WorldWideScience

Sample records for neptunyl sulfate compounds

  1. Cation-cation interaction in neptunyl(V) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, N.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Federation); Saeki, Masakatsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The original manuscript was prepared by Professor N.N. Krot of Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 1997. Saeki tried to translate that into Japanese and to add some new data since 1997. The contents include the whole picture of cation-cation interactions mainly in 5-valence neptunium compounds. Firstly, characteristic structures of neptunium are summarized of the cation-cation bonding in compounds. Secondly, it is mentioned how the cation-cation bonding affects physical and chemical properties of the compounds. Then, characterization-methods for the cation-cation bonding in the compounds are discussed. Finally, the cation-cation interactions in compounds of other actinide-ions are shortly reviewed. (author)

  2. Structural incorporation of Neptunyl(V) into Calcite: Interfacial Reactions and Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Heberling, Frank

    2010-01-01

    In this experimental work the calcite-water interface is characterized by means of zetapotential and surface diffraction measurements. Based on the experimental results a new Basic Stern Surface Complexation model for calcite is developed. Neptunyl(V) adsorption at the calcite surface and incorporation into the calcite structure is studied by batch type adsorption- and mixed flow reactor experiments. Adsorption and incorporation species of Neptunyl are investigated by EXAFS spectroscopy.

  3. Anaerobic metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopathy, R.; Kulpa, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds used aerobic microorganisms. In most cases no mineralization of nitroaromatics occurs, and only superficial modifications of the structures are reported. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds reportedly undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. For example, trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of ammonia from triaminotoluene is achieved by reductive deamination catalyzed by the enzyme reductive deaminase, with the production of ammonia and toluene. Some sulfate reducers can metabolize toluene to CO 2 . Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. Many methanogenic bacteria can reduce nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds. In this paper we review the anaerobic metabolic processes of nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing And methanogenic conditions

  4. Sulfate minerals: a problem for the detection of organic compounds on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James M T; Watson, Jonathan S; Najorka, Jens; Luong, Duy; Sephton, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    The search for in situ organic matter on Mars involves encounters with minerals and requires an understanding of their influence on lander and rover experiments. Inorganic host materials can be helpful by aiding the preservation of organic compounds or unhelpful by causing the destruction of organic matter during thermal extraction steps. Perchlorates are recognized as confounding minerals for thermal degradation studies. On heating, perchlorates can decompose to produce oxygen, which then oxidizes organic matter. Other common minerals on Mars, such as sulfates, may also produce oxygen upon thermal decay, presenting an additional complication. Different sulfate species decompose within a large range of temperatures. We performed a series of experiments on a sample containing the ferric sulfate jarosite. The sulfate ions within jarosite break down from 500 °C. Carbon dioxide detected during heating of the sample was attributed to oxidation of organic matter. A laboratory standard of ferric sulfate hydrate released sulfur dioxide from 550 °C, and an oxygen peak was detected in the products. Calcium sulfate did not decompose below 1000 °C. Oxygen released from sulfate minerals may have already affected organic compound detection during in situ thermal experiments on Mars missions. A combination of preliminary mineralogical analyses and suitably selected pyrolysis temperatures may increase future success in the search for past or present life on Mars.

  5. Study of thermochemical sulfate reduction mechanism using compound specific sulfur isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshoulam, Alexander; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ahmad, Ward Said; Deev, Andrei; Sessions, Alex L.; Tang, Yongchun; Adkins, Jess F.; Liu, Jinzhong; Gilhooly, William P.; Aizenshtat, Zeev; Amrani, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The sulfur isotopic fractionation associated with the formation of organic sulfur compounds (OSCs) during thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) was studied using gold-tube pyrolysis experiments to simulate TSR. The reactants used included n-hexadecane (n-C16) as a model organic compound with sulfate, sulfite, or elemental sulfur as the sulfur source. At the end of each experiment, the S-isotopic composition and concentration of remaining sulfate, H2S, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, and 2-phenylthiophene (PT) were measured. The observed S-isotopic fractionations between sulfate and BT, DBT, and H2S in experimental simulations of TSR correlate well with a multi-stage model of the overall TSR process. Large kinetic isotope fractionations occur during the first, uncatalyzed stage of TSR, 12.4‰ for H2S and as much as 22.2‰ for BT. The fractionations decrease as the H2S concentration increases and the reaction enters the second, catalyzed stage. Once all of the oxidizable hydrocarbons have been consumed, sulfate reduction ceases and equilibrium partitioning then dictates the fractionation between H2S and sulfate (∼17‰).

  6. Study of precipitation kinetics of vanadium compounds from the solutions of ammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fofarov, A.A.; Sukhov, A.A.; Batrakova, L.Kh.; Ostashko, T.I.

    1988-01-01

    To select the regime of vanadium deposition from ammonium sulfate solutions the dependence of deposition rate on the concentration of reacting components and conditions of the process course. The maximum deposition rate of vanadium compounds proved to be at pH 2.0-2.2. With an increase in ammonium sulfate content from 0 to 80-100 g/dm 3 the deposition rate decreases by a factor of 2. With an increase in the temperature by each 10 deg C in the temperature range of 70-90 deg C vanadium deposition rate at the same supersaturation increases by a factor of 1.72. Kinetic equation of vanadium deposition in the presence of 80 g/dm 3 ammonium sulfate is obtained

  7. Sulfated phenolic compounds from Limonium caspium: Isolation, structural elucidation, and biological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadetskaya, Anastassiya V.; Tarawneh, Amer H.; Zhusupova, Galiya E.; Gemejiyeva, Nadezhda G.; Cantrell, Charles L.; Cutler, Stephen J.; Ross, Samir A.

    2016-01-01

    Three new compounds, (2S,3S)-5-methyldihydromyricetin (1), (2S,3S)-5-methyldihydromyricetin-3′-O-sulfate (2) and β-D-glucopyranoside, 3-methyl, but-3-en-1-yl 4-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (3) have been isolated from the Limonium caspium, together with dihydromyricetin (4), dihydromyricetin-3′-O-sulfate (5), myricetin-3′-O-sulfate (6), 5-methylmyricetin (7), myricetin (8), myricetin-3-O-β-glucoside (9), as well as phloridzin (10), and tyramine (11). Compounds 5 and 6 were isolated for the first time as acids. This is the first report of all these compounds from this plant. Their structures were established by extensive NMR studies (1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT, 1H–1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC) as well as HRESIMS. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial and antileishmanial activities. Compounds 7, 8 and 9 exhibited good antifungal activity against Candida glabrata with IC50 values of 6.79, 15.37 and 8.53 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 8 displayed significant antimalarial activity against resistant and sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 1.82 and 1.51 μg/mL, respectively. Compounds 1, 4, 6, 8 and 9 showed excellent activity against Trypanosoma brucei with IC50 values of 6.93, 9.65, 8.52, 7.67 and 6.31 μg/mL, respectively. To date, this is the first report on the phytochemical and biological activity of secondary metabolites from L. caspium. PMID:26025854

  8. Hygroscopicity of organic compounds from biomass burning and their influence on the water uptake of mixed organic ammonium sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, T.; Zuend, A.; Wang, W. G.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ge, M. F.

    2014-10-01

    Hygroscopic behavior of organic compounds, including levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and humic acid, as well as their effects on the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate (AS) in internally mixed particles are studied by a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The organic compounds used represent pyrolysis products of wood that are emitted from biomass burning sources. It is found that humic acid aerosol particles only slightly take up water, starting at RH (relative humidity) above ~70%. This is contrasted by the continuous water absorption of levoglucosan aerosol particles in the range 5-90% RH. However, no hygroscopic growth is observed for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles. Predicted water uptake using the ideal solution theory, the AIOMFAC model and the E-AIM (with UNIFAC) model are consistent with measured hygroscopic growth factors of levoglucosan. However, the use of these models without consideration of crystalline organic phases is not appropriate to describe the hygroscopicity of organics that do not exhibit continuous water uptake, such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and humic acid. Mixed aerosol particles consisting of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, or humic acid with different organic mass fractions, take up a reduced amount of water above 80% RH (above AS deliquescence) relative to pure ammonium sulfate aerosol particles of the same mass. Hygroscopic growth of mixtures of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan with different organic mass fractions agree well with the predictions of the thermodynamic models. Use of the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation and AIOMFAC model lead to good agreement with measured growth factors of mixtures of ammonium sulfate with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid assuming an insoluble organic phase. Deviations of model predictions from the HTDMA measurement are mainly due to the occurrence of a microscopical solid phase restructuring at increased humidity (morphology

  9. In vitro evaluation of extemporaneously compounded slow-release capsules containing morphine sulfate or oxycodone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowiak, Dana L; Green, Julie L; Bowman, Bill J

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro performance of extemporaneously compounded morphine sulfate and oxycodone hydrochloride slow-release capsules was evaluated. Capsules containing varying amoutns of morphine sulfate (15, 60, 200 mg) or oxycodone hydrochloride (10, 80, 200 mg) were prepared and provided by a Phoenix, Arizona, pharmacy. The capsules also contained 40% Methocel E4M Premium to slow the release of their active ingredient and sufficient lactose to fill the capsules. Three batches of each capsule strength were prepared, and replicates from each batch were evlauated using United Stated Pharmacopeia dissolution apparatus II. Samples were taken at regular time intervals over 24 hours. After 1 hour the pH of the dissolution medium was adjusted form 1.2 to 4.0, and after 2 hours the pH was adjusted to 6.8. The amount of drug released at each time point was determined spectrophotometrically. The compounded capsules released 14% to 23%, 67% to 85% and 93% to 98% of their active ingredient after 0.5, 4 and 12 hours, respectively. The relative standard deviations between the replicates from each batch were less than 10% for most time points. The percent of drug released over the first 4 hours was linear (r squared = 0.9409-0.9999) when plotted versus time 1/2, indicating adherence to the simplified Higuchi model. Statistical analysis of the Higuchi dissolution constants indicated a significant difference (P less than 0.05) between batch No.3 and the other two batches of 200-mg oxycodone hydrochloride capsules. There was also a statistical difference between most of the Higuchi dissolution constants for the different-strength slow-release capsules and most slow-release capsules and equivalent strength controlled-release manufactured tablets (P less than 0.05). Using 40% Methocel E4M Premium slowed the release of morphine sulfate and oxycodone hydrochloride from extemporaneously compounded capsules. The in vitro performance of the slow-release capsules showed little intrabatch variation

  10. Synthesis and crystal structure of the coordination compound of pyridoxine with manganese sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furmanova, N. G., E-mail: furm@ns.crys.ras.ru; Verin, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Shyityeva, N.; Sulaimankulov, K. S.; Berdalieva, Zh.; Resnyanskii, V. F. [National Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyzstan, Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Kyrgyzstan); Duishenbaeva, A. T. [Kyrgyz National University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2011-11-15

    The reaction of pyridoxine with manganese sulfate in an aqueous solution gave the coordination compound MnSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2C{sub 8}H{sub 11}O{sub 3}N {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O (I). The structure of I was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. In the centrosymmetric complex (sp. gr. P1-bar, Z = 1), the Mn atom is coordinated by two pyridoxine molecules and two water molecules, thus adopting an octahedral coordination. The sulfate anion is also at a center of symmetry and, consequently, is disordered. The pyridoxine molecules are coordinated to the metal atom through the oxygen atoms of the deprotonated hydroxyl group and the CH{sub 2}OH group that retains the hydrogen atom. The nitrogen atom is protonated in such a way that the heterocycle assumes a pyridinium character. The crystal structure also contains six water molecules of crystallization. A thermogravimetric study showed that the decomposition of I occurs in several successive steps, such as dehydration, the combustion of organic ligands, and the formation of an inorganic residue.

  11. THE ACTION OF SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE ON THE CHLOROPHYLL-PROTEIN COMPOUND OF THE SPINACH LEAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E L

    1941-05-20

    1. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) attacks the chlorophyll-protein compound modifying its protein properties and absorption spectrum. 2. In the presence of SDS, chlorophyll is quantitatively converted to phaeophytin; i.e., magnesium is removed from the molecule. This reaction, measured spectrophotometrically, proceeds at a rate directly proportional to the hydrogen ion concentration. At constant pH, the rate is proportional to the SDS concentration until a maximum rate is achieved. 3. The chlorophyll or phaeophytin (depending on the pH) remains attached to the protein, since the prosthetic group cannot be separated by ultrafiltration, dialysis, or fractional precipitation. 4. This suggests that the magnesium plays no part in binding chlorophyll to the split protein fragments, but may be concerned in binding the larger units, since the metal becomes extremely labile when the protein is split.

  12. Brown carbon formation by aqueous-phase carbonyl compound reactions with amines and ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powelson, Michelle H; Espelien, Brenna M; Hawkins, Lelia N; Galloway, Melissa M; De Haan, David O

    2014-01-21

    Reactions between small water-soluble carbonyl compounds, ammonium sulfate (AS), and/or amines were evaluated for their ability to form light-absorbing species in aqueous aerosol. Aerosol chemistry was simulated with bulk phase reactions at pH 4, 275 K, initial concentrations of 0.05 to 0.25 M, and UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring. Glycolaldehyde-glycine mixtures produced the most intense absorbance. In carbonyl compound reactions with AS, methylamine, or AS/glycine mixtures, product absorbance followed the order methylglyoxal > glyoxal > glycolaldehyde > hydroxyacetone. Absorbance extended into the visible, with a wavelength dependence fit by absorption Ångstrom coefficients (Å(abs)) of 2 to 11, overlapping the Å(abs) range of atmospheric, water-soluble brown carbon. Many reaction products absorbing between 300 and 400 nm were strongly fluorescent. On a per mole basis, amines are much more effective than AS at producing brown carbon. In addition, methylglyoxal and glyoxal produced more light-absorbing products in reactions with a 5:1 AS-glycine mixture than with AS or glycine alone, illustrating the importance of both organic and inorganic nitrogen in brown carbon formation. Through comparison to biomass burning aerosol, we place an upper limit on the contribution of these aqueous carbonyl-AS-amine reactions of ≤ 10% of global light absorption by brown carbon.

  13. Binding of heparin and compound Y to endothelial cells stimulates the synthesis of an antithrombotic heparan sulfate proteoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhal, M A; Silva, I F; Lee, T C; Dietrich, C P; Nader, H B

    1994-09-01

    The mechanism by which heparin and antithrombotic agents, including a cyclic octaphenolsulfonic acid (compound Y), stimulate the synthesis of an antithrombotic heparan sulfate by endothelial cells in culture was investigated. Compound Y increases the amount of heparan sulfate from the cell surface and secreted to the medium by endothelial cells by three-fold. Binding experiments have shown saturation of the endothelial cell receptors at a concentration of 0.16 microM for heparin and 2.7 microM for compound Y. The kinetic binding constants (Ks) for compound Y and heparin were 1,333 nM and 42 nM, respectively. It was also shown that both compounds bind to the same receptors. The Scatchard plots indicated that 1,319 nmoles compound Y and 35 nmoles heparin bound per microgram cell protein, indicating that 40-fold more molecules of compound Y bound to the receptors when compared to heparin. No significant internalization of the compounds was observed.

