouting toward the NGF source. Comparing treated and non-treated sides of the brain in three patients that underwent unilateral gene transfer, cholinergic neuronal hypertrophy occurred on the NGF-treated side (P>0.05). Activation of cellular signaling and functional markers were present in two patients that underwent AAV2-mediated NGF gene transfer. Neurons exhibiting tau pathology as well as neurons free of tau expressed NGF, indicating that degenerating cells can be infected with therapeutic genes with resulting activation of cell signaling. No adverse pathological effects related to NGF were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings indicate that

  20. Nerve Growth Factor Gene Therapy: Activation of Neuronal Responses in Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszynski, Mark H; Yang, Jennifer H; Barba, David; U, Hoi-Sang; Bakay, Roy A E; Pay, Mary M; Masliah, Eliezer; Conner, James M; Kobalka, Peter; Roy, Subhojit; Nagahara, Alan H

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and lacks effective disease-modifying therapies. In 2001, we initiated a clinical trial of nerve growth factor (NGF) gene therapy in AD, the first effort at gene delivery in an adult neurodegenerative disorder. This program aimed to determine whether a nervous system growth factor prevents or reduces cholinergic neuronal degeneration in patients with AD. We present postmortem findings in 10 patients with survival times ranging from 1 to 10 years after treatment. To determine whether degenerating neurons in AD retain an ability to respond to a nervous system growth factor delivered after disease onset. Patients in this anatomicopathological study were enrolled in clinical trials from March 2001 to October 2012 at the University of California, San Diego, Medical Center in La Jolla. Ten patients with early AD underwent NGF gene therapy using ex vivo or in vivo gene transfer. The brains of all 8 patients in the first phase 1 ex vivo trial and of 2 patients in a subsequent phase 1 in vivo trial were examined. Brains were immunolabeled to evaluate in vivo gene expression, cholinergic neuronal responses to NGF, and activation of NGF-related cell signaling. In 2 patients, NGF protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Among 10 patients, degenerating neurons in the AD brain responded to NGF. All patients exhibited a trophic response to NGF in the form of axonal sprouting toward the NGF source. Comparing treated and nontreated sides of the brain in 3 patients who underwent unilateral gene transfer, cholinergic neuronal hypertrophy occurred on the NGF-treated side (P < .05). Activation of cellular signaling and functional markers was present in 2 patients who underwent adeno-associated viral vectors (serotype 2)-mediated NGF gene transfer. Neurons exhibiting tau pathology and neurons free of tau expressed NGF, indicating that degenerating cells can be infected with therapeutic

  1. Deleterious effect of salusin-β in paraventricular nucleus on sympathetic activity and blood pressure via NF-κB signaling in a rat model of obesity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Wang, Yanchun; Ren, Kuang

    2015-08-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) has been shown to play a critical role in regulating blood pressure and sympathetic activity in obesity hypertension (OH). Salusin-β is a bioactive peptide with potential roles in mediating cardiovascular activity. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that salusin-β in the PVN can modulate sympathetic activity and blood pressure in OH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce OH by a 12-week feeding of a high-fat diet (42% kcal as fat). Microinjection of salusin-β into the PVN increased the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in a dose-dependent manner, whereas salusin-β antibody elicited significant decreases in RSNA, MAP and HR, and abolished the effects of salusin-β only in the OH rats. As expected, the OH rats had a higher norepinephrine level, which was further increased by salusin-β. Furthermore, salusin-β in the PVN accelerated the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-KB) and the degradation of IKB-α (an endogenous inhibitor of NF-KB). Pretreatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (an exogenous inhibitor of NF-KB) decreased RSNA, MAP and HR, and abolished the effects of salusin-β in the PVN in the OH rats. We concluded that salusin-β in the PVN markedly increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure in diet-induced OH rats via NF-κB signaling.

  2. Neuromuscular activity of Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis snake venom in mouse nerve-muscle preparations

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    A. M. Durigon

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological effects of Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis venom on mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND preparations were studied. Venom (20 mug/ml irreversibly inhibited indirectly evoked twitches in PND preparations (60 ± 10% inhibition, mean ± SEM; p<0.05; n=6. At 50 mug/ml, the venom blocked indirectly and directly (curarized preparations evoked twitches in mouse hemidiaphragms. In the absence of Ca2+, venom (50 mug/ml, produced partial blockade only after an 80 min incubation, which reached 40.3 ± 7.8% (p<0.05; n=3 after 120 min. Venom (20 mug/ml increased (25 ± 2%, p< 0.05 the frequency of giant miniature end-plate potentials in 9 of 10 end-plates after 30 min and the number of miniature end-plate potentials which was maximum (562 ± 3%, p<0.05 after 120 min. During the same period, the resting membrane potential decreased from - 81 ± 1.4 mV to - 41.3 ± 3.6 mV 24 fibers; p<0.01; n=4 in the end-plate region and from - 77.4 ± 1.4 to -44.6 ± 3.9 mV (24 fibers; p<0.01; n=4 in regions distant from the end-plate. These results indicate that B. n. pauloensis venom acts primarily at presynaptic sites. They also suggest that enzymatic activity may be involved in this pharmacological action.

  3. Arachidonic acid containing phosphatidylcholine increases due to microglial activation in ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn following spared sciatic nerve injury.

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    Tomohiro Banno

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury induces substantial molecular changes in the somatosensory system that leads to maladaptive plasticity and cause neuropathic pain. Understanding the molecular pathways responsible for the development of neuropathic pain is essential to the development of novel rationally designed therapeutics. Although lipids make up to half of the dry weight of the spinal cord, their relation with the development of neuropathic pain is poorly understood. We aimed to elucidate the regulation of spinal lipids in response to neuropathic peripheral nerve injury in mice by utilizing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry, which allows visualization of lipid distribution within the cord. We found that arachidonic acid (AA containing [PC(diacyl-16:0/20:4+K]+ was increased temporarily at superficial ipsilateral dorsal horn seven days after spared nerve injury (SNI. The spatiotemporal changes in lipid concentration resembled microglia activation as defined by ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1 immunohistochemistry. Suppression of microglial function through minocycline administration resulted in attenuation of hypersensitivity and reduces [PC(diacyl-16:0/20:4+K]+ elevation in the spinal dorsal horn. These data suggested that AA containing [PC(diacyl-16:0/20:4+K]+ is related to hypersensitivity evoked by SNI and implicate microglial cell activation in this lipid production.

  4. Electrical activity in rat tail artery during asynchronous activation of postganglionic nerve terminals by ciguatoxin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J. A.; McLachlan, E. M.; Jobling, P.; Lewis, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of ciguatoxin-1 (CTX-1) on the membrane potential of smooth muscle cells have been examined in rat proximal tail arteries isolated in vitro. 2. CTX-1 (> or = 10 pM) increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (s.e.j.ps). At 100-400 pM, there was also a marked and maintained depolarization (19.7 +/- 1.4 mV, n = 14, at 400 pM). 3. In 20-400 pM CTX-1, perivascular stimuli evoked excitatory junction potentials (e.j.ps) which were prolonged in time course relative to control. 4. Although threshold and latency of the e.j.p. were not affected by CTX-1 ( or = 100 pM. 5. The spontaneous activity and the depolarization produced by CTX-1 were reduced in the presence of Ca2+ (0.1 mM)/Mg2+ (25 mM), omega-conotoxin (0.1 microM) or Cd2+ (50-100 microM). 6. All effects of CTX-1 were abolished by tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM). 7. Raised Ca2+ (6 mM) reduced the depolarization and spontaneous activity produced by CTX-1. 8. In 400 pM CTX-1, the membrane repolarized (17 +/- 3.2 mV, n = 4) following the addition of phentolamine (1 microM). S.e.j.ps and e.j.ps were selectively abolished by suramin (1 mM), and the membrane repolarized by 1.3 +/- 1.6 mV (n = 4). 9. We conclude that CTX-1 releases noradrenaline and ATP by initiating asynchronous discharge of postganglionic perivascular axons. In 100-400 pM CTX-1, the smooth muscle was depolarized to levels resembling those recorded in this artery during ongoing vasoconstrictor discharge in vivo. PMID:8564251

  5. Modulation of Hippocampal Activity by Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Freely Moving Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, L.E.; Wadman, W.J.; van Mierlo, P.; Delbeke, J.; Grimonprez, A.; Van Nieuwenhuyse, B.; Portelli, J.; Boon, P; Vonck, K.; Raedt, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) has seizure-suppressing effects but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying VNS-induced seizure suppression at a neurophysiological level, the present study examined effects of VNS on hippocampal

  6. A Structure-Activity Analysis of the Variation in Oxime Efficacy Against Nerve Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    cyclosarin. Analysis of in vivo oxime protection was conducted with oxime protective ratios (PR) from guinea pigs receiving oxime and atropine therapy ...in our study confirmed previous assessments that oxime protection varies drama - tically against different military nerve agents (Aas, 2003; Dawson... therapy ofacutepoisonings inducedbyanti-cholinesterase neuroparalytic substances. In:Monov, A., Dishovsky, C. (Eds.), Medical Aspects of Chemical and

  7. Malignant Trigeminal Nerve Sheath Tumor and Anaplastic Astrocytoma Collision Tumor with High Proliferative Activity and Tumor Suppressor P53 Expression

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    Maher Kurdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The synchronous development of two primary brain tumors of distinct cell of origin in close proximity or in contact with each other is extremely rare. We present the first case of collision tumor with two histological distinct tumors. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman presented with progressive atypical left facial pain and numbness for 8 months. MRI of the brain showed left middle cranial fossa heterogeneous mass extending into the infratemporal fossa. At surgery, a distinct but intermingled intra- and extradural tumor was demonstrated which was completely removed through left orbitozygomatic-temporal craniotomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had two distinct components: malignant nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve and temporal lobe anaplastic astrocytoma. Proliferative activity and expressed tumor protein 53 (TP53 gene mutations were demonstrated in both tumors. Conclusions. We describe the first case of malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor (MTNST and anaplastic astrocytoma in collision and discuss the possible hypothesis of this rare occurrence. We propose that MTNST, with TP53 mutation, have participated in the formation of anaplastic astrocytoma, or vice versa.

  8. Protease signaling through protease activated receptor 1 mediate nerve activation by mucosal supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome but not from ulcerative colitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhner, Sabine; Hahne, Hannes; Hartwig, Kerstin; Li, Qin; Vignali, Sheila; Ostertag, Daniela; Meng, Chen; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Braak, Breg; Pehl, Christian; Frieling, Thomas; Barbara, Giovanni; De Giorgio, Roberto; Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Ceyhan, Güralp Onur; Zeller, Florian; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Haller, Dirk; Kuster, Bernhard; Schemann, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The causes of gastrointestinal complaints in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain poorly understood. Altered nerve function has emerged as an important pathogenic factor as IBS mucosal biopsy supernatants consistently activate enteric and sensory neurons. We investigated the neurally active molecular components of such supernatants from patients with IBS and quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC). Effects of supernatants from 7 healthy controls (HC), 20 IBS and 12 UC patients on human and guinea pig submucous neurons were studied with neuroimaging techniques. We identify differentially expressed proteins with proteome analysis. Nerve activation by IBS supernatants was prevented by the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) antagonist SCHE79797. UC supernatants also activated enteric neurons through protease dependent mechanisms but without PAR1 involvement. Proteome analysis of the supernatants identified 204 proteins, among them 17 proteases as differentially expressed between IBS, UC and HC. Of those the four proteases elastase 3a, chymotrypsin C, proteasome subunit type beta-2 and an unspecified isoform of complement C3 were significantly more abundant in IBS compared to HC and UC supernatants. Of eight proteases, which were upregulated in IBS, the combination of elastase 3a, cathepsin L and proteasome alpha subunit-4 showed the highest prediction accuracy of 98% to discriminate between IBS and HC groups. Elastase synergistically potentiated the effects of histamine and serotonin-the two other main neuroactive substances in the IBS supernatants. A serine protease inhibitor isolated from the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 (SERPINBL), known to inhibit elastase-like proteases, prevented nerve activation by IBS supernatants. Proteases in IBS and UC supernatants were responsible for nerve activation. Our data demonstrate that proteases, particularly those signalling through neuronal PAR1, are biomarker candidates for IBS, and protease profiling may be used to

  9. Sleep deprivation aggravates median nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain and enhances microglial activation by suppressing melatonin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Rayleigh Ping-Ying; Chen, Chih-Li; Tsai, Yi-Ju

    2014-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is common in patients with neuropathic pain, but the effect of sleep deprivation on pathological pain remains uncertain. This study investigated whether sleep deprivation aggravates neuropathic symptoms and enhances microglial activation in the cuneate nucleus (CN) in a median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. Also, we assessed if melatonin supplements during the sleep deprived period attenuates these effects. Rats were subjected to sleep deprivation for 3 days by the disc-on-water method either before or after CCI. In the melatonin treatment group, CCI rats received melatonin supplements at doses of 37.5, 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg during sleep deprivation. Melatonin was administered at 23:00 once a day. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 180-250 g (n = 190), were used. Seven days after CCI, behavioral testing was conducted, and immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of microglial activation and measurements of proinflammatory cytokines. In rats who underwent post-CCI sleep deprivation, microglia were more profoundly activated and neuropathic pain was worse than those receiving pre-CCI sleep deprivation. During the sleep deprived period, serum melatonin levels were low over the 24-h period. Administration of melatonin to CCI rats with sleep deprivation significantly attenuated activation of microglia and development of neuropathic pain, and markedly decreased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines. Sleep deprivation makes rats more vulnerable to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain, probably because of associated lower melatonin levels. Melatonin supplements to restore a circadian variation in melatonin concentrations during the sleep deprived period could alleviate nerve injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

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    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  11. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of prolactin release activated by nerve stimulation in rat anterior pituitary

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    Gao Li-Zhi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of studies showed the presence of substantial amount of nerve fibers and their close relationship with the anterior pituitary gland cells. Our previous studies have suggested that aside from the classical theory of humoral regulation, the rat anterior pituitary has direct neural regulation on adrenocorticotropic hormone release. In rat anterior pituitary, typical synapses are found on every type of the hormone-secreting cells, many on lactotrophs. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological significance of this synaptic relationship on prolactin release. Methods The anterior pituitary of rat was sliced and stimulated with electrical field in a self-designed perfusion chamber. The perfusate was continuously collected in aliquots and measured by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. After statistic analysis, differences of prolactin concentrations within and between groups were outlined. Results The results showed that stimulation at frequency of 2 Hz caused a quick enhancement of prolactin release, when stimulated at 10 Hz, prolactin release was found to be inhibited which came slower and lasted longer. The effect of nerve stimulation on prolactin release is diphasic and frequency dependent. Conclusions The present in vitro study offers the first physiological evidence that stimulation of nerve fibers can affect prolactin release in rat anterior pituitary. Low frequency stimulation enhances prolactin release and high frequency mainly inhibits it.

  12. Inhibitory Activity of Yokukansankachimpihange against Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Neurite Growth in Cultured Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

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    Chiaki Murayama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pruritus is a major and distressing symptom of many cutaneous diseases, however, the treatment remains a challenge in the clinic. The traditional Chinese-Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine is a conservative and increasingly popular approach to treat chronic pruritus for both patients and medical providers. Yokukansankachimpihange (YKH, a Kampo formula has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of itching of atopic dermatitis in Japan although its pharmacological mechanism is unknown clearly. In an attempt to clarify its pharmacological actions, in this study, we focused on the inhibitory activity of YKH against neurite growth induced with nerve growth factor (NGF in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons because epidermal hyperinnervation is deeply related to itch sensitization. YKH showed approximately 200-fold inhibitory activity against NGF-induced neurite growth than that of neurotropin (positive control, a drug used clinically for treatment of chronic pruritus. Moreover, it also found that Uncaria hook, Bupleurum root and their chemical constituents rhynchophylline, hirsutine, and saikosaponin a, d showed inhibitory activities against NGF-induced neurite growth, suggesting they should mainly contribute to the inhibitory activity of YKH. Further study on the effects of YKH against epidermal nerve density in “itch-scratch” animal models is under investigation.

  13. Sex steroids, insulin sensitivity and sympathetic nerve activity in relation to affective symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedel, Elizabeth; Gustafson, Deborah; Waern, Margda; Sverrisdottir, Yrsa Bergmann; Landén, Mikael; Janson, Per Olof; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2011-11-01

    Affective symptoms are poorly understood in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Clinical signs of hyperandrogenism and high serum androgens are key features in PCOS, and women with PCOS are more likely to be overweight or obese, as well as insulin resistant. Further, PCOS is associated with high sympathetic nerve activity. To elucidate if self-reported hirsutism, body mass index (BMI) and waistline, circulating sex steroids, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin sensitivity and sympathetic nerve activity are associated with depression and anxiety-related symptoms in women with PCOS. Seventy-two women with PCOS, aged 21-37 years, were recruited from the community. Hirsutism was self-reported using the Ferriman-Gallway score. Serum estrogens, sex steroid precursors, androgens and glucuronidated androgen metabolites were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC-MS/LC-MS/MS) and SHBG by chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Insulin sensitivity was measured with euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Sympathetic nerve activity was measured with microneurography. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were self-reported using the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S) and the Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA-S). Circulating concentrations of testosterone (T) (P=0.026), free T (FT) (P=0.025), and androstane-3α 17β-diol-3glucuronide (3G) (P=0.029) were lower in women with depression symptoms of potential clinical relevance (MADR-S≥11). The odds of having a MADRS-S score ≥11 were higher with lower FT and 3G. No associations with BSA-S were noted. Lower circulating FT and 3G were associated with worse self-reported depression symptoms. The relationship between mental health, sex steroids and corresponding metabolites in PCOS requires further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure: from modeling to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Daisuke; Asanoi, Hidetsugu; Takagawa, Junya; Ishise, Hisanari; Ueno, Hiroshi; Oda, Yoshitaka; Goso, Yukiko; Joho, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2014-10-15

    Influences of slow and deep respiration on steady-state sympathetic nerve activity remain controversial in humans and could vary depending on disease conditions and basal sympathetic nerve activity. To elucidate the respiratory modulation of steady-state sympathetic nerve activity, we modeled the dynamic nature of the relationship between lung inflation and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 11 heart failure patients with exaggerated sympathetic outflow at rest. An autoregressive exogenous input model was utilized to simulate entire responses of MSNA to variable respiratory patterns. In another 18 patients, we determined the influence of increasing tidal volume and slowing respiratory frequency on MSNA; 10 patients underwent a 15-min device-guided slow respiration and the remaining 8 had no respiratory modification. The model predicted that a 1-liter, step increase of lung volume decreased MSNA dynamically; its nadir (-33 ± 22%) occurred at 2.4 s; and steady-state decrease (-15 ± 5%), at 6 s. Actually, in patients with the device-guided slow and deep respiration, respiratory frequency effectively fell from 16.4 ± 3.9 to 6.7 ± 2.8/min (P state MSNA was decreased by 31% (P state MSNA. Thus slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with high levels of resting sympathetic tone as in heart failure. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. The novel orally active guanylhydrazone CPSI-2364 prevents postoperative ileus in mice independently of anti-inflammatory vagus nerve signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, S; Vilz, T O; Sommer, N; Sielecki, T; Hong, G S; Lysson, M; Stoffels, B; Pantelis, D; Kalff, J C

    2012-10-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is an iatrogenic complication of abdominal surgery, mediated by a severe inflammation of the muscularis externa (ME). Previously, we demonstrated that intravenous application of the tetravalent guanylhydrazone semapimod (CNI-1493) prevents POI, but the underlying mode of action could not definitively be confirmed. Herein, we investigated the effect of a novel orally active salt of semapimod (CPSI-2364) on POI in rodents and distinguished between its inhibitory peripheral and stimulatory central nervous effects on anti-inflammatory vagus nerve signaling. Distribution of radiolabeled orally administered CPSI-2364 was analyzed by whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting. POI was induced by intestinal manipulation with or without preoperative vagotomy. CPSI-2364 was administered preoperatively via gavage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. ME specimens were assessed for p38-MAP kinase activity by immunoblotting, neutrophil extravasation, and nitric oxide production. Furthermore, in vivo gastrointestinal (GIT) and colonic transit were measured. Autoradiography demonstrated a near-exclusive detection of CPSI-2364 within the gastrointestinal wall and contents. Preoperative CPSI-2364 application significantly reduced postoperative neutrophil counts, nitric oxide release, GIT deceleration, and delay of colonic transit time, while intraoperatively administered CPSI-2364 failed to improve POI. CPSI-2364 also prevents postoperative neutrophil increase and GIT deceleration in vagotomized mice. Orally administered CPSI-2364 shows a near-exclusive dispersal in the gastrointestinal tract and effectively reduces POI independently of central vagus nerve stimulation. Its efficacy after single oral dosage affirms CPSI-2364 treatment as a promising strategy for prophylaxis of POI.

  16. Autonomic markers of emotional processing: skin sympathetic nerve activity in humans during exposure to emotionally charged images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachael; James, Cheree; Henderson, Luke A; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2012-01-01

    The sympathetic innervation of the skin primarily subserves thermoregulation, but the system has also been commandeered as a means of expressing emotion. While it is known that the level of skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is affected by anxiety, the majority of emotional studies have utilized the galvanic skin response as a means of inferring increases in SSNA. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the changes in SSNA when showing subjects neutral or emotionally charged images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). SSNA was recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into cutaneous fascicles of the common peroneal nerve in ten subjects. Neutral images, positively charged images (erotica) or negatively charged images (mutilation) were presented in blocks of fifteen images of a specific type, each block lasting 2 min. Images of erotica or mutilation were presented in a quasi-random fashion, each block following a block of neutral images. Both images of erotica or images of mutilation caused significant increases in SSNA, but the increases in SSNA were greater for mutilation. The increases in SSNA were often coupled with sweat release and cutaneous vasoconstriction; however, these markers were not always consistent with the SSNA increases. We conclude that SSNA, comprising cutaneous vasoconstrictor and sudomotor activity, increases with both positively charged and negatively charged emotional images. Measurement of SSNA provides a more comprehensive assessment of sympathetic outflow to the skin than does the use of sweat release alone as a marker of emotional processing.

  17. Genetically encoded pH-indicators reveal activity-dependent cytosolic acidification of Drosophila motor nerve termini in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Adam J; Chouhan, Amit K; Macleod, Gregory T

    2013-01-01

    All biochemical processes, including those underlying synaptic function and plasticity, are pH sensitive. Cytosolic pH (pHcyto) shifts are known to accompany nerve activity in situ, but technological limitations have prevented characterization of such shifts in vivo. Genetically encoded pH-indicators (GEpHIs) allow for tissue-specific in vivo measurement of pH. We expressed three different GEpHIs in the cytosol of Drosophila larval motor neurons and observed substantial presynaptic acidification in nerve termini during nerve stimulation in situ. SuperEcliptic pHluorin was the most useful GEpHI for studying pHcyto shifts in this model system. We determined the resting pH of the nerve terminal cytosol to be 7.30 ± 0.02, and observed a decrease of 0.16 ± 0.01 pH units when the axon was stimulated at 40 Hz for 4 s. Realkalinization occurred upon cessation of stimulation with a time course of 20.54 ± 1.05 s (τ). The chemical pH-indicator 2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein corroborated these changes in pHcyto. Bicarbonate-derived buffering did not contribute to buffering of acid loads from short (≤4 s) trains of action potentials but did buffer slow (∼60 s) acid loads. The magnitude of cytosolic acid transients correlated with cytosolic Ca2+ increase upon stimulation, and partial inhibition of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase, a Ca2+/H+ exchanger, attenuated pHcyto shifts. Repeated stimulus trains mimicking motor patterns generated greater cytosolic acidification (∼0.30 pH units). Imaging through the cuticle of intact larvae revealed spontaneous pHcyto shifts in presynaptic termini in vivo, similar to those seen in situ during fictive locomotion, indicating that presynaptic pHcyto shifts cannot be dismissed as artifacts of ex vivo preparations. PMID:23401611

  18. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - ulnar nerve; Ulnar nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy; Cubital tunnel syndrome ... Damage to one nerve group, such as the ulnar nerve, is called mononeuropathy . Mononeuropathy means there is damage to a single nerve. Both ...

  19. Radial nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - radial nerve; Radial nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy ... Damage to one nerve group, such as the radial nerve, is called mononeuropathy . Mononeuropathy means there is damage to a single nerve. Both ...

  20. Vagus nerve stimulation ameliorated deficits in one-way active avoidance learning and stimulated hippocampal neurogenesis in bulbectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Nils; Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Boettger, Michael K; Grecksch, Gisela; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Reichart, Rupert; Becker, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been introduced as a therapeutic option for treatment-resistant depression. The neural and chemical mechanisms responsible for the effects of VNS are largely unclear. Bilateral removal of the olfactory bulbs (OBX) is a validated animal model in depression research. We studied the effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on disturbed one-way active avoidance learning and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats. After a stimulation period of 3 weeks, OBX rats acquired the learning task as controls. In addition, the OBX-related decrease of neuronal differentiated BrdU positive cells in the dentate gyrus was prevented by VNS. This suggests that chronic VNS and changes in hippocampal neurogenesis induced by VNS may also account for the amelioration of behavioral deficits in OBX rats. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the restorative effects of VNS on behavioral function in an animal model of depression that can be compared with the effects of antidepressants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroimmune Interactions in Schizophrenia: Focus on Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Activation of the Alpha-7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria das Graças Corsi-Zuelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders and is aggravated by the lack of efficacious treatment. Although its etiology is unclear, epidemiological studies indicate that infection and inflammation during development induces behavioral, morphological, neurochemical, and cognitive impairments, increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia. The inflammatory hypothesis of schizophrenia is also supported by clinical studies demonstrating systemic inflammation and microglia activation in schizophrenic patients. Although elucidating the mechanism that induces this inflammatory profile remains a challenge, mounting evidence suggests that neuroimmune interactions may provide therapeutic advantages to control inflammation and hence schizophrenia. Recent studies have indicated that vagus nerve stimulation controls both peripheral and central inflammation via alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR. Other findings have indicated that vagal stimulation and α7nAChR-agonists can provide therapeutic advantages for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and epilepsy. This review analyzes the latest results regarding: (I the immune-to-brain pathogenesis of schizophrenia; (II the regulation of inflammation by the autonomic nervous system in psychiatric disorders; and (III the role of the vagus nerve and α7nAChR in schizophrenia.

  2. Neuroimmune Interactions in Schizophrenia: Focus on Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Activation of the Alpha-7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi-Zuelli, Fabiana Maria das Graças; Brognara, Fernanda; Quirino, Gustavo Fernando da Silva; Hiroki, Carlos Hiroji; Fais, Rafael Sobrano; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Ulloa, Luis; Salgado, Helio Cesar; Kanashiro, Alexandre; Loureiro, Camila Marcelino

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders and is aggravated by the lack of efficacious treatment. Although its etiology is unclear, epidemiological studies indicate that infection and inflammation during development induces behavioral, morphological, neurochemical, and cognitive impairments, increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia. The inflammatory hypothesis of schizophrenia is also supported by clinical studies demonstrating systemic inflammation and microglia activation in schizophrenic patients. Although elucidating the mechanism that induces this inflammatory profile remains a challenge, mounting evidence suggests that neuroimmune interactions may provide therapeutic advantages to control inflammation and hence schizophrenia. Recent studies have indicated that vagus nerve stimulation controls both peripheral and central inflammation via alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Other findings have indicated that vagal stimulation and α7nAChR-agonists can provide therapeutic advantages for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and epilepsy. This review analyzes the latest results regarding: (I) the immune-to-brain pathogenesis of schizophrenia; (II) the regulation of inflammation by the autonomic nervous system in psychiatric disorders; and (III) the role of the vagus nerve and α7nAChR in schizophrenia. PMID:28620379

  3. Assessment of feasibility of running RSNA's MIRC on a Raspberry Pi: a cost-effective solution for teaching files in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Andre; Atri, Mostafa; Rogalla, Patrik; Huynh, Thien; O'Malley, Martin E

    2015-11-01

    The value of a teaching case repository in radiology training programs is immense. The allocation of resources for putting one together is a complex issue, given the factors that have to be coordinated: hardware, software, infrastructure, administration, and ethics. Costs may be significant and cost-effective solutions are desirable. We chose Medical Imaging Resource Center (MIRC) to build our teaching file. It is offered by RSNA for free. For the hardware, we chose the Raspberry Pi, developed by the Raspberry Foundation: a small control board developed as a low cost computer for schools also used in alternative projects such as robotics and environmental data collection. Its performance and reliability as a file server were unknown to us. For the operational system, we chose Raspbian, a variant of Debian Linux, along with Apache (web server), MySql (database server) and PHP, which enhance the functionality of the server. A USB hub and an external hard drive completed the setup. Installation of software was smooth. The Raspberry Pi was able to handle very well the task of hosting the teaching file repository for our division. Uptime was logged at 100 %, and loading times were similar to other MIRC sites available online. We setup two servers (one for backup), each costing just below $200.00 including external storage and USB hub. It is feasible to run RSNA's MIRC off a low-cost control board (Raspberry Pi). Performance and reliability are comparable to full-size servers for the intended purpose of hosting a teaching file within an intranet environment.

  4. Activation of muscarinic receptors protects against retinal neurons damage and optic nerve degeneration in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pan-Pan; Yuan, Hai-Hong; Zhu, Xu; Cui, Yong-Yao; Li, Hui; Feng, Xue-Mei; Qiu, Yu; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Zhou, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist pilocarpine reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) of glaucoma mainly by stimulating ciliary muscle contraction and then increasing aqueous outflow. It is of our great interest to know whether pilocarpine has the additional properties of retinal neuroprotection independent of IOP lowering in vitro and in vivo models. In rat primary retinal cultures, cell viability was measured using an MTT assay and the trypan blue exclusion method, respectively. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were identified by immunofluorescence and quantified by flow cytometry. For the in vivo study, the retinal damage after retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats was evaluated by histopathological study using hematoxylin and eosin staining, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical study on cleaved caspase-3, caspase-3, and ChAT. Pretreatment of pilocarpine attenuated glutamate-induced neurotoxicity of primary retinal neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Protection of pilocarpine in both retinal neurons and RGCs was largely abolished by the nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine and the M1-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine. After ischemia/reperfusion injury in retina, the inner retinal degeneration occurred including ganglion cell layer thinning and neuron lost, and the optic nerve underwent vacuolar changes. These degenerative changes were significantly lessened by topical application of 2% pilocarpine. In addition, the protective effect of pilocarpine on the ischemic rat retina was favorably reflected by downregulating the expression of activated apoptosis marker cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-3 and upregulating the expression of cholinergic cell marker ChAT. Taken together, this highlights pilocarpine through the activation of muscarinic receptors appear to afford significant protection against retinal neurons damage and optic nerve degeneration at clinically relevant concentrations. These data also

  5. Exposure to a high-fat diet during development alters leptin and ghrelin sensitivity and elevates renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Larissa J; Davern, Pamela J; Burke, Sandra L; Lim, Kyungjoon; Armitage, James A; Head, Geoffrey A

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to maternal obesity or a maternal diet rich in fat during development may have adverse outcomes in offspring, such as the development of obesity and hypertension. The present study examined the effect of a maternal high-fat diet (m-HFD) on offspring blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity, responses to stress, and sensitivity to central administration of leptin and ghrelin. Offspring of New Zealand white rabbits fed a 13% HFD were slightly heavier than offspring from mothers fed a 4% maternal normal fat diet (Pfat pad mass (P=0.015). Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity at 4 months of age were 7%, 7%, and 24% greater, respectively (Pfat diet rabbits, and the renal sympathetic nerve activity response to airjet stress was enhanced in the m-HFD group. m-HFD offspring had markedly elevated pressor and renal sympathetic nerve activity responses to intracerebroventricular leptin (5-100 µg) and enhanced sympathetic responses to intracerebroventricular ghrelin (1-5 nmol). In contrast, there was resistance to the anorexic effects of intracerebroventricular leptin and less neuronal activation as detected by Fos immunohistochemistry in the arcuate (-57%; Pfat diet rabbits. We conclude that offspring from mothers consuming an HFD exhibit an adverse cardiovascular profile in adulthood because of altered central hypothalamic sensitivity to leptin and ghrelin.

  6. Creatine and creatine pyruvate reduce hypoxia-induced effects on phrenic nerve activity in the juvenile mouse respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Monika; Bischoff, Anna M; Kruzliak, Peter; Opatrilova, Radka; Bovell, Douglas; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2016-08-01

    Adequate concentrations of ATP are required to preserve physiological cell functions and protect tissue from hypoxic damage. Decreased oxygen concentration results in ATP synthesis relying increasingly on the presence of phosphocreatine. The lack of ATP through hypoxic insult to neurons that generate or regulate respiratory function, would lead to the cessation of breathing (apnea). It is not clear whether creatine plays a role in maintaining respiratory phrenic nerve (PN) activity during hypoxic challenge. The aim of the study was to test the effects of exogenously applied creatine or creatine pyruvate in maintaining PN induced respiratory rhythm against the deleterious effects of severe hypoxic insult using Working Heart-Brainstem (WHB) preparations of juvenile Swiss type mice. WHB's were perfused with control perfusate or perfusate containing either creatine [100μM] or creatine pyruvate [100μM] prior to hypoxic challenge and PN activity recorded throughout. Results showed that severe hypoxic challenge resulted in an initial transient increase in PN activity, followed by a reduction in that activity leading to respiratory apnea. The results demonstrated that perfusing the WHB preparation with creatine or creatine pyruvate, significantly reduced the onset of apnea compared to control conditions, with creatine pyruvate being the more effective substance. Overall, creatine and creatine pyruvate each produced time-dependent degrees of protection against severe hypoxic-induced disturbances of PN activity. The underlying protective mechanisms are unknown and need further investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A microcontroller-based telemetry system for sympathetic nerve activity and ECG measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, E; Yonezawa, Y; Caldwell, W M; Hahn, A W

    1999-01-01

    A telemetry system employing a low power 8-bit microcontroller has been developed for chronic unanesthetized small animal studies. The two-channel system is designed for use with animals in shielded cages. Analog signals from implantable ECG and nerve electrodes are converted to an 8-bit serial digital format. This is accomplished by individual 8 bit A/D converters included in the microcontroller, which also has serial I/O port. The converted serial binary code is applied directly to an antenna wire. Therefore, the system does not need to employ a separate transmitter, such as in FM or infrared optical telemeters. The system is used in a shielded animal cage to reduce interference from external radio signals and 60 Hz power line fields. The code is received by a high input impedance amplifier in the cage and is then demodulated. The telemeter is powered by a small 3 V lithium battery, which provides 100 hours of continuous operation. The circuit is constructed on two 25 x 25 mm. printed circuit boards and encapsulated in epoxy, yielding a total volume of 6.25 cc. The weight is 15 g.

  8. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition, behavior, and the rest-activity rhythm in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, S; Bouma, A; Sergeant, JA; Scherder, EJA; Bouma, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition, behavior, and the rest-activity rhythm in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT). Methods. Twenty-two children diagnosed with

  9. Effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on cognition, behavior, and rest-activity rhythm in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, combined type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, S.; Bouma, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on cognition, behavior, and the rest-activity rhythm in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-CT). Methods. Twenty-two children diagnosed with

  10. Electrophysiological characterization of activation state-dependent Ca(v)2 channel antagonist TROX-1 in spinal nerve injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R; Rutten, K; Valdor, M; Schiene, K; Wigge, S; Schunk, S; Damann, N; Christoph, T; Dickenson, A H

    2015-06-25

    Prialt, a synthetic version of Ca(v)2.2 antagonist ω-conotoxin MVIIA derived from Conus magus, is the first clinically approved voltage-gated calcium channel blocker for refractory chronic pain. However, due to the narrow therapeutic window and considerable side effects associated with systemic dosing, Prialt is only administered intrathecally. N-triazole oxindole (TROX-1) is a novel use-dependent and activation state-selective small-molecule inhibitor of Ca(v)2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 calcium channels designed to overcome the limitations of Prialt. We have examined the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of blocking calcium channels with TROX-1. In vitro, TROX-1, in contrast to state-independent antagonist Prialt, preferentially inhibits Ca(v)2.2 currents in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons under depolarized conditions. In vivo electrophysiology was performed to record from deep dorsal horn lamina V/VI wide dynamic range neurons in non-sentient spinal nerve-ligated (SNL) and sham-operated rats. In SNL rats, spinal neurons exhibited reduced responses to innocuous and noxious punctate mechanical stimulation of the receptive field following subcutaneous administration of TROX-1, an effect that was absent in sham-operated animals. No effect was observed on neuronal responses evoked by dynamic brushing, heat or cold stimulation in SNL or sham rats. The wind-up response of spinal neurons following repeated electrical stimulation of the receptive field was also unaffected. Spinally applied TROX-1 dose dependently inhibited mechanically evoked neuronal responses in SNL but not sham-operated rats, consistent with behavioral observations. This study confirms the pathological state-dependent actions of TROX-1 through a likely spinal mechanism and reveals a modality selective change in calcium channel function following nerve injury. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Cryotherapy for Increasing Quadriceps Activation in Patients With Knee Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Conrad M; Lepley, Adam S; Uhl, Tim L; Mattacola, Carl G

    2016-08-01

    Proper neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps muscle is essential for maintaining quadriceps (quad) strength and lower-extremity function. Quad activation (QA) failure is a common characteristic observed in patients with knee pathologies, defined as an inability to voluntarily activate the entire alpha-motor-neuron pool innervating the quad. One of the more popular techniques used to assess QA is the superimposed burst (SIB) technique, a force-based technique that uses a supramaximal, percutaneous electrical stimulation to activate all of the motor units in the quad during a maximal, voluntary isometric contraction. Central activation ratio (CAR) is the formula used to calculate QA level (CAR = voluntary force/SIB force) with the SIB technique. People who can voluntarily activate 95% or more (CAR = 0.95-1.0) of their motor units are defined as being fully activated. Therapeutic exercises aimed at improving quad strength in patients with knee pathologies are limited in their effectiveness due to a failure to fully activate the muscle. Within the past decade, several disinhibitory interventions have been introduced to treat QA failure in patients with knee pathologies. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and cryotherapy are sensory-targeted modalities traditionally used to treat pain, but they have been shown to be 2 of the most successful treatments for increasing QA levels in patients with QA failure. Both modalities are hypothesized to positively affect voluntary QA by disinhibiting the motor-neuron pool of the quad. In essence, these modalities provide excitatory afferent stimuli to the spinal cord, which thereby overrides the inhibitory afferent signaling that arises from the involved joint. However, it remains unknown whether 1 is more effective than the other for restoring QA levels in patients with knee pathologies. By knowing the capabilities of each disinhibitory modality, clinicians can tailor treatments based on the rehabilitation goals

  12. Contribution of α-adrenoceptors to depolarization and contraction evoked by continuous asynchronous sympathetic nerve activity in rat tail artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J A; McLachlan, E M; Rayner, S E

    1997-01-01

    The effects of continuous but asynchronous nerve activity induced by ciguatoxin (CTX-1) on the membrane potential and contraction of smooth muscle cells have been investigated in rat proximal tail arteries isolated in vitro. These effects have been compared with those produced by the continuous application of phenylephrine (PE).CTX-1 (0.4 nM) and PE (10 μM) produced a maintained depolarization of the arterial smooth muscle that was almost completely blocked by α-adrenoceptor blockade. In both cases, the depolarization was more sensitive to the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan (0.1 μM), than to the selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (0.01 μM).In contrast, the maintained contraction of the tail artery induced by CTX-1 (0.2 nM) and PE (2 and 10 μM) was more sensitive to prazosin (0.01) μM, than to idazoxan (0.01 μM). In combination, these antagonists almost completely inhibited contraction to both agents.Application of the calcium channel antagonist, nifedipine (1 μM), had no effect on the depolarization induced by either CTX-1 or PE but maximally reduced the force of the maintained contraction to both agents by about 50%.We conclude that the constriction of the tail artery induced by CTX-1, which mimics the natural discharge of postganglionic perivascular axons, is due almost entirely to α-adrenoceptor activation. The results indicate that neuronally released noradrenaline activates more than one α-adrenoceptor subtype. The depolarization is dependent primarily on α2-adrenoceptor activation whereas the contraction is dependent primarily on α1-adrenoceptor activation. The links between α-adrenoceptor activation and the voltage-dependent and voltage-independent mechanisms that deliver Ca2+ to the contractile apparatus appear to be complex. PMID:9113373

  13. In Vivo Characterization of Intracellular Signaling Pathways Activated by the Nerve Agent Sarin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shih, Tsung-Ming A; Snyder, Gretchen L; Hendrick, Joseph P; Fienberg, Allen A; McDonough, John H

    2004-01-01

    ..., an excessive stimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Preliminary evidence using diverse OPs indicates that the DARPP-32/PP-1 signaling pathway is activated by nicotinic receptor stimulation...

  14. CSK negatively regulates nerve growth factor induced neural differentiation and augments AKT kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Nandini; Howell, Brian W.; De, Pradip K.; Durden, Donald L.

    2005-01-01

    Src family kinases are involved in transducing growth factor signals for cellular differentiation and proliferation in a variety of cell types. The activity of all Src family kinases (SFKs) is controlled by phosphorylation at their C-terminal 527-tyrosine residue by C-terminal SRC kinase, CSK. There is a paucity of information regarding the role of CSK and/or specific Src family kinases in neuronal differentiation. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with the Src family kinase inhibitor, PP1, blocked NGF-induced activation of SFKs and obliterated neurite outgrowth. To confirm a role for CSK and specific isoforms of SFKs in neuronal differentiation, we overexpressed active and catalytically dead CSK in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12. CSK overexpression caused a profound inhibition of NGF-induced activation of FYN, YES, RAS, and ERK and inhibited neurite outgrowth, NGF-stimulated integrin-directed migration and blocked the NGF-induced conversion of GDP-RAC to its GTP-bound active state. CSK overexpression markedly augmented the activation state of AKT following NGF stimulation. In contrast, kinase-dead CSK augmented the activation of FYN, RAS, and ERK and increased neurite outgrowth. These data suggest a distinct requirement for CSK in the regulation of NGF/TrkA activation of RAS, RAC, ERK, and AKT via the differential control of SFKs in the orchestration of neuronal differentiation

  15. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation attenuates CFA-induced hyperalgesia and inhibits spinal ERK1/2-COX-2 pathway activation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jun-Fan; Liang, Yi; Du, Jun-Ying; Fang, Jian-Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacologic treatment for pain relief. In previous animal studies, TENS effectively alleviated Complete Freund?s Adjuvant (CFA)- or carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. Although TENS is known to produce analgesia via opioid activation in the brain and at the spinal level, few reports have investigated the signal transduction pathways mediated by TENS. Prior studies have verified the importance of the activation of extr...

  16. Large A-fiber activity is required for microglial proliferation and p38 MAPK activation in the spinal cord: different effects of resiniferatoxin and bupivacaine on spinal microglial changes after spared nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decosterd Isabelle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After peripheral nerve injury, spontaneous ectopic activity arising from the peripheral axons plays an important role in inducing central sensitization and neuropathic pain. Recent evidence indicates that activation of spinal cord microglia also contributes to the development of neuropathic pain. In particular, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in spinal microglia is required for the development of mechanical allodynia. However, activity-dependent activation of microglia after nerve injury has not been fully addressed. To determine whether spontaneous activity from C- or A-fibers is required for microglial activation, we used resiniferatoxin (RTX to block the conduction of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1 positive fibers (mostly C- and Aδ-fibers and bupivacaine microspheres to block all fibers of the sciatic nerve in rats before spared nerve injury (SNI, and observed spinal microglial changes 2 days later. Results SNI induced robust mechanical allodynia and p38 activation in spinal microglia. SNI also induced marked cell proliferation in the spinal cord, and all the proliferating cells (BrdU+ were microglia (Iba1+. Bupivacaine induced a complete sensory and motor blockade and also significantly inhibited p38 activation and microglial proliferation in the spinal cord. In contrast, and although it produced an efficient nociceptive block, RTX failed to inhibit p38 activation and microglial proliferation in the spinal cord. Conclusion (1 Blocking peripheral input in TRPV1-positive fibers (presumably C-fibers is not enough to prevent nerve injury-induced spinal microglial activation. (2 Peripheral input from large myelinated fibers is important for microglial activation. (3 Microglial activation is associated with mechanical allodynia.

  17. A functional model and simulation of spinal motor pools and intrafascicular recordings of motoneuron activity in peripheral nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Abdelghani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Decoding motor intent from recorded neural signals is essential for the development of effective neural-controlled prostheses. To facilitate the development of online decoding algorithms we have developed a software platform to simulate neural motor signals recorded with peripheral nerve electrodes, such as longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (LIFEs. The simulator uses stored motor intent signals to drive a pool of simulated motoneurons with various spike shapes, recruitment characteristics, and firing frequencies. Each electrode records a weighted sum of a subset of simulated motoneuron activity patterns. As designed, the simulator facilitates development of a suite of test scenarios that would not be possible with actual data sets because, unlike with actual recordings, in the simulator the individual contributions to the simulated composite recordings are known and can be methodically varied across a set of simulation runs. In this manner, the simulation tool is suitable for iterative development of real-time decoding algorithms prior to definitive evaluation in amputee subjects with implanted electrodes. The simulation tool was used to produce data sets that demonstrate its ability to capture some features of neural recordings that pose challenges for decoding algorithms.