  14. Characterization of ferric arsenate-sulfate compounds: Implications for arsenic control in refractory gold processing residues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paktunc, D.; Majzlan, J.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Dutrizac, J.; Klementová, Mariana; Poirier, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 4 (2013), s. 554-565 ISSN 0003-004X Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : arsenic * ferric arsenate sulfate * autoclave residue * hydrometallurgy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.059, year: 2013

  15. Theoretical investigation on the mechanism and dynamics of oxo exchange of neptunyl(VI) hydroxide in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xia; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Dongqi

    2015-03-21

    Four types of reaction mechanisms for the oxo ligand exchange of monomeric and dimeric neptunyl(VI) hydroxide in aqueous solution were explored computationally using density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio classical molecular dynamics. The obtained results were compared with previous studies on the oxo exchange of uranyl hydroxide, as well as with experiments. It is found that the stable T-shaped [NpO3(OH)3](3-) intermediate is a key species for oxo exchange in the proton transfer in mononuclear Path I and binuclear Path IV, similar to the case of uranyl(VI) hydroxide. Path I is thought to be the preferred oxo exchange mechanism for neptunyl(VI) hydroxide in our calculations, due to the lower activation energy (22.7 and 13.1 kcal mol(-1) for ΔG(‡) and ΔH(‡), respectively) of the overall reaction. Path II via a cis-neptunyl structure assisted by a water molecule might be a competitive channel against Path I with a mononuclear mechanism, owing to a rapid dynamical process occurring in Path II. In Path IV with the binuclear mechanism, oxo exchange is accomplished via the interaction between [NpO2(OH)4](2-) and T-shaped [NpO3(OH)3](3-) with a low activation energy for the rate-determining step, however, the overall energy required to fulfill the reaction is slightly higher than that in mononuclear Path I, suggesting a possible binuclear process in the higher energy region. The chemical bonding evolution along the reaction pathways was discussed by using topological methodologies of the electron localization function (ELF).

  16. Physical Compatibility of Magnesium Sulfate and Sodium Bicarbonate in a Pharmacy-compounded Bicarbonate-buffered Hemofiltration Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Brad; Henning, Stacey A.; Jin, Haksong; Kolf, Mike; Rehak, Nadja N.; Danner, Robert L.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Grimes, George J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the physical compatibility of magnesium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution used at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (http://www.cc.nih.gov). METHODS Two hemofiltration fluid formulations with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L or 15 mEq/L were prepared in triplicate with an automated compounding device. The hemofiltration solution with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L contains the maximum concentration of additives that we use in clinical practice. The hemofiltration solution of 15 mEq/L of magnesium and 50 mEq/L of bicarbonate was used to study the physicochemical properties of this interaction. The solutions were stored without light protection at 22 to 25 °C for 48 hours. Physical compatibility was assessed by visual inspection and microscopy. The pH of the solutions was assayed at 3 to 4 hours and 52 to 53 hours after compounding. In addition, electrolyte and glucose concentrations in the solutions were assayed at two time points after preparation: 3 to 4 hours and 50 to 51 hours. RESULTS No particulate matter was observed by visual and microscopic inspection in the compounded hemofiltration solutions at 48 hours. Electrolyte and glucose concentrations and pH were similar at both time points after solution preparation. CONCLUSION Magnesium sulfate (1.5 mEq/L) and sodium bicarbonate (50 mEq/L) were physically compatible in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution at room temperature without light protection at 48 hours. PMID:20237384

  17. Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction Simulation Experiments on the Formation and Distribution of Organic Sulfur Compounds in the Tuha Crude Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Changtao; Li, Shuyuan [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Song, He [Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering of CNPC, Tianjin (China)

    2014-07-15

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) was conducted in autoclave on the system of crude oil and MgSO{sub 4} at different temperatures. Gas chromatography pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) was used to detected the composition of organic sulfur compounds in oil phase products. The results of the analysis indicate that with increased temperature, the contents of organic sulfur compounds with high molecular weight and thermal stability, such as benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes, gradually became dominated. In order to gain greater insight into the formation and distribution of organic sulphur compounds from TSR, positive ion electrospray Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used in detecting the detailed elemental composition and distribution of them. The mass spectra showed that the mass range of sulfur compounds was 200-550 Da. Four sulfur class species, S{sub 1}, N{sub 1}S{sub 1}, O{sub 1}S{sub 1} and O{sub 2}S{sub 1}, were assigned in the positive-ion spectrum. Among the identified sulfur compounds, the S{sub 1} class species was dominant. The most abundant S{sub 1} class species increase associated with the DBE value and carbon number increasing which also indicates the evolution of organic sulfur compounds in TSR is from the labile series to the stable one. In pure blank pyrolysis experiments with crude oil cracking without TSR, different composition and distribution of organic sulfur compounds in oil phase products were seen from mass spectra in order to evaluate their pyrolysis behaviors without MgSO{sub 4}. FT-IR and XRD were used in analyzing the products of solid phases. Two distinct crystallographic phases MgO and MgSO{sub 4} are found to coexist in the products which demonstrated the transformation of inorganic sulfur compounds into organosulfur compounds exist in TSR.

  18. Magnetic properties and electronic structure of neptunyl(VI) complexes: wavefunctions, orbitals, and crystal-field models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendron, Frederic; Pritchard, Ben; Autschbach, Jochen [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Paez-Hernandez, Dayan; Bolvin, Helene [Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie Quantiques, Universite Toulouse 3 (France); Notter, Francois-Paul [Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique, Universite de Strasbourg (France)

    2014-06-23

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of neptunyl(VI), NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, and two neptunyl complexes, [NpO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sup -} and [NpO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2-}, were studied with a combination of theoretical methods: ab initio relativistic wavefunction methods and density functional theory (DFT), as well as crystal-field (CF) models with parameters extracted from the ab initio calculations. Natural orbitals for electron density and spin magnetization from wavefunctions including spin-orbit coupling were employed to analyze the connection between the electronic structure and magnetic properties, and to link the results from CF models to the ab initio data. Free complex ions and systems embedded in a crystal environment were studied. Of prime interest were the electron paramagnetic resonance g-factors and their relation to the complex geometry, ligand coordination, and nature of the nonbonding 5f orbitals. The g-factors were calculated for the ground and excited states. For [NpO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2-}, a strong influence of the environment of the complex on its magnetic behavior was demonstrated. Kohn-Sham DFT with standard functionals can produce reasonable g-factors as long as the calculation converges to a solution resembling the electronic state of interest. However, this is not always straightforward. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Hygroscopicity of organic compounds from biomass burning and their influence on the water uptake of mixed organic-ammonium sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, T.; Zuend, A.; Wang, W. G.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ge, M. F.

    2014-05-01

    Hygroscopic behavior of organic compounds, including levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and humic acid, and their effects on the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate (AS) in internally mixed particles are studied by a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The organic compounds used represent pyrolysis products of wood that are emitted from biomass burning sources. It is found that humic acid aerosol particles only slightly take up water, starting at RH above ∼70%. This is contrasted by the continuous water absorption of levoglucosan aerosol particles in the range 5-90% RH. However, no hygroscopic growth is observed for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles. Predicted water uptake using the ideal solution theory, the AIOMFAC model and the E-AIM (with UNIFAC) model are consistent with measured hygroscopic growth factors of levoglucosan. However, the use of these models without consideration of crystalline organic phases is not appropriate to describe the hygroscopicity of organics that do not exhibit continuous water uptake, such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and humic acid. Mixed aerosol particles consisting of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, or humic acid with different organic mass fractions, take up a reduced amount of water above 80% RH (above AS deliquescence) relative to pure ammonium sulfate aerosol particles of the same mass. Hygroscopic growth of mixtures of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan with different organic mass fractions agree well with the predictions of the thermodynamic models. Use of the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation and AIOMFAC model lead to good agreement with measured growth factors of mixtures of ammonium sulfate with 4-hydrobenxybenzoic acid assuming an insoluble organic phase. Deviations of model predictions from the HTDMA measurement are mainly due to the occurrence of a microscopical solid phase restructuring at increased humidity (morphology effects), which are not

  20. Effects of thermal maturation and thermochemical sulfate reduction on compound-specific sulfur isotopic compositions of organosulfur compounds in Phosphoria oils from the Bighorn Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Said-Ahamed, Ward; Lillis, Paul G.; Shawar, Lubna; Amrani, Alon

    2017-01-01

    Compound-specific sulfur isotope analysis was applied to a suite of 18 crude oils generated from the Permian Phosphoria Formation in the Bighorn Basin, western USA. These oils were generated at various levels of thermal maturity and some experienced thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). This is the first study to examine the effects of thermal maturation on stable sulfur isotopic compositions of individual organosulfur compounds (OSCs) in crude oil. A general trend of 34S enrichment in all of the studied compounds with increasing thermal maturity was observed, with the δ34S values of alkyl-benzothiophenes (BTs) tending to be enriched in 34S relative to those of the alkyl-dibenzothiophenes (DBTs) in lower-maturity oils. As thermal maturity increases, δ34S values of both BTs and DBTs become progressively heavier, but the difference in the average δ34S value of the BTs and DBTs (Δ34S BT-DBT) decreases. Differences in the isotopic response to thermal stress exhibited by these two compound classes are considered to be the result of relative differences in their thermal stabilities. TSR-altered Bighorn Basin oils have OSCs that are generally enriched in 34S relative to non-TSR-altered oils, with the BTs being enriched in 34S relative to the DBTs, similar to the findings of previous studies. However, several oils that were previously interpreted to have been exposed to minor TSR have Δ34S BT-DBT values that do not support this interpretation. The δ34S values of the BTs and DBTs in some of these oils suggest that they did not experience TSR, but were derived from a more thermally mature source. The heaviest δ34S values observed in the OSCs are enriched in 34S by up to 10‰ relative to that of Permian anhydrite in the Bighorn Basin, suggesting that there may be an alternate or additional source of sulfate in some parts of the basin. These results indicate that the sulfur isotopic composition of OSCs in oil provides a sensitive indicator for the extent of TSR

  1. Effect of Sodium Sulfate, Ammonium Chloride, Ammonium Nitrate, and Salt Mixtures on Aqueous Phase Partitioning of Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    2016-12-06

    Dissolved inorganic salts influence the partitioning of organic compounds into the aqueous phase. This influence is especially significant in atmospheric aerosol, which usually contains large amounts of ions, including sodium, ammonium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. However, empirical data on this salt effect are very sparse. Here, the partitioning of numerous organic compounds into solutions of Na 2 SO 4 , NH 4 Cl, and NH 4 NO 3 was measured and compared with existing data for NaCl and (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Salt mixtures were also tested to establish whether the salt effect is additive. In general, the salt effect showed a decreasing trend of Na 2 SO 4 > (NH) 2 SO 4 > NaCl > NH 4 Cl > NH 4 NO 3 for the studied organic compounds, implying the following relative strength of the salt effect of individual anions: SO 4 2- > Cl - > NO 3 - and of cations: Na + > NH 4 + . The salt effect of different salts is moderately correlated. Predictive models for the salt effect were developed based on the experimental data. The experimental data indicate that the salt effect of mixtures may not be entirely additive. However, the deviation from additivity, if it exists, is small. Data of very high quality are required to establish whether the effect of constituent ions or salts is additive or not.

  2. Incorporation of sulfate or selenate groups into oxotellurates(IV). I. Calcium, cadmium, and strontium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, Matthias; Shirkhanlou, Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Seven new mixed oxochalcogenate compounds in the systems M II /X VI /Te IV /O/(H), (M II = Ca, Cd, Sr; X VI = S, Se) were obtained under hydrothermal conditions (210 C, one week). Crystal structure determinations based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data revealed the compositions Ca 3 (SeO 4 )(TeO 3 ) 2 , Ca 3 (SeO 4 )(Te 3 O 8 ), Cd 3 (SeO 4 )(Te 3 O 8 ), Cd 3 (H 2 O)(SO 4 )(Te 3 O 8 ), Cd 4 (SO 4 )(TeO 3 ) 3 , Cd 5 (SO 4 ) 2 (TeO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 , and Sr 3 (H 2 O) 2 (SeO 4 )(TeO 3 ) 2 for these phases. Peculiar features of the crystal structures of Ca 3 (SeO 4 )(TeO 3 ) 2 , Ca 3 (SeO 4 )(Te 3 O 8 ), Cd 3 (SeO 4 )(Te 3 O 8 ), Cd 3 (H 2 O)(SO 4 )(Te 3 O 8 ), and Sr 3 (H 2 O) 2 (SeO 4 )(TeO 3 ) 2 are metal-oxotellurate(IV) layers connected by bridging XO 4 tetrahedra and/or by hydrogen-bonding interactions involving hydroxyl or water groups, whereas Cd 4 (SO 4 )(TeO 3 ) 3 and Cd 5 (SO 4 ) 2 (TeO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 crystallize as framework structures. Common to all crystal structures is the stereoactivity of the Te IV electron lone pair for each oxotellurate(IV) unit, pointing either into the inter-layer space, or into channels and cavities in the crystal structures. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Separation of pharmacologically active nitrogen-containing compounds on silica gels modified with 6,10-ionene, dextran sulfate, and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioutsi, A. N.; Shapovalova, E. N.; Ioutsi, V. A.; Mazhuga, A. G.; Shpigun, O. A.

    2017-12-01

    New stationary phases for HPLC are obtained via layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolytes and studied: (1) silica gel modified layer-by-layer with 6,10-ionene and dextran sulfate (Sorbent 1); (2) silica gel twice subjected to the above modification (Sorbent 2); and (3) silica gel modified with 6,10-ionene, gold nanoparticles, and dextran sulfate (Sorbent 3). The effect the content of the organic solvent in the mobile phase and the concentration and pH of the buffer solution have on the chromatographic behavior of several pharmacologically active nitrogen-containing compounds is studied. The sorbents are stable during the process and allow the effective separation of beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, alpha-agonists, and antihistamines. A mixture of caffeine, nadolol, tetrahydrozoline, pindolol, orphenadrine, doxylamine, carbinoxamine, and chlorphenamine is separated in 6.5 min on the silica gel modified with 6,10-ionene, gold nanoparticles, and dextran sulfate.

  4. Immobilization of surface active compounds on polymer supports using glow discharge processess. 1. Sodium dodecyl sulfate on poly(propylene)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlingen, J.G.A.; Terlingen, Johannes G.A.; Feijen, Jan; Hoffman, Allan S.

    1993-01-01

    A new method has been developed in which a reversibly adsorbed layer of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) is covalently immobilized in one step onto a hydrophobic substrate (poly(propylene), PP) by applying an argon plasma treatment. The adsorption of SDS from aqueous solutions onto PP

  5. Chondroitin Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of osteoarthritis. There is some evidence that a skin cream containing chondroitin sulfate in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor can reduce osteoarthritis symptoms. However, ...