  18. Reconstruction of facial nerve injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Adel; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ron M

    2011-05-01

    Facial nerve trauma is uncommon in children, and many spontaneously recover some function; nonetheless, loss of facial nerve activity leads to functional impairment of ocular and oral sphincters and nasal orifice. In many cases, the impediment posed by facial asymmetry and reduced mimetic function more significantly affects the child's psychosocial interactions. As such, reconstruction of the facial nerve affords great benefits in quality of life. The therapeutic strategy is dependent on numerous factors, including the cause of facial nerve injury, the deficit, the prognosis for recovery, and the time elapsed since the injury. The options for treatment include a diverse range of surgical techniques including static lifts and slings, nerve repairs, nerve grafts and nerve transfers, regional, and microvascular free muscle transfer. We review our strategies for addressing facial nerve injuries in children.

  19. Maintained inspiratory activity during proportional assist ventilation in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation: phrenic nerve and pulmonary stretch receptor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller Peter

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inspiratory activity is a prerequisite for successful application of patient triggered ventilation such as proportional assist ventilation (PAV. It has recently been reported that surfactant instillation increases the activity of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (PSRs followed by a shorter inspiratory time (Sindelar et al, J Appl Physiol, 2005 [Epub ahead of print]. Changes in lung mechanics, as observed in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome and after surfactant treatment, might therefore influence the inspiratory activity when applying PAV early after surfactant treatment. Objective To investigate the regulation of breathing and ventilatory response in surfactant-depleted young cats during PAV and during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP early after surfactant instillation in relation to phrenic nerve activity (PNA and the activity of PSRs. Methods Seven anesthetized, endotracheally intubated young cats were exposed to periods of CPAP and PAV with the same end-expiratory pressure (0.2–0.5 kPa before and after lung lavage and after surfactant instillation. PAV was set to compensate for 75% of the lung elastic recoil. Results Tidal volume and respiratory rate were higher with lower PaCO2 and higher PaO2 during PAV than during CPAP both before and after surfactant instillation (p Conclusion PSR activity and the control of breathing are maintained during PAV in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation, with a higher ventilatory response and a lower breathing effort than during CPAP.

  20. Activation of transglutaminase 2 by nerve growth factor in differentiating neuroblastoma cells: A role in cell survival and neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarni, Alanood S; Hargreaves, Alan J; Dickenson, John M

    2018-02-05

    NGF (nerve growth factor) and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) play important roles in neurite outgrowth and modulation of neuronal cell survival. In this study, we investigated the regulation of TG2 transamidase activity by NGF in retinoic acid-induced differentiating mouse N2a and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. TG2 transamidase activity was determined using an amine incorporation and a peptide cross linking assay. In situ TG2 activity was assessed by visualising the incorporation of biotin-X-cadaverine using confocal microscopy. The role of TG2 in NGF-induced cytoprotection and neurite outgrowth was investigated by monitoring hypoxia-induced cell death and appearance of axonal-like processes, respectively. The amine incorporation and protein crosslinking activity of TG2 increased in a time and concentration-dependent manner following stimulation with NGF in N2a and SH-SY5Y cells. NGF mediated increases in TG2 activity were abolished by the TG2 inhibitors Z-DON (Z-ZON-Val-Pro-Leu-OMe; Benzyloxycarbonyl-(6-Diazo-5-oxonorleucinyl)-l-valinyl-l-prolinyl-l-leucinmethylester) and R283 (1,3,dimethyl-2[2-oxo-propyl]thio)imidazole chloride) and by pharmacological inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (PKB) and protein kinase C (PKC), and removal of extracellular Ca 2+ . Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated NGF induced in situ TG2 activity. TG2 inhibition blocked NGF-induced attenuation of hypoxia-induced cell death and neurite outgrowth in both cell lines. Together, these results demonstrate that NGF stimulates TG2 transamidase activity via a ERK1/2, PKB and PKC-dependent pathway in differentiating mouse N2a and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, NGF-induced cytoprotection and neurite outgrowth are dependent upon TG2. These results suggest a novel and important role of TG2 in the cellular functions of NGF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High-voltage-activated calcium current subtypes in mouse DRG neurons adapt in a subpopulation-specific manner after nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Swetha S; Napier, Ian A; Mohammadi, Sarasa A; Alewood, Paul F; Lewis, Richard J; Christie, MacDonald J

    2015-03-01

    Changes in ion channel function and expression are characteristic of neuropathic pain. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are integral for neurotransmission and membrane excitability, but relatively little is known about changes in their expression after nerve injury. In this study, we investigate whether peripheral nerve ligation is followed by changes in the density and proportion of high-voltage-activated (HVA) VGCC current subtypes in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, the contribution of presynaptic N-type calcium channels in evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) recorded from dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord, and the changes in expression of mRNA encoding VGCC subunits in DRG neurons. Using C57BL/6 mice [8- to 11-wk-old males (n = 91)] for partial sciatic nerve ligation or sham surgery, we performed whole cell patch-clamp recordings on isolated DRG neurons and dorsal horn neurons and measured the expression of all VGCC subunits with RT-PCR in DRG neurons. After nerve injury, the density of P/Q-type current was reduced overall in DRG neurons. There was an increase in the percentage of N-type and a decrease in that of P/Q-type current in medium- to large-diameter neurons. No changes were found in the contribution of presynaptic N-type calcium channels in evoked EPSCs recorded from dorsal horn neurons. The α2δ-1 subunit was upregulated by 1.7-fold and γ-3, γ-2, and β-4 subunits were all downregulated 1.7-fold in injured neurons compared with sham-operated neurons. This comprehensive characterization of HVA VGCC subtypes in mouse DRG neurons after nerve injury revealed changes in N- and P/Q-type current proportions only in medium- to large-diameter neurons. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in children with chronic heart failure using quantitative iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Kensuke; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Noto, Nobutaka; Sumitomo, Naokata; Okada, Tomoo; Harada, Kensuke

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in children with chronic heart failure was examined by quantitative iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial imaging in 33 patients aged 7.5±6.1 years (range 0-18 years), including 8 with cardiomyopathy, 15 with congenital heart disease, 3 with anthracycrine cardiotoxicity, 3 with myocarditis, 3 with primary pulmonary hypertension and 1 with Pompe's disease. Anterior planar images were obtained 15 min and 3 hr after the injection of iodine-123 MIBG. The cardiac iodine-123 MIBG uptake was assessed as the heart to upper mediastinum uptake activity ratio of the delayed image (H/M) and the cardiac percentage washout rate (%WR). The severity of chronic heart failure was class I (no medication) in 8 patients, class II (no symptom with medication) in 9, class III (symptom even with medication) in 10 and class IV (late cardiac death) in 6. H/M was 2.33±0.22 in chronic heart failure class I, 2.50±0.34 in class II, 1.95±0.61 in class III, and 1.39±0.29 in class IV (p<0.05). %WR was 24.8±12.8% in chronic heart failure class I, 23.3±10.2% in class II, 49.2±24.5% in class III, and 66.3±26.5% in class IV (p<0.05). The low H/M and high %WR were proportionate to the severity of chronic heart failure. Cardiac iodine-123 MIBG showed cardiac adrenergic neuronal dysfunction in children with severe chronic heart failure. Quantitative iodine-123 MIBG myocardial imaging is clinically useful as a predictor of therapeutic outcome and mortality in children with chronic heart failure. (author)

  3. Abnormal sympathetic nerve activity in women exposed to cigarette smoke: a potential mechanism to explain increased cardiac risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlekauff, Holly R; Park, Jeanie; Agrawal, Harsh; Gornbein, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-15

    In women, cardiac deaths attributable to tobacco exposure have reached the same high levels as men. Normally, sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) fluctuates according to the menstrual phase, but in habitual smokers, SNA levels remain constant. Our purpose is to extend these observations to other groups of women exposed to tobacco smoke and to explore potential mechanisms. We hypothesize that women exposed to secondhand smoke, but not former smokers, have nonfluctuating SNA compared with never smokers, and that impaired baroreflex suppression of SNA, and/or heightened central SNA responses, underlie this nonfluctuating SNA. We also hypothesize that female smokers have impaired nocturnal blood pressure dipping, normally mediated by modulation of SNA. In 49 females (19 never, 12 current, 9 former, 9 passive smokers), SNA was recorded (microneurography) during high- and low-hormone ovarian phases at rest, during pharmacological baroreflex testing, and during the cold pressor test (CPT). Twenty-four hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring was performed. Current and passive smokers, but not former smokers, had a nonfluctuating pattern of SNA, unlike never smokers in whom SNA varied with the menstrual phase. Baroreflex control of SNA was significantly blunted in current smokers, independent of menstrual phase. In passive smokers, SNA response to CPT was markedly increased. Nondipping was unexpectedly high in all groups. SNA does not vary during the menstrual cycle in active and passive smokers, unlike never and former smokers. Baroreflex control of SNA is blunted in current smokers, whereas SNA response to CPT is heightened in passive smokers. Smoking cessation is associated with return of the altered SNA pattern to normal.

  4. Assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in children with chronic heart failure using quantitative iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasawa, Kensuke; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Noto, Nobutaka; Sumitomo, Naokata; Okada, Tomoo; Harada, Kensuke [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-12-01

    Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in children with chronic heart failure was examined by quantitative iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial imaging in 33 patients aged 7.5{+-}6.1 years (range 0-18 years), including 8 with cardiomyopathy, 15 with congenital heart disease, 3 with anthracycrine cardiotoxicity, 3 with myocarditis, 3 with primary pulmonary hypertension and 1 with Pompe's disease. Anterior planar images were obtained 15 min and 3 hr after the injection of iodine-123 MIBG. The cardiac iodine-123 MIBG uptake was assessed as the heart to upper mediastinum uptake activity ratio of the delayed image (H/M) and the cardiac percentage washout rate (%WR). The severity of chronic heart failure was class I (no medication) in 8 patients, class II (no symptom with medication) in 9, class III (symptom even with medication) in 10 and class IV (late cardiac death) in 6. H/M was 2.33{+-}0.22 in chronic heart failure class I, 2.50{+-}0.34 in class II, 1.95{+-}0.61 in class III, and 1.39{+-}0.29 in class IV (p<0.05). %WR was 24.8{+-}12.8% in chronic heart failure class I, 23.3{+-}10.2% in class II, 49.2{+-}24.5% in class III, and 66.3{+-}26.5% in class IV (p<0.05). The low H/M and high %WR were proportionate to the severity of chronic heart failure. Cardiac iodine-123 MIBG showed cardiac adrenergic neuronal dysfunction in children with severe chronic heart failure. Quantitative iodine-123 MIBG myocardial imaging is clinically useful as a predictor of therapeutic outcome and mortality in children with chronic heart failure. (author)

  5. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Snitker, Soren

    2003-01-01

    . Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory effect of cortisol in the former than in the latter group. We measured fasting plasma ACTH and cortisol...... (metyrapone) followed by cortisol replacement (hydrocortisone) on plasma ACTH, cortisol, and MSNA. There were no ethnic differences in fasting plasma ACTH or cortisol, but MSNA adjusted for percent body fat was lower in Pimas than in Caucasians (P cortisol...... to a tonic inhibitory effect of cortisol. However, an acute release of cortisol is likely to more effectively contain sympathoexcitation during stress in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, which may be an important mechanism of cardioprotection in this Native American population....

  6. elPBN neurons regulate rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections during activation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Ling; Longhurst, John C; Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C; Fu, Liang-Wu

    2016-08-01

    The external lateral parabrachial nucleus (elPBN) within the pons and rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) contributes to central processing of excitatory cardiovascular reflexes during stimulation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves (CSAN). However, the importance of elPBN cardiovascular neurons in regulation of rVLM activity during CSAN activation remains unclear. We hypothesized that CSAN stimulation excites the elPBN cardiovascular neurons and, in turn, increases rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections. Compared with controls, in rats subjected to microinjection of retrograde tracer into the rVLM, the numbers of elPBN neurons double-labeled with c-Fos (an immediate early gene) and the tracer were increased after CSAN stimulation (P neurons contain vesicular glutamate transporter 3. In cats, epicardial bradykinin and electrical stimulation of CSAN increased the activity of elPBN cardiovascular neurons, which was attenuated (n = 6, P neurons in the elPBN and rVLM sequentially through a monosynaptic (glutamatergic) excitatory elPBN-rVLM pathway. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Measuring acute changes in adrenergic nerve activity of the heart in the living animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, J.C.; Bolgos, G.; Johnson, J.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the function of the adrenergic neurons of the heart may be important indicators of the adaptations of an animal to physiologic stress and disease. Rates of loss of norepinephrine (NE) from the heart were considered to be proportional to NE secretion and to adrenergic function. In rat hearts, yohimbine induced almost identical increases in rates of loss of 3 H-NE and of 125 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a functional analog of NE. Clonidine induced decreases in rates of loss of 3 H-NE that were also mimicked by those of 125 I-MIBG. In the dog heart, pharmacologically-induced increases and decreases in rates of loss of 123 I-MIBG could be measured externally; these values were similar to those obtained for 125 I-MIBG in the rat heart. Thus acute changes in the adrenergic neuron activity can be measured in the living heart. The method is applicable to man in determining the capacity of the adrenergic system to respond to provocative challenges

  8. Evaluation of sympathetic nerve system activity with MIBG. Comparison with heart rate variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Chinori; Wakabayashi, Yasushi; Shouda, Sakae; Mikami, Tadashi; Tawarahara, Kei; Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Suzuki, Toshihiko.

    1997-01-01

    Authors attempted to elucidate the relations of plasma concentration of norepinephrine (pNE) and findings of heart rate variability and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy and evaluated cardiac autonomic nervous activity in chronic renal failure. Subjects were 211 patients with various heart diseases (coronary artery lesion, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal failure and so on), 60 patients with artificial kidney due to chronic renal failure, 13 of whom were found to have coronary arterial disease by Tl myocardial scintigraphy, and 14 normal volunteers. ECG was recorded with the portable recorder for heart rate variability. Together with collection of blood for pNE measurement, myocardial scintigraphy was done at 15 and 150 min after intravenous administration of 111 MBq of MIBG for acquisition of early and delayed, respectively, images of the frontal breast. Accumulation at and elimination during the time points of MIBG were computed in cps unit. Variability of heart rate was found to have the correlation positive with MIBG delayed accumulation and negative with the elimination, and pNE, negative with heart rate variability and the delayed accumulation and positive with the elimination. Thus cardiac autonomic nervous abnormality was suggested to occur before uremic cardiomyopathy. (K.H.)

  9. elPBN neurons regulate rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections during activation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, John C.; Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.; Fu, Liang-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The external lateral parabrachial nucleus (elPBN) within the pons and rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) contributes to central processing of excitatory cardiovascular reflexes during stimulation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves (CSAN). However, the importance of elPBN cardiovascular neurons in regulation of rVLM activity during CSAN activation remains unclear. We hypothesized that CSAN stimulation excites the elPBN cardiovascular neurons and, in turn, increases rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections. Compared with controls, in rats subjected to microinjection of retrograde tracer into the rVLM, the numbers of elPBN neurons double-labeled with c-Fos (an immediate early gene) and the tracer were increased after CSAN stimulation (P < 0.05). The majority of these elPBN neurons contain vesicular glutamate transporter 3. In cats, epicardial bradykinin and electrical stimulation of CSAN increased the activity of elPBN cardiovascular neurons, which was attenuated (n = 6, P < 0.05) after blockade of glutamate receptors with iontophoresis of kynurenic acid (Kyn, 25 mM). In separate cats, microinjection of Kyn (1.25 nmol/50 nl) into the elPBN reduced rVLM activity evoked by both bradykinin and electrical stimulation (n = 5, P < 0.05). Excitation of the elPBN with microinjection of dl-homocysteic acid (2 nmol/50 nl) significantly increased basal and CSAN-evoked rVLM activity. However, the enhanced rVLM activity induced by dl-homocysteic acid injected into the elPBN was reversed following iontophoresis of Kyn into the rVLM (n = 7, P < 0.05). These data suggest that cardiac sympathetic afferent stimulation activates cardiovascular neurons in the elPBN and rVLM sequentially through a monosynaptic (glutamatergic) excitatory elPBN-rVLM pathway. PMID:27225950

  10. Optic Nerve Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The optic nerve is a bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages. You have one connecting ... retina) to your brain. Damage to an optic nerve can cause vision loss. The type of vision ...

  11. Optic Nerve Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Optic Nerve Imaging email Send this article to a friend ... measurements of nerve fiber damage (or loss). The Nerve Fiber Analyzer (GDx) uses laser light to measure ...

  12. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  13. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ulnar nerve originates from the brachial plexus and travels down arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body where ...

  14. Effect of superficial radial nerve stimulation on the activity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons in the cat: role of cutaneous sensory input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieoullon, A; Dusticier, N [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille (France). Inst. de Neurophysiologie et Psychophysiologie

    1982-01-01

    The release of /sup 3/H-dopamine (DA) continuously synthesized from /sup 3/H-thyrosine was measured in the caudate nucleus (CN) and in the substantia nigra (SN) in both sides of the brain during electrical stimulation of the superficial radial nerve in cats lightly anaesthetized with halothane. Use of appropriate electrophysiologically controlled stimulation led to selective activation of low threshold afferent fibers whereas high stimulation activated all cutaneous afferents. Results showed that low threshold fiber activation induced a decreased dopaminergic activity in CN contralateral to nerve stimulation and a concomitant increase in dopaminergic activity on the ipsilateral side. Stimulation of group I and threshold stimulation of group II afferent fibers induced changes in the release of /sup 3/H-DA mainly on the contralateral CN and SN and in the ipsilateral CN. High stimulation was followed by a general increase of the neurotransmitter release in the four structures. This shows that the nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons are mainly-if not exclusively-controlled by cutaneous sensory inputs. This control, non-specific when high threshold cutaneous fibers are also activated. Such activations could contribute to reestablish sufficient release of DA when the dopaminergic function is impaired as in Parkinson's disease.

  15. Effect of superficial radial nerve stimulation on the activity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons in the cat: role of cutaneous sensory input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieoullon, A.; Dusticier, N.

    1982-01-01

    The release of 3 H-dopamine (DA) continuously synthesized from 3 H-thyrosine was measured in the caudate nucleus (CN) and in the substantia nigra (SN) in both sides of the brain during electrical stimulation of the superficial radial nerve in cats lightly anaesthetized with halothane. Use of appropriate electrophysiologically controlled stimulation led to selective activation of low threshold afferent fibers whereas high stimulation activated all cutaneous afferents. Results showed that low threshold fiber activation induced a decreased dopaminergic activity in CN contralateral to nerve stimulation and a concomitant increase in dopaminergic activity on the ipsilateral side. Stimulation of group I and threshold stimulation of group II afferent fibers induced changes in the release of 3 H-DA mainly on the contralateral CN and SN and in the ipsilateral CN. High stimulation was followed by a general increase of the neurotransmitter release in the four structures. This shows that the nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons are mainly-if not exclusively-controlled by cutaneous sensory inputs. This control, non-specific when high threshold cutaneous fibers are also activated. Such activations could contribute to restablish sufficient release of DA when the dopaminergic function is impaired as in Parkinson's disease. (Author)

  16. BLOCKADE OF ROSTRAL VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA (RVLM BOMBESIN RECEPTOR TYPE 1 DECREASES BLOOD PRESSURE AND SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY IN ANESTHETIZED SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Silva De Jesus Pinto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available IIntrathecal injection of bombesin (BBS promoted hypertensive and sympathoexcitatory effects in normotensive (NT rats. However, the involvement of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM in these responses is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated: (1 the effects of BBS injected bilaterally into RVLM on cardiorespiratory and sympathetic activity in NT and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; (2 the contribution of RVLM bombesin type 1 receptors (BB1 to the maintenance of hypertension in SHR. Urethane-anesthetized rats (1.2 g · kg−1, i.v. were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure (MAP, diaphragm (DIA motor and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA. In NT rats and SHR, BBS (0.3 mM nanoinjected into RVLM increased MAP (33.9 ± 6.6 mmHg and 37.1 ± 4.5 mmHg, respectively; p < 0.05 and RSNA (97.8 ± 12.9 % and 84.5 ± 18.1 %, respectively; p < 0.05. In SHR, BBS also increased DIA burst amplitude (115.3 ± 22.7 %; p < 0.05. BB1 receptors antagonist (BIM-23127; 3 mM reduced MAP (-19.9 ± 4.4 mmHg; p < 0.05 and RSNA (-17.7 ± 3.8 %; p < 0.05 in SHR, but not in NT rats (-2.5 ± 2.8 mmHg; -2.7 ± 5.6 %, respectively. These results show that BBS can evoke sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses by activating RVLM BB1 receptors. This pathway might be involved in the maintenance of high levels of arterial blood pressure in SHR.

  17. Effects of perindopril on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with congestive heart failure: comparison with enalapril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Suzuki, Tadashi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Kumakura, Hisao; Takayama, Yoshiaki; Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    The production of aldosterone in the heart is suppressed by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Moreover, perindopril has been reported to have more cardioprotective effects than enalapril. Forty patients with CHF [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <45%; mean 33{+-}7%] were randomly assigned to perindopril (2 mg/day; n=20) or enalapril (5 mg/day; n=20). All patients were also treated with diuretics. The delayed heart/mediastinum count (H/M) ratio, delayed total defect score (TDS) and washout rate (WR) were determined from {sup 123}I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) images, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations were measured before and 6 months after treatment. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) and LVEF were also determined by echocardiography. After treatment, in patients receiving perindopril, TDS decreased from 39{+-}10 to 34{+-}9 (P<0.01), H/M ratios increased from 1.62{+-}0.27 to 1.76{+-}0.29 (P<0.01), WR decreased from 50{+-}14% to 42{+-}14% (P<0.05) and plasma BNP concentrations decreased from 226{+-}155 to 141{+-}90 pg/ml (P<0.0005). In addition, the LVEDV decreased from 180{+-}30 to 161{+-}30 ml (P<0.05) and the LVESV decreased from 122{+-}35 to 105{+-}36 ml (P<0.05). Although the LVEF tended to increase, the change was not statistically significant (from 33{+-}8% to 36{+-}12%; P=NS). On the other hand, there were no significant changes in these parameters in patients receiving enalapril. Plasma BNP concentrations, {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic parameters improved after 6 months of perindopril treatment. These findings indicate that perindopril treatment can ameliorate the cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and the left ventricular performance in patients with CHF. (orig.)

  18. Prediction of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac functional outcome after treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Examination using dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Iwasaki, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Tadashi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi; Oshima, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Koichi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2000-07-01

    This study evaluated whether dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy can predict improvement of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac function. Sixteen patients (10 men and 6 women, mean age 59{+-}13 years) with dilated cardiomyopathy underwent dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using tracer at 0, 5, 10 and 15 {mu}g/kg/min before treatment. Patients were divided into good responders (LVEF increase {>=}15%) 8 patients (GR Group) and poor responders (LVEF increase <15%) 8 patients (PR Group) after treatment with {beta}-blocker or amiodarone with a background treatment of digitalis, diuretics and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging to evaluate cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and echocardiography were performed before and at one year after treatment. MIBG imaging was obtained 4 hours after tracer injection, and the heart/mediastinum count ratio (H/M ratio) calculated from the anterior planar image and the total defect score (TDS) from the single photon emission computed tomography image. LVEF and left ventricular endo-diastolic dimension (LVDd) were measured by echocardiography and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was evaluated. The GR Group showed TDS decreased from 28{+-}6 to 17{+-}12 (p<0.05), H/M ratio increased from 1.79{+-}0.26 to 2.07{+-}0.32 (p<0.05), LVEF increased from 29{+-}8% to 48{+-}10% (p<0.01), and LVDd decreased from 65{+-}4 mm to 58{+-}5 mm (p<0.05). In contrast, the PR group showed no significant changes in TDS. H/M ratio, LVEF and LVDd. NYHA functional class improved in both groups. The improvement was better in the GR Group than in the PR group. Dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy is useful to predict the improvement of the cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac function, and symptoms after treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  19. Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Sections What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? ... Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Treatment What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es una parálisis ...

  20. Glucose, other secretagogues, and nerve growth factor stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase in the insulin-secreting beta-cell line, INS-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Sekine, N; Roche, E

    1995-01-01

    The signaling pathways whereby glucose and hormonal secretagogues regulate insulin-secretory function, gene transcription, and proliferation of pancreatic beta-cells are not well defined. We show that in the glucose-responsive beta-cell line INS-1, major secretagogue-stimulated signaling pathways...... converge to activate 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Thus, glucose-induced insulin secretion was found to be associated with a small stimulatory effect on 44-kDa MAP kinase, which was synergistically enhanced by increased levels of intracellular cAMP and by the hormonal secretagogues......-1. Phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C, stimulated 44-kDa MAP kinase by both Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent pathways. Nerve growth factor, independently of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, efficiently stimulated 44-kDa MAP kinase without causing insulin release, indicating that activation...

  1. The ROS-mediated activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway is involved in the 27-hydroxycholesterol-induced cellular senescence in nerve cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiao; Liu, Yun; Chen, Juan; Hu, Chunyan; Teng, Mengying; Jiao, Kailin; Shen, Zhaoxia; Zhu, Dongmei; Yue, Jia; Li, Zhong; Li, Yuan

    2017-12-01

    The oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERMs), which like endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) induces the proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, the observation that 27HC induces adverse effects in neural system, distinguishing it from E 2 . It has been suggested that high levels of circulating cholesterol increase the entry of 27HC into the brain, which may induce learning and memory impairment. Based on this evidence, 27HC may be associated with neurodegenerative processes and interrupted cholesterol homeostasis in the brain. However, the biological events that participate in this process remain largely elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated that 27HC induced apparent cellular senescence in nerve cells. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay revealed that 27HC induced senescence in both BV2 cells and PC12 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that 27HC promoted the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in nerve cells and subsequently activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. Notably, treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) markedly blocked 27HC-induced ROS production and activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. Either blocking the generation of ROS or inhibition of IL-6/STAT3 both attenuated 27HC-induced cellular senescence. In sum, these findings not only suggested a mechanism whereby 27HC induced cellular senescence in nerve cells, but also helped to recognize the 27HC as a novel harmful factor in neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Beneficial effect of perindopril on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and brain natriuretic peptide in patients with chronic heart failure. Comparison with enalapril

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutamoto, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Toshinari; Sakai, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), it remains unclear whether perindopril is more cardioprotective than enalapril. Forty-five stable CHF outpatients undergoing conventional therapy including enalapril therapy were randomized to 2 groups [group I (n=24): continuous enalapril treatment; group II (n=21): enalapril was changed to perindopril]. Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity was evaluated using cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, hemodynamic parameters and neurohumoral factors before and 6 months after treatment. There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups. In group I, there were no changes in MIBG parameters, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or plasma level of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). In contrast, in group II delayed heart/mediastinum count ratio was significantly increased (2.0±0.07 vs 2.15±0.07, p=0.013) and the washout rate was significantly decreased (33.0±1.4 vs 30.5±1.2, p=0.030) after 6 months compared with the baseline value. In addition, LVEF was significantly increased and the plasma BNP level was significantly decreased. These findings suggest that for the treatment of CHF, perindopril is superior to enalapril with respect of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and BNP. (author)

  3. Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro independently of nerve growth factor supplementation or its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, K.T.; Seabright, R.; Logan, A.; Lilly, A.J.; Khanim, F.; Bunce, C.M.; Johnson, W.E.B.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates nerve growth. → Extracellular Nm23H1 provides pathfinding cues to growth cones. → The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NDP kinase activity. → The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NGF. -- Abstract: The nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, Nm23H1, is a highly expressed during neuronal development, whilst induced over-expression in neuronal cells results in increased neurite outgrowth. Extracellular Nm23H1 affects the survival, proliferation and differentiation of non-neuronal cells. Therefore, this study has examined whether extracellular Nm23H1 regulates nerve growth. We have immobilised recombinant Nm23H1 proteins to defined locations of culture plates, which were then seeded with explants of embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or dissociated adult rat DRG neurons. The substratum-bound extracellular Nm23H1 was stimulatory for neurite outgrowth from chick DRG explants in a concentration-dependent manner. On high concentrations of Nm23H1, chick DRG neurite outgrowth was extensive and effectively limited to the location of the Nm23H1, i.e. neuronal growth cones turned away from adjacent collagen-coated substrata. Nm23H1-coated substrata also significantly enhanced rat DRG neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in comparison to collagen-coated substrata. These effects were independent of NGF supplementation. Recombinant Nm23H1 (H118F), which does not possess NDP kinase activity, exhibited the same activity as the wild-type protein. Hence, a novel neuro-stimulatory activity for extracellular Nm23H1 has been identified in vitro, which may function in developing neuronal systems.

  4. Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro independently of nerve growth factor supplementation or its nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, K.T. [Keele University at the RJAH Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Seabright, R.; Logan, A. [Neuropharmacology and Neurobiology, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Birmingham University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lilly, A.J.; Khanim, F.; Bunce, C.M. [Biosciences, Birmingham University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Johnson, W.E.B., E-mail: w.e.johnson@aston.ac.uk [Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 stimulates nerve growth. {yields} Extracellular Nm23H1 provides pathfinding cues to growth cones. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NDP kinase activity. {yields} The neurotrophic activity of Nm23H1 is independent of NGF. -- Abstract: The nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase, Nm23H1, is a highly expressed during neuronal development, whilst induced over-expression in neuronal cells results in increased neurite outgrowth. Extracellular Nm23H1 affects the survival, proliferation and differentiation of non-neuronal cells. Therefore, this study has examined whether extracellular Nm23H1 regulates nerve growth. We have immobilised recombinant Nm23H1 proteins to defined locations of culture plates, which were then seeded with explants of embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or dissociated adult rat DRG neurons. The substratum-bound extracellular Nm23H1 was stimulatory for neurite outgrowth from chick DRG explants in a concentration-dependent manner. On high concentrations of Nm23H1, chick DRG neurite outgrowth was extensive and effectively limited to the location of the Nm23H1, i.e. neuronal growth cones turned away from adjacent collagen-coated substrata. Nm23H1-coated substrata also significantly enhanced rat DRG neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in comparison to collagen-coated substrata. These effects were independent of NGF supplementation. Recombinant Nm23H1 (H118F), which does not possess NDP kinase activity, exhibited the same activity as the wild-type protein. Hence, a novel neuro-stimulatory activity for extracellular Nm23H1 has been identified in vitro, which may function in developing neuronal systems.

  5. Relation between myocardial response to dobutamine stress and sympathetic nerve activation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. A comparison of 123I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Hitoshi; Arii, Tohru; Kondo, Tomohiro

    2000-01-01

    It is likely that a close association exists between findings obtained by two methods: dobutamine stress echocardiography and 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy. Both of these methods are associated with β-adrenergic receptor mechanisms. This study was conducted to demonstrate the relation between myocardial response to dobutamine stress and sympathetic nerve release of norepinephrine in the failing heart. In 12 patents with heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, the myocardial effects of dobutamine stress were evaluated by low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography; and sympathetic nerve function was evaluated by scintigraphic imaging with iodine-123[ 123 I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), an analogue of norepinephrine. Echocardiography provided quantitative assessment of wall motion and left ventricular dilation; radiotracer studies with 123 I-MIBG provided quantitative assessment of the heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) uptake ratio and washout rate. Results showed that H/M correlated with baseline wall motion (r=0.682, p=0.0146), wall motion after dobutamine stress (r=0.758, p=0.0043), the change in wall motion (r=0.667, p=0.0178), and with left ventricular diastolic diameter (r=0.837, p=0.0007). In addition, the 123 I-MIBG washout rate correlated with baseline wall motion (r=0.608, p=0.0360), wall motion after dobutamine stress (r=0.703, p=0.0107), and with the change in wall motion (r=0.664, p=0.0185). Wall motion, especially in the myocardial response to dobutamine stress, is related to sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure. (author)

  6. The vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoudiba, F; Toulgoat, F; Sarrazin, J-L

    2013-10-01

    The vestibulocochlear nerve (8th cranial nerve) is a sensory nerve. It is made up of two nerves, the cochlear, which transmits sound and the vestibular which controls balance. It is an intracranial nerve which runs from the sensory receptors in the internal ear to the brain stem nuclei and finally to the auditory areas: the post-central gyrus and superior temporal auditory cortex. The most common lesions responsible for damage to VIII are vestibular Schwannomas. This report reviews the anatomy and various investigations of the nerve. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Assessment of central chemosensitivity and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity using I-123 MIBG imaging in central sleep apnea syndrome in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Kentaro; Nagai, Ryozo; Toyama, Takuji; Adachi, Hitoshi; Ohshima, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    Iodine-123 m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging has been used to study cardiac sympathetic function in various cardiac diseases. Central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) occurs frequently in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and is reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. One of the mechanisms of its poor prognosis may be related to impaired cardiac sympathetic activity. However, the relationship between chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide, which is reported to correlate with the severity of CSAS, and cardiac sympathetic activity has not been investigated. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess cardiac sympathetic function and chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide in CHF patients. The oxygen desaturation index (ODI) was evaluated in 21 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (male/female: 19/2, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 5 times/h underwent polysomnography. Patients with an apnea hypopnea index >15/h but without evidence of obstructive apnea were defined as having CSAS. Early (15 min) and delayed (4 hr) planar MIBG images were obtained from these patients. The mean counts in the whole heart and the mediastinum were obtained. The heart-to-mediastinum count ratio of the delayed image (H/M) and the corrected myocardial washout rate (WR) were also calculated. The central chemoreflex was assessed with the rebreathing method using a hypercapnic gas mixture (7% CO 2 and 93% O 2 ). Ten of the 21 patients had CSAS. The H/M ratio was similar in patients both with and without CSAS (1.57±0.18 vs. 1.59±0.14, p=0.82). However, the WR was higher in patients with CSAS than in patients without CSAS (40±8% vs. 30±12%, p<0.05). ODI significantly correlated with central chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide. Moreover, there was a highly significant correlation between WR and central chemosensitivity (r=0.65, p<0.05). However, there was no correlation between ODI and the WR (r=0.36, p=0.11). Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with CHF and CSAS is

  8. Radial nerve dysfunction (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. ... the wrist and hand. The usual causes of nerve dysfunction are direct trauma, prolonged pressure on the ...

  9. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...

  10. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... later on. Inflammation of the tendons ( tendonitis ) or joints ( arthritis ) can also put pressure on the nerve. ... how fast electrical signals move through a nerve Neuromuscular ultrasound to view problems with the muscles and ...

  11. Optic Nerve Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  12. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeumer, T.; Grimm, A.; Schelle, T.

    2017-01-01

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [de

  13. Effect of 4G-alpha-glucopyranosyl hesperidin on brown fat adipose tissue- and cutaneous-sympathetic nerve activity and peripheral body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiao; Nakamura, Hiroyasu; Fujisaki, Yoshiyuki; Tanida, Mamoru; Horii, Yuko; Fuyuki, Risa; Takumi, Hiroko; Shiraishi, Koso; Kometani, Takashi; Nagai, Katsuya

    2009-09-11

    Changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system are good indicators of alterations in physiological phenomena such as the body temperature, blood glucose, blood pressure. Hesperidin, a flavanone known as vitamin P, has been shown to reduce the levels of serum lipids, cholesterol, and blood pressure. However, hesperidin is not water-soluble and is not well absorbed from the intestine. G-hesperidin (4G-alpha-glucopyranosyl hesperidin) is more water-soluble and more rapidly absorbed than hesperidin. In order to clarify the functions of G-hesperidin, we examined the effects of oral administration of G-hesperidin on interscapular brown adipose tissue-sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) and cutaneous sympathetic nerve activity (CASNA) in rats weighing about 300 g. In this study, we found that oral administration of 60 mg of G-hesperidin increased the BAT-SNA but decreased the CASNA in urethane-anesthetized rats. Since an elevation in BAT-SNA increases heat production (i.e. body temperature (BT)) and a decrease in CASNA increases cutaneous perfusion, we examined whether oral administration of G-hesperidin had an effect on the peripheral BT in rats. Consequently, we observed that the subcutaneous BT at the caudal end of the back after oral administration of 60 mg of G-hesperidin was significantly higher than the subcutaneous BT after oral administration of water in conscious rats. These findings suggest that G-hesperidin enhances the BAT-SNA and suppresses the CASNA resulting in an increase in the peripheral BT, probably by an increase in the thermogenesis in the BAT and an elevation in the cutaneous blood flow.

  14. Intraoperative cranial nerve monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C Michel

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of intraoperative monitoring is to preserve function and prevent injury to the nervous system at a time when clinical examination is not possible. Cranial nerves are delicate structures and are susceptible to damage by mechanical trauma or ischemia during intracranial and extracranial surgery. A number of reliable electrodiagnostic techniques, including nerve conduction studies, electromyography, and the recording of evoked potentials have been adapted to the study of cranial nerve function during surgery. A growing body of evidence supports the utility of intraoperative monitoring of cranial nerve nerves during selected surgical procedures.

  15. Bioelectronic modulation of carotid sinus nerve activity in the rat: a potential therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento, Joana F; Chew, Daniel J; Melo, Bernardete F; Donegá, Matteo; Dopson, Wesley; Guarino, Maria P; Robinson, Alison; Prieto-Lloret, Jesus; Patel, Sonal; Holinski, Bradley J; Ramnarain, Nishan; Pikov, Victor; Famm, Kristoffer; Conde, Silvia V

    2018-03-01

    A new class of treatments termed bioelectronic medicines are now emerging that aim to target individual nerve fibres or specific brain circuits in pathological conditions to repair lost function and reinstate a healthy balance. Carotid sinus nerve (CSN) denervation has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in insulin-resistant and glucose-intolerant rats; however, these positive effects from surgery appear to diminish over time and are heavily caveated by the severe adverse effects associated with permanent loss of chemosensory function. Herein we characterise the ability of a novel bioelectronic application, classified as kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) modulation, to suppress neural signals within the CSN of rodents. Rats were fed either a chow or high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHSu) diet (60% lipid-rich diet plus 35% sucrose drinking water) over 14 weeks. Neural interfaces were bilaterally implanted in the CSNs and attached to an external pulse generator. The rats were then randomised to KHFAC or sham modulation groups. KHFAC modulation variables were defined acutely by respiratory and cardiac responses to hypoxia (10% O 2  + 90% N 2 ). Insulin sensitivity was evaluated periodically through an ITT and glucose tolerance by an OGTT. KHFAC modulation of the CSN, applied over 9 weeks, restored insulin sensitivity (constant of the insulin tolerance test [K ITT ] HFHSu sham, 2.56 ± 0.41% glucose/min; K ITT HFHSu KHFAC, 5.01 ± 0.52% glucose/min) and glucose tolerance (AUC HFHSu sham, 1278 ± 20.36 mmol/l × min; AUC HFHSu KHFAC, 1054.15 ± 62.64 mmol/l × min) in rat models of type 2 diabetes. Upon cessation of KHFAC, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance returned to normal values within 5 weeks. KHFAC modulation of the CSN improves metabolic control in rat models of type 2 diabetes. These positive outcomes have significant translational potential as a novel therapeutic modality for the purpose of treating metabolic

  16. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  17. Exposure to a high-fat diet alters leptin sensitivity and elevates renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Larissa J; Eikelis, Nina; Armitage, James A; Davern, Pamela J; Burke, Sandra L; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Barzel, Benjamin; Head, Geoffrey A

    2010-04-01

    The activation of the sympathetic nervous system through the central actions of the adipokine leptin has been suggested as a major mechanism by which obesity contributes to the development of hypertension. However, direct evidence for elevated sympathetic activity in obesity has been limited to muscle. The present study examined the renal sympathetic nerve activity and cardiovascular effects of a high-fat diet (HFD), as well as the changes in the sensitivity to intracerebroventricular leptin. New Zealand white rabbits fed a 13.5% HFD for 4 weeks showed modest weight gain but a 2- to 3-fold greater accumulation of visceral fat compared with control rabbits. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and plasma norepinephrine concentration increased by 8%, 26%, and 87%, respectively (Pdiet rabbits and was correlated to plasma leptin (r=0.87; Pfat accumulation through consumption of a HFD leads to marked sympathetic activation, which is related to increased responsiveness to central sympathoexcitatory effects of leptin. The paradoxical reduction in hypothalamic neuronal activation by leptin suggests a marked "selective leptin resistance" in these animals.

  18. An implantable nerve cooler for the exercising dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgdorff, P; Versteeg, P G

    1984-01-01

    An implantable nerve cooler has been constructed to block cervical vago-sympathetic activity in the exercising dog reversibly. An insulated gilt brass container implanted around the nerve is perfused with cooled alcohol via silicone tubes. The flow of alcohol is controlled by an electromagnetic valve to keep nerve temperature at the required value. Nerve temperature is measured by a thermistor attached to the housing and in contact with the nerve. It is shown that, during cooling, temperature at this location differs less than 2 degrees C from nerve core temperature. Measurement of changes in heart rate revealed that complete vagal block in the conscious animal is obtained at a nerve temperature of 2 degrees C and can be achieved within 50 s. During steady-state cooling in the exercising animal nerve temperature varied less than 0.5 degree C. When the coolers after 2 weeks of implantation were removed they showed no oxydation and could be used again.

  19. Tryptase potentiates enteric nerve activation by histamine and serotonin: Relevance for the effects of mucosal biopsy supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, D; Annahazi, A; Krueger, D; Michel, K; Demir, I E; Ceyhan, G O; Zeller, F; Schemann, M

    2017-09-01

    We previously showed that mucosal biopsy supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome patients activated neurons despite low concentrations of tryptase, histamine, and serotonin which individually would not cause spike discharge. We studied the potentiating responses between these mediators on excitability of enteric neurons. Calcium-imaging was performed using the calcium-sensitive dye Fluo-4 AM in human submucous plexus preparations from 45 individuals. Histamine, serotonin, and tryptase were applied alone and in combinations to evaluate nerve activation which was assessed by analyzing increase in intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ), the proportion of responding neurons and the product of both defined as Ca-neuroindex (NI). Protease activated receptor (PAR) 2 activating peptide, PAR2 antagonist and the serine protease-inhibitor FUT-175 were used to particularly investigate the role of proteases. Histamine or serotonin (1 μmol/L each) evoked only few small responses (median NI [25%/75%]: 0 [0/148]; 85 [0/705] respectively). Their combined application evoked statistically similar responses (216 [21/651]). Addition of the PAR2 activator tryptase induced a significantly higher Ca-NI (1401 [867/4075]) compared to individual application of tryptase or to coapplied histamine and serotonin. This synergistic potentiation was neither mimicked by PAR2 activating peptide nor reversed by the PAR2 antagonist GB83, but abolished by FUT-175. We observed synergistic potentiation between histamine, serotonin, and tryptase in enteric neurons, which is mediated by proteolytic activity rather than PAR2 activation. This explained neuronal activation by a cocktail of these mediators despite their low concentrations and despite a relatively small PAR2-mediated response in human submucous neurons. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Grapefruit-seed extract attenuates ethanol-and stress-induced gastric lesions via activation of prostaglandin, nitric oxide and sensory nerve pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Zayachivska, Oxana; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2005-11-07

    Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) containing flavonoids, possesses antibacterial and antioxidative properties but whether it influences the gastric defense mechanism and gastroprotection against ethanol- and stress-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. We compared the effects of GSE on gastric mucosal lesions induced in rats by topical application of 100% ethanol or 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) with or without (A) inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity by indomethacin and rofecoxib, the selective COX-2 inhibitor, (B) suppression of NO-synthase with L-NNA (20 mg/kg ip), and (C) inactivation by capsaicin (125 mg/kg sc) of sensory nerves with or without intragastric (ig) pretreatment with GSE applied 30 min prior to ethanol or WRS. One hour after ethanol and 3.5 h after the end of WRS, the number and area of gastric lesions were measured by planimetry, the gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by H2-gas clearance technique and plasma gastrin levels and the gastric mucosal generation of PGE2, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as an index of lipid peroxidation were determined. Ethanol and WRS caused gastric lesions accompanied by the significant fall in the GBF and SOD activity and the rise in the mucosal MDA content. Pretreatment with GSE (8-64 mg/kg i g) dose-dependently attenuated gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol and WRS; the dose reducing these lesions by 50% (ID50) was 25 and 36 mg/kg, respectively, and this protective effect was similar to that obtained with methyl PGE2 analog (5 microg/kg i g). GSE significantly raised the GBF, mucosal generation of PGE2, SOD activity and plasma gastrin levels while attenuating MDA content. Inhibition of PGE2 generation with indomethacin or rofecoxib and suppression of NO synthase by L-NNA or capsaicin denervation reversed the GSE-induced protection and the accompanying hyperemia. Co-treatment of exogenous calcitonine gene-related peptide (CGRP) with

  1. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra; Casselman, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  2. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1093, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: borgalexandra@gmail.com; Casselman, Jan [Department of Radiology, A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  3. Activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase by nerve growth factor involves indirect coupling of the trk proto-oncogene with src homology 2 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmichi, M; Decker, S J; Saltiel, A R

    1992-10-01

    Growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases can form stable associations with intracellular proteins that contain src homology (SH) 2 domains, including the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3 kinase. The activation of this enzyme by growth factors is evaluated in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts expressing the pp140c-trk nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor (3T3-c-trk). NGF causes the rapid stimulation of PI-3 kinase activity detected in anti-phosphotyrosine, but not in anti-trk, immunoprecipitates. This effect coincides with the tyrosine phosphorylation of two proteins, with molecular masses of of 100 kd and 110 kd, that coimmunoprecipitate with p85. Similar phosphorylation patterns are induced when an immobilized fusion protein containing the amino-terminal SH2 domain of p85 is used to precipitate tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. Thus, although NGF produces the rapid activation of PI-3 kinase through a mechanism that involves tyrosine phosphorylation, there is no evidence for tyrosine phosphorylation of p85, or for its ligand-dependent association with the NGF receptor. Perhaps another phosphoprotein may link the NGF receptor to this enzyme.

  4. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoshima, Kazumitsu; Nishiura, Iwao; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1986-01-01

    Several kinds of the lumbosacral nerve root anomalies have already been recognized, and the conjoined nerve roots is the most common among them. It does not make symptoms by itself, but if there is a causation of neural entrapment, for example, disc herniation, lateral recessus stenosis, spondylolisthesis, etc., so called ''biradicular syndrome'' should occur. Anomalies of the lumbosacral nerve roots, if not properly recognized, may lead to injury of these nerves during operation of the lumbar spine. Recently, the chance of finding these anomalous roots has been increased more and more with the use of metrizamide myelography and metrizamide CT, because of the improvement of the opacification of nerve roots. We describe the findings of the anomalous roots as revealed by these two methods. They demonstrate two nerve roots running parallel and the asymmetrical wide root sleeve. Under such circumstances, it is important to distinguish the anomalous roots from the normal ventral and dorsal roots. (author)

  5. Treatment of peroneal nerve injuries with simultaneous tendon transfer and nerve exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Bryant; Khan, Zubair; Switaj, Paul J; Ochenjele, George; Fuchs, Daniel; Dahl, William; Cederna, Paul; Kung, Theodore A; Kadakia, Anish R

    2014-08-06

    Common peroneal nerve palsy leading to foot drop is difficult to manage and has historically been treated with extended bracing with expectant waiting for return of nerve function. Peroneal nerve exploration has traditionally been avoided except in cases of known traumatic or iatrogenic injury, with tendon transfers being performed in a delayed fashion after exhausting conservative treatment. We present a new strategy for management of foot drop with nerve exploration and concomitant tendon transfer. We retrospectively reviewed a series of 12 patients with peroneal nerve palsies that were treated with tendon transfer from 2005 to 2011. Of these patients, seven were treated with simultaneous peroneal nerve exploration and repair at the time of tendon transfer. Patients with both nerve repair and tendon transfer had superior functional results with active dorsiflexion in all patients, compared to dorsiflexion in 40% of patients treated with tendon transfers alone. Additionally, 57% of patients treated with nerve repair and tendon transfer were able to achieve enough function to return to running, compared to 20% in patients with tendon transfer alone. No patient had full return of native motor function resulting in excessive dorsiflexion strength. The results of our limited case series for this rare condition indicate that simultaneous nerve repair and tendon transfer showed no detrimental results and may provide improved function over tendon transfer alone.

  6. Facial reanimation by muscle-nerve neurotization after facial nerve sacrifice. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, A; Labbé, D; Babin, E; Fromager, G

    2016-12-01

    Recovering a certain degree of mimicry after sacrifice of the facial nerve is a clinically recognized finding. The authors report a case of hemifacial reanimation suggesting a phenomenon of neurotization from muscle-to-nerve. A woman benefited from a parotidectomy with sacrifice of the left facial nerve indicated for recurrent tumor in the gland. The distal branches of the facial nerve, isolated at the time of resection, were buried in the masseter muscle underneath. The patient recovered a voluntary hémifacial motricity. The electromyographic analysis of the motor activity of the zygomaticus major before and after block of the masseter nerve showed a dependence between mimic muscles and the masseter muscle. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the spontaneous reanimation of facial paralysis. The clinical case makes it possible to argue in favor of muscle-to-nerve neurotization from masseter muscle to distal branches of the facial nerve. It illustrates the quality of motricity that can be obtained thanks to this procedure. The authors describe a simple implantation technique of distal branches of the facial nerve in the masseter muscle during a radical parotidectomy with facial nerve sacrifice and recovery of resting tone but also a quality voluntary mimicry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. [Facial nerve neurinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Jacek; Bartoszewicz, Robert; Morawski, Krzysztof; Jamróz, Barbara; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of diagnostic, surgical technique, treatment results facial nerve neurinomas and its comparison with literature was the main purpose of this study. Seven cases of patients (2005-2011) with facial nerve schwannomas were included to retrospective analysis in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw. All patients were assessed with history of the disease, physical examination, hearing tests, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, electronystagmography. Cases were observed in the direction of potential complications and recurrences. Neurinoma of the facial nerve occurred in the vertical segment (n=2), facial nerve geniculum (n=1) and the internal auditory canal (n=4). The symptoms observed in patients were analyzed: facial nerve paresis (n=3), hearing loss (n=2), dizziness (n=1). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography allowed to confirm the presence of the tumor and to assess its staging. Schwannoma of the facial nerve has been surgically removed using the middle fossa approach (n=5) and by antromastoidectomy (n=2). Anatomical continuity of the facial nerve was achieved in 3 cases. In the twelve months after surgery, facial nerve paresis was rated at level II-III° HB. There was no recurrence of the tumor in radiological observation. Facial nerve neurinoma is a rare tumor. Currently surgical techniques allow in most cases, the radical removing of the lesion and reconstruction of the VII nerve function. The rate of recurrence is low. A tumor of the facial nerve should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nerve VII paresis. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. NaCl and osmolarity produce different responses in organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis neurons, sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Brian J; Browning, Kirsteen N; Stocker, Sean D

    2017-09-15

    Changes in extracellular osmolarity stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion through a central osmoreceptor; however, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater sympathoexcitatory and pressor response than infusion of hypertonic mannitol/sorbitol. Neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) sense changes in extracellular osmolarity and NaCl. In this study, we discovered that intracerebroventricular infusion or local OVLT injection of hypertonic NaCl increases lumbar sympathetic nerve activity, adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure whereas equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol did not alter any variable. In vitro whole-cell recordings demonstrate the majority of OVLT neurons are responsive to hypertonic NaCl or mannitol. However, hypertonic NaCl stimulates a greater increase in discharge frequency than equi-osmotic mannitol. Intracarotid or intracerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic NaCl evokes a greater increase in OVLT neuronal discharge frequency than equi-osmotic sorbitol. Collectively, these novel data suggest that subsets of OVLT neurons respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity and subsequently regulate body fluid homeostasis. These responses probably reflect distinct cellular mechanisms underlying NaCl- versus osmo-sensing. Systemic or central infusion of hypertonic NaCl and other osmolytes readily stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. In contrast, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol. Although these responses depend on neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), these observations suggest OVLT neurons may sense or respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. First, intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion (5 μl/10 min) of 1.0 m NaCl produced a significantly greater

  9. Comparing the Efficacy of Triple Nerve Transfers with Nerve Graft Reconstruction in Upper Trunk Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Kathleen M; Power, Hollie A; Olson, Jaret L; Morhart, Michael J; Harrop, A Robertson; Watt, M Joe; Chan, K Ming

    2017-10-01

    Upper trunk obstetric brachial plexus injury can cause profound shoulder and elbow dysfunction. Although neuroma excision with interpositional sural nerve grafting is the current gold standard, distal nerve transfers have a number of potential advantages. The goal of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes and health care costs between nerve grafting and distal nerve transfers in children with upper trunk obstetric brachial plexus injury. In this prospective cohort study, children who underwent triple nerve transfers were followed with the Active Movement Scale for 2 years. Their outcomes were compared to those of children who underwent nerve graft reconstruction. To assess health care use, a cost analysis was also performed. Twelve patients who underwent nerve grafting were compared to 14 patients who underwent triple nerve transfers. Both groups had similar baseline characteristics and showed improved shoulder and elbow function following surgery. However, the nerve transfer group displayed significantly greater improvement in shoulder external rotation and forearm supination 2 years after surgery (p The operative time and length of hospital stay were significantly lower (p the overall cost was approximately 50 percent less in the nerve transfer group. Triple nerve transfer for upper trunk obstetric brachial plexus injury is a feasible option, with better functional shoulder external rotation and forearm supination, faster recovery, and lower cost compared with traditional nerve graft reconstruction. Therapeutic, II.

  10. Assessing the permeability of the rat sciatic nerve epineural sheath against compounds with local anesthetic activity: an ex vivo electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagiava, Alexia; Theophilidis, George

    2013-10-01

    Abstract Studies have shown that the sciatic nerve epineural sheath acts as a barrier and has a delaying effect on the diffusion of local anesthetics into the nerve fibers and endoneurium. The purpose of this work is to assess and to quantify the permeability of the epineural sheath. For this purpose, we isolated the rat sciatic nerve in a three-chamber recording bath that allowed us to monitor the constant in amplitude evoked nerve compound action potential (nCAP) for over 24 h. For nerves exposed to the compounds under investigation, we estimated the IT50 the time required to inhibit the nCAP to 50% of its initial value. For desheathed nerves, the half-vitality time was denoted as IT50(-) and for the ensheath normal nerves as IT50(+). There was no significant difference between the IT50 of desheathed and ensheathed nerves exposed to normal saline. The IT50(-) for nerves exposed to 40 mM lidocaine was 12.1 ± 0.95 s (n=14) and the IT50(+) was 341.4 ± 2.49 s (n=6). The permeability (P) coefficient of the epineural sheath was defined as the ratio IT50(+)/IT50(-). The P coefficient for 40 mM lidocaine and linalool was 28.2 and 3.48, correspondingly, and for 30 mM 2-heptanone was 4.87. This is an indication that the epineural sheath provided a stronger barrier against lidocaine, compared to natural local anesthetics, linalool and 2-heptanone. The methodology presented here is a useful tool for studying epineural sheath permeability to compounds with local anesthetic properties.

  11. Enhanced catalytic activity through the tuning of micropore environment and supercritical CO2 processing: Al(porphyrin)-based porous organic polymers for the degradation of a nerve agent simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Ryan K; Kim, Ye-Seong; Weston, Mitchell H; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Nguyen, SonBinh T

    2013-08-14

    An Al(porphyrin) functionalized with a large axial ligand was incorporated into a porous organic polymer (POP) using a cobalt-catalyzed acetylene trimerization strategy. Removal of the axial ligand afforded a microporous POP that is catalytically active in the methanolysis of a nerve agent simulant. Supercritical CO2 processing of the POP dramatically increased the pore size and volume, allowing for significantly higher catalytic activities.

  12. US and MR imaging of peripheral nerves in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinoli, C.; Derchi, L.E.; Gandolfo, N.; Bertolotto, M.; Bianchi, S.; Fiallo, P.; Nunzi, E.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To analyze peripheral nerves with ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) in leprosy and assess the role of imaging in leprosy patients. Results. Leprosy nerves were classified into three groups based on imaging appearance: group I consisted of 17 normal-appearing nerves; group II, of 30 enlarged nerves with fascicular abnormalities; group III, of 11 nerves with absent fascicular structure. Group II nerves were from patients subjected to reversal reactions; 75% of patients with group III nerves had a history of erythema nodosum leprosum. Nerve compression in osteofibrous tunnels was identified in 33% of group II and 18% of group III nerves. Doppler US and MR imaging were 74% and 92% sensitive in identifying active reactions, based on detection of endoneural color flow signals, long T2 and Gd enhancement. In 64% of cases, follow-up studies showed decreased color flow and Gd uptake after steroids and decompressive surgery.Conclusions. US and MR imaging are able to detect nerves abnormalities in leprosy. Active reversal reactions are indicated by endoneural color flow signals as well as by an increased T2 signal and Gd enhancement. These signs would suggest rapid progression of nerve damage and a poor prognosis unless antireactional treatment is started. (orig.)

  13. US and MR imaging of peripheral nerves in leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinoli, C. [Department of Radiology ' ' R' ' , DICMI, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Cattedra di Radiologia ' ' R' ' , Universita di Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 8, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Derchi, L.E.; Gandolfo, N. [Department of Radiology ' ' R' ' , DICMI, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Department of Radiology, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bianchi, S. [Division de Radiodiagnostic. Hopital Cantonal Huniversitaire, Rue Micheli du Crest, Geneva (Switzerland); Fiallo, P.; Nunzi, E. [Department of Tropical Medicine, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, I-16132 Genoa (Italy)

    2000-03-30

    Objective. To analyze peripheral nerves with ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) in leprosy and assess the role of imaging in leprosy patients. Results. Leprosy nerves were classified into three groups based on imaging appearance: group I consisted of 17 normal-appearing nerves; group II, of 30 enlarged nerves with fascicular abnormalities; group III, of 11 nerves with absent fascicular structure. Group II nerves were from patients subjected to reversal reactions; 75% of patients with group III nerves had a history of erythema nodosum leprosum. Nerve compression in osteofibrous tunnels was identified in 33% of group II and 18% of group III nerves. Doppler US and MR imaging were 74% and 92% sensitive in identifying active reactions, based on detection of endoneural color flow signals, long T2 and Gd enhancement. In 64% of cases, follow-up studies showed decreased color flow and Gd uptake after steroids and decompressive surgery.Conclusions. US and MR imaging are able to detect nerves abnormalities in leprosy. Active reversal reactions are indicated by endoneural color flow signals as well as by an increased T2 signal and Gd enhancement. These signs would suggest rapid progression of nerve damage and a poor prognosis unless antireactional treatment is started. (orig.)

  14. Communication between radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Marathe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial nerve is usually a branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. It innervates triceps, anconeous, brachialis, brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus muscles and gives the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm, lower lateral cutaneous nerve of arm, posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm; without exhibiting any communication with the medial cutaneous nerve of forearm or any other nerve. We report communication between the radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm on the left side in a 58-year-old male cadaver. The right sided structures were found to be normal. Neurosurgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing the surgeries of axilla and upper arm.

  15. In vitro efficacy of a gene-activated nerve guidance conduit incorporating non-viral PEI-pDNA nanoparticles carrying genes encoding for NGF, GDNF and c-Jun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackington, William A; Raftery, Rosanne M; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2018-06-07

    Despite the success of tissue engineered nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) for the treatment of small peripheral nerve injuries, autografts remain the clinical gold standard for larger injuries. The delivery of neurotrophic factors from conduits might enhance repair for more effective treatment of larger injuries but the efficacy of such systems is dependent on a safe, effective platform for controlled and localised therapeutic delivery. Gene therapy might offer an innovative approach to control the timing, release and level of neurotrophic factor production by directing cells to transiently sustain therapeutic protein production in situ. In this study, a gene-activated NGC was developed by incorporating non-viral polyethyleneimine-plasmid DNA (PEI-pDNA) nanoparticles (N/P 7 ratio, 2μg dose) with the pDNA encoding for nerve growth factor (NGF), glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or the transcription factor c-Jun. The physicochemical properties of PEI-pDNA nanoparticles, morphology, size and charge, were shown to be suitable for gene delivery and demonstrated high Schwann cell transfection efficiency (60±13%) in vitro. While all three genes showed therapeutic potential in terms of enhancing neurotrophic cytokine production while promoting neurite outgrowth, delivery of the gene encoding for c-Jun showed the greatest capacity to enhance regenerative cellular processes in vitro. Ultimately, this gene-activated NGC construct was shown to be capable of transfecting both Schwann cells (S42 cells) and neuronal cells (PC12 and dorsal root ganglia) in vitro, demonstrating potential for future therapeutic applications in vivo. The basic requirements of biomaterial-based nerve guidance conduits have now been well established and include being able to bridge a nerve injury to support macroscopic guidance between nerve stumps, while being strong enough to withstand longitudinal tension and circumferential compression, in addition to being mechanically sound to facilitate

  16. Isolated optic nerve pseudotumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, T.; Prasad, S.; Krishnan, A.; Laxminarayan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Isolated optic nerve involvement by the idiopathic inflammatory process is a rare finding and very few reports are available. Here a case of an isolated optic nerve inflammatory pseudotumour presenting with gradually progressive unilateral loss of vision is described. It showed dramatic response to a trial of steroids and its differential diagnoses are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Axillary nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes in sensation or movement No history of injury to the area No signs of nerve damage These medicines reduce swelling and pressure on the nerve. They may be injected directly into the area or taken by mouth. Other medicines include: Over-the-counter pain ...

  18. Tibial nerve (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nerve is commonly injured by fractures or other injury to the back of the knee or the lower leg. It may be affected by systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The nerve can also be damaged by pressure from a tumor, abscess, or bleeding into the ...

  19. Effects of cilnidipine on sympathetic nerve activity and cardiorenal function in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: association with BNP and aldosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masami; Sekioka, Risa; Nishimura, Takeshi; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and this phenomenon is exacerbated by diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of cilnidipine, an N/L-type calcium channel blocker, on aspects of this system in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In 33 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with a calcium channel blocker other than cilnidipine, we evaluated the influence of switching to cilnidipine on blood pressure, heart rate, catecholamine, plasma renin and aldosterone concentration, brain natriuretic peptide, urine liver-type fatty acid binding protein, and urinary albumin excretion ratio in the same patients by a cross-over design. Other biochemical parameters were also evaluated. Switching to cilnidipine did not change blood pressure but caused reduction in catecholamine concentrations in blood and urine and plasma aldosterone concentration, accompanied by significant reduction in brain natriuretic peptide, urine liver-type fatty acid binding protein, and albumin excretion ratio. These parameters other than brain natriuretic peptide were significantly increased after cilnidipine was changed to the original calcium channel blocker. In 33 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, compared to other calcium channel blockers, cilnidipine suppressed sympathetic nerve activity and aldosterone, and significantly improved markers of cardiorenal disorders. Therefore, cilnidipine may be an important calcium channel blocker for use in combination with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors when dealing with hypertension complicated with diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 on cutaneous arterial sympathetic nerve activity, cutaneous blood flow and transepidermal water loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Y; Kaneda, H; Fujisaki, Y; Fuyuki, R; Nakakita, Y; Shigyo, T; Nagai, K

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the effects of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 (HK-SBC8803) on the standard physiological markers of skin health of cutaneous arterial sympathetic nerve activity (CASNA), cutaneous blood flow and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and to determine whether SBC8803 targets serotonin 5-HT3 receptors in rats. A set of three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of SBC8803 on CASNA, cutaneous blood flow and TEWL using Wistar and hairless rats. Two additional experiments further attempted to determine whether HK-SBC8803 was targeting the serotonin 5-HT3 receptors by pretreatment with the 5-HT3 antagonist granisetron. Administration of HK-SBC8803 in the first three experiments caused marked inhibition of CASNA and significant elevation of cutaneous blood flow under urethane anaesthesia as well as significant decrease in TEWL on the dorsal skin of conscious hairless rats. Pretreatment with granisetron decreased the effects of HK-SBC8803 on CASNA and cutaneous blood flow. These findings suggest that HK-SBC8803 reduces CASNA, increases cutaneous blood flow and decreases TEWL and that 5-HT3 receptors may be involved in CASNA and cutaneous blood flow responses. HK-SBC8803 could be a useful substance in the treatment/prevention of skin problems, specifically chapped or dry skin. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Different Mode of Afferents Determines the Frequency Range of High Frequency Activities in the Human Brain: Direct Electrocorticographic Comparison between Peripheral Nerve and Direct Cortical Stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Physiological high frequency activities (HFA are related to various brain functions. Factors, however, regulating its frequency have not been well elucidated in humans. To validate the hypothesis that different propagation modes (thalamo-cortical vs. cortico-coritcal projections, or different terminal layers (layer IV vs. layer II/III affect its frequency, we, in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, compared HFAs induced by median nerve stimulation with those induced by electrical stimulation of the cortex connecting to SI. We employed 6 patients who underwent chronic subdural electrode implantation for presurgical evaluation. We evaluated the HFA power values in reference to the baseline overriding N20 (earliest cortical response and N80 (late response of somatosensory evoked potentials (HFA(SEP(N20 and HFA(SEP(N80 and compared those overriding N1 and N2 (first and second responses of cortico-cortical evoked potentials (HFA(CCEP(N1 and HFA(CCEP(N2. HFA(SEP(N20 showed the power peak in the frequency above 200 Hz, while HFA(CCEP(N1 had its power peak in the frequency below 200 Hz. Different propagation modes and/or different terminal layers seemed to determine HFA frequency. Since HFA(CCEP(N1 and HFA induced during various brain functions share a similar broadband profile of the power spectrum, cortico-coritcal horizontal propagation seems to represent common mode of neural transmission for processing these functions.

  2. Inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels ameliorates an imbalance in cardiac autonomic nerve activity and prevents lethal arrhythmias in mice with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuko; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Kuwabara, Yoshihiro; Minami, Takeya; Yamada, Chinatsu; Shibata, Junko; Nakao, Kazuhiro; Cho, Kosai; Arai, Yuji; Yasuno, Shinji; Nishikimi, Toshio; Ueshima, Kenji; Kamakura, Shiro; Nishida, Motohiro; Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Mori, Yasuo; Kimura, Takeshi; Kangawa, Kenji; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2014-10-01

    Dysregulation of autonomic nervous system activity can trigger ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in patients with heart failure. N-type Ca(2+) channels (NCCs) play an important role in sympathetic nervous system activation by regulating the calcium entry that triggers release of neurotransmitters from peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals. We have investigated the ability of NCC blockade to prevent lethal arrhythmias associated with heart failure. We compared the effects of cilnidipine, a dual N- and L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, with those of nitrendipine, a selective L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, in transgenic mice expressing a cardiac-specific, dominant-negative form of neuron-restrictive silencer factor (dnNRSF-Tg). In this mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy leading to sudden arrhythmic death, cardiac structure and function did not significantly differ among the control, cilnidipine, and nitrendipine groups. However, cilnidipine dramatically reduced arrhythmias in dnNRSF-Tg mice, significantly improving their survival rate and correcting the imbalance between cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity. A β-blocker, bisoprolol, showed similar effects in these mice. Genetic titration of NCCs, achieved by crossing dnNRSF-Tg mice with mice lacking CACNA1B, which encodes the α1 subunit of NCCs, improved the survival rate. With restoration of cardiac autonomic balance, dnNRSF-Tg;CACNA1B(+/-) mice showed fewer malignant arrhythmias than dnNRSF-Tg;CACNA1B(+/+) mice. Both pharmacological blockade of NCCs and their genetic titration improved cardiac autonomic balance and prevented lethal arrhythmias in a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy and sudden arrhythmic death. Our findings suggest that NCC blockade is a potentially useful approach to preventing sudden death in patients with heart failure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Rehabilitation, Using Guided Cerebral Plasticity, of a Brachial Plexus Injury Treated with Intercostal and Phrenic Nerve Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Lars B; Andersson, Gert; Backman, Clas; Svensson, Hampus; Björkman, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Recovery after surgical reconstruction of a brachial plexus injury using nerve grafting and nerve transfer procedures is a function of peripheral nerve regeneration and cerebral reorganization. A 15-year-old boy, with traumatic avulsion of nerve roots C5-C7 and a non-rupture of C8-T1, was operated 3 weeks after the injury with nerve transfers: (a) terminal part of the accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve, (b) the second and third intercostal nerves to the axillary nerve, and (c) the fourth to sixth intercostal nerves to the musculocutaneous nerve. A second operation-free contralateral gracilis muscle transfer directly innervated by the phrenic nerve-was done after 2 years due to insufficient recovery of the biceps muscle function. One year later, electromyography showed activation of the biceps muscle essentially with coughing through the intercostal nerves, and of the transferred gracilis muscle by deep breathing through the phrenic nerve. Voluntary flexion of the elbow elicited clear activity in the biceps/gracilis muscles with decreasing activity in intercostal muscles distal to the transferred intercostal nerves (i.e., corresponding to eighth intercostal), indicating cerebral plasticity, where neural control of elbow flexion is gradually separated from control of breathing. To restore voluntary elbow function after nerve transfers, the rehabilitation of patients operated with intercostal nerve transfers should concentrate on transferring coughing function, while patients with phrenic nerve transfers should focus on transferring deep breathing function.

  4. Optogenetic probing of nerve and muscle function after facial nerve lesion in the mouse whisker system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Akhil; Vajtay, Thomas J.; Upadhyay, Aman; Yiantsos, S. Olga; Lee, Christian R.; Margolis, David J.

    2018-02-01

    Optogenetic modulation of neural circuits has opened new avenues into neuroscience research, allowing the control of cellular activity of genetically specified cell types. Optogenetics is still underdeveloped in the peripheral nervous system, yet there are many applications related to sensorimotor function, pain and nerve injury that would be of great benefit. We recently established a method for non-invasive, transdermal optogenetic stimulation of the facial muscles that control whisker movements in mice (Park et al., 2016, eLife, e14140)1. Here we present results comparing the effects of optogenetic stimulation of whisker movements in mice that express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) selectively in either the facial motor nerve (ChAT-ChR2 mice) or muscle (Emx1-ChR2 or ACTA1-ChR2 mice). We tracked changes in nerve and muscle function before and up to 14 days after nerve transection. Optogenetic 460 nm transdermal stimulation of the distal cut nerve showed that nerve degeneration progresses rapidly over 24 hours. In contrast, the whisker movements evoked by optogenetic muscle stimulation were up-regulated after denervation, including increased maximum protraction amplitude, increased sensitivity to low-intensity stimuli, and more sustained muscle contractions (reduced adaptation). Our results indicate that peripheral optogenetic stimulation is a promising technique for probing the timecourse of functional changes of both nerve and muscle, and holds potential for restoring movement after paralysis induced by nerve damage or motoneuron degeneration.

  5. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the oculomotor nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozic, D; Nagulic, M; Ostojic, J

    2006-01-01

    We present the short-term follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) studies and 1H-MR spectroscopy in a child with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the oculomotor nerve associated with other less aggressive cranial nerve schwannomas. The tumor revealed perineural extension and diffuse nerve...

  6. Corticotrigeminal Projections from the Insular Cortex to the Trigeminal Caudal Subnucleus Regulate Orofacial Pain after Nerve Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation in Insular Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Han; Li, Hui; Chen, Tao; Cui, Jing; Zang, Wei-Dong; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI) induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc), especially the superficial laminae (I/II), received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These findings may help

  7. Muudatused õigusaktides / Olavi Kärsna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärsna, Olavi, 1954-

    2011-01-01

    Rahandusministri 13. jaan. 2011. a. vastu võetud määrusest nr. 2, majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministri 29. mai 2008. a. määrusest nr. 43, põllumajandusministri 2. jaan. 2011. a. vastu võetud määrusest nr. 1 jne. Riigikohtu lahenditest 3-2-1-154-10, 3-2-1-108-10, 3-3-1-89-10 ja 3-3-1-73-10

  8. Muudetud seadused / Olavi Kärsna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärsna, Olavi, 1954-

    2010-01-01

    Õigusaktide tutvustus: võlaõigusseaduse ja teiste seaduste muutmise seadus (RT I 2010,77,590), äriseadustiku muutmise seadus (RT I 2010, 77, 589), ravimiseaduse muutmise seadus (RT I 2010, 2) jt. Riigikohtu lahendid 3-2-1-87-10, 3-2-1-76-10, 3-2-1-90-10, 3-3-1-50-10

  9. Nanofiber Nerve Guide for Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0047 TITLE: Nanofiber Nerve Guide for Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ahmet Höke...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0047 Nanofiber nerve guide for peripheral nerve repair and regeneration 5b. GRANT NUMBER...goal of this collaborative research project was to develop next generation engineered nerve guide conduits (NGCs) with aligned nanofibers and

  10. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get ... you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. ...

  11. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  12. Tumors of peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Michael; Lutz, Amelie M.

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography. Review of current literature available in PubMed and MEDLINE, supplemented by the authors' own observations in clinical practice. Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  13. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  14. Evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure on treatment containing intravenous atrial natriuretic peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Iwasaki, Toshiya; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Kumakura, Hisao; Minami, Kazutomo; Ichikawa, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Nakata, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    Aldosterone prevents the uptake of norepinephrine in the myocardium. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a circulating hormone of cardiac origin, inhibits aldosterone synthase gene expression in cultured cardiocytes. We evaluated the effects of intravenous ANP on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). We studied 182 patients with moderate nonischemic ADHF requiring hospitalization and treated with standard therapy containing intravenous ANP and 10 age-matched normal control subjects. ANP was continuously infused for >96 h. In all subjects, delayed total defect score (TDS), heart to mediastinum ratio, and washout rate were determined by 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and ejection fraction were determined by echocardiography. All patients with acute heart failure (AHF) were examined once within 3 days and then 4 weeks after admission, while the control subjects were examined only once (when their hemodynamics were normal). Moreover, for 62 AHF patients, plasma aldosterone concentrations were measured at admission and 1 h before stopping ANP infusion. 123 I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic parameters in normal subjects were more favorable than those in patients with AHF (all p < 0.001). After treatment, all these parameters improved significantly in AHF patients (all p < 0.001). We also found significant correlation between percent changes of TDS and aldosterone concentrations (r = 0.539, p < 0.001) in 62 AHF patients. The CSNA and LV performance were all improved in AHF patients. Furthermore, norepinephrine uptake of myocardium may be ameliorated by suppressing aldosterone production after standard treatment containing intravenous ANP. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure on treatment containing intravenous atrial natriuretic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Toyama, Takuji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Iwasaki, Toshiya; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Kumakura, Hisao; Minami, Kazutomo; Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Matsumoto, Naoya [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nakata, Tomoaki [Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Second (Cardiology) Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Aldosterone prevents the uptake of norepinephrine in the myocardium. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a circulating hormone of cardiac origin, inhibits aldosterone synthase gene expression in cultured cardiocytes. We evaluated the effects of intravenous ANP on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). We studied 182 patients with moderate nonischemic ADHF requiring hospitalization and treated with standard therapy containing intravenous ANP and 10 age-matched normal control subjects. ANP was continuously infused for >96 h. In all subjects, delayed total defect score (TDS), heart to mediastinum ratio, and washout rate were determined by {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and ejection fraction were determined by echocardiography. All patients with acute heart failure (AHF) were examined once within 3 days and then 4 weeks after admission, while the control subjects were examined only once (when their hemodynamics were normal). Moreover, for 62 AHF patients, plasma aldosterone concentrations were measured at admission and 1 h before stopping ANP infusion. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic parameters in normal subjects were more favorable than those in patients with AHF (all p < 0.001). After treatment, all these parameters improved significantly in AHF patients (all p < 0.001). We also found significant correlation between percent changes of TDS and aldosterone concentrations (r = 0.539, p < 0.001) in 62 AHF patients. The CSNA and LV performance were all improved in AHF patients. Furthermore, norepinephrine uptake of myocardium may be ameliorated by suppressing aldosterone production after standard treatment containing intravenous ANP. (orig.)

  16. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation attenuates CFA-induced hyperalgesia and inhibits spinal ERK1/2-COX-2 pathway activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun-Fan; Liang, Yi; Du, Jun-Ying; Fang, Jian-Qiao

    2013-06-15

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacologic treatment for pain relief. In previous animal studies, TENS effectively alleviated Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)- or carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. Although TENS is known to produce analgesia via opioid activation in the brain and at the spinal level, few reports have investigated the signal transduction pathways mediated by TENS. Prior studies have verified the importance of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction pathway in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in acute and persistent inflammatory pains. Here, by using CFA rat model, we tested the efficacy of TENS on inhibiting the expressions of p-ERK1/2 and of its downstream cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) at spinal level. Rats were randomly divided into control, model and TENS groups, and injected subcutaneously with 100 μl CFA or saline in the plantar surface of right hind paw. Rats in the TENS group were treated with TENS (constant aquare wave, 2 Hz and 100 Hz alternating frequencies, intensities ranging from 1 to 2 mA, lasting for 30 min each time) at 5 h and 24 h after injection. Paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) were measured with dynamic plantar aesthesiometer at 3d before modeling and 5 h, 6 h, and 25 h after CFA injection. The ipsilateral sides of the lumbar spinal cord dosral horns were harvested for detecting the expressions of p-ERK1/2 and COX-2 by western blot analysis and qPCR, and PGE2 by ELISA. CFA-induced periphery inflammation decreased PWTs and increased paw volume of rats. TENS treatment significantly alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia caused by CFA. However, no anti-inflammatory effect of TENS was observed. Expression of p-ERK1/2 protein and COX-2 mRNA was significantly up-regualted at 5 h and 6 h after CFA injection, while COX-2 and PGE2 protein level only increased at 6 h after modeling. Furthermore, the high expression of p-ERK1

  17. End-to-side neurorrhaphy repairs peripheral nerve injury: sensory nerve induces motor nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Zhang, She-Hong; Wang, Tao; Peng, Feng; Han, Dong; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2017-10-01

    End-to-side neurorrhaphy is an option in the treatment of the long segment defects of a nerve. It involves suturing the distal stump of the disconnected nerve (recipient nerve) to the side of the intimate adjacent nerve (donor nerve). However, the motor-sensory specificity after end-to-side neurorrhaphy remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate whether cutaneous sensory nerve regeneration induces motor nerves after end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Thirty rats were randomized into three groups: (1) end-to-side neurorrhaphy using the ulnar nerve (mixed sensory and motor) as the donor nerve and the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve as the recipient nerve; (2) the sham group: ulnar nerve and cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve were just exposed; and (3) the transected nerve group: cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve was transected and the stumps were turned over and tied. At 5 months, acetylcholinesterase staining results showed that 34% ± 16% of the myelinated axons were stained in the end-to-side group, and none of the myelinated axons were stained in either the sham or transected nerve groups. Retrograde fluorescent tracing of spinal motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion showed the proportion of motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the end-to-side group was 21% ± 5%. In contrast, no motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the sham group and transected nerve group were found in the spinal cord segment. These results confirmed that motor neuron regeneration occurred after cutaneous nerve end-to-side neurorrhaphy.

  18. Hydrogel derived from porcine decellularized nerve tissue as a promising biomaterial for repairing peripheral nerve defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Liu, Sheng; Chen, Shihao; Qiu, Shuai; Rao, Zilong; Liu, Jianghui; Zhu, Shuang; Yan, Liwei; Mao, Haiquan; Zhu, Qingtang; Quan, Daping; Liu, Xiaolin

    2018-06-01

    Decellularized matrix hydrogels derived from tissues or organs have been used for tissue repair due to their biocompatibility, tunability, and tissue-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components. However, the preparation of decellularized peripheral nerve matrix hydrogels and their use to repair nerve defects have not been reported. Here, we developed a hydrogel from porcine decellularized nerve matrix (pDNM-G), which was confirmed to have minimal DNA content and retain collagen and glycosaminoglycans content, thereby allowing gelatinization. The pDNM-G exhibited a nanofibrous structure similar to that of natural ECM, and a ∼280-Pa storage modulus at 10 mg/mL similar to that of native neural tissues. Western blot and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the pDNM-G consisted mostly of ECM proteins and contained primary ECM-related proteins, including fibronectin and collagen I and IV). In vitro experiments showed that pDNM-G supported Schwann cell proliferation and preserved cell morphology. Additionally, in a 15-mm rat sciatic nerve defect model, pDNM-G was combined with electrospun poly(lactic-acid)-co-poly(trimethylene-carbonate)conduits to bridge the defect, which did not elicit an adverse immune response and promoted the activation of M2 macrophages associated with a constructive remodeling response. Morphological analyses and electrophysiological and functional examinations revealed that the regenerative outcomes achieved by pDNM-G were superior to those by empty conduits and closed to those using rat decellularized nerve matrix allograft scaffolds. These findings indicated that pDNM-G, with its preserved ECM composition and nanofibrous structure, represents a promising biomaterial for peripheral nerve regeneration. Decellularized nerve allografts have been widely used to treat peripheral nerve injury. However, given their limited availability and lack of bioactive factors, efforts have been made to improve the efficacy

  19. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  20. Calcium Signaling in Mitral Cell Dendrites of Olfactory Bulbs of Neonatal Rats and Mice during Olfactory Nerve Stimulation and Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Mutoh, Hiroki; Debarbieux, Franck; Knopfel, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Synapses formed by the olfactory nerve (ON) provide the source of excitatory synaptic input onto mitral cells (MC) in the olfactory bulb. These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing. Beta-adrenergic modulation of electrical…

  1. Sensory nerve desensitization by resiniferatoxin improves glucose tolerance and increases insulin secretion in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats and is associated with reduced plasma activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Dorte X; Hansen, Anker J; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2005-01-01

    Sensory nerve desensitization by capsaicin has been shown to improve the diabetic condition in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. However, administration of capsaicin to adult rats is associated with an increased mortality. Therefore, in this experiment, we examined the influence of resiniferatoxin...

  2. Modern management of epilepsy: Vagus nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Menachem, E

    1996-12-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) was first tried as a treatment for seizure patients in 1988. The idea to stimulate the vagus nerve and disrupt or prevent seizures was proposed by Jacob Zabarra. He observed a consistent finding among several animal studies which indicated that stimulation of the vagus nerve could alter the brain wave patterns of the animals under study. His hypothesis formed the basis for the development of the vagus nerve stimulator, an implantable device similar to a pacemaker, which is implanted in the left chest and attached to the left vagus nerve via a stimulating lead. Once implanted, the stimulator is programmed by a physician to deliver regular stimulation 24 hours a day regardless of seizure activity. Patients can also activate extra 'on-demand' stimulation with a handheld magnet. Clinical studies have demonstrated VNS therapy to be a safe and effective mode of treatment when added to the existing regimen of severe, refractory patients with epilepsy. Efficacy ranges from seizure free to no response with the majority of patients (> 50%) reporting at least a 50% improvement in number of seizures after 1.5 years of treatment. The side-effect profile is unique and mostly includes stimulation-related sensations in the neck and throat. The mechanism of action for VNS is not clearly understood although two theories have emerged. First, the direct connection theory hypothesizes that the anticonvulsant action of VNS is caused by a threshold raising effect of the connections to the nucleus of the solitary tract and on to other structures. The second is the concept that chronic stimulation of the vagus nerve increases the amount of inhibitory neurotransmitters and decreases the amount of excitatory neurotransmitters. Additional research into the optimal use of VNS is ongoing. Animal and clinical research have produced some interesting new data suggesting there are numerous ways to improve the clinical performance of vagus nerve stimulation as a

  3. Acellular Nerve Allografts in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy M.; MacEwan, Matthew; Santosa, Katherine B.; Chenard, Kristofer E.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Johnson, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Processed nerve allografts offer a promising alternative to nerve autografts in the surgical management of peripheral nerve injuries where short deficits exist. Methods Three established models of acellular nerve allograft (cold-preserved, detergent-processed, and AxoGen® -processed nerve allografts) were compared to nerve isografts and silicone nerve guidance conduits in a 14 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Results All acellular nerve grafts were superior to silicone nerve conduits in support of nerve regeneration. Detergent-processed allografts were similar to isografts at 6 weeks post-operatively, while AxoGen®-processed and cold-preserved allografts supported significantly fewer regenerating nerve fibers. Measurement of muscle force confirmed that detergent-processed allografts promoted isograft-equivalent levels of motor recovery 16 weeks post-operatively. All acellular allografts promoted greater amounts of motor recovery compared to silicone conduits. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that differential processing for removal of cellular constituents in preparing acellular nerve allografts affects recovery in vivo. PMID:21660979

  4. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  5. Chitin biological absorbable catheters bridging sural nerve grafts transplanted into sciatic nerve defects promote nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Jian-Wei; Qin, Li-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Jiang, Bao-Guo

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of chitin biological absorbable catheters in a rat model of autologous nerve transplantation. A segment of sciatic nerve was removed to produce a sciatic nerve defect, and the sural nerve was cut from the ipsilateral leg and used as a graft to bridge the defect, with or without use of a chitin biological absorbable catheter surrounding the graft. The number and morphology of regenerating myelinated fibers, nerve conduction velocity, nerve function index, triceps surae muscle morphology, and sensory function were evaluated at 9 and 12 months after surgery. All of the above parameters were improved in rats in which the nerve graft was bridged with chitin biological absorbable catheters compared with rats without catheters. The results of this study indicate that use of chitin biological absorbable catheters to surround sural nerve grafts bridging sciatic nerve defects promotes recovery of structural, motor, and sensory function and improves muscle fiber morphology. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 142 Key words: Brachialis, radial nerve, musculocutaneous nerve.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AWORI KIRSTEEN

    The innervation of brachialis muscle by the musculocutaneous nerve has been described as either type I or type II and the main trunk to this muscle is rarely absent. The contribution .... brachialis muscle by fiber analysis of supply nerves].

  7. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    counterparts in the peripheral nervous system, in some instances without peripheral nervous system symptoms. Both hereditary and acquired demyelinating neuropathies have been studied and the effects on nerve pathophysiology have been compared with degeneration and regeneration of axons. SUMMARY: Excitability......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve...... excitability studies are relatively novel but are acquiring an increasingly important role in the study of peripheral nerves. RECENT FINDINGS: By measuring responses in nerve that are related to nodal function (strength-duration time constant, rheobase and recovery cycle) and internodal function (threshold...

  8. Cranial nerve palsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, P.; Adelizzi, J.; Modic, M.T.; Ross, J.S.; Tkach, J.; Masaryk, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the utility of multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) of three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography data sets in the examination of patients with cranial nerve palsies. The authors hypothesis was that 3D data could be reformatted to highlight the intricate spatial relationships of vessels to adjacent neural tissues by taking advantage of the high vessel-parenchyma contrast in high-resolution 3D time-of-flight sequences. Twenty patients with cranial nerve palsies and 10 asymptomatic patients were examined with coronal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted imaging plus a gadolinium-enhanced 3D MRA sequence (40/7/15 degrees, axial 60-mm volume, 0.9-mm isotropic resolution). Cranial nerves II-VIII were subsequently evaluated on axial and reformatted coronal and/or sagittal images

  9. Effects of adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and myocyte dysfunction in patients with acute decompensated heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Toyama, Takuji; Funada, Ryuichi; Takama, Noriaki; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Naoya [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Yuichi [Health Park Clinic, Department of Imaging, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, improves cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) in ischemic heart disease or chronic heart failure. However, its effects on CSNA and myocyte dysfunction in acute heart failure (AHF) remain unclear. We investigated the effects of adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy on CSNA and myocyte dysfunction in AHF. We selected 70 patients with mild to moderate nonischemic AHF who were treated with standard conventional therapy soon after admission. Thirty-five patients were assigned to additionally receive intravenous nicorandil (4-12 mg/h; group A), whereas the remaining patients continued their current drug regimen (group B). Delayed total defect score (TDS), delayed heart to mediastinum count (H/M) ratio, and washout rate (WR) were determined by {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy within 3 days of admission and 4 weeks later. High sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) level was also measured at the same time points. After treatment, MIBG scintigraphic parameters significantly improved in both groups. However, the extent of the changes in these parameters in group A significantly exceeded the extent of the changes in group B [TDS -11.3 ± 4.3 in group A vs -4.0 ± 6.0 in group B (p < 0.01); H/M ratio 0.31 ± 0.16 vs 0.14 ± 0.16 (p < 0.01); WR -13.8 ± 7.8 % vs -6.1 ± 8.9 % (p < 0.01)]. The hs-TnT level decreased significantly from 0.052 ± 0.043 to 0.041 ± 0.033 ng/ml (p < 0.05) in group A, but showed no significant change in group B. Moreover, in both groups, no relationships between the extent of changes in MIBG parameters and hs-TnT level were observed. Adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy provides additional benefits for CSNA and myocyte dysfunction over conventional therapy alone in AHF patients. Furthermore, the mechanisms of improvement in CSNA and myocyte dysfunction after nicorandil treatment in AHF patients were distinct. (orig.)