  6. Formation of brominated disinfection byproducts from natural organic matter isolates and model compounds in a sulfate radical-based oxidation process

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuru

    2014-12-16

    A sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process (SR-AOP) has received increasing application interest for the removal of water/wastewater contaminants. However, limited knowledge is available on its side effects. This study investigated the side effects in terms of the production of total organic bromine (TOBr) and brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) in the presence of bromide ion and organic matter in water. Sulfate radical was generated by heterogeneous catalytic activation of peroxymonosulfate. Isolated natural organic matter (NOM) fractions as well as low molecular weight (LMW) compounds were used as model organic matter. Considerable amounts of TOBr were produced by SR-AOP, where bromoform (TBM) and dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) were identified as dominant Br-DBPs. In general, SR-AOP favored the formation of DBAA, which is quite distinct from bromination with HOBr/OBr- (more TBM production). SR-AOP experimental results indicate that bromine incorporation is distributed among both hydrophobic and hydrophilic NOM fractions. Studies on model precursors reveal that LMW acids are reactive TBM precursors (citric acid > succinic acid > pyruvic acid > maleic acid). High DBAA formation from citric acid, aspartic acid, and asparagine was observed; meanwhile aspartic acid and asparagine were the major precursors of dibromoacetonitrile and dibromoacetamide, respectively.

  7. Hygroscopicity of organic surrogate compounds from biomass burning and their effect on the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate in mixed aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ting; Zuend, Andreas; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Wang, Weigang; Ge, Maofa

    2018-01-01

    Hygroscopic growth factors of organic surrogate compounds representing biomass burning and mixed organic-inorganic aerosol particles exhibit variability during dehydration experiments depending on their chemical composition, which we observed using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). We observed that levoglucosan and humic acid aerosol particles release water upon dehumidification in the range from 90 to 5 % relative humidity (RH). However, 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles remain in the solid state upon dehumidification and exhibit a small shrinking in size at higher RH compared to the dry size. For example, the measured growth factor of 4-hyroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles is ˜ 0.96 at 90 % RH. The measurements were accompanied by RH-dependent thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) model and Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM), the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation, and a fitted hygroscopicity expression. We observed several effects of organic components on the hygroscopicity behavior of mixtures containing ammonium sulfate (AS) in relation to the different mass fractions of organic compounds: (1) a shift of efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of ammonium sulfate to higher RH due to the presence of 25 wt % levoglucosan in the mixture. (2) There is a distinct efflorescence transition at 25 % RH for mixtures consisting of 25 wt % of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid compared to the ERH at 35 % for organic-free AS particles. (3) There is indication for a liquid-to-solid phase transition of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in the mixed particles during dehydration. (4) A humic acid component shows no significant effect on the efflorescence of AS in mixed aerosol particles. In addition, consideration of a composition-dependent degree of dissolution of crystallization AS (solid-liquid equilibrium) in the AIOMFAC and E-AIM models leads to a

  8. Persistent Epithelial Defects and Corneal Opacity After Collagen Cross-Linking With Substitution of Dextran (T-500) With Dextran Sulfate in Compounded Topical Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höllhumer, Roland; Watson, Stephanie; Beckingsale, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Collagen cross-linking (CXL) is a commonly performed procedure to prevent the progression of keratoconus. Riboflavin is an essential part of the procedure, which facilitates both the cross-linking process and protection of intraocular structures. Dextran can be added to riboflavin to create an isotonic solution. This case report highlights the importance of compounding riboflavin with the correct dextran solution. A retrospective case series. Six eyes of 4 male patients with keratoconus aged from 20 to 38 years underwent CXL with substitution of 20% dextran (T-500) with 20% dextran sulfate in a compounded riboflavin 0.1% solution. Postoperatively, persistent corneal epithelial defects, stromal haze, and then scarring occurred. Corneal transplantation was performed for visual rehabilitation but was complicated by graft rejection followed by failure (n = 1 eye), dehiscence (n = 4), cataract (n = 2), post-laser ablation haze (n = 1), and steroid-induced glaucoma (n = 2). The visual outcome was riboflavin solutions during CXL results in loss of vision from permanent corneal opacity. Residual host changes may compromise the results of corneal transplantation.

  9. Ammonium Sulfate Improves Detection of Hydrophilic Quaternary Ammonium Compounds through Decreased Ion Suppression in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Eiji; Masaki, Noritaka; Matsushita, Shoko; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2015-11-17

    Hydrophilic quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) include derivatives of carnitine (Car) or choline, which are known to have essential bioactivities. Here we developed a technique for improving the detection of hydrophilic QACs using ammonium sulfate (AS) in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS). In MALDI mass spectrometry for brain homogenates, the addition of AS greatly increased the signal intensities of Car, acetylcarnitine (AcCar), and glycerophosphocholine (GPC) by approximately 300-, 700-, and 2500-fold. The marked improvement required a higher AS concentration than that needed for suppressing the potassium adduction on phosphatidylcholine and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Adding AS also increased the signal intensities of Car, AcCar, and GPC by approximately 10-, 20-, and 40-fold in MALDI-IMS. Consequently, the distributions of five hydrophilic QACs (Car, AcCar, GPC, choline, and phosphocholine) were simultaneously visualized by this technique. The distinct mechanism from other techniques such as improved matrix application, derivatization, or postionization suggests the great potential of AS addition to achieve higher sensitivity of MALDI-IMS for various analytes.

  10. Improved synthesis of glycine, taurine and sulfate conjugated bile acids as reference compounds and internal standards for ESI-MS/MS urinary profiling of inborn errors of bile acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donazzolo, Elena; Gucciardi, Antonina; Mazzier, Daniela; Peggion, Cristina; Pirillo, Paola; Naturale, Mauro; Moretto, Alessandro; Giordano, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Bile acid synthesis defects are rare genetic disorders characterized by a failure to produce normal bile acids (BAs), and by an accumulation of unusual and intermediary cholanoids. Measurements of cholanoids in urine samples by mass spectrometry are a gold standard for the diagnosis of these diseases. In this work improved methods for the chemical synthesis of 30 BAs conjugated with glycine, taurine and sulfate were developed. Diethyl phosphorocyanidate (DEPC) and diphenyl phosphoryl azide (DPPA) were used as coupling reagents for glycine and taurine conjugation. Sulfated BAs were obtained by sulfur trioxide-triethylamine complex (SO 3 -TEA) as sulfating agent and thereafter conjugated with glycine and taurine. All products were characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The use of these compounds as internal standards allows an improved accuracy of both identification and quantification of urinary bile acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pb4(BO3)2(SO4) and Pb2[(BO2)(OH)](SO4): New lead(II) borate-sulfate mixed-anion compounds with two types of 3D network structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ting-Ting; Wang, Wen-Wen; Hu, Chun-Li; Xu, Xiang; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2018-04-01

    Two new lead(II) borate-sulfate mixed-anion compounds, namely, Pb4(BO3)2(SO4) and Pb2[(BO2)(OH)](SO4), have been prepared by using high-temperature melt method or hydrothermal reaction. These compounds exhibit two different types of 3D structures composed of the same anionic units of BO3 triangles and SO4 tetrahedra which are interconnected by lead(II) cations. In Pb4(BO3)2(SO4), the lead(II) ions are bridged by borate anions into 3D [Pb4(BO3)2]2+ architectures with 1D tunnels of 8-member rings along the a-axis, which are filled by the sulfate anions. In Pb2[(BO2)(OH)](SO4), the lead(II) ions are interconnected by borate and sulfate anions into 2D Pb-B-O and Pb-S-O layers parallel to the ab plane, respectively, and these layers are further condensed into the 3D lead(II) borate-sulfate framework. TGA and DSC studies indicate that Pb4(BO3)2(SO4) is congruently melting with a melting point of 689 °C whereas Pb2[(BO2)(OH)](SO4) decomposes at approximately 335 °C. UV/Vis/NIR optical diffuse reflectance spectrum measurements reveal the optical band gaps of 4.03 and 4.08 eV for Pb4(BO3)2(SO4) and Pb2[(BO2)(OH)](SO4), respectively. Furthermore, the electronic structures of Pb4(BO3)2(SO4) have also been calculated.

  12. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  13. Investigation of isotopic and biomolecular approaches as new bio-indicators for long term natural attenuation of monoaromatic compounds in deep terrestrial aquifers by gram-positive sporulated sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfotomaculum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eAüllo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Deep subsurface aquifers despite difficult access, represent important water resources and, at the same time, are key locations for subsurface engineering activities for the oil and gas industries, geothermal energy and CO2 or energy storage. Formation water originating from a 760 meter-deep geological gas storage aquifer was sampled and microcosms were set up to test the biodegradation potential of BTEX by indigenous microorganisms. After a long incubation period, with several subcultures, a sulfate-reducing consortium composed of only two Desulfotomaculum populations was observed able to degrade benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, extending the number of hydrocarbonoclastic–related species among the Desulfotomaculum genus. Furthermore, we were able to couple specific carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation during benzene removal and the results obtained by dual compound specific isotope analysis (εC = -2.4 ‰ ± 0.3 ‰; εH = -57 ‰ ± 0.98 ‰; AKIEC: 1.0146 ± 0.0009 and AKIEH: 1.5184 ± 0.0283 were close to those obtained previously in sulfate-reducing conditions: this finding could confirm the existence of a common enzymatic reaction involving sulfate-reducers to activate benzene anaerobically. Although we cannot assign the role of each population of Desulfotomaculum in the mono-aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, this study suggests an important role of the genus Desulfotomaculum as potential biodegrader among indigenous populations in subsurface habitats. This community represents the simplest model of benzene-degrading anaerobes originating from the deepest subterranean settings ever described. As Desulfotomaculum species are often encountered in subsurface environments, this study provides some interesting results for assessing the natural response of these specific hydrologic systems in response to BTEX contamination during remediation projects.

  14. Effect of ligand nature and geometry of its surrounding on electron absorption spectra of NpO22+ and PuO22+ compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, E.I.; Tebelev, L.G.; Melkaya, R.F.; Rykov, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Electron absorption spectra of actinide compounds with the symmetry of the nearest surrounding of actinyl-ions as follows: Dsub(2h)-AnO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 xnH 2 O, AnO 2 (CH 3 COO) 2 x2H 2 O; Dsub(3h)-MAnO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 (M-K, Rb, Cs), NaAnO 2 (CH 3 COO) 3 , (NH 4 ) 4 AnO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ; Dsub(4h)-Cs 2 AnO 2 Cl 4 , where An-U, Np, Pb, are measured at room temperature. It is established that position, intensity and form of absorption bands in neptunyl compound spectra are sensible equally to geometry of coordination sphere and to ligand nature. The character of the change of plutonyl compound spectra is the same as of neptunyl ones: it is determined both by surrounding geometry and chemical nature of ligands. It is shown that in the near infrared region ligand effect on plutonyl compound spectra with the symmetry of anion complex Dsub(3h) is weaker than in the visible region

  15. Significant role of organic sulfur in supporting sedimentary sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Li, Jiying; Katsev, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) is a major carbon mineralization pathway in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater, which regulates the production of hydrogen sulfide and the mobilization rates of biologically important elements such as phosphorus and mercury. It has been widely assumed that water-column sulfate is the main sulfur source to fuel this reaction in sediments. While this assumption may be justified in high-sulfate environments such as modern seawater, we argue that in low-sulfate environments mineralization of organic sulfur compounds can be an important source of sulfate. Using a reaction-transport model, we investigate the production of sulfate from sulfur-containing organic matter for a range of environments. The results show that in low sulfate environments (50%) of sulfate reduction. In well-oxygenated systems, porewater sulfate profiles often exhibit sub-interface peaks so that sulfate fluxes are directed out of the sediment. Our measurements in Lake Superior, the world's largest lake, corroborate this conclusion: offshore sediments act as sources rather than sinks of sulfate for the water column, and sediment DSR is supported entirely by the in-sediment production of sulfate. Sulfate reduction rates are correlated to the depth of oxygen penetration and strongly regulated by the supply of reactive organic matter; rate co-regulation by sulfate availability becomes appreciable below 500 μM level. The results indicate the need to consider the mineralization of organic sulfur in the biogeochemical cycling in low-sulfate environments, including several of the world's largest freshwater bodies, deep subsurface, and possibly the sulfate-poor oceans of the Early Earth.

  16. Sulfation of ractopamine and salbutamol by the human cytosolic sulfotransferases

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, KyoungA; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Davidson, Garrett; Liu, Ming-Yih; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2012-01-01

    Feed additives such as ractopamine and salbutamol are pharmacologically active compounds, acting primarily as β-adrenergic agonists. This study was designed to investigate whether the sulfation of ractopamine and salbutamol may occur under the metabolic conditions and to identify the human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) that are capable of sulfating two major feed additive compounds, ractopamine and salbutamol. A metabolic labelling study showed the generation and release of [35S]sulfate...

  17. Neptunium sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmann, H.

    1983-01-01

    The author of the dissertation was able to prepare a number of hitherto unknown Np(VI) double sulphates and to characterize all substances by powder radiography. In the 400 to 800 0 C range, the salts decomposed, and SO 3 was released. The reaction products were either defined alkali/Np mixed oxides or NpO 2 with, in some cases, admixtures of another phase. In a few cases, it was possible to synthesize analogous uranium compounds and to study these by radiographic methods. (orig./EF) [de

  18. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the

  19. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Plugge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  20. Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Coates, J.D.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

  1. Sulfation of ractopamine and salbutamol by the human cytosolic sulfotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyounga; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Davidson, Garrett; Liu, Ming-Yih; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2012-09-01

    Feed additives such as ractopamine and salbutamol are pharmacologically active compounds, acting primarily as β-adrenergic agonists. This study was designed to investigate whether the sulfation of ractopamine and salbutamol may occur under the metabolic conditions and to identify the human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) that are capable of sulfating two major feed additive compounds, ractopamine and salbutamol. A metabolic labelling study showed the generation and release of [(35)S]sulfated ractopamine and salbutamol by HepG2 human hepatoma cells labelled with [(35)S]sulfate in the presence of these two compounds. A systematic analysis using 11 purified human SULTs revealed SULT1A3 as the major SULT responsible for the sulfation of ractopamine and salbutamol. The pH dependence and kinetic parameters were analyzed. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of ractopamine and salbutamol on SULT1A3-mediated dopamine sulfation were investigated. Cytosol or S9 fractions of human lung, liver, kidney and small intestine were examined to verify the presence of ractopamine-/salbutamol-sulfating activity in vivo. Of the four human organs, the small intestine displayed the highest activity towards both compounds. Collectively, these results imply that the sulfation mediated by SULT1A3 may play an important role in the metabolism and detoxification of ractopamine and salbutamol.

  2. Genesis and solution chemistry of acid sulfate soils in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1976-01-01

    To study short-term and long-term chemical processes in periodically flooded acid sulfate soils in the Bangkok Plain and in various smaller coastal plains along the Gulf of Thailand, 16 acid sulfate soils and one non-acid marine soil were examined for distribution of iron-sulfur compounds, elemental

  3. p-Cresyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gryp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available If chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with an impairment of kidney function, several uremic solutes are retained. Some of these exert toxic effects, which are called uremic toxins. p-Cresyl sulfate (pCS is a prototype protein-bound uremic toxin to which many biological and biochemical (toxic effects have been attributed. In addition, increased levels of pCS have been associated with worsening outcomes in CKD patients. pCS finds its origin in the intestine where gut bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine and phenylalanine, leading to phenolic end products, of which pCS is one of the components. In this review we summarize the biological effects of pCS and its metabolic origin in the intestine. It appears that, according to in vitro studies, the intestinal bacteria generating phenolic compounds mainly belong to the families Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Veillonellaceae. Since pCS remains difficult to remove by dialysis, the gut microbiota could be a future target to decrease pCS levels and its toxicity, even at earlier stages of CKD, aiming at slowing down the progression of the disease and decreasing the cardiovascular burden.