  10. Lower cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Batra, Kiran; Blitz, Ari M; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-02-01

    Imaging evaluation of cranial neuropathies requires thorough knowledge of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic features of the cranial nerves, as well as detailed clinical information, which is necessary for tailoring the examinations, locating the abnormalities, and interpreting the imaging findings. This article provides clinical, anatomic, and radiological information on lower (7th to 12th) cranial nerves, along with high-resolution magnetic resonance images as a guide for optimal imaging technique, so as to improve the diagnosis of cranial neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined KHFAC + DC nerve block without onset or reduced nerve conductivity after block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Manfred; Vrabec, Tina; Wainright, Jesse; Bhadra, Niloy; Bhadra, Narendra; Kilgore, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Kilohertz frequency alternating current (KHFAC) waveforms have been shown to provide peripheral nerve conductivity block in many acute and chronic animal models. KHFAC nerve block could be used to address multiple disorders caused by neural over-activity, including blocking pain and spasticity. However, one drawback of KHFAC block is a transient activation of nerve fibers during the initiation of the nerve block, called the onset response. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using charge balanced direct current (CBDC) waveforms to temporarily block motor nerve conductivity distally to the KHFAC electrodes to mitigate the block onset-response. Approach. A total of eight animals were used in this study. A set of four animals were used to assess feasibility and reproducibility of a combined KHFAC + CBDC block. A following randomized study, conducted on a second set of four animals, compared the onset response resulting from KHFAC alone and combined KHFAC + CBDC waveforms. To quantify the onset, peak forces and the force-time integral were measured during KHFAC block initiation. Nerve conductivity was monitored throughout the study by comparing muscle twitch forces evoked by supra-maximal stimulation proximal and distal to the block electrodes. Each animal of the randomized study received at least 300 s (range: 318-1563 s) of cumulative dc to investigate the impact of combined KHFAC + CBDC on nerve viability. Main results. The peak onset force was reduced significantly from 20.73 N (range: 18.6-26.5 N) with KHFAC alone to 0.45 N (range: 0.2-0.7 N) with the combined CBDC and KHFAC block waveform (p conductivity was observed after application of the combined KHFAC + CBDC block relative to KHFAC waveforms. Significance. The distal application of CBDC can significantly reduce or even completely prevent the KHFAC onset response without a change in nerve conductivity.

  12. Facial nerve mapping and monitoring in lymphatic malformation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Jospeh; Kinney, Greg; Slimp, Jefferson; Lee, Gi Soo; Oliaei, Sepehr; Perkins, Jonathan A

    2009-10-01

    Establish the efficacy of preoperative facial nerve mapping and continuous intraoperative EMG monitoring in protecting the facial nerve during resection of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations. Retrospective study in which patients were clinically followed for at least 6 months postoperatively, and long-term outcome was evaluated. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics (i.e., size, stage, location) were recorded. Operative notes revealed surgical techniques, findings, and complications. Preoperative, short-/long-term postoperative facial nerve function was standardized using the House-Brackmann Classification. Mapping was done prior to incision by percutaneously stimulating the facial nerve and its branches and recording the motor responses. Intraoperative monitoring and mapping were accomplished using a four-channel, free-running EMG. Neurophysiologists continuously monitored EMG responses and blindly analyzed intraoperative findings and final EMG interpretations for abnormalities. Seven patients collectively underwent 8 lymphatic malformation surgeries. Median age was 30 months (2-105 months). Lymphatic malformation diagnosis was recorded in 6/8 surgeries. Facial nerve function was House-Brackmann grade I in 8/8 cases preoperatively. Facial nerve was abnormally elongated in 1/8 cases. EMG monitoring recorded abnormal activity in 4/8 cases--two suggesting facial nerve irritation, and two with possible facial nerve damage. Transient or long-term facial nerve paresis occurred in 1/8 cases (House-Brackmann grade II). Preoperative facial nerve mapping combined with continuous intraoperative EMG and mapping is a successful method of identifying the facial nerve course and protecting it from injury during resection of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations involving the facial nerve.

  13. Tumors of the optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A variety of lesions may involve the optic nerve. Mainly, these lesions are inflammatory or vascular lesions that rarely necessitate surgery but may induce significant visual morbidity. Orbital tumors may induce proptosis, visual loss, relative afferent pupillary defect, disc edema and optic...... atrophy, but less than one-tenth of these tumors are confined to the optic nerve or its sheaths. No signs or symptoms are pathognomonic for tumors of the optic nerve. The tumors of the optic nerve may originate from the optic nerve itself (primary tumors) as a proliferation of cells normally present...... in the nerve (e.g., astrocytes and meningothelial cells). The optic nerve may also be invaded from tumors originating elsewhere (secondary tumors), invading the nerve from adjacent structures (e.g., choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma) or from distant sites (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration and distant...

  14. Improving the Catalytic Activity of Hyperthermophilic Pyrococcus horikoshii Prolidase for Detoxification of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents over a Broad Range of Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    affinity for metal, and increased thermostability compared to P. furiosus prolidase, Pf prol (PF1343). To obtain a better enzyme for OP nerve agent...decontamination and to investigate the structural factors that may influence protein thermostability and thermoactivity, randomly mutated Ph1prol enzymes ...Introduction Pyrococcus horikoshii and Pyrococcus furiosus are both hyper- thermophilic archaea, growing optimally at 98 –100◦C that were isolated from a

  15. In Vivo Microdialysis and Electroencephalographic Activity in Freely Moving Guinea Pigs Exposed to Organophosphorus Nerve Agents Sarin and VX: Analysis of Acetylcholine and Glutamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    support the idea that there is a triphasic NT model for onset and progression of seizures and subsequent brain damage upon acute exposure to nerve agent...col- umn reactor (ACH-SPR Part No. 70-0640), and analytical cell (Model 5040) were all obtained from ESA Biosci- ences, Inc. (Chelmsford, MA...injection volume was 10 ll. To facilitate EC detection, a post-column reactor was utilized to convert ACh and Ch to hydrogen peroxide. The signal from

  16. Use of Processed Nerve Allografts to Repair Nerve Injuries Greater Than 25 mm in the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Brian; Zoldos, Jozef; Weber, Renata V; Ko, Jason; Thayer, Wesley; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Leversedge, Fraser J; Safa, Bauback; Buncke, Gregory

    2017-06-01

    Processed nerve allografts (PNAs) have been demonstrated to have improved clinical results compared with hollow conduits for reconstruction of digital nerve gaps less than 25 mm; however, the use of PNAs for longer gaps warrants further clinical investigation. Long nerve gaps have been traditionally hard to study because of low incidence. The advent of the RANGER registry, a large, institutional review board-approved, active database for PNA (Avance Nerve Graft; AxoGen, Inc, Alachua, FL) has allowed evaluation of lower incidence subsets. The RANGER database was queried for digital nerve repairs of 25 mm or greater. Demographics, injury, treatment, and functional outcomes were recorded on standardized forms. Patients younger than 18 and those lacking quantitative follow-up data were excluded. Recovery was graded according to the Medical Research Council Classification for sensory function, with meaningful recovery defined as S3 or greater level. Fifty digital nerve injuries in 28 subjects were included. There were 22 male and 6 female subjects, and the mean age was 45. Three patients gave a previous history of diabetes, and there were 6 active smokers. The most commonly reported mechanisms of injury were saw injuries (n = 13), crushing injuries (n = 9), resection of neuroma (n = 9), amputation/avulsions (n = 8), sharp lacerations (n = 7), and blast/gunshots (n = 4). The average gap length was 35 ± 8 mm (range, 25-50 mm). Recovery to the S3 or greater level was reported in 86% of repairs. Static 2-point discrimination (s2PD) and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWF) were the most common completed assessments. Mean s2PD in 24 repairs reporting 2PD data was 9 ± 4 mm. For the 38 repairs with SWF data, protective sensation was reported in 33 repairs, deep pressure in 2, and no recovery in 3. These data compared favorably with historical data for nerve autograft repairs, with reported levels of meaningful recovery of 60% to 88%. There were no reported adverse effects

  17. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijden, T.M.G.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve (n. V), which plays an important role in the innervation of the head and neck area, together with other cranial and spinal nerves. Knowledge of the nerve’s anatomy is very important for the correct application of local anaesthetics.

  18. Imaging the ocular motor nerves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, T.; Verbist, B.M.; Buchem, M. van; Osch, T. van; Webb, A.

    2010-01-01

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic

  19. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases brain MAPK signaling, inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity and sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Weiss, Robert M; Felder, Robert B

    2016-10-01

    We previously reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is induced in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of heart failure (HF) rats and is reduced by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The present study further examined the relationship between brain MAPK signaling, ER stress, and sympathetic excitation in HF. Sham-operated (Sham) and HF rats received a 4-wk intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of vehicle (Veh) or the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 10 μg/day). Lower mRNA levels of the ER stress biomarkers GRP78, ATF6, ATF4, and XBP-1s in the SFO and PVN of TUDCA-treated HF rats validated the efficacy of the TUDCA dose. The elevated levels of phosphorylated p44/42 and p38 MAPK in SFO and PVN of Veh-treated HF rats, compared with Sham rats, were significantly reduced in TUDCA-treated HF rats as shown by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Plasma norepinephrine levels were higher in Veh-treated HF rats, compared with Veh-treated Sham rats, and were significantly lower in the TUDCA-treated HF rats. TUDCA-treated HF rats also had lower mRNA levels for angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and NF-κB p65, and a higher mRNA level of IκB-α, in the SFO and PVN than Veh-treated HF rats. These data suggest that ER stress contributes to the augmented sympathetic activity in HF by inducing MAPK signaling, thereby promoting inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in key cardiovascular regulatory regions of the brain.

  1. Assessment of nerve regeneration across nerve allografts treated with tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisheng, Han; Songjie, Zuo; Xin, Li

    2008-01-01

    Although regeneration of nerve allotransplant is a major concern in the clinic, there have been few papers quantitatively assessing functional recovery of animals' nerve allografts in the long term. In this study, functional recovery, histopathological study, and immunohistochemistry changes of rat nerve allograft with FK506 were investigated up to 12 weeks without slaughtering. C57 and SD rats were used for transplantation. The donor's nerve was sliced and transplanted into the recipient. The sciatic nerve was epineurally sutured with 10-0 nylon. In total, 30 models of transplantation were performed and divided into 3 groups that were either treated with FK506 or not. Functional recovery of the grafted nerve was serially assessed by the pin click test, walking track analysis and electrophysiological evaluations. A histopathological study and immunohistochemistry study were done in the all of the models. Nerve allografts treated with FK506 have no immune rejection through 12 weeks. Sensibility had similarly improved in both isografts and allografts. There has been no difference in each graft. Walk track analysis demonstrates significant recovery of motor function of the nerve graft. No histological results of difference were found up to 12 weeks in each graft. In the rodent nerve graft model, FK506 prevented nerve allograft rejection across a major histocompatibility barrier. Sensory recovery seems to be superior to motor function. Nerve isograft and allograft treated with FK506 have no significant difference in function recovery, histopathological result, and immunohistochemistry changes.

  2. Distal nerve transfer versus supraclavicular nerve grafting: comparison of elbow flexion outcome in neonatal brachial plexus palsy with C5-C7 involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Carlos O; Siqueira, Mario G; Martins, Roberto S; Foroni, Luciano H; Sterman-Neto, Hugo

    2017-09-01

    Ulnar and median nerve transfers to arm muscles have been used to recover elbow flexion in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy, but there is no direct outcome comparison with the classical supraclavicular nerve grafting approach. We retrospectively analyzed patients with C5-C7 neonatal brachial plexus palsy submitted to nerve surgery and recorded elbow flexion recovery using the active movement scale (0-7) at 12 and 24 months after surgery. We compared 13 patients submitted to supraclavicular nerve grafting with 21 patients submitted to distal ulnar or median nerve transfer to biceps motor branch. We considered elbow flexion scores of 6 or 7 as good results. The mean elbow flexion score and the proportion of good results were better using distal nerve transfers than supraclavicular grafting at 12 months (p nerve grafting at 12 months showed good elbow flexion recovery after ulnar nerve transfers. Distal nerve transfers provided faster elbow flexion recovery than supraclavicular nerve grafting, but there was no significant difference in the outcome after 24 months of surgery. Patients with failed supraclavicular grafting operated early can still benefit from late distal nerve transfers. Supraclavicular nerve grafting should remain as the first line surgical treatment for children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

  3. Biocompatibility of Different Nerve Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Felix; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Fansa, Hisham

    2009-01-01

    Bridging nerve gaps with suitable grafts is a major clinical problem. The autologous nerve graft is considered to be the gold standard, providing the best functional results; however, donor site morbidity is still a major disadvantage. Various attempts have been made to overcome the problems of autologous nerve grafts with artificial nerve tubes, which are “ready-to-use” in almost every situation. A wide range of materials have been used in animal models but only few have been applied to date clinically, where biocompatibility is an inevitable prerequisite. This review gives an idea about artificial nerve tubes with special focus on their biocompatibility in animals and humans.

  4. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  5. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Foer, Bert; Kenis, Christoph; Van Melkebeke, Deborah; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe; Somers, Thomas; Pouillon, Marc; Offeciers, Erwin; Casselman, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  6. Vascularized nerve grafts for lower extremity nerve reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Kostopoulos, Vasileios K

    2010-02-01

    Vascularized nerve grafts (VNG) were introduced in 1976 but since then, there have been no reports of their usage in lower extremity reconstruction systematically. The factors influencing outcomes as well as a comparison with conventional nerve grafts will be presented.Since 1981, 14 lower extremity nerve injuries in 12 patients have been reconstructed with VNG. Common peroneal nerve was injured in 12 and posterior tibial nerve in 5 patients. The level of the injury was at the knee or thigh. Twelve sural nerves were used as VNG with or without concomitant vascularized posterior calf fascia.All patients regained improved sensibility and adequate posterior tibial nerve function. For common peroneal nerve reconstructions, all patients with denervation time less than 6 months regained muscle strength of grade at least 4, even when long grafts were used for defects of 20 cm or more. Late cases, yielded inadequate muscle function even with the use of VNG.Denervation time of 6 months or less was critical for reconstruction with vascularized nerve graft. Not only the results were statistically significant compared with late cases, but also all early operated patients achieved excellent results. VNG are strongly recommended in traction avulsion injuries of the lower extremity with lengthy nerve damage.

  7. In Vivo Reactivation by Oximes of Inhibited Blood, Brain and Peripheral Tissue Cholinesterase Activity Following Exposure to Nerve Agents in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    nerve agent intoxication ( salivation , rhinorrhea, tremors,muscle asciculations, convulsions) at 60min following the 1.0× LD50 dose f GB, GF, VR or VX...reactivation of GF-, soman-, or VR-inhibited enzyme byHI-6 andHLö7. However, these in vitro experiments [24,25] were conducted with a pH of 8.0 at 25 ◦C...data. Even the study of Worek et al. [23] that was performed at a pH of 7.4 at 37 ◦C, whose in vitro kinetic data obtained from guinea pig RBC ghosts

  8. Implantable electrode for recording nerve signals in awake animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, I.; Yonezawa, Y.; Wilson, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    An implantable electrode assembly consisting of collagen and metallic electrodes was constructed to measure simultaneously neural signals from the intact nerve and bioelectrical noises in awake animals. Mechanical artifacts, due to bodily movement, were negligibly small. The impedance of the collagen electrodes, measured in awake cats 6-7 days after implantation surgery, ranged from 39.8-11.5 k ohms at a frequency range of 20-5 kHz. Aortic nerve activity and renal nerve activity, measured in awake conditions using the collagen electrode, showed grouped activity synchronous with the cardiac cycle. Results indicate that most of the renal nerve activity was from postganglionic sympathetic fibers and was inhibited by the baroceptor reflex in the same cardiac cycle.

  9. Hypoglossal-facial-jump-anastomosis without an interposition nerve graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutner, Dirk; Luers, Jan C; Grosheva, Maria

    2013-10-01

    The hypoglossal-facial-anastomosis is the most often applied procedure for the reanimation of a long lasting peripheral facial nerve paralysis. The use of an interposition graft and its end-to-side anastomosis to the hypoglossal nerve allows the preservation of the tongue function and also requires two anastomosis sites and a free second donor nerve. We describe the modified technique of the hypoglossal-facial-jump-anastomosis without an interposition and present the first results. Retrospective case study. We performed the facial nerve reconstruction in five patients. The indication for the surgery was a long-standing facial paralysis with preserved portion distal to geniculate ganglion, absent voluntary activity in the needle facial electromyography, and an intact bilateral hypoglossal nerve. Following mastoidectomy, the facial nerve was mobilized in the fallopian canal down to its bifurcation in the parotid gland and cut in its tympanic portion distal to the lesion. Then, a tensionless end-to-side suture to the hypoglossal nerve was performed. The facial function was monitored up to 16 months postoperatively. The reconstruction technique succeeded in all patients: The facial function improved within the average time period of 10 months to the House-Brackmann score 3. This modified technique of the hypoglossal-facial reanimation is a valid method with good clinical results, especially in cases of a preserved intramastoidal facial nerve. Level 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Optic nerve hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savleen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65% than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED.

  11. Sensation, mechanoreceptor, and nerve fiber function after nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Rosén, Birgitta; Boeckstyns, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Sensation is essential for recovery after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relationship between sensory modalities and function of regenerated fibers is uncertain. We have investigated the relationships between touch threshold, tactile gnosis, and mechanoreceptor and sensory fiber...... function after nerve regeneration. Methods: Twenty-one median or ulnar nerve lesions were repaired by a collagen nerve conduit or direct suture. Quantitative sensory hand function and sensory conduction studies by near-nerve technique, including tactile stimulation of mechanoreceptors, were followed for 2...... years, and results were compared to noninjured hands. Results: At both repair methods, touch thresholds at the finger tips recovered to 81 ± 3% and tactile gnosis only to 20 ± 4% (p nerve action potentials (SNAPs) remained dispersed and areas recovered to 23 ± 2...

  12. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Spinal Accessory and Hypoglossal Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stino, Amro M; Smith, Benn E

    2018-01-01

    Multiple techniques have been developed for the electrodiagnostic evaluation of cranial nerves XI and XII. Each of these carries both benefits and limitations, with more techniques and data being available in the literature for spinal accessory than hypoglossal nerve evaluation. Spinal accessory and hypoglossal neuropathy are relatively uncommon cranial mononeuropathies that may be evaluated in the outpatient electrodiagnostic laboratory setting. A review of available literature using PubMed was conducted regarding electrodiagnostic technique in the evaluation of spinal accessory and hypoglossal nerves searching for both routine nerve conduction studies and repetitive nerve conduction studies. The review provided herein provides a resource by which clinical neurophysiologists may develop and implement clinical and research protocols for the evaluation of both of these lower cranial nerves in the outpatient setting.

  13. Functional restoration of the paralyzed diaphragm in high cervical quadriplegia via phrenic nerve neurotization utilizing the functional spinal accessory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-liang; Li, Jian-jun; Zhang, Shao-cheng; Du, Liang-jie; Gao, Feng; Li, Jun; Wang, Yu-ming; Gong, Hui-ming; Cheng, Liang

    2011-08-01

    The authors report a case of functional improvement of the paralyzed diaphragm in high cervical quadriplegia via phrenic nerve neurotization using a functional spinal accessory nerve. Complete spinal cord injury at the C-2 level was diagnosed in a 44-year-old man. Left diaphragm activity was decreased, and the right diaphragm was completely paralyzed. When the level of metabolism or activity (for example, fever, sitting, or speech) slightly increased, dyspnea occurred. The patient underwent neurotization of the right phrenic nerve with the trapezius branch of the right spinal accessory nerve at 11 months postinjury. Four weeks after surgery, training of the synchronous activities of the trapezius muscle and inspiration was conducted. Six months after surgery, motion was observed in the previously paralyzed right diaphragm. The lung function evaluation indicated improvements in vital capacity and tidal volume. This patient was able to sit in a wheelchair and conduct outdoor activities without assisted ventilation 12 months after surgery.

  14. Should we routinely expose recurrent laryngeal nerve(s) during thyroid surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Aurangzeb, A.; Rashid, A.Z.; Qureshi, M.A.; Iqbal, N.; Boota, M.; Ashfaq, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the frequency of recurrent laryngeal nerve(s) (RLNs) palsy after various thyroid procedures with and without identification of recurrent laryngeal nerve during the operation. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from August 2008 to April 2010. Methodology: Patients undergoing indirect laryngoscopy with normal vocal cords and those with carcinoma and re-do surgery having normal vocal cord were included in the study. Patients with hoarseness of voice, abnormal vocal cord movements and with solitary nodule in the isthmus were excluded. These patients were randomly divided into 2 groups of 50 each using random number tables. RLN was identified by exposing the inferior thyroid artery and traced along its entire course in group-A. Whereas, in group-B, nerves were not identified during the operations. Immediate postoperative direct laryngoscopy was performed by a surgeon with the help of an anaesthesiologist for the assessment of vocal cords. Patients with persistent hoarseness of voice were followed-up with indirect laryngoscopy at 3 and 6 months. Results: Temporary unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies occurred in 2 (4%) patients in group-A where the voice and cord movements returned to normal in 6 months. In group-B, it occurred in 8 (16%) patients, 2 bilateral (4%) injuries requiring tracheostomy and 6 unilateral injuries (12%). Among the 2 bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries, the tracheostomy was removed in one case after 6 months with persistent hoarseness of voice but no respiratory difficulty during routine activities. Tracheostomy was permanent in the other case. Among the 6 cases of unilateral nerve injuries, the voice improved considerably in 4 cases within 6 months but in 2 cases hoarseness persisted even after 6 months. Frequency of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies was significantly lower in group-A as compared to group-B (p = 0

  15. Nerves and nerve endings in the skin of tropical cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakiri, S F; Ozoya, S E; Ogunnaike, P O

    1978-01-01

    The nerves and nerve endings in the skin of tropical cattle were studied using histological and histochemical techniques. Many nerve trunks and fibres were present in the reticular and papillary dermis in both hairy and non-hairy skin sites. In non-hairy skin locations such as the muzzle and lower lip, encapsulated endings akin to Krause and Ruffini end bulbs, which arise from myelinated nerve trunks situated lower down the dermis were observed at the upper papillary layer level. Some fibre trunks seen at this level extended upwards to terminate within dermal papillae as bulb-shaped longitudinally lamellated Pacinian-type endings, while other onion-shaped lamellated nerve structures were located either within dermal papillae or near the dermo-epidermal area. Intraepidermal free-ending nerve fibres, appearing non-myelinated were observed in areas with thick epidermis. Intraepidermal free-ending nerve fibres, appearing non-myelinated were observed in areas with thick epidermis. On hairy skin sites, however, organized nerve endings or intraepidermal nerve endings were not readily identifiable.

  16. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Cranial Nerves IX and X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto R M; Martins, Melina P; Moreira, Ana Lucila; Martins, Carlos R; Kimaid, Paulo A T; França, Marcondes C

    2018-01-01

    The cranial nerves IX and X emerge from medulla oblongata and have motor, sensory, and parasympathetic functions. Some of these are amenable to neurophysiological assessment. It is often hard to separate the individual contribution of each nerve; in fact, some of the techniques are indeed a composite functional measure of both nerves. The main methods are the evaluation of the swallowing function (combined IX and X), laryngeal electromyogram (predominant motor vagal function), and heart rate variability (predominant parasympathetic vagal function). This review describes, therefore, the techniques that best evaluate the major symptoms presented in IX and X cranial nerve disturbance: dysphagia, dysphonia, and autonomic parasympathetic dysfunction.

  17. Nerve Cross-Bridging to Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Model of Delayed Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no available options to promote nerve regeneration through chronically denervated distal nerve stumps. Here we used a rat model of delayed nerve repair asking of prior insertion of side-to-side cross-bridges between a donor tibial (TIB) nerve and a recipient denervated common peroneal (CP) nerve stump ameliorates poor nerve regeneration. First, numbers of retrogradely-labelled TIB neurons that grew axons into the nerve stump within three months, increased with the size of the perineurial windows opened in the TIB and CP nerves. Equal numbers of donor TIB axons regenerated into CP stumps either side of the cross-bridges, not being affected by target neurotrophic effects, or by removing the perineurium to insert 5-9 cross-bridges. Second, CP nerve stumps were coapted three months after inserting 0-9 cross-bridges and the number of 1) CP neurons that regenerated their axons within three months or 2) CP motor nerves that reinnervated the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle within five months was determined by counting and motor unit number estimation (MUNE), respectively. We found that three but not more cross-bridges promoted the regeneration of axons and reinnervation of EDL muscle by all the CP motoneurons as compared to only 33% regenerating their axons when no cross-bridges were inserted. The same 3-fold increase in sensory nerve regeneration was found. In conclusion, side-to-side cross-bridges ameliorate poor regeneration after delayed nerve repair possibly by sustaining the growth-permissive state of denervated nerve stumps. Such autografts may be used in human repair surgery to improve outcomes after unavoidable delays. PMID:26016986

  18. Expression patterns and role of PTEN in rat peripheral nerve development and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Xiang, Jianping; Wu, Junxia; He, Bo; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Zheng, Canbin

    2018-05-29

    Studies have suggested that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) plays an important role in neuroprotection and neuronal regeneration. To better understand the potential role of PTEN with respect to peripheral nerve development and injury, we investigated the expression pattern of PTEN at different stages of rat peripheral nerve development and injury and subsequently assessed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) on axonal regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. During the early stages of development, PTEN exhibits low expression in neuronal cell bodies and axons. From embryonic day (E) 18.5 and postnatal day (P)5 to adult, PTEN protein becomes more detectable, with high expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and axons. PTEN expression is inhibited in peripheral nerves, preceding myelination during neuronal development and remyelination after acute nerve injury. Low PTEN expression after nerve injury promotes Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway activity. In vivo pharmacological inhibition of PTEN using bpV(pic) promoted axonal regrowth, increased the number of myelinated nerve fibers, improved locomotive recovery and enhanced the amplitude response and nerve conduction velocity following stimulation in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. Thus, we suggest that PTEN may play potential roles in peripheral nerve development and regeneration and that inhibition of PTEN expression is beneficial for nerve regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Immune cell distribution and immunoglobulin levels change following sciatic nerve injury in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: To investigate the systemic and local immune status of two surgical rat models of sciatic nerve injury, a crushed sciatic nerve, and a sciatic nerve transection Materials and Methods:Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation (control group, sciatic nerve crush, and sciatic nerve transaction. Sciatic nerve surgery was performed. The percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ratio were determined by flow cytometry. Serum IgM and IgG levels were analyzed by ELISA. T-cells (CD3 and macrophages (CD68 in sciatic nerve tissue sections were identified through immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared to sham-operated controls, in rats that underwent nerve injury, the percentage of CD4+ cells and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood were significantly  decreased 7 days after surgery, serum IgM levels were increased 14 days after surgery, and serum IgG levels were increased 21 days after surgery. There were a large number of CD3+ cells and a small number of CD68+ cells in sciatic nerve tissue sections 21 days after surgery, indicating T-cell and macrophage activation and infiltration. Local IgG deposition was also detected at the nerve injury site 21 days after surgery. Conclusion: Rat humoral and cellular immune status changed following sciatic nerve injury, particularly with regard to the cellular immune response at the nerve injury site.

  20. The role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy in facial nerve damage

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Methods: Rat models of facia...

  1. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  2. Myofibroma in the Palm Presenting with Median Nerve Compression Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Sarkozy, PA-C, BS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A myofibroma is a benign proliferation of myofibroblasts in the connective tissue. Solitary myofibromas are a rare finding especially in an adult. We report a case of a 23-year-old man presenting with an enlarging mass over his right palm. The patient is an active weight lifter. He reported numbness and tingling in the median nerve distribution. Nerve conduction studies and magnetic resonance imaging scans suggested a tumor involving or compressing the median nerve. The final diagnosis of myofibroma was made only after the histopathological diagnosis.

  3. Study of nerve fibers nature reinforcing duodenal contractions by electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveshnikov D.S.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is to investigate the mechanism of increased reactions by electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve. Materials and methods: Experiments on dogs have shown that stimulant reactions during blockade of a-adrenergic by phentolamine and (3-adrenergic receptors with propranolol were completely eliminated by lizer-gol —the blocker of 5-HT12-receptors. Results: Infusion of lizergol did not influence on duodenal motor activity and the function of the vagus nerve. Conclusion: Effector neuron is found out to be serotonergic and its action is provided by 5-HT1 2 receptors

  4. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in optic nerve and brain integration centers of adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after optic nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushchina, Evgeniya V.; Shukla, Sachin; Varaksin, Anatoly A.; Obukhov, Dmitry K.

    2016-01-01

    Fishes have remarkable ability to effectively rebuild the structure of nerve cells and nerve fibers after central nervous system injury. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In order to address this issue, we investigated the proliferation and apoptosis of cells in contralateral and ipsilateral optic nerves, after stab wound injury to the eye of an adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Heterogenous population of proliferating cells was investigated at 1 week after injury. TUNEL labeling gave a qualitative and quantitative assessment of apoptosis in the cells of optic nerve of trout 2 days after injury. After optic nerve injury, apoptotic response was investigated, and mass patterns of cell migration were found. The maximal concentration of apoptotic bodies was detected in the areas of mass clumps of cells. It is probably indicative of massive cell death in the area of high phagocytic activity of macrophages/microglia. At 1 week after optic nerve injury, we observed nerve cell proliferation in the trout brain integration centers: the cerebellum and the optic tectum. In the optic tectum, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunopositive radial glia-like cells were identified. Proliferative activity of nerve cells was detected in the dorsal proliferative (matrix) area of the cerebellum and in parenchymal cells of the molecular and granular layers whereas local clusters of undifferentiated cells which formed neurogenic niches were observed in both the optic tectum and cerebellum after optic nerve injury. In vitro analysis of brain cells of trout showed that suspension cells compared with monolayer cells retain higher proliferative activity, as evidenced by PCNA immunolabeling. Phase contrast observation showed mitosis in individual cells and the formation of neurospheres which gradually increased during 1–4 days of culture. The present findings suggest that trout can be used as a novel model for studying neuronal regeneration. PMID:27212918

  5. Transient femoral nerve palsy following ilioinguinal nerve block for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Surgery ... Background: Elective inguinal hernia repair in young fit patients is preferably done under ilioinguinal nerve block anesthesia in the ambulatory setting to improve ... Conclusion: TFNP is a rare complication of ilioinguinal nerve block which delays patient discharge postambulatory hernioplasty.

  6. Restoration of diaphragmatic function after diaphragm reinnervation by inferior laryngeal nerve; experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Barros Angelique

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To assess the possibilities of reinnervation in a paralyzed hemidiaphragm via an anastomosis between phrenic nerve and inferior laryngeal nerve in rabbits. Reinnervation of a paralyzed diaphragm could be an alternative to treat patients with ventilatory insufficiency due to upper cervical spine injuries. Material and method Rabbits were divided into five groups of seven rabbits each. Groups I and II were respectively the healthy and the denervated control groups. The 3 other groups were all reinnervated using three different surgical procedures. In groups III and IV, phrenic nerve was respectively anastomosed with the abductor branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve and with the trunk of the inferior laryngeal nerve. In group V, the fifth and fourth cervical roots were respectively anastomosed with the abductor branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve and with the nerve of the sternothyroid muscle (originating from the hypoglossal nerve. Animals were evaluated 4 months later using electromyography, transdiaphragmatic pressure measurements, sonomicrometry and histological examination. Results A poor inspiratory activity was found in quiet breathing in the reinnervated groups, with an increasing pattern of activity during effort. In the reinnervated groups, transdiaphragmatic pressure measurements and sonomicrometry were higher in group III with no significant differencewith groups IV and V. Conclusion Inspiratory contractility of an hemidiaphragm could be restored with immediate anastomosis after phrenic nerve section between phrenic nerve and inferior laryngeal nerve.

  7. Electrophysiology of Cranial Nerve Testing: Trigeminal and Facial Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Iryna M; Estephan, Bachir

    2018-01-01

    The clinical examination of the trigeminal and facial nerves provides significant diagnostic value, especially in the localization of lesions in disorders affecting the central and/or peripheral nervous system. The electrodiagnostic evaluation of these nerves and their pathways adds further accuracy and reliability to the diagnostic investigation and the localization process, especially when different testing methods are combined based on the clinical presentation and the electrophysiological findings. The diagnostic uniqueness of the trigeminal and facial nerves is their connectivity and their coparticipation in reflexes commonly used in clinical practice, namely the blink and corneal reflexes. The other reflexes used in the diagnostic process and lesion localization are very nerve specific and add more diagnostic yield to the workup of certain disorders of the nervous system. This article provides a review of commonly used electrodiagnostic studies and techniques in the evaluation and lesion localization of cranial nerves V and VII.

  8. Side Effects: Nerve Problems (Peripheral Neuropathy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve problems, such as peripheral neuropathy, can be caused by cancer treatment. Learn about signs and symptoms of nerve changes. Find out how to prevent or manage nerve problems during cancer treatment.

  9. Functional Nerve Preservation in Extracranial Head and Neck Schwannoma Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijichi, Kei; Kawakita, Daisuke; Maseki, Shinichiro; Beppu, Shintaro; Takano, Gaku; Murakami, Shingo

    2016-05-01

    A schwannoma is an uncommon, benign neurogenic tumor of Schwann cells. Tumor enucleation is the recommended surgical method to preserve function of the original nerve, although enucleation does not guarantee completely intact nerve function after the operation. To establish a strategy for functional preservation in extracranial head and neck schwannoma treatment by using an electromyographic (EMG) system during tumor resection. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 15 patients who underwent surgery for removal of schwannoma tumors between April 1, 2006, and March 31, 2015, at an academic tertiary referral center. Data analysis was conducted from April 3, 2006, to September 15, 2015. Neurogenic tumors were diagnosed according to preoperative findings, and during surgery tumors were exposed and given EMG-controlled electrical stimulation to analyze their origins. In motor nerve cases, the electrical activity of the muscle was measured and recorded by EMG. The tumor was then enucleated by incision along tumor fibers mapped using EMG stimulation. If a nerve bundle was visible, we incised along there and enucleated the tumor. A strategy using electrical stimulation to improve preservation of nerve function in extracranial head and neck schwannoma operations. Frequency and duration of postoperative neurologic complications associated with functional preservation surgery with tumor enucleation was evaluated using EMG monitoring according to tumor origin. Of the 15 patients with extracranial schwannoma, 9 (60%) were women (mean [SD] age, 36.3 [15.3] years). All 15 patients underwent surgery using a transcervical approach. The most common nerves of origin were the vagus nerve and the sympathetic chain. In sensory or sympathetic nerve cases, the EMG response was absent. Two of 5 patients with vagus schwannoma had postoperative temporary vocal nerve palsy. These symptoms showed improvement after 1 year. There was no tumor recurrence during the follow-up period in any

  10. LABORATORY EXAMINATION IN NERVE AGENT INTOXICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Bajgar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of nerve agent intoxication is based on anamnestic data, clinical signs and laboratory examination. For acute poisoning, cholinesterase activity in the blood (erythrocyte AChE, plasma/serum BuChE is sensitive, simple and most frequent laboratory examination performed in biochemical laboratories. Specialized examinations to precise treatment (reactivation test or to make retrospective diagnosis (fluoride induced reactivation etc. can be conducted. Other sophisticated methods are available, too.

  11. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography; Diagnostische Nervensonographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeumer, T. [Universitaet zu Luebeck CBBM, Haus 66, Institut fuer Neurogenetik, Luebeck (Germany); Grimm, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Schelle, T. [Staedtisches Klinikum Dessau, Neurologische Klinik, Dessau (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Diagnostik von Nervenlaesionen ist ein bildgebendes Verfahren zur Darstellung des peripheren Nervs und seiner ihn umgebenden Strukturen fuer eine aetiologische Einordnung erforderlich. Mit der klinisch-neurologischen Untersuchung und Elektrophysiologie ist eine funktionelle Aussage ueber die Nervenlaesion moeglich. In der Standard-MRT-Untersuchung wird der periphere Nerv nur unzureichend gut dargestellt. Die MRT-Neurographie ist ein sehr gutes, aber auch zeit- und ressourcenintensives Verfahren. Nutzung des Ultraschalls fuer die

  12. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

  13. Superficial or deep implantation of motor nerve after denervation: an experimental study--superficial or deep implantation of motor nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Ibrahím; Sabuncuoglu, Bízden Tavíl

    2002-01-01

    manner in both experimental groups. However, they were more dense in the superficial implantation group than the deep implantation group. It was concluded that superficial implantation has a more powerful contractile capacity than that of deep implantation. We believe that this might arise from the high activity of glycolytic enzymes in peripheral muscle fibers of gastrocnemius muscle, decrease in insufficient intramuscular guidance apparatus, and intramuscular microneuroma formation at the insufficient neuromuscular junction since the motor nerve had less route to muscle fibers. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Anoxia increases potassium conductance in hippocampal nerve cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A J; Hounsgaard, J; Jahnsen, H

    1982-07-01

    The effect of anoxia on nerve cell function was studied by intra- and extracellular microelectrode recordings from the CA1 and CA3 region in guinea pig hippocampal slices. Hyperpolarization and concomitant reduction of the nerve cell input resistance was observed early during anoxia. During this period the spontaneous activity first disappeared, then the evoked activity gradually disappeared. The hyperpolarization was followed by depolarization and an absence of a measurable input resistance. All the induced changes were reversed when the slice was reoxygenated. Reversal of the electro-chemical gradient for Cl- across the nerve cell membrane did not affect the course of events during anoxia. Aminopyridines blocked the anoxic hyperpolarization and attenuated the decrease of membrane resistance, but had no effect on the later depolarization. Blockers of synaptic transmission. Mn++, Mg++ and of Na+-channels (TTX) were without effect on the nerve cell changes during anoxia. It is suggested that the reduction of nerve cell excitability in anoxia is primarily due to increased K+-conductance. Thus, the nerve cells are hyperpolarized and the input resistance reduced, causing higher threshold and reduction of synaptic potentials. The mechanism of the K+-conductance activation is unknown at present.

  15. Renal sympathetic nerve ablation for treatment-resistant hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krum, Henry; Schlaich, Markus; Sobotka, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for increased cardiovascular events with accelerated sympathetic nerve activity implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of disease. Blood pressure is not adequately controlled in many patients, despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapy. Novel procedure- as well as device-based strategies, such as percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve denervation, have been developed to improve blood pressure in these refractory patients. Renal sympathetic denervation not only reduces blood pressure but also renal as well as systemic sympathetic nerve activity in such patients. The reduction in blood pressure appears to be sustained over 3 years after the procedure, which suggests absence of re-innervation of renal sympathetic nerves. Safety appears to be adequate. This approach may also have potential in other disorders associated with enhanced sympathetic nerve activity such as congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome. This review will focus on the current status of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve denervation, clinical efficacy and safety outcomes and prospects beyond refractory hypertension. PMID:23819768

  16. Penetration of blood-brain barrier and antitumor activity and nerve repair in glioma by doxorubicin-loaded monosialoganglioside micelles system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dan; Wang, Wei; Lei, Daoxi; Yin, Ying; Ren, Peng; Chen, Jinju; Yin, Tieying; Wang, Bochu; Wang, Guixue; Wang, Yazhou

    2017-01-01

    For the treatment of glioma and other central nervous system diseases, one of the biggest challenges is that most therapeutic drugs cannot be delivered to the brain tumor tissue due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The goal of this study was to construct a nanodelivery vehicle system with capabilities to overcome the BBB for central nervous system administration. Doxorubicin as a model drug encapsulated in ganglioside GM1 micelles was able to achieve up to 9.33% loading efficiency and 97.05% encapsulation efficiency by orthogonal experimental design. The in vitro study demonstrated a slow and sustainable drug release in physiological conditions. In the cellular uptake studies, mixed micelles could effectively transport into both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and C6 cells. Furthermore, biodistribution imaging of mice showed that the DiR/GM1 mixed micelles were accumulated sustainably and distributed centrally in the brain. Experiments on zebrafish confirmed that drug-loaded GM1 micelles can overcome the BBB and enter the brain. Among all the treatment groups, the median survival time of C6-bearing rats after administering DOX/GM1 micelles was significantly prolonged. In conclusion, the ganglioside nanomicelles developed in this work can not only penetrate BBB effectively but also repair nerves and kill tumor cells at the same time.

  17. [Neurophysiological identification of the cranial nerves in endoscopic endonasal surgery of skull base tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkarubo, A N; Ogurtsova, A A; Moshchev, D A; Lubnin, A Yu; Andreev, D N; Koval', K V; Chernov, I V

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative identification of the cranial nerves is a useful technique in removal of skull base tumors through the endoscopic endonasal approach. Searching through the scientific literature found one pilot study on the use of triggered electromyography (t-EMG) for identification of the VIth nerve in endonasal endoscopic surgery of skull base tumors (D. San-Juan, et al, 2014). The study objective was to prevent iatrogenic injuries to the cranial nerves without reducing the completeness of tumor tissue resection. In 2014, 5 patients were operated on using the endoscopic endonasal approach. Surgeries were performed for large skull base chordomas (2 cases) and trigeminal nerve neurinomas located in the cavernous sinus (3). Intraoperatively, identification of the cranial nerves was performed by triggered electromyography using a bipolar electrode (except 1 case of chordoma where a monopolar electrode was used). Evaluation of the functional activity of the cranial nerves was carried out both preoperatively and postoperatively. Tumor resection was total in 4 out of 5 cases and subtotal (chordoma) in 1 case. Intraoperatively, the IIIrd (2 patients), Vth (2), and VIth (4) cranial nerves were identified. No deterioration in the function of the intraoperatively identified nerves was observed in the postoperative period. In one case, no responses from the VIth nerve on the right (in the cavernous sinus region) were intraoperatively obtained, and deep paresis (up to plegia) of the nerve-innervated muscles developed in the postoperative period. The nerve function was not impaired before surgery. The t-EMG technique is promising and requires further research.

  18. Neural stem cells promote nerve regeneration through IL12-induced Schwann cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Don-Ching; Chen, Jong-Hang; Hsu, Tai-Yu; Chang, Li-Hsun; Chang, Hsu; Chi, Ya-Hui; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is a slow, complicated process that could be improved by implantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) or nerve conduit. Implantation of NSCs along with conduits promotes the regeneration of damaged nerve, likely because (i) conduit supports and guides axonal growth from one nerve stump to the other, while preventing fibrous tissue ingrowth and retaining neurotrophic factors; and (ii) implanted NSCs differentiate into Schwann cells and maintain a growth factor enriched microenvironment, which promotes nerve regeneration. In this study, we identified IL12p80 (homodimer of IL12p40) in the cell extracts of implanted nerve conduit combined with NSCs by using protein antibody array and Western blotting. Levels of IL12p80 in these conduits are 1.6-fold higher than those in conduits without NSCs. In the sciatic nerve injury mouse model, implantation of NSCs combined with nerve conduit and IL12p80 improves motor recovery and increases the diameter up to 4.5-fold, at the medial site of the regenerated nerve. In vitro study further revealed that IL12p80 stimulates the Schwann cell differentiation of mouse NSCs through the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). These results suggest that IL12p80 can trigger Schwann cell differentiation of mouse NSCs through Stat3 phosphorylation and enhance the functional recovery and the diameter of regenerated nerves in a mouse sciatic nerve injury model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty: a multicenter randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative analgesia is crucial for early functional excise after total knee arthroplasty. To investigate the clinical efficacy of ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: 46 patients with ASA grade I-III who underwent total knee arthroplasty received postoperative analgesia from October 2012 to January 2013. In 22 patients, ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block were performed for analgesia (CFNB group; in 24 patients, epidural analgesia was done (PCEA group. The analgesic effects, side effects, articular recovery and complications were compared between two groups. RESULTS: At 6 h and 12 h after surgery, the knee pain score (VAS score during functional tests after active exercise and after passive excise in CFNB were significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. The amount of parecoxib used in CFNB patients was significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. At 48 h after surgery, the muscle strength grade in CFNB group was significantly higher, and the time to ambulatory activity was shorter than those in PCEA group. The incidence of nausea and vomiting in CFNB patients was significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block provide better analgesia at 6 h and 12 h, demonstrated by RVAS and PVAS. The amount of parecoxib also reduces, the incidence of nausea and vomiting decreased, the influence on muscle strength is compromised and patients can perform ambulatory activity under this condition.

  20. Right-sided vagus nerve stimulation inhibits induced spinal cord seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Salter, E George; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Rollins, Dennis L; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E; Wellons, John C; Blount, Jeffrey P; Oakes, W Jerry

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown that left-sided vagus nerve stimulation results in cessation of induced spinal cord seizures. To test our hypothesis that right-sided vagus nerve stimulation will also abort seizure activity, we have initiated seizures in the spinal cord and then performed right-sided vagus nerve stimulation in an animal model. Four pigs were anesthetized and placed in the lateral position and a small laminectomy performed in the lumbar region. Topical penicillin, a known epileptogenic drug to the cerebral cortex and spinal cord, was next applied to the dorsal surface of the exposed cord. With the exception of the control animal, once seizure activity was discernible via motor convulsion or increased electrical activity, the right vagus nerve previously isolated in the neck was stimulated. Following multiple stimulations of the vagus nerve and with seizure activity confirmed, the cord was transected in the midthoracic region and vagus nerve stimulation performed. Right-sided vagus nerve stimulation resulted in cessation of spinal cord seizure activity in all animals. Transection of the spinal cord superior to the site of seizure induction resulted in the ineffectiveness of vagus nerve stimulation in causing cessation of seizure activity in all study animals. As with left-sided vagus nerve stimulation, right-sided vagus nerve stimulation results in cessation of induced spinal cord seizures. Additionally, the effects of right-sided vagus nerve stimulation on induced spinal cord seizures involve descending spinal pathways. These data may aid in the development of alternative mechanisms for electrical stimulation for patients with medically intractable seizures and add to our knowledge regarding the mechanism for seizure cessation following peripheral nerve stimulation.

  1. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Meek, Marcel F

    2009-08-01

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two cases of sound-induced facial synkinesis (SFS) after facial nerve injury. As far as we know, this phenomenon has not been described in the English literature before. Patient A presented with right hemifacial palsy after lesion of the facial nerve due to skull base fracture. He reported involuntary muscle activity at the right corner of the mouth, specifically on hearing ringing keys. Patient B suffered from left hemifacial palsy following otitis media and developed involuntary muscle contraction in the facial musculature specifically on hearing clapping hands or a trumpet sound. Both patients were evaluated by means of video, audio and EMG analysis. Possible mechanisms in the pathophysiology of SFS are postulated and therapeutic options are discussed.

  2. Sensory nerve function and auto-mutilation after reconstruction of various gap lengths with nerve guides and autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dunnen, WFA; Meek, MF

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sensory nerve recovery and auto-mutilation after reconstruction of various lengths of nerve gaps in the sciatic nerve of the rat, using different techniques. Group 4, in which the longest nerve gap (15 mm) was reconstructed with a thin-walled

  3. Penetration of blood–brain barrier and antitumor activity and nerve repair in glioma by doxorubicin-loaded monosialoganglioside micelles system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dan Zou,1 Wei Wang,1 Daoxi Lei,1 Ying Yin,1 Peng Ren,1 Jinju Chen,2 Tieying Yin,1 Bochu Wang,1 Guixue Wang,1 Yazhou Wang1 1Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Mechanical and System Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK Abstract: For the treatment of glioma and other central nervous system diseases, one of the biggest challenges is that most therapeutic drugs cannot be delivered to the brain tumor tissue due to the blood–brain barrier (BBB. The goal of this study was to construct a nanodelivery vehicle system with capabilities to overcome the BBB for central nervous system administration. Doxorubicin as a model drug encapsulated in ganglioside GM1 micelles was able to achieve up to 9.33% loading efficiency and 97.05% encapsulation efficiency by orthogonal experimental design. The in vitro study demonstrated a slow and sustainable drug release in physiological conditions. In the cellular uptake studies, mixed micelles could effectively transport into both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and C6 cells. Furthermore, biodistribution imaging of mice showed that the DiR/GM1 mixed micelles were accumulated sustainably and distributed centrally in the brain. Experiments on zebrafish confirmed that drug-loaded GM1 micelles can overcome the BBB and enter the brain. Among all the treatment groups, the median survival time of C6-bearing rats after administering DOX/GM1 micelles was significantly prolonged. In conclusion, the ganglioside nanomicelles developed in this work can not only penetrate BBB effectively but also repair nerves and kill tumor cells at the same time. Keywords: blood–brain barrier, GM1, nanovesicles, doxorubicin, glioma, zebrafish

  4. Microsurgical reconstruction of large nerve defects using autologous nerve grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoutis, N K; Gerostathopoulos, N E; Efstathopoulos, D G; Misitizis, D P; Bouchlis, G N; Anagnostou, S K

    1994-01-01

    Between 1986 and 1993, 643 patients with peripheral nerve trauma were treated in our clinic. Primary neurorraphy was performed in 431 of these patients and nerve grafting in 212 patients. We present the functional results after nerve grafting in 93 patients with large nerve defects who were followed for more than 2 years. Evaluation of function was based on the Medical Research Council (MRC) classification for motor and sensory recovery. Factors affecting functional outcome, such as age of the patient, denervation time, length of the defect, and level of the injury were noted. Good results according to the MRC classification were obtained in the majority of cases, although function remained less than that of the uninjured side.

  5. Electrophysiology of Extraocular Cranial Nerves: Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Praveen; Balzer, Jeffery R; Anetakis, Katherine; Crammond, Donald J; Thirumala, Parthasarathy D

    2018-01-01

    The utility of extraocular cranial nerve electrophysiologic recordings lies primarily in the operating room during skull base surgeries. Surgical manipulation during skull base surgeries poses a risk of injury to multiple cranial nerves, including those innervating extraocular muscles. Because tumors distort normal anatomic relationships, it becomes particularly challenging to identify cranial nerve structures. Studies have reported the benefits of using intraoperative spontaneous electromyographic recordings and compound muscle action potentials evoked by electrical stimulation in preventing postoperative neurologic deficits. Apart from surgical applications, electromyography of extraocular muscles has also been used to guide botulinum toxin injections in patients with strabismus and as an adjuvant diagnostic test in myasthenia gravis. In this article, we briefly review the rationale, current available techniques to monitor extraocular cranial nerves, technical difficulties, clinical and surgical applications, as well as future directions for research.

  6. Intrapontine malignant nerve sheath tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozić, Dusko; Nagulić, Mirjana; Samardzić, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    . On pathological examination, the neoplasm appeared to be an intrapontine nerve sheath tumor originating most likely from the intrapontine segment of one of the cranial nerve fibres. The tumor showed exophytic growth, with consequent spread to adjacent subaracnoid space. MR spectroscopy revealed the presence......The primary source of malignant intracerebral nerve sheath tumors is still unclear We report the imaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a 39-year-old man with a very rare brain stem tumor MR examination revealed the presence of intraaxial brain stem tumor with a partial exophytic growth...

  7. Cranial nerve monitoring during subpial dissection in temporomesial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortler, Martin; Fiegele, Thomas; Walser, Gerald; Trinka, Eugen; Eisner, Wilhelm

    2011-06-01

    Cranial nerves (CNs) crossing between the brainstem and skull base at the level of the tentorial hiatus may be at risk in temporomesial surgery involving subpial dissection and/or tumorous growth leading to distorted anatomy. We aimed to identify the surgical steps most likely to result in CN damage in this type of surgery. Electromyographic responses obtained with standard neuromonitoring techniques and a continuous free-running EMG were graded as either contact activity or pathological spontaneous activity (PSA) during subpial resection of temporomesial structures in 16 selective amygdalohippocampectomy cases. Integrity of peripheral motor axons was tested by transpial/transarachnoidal electrical stimulation while recording compound muscle action potentials from distal muscle(s). Continuous EMG showed pathological activity in five (31.2%) patients. Nine events with PSA (slight activity, n = 8; strong temporary activity, n = 1) were recorded. The oculomotor nerve was involved three times, the trochlear nerve twice, the facial nerve once, and all monitored nerves on three occasions. Surgical maneuvers associated with PSA were the resection of deep parts of the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus (CN IV, twice; CN III, once), lining with or removing cotton patties from the resection cavity (III, twice; all channels, once) and indirect exertion of tension on the intact pia/arachnoid of the uncal region while mobilizing the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus en bloc (all channels, once; III, once). CMAPs were observed at 0.3 mA in two patients and at 0.6 mA in one patient, and without registering the exact amount of intensity in three patients. The most dangerous steps leading to cranial nerve damage during mesial temporal lobe surgery are the final stages of the intervention while the resection is being completed in the deep posterior part and the resection cavity is being lined with patties. Distant traction may act on nerves crossing the tentorial

  8. Diabetic neuropathy: structural analysis of nerve hydration by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffey, R.H.; Eaton, P.; Sibbitt, R.R.; Sibbitt, W.L. Jr.; Bicknell, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The water content of the sural nerve of diabetic patients was quantitatively defined by magnetic resonance proton imaging as a putative reflection of activity of the aldose-reductase pathway. Thirty-nine patients were evaluated, comparing group A, symptomatic diabetic men with sensory neuropathy; group B, similarly symptomatic diabetic men treated aldose-reductase inhibition; group C, neurologically asymptomatic diabetic men; and group D, control nondiabetic men. Marked increase in hydration of the sural nerve was seen in more than half of the symptomatic diabetic patients. Two of 11 neurologically asymptomatic diabetics had increased nerve hydration, suggesting a presymptomatic alteration of the nerve. Symptomatic diabetics treated with aldose-reductase inhibitors had normal nerve water levels. Increased level of peripheral nerve water represents a new finding in diabetes mellitus. It seems to be related to aldose-reductase activity, involved in the development of neuropathy, and similar to events that occur in other target tissue in human diabetes

  9. POROSITY OF THE WALL OF A NEUROLAC (R) NERVE CONDUIT HAMPERS NERVE REGENERATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, Marcel F.; Den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2009-01-01

    One way to improve nerve regeneration and bridge longer nerve gaps may be the use of semipermeable/porous conduits. With porosity less biomaterial is used for the nerve conduit. We evaluated the short-term effects of porous Neurolac (R) nerve conduits for in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration. In 10

  10. Poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guides perform better than autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DenDunnen, WFA; VanderLei, B; Schakenraad, JM; Stokroos, [No Value; Blaauw, E; Pennings, AJ; Robinson, PH; Bartels, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the speed and quality of nerve regeneration after reconstruction using a biodegradable nerve guide or an autologous nerve graft. We evaluated nerve regeneration using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and morphometric analysis. Nerve regeneration

  11. Tonic aortic depressor nerve stimulation does not impede baroreflex dynamic characteristics concomitantly mediated by the stimulated nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Toru; Turner, Michael J; Shimizu, Shuji; Kamiya, Atsunori; Shishido, Toshiaki; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2018-03-01

    Although electrical activation of the carotid sinus baroreflex (baroreflex activation therapy) is being explored as a device therapy for resistant hypertension, possible effects on baroreflex dynamic characteristics of interaction between electrical stimulation and pressure inputs are not fully elucidated. To examine whether the electrical stimulation of the baroreceptor afferent nerve impedes normal short-term arterial pressure (AP) regulation mediated by the stimulated nerve, we electrically stimulated the right aortic depressor nerve (ADN) while estimating the baroreflex dynamic characteristics by imposing pressure inputs to the isolated baroreceptor region of the right ADN in nine anesthetized rats. A Gaussian white noise signal with a mean of 120 mmHg and standard deviation of 20 mmHg was used for the pressure perturbation. A tonic ADN stimulation (2 or 5 Hz, 10 V, 0.1-ms pulse width) decreased mean sympathetic nerve activity (367.0 ± 70.9 vs. 247.3 ± 47.2 arbitrary units, P ADN stimulation did not affect the slope of dynamic gain in the neural arc transfer function from pressure perturbation to sympathetic nerve activity (16.9 ± 1.0 vs. 14.7 ± 1.6 dB/decade, not significant). These results indicate that electrical stimulation of the baroreceptor afferent nerve does not significantly impede the dynamic characteristics of the arterial baroreflex concomitantly mediated by the stimulated nerve. Short-term AP regulation by the arterial baroreflex may be preserved during the baroreflex activation therapy.

  12. Scaffoldless tissue-engineered nerve conduit promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery after tibial nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aaron M. Adams; Keith W. VanDusen; Tatiana Y. Kostrominova; Jacob P. Mertens; Lisa M. Larkin

    2017-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerve tissue may cause loss of function in both the nerve and the targeted muscles it innervates. This study compared the repair capability of engineered nerve conduit (ENC), engineered fibroblast conduit (EFC), and autograft in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap. ENCs were fabricated utilizing primary fibroblasts and the nerve cells of rats on embryonic day 15 (E15). EFCs were fabricated utilizing primary fi-broblasts only. Following a 12-week recovery, nerve repair was assessed by measuring contractile properties in the medial gastrocnemius muscle, distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, and histology of muscle and nerve. The autografts, ENCs and EFCs reestablished 96%, 87% and 84% of native distal motor nerve conduction velocity in the lateral gastrocnemius, 100%, 44% and 44% of native specific force of medical gastrocnemius, and 63%, 61% and 67% of native medial gastrocnemius mass, re-spectively. Histology of the repaired nerve revealed large axons in the autograft, larger but fewer axons in the ENC repair, and many smaller axons in the EFC repair. Muscle histology revealed similar muscle fiber cross-sectional areas among autograft, ENC and EFC repairs. In conclusion, both ENCs and EFCs promot-ed nerve regeneration in a 10-mm tibial nerve gap repair, suggesting that the E15 rat nerve cells may not be necessary for nerve regeneration, and EFC alone can suffice for peripheral nerve injury repair.

  13. Bilateral absence of musculocutaneous nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathada V Ravishankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus is an important group of spinal nerve plexus that supplies the muscles of the upper limb via the ventral rami of the Cervical 5 - Thoracic 1 fibers of the spinal nerves. It is not uncommon to notice the variations during cadaveric dissections in many regions of the body, at different levels, such as, roots, trunks, division, cords, communications, and branches as reported in the literature. Although the nerve supply of the body musculature takes place in the fetal life itself, its course, branching pattern, innervations, and communication can show variable patterns as the fetal development progresses. One such anomaly was noticed during our routine cadaveric dissection in the Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum, showing bilateral absence of the musculocutaneous nerve, which obviously drew the attention of the students of medicine, physiotherapy, and learning clinicians as well.

  14. Imaging of the facial nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veillon, F. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)], E-mail: Francis.Veillon@chru-strasbourg.fr; Ramos-Taboada, L.; Abu-Eid, M. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Charpiot, A. [Service d' ORL, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Riehm, S. [Service de Radiologie I, Hopital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2010-05-15

    The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve.

  15. A Physicochemically Optimized and Neuroconductive Biphasic Nerve Guidance Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan J; Lackington, William A; Hibbitts, Alan J; Matheson, Austyn; Alekseeva, Tijna; Stejskalova, Anna; Roche, Phoebe; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2017-12-01

    Clinically available hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have had limited success in treating large peripheral nerve injuries. This study aims to develop a biphasic NGC combining a physicochemically optimized collagen outer conduit to bridge the transected nerve, and a neuroconductive hyaluronic acid-based luminal filler to support regeneration. The outer conduit is mechanically optimized by manipulating crosslinking and collagen density, allowing the engineering of a high wall permeability to mitigate the risk of neuroma formation, while also maintaining physiologically relevant stiffness and enzymatic degradation tuned to coincide with regeneration rates. Freeze-drying is used to seamlessly integrate the luminal filler into the conduit, creating a longitudinally aligned pore microarchitecture. The luminal stiffness is modulated to support Schwann cells, with laminin incorporation further enhancing bioactivity by improving cell attachment and metabolic activity. Additionally, this biphasic NGC is shown to support neurogenesis and gliogenesis of neural progenitor cells and axonal outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia. These findings highlight the paradigm that a successful NGC requires the concerted optimization of both a mechanical support phase capable of bridging a nerve defect and a neuroconductive phase with an architecture capable of supporting both Schwann cells and neurons in order to achieve functional regenerative outcome. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Improving surgical results in complex nerve anatomy during implantation of selective upper airway stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaojun; Hofauer, Benedikt; Heiser, Clemens

    2018-06-01

    The following report presents a case of two late embedded hypoglossus branches during implantation of an upper airway stimulation device that caused a mixed activation of the tongue when included in the stimulation cuff. In the end, correct cuff placement could be achieved by careful examination of the hypoglossal nerve anatomy, precise nerve dissection, tongue motion analysis and intraoperative nerve monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    These antimicrobial peptides are implicated in the resistance of epithelial surfaces to microbial colonisation and have been shown to be upregulated...be equivalent to standard autograft repair in rodent models. Outcomes have now been validated in a large animal (swine) model with 5 cm ulnar nerve...Goals of the Project Task 1– Determine mechanical properties, seal strength and resistance to biodegradation of candidate photochemical nerve wrap

  18. Outcome of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Aboshanif; Omi, Eigo; Honda, Kohei; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Ishikawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: There is no technique of facial nerve reconstruction that guarantees facial function recovery up to grade III. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of different facial nerve reconstruction techniques. Methods: Facial nerve reconstruction was performed in 22 patients (facial nerve interpositional graft in 11 patients and hypoglossal-facial nerve transfer in another 11 patients). All patients had facial function House-Brackmann (HB) grade VI, either caused by...

  19. Neurophysiological approach to disorders of peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Clarissa; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of the peripheral nerve system (PNS) are heterogeneous and may involve motor fibers, sensory fibers, small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers and autonomic nerve fibers, with variable anatomical distribution (single nerves, several different nerves, symmetrical affection of all nerves......, plexus, or root lesions). Furthermore pathological processes may result in either demyelination, axonal degeneration or both. In order to reach an exact diagnosis of any neuropathy electrophysiological studies are crucial to obtain information about these variables. Conventional electrophysiological...

  20. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    in Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve...... juxtapapillary tumors invading the optic nerve because of simple proximity to the nerve. A neurotropic subtype invades the optic nerve and retina in a diffuse fashion unrelated to tumor size or location. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan...

  1. A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Maldonado, Andrés A; Stoves, Yolanda; Fries, Fabian N; Li, Rong; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Spinner, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insufficient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identified medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fibers within the SCM was documented. The cervical nerve connections were cut. Lengths of the accessory nerve were measured. Samples of the cut C-2 and C-3 nerves were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The anatomy and adjacent neural connections within the SCM are complicated. However, after the accessory nerve was "detethered" from within the SCM and following transection, the additional length of the accessory nerve increased from a mean of 6 cm to a mean of 10.5 cm (increase of 4.5 cm) after cutting the C-2 connections, and from a mean of 6 cm to a mean length of 9 cm (increase of 3.5 cm) after cutting the C-3 connections. The additional length of accessory nerve even allowed direct repair of an infraclavicular target (i.e., the proximal musculocutaneous nerve). The cervical nerve connections were shown not to contain motor fibers. CONCLUSIONS An additional length of the accessory nerve made available in the posterior cervical triangle can facilitate direct repair or neurotization procedures, thus eliminating the need for an interpositional nerve graft, decreasing the time/distance for regeneration and potentially improving clinical outcomes.

  2. Unilateral traumatic oculomotor nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, Syoji; Satoh, Toru; Yamamoto, Yuji

    1982-01-01

    The present authors report a case of unilateral traumatic oculomotor nerve paralysis which shows interesting CT findings which suggest its mechanism. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a cerebral concussion soon after a traffic accident. A CT scan was performed soon after admission. A high-density spot was noted at the medial aspect of the left cerebral peduncle, where the oculomotor nerve emerged from the midbrain, and an irregular, slender, high-density area was delineated in the right dorsolateral surface of the midbrain. Although the right hemiparesis had already improved by the next morning, the function of the left oculomotor nerve has been completely disturbed for the three months since the injury. In our case, it is speculated that an avulsion of the left oculomotor nerve rootlet occurred at the time of impact as the mechanism of the oculomotor nerve paralysis. A CT taken soon after the head injury showed a high-density spot; this was considered to be a hemorrhage occurring because of the avulsion of the nerve rootlet at the medial surface of the cerebral peduncle. (J.P.N.)

  3. Repetitive trauma and nerve compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, E J; Hentz, V R

    1988-01-01

    Repetitive movement of the upper extremity, whether recreational or occupational, may result in various neuropathies, the prototype of which is the median nerve neuropathic in the carpal canal. The pathophysiology of this process is incompletely understood but likely involves both mechanical and ischemic features. Experimentally increased pressures within the carpal canal produced reproducible progressive neuropathy. Changes in vibratory (threshold-type) sensibility appears to be more sensitive than two-point (innervation density-type) sensibility. The specific occupational etiologies of carpal neuropathy are obscured by methodologic and sociological difficulties, but clearly some occupations have high incidences of CTS. History and physical examination are usually sufficient for the diagnosis, but diagnostic assistance when required is available through electrophysiological testing, CT scanning, and possibly MRI. Each of these tests has limitations in both sensitivity and specificity. Treatment by usual conservative means should be combined with rest from possible provocative activities. Surgical release of the carpal canal is helpful in patients failing conservative therapy. Occupational modifications are important in both treatment and prevention of median neuropathy due to repetitive trauma.

  4. Intra-temporal facial nerve centerline segmentation for navigated temporal bone surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voormolen, Eduard H. J.; van Stralen, Marijn; Woerdeman, Peter A.; Pluim, Josien P. W.; Noordmans, Herke J.; Regli, Luca; Berkelbach van der Sprenkel, Jan W.; Viergever, Max A.

    2011-03-01

    Approaches through the temporal bone require surgeons to drill away bone to expose a target skull base lesion while evading vital structures contained within it, such as the sigmoid sinus, jugular bulb, and facial nerve. We hypothesize that an augmented neuronavigation system that continuously calculates the distance to these structures and warns if the surgeon drills too close, will aid in making safe surgical approaches. Contemporary image guidance systems are lacking an automated method to segment the inhomogeneous and complexly curved facial nerve. Therefore, we developed a segmentation method to delineate the intra-temporal facial nerve centerline from clinically available temporal bone CT images semi-automatically. Our method requires the user to provide the start- and end-point of the facial nerve in a patient's CT scan, after which it iteratively matches an active appearance model based on the shape and texture of forty facial nerves. Its performance was evaluated on 20 patients by comparison to our gold standard: manually segmented facial nerve centerlines. Our segmentation method delineates facial nerve centerlines with a maximum error along its whole trajectory of 0.40+/-0.20 mm (mean+/-standard deviation). These results demonstrate that our model-based segmentation method can robustly segment facial nerve centerlines. Next, we can investigate whether integration of this automated facial nerve delineation with a distance calculating neuronavigation interface results in a system that can adequately warn surgeons during temporal bone drilling, and effectively diminishes risks of iatrogenic facial nerve palsy.

  5. The First Experience of Triple Nerve Transfer in Proximal Radial Nerve Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Andalib, Sasan

    2018-01-01

    Injury to distal portion of posterior cord of brachial plexus leads to palsy of radial and axillary nerves. Symptoms are usually motor deficits of the deltoid muscle; triceps brachii muscle; and extensor muscles of the wrist, thumb, and fingers. Tendon transfers, nerve grafts, and nerve transfers are options for surgical treatment of proximal radial nerve palsy to restore some motor functions. Tendon transfer is painful, requires a long immobilization, and decreases donor muscle strength; nevertheless, nerve transfer produces promising outcomes. We present a patient with proximal radial nerve palsy following a blunt injury undergoing triple nerve transfer. The patient was involved in a motorcycle accident with complete palsy of the radial and axillary nerves. After 6 months, on admission, he showed spontaneous recovery of axillary nerve palsy, but radial nerve palsy remained. We performed triple nerve transfer, fascicle of ulnar nerve to long head of the triceps branch of radial nerve, flexor digitorum superficialis branch of median nerve to extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of radial nerve, and flexor carpi radialis branch of median nerve to posterior interosseous nerve, for restoration of elbow, wrist, and finger extensions, respectively. Our experience confirmed functional elbow, wrist, and finger extensions in the patient. Triple nerve transfer restores functions of the upper limb in patients with debilitating radial nerve palsy after blunt injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of Nerve Exploration in Supracondylar Humerus Fracture in Children with Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar RIM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The supracondylar humerus fracture (SCHF in children is common and can be complicated with nerve injury either primarily immediate post-trauma or secondarily posttreatment. The concept of neurapraxic nerve injury makes most surgeons choose to ‘watch and see’ the nerve recovery before deciding second surgery if the nerve does not recover. We report three cases of nerve injury in SCHF, all of which underwent nerve exploration for different reasons. Early reduction in the Casualty is important to release the nerve tension before transferring the patient to the operation room. If close reduction fails, we proceed to explore the nerve together with open reduction of the fracture. In iatrogenic nerve injury, we recommend nerve exploration to determine the surgical procedure that is causing the injury. Primary nerve exploration will allow early assessment of the injured nerve and minimize subsequent surgery.

  7. Investigation of Physiological Properties of Nerves and Muscles Using Electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Seán M.; Johnson, Christopher D.; Tansey, Etain A.

    2014-01-01

    The measurement and representation of the electrical activity of muscles [electromyography (EMG)] have a long history from the Victorian Era until today. Currently, EMG has uses both as a research tool, in noninvasively recording muscle activation, and clinically in the diagnosis and assessment of nerve and muscle disease and injury as well as in…

  8. A micro-scale printable nanoclip for electrical stimulation and recording in small nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissandrello, Charles A.; Gillis, Winthrop F.; Shen, Jun; Pearre, Ben W.; Vitale, Flavia; Pasquali, Matteo; Holinski, Bradley J.; Chew, Daniel J.; White, Alice E.; Gardner, Timothy J.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. The vision of bioelectronic medicine is to treat disease by modulating the signaling of visceral nerves near various end organs. In small animal models, the nerves of interest can have small diameters and limited surgical access. New high-resolution methods for building nerve interfaces are desirable. In this study, we present a novel nerve interface and demonstrate its use for stimulation and recording in small nerves. Approach. We design and fabricate micro-scale electrode-laden nanoclips capable of interfacing with nerves as small as 50 µm in diameter. The nanoclips are fabricated using a direct laser writing technique with a resolution of 200 nm. The resolution of the printing process allows for incorporation of a number of innovations such as trapdoors to secure the device to the nerve, and quick-release mounts that facilitate keyhole surgery, obviating the need for forceps. The nanoclip can be built around various electrode materials; here we use carbon nanotube fibers for minimally invasive tethering. Main results. We present data from stimulation-evoked responses of the tracheal syringeal (hypoglossal) nerve of the zebra finch, as well as quantification of nerve functionality at various time points post implant, demonstrating that the nanoclip is compatible with healthy nerve activity over sub-chronic timescales. Significance. Our nerve interface addresses key challenges in interfacing with small nerves in the peripheral nervous system. Its small size, ability to remain on the nerve over sub-chronic timescales, and ease of implantation, make it a promising tool for future use in the treatment of disease.

  9. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical ?cross-bridging? to promote nerve regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Tessa; Eva, Placheta; Borschel, Gregory H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour per...

  10. State-wide hospital clinical laboratory plan for measuring cholinesterase activity for individuals suspected of exposure to nerve agent chemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alan H B; Smith, Andrew; McComb, Robert; Bowers, George N; Makowski, Gregory S; McKay, Charles A; Vena, Jason; McDonagh, John; Hopfer, Sidney; Sena, Salvatore F; Malkus, Herbert; Forte, Elaine; Kelly, Katherine

    2008-02-01

    Hospital laboratories currently lack the capacity to provide emergency determination of cholinesterase activity. We have developed a hospital-based 3-tiered system to test plasma for butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity and whole blood for red cell acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity using available technology and personnel. Interagency communications, toxidrome definition, and patient triage will be coordinated by the Connecticut Department of Public Health and the Poison Control Center. Initial BChE data documents good precision between institutions (coefficient of variation chemical terrorism or large scale HazMat events.

  11. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering ′excellent′ and ′good′ muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  12. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Xun-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Li, Su-Rong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yue

    2015-02-01

    Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering 'excellent' and 'good' muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery.

  13. Imaging the ocular motor nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Teresa [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: T.A.Ferreira@lumc.nl; Verbist, Berit [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: B.M.Verbist@lumc.nl; Buchem, Mark van [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.A.van_Buchem@lumc.nl; Osch, Thijs van [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.J.P.van_Osch@lumc.nl; Webb, Andrew [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: A.Webb@lumc.nl

    2010-05-15

    The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0 T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.

  14. Electrodiagnosis and nerve conduction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posuniak, E A

    1984-08-01

    The use of electrodiagnostic techniques in evaluation of complaints in the lower extremities provides an objective method of assessment. A basic understanding of principles of neurophysiology, EMG and NCV methodology, and neuropathology of peripheral nerves greatly enhances physical diagnosis and improves the state of the art in treatment of the lower extremity, especially foot and ankle injuries. Familiarity with the method of reporting electrodiagnostic studies and appreciation of the electromyographer's interpretation of the EMG/NCV studies also reflects an enhanced fund of knowledge, skills, and attitudes as pertains to one's level of professional expertise. Information regarding the etiology of positive sharp waves, fibrillation potentials, fasciculation, and normal motor action potentials and conduction studies serves as a sound basis for the appreciation of the categories of nerve injury. Competence in understanding the degree of axonal or myelin function or dysfunction in a nerve improve one's effectiveness not only in medical/surgical treatment but in prognostication of recovery of function. A review of the entrapment syndromes in the lower extremity with emphasis on tarsal tunnel syndrome summarizes the most common nerve entrapments germane to the practice of podiatry. With regard to tarsal tunnel syndrome, the earliest electrodiagnostic study to suggest compression was reported to be the EMG of the foot and leg muscles, even before prolonged nerve latency was noted.

  15. Intraoperative Ultrasound for Peripheral Nerve Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsey, Matthew; Wilson, Thomas J; Henning, Phillip Troy; Yang, Lynda J-S

    2017-10-01

    Offering real-time, high-resolution images via intraoperative ultrasound is advantageous for a variety of peripheral nerve applications. To highlight the advantages of ultrasound, its extraoperative uses are reviewed. The current intraoperative uses, including nerve localization, real-time evaluation of peripheral nerve tumors, and implantation of leads for peripheral nerve stimulation, are reviewed. Although intraoperative peripheral nerve localization has been performed previously using guide wires and surgical dyes, the authors' approach using ultrasound-guided instrument clamps helps guide surgical dissection to the target nerve, which could lead to more timely operations and shorter incisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gala, Foram

    2015-01-01

    Optic nerves are the second pair of cranial nerves and are unique as they represent an extension of the central nervous system. Apart from clinical and ophthalmoscopic evaluation, imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the complete evaluation of optic nerve and the entire visual pathway. In this pictorial essay, the authors describe segmental anatomy of the optic nerve and review the imaging findings of various conditions affecting the optic nerves. MRI allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of optic nerves due to its excellent soft tissue contrast without exposure to ionizing radiation, better delineation of the entire visual pathway, and accurate evaluation of associated intracranial pathologies

  17. Nerve ultrasound shows subclinical peripheral nerve involvement in neurofibromatosis type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telleman, Johan A; Stellingwerff, Menno D; Brekelmans, Geert J; Visser, Leo H

    2018-02-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is mainly associated with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Peripheral nerve involvement is described in symptomatic patients, but evidence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement is scarce. We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study in 2 asymptomatic and 3 minimally symptomatic patients with NF2 to detect subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. Patients underwent clinical examination, nerve conduction studies (NCS), and high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS). A total of 30 schwannomas were found, divided over 20 nerve segments (33.9% of all investigated nerve segments). All patients had at least 1 schwannoma. Schwannomas were identified with HRUS in 37% of clinically unaffected nerve segments and 50% of nerve segments with normal NCS findings. HRUS shows frequent subclinical peripheral nerve involvement in NF2. Clinicians should consider peripheral nerve involvement as a cause of weakness and sensory loss in the extremities in patients with this disease. Muscle Nerve 57: 312-316, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Use of Degradable Nerve Conduits for Human Nerve Repair: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Meek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of peripheral nerve injury continues to be a major clinical challenge. The most widely used technique for bridging defects in peripheral nerves is the use of autologous nerve grafts. This technique, however, has some disadvantages. Many alternative experimental techniques have thus been developed, such as degradable nerve conduits. Degradable nerve guides have been extensively studied in animal experimental studies. However, the repair of human nerves by degradable nerve conduits has been limited to only a few clinical studies. In this paper, an overview of the available international published literature on degradable nerve conduits for bridging human peripheral nerve defects is presented for literature available until 2004. Also, the philosophy on the use of nerve guides and nerve grafts is given.

  19. Complement inhibition accelerates regeneration in a model of peripheral nerve injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaglia, Valeria; Tannemaat, Martijn Rudolf; de Kok, Maryla; Wolterman, Ruud; Vigar, Miriam Ann; King, Rosalind Helen Mary; Morgan, Bryan Paul; Baas, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Complement (C) activation is a crucial event in peripheral nerve degeneration but its effect on the subsequent regeneration is unknown. Here we show that genetic deficiency of the sixth C component, C6, accelerates axonal regeneration and recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. Foot-flick

  20. Raman spectroscopic detection of peripheral nerves towards nerve-sparing surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2017-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery, namely nerve-sparing surgery, is now promising technique to avoid functional deficits of the limbs and organs following surgery as an aspect of the improvement of quality of life of patients. Detection of peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves is required for the nerve-sparing surgery; however, conventional nerve identification scheme is sometimes difficult to identify peripheral nerves due to similarity of shape and color to non-nerve tissues or its limited application to only motor peripheral nerves. To overcome these issues, we proposed a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerves by means of Raman spectroscopy. We found several fingerprints of peripheral myelinated and unmyelinated nerves by employing a modified principal component analysis of typical spectra including myelinated nerve, unmyelinated nerve, and adjacent tissues. We finally realized the sensitivity of 94.2% and the selectivity of 92.0% for peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves against adjacent tissues. Although further development of an intraoperative Raman spectroscopy system is required for clinical use, our proposed approach will serve as a unique and powerful tool for peripheral nerve detection for nerve-sparing surgery in the future.

  1. Anatomically based lower limb nerve model for electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soboleva Tanya K

    2007-12-01

    model can be used to examine the effect of external stimulation on nerve and muscle activity, as may occur, for example, in the field of FES.

  2. Facial nerve paralysis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445

  3. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  4. Enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration through asymmetrically porous nerve guide conduit with nerve growth factor gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Tae Ho; Namgung, Uk; Song, Kyu Sang; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Lee, Jin Ho

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a nerve guide conduit (NGC) with nerve growth factor (NGF) gradient along the longitudinal direction by rolling a porous polycaprolactone membrane with NGF concentration gradient. The NGF immobilized on the membrane was continuously released for up to 35 days, and the released amount of the NGF from the membrane gradually increased from the proximal to distal NGF ends, which may allow a neurotrophic factor gradient in the tubular NGC for a sufficient period. From the in vitro cell culture experiment, it was observed that the PC12 cells sense the NGF concentration gradient on the membrane for the cell proliferation and differentiation. From the in vivo animal experiment using a long gap (20 mm) sciatic nerve defect model of rats, the NGC with NGF concentration gradient allowed more rapid nerve regeneration through the NGC than the NGC itself and NGC immobilized with uniformly distributed NGF. The NGC with NGF concentration gradient seems to be a promising strategy for the peripheral nerve regeneration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 52-64, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Tenascin-C in peripheral nerve morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquet, M; Wehrle-Haller, B

    1994-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule tenascin/cytotactin (TN-C) is expressed at a high level by satellite (glial precursor) cells in developing peripheral nerves of the chick embryo; synthesis of its mRNA peaks at the time period when axonal growth is maximal. When offered as a substrate in vitro, TN-C mediates neurite outgrowth by both motor and sensory neurons. The ability to grow neurites on TN-C is developmentally regulated: sensory neurons from 4-day chick embryos (the stage at which peripheral nerves start to develop) grow immediately and rapidly, whereas neurons from older embryos respond with a long delay. A TN-C domain responsible for this activity is located within the C-terminal (distal) portion of TN-C subunits. Integrin receptors seem to be involved on peripheral neurites because their growth on TN-C is completely blocked by antibodies to beta 1 integrins. In striking contrast to neuronal processes, nerve satellite cells can attach to a TN-C substrate but are completely inhibited in their migratory activity. Artificial substrate borders between tenascin and fibronectin or laminin act as selective barriers that allow neurites to pass while holding up satellite cells. The repulsive action of TN-C on satellite cells is similar to that observed for other cell types and is likely to be mediated by additional TN-C domains. In view of these data, it is surprising that mice seem to develop normally without a functional TN-C gene. TN-C is likely to be redundant, that is, its dual action on cell adhesion is shared by other molecules.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Imaging of the optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Minerva [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)], E-mail: minerva.becker@hcuge.ch; Masterson, Karen [Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Radiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Viallon, Magalie [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Vargas, Maria-Isabel [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Becker, Christoph D. [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH - 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This article provides an overview of the imaging findings of diseases affecting the optic nerve with special emphasis on clinical-radiological correlation and on the latest technical developments in MR imaging and CT. The review deals with congenital malformations, tumors, toxic/nutritional and degenerative entities, inflammatory and infectious diseases, compressive neuropathy, vascular conditions and trauma involving the optic nerve from its ocular segment to the chiasm. The implications of imaging findings on patient management and outcome and the importance of performing high-resolution tailored examinations adapted to the clinical situation are discussed.

  7. Imaging of the optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Minerva; Masterson, Karen; Delavelle, Jacqueline; Viallon, Magalie; Vargas, Maria-Isabel; Becker, Christoph D.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the imaging findings of diseases affecting the optic nerve with special emphasis on clinical-radiological correlation and on the latest technical developments in MR imaging and CT. The review deals with congenital malformations, tumors, toxic/nutritional and degenerative entities, inflammatory and infectious diseases, compressive neuropathy, vascular conditions and trauma involving the optic nerve from its ocular segment to the chiasm. The implications of imaging findings on patient management and outcome and the importance of performing high-resolution tailored examinations adapted to the clinical situation are discussed.

  8. An unusual case of suprascapular nerve neuropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakides Theodoros

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Suprascapular nerve neuropathy constitutes an unusual cause of shoulder weakness, with the most common etiology being nerve compression from a ganglion cyst at the suprascapular or spinoglenoid notch. We present a puzzling case of a man with suprascapular nerve neuropathy that may have been associated with an appendectomy. The case was attributed to nerve injury as the most likely cause that may have occurred during improper post-operative patient mobilization. Case presentation A 23-year-old Caucasian man presented to an orthopedic surgeon with a history of left shoulder weakness of several weeks' duration. The patient complained of pain and inability to lift minimal weight, such as a glass of water, following an appendectomy. His orthopedic clinical examination revealed obvious atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and 2 of 5 muscle strength scores on flexion resistance and external rotation resistance. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse high signal intensity within the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and early signs of minimal fatty infiltration consistent with denervation changes. No compression of the suprascapular nerve in the suprascapular or spinoglenoid notch was noted. Electromyographic studies showed active denervation effects in the supraspinatus muscle and more prominent in the left infraspinatus muscle. The findings were compatible with damage to the suprascapular nerve, especially the part supplying the infraspinatus muscle. On the basis of the patient's history, clinical examination, and imaging studies, the diagnosis was suspected to be associated with a possible traction injury of the suprascapular nerve that could have occurred during the patient's transfer from the operating table following an appendectomy. Conclusion Our case report may provide important insight into patient transfer techniques used by hospital personnel, may elucidate the clinical significance of careful

  9. Transient Femoral Nerve Palsy Following Ilioinguinal Nerve Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-20

    Apr 20, 2018 ... a 3‑year period under ilioinguinal nerve block only were assessed for evidence of TFNP. All patients ... loss over the anterior aspect of the thigh, weakness of extension at the knee joint, .... and may result in falls with fractures which carry severe ... recovery of the palsy and subsequently discharged same.

  10. Functional nerve recovery after bridging a 15 mm gap in rat sciatic nerve with a biodegradable nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Klok, F; Robinson, PH; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery of nerve function was evaluated after bridging a 15 mm sciatic nerve gap in 51 rats with a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide. Recovery of function was investigated by analysing the footprints, by analysing video recordings of gait, by electrically eliciting the

  11. Selectivity and Longevity of Peripheral-Nerve and Machine Interfaces: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ghafoor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For those individuals with upper-extremity amputation, a daily normal living activity is no longer possible or it requires additional effort and time. With the aim of restoring their sensory and motor functions, theoretical and technological investigations have been carried out in the field of neuroprosthetic systems. For transmission of sensory feedback, several interfacing modalities including indirect (non-invasive, direct-to-peripheral-nerve (invasive, and cortical stimulation have been applied. Peripheral nerve interfaces demonstrate an edge over the cortical interfaces due to the sensitivity in attaining cortical brain signals. The peripheral nerve interfaces are highly dependent on interface designs and are required to be biocompatible with the nerves to achieve prolonged stability and longevity. Another criterion is the selection of nerves that allows minimal invasiveness and damages as well as high selectivity for a large number of nerve fascicles. In this paper, we review the nerve-machine interface modalities noted above with more focus on peripheral nerve interfaces, which are responsible for provision of sensory feedback. The invasive interfaces for recording and stimulation of electro-neurographic signals include intra-fascicular, regenerative-type interfaces that provide multiple contact channels to a group of axons inside the nerve and the extra-neural-cuff-type interfaces that enable interaction with many axons around the periphery of the nerve. Section Current Prosthetic Technology summarizes the advancements made to date in the field of neuroprosthetics toward the achievement of a bidirectional nerve-machine interface with more focus on sensory feedback. In the Discussion section, the authors propose a hybrid interface technique for achieving better selectivity and long-term stability using the available nerve interfacing techniques.

  12. Selectivity and Longevity of Peripheral-Nerve and Machine Interfaces: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Usman; Kim, Sohee; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2017-01-01

    For those individuals with upper-extremity amputation, a daily normal living activity is no longer possible or it requires additional effort and time. With the aim of restoring their sensory and motor functions, theoretical and technological investigations have been carried out in the field of neuroprosthetic systems. For transmission of sensory feedback, several interfacing modalities including indirect (non-invasive), direct-to-peripheral-nerve (invasive), and cortical stimulation have been applied. Peripheral nerve interfaces demonstrate an edge over the cortical interfaces due to the sensitivity in attaining cortical brain signals. The peripheral nerve interfaces are highly dependent on interface designs and are required to be biocompatible with the nerves to achieve prolonged stability and longevity. Another criterion is the selection of nerves that allows minimal invasiveness and damages as well as high selectivity for a large number of nerve fascicles. In this paper, we review the nerve-machine interface modalities noted above with more focus on peripheral nerve interfaces, which are responsible for provision of sensory feedback. The invasive interfaces for recording and stimulation of electro-neurographic signals include intra-fascicular, regenerative-type interfaces that provide multiple contact channels to a group of axons inside the nerve and the extra-neural-cuff-type interfaces that enable interaction with many axons around the periphery of the nerve. Section Current Prosthetic Technology summarizes the advancements made to date in the field of neuroprosthetics toward the achievement of a bidirectional nerve-machine interface with more focus on sensory feedback. In the Discussion section, the authors propose a hybrid interface technique for achieving better selectivity and long-term stability using the available nerve interfacing techniques. PMID:29163122

  13. Long pacing pulses reduce phrenic nerve stimulation in left ventricular pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortshøj, Søren; Heath, Finn; Haugland, Morten; Eschen, Ole; Thøgersen, Anna Margrethe; Riahi, Sam; Toft, Egon; Struijk, Johannes Jan

    2014-05-01

    Phrenic nerve stimulation is a major obstacle in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Activation characteristics of the heart and phrenic nerve are different with higher chronaxie for the heart. Therefore, longer pulse durations could be beneficial in preventing phrenic nerve stimulation during CRT due to a decreased threshold for the heart compared with the phrenic nerve. We investigated if long pulse durations decreased left ventricular (LV) thresholds relatively to phrenic nerve thresholds in humans. Eleven patients, with indication for CRT and phrenic nerve stimulation at the intended pacing site, underwent determination of thresholds for the heart and phrenic nerve at different pulse durations (0.3-2.9 milliseconds). The resulting strength duration curves were analyzed by determining chronaxie and rheobase. Comparisons for those parameters were made between the heart and phrenic nerve, and between the models of Weiss and Lapicque as well. In 9 of 11 cases, the thresholds decreased faster for the LV than for the phrenic nerve with increasing pulse duration. In 3 cases, the thresholds changed from unfavorable for LV stimulation to more than a factor 2 in favor of the LV. The greatest change occurred for pulse durations up to 1.5 milliseconds. The chronaxie of the heart was significantly higher than the chronaxie of the phrenic nerve (0.47 milliseconds vs. 0.22 milliseconds [P = 0.029, Lapicque] and 0.79 milliseconds vs. 0.27 milliseconds [P = 0.033, Weiss]). Long pulse durations lead to a decreased threshold of the heart relatively to the phrenic nerve and may prevent stimulation of the phrenic nerve in a clinical setting. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Nerve Regenerative Effects of GABA-B Ligands in a Model of Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Magnaghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain arises as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the peripheral somatosensory system. It may be associated with allodynia and increased pain sensitivity. Few studies correlated neuropathic pain with nerve morphology and myelin proteins expression. Our aim was to test if neuropathic pain is related to nerve degeneration, speculating whether the modulation of peripheral GABA-B receptors may promote nerve regeneration and decrease neuropathic pain. We used the partial sciatic ligation- (PSL- induced neuropathic model. The biochemical, morphological, and behavioural outcomes of sciatic nerve were analysed following GABA-B ligands treatments. Simultaneous 7-days coadministration of baclofen (10 mg/kg and CGP56433 (3 mg/kg alters tactile hypersensitivity. Concomitantly, specific changes of peripheral nerve morphology, nerve structure, and myelin proteins (P0 and PMP22 expression were observed. Nerve macrophage recruitment decreased and step coordination was improved. The PSL-induced changes in nociception correlate with altered nerve morphology and myelin protein expression. Peripheral synergic effects, via GABA-B receptor activation, promote nerve regeneration and likely ameliorate neuropathic pain.