  4. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  5. Structure of cobalt sulfate tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellersohn, T.

    1992-01-01

    Cobalt(II) sulfate tetrahydrate-d 8 , CoSO 4 -4D 2 O, mineralogical name aplowite, monoclinic, P2 1 /n a = 5.952 (1), b = 13.576 (2), c = 7.908 (1) A. The title compound belongs to the rozenite group of minerals. The characteristic structural units are [Co 2 (SO 4 ) 2 (D 2 O) 8 ] heteropolyhedral clusters which are linked by hydrogen bonds of medium strength. One of the water molecules is very asymmetrically bonded, with one H (D) atom being involved in a long bifurcated hydrogen bond. (orig.)

  6. METABOLISM OF SULFATE-REDUCING PROKARYOTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HANSEN, TA

    1994-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction is carried out by a heterogeneous group of bacteria and archaea that occur in environments with temperatures up to 105 degrees C. As a group together they have the capacity to metabolize a wide variety of compounds ranging from hydrogen via typical organic

  7. Biodegradability and biodegradation pathways of endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryota; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    Endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate are persistent organic pollutants that cause serious environmental problems. Although these compounds are already prohibited in many countries, residues can be detected in soils with a history of endosulfan application. Endosulfan is transformed in the environment into endosulfan sulfate, which is a toxic and persistent metabolite. However, some microorganisms can degrade endosulfan without producing endosulfan sulfate, and some can degrade endosulfan sulfate. Therefore, biodegradation has the potential to clean up soil contaminated with endosulfan. In this review, we provide an overview of aerobic endosulfan degradation by bacteria and fungi, and a summary of recent advances and prospects in this research field.

  8. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    1970-01-01

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation...

  9. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... that the synthesis of heparan sulfate is tightly controlled. Although genomics has identified the enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan synthesis in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, the regulation of the process is not understood. Moreover, the localization of the various enzymes in the Golgi apparatus has......-quality resolution of the distribution of enzymes. The EXT2 protein, which when combined as heterodimers with EXT1 comprises the major polymerase in heparan sulfate synthesis, has been studied in depth. All the data are consistent with a cis-Golgi distribution and provide a starting point to establish whether all...

  10. New Bioactive Alkyl Sulfates from Mediterranean Tunicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuisa Menna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of two species of marine ascidians, Aplidium elegans and Ciona edwardsii, collected in Mediterranean area, led to isolation of a series of alkyl sulfates (compounds 1–5 including three new molecules 1–3. Structures of the new metabolites have been elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Based on previously reported cytotoxic activity of these type of molecules, compounds 1–3 have been tested for their effects on the growth of two cell lines, J774A.1 (BALB/c murine macrophages and C6 (rat glioma in vitro. Compounds 1 and 2 induced selective concentration-dependent mortality on J774A.1 cells.

  11. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H. Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  12. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are allergic to ferrous sulfate, any other medications tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from ...

  13. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recent Public Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home About Cancer Cancer Treatment Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) ... This causes tissues to die and muscle to waste away, and the patient loses weight. Hydrazine sulfate ...

  14. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  15. Biotechnological aspects of anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulepas, R.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reduction (SR) can be used for the removal and recovery of metals and oxidized sulfur compounds from waste streams. Sulfate-reducing bacteria reduce oxidized sulfur compounds to sulfide. Subsequently, sulfide can precipitate dissolved metals or can be oxidized to elemental sulfur. Both metal

  16. Chemoenzymatic Preparation and Biophysical Properties of Sulfated Quercetin Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Valentová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated quercetin derivatives are important authentic standards for metabolic studies. Quercetin-3′-O-sulfate, quercetin-4′-O-sulfate, and quercetin-3-O-sulfate as well as quercetin-di-O-sulfate mixture (quercetin-7,3′-di-O-sulfate, quercetin-7,4′-di-O-sulfate, and quercetin-3′,4′-di-O-sulfate were synthetized by arylsulfotransferase from Desulfitobacterium hafniense. Purified monosulfates and disulfates were fully characterized using MS and NMR and tested for their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+ and N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD radical scavenging, Folin-Ciocalteau reduction (FCR, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and anti-lipoperoxidant activities in rat liver microsomes damaged by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Although, as expected, the sulfated metabolites were usually less active than quercetin, they remained still effective antiradical and reducing agents. Quercetin-3′-O-sulfate was more efficient than quercetin-4′-O-sulfate in DPPH and FCR assays. In contrast, quercetin-4′-O-sulfate was the best ferric reductant and lipoperoxidation inhibitor. The capacity to scavenge ABTS+• and DMPD was comparable for all substances, except for disulfates, which were the most efficient. Quantum calculations and molecular dynamics simulations on membrane models supported rationalization of free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition. These results clearly showed that individual metabolites of food bioactives can markedly differ in their biological activity. Therefore, a systematic and thorough investigation of all bioavailable metabolites with respect to native compounds is needed when evaluating food health benefits.

  17. Syndecan heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Angélica Maciel; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; Multhaupt, Hinke A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all animal cells express heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Syndecans are a major group of transmembrane proteoglycans functioning as receptors that mediate signal transmission from the extracellular microenvironment to the cell. Their hep......Virtually all animal cells express heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Syndecans are a major group of transmembrane proteoglycans functioning as receptors that mediate signal transmission from the extracellular microenvironment to the cell....... Their heparan sulfate chains, due to their vast structural diversity, interact with a wide array of ligands including potent regulators of adhesion, migration, growth and survival. Frequently, ligands interact with cell surface heparan sulfate in conjunction with high affinity receptors. The consequent...... signaling can therefore be complex, but it is now known that syndecans are capable of independent signaling. This review is divided in two sections, and will first discuss how the assembly of heparan sulfate, the anabolic process, encodes information related to ligand binding and signaling. Second, we...

  18. A New Ursane type Sulfated Saponin from Zygophyllum fabago Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Suleman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One new sulfated saponin 3β,23,30-trihydroxyurs-20-en-28-al-23-sulfate 3-O-β- D -xylopyranoside (Zygofaboside C; 1 was purified from the water soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. The structure of the compound was elucidated through spectral studies, especially 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-FAB mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data.

  19. Incorporation of Monovalent Cations in Sulfate Green Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Dideriksen, K.; Katz, A.

    2014-01-01

    with water showed that Na+ and K+ were structurally fixed in the interlayer, whereas Rb+ and Cs+ could be removed, resulting in a decrease in the basal layer spacing. The incorporation of cations in the interlayer opens up new possibilities for the use of sulfate green rust for exchange reactions with both......Green rust is a naturally occurring layered mixed-valent ferrous-ferric hydroxide, which can react with a range of redox-active compounds. Sulfate-bearing green rust is generally thought to have interlayers composed of sulfate and water. Here, we provide evidence that the interlayers also contain...

  20. Accessing alkali-free NASICON-type compounds through mixed oxoanion sol–gel chemistry: Hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate, H{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x} (x=0.5–1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mieritz, Daniel; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Seo, Dong-Kyun, E-mail: dseo@asu.edu

    2016-10-15

    We report a direct sol–gel synthesis and characterization of new proton-containing, rhombohedral NASICION-type titanium compounds with mixed phosphate and sulfate oxoanions. The synthetic conditions were established by utilizing peroxide ion as a decomposable and stabilizing ligand for titanyl ions in the presence of phosphates in a strong acidic medium. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), induction-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopic (ICP-OES) elemental analysis, and Raman and {sup 1}H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopic studies have determined the presence of sulfate and proton ions in the structure, for which the compositional range has been found to be H{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x} (x=0.5–1). The particulate products exhibit a nanocrystalline nature observed through characterization with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The N{sub 2} sorption isotherm measurements and subsequent Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) analyses confirmed the presence of the textural meso- and macropores in the materials. Future studies would determine the potential of the new compounds in various applications as battery materials, proton conductors and solid acid catalysts. - Graphical abstract: A series of proton-containing NASICON-type compounds, H{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x} (x=0.5–1), were discovered through a new sol–gel synthetic method that utilizes peroxide ion as a decomposable and stabilizing ligand for titanyl ions in the presence of phosphates in a strong acidic medium.

  1. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  2. DHEA-sulfate test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease in DHEA sulfate may be due to: Adrenal gland disorders that produce lower than normal amounts of adrenal ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Adrenal Gland Disorders Read more Ovarian Cysts Read more NIH MedlinePlus ...

  3. Protein Precipitation Using Ammonium Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Wingfield, Paul T.

    2001-01-01

    The basic theory of protein precipitation by addition of ammonium sulfate is presented and the most common applications are listed, Tables are provided for calculating the appropriate amount of ammonium sulfate to add to a particular protein solution.

  4. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting ...... (sulfate:bicarbonate exchange) and self-exchange diffusion take place. Irrespective of the mechanism of transport, sulfate is probably transported as a monovalent anion species....

  5. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H 2 35 SO 4 ) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  6. Isolation and characterization of a unique sulfated ganglioside, sulfated GM1a, from rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadano-Aritomi, K; Kubo, H; Ireland, P; Hikita, T; Ishizuka, I

    1998-04-01

    A novel class of sulfoglycosphingolipid, a sulfate analog of ganglioside, was isolated from mammals for the first time. This sulfated ganglioside was purified from rat kidney by column chromatographies on anion exchangers and silica beads. One-dimensional 1H NMR, compositional and permethylation analyses showed that this glycolipid has a Gg4Cer core with 1 mol each of sulfate ester and N- glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) at C-3 of galactose. The major ceramide consisted of nonhydroxy fatty acids (24:0 and 22:0) and 4-hydroxysphinganine (t18:0), deduced from the compositional analysis and negative liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (LSIMS). Mild acid hydrolysis and solvolysis produced compounds which correspond to Gg4Cer IV3-sulfate (SM1b) and II3NeuGcalpha-Gg4Cer (GM1a (NeuGc)), respectively. The abundant ions characteristic for sulfated mono- and disaccharides in high-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra were consistent with the structure at the non-reducing terminus, HSO3 -O- Hex -O- HexNAc- rather than the alternative structure, NeuGc -O- Hex -O- HexNAc-. The two-dimensional 1H NMR further evidenced the presence of a 3 -O- sulfated galactose in the molecule. From these results the complete structure was proposed to be HSO3-3Galbeta-3GalNAcbeta-4(NeuGcalpha-3)Galb eta-4Glcbeta-1Cer (II3NeuGcalpha-Gg4Cer IV3-sulfate).

  7. Dissolution of sulfate scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hen, J.

    1991-11-26

    This patent describes a composition for the removal of sulfate scale from surfaces. It comprises: an aqueous solution of about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of an aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) containing 1 to 4 amino groups or a salt thereof, and about 0.1 to 1.0 molar concentration of a second component which is diethylenetriaminepenta (methylenephosphonic acid) (DTPMP) or a salt thereof, or aminotri (methylenephosphonic acid) (ATMP) or a salt thereof as an internal phase enveloped by a hydrocarbon membrane phase which is itself emulsified in an external aqueous phase, the hydrocarbon membrane phase continuing a complexing agent weaker for the cations of the sulfate scale than the APCA and DTPMP or ATMP, any complexing agent for the cations in the external aqueous phase being weaker than that in the hydrocarbon membrane phase.

  8. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent

  9. Off limits: sulfate below the sulfate-methane transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Benjamin; Arnold, Gail; Røy, Hans; Müller, Inigo; Jørgensen, Bo

    2016-07-01

    One of the most intriguing recent discoveries in biogeochemistry is the ubiquity of cryptic sulfur cycling. From subglacial lakes to marine oxygen minimum zones, and in marine sediments, cryptic sulfur cycling - the simultaneous sulfate consumption and production - has been observed. Though this process does not leave an imprint in the sulfur budget of the ambient environment - thus the term cryptic - it may have a massive impact on other element cycles and fundamentally change our understanding of biogeochemical processes in the subsurface. Classically, the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) in marine sediments is considered to be the boundary that delimits sulfate reduction from methanogenesis as the predominant terminal pathway of organic matter mineralization. Two sediment cores from Aarhus Bay, Denmark reveal the constant presence of sulfate (generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM) below the SMT. The sulfur and oxygen isotope signature of this deep sulfate (34S = 18.9‰, 18O = 7.7‰) was close to the isotope signature of bottom-seawater collected from the sampling site (34S = 19.8‰, 18O = 7.3‰). In one of the cores, oxygen isotope values of sulfate at the transition from the base of the SMT to the deep sulfate pool (18O = 4.5‰ to 6.8‰) were distinctly lighter than the deep sulfate pool. Our findings are consistent with a scenario where sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O is removed at the base of the SMT and replaced with isotopically light sulfate below. Here, we explore scenarios that explain this observation, ranging from sampling artifacts, such as contamination with seawater or auto-oxidation of sulfide - to the potential of sulfate generation in a section of the sediment column where sulfate is expected to be absent which enables reductive sulfur cycling, creating the conditions under which sulfate respiration can persist in the methanic zone.

  10. Euglena mitochondria and chloroplasts form tyrosine-O-sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidha, T.; Hanfstingl, U.; Schiff, J.A. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Mitochondria from light-grown wild-type Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris Cori or dark-grown mutant W{sub 10}BSmL incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, or with {sup 14}C-tyrosine, non-radioactive sulfate and ATP accumulate a labeled compound in the medium. Since this compound shows exact coelectrophoresis with tyrosine-O-sulfate (TOS) at pH 2.0, 5.8 or 8.0., yields sulfate and tyrosine on acid hydrolysis, and treatment with aryl sulfatase from Aerobacter aerogenes yields sulfate and tyrosine but no tyrosine methyl ester, it is identified as TOS. No TOS is found outside purified developing chloroplasts incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, but both chloroplasts and mitochondria form to {sup 35}S externally when incubated with adenosine 3{prime} phosphate 5{prime}phospho({sup 35}S) sulfate (PAP{sup 35}S). Since no tyrosine need be added, tyrosine is provided from endogenous sources. Although TOS is found in the free pool of Euglena cells it cannot be detected in proteins of cells or mucus ruling our sulfation of tyrosine of protein or incorporation of TOS into proteins. The system forming TOS is membrane-bound and may be involved in tyrosine transport.