  15. Nerve supply to the pelvis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nerves that branch off the central nervous system (CNS) provide messages to the muscles and organs for normal ... be compromised. In multiple sclerosis, the demyelinization of nerve cells may lead to bowel incontinence, bladder problems ...

  16. Specialized Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and SSEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Specialized Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and SSEP Ajay Jawahar MD ... spinal cord is the thick, whitish bundle of nerve tissue that extends from the lowest part of ...

  17. Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000326.htm Nerve damage from diabetes - self-care To use the ... or at other unusual times. Treating and Preventing Nerve Damage from Diabetes Treating diabetic neuropathy can make ...

  18. Cranial nerve palsies in Nigerian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... Introduction. Cranial nerve palsy is a common clinical problem ... Methodology ... The two cases with three-nerve involvement were re- lated to viral encephalitis and cerebral contusion from ... RTA = road traffic accident.

  19. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and their FAMILIES VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION FOR TREATING EPILEPSY This information sheet is provided to help you ... how vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may help treat epilepsy. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is the ...

  20. a technique to repair peripheral nerve injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attached nerve does occi.rr, and functional recovery (sensory and motor) has been demonstrated. ..... Brachial plexus. Upper trunk to lower. 19 Nov 1998 ... Fractured. 13 Mar 1998 Mid shaft hiunerus Radial nerve to. 14 Mar 1999 humerus cut.

  1. Ultrasound and MRI of nerves for monitoring disease activity and treatment effects in chronic dysimmune neuropathies - Current concepts and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décard, Bernhard F; Pham, Mirko; Grimm, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    New imaging modalities like high-resolution-ultrasound (HRUS) and MR-Neurography (MRN) are increasingly used for the evaluation of the peripheral nervous system. The increasing knowledge on morphological changes observed in different neuropathies has led to a better understanding of underlying pathophysiological processes. The diagnosis of acquired chronic dysimmune neuropathies (CDN) like chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), Lewis-Sumner Syndrome (LSS) or multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) can be challenging. The current diagnostic criteria and outcome parameters are mainly based on clinical and electrophysiological parameters. Especially in CDN cases with atypical presentation or during early disease stages, the diagnostic accuracy is low and standardized protocols for the evaluation of disease activity and treatment response are lacking. The establishment of combined diagnostic criteria for CDN including imaging modalities could help to improve the diagnostic accuracy, allow a better differentiation of subtypes and facilitate the follow-up of disease course. The appropriate selection of eligible patients and sensitive monitoring of treatment response is mandatory future in treatment trials. In this article, we briefly summarize the clinical presentations and pathophysiological concepts of different CDN like CIDP, LSS and MMN. Furthermore, this review focuses on the diagnostic value of HRUS/MRN and its potential role for the monitoring of disease activity. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. External laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery: is the nerve stimulator necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, E N; Hisham, A N

    2001-09-01

    To find out the incidence and type of external laryngeal nerves during operations on the thyroid, and to assess the role of a nerve stimulator in detecting them. Prospective, non-randomised study. Teaching hospital, Malaysia. 317 patients who had 447 dissections between early January 1998 and late November 1999. Number and type of nerves crossing the cricothyroid space, and the usefulness of the nerve stimulator in finding them. The nerve stimulator was used in 206/447 dissections (46%). 392 external laryngeal nerves were seen (88%), of which 196/206 (95%) were detected with the stimulator. However, without the stimulator 196 nerves were detected out of 241 dissections (81%). The stimulator detected 47 (23%) Type I nerves (nerve > 1 cm from the upper edge of superior pole); 86 (42%) Type IIa nerves (nerve edge of superior pole); and 63 (31%) Type IIb nerves (nerve below upper edge of superior pole). 10 nerves were not detected. When the stimulator was not used the corresponding figures were 32 (13%), 113 (47%), and 51 (21%), and 45 nerves were not seen. If the nerve cannot be found we recommend dissection of capsule close to the medial border of the upper pole of the thyroid to avoid injury to the nerve. Although the use of the nerve stimulator seems desirable, it confers no added advantage in finding the nerve. In the event of uncertainty about whether a structure is the nerve, the stimulator may help to confirm it. However, exposure of the cricothyroid space is most important for good exposure in searching for the external laryngeal nerve.

  3. Secondary digital nerve repair in the foot with resorbable p(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve conduits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Nicolai, JPA; Robinson, PH

    Nerve guides are increasingly being used in peripheral nerve repair. In the last decade, Much preclinical research has been undertaken into a resorbable nerve guide composed of p(DLLA-epsilon-CL). This report describes the results of secondary digital nerve reconstruction in the foot in a patient

  4. Peripheral nerve regeneration through P(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Dunnen, WFA; Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Schakernraad, JM

    1998-01-01

    P(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides can be used perfectly for short nerve gaps in rats, and are even better than short autologous nerve grafts. The tube dimensions, such as the internal diameter and wall thickness, are very important for the final outcome of peripheral nerve regeneration, as well as the

  5. An anatomical study of porcine peripheral nerve and its potential use in nerve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilic, Leyla; Garner, Philippa E; Yu, Tong; Roman, Sabiniano; Haycock, John W; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Current nerve tissue engineering applications are adopting xenogeneic nerve tissue as potential nerve grafts to help aid nerve regeneration. However, there is little literature that describes the exact location, anatomy and physiology of these nerves to highlight their potential as a donor graft. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the structural and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of porcine peripheral nerves in the hind leg. Methods included the dissection of porcine nerves, localisation, characterisation and quantification of the ECM components and identification of nerve cells. Results showed a noticeable variance between porcine and rat nerve (a commonly studied species) in terms of fascicle number. The study also revealed that when porcine peripheral nerves branch, a decrease in fascicle number and size was evident. Porcine ECM and nerve fascicles were found to be predominately comprised of collagen together with glycosaminoglycans, laminin and fibronectin. Immunolabelling for nerve growth factor receptor p75 also revealed the localisation of Schwann cells around and inside the fascicles. In conclusion, it is shown that porcine peripheral nerves possess a microstructure similar to that found in rat, and is not dissimilar to human. This finding could extend to the suggestion that due to the similarities in anatomy to human nerve, porcine nerves may have utility as a nerve graft providing guidance and support to regenerating axons. PMID:26200940

  6. Multiple Cranial Nerve Involvement In Cryptococcal Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon cause of multiple cranial nerve palsies. This case report illustrates one such case of cryptococcal meningitis clinically manifesting with extensive cranial nerve involvement in an HIV seronegative individual. Histology revealed infiltration of the cranial nerves by cryptococci causing axonal disruption with secondary demyelination in the absence of any evidence of inflammation or vasculitis. We believe that axonal damage underlies the pathogenesis of cranial nerve involvement in cryptococcal meningitis.

  7. Isolated trochlear nerve palsy with midbrain hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain hemorrhage causing isolated fourth nerve palsy is extremely rare. Idiopathic, traumatic and congenital abnormalities are the most common causes of fourth nerve palsy. We report acute isolated fourth nerve palsy in an 18-year-old lady due to a midbrain hemorrhage probably due to a midbrain cavernoma. The case highlights the need for neuroimaging in selected cases of isolated trochlear nerve palsy.

  8. The role of GABA in Na, K-pump activity modulation in nerve cells after irradiation and experimental modification of membrane lipid component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'eva, T.V.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the activity of Na, K-pump of nervous cells in case of total exposure of rats-males to X-radiation are studied as well as of experimental modification of membrane lipid component. It is shown that acute lethal (12 Gy, 600 mGy/min), single long-term (0.25 Gy, 1.75 mGy/min) and chronic (0.01 Gy/d, 1.75 mGy/min) exposure results in considerable alterations in Na, K-pump function in cerebral cortex section of rats. Experimental damage of cell membranes with the help of phospholipase or arachidonic acid leads to the same effect. GABA presence decreases the above effect [ru

  9. Microfasciculation: a morphological pattern in leprosy nerve damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sérgio L G; Medeiros, Mildred F; Corte-Real, Suzana; Jardim, Márcia R; Nery, José A da Costa; Hacker, Mariana A V B; Valentim, Vânia da Costa; Amadeu, Thaís Porto; Sarno, Euzenir N

    2011-01-01

    To study Microfasciculation, a perineurial response found in neuropathies, emphasizing its frequency, detailed morphological characteristics and biological significance in pure neural leprosy (PNL), post-treatment leprosy neuropathy (PTLN) and non-leprosy neuropathies (NLN). Morphological characteristics of microfascicles were examined via histological staining methods, immunohistochemical expression of neural markers and transmission electronmicroscopy. The detection of microfasciculation in 18 nerve biopsy specimens [12 PNL, six PTLN but not in the NLN group, was associated strongly with perineurial damage and the presence of a multibacillary inflammatory process in the nerves, particularly in the perineurium. Immunoreactivity to anti-S100 protein, anti-neurofilament, anti-nerve growth receptor and anti-myelin basic protein immunoreactivity was found within microfascicles. Ultrastructural examination of three biopsies showed that fibroblast-perineurial cells were devoid of basement membrane despite perineurial-like NGFr immunoreactivity. Morphological evidence demonstrated that multipotent pericytes from inflammation-activated microvessels could be the origin of fibroblast-perineurial cells. A microfasciculation pattern was found in 10% of leprosy-affected nerves. The microfascicles were composed predominantly of unmyelinated fibres and denervated Schwann cells (SCs) surrounded by fibroblast-perineurial cells. This pattern was found more frequently in leprosy nerves with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and perineurial damage while undergoing an inflammatory process. Further experimental studies are necessary to elucidate microfascicle formation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  10. Suprascapular nerve block for the treatment of frozen shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozkan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of our study was to compare the effects of suprascapular nerve block in patients with frozen shoulder and diabetes mellitus unresponsive to intraarticular steroid injections. Settings and Design: Ten patients without improvement of sign and symptoms after intraarticular injections were made a suprascapular nerve block. Methods: Pain levels and active range of movement of patients were recorded at initial attendance and after 1, 4, and 12 weeks. All patients′ simple pain scores, total pain scores, and range of motion of their shoulders were improved significantly after suprascapular nerve block. Statistical Analysis: In this study, the statistical analyses were performed by using the SPSS 8.0 program (SPSS Software, SPSS Inc., USA. To compare pre- and post-injection results of simple pain score, total pain score, shoulder abduction and external rotation, Wilcoxon test was used. Results: Patient′s simple pain scores, total pain scores also abduction, external rotation and internal rotation angles were improved significantly after suprascapular nerve block. Conclusion: Effective results after suprascapular nerve blockage was obtained for the treatment of refractory frozen shoulder cases.

  11. Ganglioglioma of the trigeminal nerve: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athale, S.; Jinkins, J.R. [Neuroradiology Section, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 F. Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78284-7800 (United States); Hallet, K.K. [Neuropathology Department, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Ganglioglioma of the cranial nerves is extremely rare; only a few cases involving the optic nerves have been reported. We present a case of ganglioglioma of the trigeminal nerve, which was isointense with the brain stem on all MRI sequences and showed no contrast enhancement. (orig.) With 2 figs., 6 refs.

  12. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... An infant's facial nerve is also called the seventh cranial nerve. It can be damaged just before or at the time of delivery. ...

  13. Ephaptic coupling of myelinated nerve fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binczak, S.; Eilbeck, J. C.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical predictions of a simple myelinated nerve fiber model are compared with theoretical results in the continuum and discrete limits, clarifying the nature of the conduction process on an isolated nerve axon. Since myelinated nerve fibers are often arranged in bundles, this model is used...

  14. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-12-29

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  15. Palm to finger ulnar sensory nerve conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Davidowich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  16. Neuromodulation of the Suprascapular Nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurt, E.; Eijk, T. van; Henssen, D.J.H.A.; Arnts, I.; Steegers, M.A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intractable shoulder pain (CISP) is defined as shoulder pain which is present for longer than 6 months and does not respond to standard treatments like medication, physical therapy, rehabilitation, selective nerve blocks and local infiltrations, or orthopedic procedures. The etiology of CISP

  17. Transdermal optogenetic peripheral nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon, Benjamin E.; Zorzos, Anthony N.; Bendell, Rhys; Harding, Alexander; Fahmi, Mina; Srinivasan, Shriya; Calvaresi, Peter; Herr, Hugh M.

    2017-06-01

    Objective: A fundamental limitation in both the scientific utility and clinical translation of peripheral nerve optogenetic technologies is the optical inaccessibility of the target nerve due to the significant scattering and absorption of light in biological tissues. To date, illuminating deep nerve targets has required implantable optical sources, including fiber-optic and LED-based systems, both of which have significant drawbacks. Approach: Here we report an alternative approach involving transdermal illumination. Utilizing an intramuscular injection of ultra-high concentration AAV6-hSyn-ChR2-EYFP in rats. Main results: We demonstrate transdermal stimulation of motor nerves at 4.4 mm and 1.9 mm depth with an incident laser power of 160 mW and 10 mW, respectively. Furthermore, we employ this technique to accurately control ankle position by modulating laser power or position on the skin surface. Significance: These results have the potential to enable future scientific optogenetic studies of pathologies implicated in the peripheral nervous system for awake, freely-moving animals, as well as a basis for future clinical studies.

  18. Cranial nerve functional neurosurgery : Evaluation of surgical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Guerinel, C.; Sindou, M.; Auque, J.; Blondet, E.; Brassier, G.; Chazal, J.; Cuny, E.; Devaux, B.; Fontaine, D.; Finiels, P. -J.; Fuentes, J. -M.; D'Haens, J.; Massager, N.; Mercier, Ph.; Mooij, J.; Nuti, C.; Rousseaux, P.; Serrie, A.; Stecken, J.; de Waele, L.; Keravel, Y.

    We report the results of an investigation carried out on the activity of functional neurosurgery of the cranial nerves in the French-speaking countries, based on the analysis of a questionnaire addressed to all the members of the SNCLF Eighteen centers responded to this questionnaire., which showed

  19. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-seven fibers of a sample of 401 in the auditory nerve of grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) showed one-tone suppression, i.e., their spontaneous activity was suppressed by tones. All fibers were afferents from the amphibian papilla with best frequencies between 100 and 400 Hz. Best suppression...

  20. Effect of cold nerve allograft preservation on antigen presentation and rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Wilson Z.; Kale, Santosh S.; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Papp, Esther M.; Johnson, Philip J.; Santosa, Katherine B.; Yan, Ying; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Tung, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Object Nerve allotransplantation provides a temporary scaffold for host nerve regeneration and allows for the reconstruction of significant segmental nerve injuries. The need for systemic the current clinical utilization of nerve allografts, although this need is reduced by the practice of cold nerve allograft preservation. Activation of T cells in response to alloantigen presentation occurs in the context of donor antigen presenting cells (direct pathway) or host antigen-presenting cells (indirect pathway). The relative role of each pathway in eliciting an alloimmune response and its potential for rejection of the nerve allograft model has not previously been investigated. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of progressive periods of cold nerve allograft preservation on antigen presentation and the alloimmune response. Methods The authors used wild type C57Bl/6 (B6), BALB/c, and major histocompatibility Class II–deficient (MHC−/−) C57Bl/6 mice as both nerve allograft recipients and donors. A nonvascularized nerve allograft was used to reconstruct a 1-cm sciatic nerve gap. Progressive cold preservation of donor nerve allografts was used. Quantitative assessment was made after 3 weeks using nerve histomorphometry. Results The donor-recipient combination lacking a functional direct pathway (BALB/c host with MHC−/− graft) rejected nerve allografts as vigorously as wild-type animals. Without an intact indirect pathway (MHC−/− host with BALB/c graft), axonal regeneration was improved (p < 0.052). One week of cold allograft preservation did not improve regeneration to any significant degree in any of the donor-recipient preservation did improve regeneration significantly (p < 0.05) for all combinations compared with wild-type animals without pretreatment. However, only in the presence of an intact indirect pathway (no direct pathway) did 4 weeks of cold preservation improve regeneration significantly compared with 1 week and no

  1. Increase of transcription factor EB (TFEB) and lysosomes in rat DRG neurons and their transportation to the central nerve terminal in dorsal horn after nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J; Uesugi, N; Jeong, N Y; Park, B S; Konishi, H; Kiyama, H

    2016-01-28

    In the spinal dorsal horn (DH), nerve injury activates microglia and induces neuropathic pain. Several studies clarified an involvement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the microglial activation. However, the origin of ATP together with the release mechanism is unclear. Recent in vitro study revealed that an ATP marker, quinacrine, in lysosomes was released from neurite terminal of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to extracellular space via lysosomal exocytosis. Here, we demonstrate a possibility that the lysosomal ingredient including ATP released from DRG neurons by lysosomal-exocytosis is an additional source of the glial activation in DH after nerve injury. After rat L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL), mRNA for transcription factor EB (TFEB), a transcription factor controlling lysosomal activation and exocytosis, was induced in the DRG. Simultaneously both lysosomal protein, LAMP1- and vesicular nuclear transporter (VNUT)-positive vesicles were increased in L5 DRG neurons and ipsilateral DH. The quinacrine staining in DH was increased and co-localized with LAMP1 immunoreactivity after nerve injury. In DH, LAMP1-positive vesicles were also co-localized with a peripheral nerve marker, Isolectin B4 (IB4) lectin. Injection of the adenovirus encoding mCherry-LAMP1 into DRG showed that mCherry-positive lysosomes are transported to the central nerve terminal in DH. These findings suggest that activation of lysosome synthesis including ATP packaging in DRG, the central transportation of the lysosome, and subsequent its exocytosis from the central nerve terminal of DRG neurons in response to nerve injury could be a partial mechanism for activation of microglia in DH. This lysosome-mediated microglia activation mechanism may provide another clue to control nociception and pain. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nerve growth factor receptor immunostaining suggests an extrinsic origin for hypertrophic nerves in Hirschsprung's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, H; O'Briain, D S; Puri, P

    1994-01-01

    The expression of nerve growth factor receptor in colon from 20 patients with Hirshsprung's disease and 10 controls was studied immunohistochemically. The myenteric and submucous plexuses in the ganglionic bowel and hypertrophic nerve trunks in the aganglionic bowel displayed strong expression of nerve growth factor receptor. The most important finding was the identical localisation of nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity on the perineurium of both hypertrophic nerve trunks in Hirshs...

  3. The role of the renal afferent and efferent nerve fibres in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsea C Booth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal nerves contain afferent, sensory and efferent, sympathetic nerve fibres. In heart failure (HF there is an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity, which can lead to renal vasoconstriction, increased renin release and sodium retention. These changes are thought to contribute to renal dysfunction, which is predictive of poor outcome in patients with HF. In contrast, the role of the renal afferent nerves remains largely unexplored in HF. This is somewhat surprising as there are multiple triggers in HF that have the potential to increase afferent nerve activity, including increased venous pressure and reduced kidney perfusion. Some of the few studies investigating renal afferents in HF have suggested that at least the sympatho-inhibitory reno-renal reflex is blunted. In experimentally induced HF, renal denervation, both surgical and catheter-based, has been associated with some improvements in renal and cardiac function. It remains unknown whether the effects are due to removal of the efferent renal nerve fibres, afferent renal nerve fibres, or a combination of both. Here, we review the effects of HF on renal efferent and afferent nerve function and critically assess the latest evidence supporting renal denervation as a potential treatment in HF.

  4. Measurement of wavefront aberrations in cortex and peripheral nerve using a two-photon excitation guidestar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futia, Gregory L.; Fontaine, Arjun; McCullough, Connor; Ozbay, Baris N.; George, Nickolas M.; Caldwell, John; Restrepo, Diego; Weir, Richard; Gibson, Emily A.

    2018-02-01

    Neural-machine interfaces using optogenetics are of interest due to their minimal invasiveness and potential for parallel read in and read out of activity. One possible biological target for such an interface is the peripheral nerve, where axonlevel imaging or stimulation could greatly improve interfacing with artificial limbs or enable neuron/fascicle level neuromodulation in the vagus nerve. Two-photon imaging has been successful in imaging brain activity using genetically encoded calcium or voltage indicators, but in the peripheral nerve, this is severely limited by scattering and aberrations from myelin. We employ a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor and two-photon excitation guidestar to quantify optical scattering and aberrations in peripheral nerves and cortex. The sciatic and vagus nerves, and cortex from a ChAT-Cre ChR-eYFP transgenic mouse were excised and imaged directly. In peripheral nerves, defocus was the strongest aberration followed by astigmatism and coma. Peripheral nerve had orders of magnitude higher aberration compared with cortex. These results point to the potential of adaptive optics for increasing the depth of two-photon access into peripheral nerves.

  5. Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, U D; Adhikari, S

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve is most commonly due to its damage by trauma. A ten-month old child presented with the history of a fall from a four-storey building. She developed traumatic third nerve palsy and eventually the clinical features of aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. The adduction of the eye improved over time. She was advised for patching for the strabismic amblyopia as well. Traumatic third nerve palsy may result in aberrant regeneration of the third cranial nerve. In younger patients, motility of the eye in different gazes may improve over time. © NEPjOPH.

  6. [Morphologic changes during neuroplastic nerve restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalski, E P; Rozhkov, E N

    1976-06-01

    The dynamics of ultrastructural changes in plastic recovery of the function of the additional nerve by the anterior branch of the second cervical nerve was studied. The nerve cells at the level of the donor-nerve were found to be highly reactive and plastic. It was established that in the process of heterogenic regeneration of the nerve the most substantial changes in neuronal structures were observed during the first two months. The cysterns of the endoplasmic network remained dilated for a long time after platic operation with might be related with the increased protein metabolism in the neuron.

  7. Tractography of lumbar nerve roots: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbi, Vincent; Budzik, Jean-Francois; Thuc, Vianney le; Cotten, Anne [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service de Radiologie et d' Imagerie musculo-squelettique, Lille Cedex (France); Duhamel, Alain [Universite de Lille 2, UDSL, Lille (France); Bera-Louville, Anne [Service de Rhumatologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-06-15

    The aims of this preliminary study were to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tracking (FT) of the lumbar nerve roots, and to assess potential differences in the DTI parameters of the lumbar nerves between healthy volunteers and patients suffering from disc herniation. Nineteen patients with unilateral sciatica related to posterolateral or foraminal disc herniation and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. DTI with tractography of the L5 or S1 nerves was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated from tractography images. FA and MD values could be obtained from DTI-FT images in all controls and patients. The mean FA value of the compressed lumbar nerve roots was significantly lower than the FA of the contralateral nerve roots (p=0.0001) and of the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.0001). MD was significantly higher in compressed nerve roots than in the contralateral nerve root (p=0.0002) and in the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.04). DTI with tractography of the lumbar nerves is possible. Significant changes in diffusion parameters were found in the compressed lumbar nerves. (orig.)

  8. Microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Wonil; Yoshioka, Fumitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Rhoton, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate and review the detailed microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve and surrounding structures along its entire course and to provide its topographic measurements. Ten cadaveric heads were examined using ×3 to ×40 magnification after the arteries and veins were injected with colored silicone. Both sides of each cadaveric head were dissected using different skull base approaches to demonstrate the entire course of the abducens nerve from the pontomedullary sulcus to the lateral rectus muscle. The anatomy of the petroclival area and the cavernous sinus through which the abducens nerve passes are complex due to the high density of critically important neural and vascular structures. The abducens nerve has angulations and fixation points along its course that put the nerve at risk in many clinical situations. From a surgical viewpoint, the petrous tubercle of the petrous apex is an intraoperative landmark to avoid damage to the abducens nerve. The abducens nerve is quite different from the other nerves. No other cranial nerve has a long intradural path with angulations and fixations such as the abducens nerve in petroclival venous confluence. A precise knowledge of the relationship between the abducens nerve and surrounding structures has allowed neurosurgeon to approach the clivus, petroclival area, cavernous sinus, and superior orbital fissure without surgical complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Tractography of lumbar nerve roots: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbi, Vincent; Budzik, Jean-Francois; Thuc, Vianney le; Cotten, Anne; Duhamel, Alain; Bera-Louville, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this preliminary study were to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tracking (FT) of the lumbar nerve roots, and to assess potential differences in the DTI parameters of the lumbar nerves between healthy volunteers and patients suffering from disc herniation. Nineteen patients with unilateral sciatica related to posterolateral or foraminal disc herniation and 19 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. DTI with tractography of the L5 or S1 nerves was performed. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated from tractography images. FA and MD values could be obtained from DTI-FT images in all controls and patients. The mean FA value of the compressed lumbar nerve roots was significantly lower than the FA of the contralateral nerve roots (p=0.0001) and of the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.0001). MD was significantly higher in compressed nerve roots than in the contralateral nerve root (p=0.0002) and in the nerve roots of volunteers (p=0.04). DTI with tractography of the lumbar nerves is possible. Significant changes in diffusion parameters were found in the compressed lumbar nerves. (orig.)

  10. Factors that influence peripheral nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Archibald, Simon J; Madison, Roger D

    2002-01-01

    median nerve lesions (n = 46) in nonhuman primates over 3 to 4 years, a time span comparable with such lesions in humans. Nerve gap distances of 5, 20, or 50mm were repaired with nerve grafts or collagen-based nerve guide tubes, and three electrophysiological outcome measures were followed: (1) compound...... muscle action potentials in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, (2) the number and size of motor units in reinnervated muscle, and (3) compound sensory action potentials from digital nerve. A statistical model was used to assess the influence of three variables (repair type, nerve gap distance, and time...... to earliest muscle reinnervation) on the final recovery of the outcome measures. Nerve gap distance and the repair type, individually and concertedly, strongly influenced the time to earliest muscle reinnervation, and only time to reinnervation was significant when all three variables were included as outcome...

  11. Suprascapular nerve entrapment in newsreel cameramen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Gülçin Kaymak; Göğüş, Feride

    2003-03-01

    To determine presence of suprascapular nerve entrapment in a group of newsreel cameramen. Thirty-six men working as newsreel cameramen participated in the study. In addition to musculoskeletal and neurologic examinations, bilateral suprascapular nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography were performed. A group of 19 healthy, male volunteers were included in the study as normal controls for suprascapular nerve conduction studies. In newsreel cameramen, mean suprascapular nerve latency was 3.20 +/- 0.56 msec and 2.84 +/- 0.36 msec for right and left shoulders, respectively (P = 0.001). The mean latency difference between right and left suprascapular nerves was -0.05 +/- 0.19 msec in the control group and 0.36 +/- 0.58 msec in the cameramen group (P mobile camera on the shoulder might cause suprascapular nerve entrapment in newsreel cameramen. This could be considered an occupational disorder of the suprascapular nerve, like meat-packer's neuropathy.

  12. Complement components of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid influence the microenvironment of nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-shuai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve regeneration conditioned fluid is secreted by nerve stumps inside a nerve regeneration chamber. A better understanding of the proteinogram of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid can provide evidence for studying the role of the microenvironment in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, we used cylindrical silicone tubes as the nerve regeneration chamber model for the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics technology and western blot analysis confirmed that there were more than 10 complement components (complement factor I, C1q-A, C1q-B, C2, C3, C4, C5, C7, C8ß and complement factor D in the nerve regeneration conditioned fluid and each varied at different time points. These findings suggest that all these complement components have a functional role in nerve regeneration.

  13. Dilong: Role in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ming Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilong, also known as earthworm, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for thousands of years. Schwann cell migration and proliferation are critical for the regeneration of injured nerves and Schwann cells provide an essentially supportive role for neuron regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms of migration and proliferation induced by dilongs in Schwann cells remain unclear. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that includes (i migration signaling, MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases, mediated PAs and MMP2/9 pathway; (ii survival and proliferative signaling, IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I-mediated PI3K/Akt pathways and (iii cell cycle regulation. Dilong stimulate RSC96 cell proliferation and migration. It can induce phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, but not JNK, and activate the downstream signaling expression of PAs (plasminogen activators and MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases in a time-dependent manner. In addition, Dilong stimulated ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation was attenuated by pretreatment with chemical inhibitors (U0126 and SB203580, and small interfering ERK1/2 and p38 RNA, resulting in migration and uPA-related signal pathway inhibition. Dilong also induces the phosphorylation of IGF-I-mediated PI3K/Akt pathway, activates protein expression of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell cycle regulatory proteins (cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A in a time-dependent manner. In addition, it accelerates G1-phase progression with earlier S-phase entry and significant numbers of cells entered the S-phase. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of PI3K that significantly reduces PI3K protein expression levels, resulting in Bcl2 survival factor reduction, revealing a marked blockage of G1 to S transition in proliferating cells. These results reveal the unknown RSC96 cell migration and proliferation mechanism induced by dilong, which find use as a new medicine for nerve regeneration.

  14. Chronic implantation of cuff electrodes on the pelvic nerve in rats is well tolerated and does not compromise afferent or efferent fibre functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, J. J.; Brouillard, C. B. J.; Irazoqui, P. P.; Lovick, T. A.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Neuromodulation of autonomic nerve activity to regulate physiological processes is an emerging field. Vagal stimulation has received most attention whereas the potential of modulate visceral function by targeting autonomic nerves within the abdominal cavity remains under-exploited. Surgery to locate intra-abdominal targets is inherently more stressful than for peripheral nerves. Electrode leads risk becoming entrapped by intestines and loss of functionality in the nerve-target organ connection could result from electrode migration or twisting. Since nociceptor afferents are intermingled with similar-sized visceral autonomic fibres, stimulation may induce pain. In anaesthetised rats high frequency stimulation of the pelvic nerve can suppress urinary voiding but it is not known how conscious animals would react to this procedure. Our objective therefore was to determine how rats tolerated chronic implantation of cuff electrodes on the pelvic nerve, whether nerve stimulation would be aversive and whether nerve-bladder functionality would be compromised. Approach. We carried out a preliminary de-risking study to investigate how conscious rats tolerated chronic implantation of electrodes on the pelvic nerve, their responsiveness to intermittent high frequency stimulation and whether functionality of the nerve-bladder connection became compromised. Main results. Implantation of cuff electrodes was well-tolerated. The normal diurnal pattern of urinary voiding was not disrupted. Pelvic nerve stimulation (up to 4 mA, 3 kHz) for 30 min periods evoked mild alerting at stimulus onset but no signs of pain. Stimulation evoked a modest (nerve temperature but the functional integrity of the nerve-bladder connection, reflected by contraction of the detrusor muscle in response to 10 Hz nerve stimulation, was not compromised. Significance. Chronic implantation of cuff electrodes on the pelvic nerve was found to be a well-tolerated procedure in rats and high frequency

  15. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical 'cross-bridging' to promote nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Eva, Placheta; Borschel, Gregory H

    2015-10-01

    Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour period of 20 Hz electrical nerve stimulation via electrodes proximal to an injury site accelerates axon outgrowth to hasten target reinnervation in rats and humans, even after delayed surgery. A novel strategy of enticing donor axons from an otherwise intact nerve to grow through small nerve grafts (cross-bridges) into a denervated nerve stump, promotes improved axon regeneration after delayed nerve repair. The efficacy of this technique has been demonstrated in a rat model and is now in clinical use in patients undergoing cross-face nerve grafting for facial paralysis. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation, combined with the surgical technique of promoting the regeneration of some donor axons to 'protect' chronically denervated Schwann cells, improves nerve regeneration and, in turn, functional outcomes in the management of peripheral nerve injuries.

  16. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical ′cross-bridging′ to promote nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour period of 20 Hz electrical nerve stimulation via electrodes proximal to an injury site accelerates axon outgrowth to hasten target reinnervation in rats and humans, even after delayed surgery. A novel strategy of enticing donor axons from an otherwise intact nerve to grow through small nerve grafts (cross-bridges into a denervated nerve stump, promotes improved axon regeneration after delayed nerve repair. The efficacy of this technique has been demonstrated in a rat model and is now in clinical use in patients undergoing cross-face nerve grafting for facial paralysis. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation, combined with the surgical technique of promoting the regeneration of some donor axons to ′protect′ chronically denervated Schwann cells, improves nerve regeneration and, in turn, functional outcomes in the management of peripheral nerve injuries.

  17. The longitudinal epineural incision and complete nerve transection method for modeling sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-long Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury severity, operative technique and nerve regeneration are important factors to consider when constructing a model of peripheral nerve injury. Here, we present a novel peripheral nerve injury model and compare it with the complete sciatic nerve transection method. In the experimental group, under a microscope, a 3-mm longitudinal incision was made in the epineurium of the sciatic nerve to reveal the nerve fibers, which were then transected. The small, longitudinal incision in the epineurium was then sutured closed, requiring no stump anastomosis. In the control group, the sciatic nerve was completely transected, and the epineurium was repaired by anastomosis. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, Wallerian degeneration was observed in both groups. In the experimental group, at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery, distinct medullary nerve fibers and axons were observed in the injured sciatic nerve. Regular, dense myelin sheaths were visible, as well as some scarring. By 12 weeks, the myelin sheaths were normal and intact, and a tight lamellar structure was observed. Functionally, limb movement and nerve conduction recovered in the injured region between 4 and 12 weeks. The present results demonstrate that longitudinal epineural incision with nerve transection can stably replicate a model of Sunderland grade IV peripheral nerve injury. Compared with the complete sciatic nerve transection model, our method reduced the difficulties of micromanipulation and surgery time, and resulted in good stump restoration, nerve regeneration, and functional recovery.

  18. The role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy in facial nerve damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Limei; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve is easy to be damaged, and there are many reconstructive methods for facial nerve reconstructive, such as facial nerve end to end anastomosis, the great auricular nerve graft, the sural nerve graft, or hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. However, there is still little study about great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy and the mechanism. Rat models of facial nerve cut (FC), facial nerve end to end anastomosis (FF), facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy (FG), and control (Ctrl) were established. Apex nasi amesiality observation, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays were employed to investigate the function and mechanism. In apex nasi amesiality observation, it was found apex nasi amesiality of FG group was partly recovered. Additionally, electrophysiology and immunofluorescence assays revealed that facial-great auricular neurorrhaphy could transfer nerve impulse and express AChR which was better than facial nerve cut and worse than facial nerve end to end anastomosis. The present study indicated that great auricular-facial nerve neurorrhaphy is a substantial solution for facial lesion repair, as it is efficiently preventing facial muscles atrophy by generating neurotransmitter like ACh.

  19. Future Perspectives in the Management of Nerve Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Susan E

    2018-04-01

     The author presents a solicited "white paper" outlining her perspective on the role of nerve transfers in the management of nerve injuries.  PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were evaluated to compare nerve graft and nerve transfer. An evaluation of the scientific literature by review of index articles was also performed to compare the number of overall clinical publications of nerve repair, nerve graft, and nerve transfer. Finally, a survey regarding the prevalence of nerve transfer surgery was administrated to the World Society of Reconstructive Microsurgery (WSRM) results.  Both nerve graft and transfer can generate functional results and the relative success of graft versus transfer depended on the function to be restored and the specific transfers used. Beginning in the early 1990s, there has been a rapid increase from baseline of nerve transfer publications such that clinical nerve transfer publication now exceeds those of nerve repair or nerve graft. Sixty-two responses were received from WSRM membership. These surgeons reported their frequency of "usually or always using nerve transfers for repairing brachial plexus injuries as 68%, radial nerves as 27%, median as 25%, and ulnar as 33%. They reported using nerve transfers" sometimes for brachial plexus 18%, radial nerve 30%, median nerve 34%, ulnar nerve 35%.  Taken together this evidence suggests that nerve transfers do offer an alternative technique along with tendon transfers, nerve repair, and nerve grafts. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Involvement of hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerves on swallowing pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Suzuki, Taku; Yoshihara, Midori; Sakai, Shogo; Koshi, Naomi; Ashiga, Hirokazu; Shiraishi, Naru; Tsuji, Kojun; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-05-01

    Swallowing pressure generation is important to ensure safe transport of an ingested bolus without aspiration or leaving residue in the pharynx. To clarify the mechanism, we measured swallowing pressure at the oropharynx (OP), upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and cervical esophagus (CE) using a specially designed manometric catheter in anesthetized rats. A swallow, evoked by punctate mechanical stimulation to the larynx, was identified by recording activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles using electromyography (EMG). Areas under the curve of the swallowing pressure at the OP, UES, and CE from two trials indicated high intrasubject reproducibility. Effects of transecting the hypoglossal nerve (12N) and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) on swallowing were investigated. Following bilateral hypoglossal nerve transection (Bi-12Nx), OP pressure was significantly decreased, and time intervals between peaks of thyrohyoid EMG bursts and OP pressure were significantly shorter. Decreased OP pressure and shortened times between peaks of thyrohyoid EMG bursts and OP pressure following Bi-12Nx were significantly increased and longer, respectively, after covering the hard and soft palates with acrylic material. UES pressure was significantly decreased after bilateral RLN transection compared with that before transection. These results suggest that the 12N and RLN play crucial roles in OP and UES pressure during swallowing, respectively. We speculate that covering the palates with a palatal augmentation prosthesis may reverse the reduced swallowing pressure in patients with 12N or tongue damage by the changes of the sensory information and of the contact between the tongue and a palates. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Hypoglossal nerve transection reduced swallowing pressure at the oropharynx. Covering the hard and soft palates with acrylic material may reverse the reduced swallowing function caused by hypoglossal nerve damage. Recurrent laryngeal nerve transection reduced upper

  1. The nerves around the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Alain; Lecocq, Sophie; Louis, Matthias; Wassel, Johnny; Moisei, Andreea; Teixeira, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathies of the shoulder are considered to be entrapment syndromes. They are relatively common, accounting for about 2% of cases of sport-related shoulder pain. Many instances involve suprascapular neuropathy, but the clinical diagnosis is often delayed because of nonspecific symptoms. Classically, EMG is the gold standard investigation but MRI currently reveals muscular abnormality in 50% of cases. Muscle edema, the most characteristic symptom, is nonspecific. In general, the topography of edema, the presence of a lesion compressing the nerve and clinical history contribute to the diagnosis. Although atrophy and fatty degeneration may persist after the disappearance of edema, they are rarely symptomatic. The main differential diagnosis is Parsonage–Turner syndrome. Evidence of a cyst pressing on a nerve may prompt puncture-infiltration guided by ultrasonography or CT-scan

  2. The nerves around the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alain, E-mail: alain.blum@gmail.com [Service d’Imagerie GUILLOZ, CHU Nancy, Nancy 54000 (France); Lecocq, Sophie; Louis, Matthias; Wassel, Johnny; Moisei, Andreea; Teixeira, Pedro [Service d’Imagerie GUILLOZ, CHU Nancy, Nancy 54000 (France)

    2013-01-15

    Neuropathies of the shoulder are considered to be entrapment syndromes. They are relatively common, accounting for about 2% of cases of sport-related shoulder pain. Many instances involve suprascapular neuropathy, but the clinical diagnosis is often delayed because of nonspecific symptoms. Classically, EMG is the gold standard investigation but MRI currently reveals muscular abnormality in 50% of cases. Muscle edema, the most characteristic symptom, is nonspecific. In general, the topography of edema, the presence of a lesion compressing the nerve and clinical history contribute to the diagnosis. Although atrophy and fatty degeneration may persist after the disappearance of edema, they are rarely symptomatic. The main differential diagnosis is Parsonage–Turner syndrome. Evidence of a cyst pressing on a nerve may prompt puncture-infiltration guided by ultrasonography or CT-scan.

  3. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    LM, de Crombrugghe B. Some recent advances in the chemistry and biology of trans- forming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol 1987;105:1039e45. 12. Hao Y...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In current war trauma, 20-30% of all extremity injuries and >80% of penetrating injuries being associated with peripheral nerve...through both axonal advance and in revascularization of the graft following placement. We are confident that this technology may allow us to

  4. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    this (Figure 14). Task 2g . Decision on wrap/fixation method for AvanceΤΜ nerve graft studies in rodent model. (Month 16, All PI’s) This decision...completed 3g . Preparation of manuscript based on Task 3 studies and evaluation for recommendation for human studies. This final task will be...significantly reduced mean hospital stay, dressings changes, mean time to epithelialisation, reduced pain, increased mobility . Patient and surgeon 666 N

  5. Trigeminal nerve anatomy in neuropathic and non-neuropathic orofacial pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sophie L; Gustin, Sylvia M; Eykman, Elizabeth N; Fowler, Gordon; Peck, Christopher C; Murray, Greg M; Henderson, Luke A

    2013-08-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia, painful trigeminal neuropathy, and painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are chronic orofacial pain conditions that are thought to have fundamentally different etiologies. Trigeminal neuralgia and neuropathy are thought to arise from damage to or pressure on the trigeminal nerve, whereas TMD results primarily from peripheral nociceptor activation. This study sought to assess the volume and microstructure of the trigeminal nerve in these 3 conditions. In 9 neuralgia, 18 neuropathy, 20 TMD, and 26 healthy controls, the trigeminal root entry zone was selected on high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images and the volume (mm(3)) calculated. Additionally, using diffusion-tensor images (DTIs), the mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy values of the trigeminal nerve root were calculated. Trigeminal neuralgia patients displayed a significant (47%) decrease in nerve volume but no change in DTI values. Conversely, trigeminal neuropathy subjects displayed a significant (40%) increase in nerve volume but again no change in DTI values. In contrast, TMD subjects displayed no change in volume or DTI values. The data suggest that the changes occurring within the trigeminal nerve are not uniform in all orofacial pain conditions. These structural and volume changes may have implications in diagnosis and management of different forms of chronic orofacial pain. This study reveals that neuropathic orofacial pain conditions are associated with changes in trigeminal nerve volume, whereas non-neuropathic orofacial pain is not associated with any change in nerve volume. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of adequate vehicles to carry nerve regeneration inducers using tubulisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento-Elias, Adriana Helena; Fresnesdas, Bruno César; Schiavoni, Maria Cristina Lopes; de Almeida, Natália Fernanda Gaspar; Santos, Ana Paula; de Oliveira Ramos, Jean; Junior, Wilson Marques; Barreira, Amilton Antunes

    2012-08-14

    Axonal regeneration depends on many factors, such as the type of injury and repair, age, distance from the cell body and distance of the denervated muscle, loss of surrounding tissue and the type of injured nerve. Experimental models use tubulisation with a silicone tube to research regenerative factors and substances to induce regeneration. Agarose, collagen and DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium) can be used as vehicles. In this study, we compared the ability of these vehicles to induce rat sciatic nerve regeneration with the intent of finding the least active or inert substance. The experiment used 47 female Wistar rats, which were divided into four experimental groups (agarose 4%, agarose 0.4%, collagen, DMEM) and one normal control group. The right sciatic nerve was exposed, and an incision was made that created a 10 mm gap between the distal and proximal stumps. A silicone tube was grafted onto each stump, and the tubes were filled with the respective media. After 70 days, the sciatic nerve was removed. We evaluated the formation of a regeneration cable, nerve fibre growth, and the functional viability of the regenerated fibres. Comparison among the three vehicles showed that 0.4% agarose gels had almost no effect on provoking the regeneration of peripheral nerves and that 4% agarose gels completely prevented fibre growth. The others substances were associated with profuse nerve fibre growth. In the appropriate concentration, agarose gel may be an important vehicle for testing factors that induce regeneration without interfering with nerve growth.

  7. Measurement of light penetration of near-infrared laser at the lumbosacral nerves in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Naoya; Shimoyama, Hiroshi; Kawase, Yuki; Motohara, Shosaku; Okayama, Takamitsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Koyama, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Photobiomodulation or low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been utilized in various areas of medical practice including pain relief, wound healing, and inflammation treatment. Some recent animal studies have reported that near-infrared laser irradiation to the lumbosacral nerves transcutateously relieves neuropathic pain by controlling activity of lumbosacral nerves. However, transcutaneous laser penetration to the nerves has not yet been fully elucidated. Our aim is to determine the light penetration to lumbosacral nerves when near-infrared laser was irradiated transcutateously to lumbosacral nerves. We implanted photodiodes near the lumbosacral nerves of rats and connected the photodiodes to an oscilloscope through an amplifier. Near-infrared lasers (wavelengths: 808 nm and 830 nm) were irradiated through the skin at 2, 5 and 10 W pulses (Duty 10%, 5 Hz) and outputs of photodiodes were collected. After irradiation, the depth of the photodiodes and the nerves from the skin surface were determined by micro-CT device. The result showed that the fluence rate at the lumbosacral nerves was 179+/-19.2 mW/cm2 and 232+/-20.7 mW/cm2 when the 808-nm and 830-nm laser was irradiated at 10 W respectively. These findings would be beneficial for following study of photobiomodulation.

  8. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) enhances divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Ritter, Simone M; Steenbergen, Laura

    2018-03-01

    Creativity is one of the most important cognitive skills in our complex and fast-changing world. Previous correlative evidence showed that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in divergent but not convergent thinking. In the current study, a placebo/sham-controlled, randomized between-group design was used to test a causal relation between vagus nerve and creativity. We employed transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation technique to stimulate afferent fibers of the vagus nerve and speculated to increase GABA levels, in 80 healthy young volunteers. Creative performance was assessed in terms of divergent thinking (Alternate Uses Task) and convergent thinking tasks (Remote Associates Test, Creative Problem Solving Task, Idea Selection Task). Results demonstrate active tVNS, compared to sham stimulation, enhanced divergent thinking. Bayesian analysis reported the data to be inconclusive regarding a possible effect of tVNS on convergent thinking. Therefore, our findings corroborate the idea that the vagus nerve is causally involved in creative performance. Even thought we did not directly measure GABA levels, our results suggest that GABA (likely to be increased in active tVNS condition) supports the ability to select among competing options in high selection demand (divergent thinking) but not in low selection demand (convergent thinking). Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 is downregulated in sciatic nerve by streptozotocin induced diabetes and/or treatment with minocycline: Implications for nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sumia; Driscoll, Heather E.; Newton, Victoria L.; Gardiner, Natalie J.

    2014-01-01

    Minocycline is an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and has been shown to have analgesic effects. Whilst increased expression of MMPs is associated with neuropathic pain, MMPs also play crucial roles in Wallerian degeneration and nerve regeneration. In this study we examined the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1/-2 in the sciatic nerve of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with either vehicle or minocycline by quantitative PCR and gelatin zymography. We assessed the effects of minocycline on nerve conduction velocity and intraepidermal nerve fibre (IENF) deficits in diabetic neuropathy and investigated the effects of minocycline or MMP-2 on neurite outgrowth from primary cultures of dissociated adult rat sensory neurons. We show that MMP-2 is expressed constitutively in the sciatic nerve in vivo and treatment with minocycline or diabetes leads to downregulation of MMP-2 expression and activity. The functional consequence of this is IENF deficits in minocycline-treated nondiabetic rats and an unsupportive microenvironment for regeneration in diabetes. Minocycline reduces levels of MMP-2 mRNA and nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, in vivo minocycline treatment reduces preconditioning-induced in vitro neurite outgrowth following a sciatic nerve crush. In contrast, the addition of active MMP-2 facilitates neurite outgrowth in the absence of neurotrophic support and pre-treatment of diabetic sciatic nerve substrata with active MMP-2 promotes a permissive environment for neurite outgrowth. In conclusion we suggest that MMP-2 downregulation may contribute to the regenerative deficits in diabetes. Minocycline treatment also downregulates MMP-2 activity and is associated with inhibitory effects on sensory neurons. Thus, caution should be exhibited with its use as the balance between beneficial and detrimental outcomes may be critical in assessing the benefits of using

  10. Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [IPOFG, Department of Radiology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. The facial nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest extracranial course, and its main functions include motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, sensory control of lacrimation and salivation, control of the stapedial reflex and to carry taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. In order to be able adequately to image and follow the course of these cranial nerves and their main branches, a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy is required. As we are dealing with very small anatomic structures, high resolution dedicated imaging studies are required to pick up normal and pathologic nerves. Whereas CT is best suited to demonstrate bony neurovascular foramina and canals, MRI is preferred to directly visualize the nerve. It is also the single technique able to detect pathologic processes afflicting the nerve without causing considerable expansion such as is usually the case in certain inflammatory/infectious conditions, perineural spread of malignancies and in very small intrinsic tumours. Because a long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches is seen, it is useful to subdivide the nerve in several segments and then tailor the imaging modality and the imaging study to that specific segment. This is particularly true in cases where topographic diagnosis can be used to locate a lesion in the course of these nerves. (orig.)

  11. Peripheral nerve involvement in Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bueri

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of patients with Bell's palsy were studied in order to disclose the presence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. 20 patients, 8 male and 12 female, with recent Bell's palsy as their unique disease were examined, in all cases other causes of polyneuropathy were ruled out. Patients were investigated with CSF examination, facial nerve latencies in the affected and in the sound sides, and maximal motor nerve conduction velocities, as well as motor terminal latencies from the right median and peroneal nerves. CSF laboratory examination was normal in all cases. Facial nerve latencies were abnormal in all patients in the affected side, and they differed significantly from those of control group in the clinically sound side. Half of the patients showed abnormal values in the maximal motor nerve conduction velocities and motor terminal latencies of the right median and peroneal nerves. These results agree with previous reports which have pointed out that other cranial nerves may be affected in Bell's palsy. However, we have found a higher frequency of peripheral nerve involvement in this entity. These findings, support the hypothesis that in some patients Bell's palsy is the component of a more widespread disease, affecting other cranial and peripheral nerves.

  12. Axillary nerve injury associated with sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangkook; Saetia, Kriangsak; Saha, Suparna; Kline, David G; Kim, Daniel H

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to present and investigate axillary nerve injuries associated with sports. This study retrospectively reviewed 26 axillary nerve injuries associated with sports between the years 1985 and 2010. Preoperative status of the axillary nerve was evaluated by using the Louisiana State University Health Science Center (LSUHSC) grading system published by the senior authors. Intraoperative nerve action potential recordings were performed to check nerve conduction and assess the possibility of resection. Neurolysis, suture, and nerve grafts were used for the surgical repair of the injured nerves. In 9 patients with partial loss of function and 3 with complete loss, neurolysis based on nerve action potential recordings was the primary treatment. Two patients with complete loss of function were treated with resection and suturing and 12 with resection and nerve grafting. The minimum follow-up period was 16 months (mean 20 months). The injuries were associated with the following sports: skiing (12 cases), football (5), rugby (2), baseball (2), ice hockey (2), soccer (1), weightlifting (1), and wrestling (1). Functional recovery was excellent. Neurolysis was performed in 9 cases, resulting in an average functional recovery of LSUHSC Grade 4.2. Recovery with graft repairs averaged LSUHSC Grade 3 or better in 11 of 12 cases Surgical repair can restore useful deltoid function in patients with sports-associated axillary nerve injuries, even in cases of severe stretch-contusion injury.

  13. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, K; Kannan, R; Kumar, N Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple technique. The objective of this study is to find an alternative inferior alveolar nerve block that has a higher success rate than other routine techniques. To this purpose, a simple painless inferior alveolar nerve block was designed to anesthetize the inferior alveolar nerve. This study was conducted in Oral surgery department of Vinayaka Mission's dental college Salem from May 2009 to May 2011. Five hundred patients between the age of 20 years and 65 years who required extraction of teeth in mandible were included in the study. Out of 500 patients 270 were males and 230 were females. The effectiveness of the IANB was evaluated by using a sharp dental explorer in the regions innervated by the inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves after 3, 5, and 7 min, respectively. This study concludes that inferior alveolar nerve block is an appropriate alternative nerve block to anesthetize inferior alveolar nerve due to its several advantages.

  14. Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. The facial nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest extracranial course, and its main functions include motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, sensory control of lacrimation and salivation, control of the stapedial reflex and to carry taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. In order to be able adequately to image and follow the course of these cranial nerves and their main branches, a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy is required. As we are dealing with very small anatomic structures, high resolution dedicated imaging studies are required to pick up normal and pathologic nerves. Whereas CT is best suited to demonstrate bony neurovascular foramina and canals, MRI is preferred to directly visualize the nerve. It is also the single technique able to detect pathologic processes afflicting the nerve without causing considerable expansion such as is usually the case in certain inflammatory/infectious conditions, perineural spread of malignancies and in very small intrinsic tumours. Because a long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches is seen, it is useful to subdivide the nerve in several segments and then tailor the imaging modality and the imaging study to that specific segment. This is particularly true in cases where topographic diagnosis can be used to locate a lesion in the course of these nerves. (orig.)

  15. Diaphragmatic reinnervation in ventilator-dependent patients with cervical spinal cord injury and concomitant phrenic nerve lesions using simultaneous nerve transfers and implantable neurostimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Matthew R; Elkwood, Andrew I; Aboharb, Farid; Cece, John; Brown, David; Rezzadeh, Kameron; Jarrahy, Reza

    2015-06-01

    Patients who are ventilator dependent as a result of combined cervical spinal cord injury and phrenic nerve lesions are generally considered to be unsuitable candidates for diaphragmatic pacing due to loss of phrenic nerve integrity and denervation of the diaphragm. There is limited data regarding efficacy of simultaneous nerve transfers and diaphragmatic pacemakers in the treatment of this patient population. A retrospective review was conducted of 14 consecutive patients with combined lesions of the cervical spinal cord and phrenic nerves, and with complete ventilator dependence, who were treated with simultaneous microsurgical nerve transfer and implantation of diaphragmatic pacemakers. Parameters of interest included time to recovery of diaphragm electromyographic activity, average time pacing without the ventilator, and percent reduction in ventilator dependence. Recovery of diaphragm electromyographic activity was demonstrated in 13 of 14 (93%) patients. Eight of these 13 (62%) patients achieved sustainable periods (> 1 h/d) of ventilator weaning (mean = 10 h/d [n = 8]). Two patients recovered voluntary control of diaphragmatic activity and regained the capacity for spontaneous respiration. The one patient who did not exhibit diaphragmatic reinnervation remains within 12 months of initial treatment. Surgical intervention resulted in a 25% reduction (p nerve transfers and pacemaker implantation can result in reinnervation of the diaphragm and lead to successful ventilator weaning. Our favorable outcomes support consideration of this surgical method for appropriate patients who would otherwise have no alternative therapy to achieve sustained periods of ventilator independence. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Polymeric Nerve Conduits with Contact Guidance Cues Used in Nerve Repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G DAI; X NIU; J YIN

    2016-01-01

    In the modern life, the nerve injury frequently happens due to mechanical, chemical or thermal accidents. In the trivial injuries, the peripheral nerves can regenerate on their own; however, in most of the cases the clinical treatments are required, where relatively large nerve injury gaps are formed. Currently, the nerve repair can be accomplished by direct suture when the injury gap is not too large;while the autologous nerve graft working as the gold standard of peripheral nerve injury treatment for nerve injuries with larger gaps. However, the direct suture is limited by heavy tension at the suture sites, and the autologous nerve graft also has the drawbacks of donor site morbidity and insufifcient donor tissue. Recently, artiifcial nerve conduits have been developed as an alternative for clinical nerve repair to overcome the limitations associated with the above treatments. In order to further improve the efifciency of nerve conduits, various guidance cues are incorporated, including physical cues, biochemical signals, as well as support cells. First, this paper reviewed the contact guidance cues applied in nerve conduits, such as lumen ifllers, multi-channels and micro-patterns on the inner surface. Then, the paper focused on the polymeric nerve conduits with micro inner grooves. The polymeric nerve conduits were fabricated using the phase inversion-based ifber spinning techniques. The smart spinneret with grooved die was designed in the spinning platform, while different spinning conditions, including flow rates, air-gap distances, and polymer concentrations, were adjusted to investigate the inlfuence of fabrication conditions on the geometry of nerve conduits. The inner groove size in the nerve conduits can be precisely controlled in our hollow ifber spinning process, which can work as the efifcient contact guidance cue for nerve regeneration.

  17. Anatomical Variations in Formation of Sural Nerve in Adult Indian Cadavers

    OpenAIRE

    A.N., Kavyashree; Subhash, Lakshmi Prabha; K.R., Asha; M.K., Bindu Rani

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sural nerve is formed by communication of medial sural cutaneous nerve, that arise from tibial nerve in popliteal fossa and peroneal communicating nerve, a branch directly from common peroneal nerve or from lateral sural cutaneous nerve. The sural nerve is universally recognized by surgeons as a site for harvesting an autologous nerve graft and for nerve biopsies in case of neuropathies.

  18. Effect of α-lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor on bone metabolism, oxidative stress and nerve conduction function after femoral fracture surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Jun Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the effect of 毩 -lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor on bone metabolism, oxidative stress and nerve conduction function after femoral fracture surgery. Methods: A total of 110 patients with femoral fracture who received surgical treatment in the hospital between January 2015 and January 2017 were collected and divided into the control group (n=55 and study group (n=55 by random number table. Control group received postoperative nerve growth factor therapy, and study group received postoperative 毩 -lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor therapy. The differences in the contents of bone metabolism and oxidative stress indexes as well as the levels of nerve conduction function indexes were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, the differences in the contents of bone metabolism and oxidative stress indexes as well as the levels of nerve conduction function indexes were not statistically significant between the two groups. After treatment, serum bone metabolism indexes BGP and PⅠNP contents of study group were higher than those of control group while CTX-Ⅰ and TRAP contents were lower than those of control group; serum oxidative stress indexes TAC, CAT and SOD contents of study group were higher than those of control group while MDA content was lower than that of control group; limb nerve conduction velocity SCV and MCV levels of study group were higher than those of control group. Conclusion: 毩 -lipoic acid combined with nerve growth factor therapy after femoral fracture surgery can effectively balance osteoblast/ osteoclast activity, reduce oxidative stress and improve limb nerve conduction velocity.

  19. Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Roehm, P.C.; Mends, F.; Hagiwara, M.; Fatterpekar, G.

    2013-01-01

    Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell’s palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers

  20. Cranial nerve involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezyar, E.; Atahan, I.L.; Akyol, F.H.; Guerkaynak, M.; Zorlu, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1989, 23 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients presenting with cranial nerve involvement (CNI) of one or more nerves at the time of diagnosis were treated and followed-up in our department. All patients were irradiated with curative intent, and total doses of 50 to 70 Gy (median 65 Gy) were delivered to the nasopharynx. Cranial nerves VI, III, V, IV, IX, and XII were the most commonly involved nerves. The total response rate of cranial nerves was 74% in a median follow-up time of 2 years, with the highest rate observed in the third and sixth cranial nerves. All complete responses except two were observed in the first month after radiotherapy. (author)

  1. The nerve endings of the acetabular labrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y T; Azuma, H

    1995-11-01

    The nerve endings of the human acetabular labrum were investigated. Twenty-three acetabular labra were obtained from 24 fresh human cadavers, stained with Suzuki's silver impregnation and an immunohistochemical technique for neurogenic specific protein S-100, and examined by light and electron microscopy. Ramified free nerve endings were seen in all specimens by silver staining, and also were observed by the immunohistochemical technique for S-100 protein. Sensory nerve end organs, such as a Vater-Pacini corpuscle, Golgi-Mazzoni corpuscle, Ruffini corpuscle, and articular corpuscle (Krause corpuscle), were observed by silver staining. Collagen fibers were scattered sparsely in the superficial layer of the labrum, and nerve endings were observed mostly in this region. Collagen fibers were sparse, and nerve endings also were observed in some regions among the collagen fiber bundles in the inner layer. Innervation of the acetabular labrum was confirmed in this study, suggesting that nerve endings in the labrum may be involved in nociceptive and proprioceptive mechanisms.

  2. Quantitative assessment of optic nerve head pallor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilser, W; Seifert, B U; Riemer, T; Nagel, E; Weisensee, J; Hammer, M

    2008-01-01

    Ischaemia, loss of neural tissue, glial cell activation and tissue remodelling are symptoms of anterior ischaemic as well as glaucomatous optic neuropathy leading to pallor of the optic nerve head. Here, we describe a simple method for the pallor measurement using a fundus camera equipped with a colour CCD camera and a special dual bandpass filter. The reproducibility of the determined mean pallor value was 11.7% (coefficient of variation for repeated measurements in the same subject); the variation over six healthy subjects was 14.8%. A significant difference between the mean pallor of an atrophic disc and that of the contralateral eye of the same individual was found. However, even the clinically unaffected eye showed a significantly increased pallor compared to the mean of the healthy control group. Thus, optic disc pallor measurement, as described here, may be helpful in the early detection and follow-up of optic neuropathy

  3. Miconazole enhances nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Qiu, Shuai; Yan, Liwei; Zhu, Shuang; Zheng, Canbin; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin

    2018-05-01

    Improving axonal outgrowth and remyelination is crucial for peripheral nerve regeneration. Miconazole appears to enhance remyelination in the central nervous system. In this study we assess the effect of miconazole on axonal regeneration using a sciatic nerve crush injury model in rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and miconazole groups. Nerve regeneration and myelination were determined using histological and electrophysiological assessment. Evaluation of sensory and motor recovery was performed using the pinprick assay and sciatic functional index. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and Western blotting were used to assess the proliferation and neurotrophic expression of RSC 96 Schwann cells. Miconazole promoted axonal regrowth, increased myelinated nerve fibers, improved sensory recovery and walking behavior, enhanced stimulated amplitude and nerve conduction velocity, and elevated proliferation and neurotrophic expression of RSC 96 Schwann cells. Miconazole was beneficial for nerve regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Muscle Nerve 57: 821-828, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Nerve Biopsy In The Diagnosis Of Leporsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hazra B; Banerjee P P; Bhattacharyya N K; Gupta P N; Barbhunia J N; Sanyal S

    1997-01-01

    Skin and nerve biopsies were done in 33 cases of different clinical types of leprosy selected from Dermatology OPD of Medical College and Hospitals, Calcutta during 1994-95. Histopathological results were compared with emphasis on the role of nerve biopsies in detection of patients with multibacillary leprosy. The evident possibility of having patients with multibacillary leprosy in peripheral leprosy with multiple drugs. It is found that skin and nerve biopsy are equally informative in borde...

  5. Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy After Cervical Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, Christopher P.; Clark, Aaron J.; Kanter, Adam S.; Arnold, Paul M.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Mroz, Thomas E.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Multi-institutional retrospective study. Objective: The goal of the current study is to quantify the incidence of 2 extremely rare complications of cervical spine surgery; hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerve palsies. Methods: A total of 8887 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery from 2005 to 2011 were included in the study from 21 institutions. Results: No glossopharyngeal nerve injuries were reported. One hypoglossal nerve injury was reported after a C3-7 laminectomy...

  6. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique

    OpenAIRE

    Thangavelu, K.; Kannan, R.; Kumar, N. Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple techni...

  7. [Acute palsy of twelfth cranial nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz del Castillo, F; Molina Nieto, T; De la Riva Aguilar, A; Triviño Tarradas, F; Bravo-Rodríguez, F; Ramos Jurado, A

    2005-01-01

    The hypoglossal nerve or Twelfth-nerve palsy is a rare damage with different causes: tumors or metastases in skull base, cervicals tumors, schwannoma, dissection or aneurysm carotid arteries, stroke, trauma, idiopathic cause, radiation, infections (mononucleosis) or multiple cranial neuropathy. Tumors were responsible for nearly half of the cases in different studies. We studied a female with hypoglossal nerve acute palsy. We made a differential diagnostic with others causes and a review of the literature.

  8. Multiple Cranial Nerve Involvement In Cryptococcal Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadevan A; Kumar A; Santosh V; Satishchandra P; Shankar S.K

    2000-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon cause of multiple cranial nerve palsies. This case report illustrates one such case of cryptococcal meningitis clinically manifesting with extensive cranial nerve involvement in an HIV seronegative individual. Histology revealed infiltration of the cranial nerves by cryptococci causing axonal disruption with secondary demyelination in the absence of any evidence of inflammation or vasculitis. We believe that axonal damage underlies the pathogenesis of...

  9. An audit of traumatic nerve injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, G

    2009-07-01

    The impact of trauma in the Irish healthcare setting is considerable. We present the results of a retrospective assessment of referrals to a Neurophysiology department for suspected traumatic nerve injury. A broad range of traumatic neuropathies was demonstrated on testing, from numerous causes. We demonstrate an increased liklihood of traumatic nerve injury after fracture \\/ dislocation (p = 0.007). Our series demonstrates the need for clinicians to be aware of the possibility of nerve injury post trauma, especially after bony injury.

  10. Nerve Injuries of the Upper Extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy ... are the body’s “telephone wiring” system that carries messages between the brain and the rest of the body. Some nerves carry messages from the brain to muscles to make the body move. Other nerves carry ...

  11. Exposure to nerve growth factor worsens nephrotoxic effect induced by Cyclosporine A in HK-2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Vizza

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor is a neurotrophin that promotes cell growth, differentiation, survival and death through two different receptors: TrkA(NTR and p75(NTR. Nerve growth factor serum concentrations increase during many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, glomerulonephritis, chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease and, particularly, in renal transplant. Considering that nerve growth factor exerts beneficial effects in the treatment of major central and peripheral neurodegenerative diseases, skin and corneal ulcers, we asked whether nerve growth factor could also exert a role in Cyclosporine A-induced graft nephrotoxicity. Our hypothesis was raised from basic evidence indicating that Cyclosporine A-inhibition of calcineurin-NFAT pathway increases nerve growth factor expression levels. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of nerve growth factor and its receptors in the damage exerted by Cyclosporine A in tubular renal cells, HK-2. Our results showed that in HK-2 cells combined treatment with Cyclosporine A + nerve growth factor induced a significant reduction in cell vitality concomitant with a down-regulation of Cyclin D1 and up-regulation of p21 levels respect to cells treated with Cyclosporine A alone. Moreover functional experiments showed that the co-treatment significantly up-regulated human p21promoter activity by involvement of the Sp1 transcription factor, whose nuclear content was negatively regulated by activated NFATc1. In addition we observed that the combined exposure to Cyclosporine A + nerve growth factor promoted an up-regulation of p75 (NTR and its target genes, p53 and BAD leading to the activation of intrinsic apoptosis. Finally, the chemical inhibition of p75(NTR down-regulated the intrinsic apoptotic signal. We describe two new mechanisms by which nerve growth factor promotes growth arrest and apoptosis in tubular renal cells exposed to Cyclosporine A.

  12. Darwin revisited: The vagus nerve is a causal element in controlling recognition of other's emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Sellaro, Roberta; Beste, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Charles Darwin proposed that via the vagus nerve, the tenth cranial nerve, emotional facial expressions are evolved, adaptive and serve a crucial communicative function. In line with this idea, the later-developed polyvagal theory assumes that the vagus nerve is the key phylogenetic substrate that regulates emotional and social behavior. The polyvagal theory assumes that optimal social interaction, which includes the recognition of emotion in faces, is modulated by the vagus nerve. So far, in humans, it has not yet been demonstrated that the vagus plays a causal role in emotion recognition. To investigate this we employed transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation technique that modulates brain activity via bottom-up mechanisms. A sham/placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over within-subjects design was used to infer a causal relation between the stimulated vagus nerve and the related ability to recognize emotions as indexed by the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test in 38 healthy young volunteers. Active tVNS, compared to sham stimulation, enhanced emotion recognition for easy items, suggesting that it promoted the ability to decode salient social cues. Our results confirm that the vagus nerve is causally involved in emotion recognition, supporting Darwin's argumentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Orofacial neuropathic pain mouse model induced by Trigeminal Inflammatory Compression (TIC of the infraorbital nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Fei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trigeminal neuropathic pain attacks can be excruciating for patients, even after being lightly touched. Although there are rodent trigeminal nerve research models to study orofacial pain, few models have been applied to studies in mice. A mouse trigeminal inflammatory compression (TIC model is introduced here which successfully and reliably promotes vibrissal whisker pad hypersensitivity. Results The chronic orofacial neuropathic pain model is induced after surgical placement of chromic gut suture in the infraorbital nerve fissure in the maxillary bone. Slight compression and chemical effects of the chromic gut suture on the portion of the infraorbital nerve contacted cause mild nerve trauma. Nerve edema is observed in the contacting infraorbital nerve bundle as well as macrophage infiltration in the trigeminal ganglia. Centrally in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, increased immunoreactivity for an activated microglial marker is evident (OX42, postoperative day 70. Mechanical thresholds of the affected whisker pad are significantly decreased on day 3 after chromic gut suture placement, persisting at least 10 weeks. The mechanical allodynia is reversed by suppression of microglial activation. Cold allodynia was detected at 4 weeks. Conclusions A simple, effective, and reproducible chronic mouse model mimicking clinical orofacial neuropathic pain (Type 2 is induced by placing chromic gut suture between the infraorbital nerve and the maxillary bone. The method produces mild inflammatory compression with significant continuous mechanical allodynia persisting at least 10 weeks and cold allodynia measureable at 4 weeks.

  14. Different dose-dependent effects of ebselen in sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyigit, Filiz; Kucuk, Aysegul; Akcer, Sezer; Tosun, Murat; Kocak, Fatma Emel; Kocak, Cengiz; Kocak, Ahmet; Metineren, Hasan; Genc, Osman

    2015-08-26

    Ebselen is an organoselenium compound which has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the neuroprotective role of ebselen pretreatment in rats with experimental sciatic nerve ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (N = 7 in each group). Before sciatic nerve I/R was induced, ebselen was injected intraperitoneally at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg. After a 2 h ischemia and a 3 h reperfusion period, sciatic nerve tissues were excised. Tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were measured. Sciatic nerve tissues were also examined histopathologically. The 15 mg/kg dose of ebselen reduced sciatic nerve damage and apoptosis (pebselen. Conversely, the 30 mg/kg dose of ebselen increased sciatic nerve damage, apoptosis, iNOS positive cells (pebselen may cause different effects depending on the dose employed. Ebselen may be protective against sciatic nerve I/R injury via antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities at a 15 mg/kg dose, conversely higher doses may cause detrimental effects.

  15. Progress of nerve bridges in the treatment of peripheral nerve disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Ao,Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Qiang Ao Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Fundamental Science, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, Peoples’ Republic of China Abstract: Clinical repair of a nerve defect is one of the most challenging surgical problems. Autologous nerve grafting remains the gold standard treatment in addressing peripheral nerve injuries that cannot be bridged by direct epineural suturing. However, the autologous nerve graft is not readily available, and the process of harvesting...

  16. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Berta; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-06-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is currently increasingly used in imaging peripheral nerves, serving to supplement the physical examination, electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive and well-tolerated by patients. The typical ultrasonographic picture of peripheral nerves as well as the examination technique have been discussed in part I of this article series, following the example of the median nerve. Part II of the series presented the normal anatomy and the technique for examining the peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part of the article series focuses on the anatomy and technique for examining twelve normal peripheral nerves of the lower extremity: the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, the pudendal, sciatic, tibial, sural, medial plantar, lateral plantar, common peroneal, deep peroneal and superficial peroneal nerves. It includes diagrams showing the proper positioning of the sonographic probe, plus USG images of the successively discussed nerves and their surrounding structures. The ultrasonographic appearance of the peripheral nerves in the lower limb is identical to the nerves in the upper limb. However, when imaging the lower extremity, convex probes are more often utilized, to capture deeply-seated nerves. The examination technique, similarly to that used in visualizing the nerves of upper extremity, consists of locating the nerve at a characteristic anatomic reference point and tracking it using the "elevator technique". All 3 parts of the article series should serve as an introduction to a discussion of peripheral nerve pathologies, which will be presented in subsequent issues of the "Journal of Ultrasonography".

  17. Adult Stem Cell Based Enhancement of Nerve Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    accompanied by injuries to peripheral nerves; if not repaired, the trauma can lead to significant dysfunction and disability . While nerves have the ability to...recovery, minimized disability , and increased quality of life for our wounded warriors. 2. KEYWORDS: Stem Cell, Nerve Conduit, Peripheral Nerve...would be a paradigm shift away from ordering X-rays at 10-12 weeks and only ordering a CT scan. It has the potential to change the standard of care

  18. Nerve Biopsy In The Diagnosis Of Leporsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazra B

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin and nerve biopsies were done in 33 cases of different clinical types of leprosy selected from Dermatology OPD of Medical College and Hospitals, Calcutta during 1994-95. Histopathological results were compared with emphasis on the role of nerve biopsies in detection of patients with multibacillary leprosy. The evident possibility of having patients with multibacillary leprosy in peripheral leprosy with multiple drugs. It is found that skin and nerve biopsy are equally informative in borderline and lepromatour leprosy and is the only means to diagnose polyneuritic leprosy. Nerve biopsy appears to be more informative in the diagnosis of all clinical types of leprosy.

  19. Scaffolds for peripheral nerve repair and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sheng; Xu, Lai; Gu, Xiaosong

    2018-06-02

    Trauma-associated peripheral nerve defect is a widespread clinical problem. Autologous nerve grafting, the current gold standard technique for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, has many internal disadvantages. Emerging studies showed that tissue engineered nerve graft is an effective substitute to autologous nerves. Tissue engineered nerve graft is generally composed of neural scaffolds and incorporating cells and molecules. A variety of biomaterials have been used to construct neural scaffolds, the main component of tissue engineered nerve graft. Synthetic polymers (e.g. silicone, polyglycolic acid, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) and natural materials (e.g. chitosan, silk fibroin, and extracellular matrix components) are commonly used along or together to build neural scaffolds. Many other materials, including the extracellular matrix, glass fabrics, ceramics, and metallic materials, have also been used to construct neural scaffolds. These biomaterials are fabricated to create specific structures and surface features. Seeding supporting cells and/or incorporating neurotrophic factors to neural scaffolds further improve restoration effects. Preliminary studies demonstrate that clinical applications of these neural scaffolds achieve satisfactory functional recovery. Therefore, tissue engineered nerve graft provides a good alternative to autologous nerve graft and represents a promising frontier in neural tissue engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Schwannoma Originating From the Periphereral Intercostal Nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Aksoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are usually solitary, encapsulated, and asymptomatic, benign neurogenic tumors originating from the nerve sheath. Schwannomas rarely show malignant transformation, however, require close monitoring. They are primarily located in the thorax in the costovertebral sulcus, may rarely originate from peripheral intercostal nerves. Less than 10% of primary thoracic neurogenic tumors originate from the peripheral intercostal nerves. The main treatment and diagnosis of schwannomas are complete surgical resection. We report a rare case of a 40-year-old male with asymptomatic schwannoma originating from an intercostal nerve which was found incidentally on his chest X-ray and was treated with surgery.

  1. Major Peripheral Nerve Injuries After Elbow Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mihir J; Mithani, Suhail K; Lodha, Sameer J; Richard, Marc J; Leversedge, Fraser J; Ruch, David S

    2016-06-01

    To survey the American Society for Surgery of the Hand membership to determine the nature and distribution of nerve injuries treated after elbow arthroscopy. An online survey was sent to all members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Collected data included the number of nerve injuries observed over a 5-year period, the nature of treatment required for the injuries, and the outcomes observed after any intervention. Responses were anonymous, and results were securely compiled. We obtained 372 responses. A total of 222 nerve injuries were reported. The most injured nerves reported were ulnar, radial, and posterior interosseous (38%, 22%, and 19%, respectively). Nearly half of all patients with injuries required operative intervention, including nerve graft, tendon transfer, nerve repair, or nerve transfer. Of the patients who sustained major injuries, those requiring intervention, 77% had partial or no motor recovery. All minor injuries resolved completely. Our results suggest that major nerve injuries after elbow arthroscopy are not rare occurrences and the risk of these injuries is likely under-reported in the literature. Furthermore, patients should be counseled on this risk because most nerve injuries show only partial or no functional recovery. With the more widespread practice of elbow arthroscopy, understanding the nature and sequelae of significant complications is critically important in ensuring patient safety and improving outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Five Roots Pattern of Median Nerve Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Natsis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An unusual combination of median nerve’s variations has been encountered in a male cadaver during routine educational dissection. In particular, the median nerve was formed by five roots; three roots originated from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus joined individually the median nerve’s medial root. The latter (fourth root was united with the lateral (fifth root of the median nerve forming the median nerve distally in the upper arm and not the axilla as usually. In addition, the median nerve was situated medial to the brachial artery. We review comprehensively the relevant variants, their embryologic development and their potential clinical applications.

  3. Sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve function in alcoholic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Andersen, K; Smith, T

    1984-01-01

    (18% and 48% decrease respectively). However, in three patients with moderate neuropathy, and in one patient with no signs of neuropathy, this veno-arteriolar reflex was absent, indicating dysfunction of the peripheral sympathetic adrenergic nerve fibres. The three patients also showed a lesser degree......The peripheral sympathetic vasomotor nerve function was investigated in 18 male chronic alcoholics admitted for intellectual impairment or polyneuropathy. By means of the local 133Xenon washout technique, the sympathetic veno-arteriolar axon-reflex was studied. This normally is responsible for a 50...... comprise not only the peripheral sensory and motor nerve fibres, but also the thin pseudomotor and vasomotor nerves....

  4. Pseudotumoural hypertrophic neuritis of the facial nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Zanoletti, E; Mazzoni, A; Barbò, R

    2008-01-01

    In a retrospective study of our cases of recurrent paralysis of the facial nerve of tumoural and non-tumoural origin, a tumour-like lesion of the intra-temporal course of the facial nerve, mimicking facial nerve schwannoma, was found and investigated in 4 cases. This was defined as, pseudotumoral hypertrophic neuritis of the facial nerve. The picture was one of recurrent acute facial palsy with incomplete recovery and imaging of a benign tumour. It was different from the well-known recurrent ...

  5. [Surgical treatment in otogenic facial nerve palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo-Dong; Gao, Zhi-Qiang; Zhai, Meng-Yao; Lü, Wei; Qi, Fang; Jiang, Hong; Zha, Yang; Shen, Peng

    2008-06-01

    To study the character of facial nerve palsy due to four different auris diseases including chronic otitis media, Hunt syndrome, tumor and physical or chemical factors, and to discuss the principles of the surgical management of otogenic facial nerve palsy. The clinical characters of 24 patients with otogenic facial nerve palsy because of the four different auris diseases were retrospectively analyzed, all the cases were performed surgical management from October 1991 to March 2007. Facial nerve function was evaluated with House-Brackmann (HB) grading system. The 24 patients including 10 males and 14 females were analysis, of whom 12 cases due to cholesteatoma, 3 cases due to chronic otitis media, 3 cases due to Hunt syndrome, 2 cases resulted from acute otitis media, 2 cases due to physical or chemical factors and 2 cases due to tumor. All cases were treated with operations included facial nerve decompression, lesion resection with facial nerve decompression and lesion resection without facial nerve decompression, 1 patient's facial nerve was resected because of the tumor. According to HB grade system, I degree recovery was attained in 4 cases, while II degree in 10 cases, III degree in 6 cases, IV degree in 2 cases, V degree in 2 cases and VI degree in 1 case. Removing the lesions completely was the basic factor to the surgery of otogenic facial palsy, moreover, it was important to have facial nerve decompression soon after lesion removal.

  6. Possibilities of pfysiotherapy in facial nerve paresis

    OpenAIRE

    ZIFČÁKOVÁ, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor thesis addresses paresis of the facial nerve. The facial nerve paresis is a rather common illness, which cannot be often cured without consequences despite all the modern treatments. The paresis of the facial nerve occurs in two forms, central and peripheral. A central paresis is a result of a lesion located above the motor nucleus of the facial nerve. A peripheral paresis is caused by a lesion located either in the location of the motor nucleus or in the course of the facial ner...

  7. Effect of PACAP in Central and Peripheral Nerve Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Buki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a bioactive peptide with diverse effects in the nervous system. In addition to its more classic role as a neuromodulator, PACAP functions as a neurotrophic factor. Several neurotrophic factors have been shown to play an important role in the endogenous response following both cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury and to be effective when given exogenously. A number of studies have shown the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different models of ischemia, neurodegenerative diseases and retinal degeneration. The aim of this review is to summarize the findings on the neuroprotective potential of PACAP in models of different traumatic nerve injuries. Expression of endogenous PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor is elevated in different parts of the central and peripheral nervous system after traumatic injuries. Some experiments demonstrate the protective effect of exogenous PACAP treatment in different traumatic brain injury models, in facial nerve and optic nerve trauma. The upregulation of endogenous PACAP and its receptors and the protective effect of exogenous PACAP after different central and peripheral nerve injuries show the important function of PACAP in neuronal regeneration indicating that PACAP may also be a promising therapeutic agent in injuries of the nervous system.

  8. A prospective clinical evaluation of biodegradable neurolac nerve guides for sensory nerve repair in the hand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertleff, MJOE; Meek, MF; Nicolai, JPA

    Purpose: Our purpose was to study the recovery of sensory nerve function, after treatment of traumatic peripheral nerve lesions with a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-ε-caprolactone) Neurolac nerve guide (Polyganics B.V., Groningen, the Netherlands) versus the current standard reconstruction

  9. Biodegradable p(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides versus autologous nerve grafts : Electromyographic and video analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional effects of bridging a gap in the sciatic nerve of the rat with either a biodegradable copolymer of (DL)-lactide and epsilon -caprolactone [p(DLLA-epsilon -CL)] nerve guide or an autologous nerve graft. Electromyograms (EMGs) of the gastrocnemius

  10. End-to-side nerve suture – a technique to repair peripheral nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lateral sprouting from an intact nerve into an attached nerve does occur, and functional recovery (sensory and motor) has been demonstrated. We have demonstrated conclusively that ETSNS in the human is a viable option in treating peripheral nerve injuries, including injuries to the brachial plexus. Among the many ...

  11. Comparison of percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and ultrasound imaging for nerve localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegener, J. T.; Boender, Z. J.; Preckel, B.; Hollmann, M. W.; Stevens, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Percutaneous nerve stimulation (PNS) is a non-invasive technique to localize superficial nerves before performing peripheral nerve blocks, but its precision has never been evaluated by high-resolution ultrasound. This study compared stimulating points at the skin with the position of

  12. One-stage human acellular nerve allograft reconstruction for digital nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-yuan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human acellular nerve allografts have a wide range of donor origin and can effectively avoid nerve injury in the donor area. Very little is known about one-stage reconstruction of digital nerve defects. The present study observed the feasibility and effectiveness of human acellular nerve allograft in the reconstruction of < 5-cm digital nerve defects within 6 hours after injury. A total of 15 cases of nerve injury, combined with nerve defects in 18 digits from the Department of Emergency were enrolled in this study. After debridement, digital nerves were reconstructed using human acellular nerve allografts. The patients were followed up for 6-24 months after reconstruction. Mackinnon-Dellon static two-point discrimination results showed excellent and good rates of 89%. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test demonstrated that light touch was normal, with an obvious improvement rate of 78%. These findings confirmed that human acellular nerve allograft for one-stage reconstruction of digital nerve defect after hand injury is feasible, which provides a novel trend for peripheral nerve reconstruction.

  13. Genetic modification of human sural nerve segments by a lentiviral vector encoding nerve growth factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tannemaat, Martijn R; Boer, Gerard J; Verhaagen, J.; Malessy, Martijn J A

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Autologous nerve grafts are used to treat severe peripheral nerve injury, but recovery of nerve function after grafting is rarely complete. Exogenous application of neurotrophic factors may enhance regeneration, but thus far the application of neurotrophic factors has been hampered by

  14. Neural stem cells enhance nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Zhou, Shuai; Feng, Guo-Ying; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Sun, Yi; Liu, Qian; Huang, Fei

    2012-10-01

    With the development of tissue engineering and the shortage of autologous nerve grafts in nerve reconstruction, cell transplantation in a conduit is an alternative strategy to improve nerve regeneration. The present study evaluated the effects and mechanism of brain-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) on sciatic nerve injury in rats. At the transection of the sciatic nerve, a 10-mm gap between the nerve stumps was bridged with a silicon conduit filled with 5 × 10(5) NSCs. In control experiments, the conduit was filled with nerve growth factor (NGF) or normal saline (NS). The functional and morphological properties of regenerated nerves were investigated, and expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and NGF was measured. One week later, there was no connection through the conduit. Four or eight weeks later, fibrous connections were evident between the proximal and distal segments. Motor function was revealed by measurement of the sciatic functional index (SFI) and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (NCV). Functional recovery in the NSC and NGF groups was significantly more advanced than that in the NS group. NSCs showed significant improvement in axon myelination of the regenerated nerves. Expression of NGF and HGF in the injured sciatic nerve was significantly lower in the NS group than in the NSCs and NGF groups. These results and other advantages of NSCs, such as ease of harvest and relative abundance, suggest that NSCs could be used clinically to enhance peripheral nerve repair.

  15. Comparison of Nerve Excitability Testing, Nerve Conduction Velocity, and Behavioral Observations for Acrylamide Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve excitability (NE) testing is a sensitive method to test for peripheral neurotoxicity in humans,and may be more sensitive than compound nerve action potential (CNAP) or nerve conduction velocity (NCV).We used acrylamide to compare the NE and CNAP/NCV methods. Behavioral test...

  16. Muscle potentials evoked by magnetic stimulation of the sciatic nerve in unilateral sciatic nerve dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Soens, I.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Van Ham, L. M. L.

    Magnetic stimulation of the sciatic nerve and subsequent recording of the muscle-evoked potential (MEP) was performed in eight dogs and three cats with unilateral sciatic nerve dysfunction. Localisation of the lesion in the sciatic nerve was based on the history, clinical neurological examination

  17. The Cranial Nerve Skywalk: A 3D Tutorial of Cranial Nerves in a Virtual Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson-Hatcher, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Ramirez-Yanez, German

    2014-01-01

    Visualization of the complex courses of the cranial nerves by students in the health-related professions is challenging through either diagrams in books or plastic models in the gross laboratory. Furthermore, dissection of the cranial nerves in the gross laboratory is an extremely meticulous task. Teaching and learning the cranial nerve pathways…

  18. MRI of enlarged dorsal ganglia, lumbar nerve roots, and cranial nerves in polyradiculoneuropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, M.; Mukherji, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the MRI findings in four patients with a clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic polyradiculoneuropathies. In two examination of the lumbar spine showed enlarged nerve roots and dorsal ganglia, and similar findings were present in the cervical spine in a third. The cisternal portions of the cranial nerves were enlarged in another patient. MRI allows identification of enlarged nerves in hypertrophic polyradiculopathies. (orig.)

  19. NON-INVASIVE EVALUATION OF NERVE CONDUCTION IN SMALL DIAMETER FIBERS IN THE RAT

    OpenAIRE

    Zotova, Elena G.; Arezzo, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    A novel non-invasive technique was applied to measure velocity within slow conducting axons in the distal extreme of the sciatic nerve (i.e., digital nerve) in a rat model. The technique is based on the extraction of rectified multiple unit activity (MUA) from in vivo whole nerve compound responses. This method reliably identifies compound action potentials in thinly myelinated fibers conducting at a range of 9-18 m/s (Aδ axons), as well as in a subgroup of unmylinated C fibers conducting at ...

  20. Noninvasive Evaluation of Nerve Conduction in Small Diameter Fibers in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Elena G. Zotova; Joseph C. Arezzo

    2013-01-01

    A novel noninvasive technique was applied to measure velocity within slow conducting axons in the distal extreme of the sciatic nerve (i.e., digital nerve) in a rat model. The technique is based on the extraction of rectified multiple unit activity (MUA) from in vivo whole nerve compound responses. This method reliably identifies compound action potentials in thinly myelinated fibers conducting at a range of 9–18 m/s ( axons), as well as in a subgroup of unmyelinated C fibers conducting at ap...

  1. Non-Invasive Study of Nerve Fibres using Laser Interference Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, A. R.; Brazhe, N. A.; Rodionova, N. N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laser interference microscopy study of the morphology and dynamical properties of myelinated nerve fibres. We describe the principles of operation of the phase-modulated laser interference microscope and show how this novel technique allows us to obtain...... information non-invasively about the internal structure of different regions of a nerve fibre. We also analyse the temporal variations in the internal optical properties in order to detect the rhythmic activity in the nerve fibre at different time scales and to shed light on the underlying biological...

  2. Evaluation of Morphological and Functional Nerve Recovery of Rat Sciatic Nerve with a Hyaff11-Based Nerve Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jansen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of a Hyaff11-based nerve guide was studied in rats. Functional tests were performed to study motor nerve recovery. A withdrawal reflex test was performed to test sensory recovery. Morphology was studied by means of histology on explanted tissue samples. Motor nerve recovery was established within 7 weeks. Hereafter, some behavioral parameters like alternating steps showed an increase in occurence, while others remained stable. Sensory function was observed within the 7 weeks time frame. Nerve tissue had bridged the 10-mm gap within 7 weeks. The average nerve fiber surface area increased significantly in time. In situ degradation of the nerve conduit was fully going on at week 7 and tubes had collapsed by then. At weeks 15 and 21, the knitted tube wall structure was completely surrounded by macrophages and giant cells, and matrix was penetrating the tube wall. We conclude that a Hyaff11-based nerve guide can be used to bridge short peripheral nerve defects in rat. However, adaptations need to be made.

  3. [Changes in facial nerve function, morphology and neurotrophic factor III expression following three types of facial nerve injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Wang, Haibo; Fan, Zhaomin; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Haiyan

    2011-01-01

    crumbled at the 7th PSD and no regeneration was seen at the 21st PSD. Changes in NT-3: Positive staining of NT-3 was largely observed in axons at the 7th PSD, although little NT-3 was seen in the normal fibers. Facial palsy of the rats in group 2 was more extensive than that in group 1 and their function partly recovers at the 21st PSD. The fibres' degeneration occurs not only dispersed throughout the injury site but also occurred throught the length of the nerve. NT-3 immunoreactivity increased in activated fibers after partial transection.