  11. Enhanced sulfate reduction with acidogenic sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijie; Ren Nanqi; Wang Xu; Lee Duujong

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate reduction in a continuous flow, acidogenic reactor using molasses wastewater as the carbon source was studied at varying chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO 4 2- ) ratios. At a critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 2.7, neither COD nor sulfate were in excess for extra production of ethanol or acetate in the reactor. An acetic-type microbial metabolism was established with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) significantly consuming hydrogen and volatile fatty acids produced by acidogenic bacteria and hydrogen producing acetogens in degrading COD, thereby yielding sulfate removal rate >94.6%. A low critical COD/SO 4 2- ratio of 1.6 was also observed with the enriched ASRB population in reactor which overcomes the barrier to the treatment capability of sulfate-laden wastewater treatment with limited COD supply

  12. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies identified polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific congener PCB 11, and sulfate monoesters of two HO-PCBs reported to interact with sulfotransferases (PCB 39, no ortho chlorines, and PCB 53, 3 ortho chlorines). We tested these PCB sulfates and 4'-HO-PCB 3 as positive control for estrogenic, androgenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity in the E- and A-screen with human breast cancer MCF7-derived cells at 100 μM-1 pM concentrations. Only 4'-HO-PCB 3 was highly cytotoxic at 100 μM. We observed structure-activity relationships: compounds with a sulfate group in the chlorine-containing ring of PCB 3 (2PCB 3 and 3PCB 3 sulfate) showed no interaction with the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptor. The 4'-HO-PCB 3 and its sulfate ester had the highest estrogenic effect, but at 100-fold different concentrations, i.e., 1 and 100 μM, respectively. Four of the PCB sulfates were estrogenic (2'PCB 3, 4'PCB 3, 4'PCB 39, and 4'PCB 53 sulfates; at 100 μM). These sulfates and 3'PCB 3 sulfate also exhibited anti-estrogenic activity, but at nM and pM concentrations. The 4'PCB 3 sulfate (para-para' substituted) had the strongest androgenic activity, followed by 3'PCB 3, 4'PCB 53, 4PCB11, and 4PCB 39 sulfates and the 4'HO-PCB 3. In contrast, anti-androgenicity was only observed with the two compounds that have the sulfate group in ortho- or meta- position in the second ring (2'PCB 3 and 3'PCB 3 sulfate). No dose-response was observed in any screen, but, with exception of estrogenic activity (only seen

  13. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS......: A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions....... CONCLUSIONS: 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen....

  14. Biotechnological aspects of sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2010-01-01

    Biological sulfate reduction can be used for the removal and recovery of oxidized sulfur compounds and metals from waste streams. However, the costs of conventional electron donors, like hydrogen and ethanol, limit the application possibilities. Methane from natural gas or biogas would be a more

  15. Hyperfine interactions and structures of ferrous hydroxide and green rust II in sulfated aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olowe, A.A.; Genin, J.M.R.; Bauer, P.

    1988-01-01

    A sulfated ferrous hydroxide is obtained by mixing NaOH with melanterite depending on the R = [SO 4 -- ]/[OH - ] ratio and leading by oxidation to the green rust II transient compound. Hyperfine parameters are presented. (orig.)

  16. Protein Precipitation Using Ammonium Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The basic theory of protein precipitation by addition of ammonium sulfate is presented, and the most common applications are listed. Tables are provided for calculating the appropriate amount of ammonium sulfate to add to a particular protein solution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Off limits: sulfate below the sulfate-methane transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Brunner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most intriguing recent discoveries in biogeochemistry is the ubiquity of cryptic sulfur cycling. From subglacial lakes to marine oxygen minimum zones, and in marine sediments, cryptic sulfur cycling – the simultaneous sulfate consumption and production – has been observed. Though this process does not leave an imprint in the sulfur budget of the ambient environment – thus the term cryptic – it may have a massive impact on other element cycles and fundamentally change our understanding of biogeochemical processes in the subsurface.Classically, the sulfate-methane transition (SMT in marine sediments is considered to be the boundary that delimits sulfate reduction from methanogenesis as the predominant terminal pathway of organic matter mineralization. Two sediment cores from Aarhus Bay, Denmark reveal the constant presence of sulfate (generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM below the SMT. The sulfur and oxygen isotope signature of this deep sulfate (34S = 18.9‰, 18O = 7.7‰ was close to the isotope signature of bottom-seawater collected from the sampling site (34S = 19.8‰, 18O = 7.3‰. In one of the cores, oxygen isotope values of sulfate at the transition from the base of the SMT to the deep sulfate pool (18O = 4.5‰ to 6.8‰ were distinctly lighter than the deep sulfate pool.Our findings are consistent with a scenario where sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O is removed at the base of the SMT and replaced with isotopically light sulfate below. Here, we explore scenarios that explain this observation, ranging from sampling artifacts, such as contamination with seawater or auto-oxidation of sulfide – to the potential of sulfate generation in a section of the sediment column where sulfate is expected to be absent which enables reductive sulfur cycling, creating the conditions under which sulfate respiration can persist in the methanic zone.

  18. A review of biological sulfate conversions in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tian-wei; Xiang, Peng-yu; Mackey, Hamish R; Chi, Kun; Lu, Hui; Chui, Ho-kwong; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2014-11-15

    Treatment of waters contaminated with sulfur containing compounds (S) resulting from seawater intrusion, the use of seawater (e.g. seawater flushing, cooling) and industrial processes has become a challenging issue since around two thirds of the world's population live within 150 km of the coast. In the past, research has produced a number of bioengineered systems for remediation of industrial sulfate containing sewage and sulfur contaminated groundwater utilizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The majority of these studies are specific with SRB only or focusing on the microbiology rather than the engineered application. In this review, existing sulfate based biotechnologies and new approaches for sulfate contaminated waters treatment are discussed. The sulfur cycle connects with carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, thus a new platform of sulfur based biotechnologies incorporating sulfur cycle with other cycles can be developed, for the removal of sulfate and other pollutants (e.g. carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and metal) from wastewaters. All possible electron donors for sulfate reduction are summarized for further understanding of the S related biotechnologies including rates and benefits/drawbacks of each electron donor. A review of known SRB and their environmental preferences with regard to bioreactor operational parameters (e.g. pH, temperature, salinity etc.) shed light on the optimization of sulfur conversion-based biotechnologies. This review not only summarizes information from the current sulfur conversion-based biotechnologies for further optimization and understanding, but also offers new directions for sulfur related biotechnology development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sulfation of von Willebrand factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carew, J.A.; Browning, P.J.; Lynch, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein essential for normal hemostasis. We have discovered that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporate inorganic sulfate into vWF. Following immunoisolation and analysis by polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, metabolically labeled vWF was found to have incorporated [35S]-sulfate into all secreted multimer species. The time course of incorporation shows that sulfation occurs late in the biosynthesis of vWF, near the point at which multimerization occurs. Quantitative analysis suggests the presence, on average, of one molecule of sulfate per mature vWF subunit. Virtually all the detectable sulfate is released from the mature vWF subunit by treatment with endoglycosidases that remove asparagine-linked carbohydrates. Sulfated carbohydrate was localized first to the N-terminal half of the mature subunit (amino acids 1 through 1,365) by partial proteolytic digestion with protease V8; and subsequently to a smaller fragment within this region (amino acids 273 through 511) by sequential digestions with protease V8 and trypsin. Thus, the carbohydrate at asparagine 384 and/or 468 appears to be the site of sulfate modification. Sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-sulfurylase, blocks sulfation of vWF without affecting either the ability of vWF to assemble into high molecular weight multimers or the ability of vWF multimers to enter Weible-Palade bodies. The stability of vWF multimers in the presence of an endothelial cell monolayer also was unaffected by the sulfation state. Additionally, we have found that the cleaved propeptide of vWF is sulfated on asparagine-linked carbohydrate

  20. Antithrombotic agents stimulate the synthesis and modify the sulfation pattern of a heparan sulfate proteoglycan from endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhal, M A; Walenga, J M; Jeske, W; Hoppensteadt, D; Dietrich, C P; Fareed, J; Nader, H B

    1994-04-15

    Low molecular weight heparins, namely CY 216 and CY 222 (Sanofi/Choay); OP 622 and OP 386 (Opocrin); PK 10169 (Pharmuka); an oligosaccharide prepared from heparin by heparitinase II digestion; chemically sulfated glycosaminoglycans and polysaccharide namely Suleparoid (Syntex), Aprosulate (Luitpold-Werk); chemically modified glycosaminoglycans GAGPS and MPS (Luitpold-Werk) as well as unmodified heparin stimulate two to three fold the synthesis of a heparan sulfate with antithrombotic activity secreted by endothelial cells in culture. The stimulation is concentration dependent and specific for the endothelial cell. The [35S]-heparan sulfate synthesized in the presence of heparin and/or the tested antithrombotic agents has shown a high degree of sulfation of the iduronic acid residues as revealed by the analyses of the disaccharide products formed from the heparan sulfate by the action of bacterial heparitinases. The features of the above compounds in common with heparin are their polymeric nature and a high change density, as well as their pharmacological activities as potent antithrombotic agents "in vivo". These combined observations reinforce the proposition that the antithrombotic activity of heparin, low molecular weight heparins and the chemically modified polysaccharides could be related to the increased production of this peculiar heparan sulfate by endothelial cells.

  1. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide...... and sulfate. Thus the overall process is comparable to the fermentation of organic compounds such as glucose and is consequently often described as 'inorganic fermentation'. The process is primarily carried out by microorganisms with phylogenetic affiliation to the so called sulfate-reducing bacteria within...... the delta subclass of Proteobacteria. The organisms grow with sulfate as their external electron acceptor and low-molecular weight organic compounds or hydrogen as energy sources. Studies of the biochemistry of a few isolates indicate that the disproportionating microbes reverse the sulfate reduction...

  2. Heparan sulfate and cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcionatto M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate is a component of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues which appears during the cytodifferentiation stage of embryonic development. Its structure varies according to the tissue and species of origin and is modified during neoplastic transformation. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that heparan sulfate plays a role in cellular recognition, cellular adhesion and growth control. Heparan sulfate can participate in the process of cell division in two distinct ways, either as a positive or negative modulator of cellular proliferation, or as a response to a mitogenic stimulus.

  3. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  4. (R,R-Disynephrine ether bis(hydrogen sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Arbuckle

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound [systematic name: (R,R-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl-N,N′-dimethyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diammonium bis(hydrogen sulfate], C18H26N2O32+·2HSO4−, contains one half-cation and one hydrogen sulfate anion. The cation has crystallographically imposed twofold symmetry with the rotation axis passing through the central ether O atom. Hydrogen bonds between the hydroxy group and amine H atoms of the cation to two hydrogen sulfate anions link the three ions in a ring motif. A three-dimensional network is accomplished by additional O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the anions and by N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the cations. Disorder with equally occupied sites affects the H-atom position in the anion.

  5. Human pharmacokinetics of ethynyl estradiol 3-sulfate and 17-sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzieher, J W; Mileikowsky, G; Newburger, J; Dorantes, A; Stavchansky, S A

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of ethynyl estradiol 3-sulfate (EE-3) and 17-sulfate (EE-17) were estimated. Each sulfate was administered orally and intravenously to five ovariectomized volunteer women. Blood samples were taken over a period of 24 h. Radioimmunoassay for free and sulfoconjugated ethynyl estradiol (EE) was performed. The analysis of the plasma concentrations obtained after administration of EE-3 and EE-17 indicates significant differences in their pharmacokinetic profiles. EE-3 is cleared more rapidly from the central compartment (systemic circulation), which may indicate that differences in protein binding, tissue binding, metabolism, and distribution exist between EE-3 and EE-17. It has been suggested that these conjugates are a slow-release reservoir for maintenance of blood levels of free EE itself. However, previous studies in baboons have shown that the half-lives of the free and sulfoconjugated EE are similar (ranging from 8.8 to 11.2 h), which is not consistent with this hypothesis. The t1/2 beta (mean 9.28 h) of the 17-sulfate after IV administration was almost identical in women and baboons, and similar to the t1/2 beta of free EE, confirming the previous observation. Only 3.4% of IV and 11.4% of the orally administered 17-sulfate appeared in the blood as free EE; with the 3-sulfate, the conversions were 13.7 and 20.7%, respectively, suggesting that these sulfates are not important slow-release reservoirs. The similarity of pharmacokinetic parameters between women and baboons suggests that this species of nonhuman primate is, in important respects, a suitable animal model for clinical pharmacology.

  6. New opioid receptor antagonist: Naltrexone-14-O-sulfate synthesis and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zádor, Ferenc; Király, Kornél; Váradi, András; Balogh, Mihály; Fehér, Ágnes; Kocsis, Dóra; Erdei, Anna I; Lackó, Erzsébet; Zádori, Zoltán S; Hosztafi, Sándor; Noszál, Béla; Riba, Pál; Benyhe, Sándor; Fürst, Susanna; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud

    2017-08-15

    Opioid antagonists, naloxone and naltrexone have long been used in clinical practice and research. In addition to their low selectivity, they easily pass through the blood-brain barrier. Quaternization of the amine group in these molecules, (e.g. methylnaltrexone) results in negligible CNS penetration. In addition, zwitterionic compounds have been reported to have limited CNS access. The current study, for the first time gives report on the synthesis and the in vitro [competition binding, G-protein activation, isolated mouse vas deferens (MVD) and mouse colon assay] pharmacology of the zwitterionic compound, naltrexone-14-O-sulfate. Naltrexone, naloxone, and its 14-O-sulfate analogue were used as reference compounds. In competition binding assays, naltrexone-14-O-sulfate showed lower affinity for µ, δ or κ opioid receptor than the parent molecule, naltrexone. However, the μ/κ opioid receptor selectivity ratio significantly improved, indicating better selectivity. Similar tendency was observed for naloxone-14-O-sulfate when compared to naloxone. Naltrexone-14-O-sulfate failed to activate [ 35 S]GTPγS-binding but inhibit the activation evoked by opioid agonists (DAMGO, Ile 5,6 deltorphin II and U69593), similarly to the reference compounds. Schild plot constructed in MVD revealed that naltrexone-14-O-sulfate acts as a competitive antagonist. In mouse colon, naltrexone-14-O-sulfate antagonized the inhibitory effect of morphine with lower affinity compared to naltrexone and higher affinity when compared to naloxone or naloxone-14-O-sulfate. In vivo (mouse tail-flick test), subcutaneously injected naltrexone-14-O-sulfate antagonized morphine's antinociception in a dose-dependent manner, indicating it's CNS penetration, which was unexpected from such zwitter ionic structure. Future studies are needed to evaluate it's pharmacokinetic profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Kwong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH3SO4Na droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH of 85 %. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time, DART coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO4− has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH2O and a sulfate radical anion (SO4 ⋅ − upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19  ×  10−13 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γeff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40 % of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27  ×  1012 molecule cm−3 s, only a 3 % decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we

  8. Importance of sulfate radical anion formation and chemistry in heterogeneous OH oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate, the smallest organosulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Kwong, Kai; Chim, Man Mei; Davies, James F.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Nin Chan, Man

    2018-02-01

    Organosulfates are important organosulfur compounds present in atmospheric particles. While the abundance, composition, and formation mechanisms of organosulfates have been extensively investigated, it remains unclear how they transform and evolve throughout their atmospheric lifetime. To acquire a fundamental understanding of how organosulfates chemically transform in the atmosphere, this work investigates the heterogeneous OH radical-initiated oxidation of sodium methyl sulfate (CH3SO4Na) droplets, the smallest organosulfate detected in atmospheric particles, using an aerosol flow tube reactor at a high relative humidity (RH) of 85 %. Aerosol mass spectra measured by a soft atmospheric pressure ionization source (direct analysis in real time, DART) coupled with a high-resolution mass spectrometer showed that neither functionalization nor fragmentation products are detected. Instead, the ion signal intensity of the bisulfate ion (HSO4-) has been found to increase significantly after OH oxidation. We postulate that sodium methyl sulfate tends to fragment into a formaldehyde (CH2O) and a sulfate radical anion (SO4 ṡ -) upon OH oxidation. The formaldehyde is likely partitioned back to the gas phase due to its high volatility. The sulfate radical anion, similar to OH radical, can abstract a hydrogen atom from neighboring sodium methyl sulfate to form the bisulfate ion, contributing to the secondary chemistry. Kinetic measurements show that the heterogeneous OH reaction rate constant, k, is (3.79 ± 0.19) × 10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 with an effective OH uptake coefficient, γeff, of 0.17 ± 0.03. While about 40 % of sodium methyl sulfate is being oxidized at the maximum OH exposure (1.27 × 1012 molecule cm-3 s), only a 3 % decrease in particle diameter is observed. This can be attributed to a small fraction of particle mass lost via the formation and volatilization of formaldehyde. Overall, we firstly demonstrate that the heterogeneous OH oxidation of an

  9. Role of protein sulfation in vasodilation induced by minoxidil sulfate, a K+ channel opener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisheri, K.D.; Oleynek, J.J.; Puddington, L. (Cardiovascular Diseases Research, Upjohn Laboratories, Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, MI (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Evidence from contractile, radioisotope ion flux and electrophysiological studies suggest that minoxidil sulfate (MNXS) acts as a K+ channel opener in vascular smooth muscle. This study was designed to examine possible biochemical mechanisms by which MNXS exerts such an effect. Experiments performed in the isolated rabbit mesenteric artery (RMA) showed that MNXS, 5 microM, but not the parent compound minoxidil, was a potent vasodilator. Whereas the relaxant effects of an another K+ channel opener vasodilator, BRL-34915 (cromakalim), were removed by washing with physiological saline solution, the effects of MNXS persisted after repeated washout attempts. Furthermore, after an initial exposure of segments of intact RMA to (35S) MNXS, greater than 30% of the radiolabel was retained 2 hr after removal of the drug. In contrast, retention of radiolabel was not detected with either (3H)MNXS (label on the piperidine ring of MNXS) or (3H)minoxidil (each less than 3% after a 2-hr washout). These data suggested that the sulfate moiety from MNXS was closely associated with the vascular tissue. To determine if proteins were the acceptors of sulfate from MNXS, intact RMAs were incubated with (35S)MNXS, and then 35S-labeled proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analyzed by fluorography. Preferential labeling of a 116 kD protein was detected by 2 and 5 min of treatment. A 43 kD protein (resembling actin) also showed significant labeling. A similar profile of 35S-labeled proteins was observed in (35S) MNXS-treated A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells, suggesting that the majority of proteins labeled by (35S)MNXS in intact RMA were components of smooth muscle cells.

  10. Ability of sat-1 to transport sulfate, bicarbonate, or oxalate under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick, Wolfgang; Schnedler, Nina; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C

    2009-07-01

    Tubular reabsorption of sulfate is achieved by the sodium-dependent sulfate transporter, NaSi-1, located at the apical membrane, and the sulfate-anion exchanger, sat-1, located at the basolateral membrane. To delineate the physiological role of rat sat-1, [(35)S]sulfate and [(14)C]oxalate uptake into sat-1-expressing oocytes was determined under various experimental conditions. Influx of [(35)S]sulfate was inhibited by bicarbonate, thiosulfate, sulfite, and oxalate, but not by sulfamate and sulfide, in a competitive manner with K(i) values of 2.7 +/- 1.3 mM, 101.7 +/- 9.7 microM, 53.8 +/- 10.9 microM, and 63.5 +/- 38.7 microM, respectively. Vice versa, [(14)C]oxalate uptake was inhibited by sulfate with a K(i) of 85.9 +/- 9.5 microM. The competitive type of inhibition indicates that these compounds are most likely substrates of sat-1. Physiological plasma bicarbonate concentrations (25 mM) reduced sulfate and oxalate uptake by more than 75%. Simultaneous application of sulfate, bicarbonate, and oxalate abolished sulfate as well as oxalate uptake. These data and electrophysiological studies using a two-electrode voltage-clamp device provide evidence that sat-1 preferentially works as an electroneutral sulfate-bicarbonate or oxalate-bicarbonate exchanger. In kidney proximal tubule cells, sat-1 likely completes sulfate reabsorption from the ultrafiltrate across the basolateral membrane in exchange for bicarbonate. In hepatocytes, oxalate extrusion is most probably mediated either by an exchange for sulfate or bicarbonate.

  11. Effect of heparan sulfate and gold nanoparticles on muscle development during embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinska, Marlena; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: It was hypothesized that heparan sulfate (HS) as an essential compound for myogenesis and nanoparticles of gold (nano-Au) ashighly reactive compounds can affect muscle development as a consequence of molecular regulation of muscle cell formation, and that these effects may be enhanced by...

  12. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.

    2006-01-01

    in collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...... produced in the presence of perlecan. Interestingly, the enhancement of collagen fibril formation is independent on the core protein and is mimicked by chondroitin sulfate E but neither by chondroitin sulfate D nor dextran sulfate. Furthermore, perlecan chondroitin sulfate contains the 4,6-disulfated...... disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional...

  13. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-01-01

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO 4 2- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h -1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h -1 , respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d -1 g -1 ) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d -1 g -1 ) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d -1 g -1 ) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m -2 d -1 , while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m -2 d -1 , respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  15. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  16. Emerging sulfated flavonoids and other polyphenols as drugs: nature as an inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Pinto, Madalena M M

    2014-03-01

    Nature uses sulfation of endogenous and exogenous molecules mainly to avoid potential toxicity. The growing importance of natural sulfated molecules, as modulators of a number of physiological and pathological processes, has inspired the synthesis of non-natural sulfated scaffolds. Until the 1990s, the synthesis of sulfated small molecules was almost restricted to derivatives of flavonoids and aimed mainly at structure elucidation and plant biosynthesis studies. Currently, the synthesis of this type of compounds concerns structurally diverse scaffolds and is aimed at the development of potential drugs and/or exploitation of the biological effects of sulfated metabolites. Some important hit compounds are emerging from sulfated flavonoids and other polyphenols mainly as anticoagulant and antiviral agents. When compared with polymeric macromolecules such as heparins, sulfated small molecules could be of value in therapeutics due to their hydrophobic nature that can contribute to improve the bioavailability. This review highlights the synthetic approaches that were applied to obtain monosulfated or polysulfated phenolic small molecules and compiles the diverse biological activities already reported for this type of derivatives. Toxicity and pharmacokinetic parameters of this emerging class of derivatives will also be considered, emphasizing their value for therapeutic applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sulfate removal from wastewater using ettringite precipitation: Magnesium ion inhibition and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Weixiao; Zhou, Zhen; Jiang, Lu-Man; Jiang, Aijian; Huang, Rongwei; Tian, Xiaoce; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Dongqing

    2017-07-01

    One of the main challenges in industrial wastewater treatment and recovery is the removal of sulfate, which usually coexists with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . The effect of Mg 2+ on sulfate removal by ettringite precipitation was investigated, and the process was optimized in the absence and presence of Mg 2+ . In the absence of Mg 2+ , the optimum conditions with sulfate removal of 99.7% were obtained at calcium-to-sulfate ratio of 3.20, aluminum-to-sulfate ratio of 1.25 and pH of 11.3 using response surface methodology. In the presence of Mg 2+ , sulfate removal efficiency decreased with increasing Mg 2+ concentration, and the inhibitory effect of Mg 2+ matched the competitive inhibition Monod model with half maximum inhibition concentration of 57.4 mmol/L. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses of precipitates revealed that ettringite was converted to hydrotalcite-type (HT) compound in the presence of Mg 2+ . The morphology of precipitates was transformed from prismatic crystals to stacked layered crystals, which confirmed that Mg 2+ competes with Ca 2+ for Al 3+ to form HT compound. A two-stage process was designed with Mg 2+ removal before ettringite precipitation to eliminate the inhibitory effect, and is potential to realize sludge recovery at the same time of effective removal of sulfate and hardness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sulfate Transporters in Dissimilatory Sulfate Reducing Microorganisms: A Comparative Genomics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Marietou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in the sulfate reduction pathway is the transport of sulfate across the cell membrane. This uptake has a major effect on sulfate reduction rates. Much of the information available on sulfate transport was obtained by studies on assimilatory sulfate reduction, where sulfate transporters were identified among several types of protein families. Despite our growing knowledge on the physiology of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM there are no studies identifying the proteins involved in sulfate uptake in members of this ecologically important group of anaerobes. We surveyed the complete genomes of 44 sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea across six phyla and identified putative sulfate transporter encoding genes from four out of the five surveyed protein families based on homology. We did not find evidence that ABC-type transporters (SulT are involved in the uptake of sulfate in SRM. We speculate that members of the CysP sulfate transporters could play a key role in the uptake of sulfate in thermophilic SRM. Putative CysZ-type sulfate transporters were present in all genomes examined suggesting that this overlooked group of sulfate transporters might play a role in sulfate transport in dissimilatory sulfate reducers alongside SulP. Our in silico analysis highlights several targets for further molecular studies in order to understand this key step in the metabolism of SRMs.

  19. Rising from the sea: correlations between sulfated polysaccharides and salinity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Rafael S; Grativol, Clicia; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2011-04-28

    High salinity soils inhibit crop production worldwide and represent a serious agricultural problem. To meet our ever-increasing demand for food, it is essential to understand and engineer salt-resistant crops. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence and function of sulfated polysaccharides in plants. Although ubiquitously present in marine algae, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides among the species tested was restricted to halophytes, suggesting a possible correlation with salt stress or resistance. To test this hypothesis, sulfated polysaccharides from plants artificially and naturally exposed to different salinities were analyzed. Our results revealed that the sulfated polysaccharide concentration, as well as the degree to which these compounds were sulfated in halophytic species, were positively correlated with salinity. We found that sulfated polysaccharides produced by Ruppia maritima Loisel disappeared when the plant was cultivated in the absence of salt. However, subjecting the glycophyte Oryza sativa Linnaeus to salt stress did not induce the biosynthesis of sulfated polysaccharides but increased the concentration of the carboxylated polysaccharides; this finding suggests that negatively charged cell wall polysaccharides might play a role in coping with salt stress. These data suggest that the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in plants is an adaptation to high salt environments, which may have been conserved during plant evolution from marine green algae. Our results address a practical biological concept; additionally, we suggest future strategies that may be beneficial when engineering salt-resistant crops.

  20. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  1. Study of ammonium sulfates electric conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrynin, D.V.; Tulegulov, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    In the work results of research of ammonium sulfate electroconductivity are given. The influence effecting on ammonium sulfate conductivity is investigated. The various circuits of inclusion tetra ohmmeter are given. (author)

  2. Biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Sano, Naoyo; Takikawa, Hajime

    2003-08-01

    Glucuronide and glutathione conjugates have been reported to be substrates of multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2), whereas sulfates of nonbile acid organic anions have never been reported as substrates of Mrp2. To further examine the substrate specificity of Mrp2, we examined the effects of bile acid sulfates on the biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate in rats. The biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate was markedly delayed in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats, an Mrp2-deficient strain, and was markedly inhibited by taurolithocholate-3-sulfate. The biliary excretion of leukotriene C(4) metabolites and sulfobromophthalein was inhibited by phenolphthalein sulfate infusion to some extent. These findings suggest that phenolphthalein sulfate is a unique sulfated nonbile acid organic anion which is a substrate of Mrp2. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    property has been used to determine whether a compound is aromatic or not. Mesoionic compounds are structurally very different from ben- zenoid compounds, but they fulfill most of the criteria of aroma- ticity and form a part of a variety of aromatic compounds, which can be classified as follows. A) Benzenoid Compounds.

  4. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  6. EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULFATE (A LAXATIVE) ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use with little success . Magnesium sulfate also known as Epsom salt or bitter salt is a hydrate salt with a chemical name of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate . Chemical formula is MgSO. 7HO and trade name is. Andrews liver salt. Dried magnesium sulfate is an osmotic laxative or a saline laxative that acts by increasing the.

  7. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4, CAS Reg... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. Intercalation and Exfoliation of Kaolinite with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochao Zuo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kaolinite (Kaol was intercalated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and subsequently methanol (MeOH to prepare intercalation compounds Kaol-DMSO and Kaol-MeOH. Kaol-MeOH was used as an intermediate to synthesize Kaol-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS intercalation compound (Kaol-SDS via displacement reaction. The ultrasonic exfoliation of Kaol-SDS produced a resultant Kaol-SDS-U. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal analysis, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and particle size analysis. The results revealed that the intercalation of sodium dodecyl sulfate into kaolinite layers caused an obvious increase of the basal spacing from 0.72–4.21 nm. The dehydroxylation temperature of Kaol-SDS was obviously lower than that of original kaolinite. During the intercalation process of sodium dodecyl sulfate, a few kaolinite layers were exfoliated and curled up from the edges of the kaolinite sheets. After sonication treatment, the kaolinite layers were further transformed into nanoscrolls, and the exfoliated resultant Kaol-SDS-U possessed a smaller particle size close to nanoscale.

  15. Thermochemical sulfate reduction in deep petroleum reservoirs: a molecular approach; Thermoreduction des sulfates dans les reservoirs petroliers: approche moleculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanin, S.

    2002-11-01

    The thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) is a set of chemical reactions leading to hydrocarbon oxidation and production of carbon dioxide and sour gas (H{sub 2}S) which is observed in deep petroleum reservoirs enriched in anhydrites (calcium sulfate). Molecular and isotopic studies have been conducted on several crude oil samples to determine which types of compounds could have been produced during TSR. Actually, we have shown that the main molecules formed by TSR were organo-sulfur compounds. Indeed, sulfur isotopic measurements. of alkyl-di-benzothiophenes, di-aryl-disulfides and thia-diamondoids (identified by NMR or synthesis of standards) shows that they are formed during TSR as their value approach that of the sulfur of the anhydrite. Moreover, thia-diamondoids are apparently exclusively formed during this phenomenon and can thus be considered as true molecular markers of TSR. In a second part, we have investigated with laboratory experiments the formation mechanism of the molecules produced during TSR. A first model has shown that sulfur incorporation into the organic matter occurred with mineral sulfur species of low oxidation degree. The use of {sup 34}S allowed to show that the sulfates reduction occurred during these simulations. At least, some experiments on polycyclic hydrocarbons, sulfurized or not, allowed to establish that thia-diamondoids could be formed by acid-catalysed rearrangements at high temperatures in a similar way as the diamondoids. (author)

  16. Anti HSV-1 Activity of Halistanol Sulfate and Halistanol Sulfate C Isolated from Brazilian Marine Sponge Petromica citrina (Demospongiae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa Guimarães, Tatiana; Quiroz, Carlos Guillermo; Rigotto, Caroline; de Oliveira, Simone Quintana; Rojo de Almeida, Maria Tereza; Bianco, Éverson Miguel; Moritz, Maria Izabel Goulart; Carraro, João Luís; Palermo, Jorge Alejandro; Cabrera, Gabriela; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Oliveira Simões, Cláudia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The n-butanol fraction (BF) obtained from the crude extract of the marine sponge Petromica citrina, the halistanol-enriched fraction (TSH fraction), and the isolated compounds halistanol sulfate (1) and halistanol sulfate C (2), were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the replication of the Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS strain) by the viral plaque number reduction assay. The TSH fraction was the most effective against HSV-1 replication (SI = 15.33), whereas compounds 1 (SI = 2.46) and 2 (SI = 1.95) were less active. The most active fraction and these compounds were also assayed to determine the viral multiplication step(s) upon which they act as well as their potential synergistic effects. The anti-HSV-1 activity detected was mediated by the inhibition of virus attachment and by the penetration into Vero cells, the virucidal effect on virus particles, and by the impairment in levels of ICP27 and gD proteins of HSV-1. In summary, these results suggest that the anti-HSV-1 activity of TSH fraction detected is possibly related to the synergic effects of compounds 1 and 2. PMID:24172213

  17. Modeling of ferric sulfate decomposition and sulfation of potassium chloride during grate‐firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Ferric sulfate is used as an additive in biomass combustion to convert the released potassium chloride to the less harmful potassium sulfate. The decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer and a volumetric reaction model is proposed to describe...... the process. The yields of sulfur oxides from ferric sulfate decomposition under boiler conditions are investigated experimentally, revealing a distribution of approximately 40% SO3 and 60% SO2. The ferric sulfate decomposition model is combined with a detailed kinetic model of gas‐phase KCl sulfation...... and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments conducted in a biomass grate‐firing reactor. The results indicate that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl...