  4. A preconditioning nerve lesion inhibits mechanical pain hypersensitivity following subsequent neuropathic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A preconditioning stimulus can trigger a neuroprotective phenotype in the nervous system - a preconditioning nerve lesion causes a significant increase in axonal regeneration, and cerebral preconditioning protects against subsequent ischemia. We hypothesized that a preconditioning nerve lesion induces gene/protein modifications, neuronal changes, and immune activation that may affect pain sensation following subsequent nerve injury. We examined whether a preconditioning lesion affects neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation after peripheral nerve injury. Results We found that a preconditioning crush injury to a terminal branch of the sciatic nerve seven days before partial ligation of the sciatic nerve (PSNL; a model of neuropathic pain induced a significant attenuation of pain hypersensitivity, particularly mechanical allodynia. A preconditioning lesion of the tibial nerve induced a long-term significant increase in paw-withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli and paw-withdrawal latency to thermal stimuli, after PSNL. A preconditioning lesion of the common peroneal induced a smaller but significant short-term increase in paw-withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimuli, after PSNL. There was no difference between preconditioned and unconditioned animals in neuronal damage and macrophage and T-cell infiltration into the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs or in astrocyte and microglia activation in the spinal dorsal and ventral horns. Conclusions These results suggest that prior exposure to a mild nerve lesion protects against adverse effects of subsequent neuropathic injury, and that this conditioning-induced inhibition of pain hypersensitivity is not dependent on neuroinflammation in DRGs and spinal cord. Identifying the underlying mechanisms may have important implications for the understanding of neuropathic pain due to nerve injury.

  5. Tissue-engineered spiral nerve guidance conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei; Shah, Munish B; Lee, Paul; Yu, Xiaojun

    2018-06-01

    Recently in peripheral nerve regeneration, preclinical studies have shown that the use of nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) with multiple longitudinally channels and intra-luminal topography enhance the functional outcomes when bridging a nerve gap caused by traumatic injury. These features not only provide guidance cues for regenerating nerve, but also become the essential approaches for developing a novel NGC. In this study, a novel spiral NGC with aligned nanofibers and wrapped with an outer nanofibrous tube was first developed and investigated. Using the common rat sciatic 10-mm nerve defect model, the in vivo study showed that a novel spiral NGC (with and without inner nanofibers) increased the successful rate of nerve regeneration after 6 weeks recovery. Substantial improvements in nerve regeneration were achieved by combining the spiral NGC with inner nanofibers and outer nanofibrous tube, based on the results of walking track analysis, electrophysiology, nerve histological assessment, and gastrocnemius muscle measurement. This demonstrated that the novel spiral NGC with inner aligned nanofibers and wrapped with an outer nanofibrous tube provided a better environment for peripheral nerve regeneration than standard tubular NGCs. Results from this study will benefit for future NGC design to optimize tissue-engineering strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration. We developed a novel spiral nerve guidance conduit (NGC) with coated aligned nanofibers. The spiral structure increases surface area by 4.5 fold relative to a tubular NGC. Furthermore, the aligned nanofibers was coated on the spiral walls, providing cues for guiding neurite extension. Finally, the outside of spiral NGC was wrapped with randomly nanofibers to enhance mechanical strength that can stabilize the spiral NGC. Our nerve histological data have shown that the spiral NGC had 50% more myelinated axons than a tubular structure for nerve regeneration across a 10 mm gap in a rat sciatic nerve

  6. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) enhances recognition of emotions in faces but not bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaro, Roberta; de Gelder, Beatrice; Finisguerra, Alessandra; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2018-02-01

    The polyvagal theory suggests that the vagus nerve is the key phylogenetic substrate enabling optimal social interactions, a crucial aspect of which is emotion recognition. A previous study showed that the vagus nerve plays a causal role in mediating people's ability to recognize emotions based on images of the eye region. The aim of this study is to verify whether the previously reported causal link between vagal activity and emotion recognition can be generalized to situations in which emotions must be inferred from images of whole faces and bodies. To this end, we employed transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation technique that causes the vagus nerve to fire by the application of a mild electrical stimulation to the auricular branch of the vagus nerve, located in the anterior protuberance of the outer ear. In two separate sessions, participants received active or sham tVNS before and while performing two emotion recognition tasks, aimed at indexing their ability to recognize emotions from facial and bodily expressions. Active tVNS, compared to sham stimulation, enhanced emotion recognition for whole faces but not for bodies. Our results confirm and further extend recent observations supporting a causal relationship between vagus nerve activity and the ability to infer others' emotional state, but restrict this association to situations in which the emotional state is conveyed by the whole face and/or by salient facial cues, such as eyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. TRPM8 mechanism of autonomic nerve response to cold in respiratory airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cong-Yi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breathing cold air without proper temperature exchange can induce strong respiratory autonomic responses including cough, airway constriction and mucosal secretion, and can exacerbate existing asthma conditions and even directly trigger an asthma attack. Vagal afferent fiber is thought to be involved in the cold-induced respiratory responses through autonomic nerve reflex. However, molecular mechanisms by which vagal afferent fibers are excited by cold remain unknown. Using retrograde labeling, immunostaining, calcium imaging, and electrophysiological recordings, here we show that a subpopulation of airway vagal afferent nerves express TRPM8 receptors and that activation of TRPM8 receptors by cold excites these airway autonomic nerves. Thus activation of TRPM8 receptors may provoke autonomic nerve reflex to increase airway resistance. This putative autonomic response may be associated with cold-induced exacerbation of asthma and other pulmonary disorders, making TRPM8 receptors a possible target for prevention of cold-associated respiratory disorders.

  8. Ultrasonographic demonstration of intraneural neovascularization after penetrating nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Csillik, Anita; Dévay, Katalin; Rosero, Maja

    2018-06-01

    Hypervascularization of nerves has been shown to be a pathological sign in some peripheral nerve disorders, but has not been investigated in nerve trauma. An observational cohort study was performed of the intraneural blood flow of 30 patients (34 nerves) with penetrating nerve injuries, before or after nerve reconstruction. All patients underwent electrophysiological assessment, and B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography. Intraneural hypervascularization proximal to the site of injury was found in all nerves, which was typically marked and had a longitudinal extension of several centimeters. In 6 nerves, some blood flow was also present within the injury site or immediately distal to the injury. No correlation was found between the degree of vascularization and age, size of the scar / neuroma, or degree of reinnervation. Neovascularization of nerves proximal to injury sites appears to be an essential element of nerve regeneration after penetrating nerve injuries. Muscle Nerve 57: 994-999, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Median Nerve Conduction in Healthy Nigerians: Normative Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of median nerve disease using multiple studies, and rendering ... Aim: To develop normative values for motor and sensory median nerve ..... Table 5: Comparison of median motor nerve conduction study parameters to studies elsewhere. Study.

  10. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, Guy; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Armour, John A; Zamir, Mair

    2014-01-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  11. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Kember

    Full Text Available Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  12. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the mastoid facial nerve canal mimicking a facial nerve schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew L; Bharatha, Aditya; Aviv, Richard I; Nedzelski, Julian; Chen, Joseph; Bilbao, Juan M; Wong, John; Saad, Reda; Symons, Sean P

    2009-07-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma of the skull base is a rare entity. Involvement of the temporal bone is particularly rare. We present an unusual case of progressive facial nerve paralysis with imaging and clinical findings most suggestive of a facial nerve schwannoma. The lesion was tubular in appearance, expanded the mastoid facial nerve canal, protruded out of the stylomastoid foramen, and enhanced homogeneously. The only unusual imaging feature was minor calcification within the tumor. Surgery revealed an irregular, cystic lesion. Pathology diagnosed a chondromyxoid fibroma involving the mastoid portion of the facial nerve canal, destroying the facial nerve.

  13. Nerve Transfers for Traumatic Brachial Plexus Injury: Advantages and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hems, Tim

    2011-01-01

    In recent years nerve transfers have been increasingly used to broaden reconstructive options for brachial plexus reconstruction. Nerve transfer is a procedure where an expendable nerve is connected to a more important nerve in order to reinnervate that nerve. This article outlines the experience of the Scottish National Brachial Plexus Injury Service as our use of nerve transfers has increased. Outcomes have improved for reconstruction of the paralysed shoulder using transfer of the accessor...

  14. Prognostic factors in sensory recovery after digital nerve repair

    OpenAIRE

    Bulut, Tugrul; Akgun, Ulas; Citlak, Atilla; Aslan, Cihan; Sener, Ufuk; Sener, Muhittin

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The prognostic factors that affect sensory nerve recovery after digital nerve repair are variable because of nonhomogeneous data, subjective tests, and different assessment/scoring methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the success of sensory nerve recovery after digital nerve repair and to investigate the prognostic factors in sensorial healing.Methods: Ninety-six digital nerve repairs of 63 patients were retrospectively evaluated. All nerves were repaired with end-to-end ...

  15. Sympathetic nerves: How do they affect angiogenesis, particularly during wound healing of soft tissues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liangli; Tang, Jianbing; Liu, Hongwei; Cheng, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for wound healing, and angiogenesis impairment can result in chronic ulcers. Studies have shown that the sympathetic nervous system has an important role in angiogenesis. In recent years, researchers have focused on the roles of sympathetic nerves in tumor angiogenesis. In fact, sympathetic nerves can affect angiogenesis in the wound healing of soft tissues, and may have a similar mechanism of action as that seen in tumorigenesis. Sympathetic nerves act primarily through interactions between the neurotransmitters released from nerve endings and receptors present in target organs. Among this, activation or inhibition of adrenergic receptors (mainly β-adrenergic receptors) influence formation of new blood vessels considerably. As sympathetic nerves locate near pericytes in microvessel, go along the capillaries and there are adrenergic receptors present in endothelial cells and pericytes, sympathetic nerves may participate in angiogenesis by influencing the endothelial cells and pericytes of new capillaries. Studying the roles of sympathetic nerves on the angiogenesis of wound healing can contribute to understanding the mechanisms of tissue repair, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis, thereby providing new therapeutic perspectives.

  16. Changes in the frequency of swallowing during electrical stimulation of superior laryngeal nerve in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Kojun; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Sakai, Shogo; Nakamura, Yuki; Inoue, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the adaptation of the swallowing reflex in terms of reduced swallowing reflex initiation following continuous superior laryngeal nerve stimulation. Forty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with urethane. To identify swallowing, electromyographic activity of the left mylohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles was recorded. To evoke the swallowing response, the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), recurrent laryngeal nerve, or cortical swallowing area was electrically stimulated. Repetitive swallowing evoked by continuous SLN stimulation was gradually reduced, and this reduction was dependent on the resting time duration between stimulations. Prior SLN stimulation also suppressed subsequent swallowing initiation. The reduction in evoked swallows induced by recurrent laryngeal nerve or cortical swallowing area stimulation was less than that following superior laryngeal nerve stimulation. Decerebration had no effect on the reduction in evoked swallows. Prior subthreshold stimulation reduced subsequent initiation of swallowing, suggesting that there was no relationship between swallowing movement evoked by prior stimulation and the subsequent reduction in swallowing initiation. Overall, these data suggest that reduced sensory afferent nerve firing and/or trans-synaptic responses, as well as part of the brainstem central pattern generator, are involved in adaptation of the swallowing reflex following continuous stimulation of swallow-inducing peripheral nerves and cortical areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of skilled and unskilled training on nerve regeneration and functional recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Pagnussat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most disabling aspect of human peripheral nerve injuries, the majority of which affect the upper limbs, is the loss of skilled hand movements. Activity-induced morphological and electrophysiological remodeling of the neuromuscular junction has been shown to influence nerve repair and functional recovery. In the current study, we determined the effects of two different treatments on the functional and morphological recovery after median and ulnar nerve injury. Adult Wistar male rats weighing 280 to 330 g at the time of surgery (N = 8-10 animals/group were submitted to nerve crush and 1 week later began a 3-week course of motor rehabilitation involving either "skilled" (reaching for small food pellets or "unskilled" (walking on a motorized treadmill training. During this period, functional recovery was monitored weekly using staircase and cylinder tests. Histological and morphometric nerve analyses were used to assess nerve regeneration at the end of treatment. The functional evaluation demonstrated benefits of both tasks, but found no difference between them (P > 0.05. The unskilled training, however, induced a greater degree of nerve regeneration as evidenced by histological measurement (P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that both of the forelimb training tasks used in this study can accelerate functional recovery following brachial plexus injury.

  18. Nerve injuries do occur in elbow arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgersom, Nick F J; van Deurzen, Derek F P; Gerritsma, Carina L E; van der Heide, Huub J L; Malessy, Martijn J A; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose is to create more awareness as well as emphasize the risk of permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy. Patients who underwent elbow arthroscopy complicated by permanent nerve injury were retrospectively collected. Patients were collected using two strategies: (1) by word-of-mouth throughout the Dutch Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, and the Leiden University Nerve Centre, and (2) approaching two medical liability insurance companies. Medical records were reviewed to determine patient characteristics, disease history and postoperative course. Surgical records were reviewed to determine surgical details. A total of eight patients were collected, four men and four women, ageing 21-54 years. In five out of eight patients (62.5%), the ulnar nerve was affected; in the remaining three patients (37.5%), the radial nerve was involved. Possible causes for nerve injury varied among patients, such as portal placement and the use of motorized instruments. A case series on permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy is presented. Reporting on this sequel in the literature is little, however, its risk is not to be underestimated. This study emphasizes that permanent nerve injury is a complication of elbow arthroscopy, concurrently increasing awareness and thereby possibly aiding to prevention. IV, case series.

  19. Magnetoneurographic evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.D.L. Kuypers (Paul)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWhen a peripheral nerve is reconstructed after it has been damaged. it is important to assess, in an early stage, whether the nerve is regenerating across the lesion. However, at present for this purpose an adequate method is not available. In this study short term changes in the

  20. Multiple cranial nerve palsies complicating tympanomastoiditis: case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otitis media either acute or chronic, is not uncommon in childhood. Multiple cranial nerve palsies occuring as a complication of either form of otitis media is unusual. A case of a nine year old boy with chronic suppurative otitis media with associated mastoiditis complicated with ipsilateral multiple cranial nerve palsies is ...

  1. Nerve injuries do occur in elbow arthroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgersom, Nick F. J.; van Deurzen, Derek F. P.; Gerritsma, Carina L. E.; van der Heide, Huub J. L.; Malessy, Martijn J. A.; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose is to create more awareness as well as emphasize the risk of permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy. Patients who underwent elbow arthroscopy complicated by permanent nerve injury were retrospectively collected. Patients were collected using two strategies: (1) by

  2. Symptoms of Nerve Dysfunction After Hip Arthroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dippmann, Christian; Thorborg, Kristian; Kraemer, Otto

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the rate, pattern, and severity of symptoms of nerve dysfunction after hip arthroscopy (HA) by reviewing prospectively collected data. The secondary purpose was to study whether symptoms of nerve dysfunction were related to traction time...

  3. Visualization of isolated trigeminal nerve invasion by lymphoma using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manon-Espaillat, R.; Lanska, D.J.; Ruff, R.L.; Cleveland Veteran's Administration Medical Center, OH; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH; Masaryk, T.; University Hospitals of Cleveland, OH; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH

    1990-01-01

    A 50-year-old man with active histiocytic lymphoma for 12 years developed an isolated right trigeminal neuropathy. Initial evaluation with head computed tomography, X-rays of the skull base, bone scan, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis including cytology were normal. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed enlargement of the proximal third of the right trigeminal nerve. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI can be useful for the early demonstration of cranial nerve invasion by lymphoma. (orig.)

  4. Release of axonally transported material from an in vitro amphibian sciatic nerve preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid axonal transport of a pulse of [35S]methionine-labelled material was used to study the release of transported material from amphibian nerve maintained in vitro. Following creation of a moving pulse of activity in a dorsal root ganglion-sciatic nerve preparation, the ganglion was removed and the nerve placed in a three-compartment tray, the section of nerve in the middle compartment containing no truncated branches (unbranched section). All three compartments were filled with a saline solution that in some studies contained nonradioactive methionine (1.0 mmol/L). Analysis of studies in which nonradioactive methionine was absent revealed that labelled material appeared in the bathing solution of the end compartments that contained truncated branches, but not in the solution of the middle (unbranched) compartment. The quantity of label released in the branched compartments was approximately 6% of that remaining in the corresponding section of nerve following an 18-20 h incubation period. However, when nonradioactive methionine was present, all compartments showed an additional activity in the bathing solution of approximately 10% of that remaining in the nerve. In another study in which a position-sensitive detector of ionizing radiation was used to monitor progress of the pulse, it was found that activity did not enter the bathing solution of a compartment prior to the pulse of activity. It is concluded that in the absence of methionine from the bathing solution, axonally transported material is released only from regions of nerve that contain severed axons; however, the presence of methionine allows transported material to be released from nerve containing intact axons. Ultrafiltration studies and thin-layer chromatography revealed the majority of material released to be of low-molecular weight (less than 30,000 daltons) and not free [35S]methionine

  5. Surgical trainees neuropraxia? An unusual case of compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Seoighe, D M

    2010-09-01

    Compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm is an uncommon diagnosis but has been associated with strenuous upper limb activity. We report the unique case of a 32-year-old male orthopaedic trainee who suffered this nerve palsy as a result of prolonged elbow extension and forearm pronation while the single assistant during a hip resurfacing procedure. Conservative measures were sufficient for sensory recovery to be clinically detectable after 12 weeks.

  6. Device-based approaches for renal nerve ablation for hypertension and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Ann Thorp; Markus Peter Schlaich; Markus Peter Schlaich

    2015-01-01

    Animal and human studies have demonstrated that chronic activation of renal sympathetic nerves is critical in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of treatment-resistant hypertension. Bilateral renal denervation has emerged as a safe and effective, non-pharmacological treatment for resistant hypertension that involves the selective ablation of efferent and afferent renal nerves to lower blood pressure. However, the most recent and largest randomized controlled trial failed to confirm the primacy...

  7. Proteomics Analyses of Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes Following Biomechanical Strain*

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Ronan S.; Dharsee, Moyez; Ackloo, Suzanne; Sivak, Jeremy M.; Flanagan, John G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role of glial cell activation in the human optic nerve caused by raised intraocular pressure, and their potential role in the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To do this we present a proteomics study of the response of cultured, optic nerve head astrocytes to biomechanical strain, the magnitude and mode of strain based on previously published quantitative models. In this case, astrocytes were subjected to 3 and 12% stretches for either 2 h or 24 h. Proteomic me...

  8. Effects of pelvic, pudendal, or hypogastric nerve cuts on Fos induction in the rat brain following vaginocervical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G; Manitt, Colleen; Coopersmith, Carol B

    2006-12-30

    In the female rat, genitosensory input is conveyed to the central nervous system predominantly through the pelvic, pudendal, and hypogastric nerves. The present study examined the relative contribution of those three nerves in the expression of Fos immunoreactivity within brain regions previously shown to be activated by vaginocervical stimulation (VCS). Bilateral transection of those nerves, or sham neurectomy, was conducted in separate groups of ovariectomized, sexually-experienced females. After recovery, females were primed with estrogen and progesterone and given either 50 manual VCSs with a lubricated glass rod over the course of 1 h. VCS increased the number of neurons expressing Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial hypothalamus, and medial amygdala of sham neurectomized females. Transection of the pelvic nerve reduced Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial hypothalamus, and medial amygdala, whereas transection of the pudendal nerve had no effect. In contrast, transection of the hypogastric nerve increased Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area and lateral septum, whereas transaction of the pelvic nerve increased Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral septum, following VCS. All females given VCS, except those with pelvic neurectomy, displayed a characteristic immobility during each application. These data confirm that the pelvic nerve is largely responsible for the neural and behavioral effects of VCS, and support a separate function for the hypogastric nerve.

  9. Neurophysiological Identification of Cranial Nerves During Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery of Skull Base Tumors: Pilot Study Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkarubo, Alexey Nikolaevich; Chernov, Ilia Valerievich; Ogurtsova, Anna Anatolievna; Moshchev, Dmitry Aleksandrovich; Lubnin, Andrew Jurievich; Andreev, Dmitry Nicolaevich; Koval, Konstantin Vladimirovich

    2017-02-01

    Intraoperative identification of cranial nerves is crucial for safe surgery of skull base tumors. Currently, only a small number of published papers describe the technique of trigger electromyography (t-EMG) in endoscopic endonasal removal of such tumors. To assess the effectiveness of t-EMG in preventing intraoperative cranial nerve damage in endoscopic endonasal surgery of skull base tumors. Nine patients were operated on using the endoscopic endonasal approach within a 1-year period. The tumors included large skull base chordomas and trigeminal neurinomas localized in the cavernous sinus. During the surgical process, cranial nerve identification was carried out using monopolar and bipolar t-EMG methods. Assessment of cranial nerve functional activity was conducted both before and after tumor removal. We mapped 17 nerves in 9 patients. Third, fifth, and sixth cranial nerves were identified intraoperatively. There were no cases of postoperative functional impairment of the mapped cranial nerves. In one case we were unable to get an intraoperative response from the fourth cranial nerve and observed its postoperative transient plegia (the function was normal before surgery). t-EMG allows surgeons to control the safety of cranial nerves both during and after skull base tumor removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnostic value of the near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction in sensory inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Zeki; Oh, Shin J

    2018-03-01

    In this study we report the diagnostic value of the near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction study (NNN-SNCS) in sensory inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (IDP) in which the routine nerve conduction study was normal or non-diagnostic. The NNN-SNCS was performed to identify demyelination in the plantar nerves in 14 patients and in the median or ulnar nerve in 2 patients with sensory IDP. In 16 patients with sensory IDP, routine NCSs were either normal or non-diagnostic for demyelination. Demyelination was identified by NNN-SNCS by dispersion and/or slow nerve conduction velocity (NCV) below the demyelination marker. Immunotherapy was initiated in 11 patients, 10 of whom improved or remained stable. NNN-SNCS played an essential role in identifying demyelinaton in 16 patients with sensory IDP, leading to proper treatment. Muscle Nerve 57: 414-418, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Matching of motor-sensory modality in the rodent femoral nerve model shows no enhanced effect on peripheral nerve regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, David H.; Johnson, Philip J.; Moore, Amy M.; Magill, Christina K.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Tung, Thomas HH.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of peripheral nerve injuries with nerve gaps largely consists of autologous nerve grafting utilizing sensory nerve donors. Underlying this clinical practice is the assumption that sensory autografts provide a suitable substrate for motoneuron regeneration, thereby facilitating motor endplate reinnervation and functional recovery. This study examined the role of nerve graft modality on axonal regeneration, comparing motor nerve regeneration through motor, sensory, and mixed nerve isografts in the Lewis rat. A total of 100 rats underwent grafting of the motor or sensory branch of the femoral nerve with histomorphometric analysis performed after 5, 6, or 7 weeks. Analysis demonstrated similar nerve regeneration in motor, sensory, and mixed nerve grafts at all three time points. These data indicate that matching of motor-sensory modality in the rat femoral nerve does not confer improved axonal regeneration through nerve isografts. PMID:20122927

  12. Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy After Cervical Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Christopher P; Clark, Aaron J; Kanter, Adam S; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Multi-institutional retrospective study. The goal of the current study is to quantify the incidence of 2 extremely rare complications of cervical spine surgery; hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerve palsies. A total of 8887 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery from 2005 to 2011 were included in the study from 21 institutions. No glossopharyngeal nerve injuries were reported. One hypoglossal nerve injury was reported after a C3-7 laminectomy (0.01%). This deficit resolved with conservative management. The rate by institution ranged from 0% to 1.28%. Although not directly injured by the surgical procedure, the transient nerve injury might have been related to patient positioning as has been described previously in the literature. Hypoglossal nerve injury during cervical spine surgery is an extremely rare complication. Institutional rates may vary. Care should be taken during posterior cervical surgery to avoid hyperflexion of the neck and endotracheal tube malposition.

  13. Nerve injury caused by mandibular block analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, S; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-four injection injuries in 52 patients were caused by mandibular block analgesia affecting the lingual nerve (n=42) and/or the inferior alveolar nerve (n=12). All patients were examined with a standardized test of neurosensory functions. The perception of the following stimuli was assessed......: feather light touch, pinprick, sharp/dull discrimination, warm, cold, point location, brush stroke direction, 2-point discrimination and pain perception. Gustation was tested for recognition of sweet, salt, sour and bitter. Mandibular block analgesia causes lingual nerve injury more frequently than...... inferior alveolar nerve injury. All grades of loss of neurosensory and gustatory functions were found, and a range of persisting neurogenic malfunctions was reported. Subjective complaints and neurosensory function tests indicate that lingual nerve lesions are more incapacitating than inferior alveolar...

  14. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... surgical techniques and better outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Decision making in peripheral nerve surgery continues to be a complex challenge, where the mechanism of injury, repeated clinical evaluation, neuroradiological and neurophysiological examination, and detailed knowledge of the peripheral...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...

  15. MR imaging of the intraparotid facial nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Hiroaki; Iwasawa, Tae; Yoshida, Tetsuo; Furukawa, Masaki

    1996-01-01

    Using a 1.5T MR imaging system, seven normal volunteers and 6 patients with parotid tumors were studied and their intraparotid facial nerves were directly imaged. The findings were evaluated by T1-weighted axial, sagittal and oblique images. The facial nerve appeared to be relatively hypointensive within the highsignal parotid parenchyma, and the main trunks of the facial nerves were observed directly in all the cases examined. Their main divisions were detected in all the volunteers and 5 of 6 patients were imaged obliquely. The facial nerves run in various fashions and so the oblique scan planes were determined individually to detect this running figure directly. To verify our observations, surgical findings of the facial nerve were compared with the MR images or results. (author)

  16. Nerves Regulate Cardiomyocyte Proliferation and Heart Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed I; O'Meara, Caitlin C; Gemberling, Matthew; Zhao, Long; Bryant, Donald M; Zheng, Ruimao; Gannon, Joseph B; Cai, Lei; Choi, Wen-Yee; Egnaczyk, Gregory F; Burns, Caroline E; Burns, C Geoffrey; MacRae, Calum A; Poss, Kenneth D; Lee, Richard T

    2015-08-24

    Some organisms, such as adult zebrafish and newborn mice, have the capacity to regenerate heart tissue following injury. Unraveling the mechanisms of heart regeneration is fundamental to understanding why regeneration fails in adult humans. Numerous studies have revealed that nerves are crucial for organ regeneration, thus we aimed to determine whether nerves guide heart regeneration. Here, we show using transgenic zebrafish that inhibition of cardiac innervation leads to reduction of myocyte proliferation following injury. Specifically, pharmacological inhibition of cholinergic nerve function reduces cardiomyocyte proliferation in the injured hearts of both zebrafish and neonatal mice. Direct mechanical denervation impairs heart regeneration in neonatal mice, which was rescued by the administration of neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and nerve growth factor (NGF) recombinant proteins. Transcriptional analysis of mechanically denervated hearts revealed a blunted inflammatory and immune response following injury. These findings demonstrate that nerve function is required for both zebrafish and mouse heart regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cranial nerves III, IV and VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, I.J.; Smoker, W.R.; Kuta, A.J.; Felton, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Because of advances in CT and MR imaging, accurate identification and evaluation of cranial nerve lesions is now possible. Cranial nerves III, IV, and VI, providing motor and sensory control of the eye, can be evaluated as a unit. In this paper, the authors present an overview of the anatomy and pathology of these cranial nerves. We first illustrate their normal anatomic pathways from the brain stem to the orbit. This is followed by clinical examples of patients with a variety of isolated and complex palsies of these three cranial nerves. This is accomplished by inclusion of ocular photographs, correlative imaging studies, and the use of diagrams. Knowledge of the gross and imaging anatomy and the ophthalmologic manifestations of pathology affecting these three cranial nerves permits a tailored approach to their evaluation

  18. An Important Chemical Weapon Group: Nerve Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yaren

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of developing modern chemistry, nerve agents, which are one of the most important group of efficient chemical warfare agents, were developed just before Second World War. They generate toxic and clinical effects via inhibiting acetylcholinesterase irreversibly and causing excessive amounts of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses in the body. Clinical symptoms are occurred as a result of affected muscarinic (stimulation of secretuar glands, miosis, breathing problems etc., nicotinic (stimulation of skeletal muscles, paralyse, tremors etc. and central nerve system (convulsions, loss of consciousness, coma etc. areas. In case of a nerve agent exposure, treatment includes the steps of ventilation, decontamination, antidotal treatment (atropine, oximes, diazepam and pyridostigmine bromide and supportive theraphy. Because of arising possibility of using chemical warfare agents due to current conjuncture of the world, medical staff should know about nerve agents, their effects and how to treat the casualties exposured to nerve agents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(6.000: 491-500

  19. An Important Chemical Weapon Group: Nerve Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yaren

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of developing modern chemistry, nerve agents, which are one of the most important group of efficient chemical warfare agents, were developed just before Second World War. They generate toxic and clinical effects via inhibiting acetylcholinesterase irreversibly and causing excessive amounts of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses in the body. Clinical symptoms are occurred as a result of affected muscarinic (stimulation of secretuar glands, miosis, breathing problems etc., nicotinic (stimulation of skeletal muscles, paralyse, tremors etc. and central nerve system (convulsions, loss of consciousness, coma etc. areas. In case of a nerve agent exposure, treatment includes the steps of ventilation, decontamination, antidotal treatment (atropine, oximes, diazepam and pyridostigmine bromide and supportive theraphy. Because of arising possibility of using chemical warfare agents due to current conjuncture of the world, medical staff should know about nerve agents, their effects and how to treat the casualties exposured to nerve agents. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(6: 491-500

  20. Ulnar nerve injury associated with trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin, Melvin M; Novak, Christine B; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2004-08-01

    This study reports three cases of ulnar neuropathy after trampoline injuries in children. A chart review was performed on children who sustained an ulnar nerve injury from a trampoline accident. In all cases, surgical intervention was required. Injuries included upper-extremity fractures in two cases and an upper-extremity laceration in one case. All cases required surgical exploration with internal neurolysis and ulnar nerve transposition. Nerve grafts were used in two cases and an additional nerve transfer was used in one case. All patients had return of intrinsic hand function and sensation after surgery. Children should be followed for evolution of ulnar nerve neuropathy after upper-extremity injury with consideration for electrical studies and surgical exploration if there is no improvement after 3 months.

  1. Ulnar nerve sonography in leprosy neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Liu, Da-Yue; Lei, Yang-Yang; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with a half-year history of right forearm sensory and motor dysfunction. Ultrasound imaging revealed definite thickening of the right ulnar nerve trunk and inner epineurium, along with heterogeneous hypoechogenicity and unclear nerve fiber bundle. Color Doppler exhibited a rich blood supply, which was clearly different from the normal ulnar nerve presentation with a scarce blood supply. The patient subsequently underwent needle aspiration of the right ulnar nerve, and histopathological examination confirmed that granulomatous nodules had formed with a large number of infiltrating lymphocytes and a plurality of epithelioid cells in the fibrous connective tissues, with visible atypical foam cells and proliferous vascularization, consistent with leprosy. Our report will familiarize readers with the characteristic sonographic features of the ulnar nerve in leprosy, particularly because of the decreasing incidence of leprosy in recent years.

  2. Superior perioperative analgesia with combined femoral-obturator-sciatic nerve block in comparison with posterior lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve block for ACL reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareka, Metaxia; Hantes, Michael; Arnaoutoglou, Eleni; Vretzakis, George

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to compare and evaluate the intraoperative and post-operative outcome of PLPS nerve block and that of femoral, obturator and sciatic (FOS) nerve block as a method of anaesthesia, in performing ACL reconstruction. Patients referred for elective arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using hamstring autograft were divided in two groups. The first group received combined femoral-obturator-sciatic nerve block (FOS Group) under dual guidance, whereas the second group received posterior lumbar plexus block under neurostimulation and sciatic nerve block (PLPS Group) under dual guidance. The two groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, BMI and athletic activity. The time needed to perform the nerve blocks was significantly shorter for the FOS group (p block under dual guidance for arthroscopic ACL reconstructive surgery is a safe and tempting anaesthetic choice. The success rate of this technique is higher in comparison with PLPS and results in less peri- and post-operative pain with less opioid consumption. This study provides support for the use of peripheral nerve blocks as an exclusive method for ACL reconstructive surgery in an ambulatory setting with almost no complications. I.

  3. Fish oil supplementation prevents diabetes-induced nerve conduction velocity and neuroanatomical changes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, A; Maixent, J M; Ansaldi, J L; Pierlovisi, M; Coste, T; Pelissier, J F; Vague, P; Raccah, D

    1999-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy has been associated with a decrease in nerve conduction velocity, Na,K-ATPase activity and characteristic histological damage of the sciatic nerve. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of a dietary supplementation with fish oil [(n-3) fatty acids] on the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intravenous streptozotocin injection. Diabetic animals (n = 20) were fed a nonpurified diet supplemented with either olive oil (DO) or fish oil (DM), and control animals (n = 10) were fed a nonpurified diet supplemented with olive oil at a daily dose of 0.5 g/kg by gavage for 8 wk. Nerves were characterized by their conduction velocity, morphometric analysis and membrane Na, K-ATPase activity. Nerve conduction velocity, as well as Na,K-ATPase activity, was improved by fish oil treatment. A correlation was found between these two variables (R = 0.999, P < 0.05). Moreover, a preventive effect of fish oil was observed on nerve histological damage [endoneurial edema, axonal degeneration (by 10-15%) with demyelination]. Moreover, the normal bimodal distribution of the internal diameter of myelinated fibers was absent in the DO group and was restored in the DM group. These data suggest that fish oil therapy may be effective in the prevention of diabetic neuropathy.

  4. Nerve Regeneration in Conditions of HSV-Infection and an Antiviral Drug Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, Alla; Rybalko, Svetlana; Ryzha, Alona; Savosko, Sergey; Labudzynskyi, Dmytro; Levchuk, Natalia; Chaikovsky, Yuri

    2018-05-05

    Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-I) is a latent neuroinfection which can cause focal brain lesion. The role of HSV-infection in nerve regeneration has not been studied so far. The aim of the work was to study sciatic nerve regeneration in the presence of HSV-infection and the influence of an antiviral drug. BALB/c line mice were divided into five groups. Group 1 animals were infected with HSV-I. After resolution of neuroinfection manifestations the sciatic nerve of these animals was crushed. Group 2 mice were administered acyclovir following the same procedures. Groups 3-5 mice served as controls. Thirty days after the operation distal nerve stumps and m.gastrocnemius were studied morphologically and biochemically. Ultrastructural organization of the sciatic nerve in control animals remained intact. Morphometric parameters of the nerves from the experimental groups have not reach control values. However, in the group 1 diameter of nerve fibers was significantly smaller than in the group 2. Both nerve regeneration and m.gastrocnemius reinnervation were confirmed. The muscle hypotrophy was found in groups 1, 2, and 3 (the muscle fibers diameter decreased). Metabolic changes in the muscles of the infected animals (groups 1 and 2) were more pronounced than in control groups 3 and 4. The levels of TBA-active products, conjugated dienes, carbonyl and SH-groups were reduced in m.gastrocnemius of the experimental groups, however no significant difference associated with acyclovir administration was found. HSV-infection is not limited to the local neurodegenerative changes in the CNS but affects regeneration of the injured sciatic nerve. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Silicone Molding and Lifetime Testing of Peripheral Nerve Interfaces for Neuroprostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupte, Kimaya [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering; Tolosa, Vanessa [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology

    2016-08-10

    Implantable peripheral nerve cuffs have a large application in neuroprostheses as they can be used to restore sensation to those with upper limb amputations. Modern day prosthetics, while lessening the pain associated with phantom limb syndrome, have limited fine motor control and do not provide sensory feedback to patients. Sensory feedback with prosthetics requires communication between the nervous system and limbs, and is still a challenge to accomplish with amputees. Establishing this communication between the peripheral nerves in the arm and artificial limbs is vital as prosthetics research aims to provide sensory feedback to amputees. Peripheral nerve cuffs restore sensation by electrically stimulating certain parts of the nerve in order to create feeling in the hand. Cuff electrodes have an advantage over standard electrodes as they have high selective stimulation by bringing the electrical interface close to the neural tissue in order to selectively activate targeted regions of a peripheral nerve. In order to further improve the selective stimulation of these nerve cuffs, there is need for finer spatial resolution among electrodes. One method to achieve a higher spatial resolution is to increase the electrode density on the cuff itself. Microfabrication techniques can be used to achieve this higher electrode density. Using L-Edit, a layout editor, microfabricated peripheral nerve cuffs were designed with a higher electrode density than the current model. This increase in electrode density translates to an increase in spatial resolution by at least one order of magnitude. Microfabricated devices also have two separate components that are necessary to understand before implantation: lifetime of the device and assembly to prevent nerve damage. Silicone molding procedures were optimized so that devices do not damage nerves in vivo, and lifetime testing was performed on test microfabricated devices to determine their lifetime in vivo. Future work of this project

  6. Retrobulbar diameter of optic nerve in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The ultrasound diagnostics of the optic nerve includes the analysis of the optic nerve disc (PNO and measuring of its retrobulbar diameter. With B-scan, by Schraeder's method, it is possible to measure very precisely the optic nerve, the pial diameter, the normal values for the pial diameter being 2.8-4.1 mm. In glaucoma, the disease that is most frequently associated with higher intraocular pressure, there comes the destruction of nerve fibres, which can be visualized as the excavation of the optic nerve disc. Objective. In this paper, we were interested in finding whether in glaucoma, and in what phase of the disease, the optic nerve starts growing thinner. Aware of many forms of this very complex disease, we were interested in knowing if the visualization of excavation on the optic nerve disc is related to diminishing of the pial diameter of the retrobulbar nerve part. Methods. There were treated the patients who had already had the diagnosis of glaucoma and the visualized excavation of the optic disc of various dimensions. Echographically, there was measured the thickness of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve and the finding compared in relation to the excavation of the optic disc. Results. In all eyes with glaucoma, a normal size of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve was measured, ranging from 3.01 to 3.91 mm with the median of 3.36 mm. Also, by testing the correlation between the thickness of the optic nerve and the excavation of the PNO, by Pearson test, we found that there was no correlation between these two parameters (r=0.109; p>0.05. Conclusion. In the patients with glaucoma, the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve is not thinner (it has normal values, even not in the cases with a totally excavated optic disc. There is no connection between the size of the PNO excavation and the thickness of the retrobulbar part of the optic nerve.

  7. Primary optic nerve sheath meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremic, Branislav [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pitz, Susanne (eds.) [University Eye Hospital, Mainz (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) is a rare tumour. Cases are usually separated into primary ONSM, which arises either intraorbitally or, less commonly, intracanalicularly, and secondary ONSM, which arises intracranially and subsequently invades the optic canal and orbit. This is the first book to cover all important aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of primary ONSM. After a general introduction, individual chapters discuss the clinical presentation, clinical examination and diagnosis, imaging, and histology. Treatment options are then addressed in detail, with special emphasis on external beam radiation therapy, and in particular stereotactic fractionated radiation therapy. The latter has recently produced consistently good results and is now considered the emerging treatment of choice for the vast majority of patients with primary ONSM. This well-illustrated book will prove invaluable to all practitioners who encounter primary ONSM in their clinical work. (orig.)

  8. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI for evaluation of peripheral nerve neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Katsuhiko; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Suzuki, Katsuji; Yamada, Mitsuko; Kojima, Motohiro.

    1995-01-01

    We carried out enhanced MRI for the carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome and anterior interosseous nerve palsy that is entrapment neuropathy. The affected nerve was enhanced in entrapment point. Carpal tunnel syndrome: The enhancement of affected nerve was apparent in 41 of 52 cases (79%). Cubital tunnel syndrome: The enhancement of affected nerve was apparent in 4 of 5 cases (80%). Tarsal tunnel syndrome: The enhancement of affected nerve was apparent in 1 of 1 case. Anterior interosseous nerve palsy: The enhancement of affected nerve was apparent in 3 of 4 cases (75%). The affected nerve was strongly enhanced by Gd-DTPA, indicating the blood-nerve barrier in the affected nerve to be broken and intraneural edema to be produced, e.i., the ability of Gd-DTPA to selectively contrast-enhance a pathologic focus within the peripheral nerve is perhaps its most important clinical applications. (author)

  9. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI for evaluation of peripheral nerve neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsuhiko [Aikoh Orthopaedic Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Kobayashi, Shigeru; Suzuki, Katsuji; Yamada, Mitsuko; Kojima, Motohiro

    1995-11-01

    We carried out enhanced MRI for the carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome and anterior interosseous nerve palsy that is entrapment neuropathy. The affected nerve was enhanced in entrapment point. Carpal tunnel syndrome: The enhancement of affected nerve was apparent in 41 of 52 cases (79%). Cubital tunnel syndrome: The enhancement of affected nerve was apparent in 4 of 5 cases (80%). Tarsal tunnel syndrome: The enhancement of affected nerve was apparent in 1 of 1 case. Anterior interosseous nerve palsy: The enhancement of affected nerve was apparent in 3 of 4 cases (75%). The affected nerve was strongly enhanced by Gd-DTPA, indicating the blood-nerve barrier in the affected nerve to be broken and intraneural edema to be produced, e.i., the ability of Gd-DTPA to selectively contrast-enhance a pathologic focus within the peripheral nerve is perhaps its most important clinical applications. (author).

  10. Transfer of obturator nerve for femoral nerve injury: an experiment study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Depeng; Zhou, Jun; Lin, Yaofa; Xie, Zheng; Chen, Huihao; Yu, Ronghua; Lin, Haodong; Hou, Chunlin

    2018-07-01

    Quadriceps palsy is mainly caused by proximal lesions in the femoral nerve. The obturator nerve has been previously used to repair the femoral nerve, although only a few reports have described the procedure, and the outcomes have varied. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of this treatment in a rodent model using the randomized control method. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: the experimental group, wherein rats underwent femoral neurectomy and obturator nerve transfer to the femoral nerve motor branch; and the control group, wherein rats underwent femoral neurectomy without nerve transfer. Functional outcomes were measured using the BBB score, muscle mass, and histological assessment. At 12 and 16 weeks postoperatively, the rats in the experimental group exhibited recovery to a stronger stretch force of the knee and higher BBB score, as compared to the control group (p nerve with myelinated and unmyelinated fibers was observed in the experimental group. No significant differences were observed between groups at 8 weeks postoperatively (p > 0.05). Obturator nerve transfer for repairing femoral nerve injury was feasible and effective in a rat model, and can hence be considered as an option for the treatment of femoral nerve injury.

  11. Ultrasound-guided approach for axillary brachial plexus, femoral nerve, and sciatic nerve blocks in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoy, Luis; Bezuidenhout, Abraham J; Gleed, Robin D; Martin-Flores, Manuel; Raw, Robert M; Santare, Carrie L; Jay, Ariane R; Wang, Annie L

    2010-03-01

    To describe an ultrasound-guided technique and the anatomical basis for three clinically useful nerve blocks in dogs. Prospective experimental trial. Four hound-cross dogs aged 2 +/- 0 years (mean +/- SD) weighing 30 +/- 5 kg and four Beagles aged 2 +/- 0 years and weighing 8.5 +/- 0.5 kg. Axillary brachial plexus, femoral, and sciatic combined ultrasound/electrolocation-guided nerve blocks were performed sequentially and bilaterally using a lidocaine solution mixed with methylene blue. Sciatic nerve blocks were not performed in the hounds. After the blocks, the dogs were euthanatized and each relevant site dissected. Axillary brachial plexus block Landmark blood vessels and the roots of the brachial plexus were identified by ultrasound in all eight dogs. Anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the four ventral nerve roots (C6, C7, C8, and T1) and the axillary vessels. Three roots (C7, C8, and T1) were adequately stained bilaterally in all dogs. Femoral nerve block Landmark blood vessels (femoral artery and femoral vein), the femoral and saphenous nerves and the medial portion of the rectus femoris muscle were identified by ultrasound in all dogs. Anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the femoral vessels, femoral nerve, and the rectus femoris muscle. The femoral nerves were adequately stained bilaterally in all dogs. Sciatic nerve block. Ultrasound landmarks (semimembranosus muscle, the fascia of the biceps femoris muscle and the sciatic nerve) could be identified in all of the dogs. In the four Beagles, anatomical examination confirmed the relationship between the biceps femoris muscle, the semimembranosus muscle, and the sciatic nerve. In the Beagles, all but one of the sciatic nerves were stained adequately. Ultrasound-guided needle insertion is an accurate method for depositing local anesthetic for axillary brachial plexus, femoral, and sciatic nerve blocks.

  12. Use of superficial peroneal nerve graft for treating peripheral nerve injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ribak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical results from treating chronic peripheral nerve injuries using the superficial peroneal nerve as a graft donor source. METHODS: This was a study on eleven patients with peripheral nerve injuries in the upper limbs that were treated with grafts from the sensitive branch of the superficial peroneal nerve. The mean time interval between the dates of the injury and surgery was 93 days. The ulnar nerve was injured in eight cases and the median nerve in six. There were three cases of injury to both nerves. In the surgery, a longitudinal incision was made on the anterolateral face of the ankle, thus viewing the superficial pe