  18. Heparan sulfate mediates trastuzumab effect in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eloah Rabello; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Del Giglio, Auro; Tersariol, Ivarne Luis dos Santos; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva

    2013-10-01

    Trastuzumab is an antibody widely used in the treatment of breast cancer cases that test positive for the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Many patients, however, become resistant to this antibody, whose resistance has become a major focus in breast cancer research. But despite this interest, there are still no reliable markers that can be used to identify resistant patients. A possible role of several extracellular matrix (ECM) components--heparan sulfate (HS), Syn-1(Syndecan-1) and heparanase (HPSE1)--in light of the influence of ECM alterations on the action of several compounds on the cells and cancer development, was therefore investigated in breast cancer cell resistance to trastuzumab. The cDNA of the enzyme responsible for cleaving HS chains from proteoglycans, HPSE1, was cloned in the pEGFP-N1 plasmid and transfected into a breast cancer cell lineage. We evaluated cell viability after trastuzumab treatment using different breast cancer cell lines. Trastuzumab and HS interaction was investigated by confocal microscopy and Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). The profile of sulfated glycosaminoglycans was also investigated by [35S]-sulfate incorporation. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate HPSE1, HER2 and Syn-1 mRNA expression. HPSE1 enzymatic activity was performed using biotinylated heparan sulfate. Breast cancer cell lines responsive to trastuzumab present higher amounts of HER2, Syn-1 and HS on the cell surface, but lower levels of secreted HS. Trastuzumab and HS interaction was proven by FRET analysis. The addition of anti-HS to the cells or heparin to the culture medium induced resistance to trastuzumab in breast cancer cells previously sensitive to this monoclonal antibody. Breast cancer cells transfected with HPSE1 became resistant to trastuzumab, showing lower levels of HER2, Syn-1 and HS on the cell surface. In addition, HS shedding was increased significantly in these resistant cells

  19. Engineering assessment of in situ sulfate production onboard aircraft at high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.; Dykema, J. A.; Keith, D.

    2016-12-01

    Stratospheric injection of scattering aerosols has been proposed as a way to reduce global temperature increases by decreasing net atmospheric radiative forcing. Several methods have been suggested as a means of implementing solar geoengineering, and high altitude aircraft have been identified as an accessible means delivering sulfate aerosols to the lower and mid-stratosphere. This research initiative analyzes the design features of an onboard open cycle chemical plant capable of in situ sulfur to sulfate conversion, and compares the required mass to that of transporting pre-fabricated gaseous or liquid sulfate aerosol precursors. Scaling from aero-derivative gas turbine engines, commercial catalytic converters, and existing aerospace materials indicate that aircraft equipped with such a system could provide a substantial mass benefit compared to direct transport of compound sulfate products.

  20. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... to be a common modification and since then an increasing number of proteins have been identified as sulfated. The target proteins belong to the classes of secretory, plasma membrane, and lysosomal proteins, which reflects the intracellular localization of the enzymes catalyzing Tyr sulfation, the tyrosylprotein...... sulfotransferases (TPSTs).Traditionally, Tyr sulfation has been analyzed by incorporation of radiolabeled sulfate into target cells followed by purification of the target protein. Subsequently, the protein is degraded enzymatically or by alkaline hydrolysis followed by thin-layer electrophoresis to demonstrate...

  1. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    to be a common modification and since then an increasing number of proteins have been identified as sulfated. The target proteins belong to the classes of secretory, plasma membrane, and lysosomal proteins, which reflects the intracellular localization of the enzymes catalyzing Tyr sulfation, the tyrosylprotein......Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... sulfotransferases (TPSTs).Traditionally, Tyr sulfation has been analyzed by incorporation of radiolabeled sulfate into target cells followed by purification of the target protein. Subsequently, the protein is degraded enzymatically or by alkaline hydrolysis followed by thin-layer electrophoresis to demonstrate...

  2. Uranium sorption from sulfate solutions by polyampholytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rychkov, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    Uranium sorption from sulfate solutions by aminocarboxylic and aminophosphoric acid polyampholytes is studied. Effect of concentration of sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, ph value of solution and concentration of metal in solution on uranium absorptivity by ampholytes is studied. It is determined that sorption process is described satisfactorily by K d =KC p Z equation. Basing on calculated data on uranium ion state in sulfate solutions, analysis of results and data of IR spectroscopy conclusions about uranium sorption process mechanism are made [ru

  3. 2-Amino-3-methylpyridinium 2-amino-5-methylpyridinium sulfate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bin Wang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C6H9N2+·SO42−·H2O, contains two isomeric protonated aminomethylpyridine cations, a sulfate anion and a solvent water molecule. The cations are in the iminium tautomeric form. In the crystal structure, intermolecular O—H...O, N—H...O and weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into a three-dimensional network. Additional stabilization is provided by weak π–π stacking interactions, with centroid–centroid distances of 3.758 (2 and 3.774 (1 Å.

  4. Thermodynamic data for modeling acid mine drainage problems: compilation and estimation of data for selected soluble iron-sulfate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Bruch S.; Seal, Robert R.; Chou, I-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, and entropy values have been compiled from the literature for the hydrated ferrous sulfate minerals melanterite, rozenite, and szomolnokite, and a variety of other hydrated sulfate compounds. On the basis of this compilation, it appears that there is no evidence for an excess enthalpy of mixing for sulfate-H2O systems, except for the first H2O molecule of crystallization. The enthalpy and Gibbs energy of formation of each H2O molecule of crystallization, except the first, in the iron(II) sulfate - H2O system is -295.15 and -238.0 kJ?mol-1, respectively. The absence of an excess enthalpy of mixing is used as the basis for estimating thermodynamic values for a variety of ferrous, ferric, and mixed-valence sulfate salts of relevance to acid-mine drainage systems.

  5. Two new stemphol sulfates from the mangrove endophytic fungus Stemphylium sp. 33231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue-Ming; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Chen, Guang-Ying; Song, Xiao-Ping; Han, Chang-Ri; Tang, Xiong-Zhao; Liu, Rui-Jie; Ren, Li-Lian

    2015-08-01

    Two new stemphol sulfates, stemphol A (1) and stemphol B (2), along with known compound stemphol (3) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the fermentation of an endophytic Stemphylium sp. 33231. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The isolated compounds exhibited potent antibacterial activities against six terrestrial pathogenic bacteria with MIC values of 0.6-10 μg ml(-1). The inhibitory activities of all compounds against five cancer cell lines were evaluated.

  6. Copper sulfate toxicity to various fish: role of alkalinity/hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate has been used in fisheries since the 1890’s. This compound is currently used to control parasites (mainly Ich) on fish and fungus (Saprolegnia) on fish eggs, and has also been used in the past to control columnaris on fish, although antibiotics are the common treatment now. In our l...

  7. Influence of alkalinity and hardness on copper sulfate toxicity to various fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate treatments are currently used to control parasites (mainly Ich) on fish and fungus (Saprolegnia) on fish eggs. This compound has also been used in the past to control columnaris on fish, although antibiotics are the common treatment now. In our lab’s efforts to gain an FDA-approval ...

  8. Microbial aspects of synthesis gas fed bioreactors treating sulfate and metal rich wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van B.H.G.W.

    2006-01-01

    The use of synthesis gas fed sulfate-reducing bioreactors to simultaneously remove both oxidized sulfur compounds and metals shows great potential to treat wastewaters generated as a result of flue gas scrubbing, mining activities and galvanic processes. Detailed information about the phylogenetic

  9. Use of Copper Sulfate and a New Disinfectant called Peracetic Acid in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate treatments are currently used for water treatments to control algae and snails, but also to control parasites (mainly Ich) on fish and fungus (Saprolegnia) on fish eggs. This compound has also been used in the past to control columnaris on fish, although antibiotics are the common tr...

  10. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) degradation by nitrate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, Ana M. S.; Aydin, Rozelin; Dimitrov, Mauricio R.; Vreeling, Harm; Cavaleiro, Ana J.; García-Encina, Pedro A.; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    The surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) is widely used in the composition of detergents and frequently ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). While aerobic SLES degradation is well studied, little is known about the fate of this compound in anoxic environments, such as

  11. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on in vitro percutaneous penetration of water, hydrocortisone and nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    The dose- and time-related effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on in vitro percutaneous penetration was studied using 3 radiolabeled tracer compounds with different physicochemical properties: tritiated water, hydrocortisone and nickel. Human cadaver abdominal skin from caucasian women was used...

  12. Electrical conductivity and thermal behavior of solid electrolytes based on alkali carbonates and sulfates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosda, S.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Guth, U.

    1997-01-01

    Both thermal stability and electrical conductivity of alkali ion conducting Na2CO3 and Na2SO4, were improved by adding alkaline earth carbonates and sulfates, respectively, as well as insulating materials like ¿-Al2O3. The admixing of divalent compounds causes two effects. First a more or less

  13. Sulfated Seaweed Polysaccharides as Multifunctional Materials in Drug Delivery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ludmylla; Grenha, Ana

    2016-02-25

    In the last decades, the discovery of metabolites from marine resources showing biological activity has increased significantly. Among marine resources, seaweed is a valuable source of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. The cell walls of marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides, including carrageenan in red algae, ulvan in green algae and fucoidan in brown algae. Sulfated polysaccharides have been increasingly studied over the years in the pharmaceutical field, given their potential usefulness in applications such as the design of drug delivery systems. The purpose of this review is to discuss potential applications of these polymers in drug delivery systems, with a focus on carrageenan, ulvan and fucoidan. General information regarding structure, extraction process and physicochemical properties is presented, along with a brief reference to reported biological activities. For each material, specific applications under the scope of drug delivery are described, addressing in privileged manner particulate carriers, as well as hydrogels and beads. A final section approaches the application of sulfated polysaccharides in targeted drug delivery, focusing with particular interest the capacity for macrophage targeting.

  14. Sulfated Seaweed Polysaccharides as Multifunctional Materials in Drug Delivery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ludmylla; Grenha, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, the discovery of metabolites from marine resources showing biological activity has increased significantly. Among marine resources, seaweed is a valuable source of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. The cell walls of marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides, including carrageenan in red algae, ulvan in green algae and fucoidan in brown algae. Sulfated polysaccharides have been increasingly studied over the years in the pharmaceutical field, given their potential usefulness in applications such as the design of drug delivery systems. The purpose of this review is to discuss potential applications of these polymers in drug delivery systems, with a focus on carrageenan, ulvan and fucoidan. General information regarding structure, extraction process and physicochemical properties is presented, along with a brief reference to reported biological activities. For each material, specific applications under the scope of drug delivery are described, addressing in privileged manner particulate carriers, as well as hydrogels and beads. A final section approaches the application of sulfated polysaccharides in targeted drug delivery, focusing with particular interest the capacity for macrophage targeting. PMID:26927134

  15. Reactive Uptake of Dimethylamine by Ammonium Sulfate and Ammonium Sulfate-Sucrose Mixed Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yangxi; Chan, Chak K

    2017-01-12

    Short-chain alkyl amines can undergo gas-to-particle partitioning via reactive uptake by ammonium salts, whose phases have been thought to largely influence the extent of amine uptake. Previous studies mainly focused on particles of single ammonium salt at either dry or wet conditions without any addition of organic compounds. Here we report the uptake of dimethylamine (DMA) by ammonium sulfate (AS) and AS-sucrose mixed particles at different relative humidities (RHs) using an electrodynamic balance coupled with in situ Raman spectroscopy. DMA is selected as a representative of short-chain alkyl amines, and sucrose is used as a surrogate of viscous and hydrophilic organics. Effective DMA uptake was observed for most cases, except for the water-limiting scenario at <5% RH and the formation of an ultraviscous sucrose coating at 10% RH and below. DMA uptake coefficients (γ) were estimated using the particle mass measurements during DMA uptake. Addition of sucrose can increase γ by absorbing water or inhibiting AS crystallization and decrease γ by elevating the particle viscosity and forming a coating layer. DMA uptake can be facilitated for crystalline AS or retarded for aqueous AS with hydrophilic viscous organics (e.g., secondary organic material formed via the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds) present in aerosol particles.

  16. Stability of atropine sulfate prepared for mass chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Jackie; Weber, Robert J; Frye, Reginald F; Nolin, Thomas D; Mrvos, Rita; Krenzelok, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Preparedness for chemical terrorism includes the procurement of the appropriate pharmacological antagonists. A large emphasis has been placed on having a sufficient quantity of atropine available to treat patients exposed to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as sarin. Severe exposures may necessitate the administration of large amounts of atropine and dictate the need to prepare significant quantities of extemporaneously compounded atropine solution to respond to mass numbers of casualties over the first 24-48 hours postexposure. The objective of this project was to determine the stability of a 1 mg/mL atropine solution prepared in multidose IV solutions of 0.9% sodium chloride over a 72-hr period stored at varying temperatures. Atropine sulfate solution 1 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride was prepared from sterile pharmaceutical-grade atropine sulfate powder. Multidose bags of atropine sulfate (100 mL) were stored at controlled temperatures of 4 degrees C to 8 degrees C, 20 degrees C to 25 degrees C, and 32 degrees C to 36 degrees C for 3 days and covered with an amber occlusive cover to minimize exposure to light. Six samples from each bag were drawn at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after preparation and compared with a time zero control sample. The samples were assayed using United States Pharmacopeia/National Formulary (USP/NF) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for atropine sulfate injection. The USP standard of 95% for atropine sulfate stability was used as the primary endpoint. Atropine sulfate 1 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride was stable for at least 72hr at 4 degrees C to 8 degrees C (percent initial concentration ranging from 96.5% to 103.4%), 20 degrees C to 25 degrees C (percent initial concentration ranging from 98.7% to 100.2%), and 32 degrees C to 36 degrees C (percent initial concentration ranging from 98.3% to 102.8%). Because the IV bags were protected from light during this study, we recommend this practice after preparing the atropine

  17. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  18. Rat pro-opiomelanocortin contains sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshina, H.; Hortin, G.; Boime, I.

    1982-07-02

    Intermediate lobes isolated from rat pituitary glands incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into pro-opiomelanocortin and other adrenocorticotropic hormone-containing peptides. Incubation of intermediate lobes in medium containing the arginine analog canavanine inhibited the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin into smaller products. Pro-opiomelanocortin that accumulated in the presence of canavanine was also sulfated.

  19. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  20. Sulfate metabolites as alternative markers for the detection of 4-chlorometandienone misuse in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcells, Georgina; Gómez, Cristina; Garrostas, Lorena; Pozo, Óscar J; Ventura, Rosa

    2017-07-01

    Sulfate metabolites have been described as long-term metabolites for some anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). 4-chlorometandienone (4Cl-MTD) is one of the most frequently detected AAS in sports drug testing and it is commonly detected by monitoring metabolites excreted free or conjugated with glucuronic acid. Sulfation reactions of 4Cl-MTD have not been studied. The aim of this work was to evaluate the sulfate fraction of 4Cl-MTD metabolism by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to establish potential long-term metabolites valuable for doping control purposes. 4Cl-MTD was administered to two healthy male volunteers and urine samples were collected up to 8 days after administration. A theoretical selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method working in negative mode was developed. Ion transitions were based on ionization and fragmentation behaviour of sulfate metabolites as well as specific neutral losses (NL of 15 Da and NL of 36 Da) of compounds with related chemical structure. Six sulfate metabolites were detected after the analysis of excretion study samples. Three of the identified metabolites were characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Results showed that five out of the six identified sulfate metabolites were detected in urine up to the last collected samples from both excretion studies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Venturella, John J; Shaddrick, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 microg/L (95% CI 0.56-1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 microg/L (95% CI 1.09-2.47) and the grass shrimp embryo LC50 was 45.85 microg/L (95% CI 23.72-88.61 microg/L). This was compared to the previously published grass shrimp 96-h LC50s for endosulfan. The toxicity of the two compounds was similar for the grass shrimp life stages with adults more sensitive than larvae and embryos. The presence of sediment in 24h endosulfan sulfate-exposures raised LC50s for both adult and larval grass shrimp but not significantly. The USEPA expected environmental concentrations (EEC) for total endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate and the calculations of risk quotients (RQ) based on the more sensitive adult grass shrimp 96-h LC50 clearly show that environmental concentrations equal to acute EECs would prove detrimental to grass shrimp or other similarly sensitive aquatic organisms. These results indicate that given the persistence and toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, future risk assessments should consider the toxicity potential of the parent compound as well as this degradation product.

  2. Inhibitory concentrations of 2,4D and its possible intermediates in sulfate reducing biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Cruz, Ulises [Department of Biotechnology, Environmental Science and Technology, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ave. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Vicentina, 09340 D.F. (Mexico); Celis, Lourdes B. [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a. Seccion, 78216 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Poggi, Hector [Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, CINVESTAV, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 D.F. (Mexico); Meraz, Monica, E-mail: meraz@xanum.uam.mx [Department of Biotechnology, Environmental Science and Technology, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ave. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Vicentina, 09340 D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    Different concentrations of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) and its possible intermediates such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP), 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-chlorophenol (2CP) and phenol, were assayed to evaluate the inhibitory effect on sulfate and ethanol utilization in a sulfate reducing biofilm. Increasing concentrations of the chlorophenolic compounds showed an adverse effect on sulfate reduction rate and ethanol conversion to acetate, being the intermediate 2,4DCP most toxic than the herbicide. The monochlorophenol 4CP (600 ppm) caused the complete cessation of sulfate reduction and ethanol conversion. The ratio of the electron acceptor to the electron donor utilized as well as the sulfate utilization volumetric rates, diminished when chlorophenols and phenol concentrations were increased, pointing out to the inhibition of the respiratory process and electrons transfer. The difference found in the IC{sub 50} values obtained was due to the chemical structure complexity of the phenolic compounds, the number of chlorine atoms as much as the chlorine atom position in the phenol ring. The IC{sub 50} values (ppm) indicated that the acute inhibition on the biofilm was caused by 2,4DCP (17.4) followed by 2,4D (29.0), 2CP (99.8), 4CP (108.0) and phenol (143.8).

  3. Inhibitory concentrations of 2,4D and its possible intermediates in sulfate reducing biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Cruz, Ulises; Celis, Lourdes B.; Poggi, Hector; Meraz, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Different concentrations of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) and its possible intermediates such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP), 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-chlorophenol (2CP) and phenol, were assayed to evaluate the inhibitory effect on sulfate and ethanol utilization in a sulfate reducing biofilm. Increasing concentrations of the chlorophenolic compounds showed an adverse effect on sulfate reduction rate and ethanol conversion to acetate, being the intermediate 2,4DCP most toxic than the herbicide. The monochlorophenol 4CP (600 ppm) caused the complete cessation of sulfate reduction and ethanol conversion. The ratio of the electron acceptor to the electron donor utilized as well as the sulfate utilization volumetric rates, diminished when chlorophenols and phenol concentrations were increased, pointing out to the inhibition of the respiratory process and electrons transfer. The difference found in the IC 50 values obtained was due to the chemical structure complexity of the phenolic compounds, the number of chlorine atoms as much as the chlorine atom position in the phenol ring. The IC 50 values (ppm) indicated that the acute inhibition on the biofilm was caused by 2,4DCP (17.4) followed by 2,4D (29.0), 2CP (99.8), 4CP (108.0) and phenol (143.8).

  4. The ammonium sulfate inhibition of human angiogenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Tsirkone, Vicky G; Dossi, Kyriaki; Kassouni, Aikaterini G; Liggri, Panagiota G V; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Stravodimos, George A; Balatsos, Nikolaos A A; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the inhibition of human angiogenin by ammonium sulfate. The inhibitory potency of ammonium sulfate for human angiogenin (IC50 = 123.5 ± 14.9 mm) is comparable to that previously reported for RNase A (119.0 ± 6.5 mm) and RNase 2 (95.7 ± 9.3 mm). However, analysis of two X-ray crystal structures of human angiogenin in complex with sulfate anions (in acidic and basic pH environments, respectively) indicates an entirely distinct mechanism of inhibition. While ammonium sulfate inhibits the ribonucleolytic activity of RNase A and RNase 2 by binding to the active site of these enzymes, sulfate anions bind only to peripheral substrate anion-binding subsites of human angiogenin, and not to the active site. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Sulfated polysaccharides as bioactive agents from marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-11-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid by consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in nutraceuticals. Marine algae are considered as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Marine algae are rich in sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) such as carrageenans in red algae, fucoidans in brown algae and ulvans in green algae. These SPs exhibit many health beneficial nutraceutical effects such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anticancer and anticoagulant activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential to be further developed as medicinal food products or nutraceuticals in the food industry. This contribution presents an overview of nutraceutical effects and potential health benefits of SPs derived from marine algae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential for Sulfate Reduction in Mangrove Forest Soils: Comparison between Two Dominant Species of the Americas

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2016-11-18

    Avicennia and Rhizophora are globally occurring mangrove genera with different traits that place them in different parts of the intertidal zone. It is generally accepted that the oxidizing capacity of Avicennia roots is larger than that of Rhizophora roots, which initiates more reduced conditions in the soil below the latter genus. We hypothesize that the more reduced conditions beneath Rhizophora stands lead to more active sulfate-reducing microbial communities compared to Avicennia stands. To test this hypothesis, we measured sulfate reduction traits in soil samples collected from neighboring Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle stands at three different locations in southern Florida. The traits measured were sulfate reduction rates (SRR) in flow-through reactors containing undisturbed soil layers in the absence and presence of easily degradable carbon compounds, copy numbers of the dsrB gene, which is specific for sulfate-reducing microorganisms, and numbers of sulfate-reducing cells that are able to grow in liquid medium on a mixture of acetate, propionate and lactate as electron donors. At the tidal locations Port of the Islands and South Hutchinson Islands, steady state SRR, dsrB gene copy numbers and numbers of culturable cells were higher at the A. germinans than at the R. mangle stands, although not significantly for the numbers at Port of the Islands. At the non-tidal location North Hutchinson Island, results are mixed with respect to these sulfate reduction traits. At all locations, the fraction of culturable cells were significantly higher at the R. mangle than at the A. germinans stands. The dynamics of the initial SRR implied a more in situ active sulfate-reducing community at the intertidal R. mangle stands. It was concluded that in agreement with our hypothesis R. mangle stands accommodate a more active sulfate-reducing community than A. germinans stands, but only at the tidal locations. The differences between R. mangle and A. germinans stands

  7. Investigation of Sulfate concentration influence on Anaerobic Lagoon performance: Birjand Wastewater Treatment plant: A Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In the present study the influence of the different sulfate concentration on the anaerobic lagoon stabilization was investigated. Materials and Methods: The present study is an experimental research carried out on anaerobic stabilization pond pilot for 7 months in Birjand wastewater treatment plant. After making sure of a steady state sulfate with different concentrations of 200, 300 and 400 mg/L were injected into the pilot. Then parameters including pH, organic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, BOD5, COD and nitrate were measured. All of the experiments were carried out according to the methods presented in the book "Standard Method" for the examination of water and wastewater (2005. Results: It was found that by increasing sulfate concentration from 200 to 300 mg/L all of parameters  except BOD5 (10% reduction had no significant changes., but by increasing the sulfate concentration from 200 to 400 mg/L the removal efficiency of the parameters such as BOD5, COD, Organic nitrogen, total kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrate and sulfate reduced to 11, 8, 12, 26, 6 and 10 percent, respectively. PH in the first stage was alkaline and then changed to acidic. Conclusion: Anaerobic stabilization ponds have different capacities for removal of organic compounds at different sulfate concentrations; so that; in sulfate concentration of 200 mg/L, the proper operation was seen and in concentration of 300 mg/L, sulfate-reducing bacteria get dominant and therefore odor is produced..  Alternatively, by increasing the concentration of sulphate to 400 mg/L, ammonia nitrogen increased 2.5 times (150% in the effluent.

  8. Uptake and distribution of copper sulfate and its effect on the respiration rate of the hemocyanin-producing freshwater snail Lymnaea natalensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolmarans, C.T.; Yssel, E.

    1988-08-01

    Copper sulfate was one of the earliest compounds suggested as a molluscicide and although several new compounds have since been developed, copper sulfate is still widely used against freshwater snail intermediate hosts of trematode parasites causing bilharzia. However, the toxic effect that copper sulfate may have on these species has not yet been investigated adequately. This incomplete picture of the action of copper sulfate on freshwater snails is further complicated by the fact that some of these snail species have hemocyanin (a protein containing copper) as respiration pigment. Because of the existence of a copper metabolic pathway, these species may handle external copper differently from those species with hemoglobin as respiration pigment. In the present study, the uptake of external copper in the form of copper sulfate, as well as the effect of this ion on respiration rate, was investigated in Lymnaea natalensis, the intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica. This snail possesses hemocyanin as respiratory pigment.

  9. [Aluminum forms in acid sulfate soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Luo, S; Feng, Y

    2000-10-01

    With the method of sequential extraction, the extractable noncrystalline aluminum in Acid Sulfate Soils was fractionized into exchangeable Al (ExAl), absorbed inorganic hydroxy-Al(HyAl), organic complexed Al(OrAl), Fe oxide bound Al (DCBAl), interlayered Al(InAl) and noncrystalline aluminosilicate(NcAl) with average of 1.79, 2.51, 4.17, 4.14, 4.31 and 8.66 g Al2O3.kg-1, respectively. In actual Acid Sulfate Soils, the amount of different forms Al followed the order of NcAl > OrAl > InAl > DCBAl > ExAl > HyAl, but in potential acid sulfate soils, NcAl > InAl > DCBAl > HyAl > OrAl > ExAl. The average of the total extractable noncrystalline Al was 35.57 g Al2O3.kg-1, which covered 25.04% of the total amount of Al in Acid Sulfate Soils. The characteristic of extractable noncrystalline Al in Acid Sulfate Soils was the high proportion of active aluminum, such as ExAl, HyAl and OrAl. All forms of Al were closely related to the corresponding properties and ecological characteristics of Acid Sulfate Soils. The strong acid environment of actual Acid Sulfate Soils induced over-released Al, which transformed to active Al and resulted in Al toxicity.

  10. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in 35 SO 4 2- radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated 35 SO 4 2- into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated 35 SO 4 2- into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium [Ca ++ ] closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate

  11. Ammonium sulfate preparation from phosphogypsum waste

    OpenAIRE

    Kandil, Abdel-Hakim T.; Cheira, Mohamed F.; Gado, Hady S.; Soliman, Madiha H.; Akl, Hesham M.

    2017-01-01

    The Egyptian phosphogypsum waste is treated using sulfuric acid prior the ammonium sulfate production. The relevant factors that would affect the removal efficiencies of some impurities are studied. The optimum conditions of the treatment are 8 M sulfuric acid solution and 1/4 solid/liquid ratio for 30 min contact time at 80 °C. Moreover, the optimum conditions of the ammonium sulfate preparation are 10 g of the suspended impure or purified phosphogypsum in 40 ml of 3% ammonium sulfate soluti...

  12. Sulfated chitin and chitosan as novel biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, R; Nwe, N; Tokura, S; Tamura, H

    2007-02-20

    Chitin and chitosan are known to be natural polymers and they are non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. Chemical modification of chitin and chitosan with sulfate to generate new bifunctional materials is of interest because the modification would not change the fundamental skeleton of chitin and chitosan, would keep the original physicochemical and biochemical properties and finally would bring new or improved properties. The sulfated chitin and chitosan have a variety of applications, such as, adsorbing metal ions, drug delivery systems, blood compatibility, and antibacterial field. The purpose of this review is to take a closer look about the different synthetic methods and potential applications of sulfated chitin and chitosan. Based on current research and existing products, some new and futuristic approaches in this context area are discussed in detail. From the studies reviewed, we concluded that sulfated chitin and chitosan are promising materials for biomedical applications.

  13. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  14. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    The freshwater-seawater interface was studied in a ~9-m thick anaerobic aquifer located in marine sand and gravel with thin peat lenses. Very limited amounts of iron-oxides are present. Consequently, the dominating redox processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, and the groundwater...... is enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...... chemistry was studied in a 120 m transect perpendicular to the coast. Cores were taken for radiotracer rate measurements of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In the saline part of the aquifer 35 m inland, sulfate reduction was the dominant process with rates of 0.1-10 mM/year. In the freshwater part 100...

  15. Biotransformation of RDX and HMX by Anaerobic Granular Sludge with Enriched Sulfate and Nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chunjiang; Shi, Yarong; He, Yanling; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Yonghong; Yang, Shucheng

    2017-05-01

      RDX and HMX are widely used energetic materials and they are recognized as environmental contaminants at numerous locations. The present study investigated the biotransformation of RDX and HMX by anaerobic granular sludge under sulfate- and nitrate-enriched conditions. The results showed that RDX and HMX could be transformed by anaerobic granular sludge when nitrate was present. However, the biotransformation of RDX and HMX was negatively influenced, especially with high nitrate concentrations. Sulfate-enriched conditions were more favorable for the removal of ammunition compounds by anaerobic granular sludge than nitrate-enriched conditions. The removal of RDX and HMX under both nitrate- and sulfate-enriched conditions was facilitated by the use of glucose as additional substrate. This knowledge may help identify factors required for rapid removal of RDX and HMX in high-rate bioreactors. These results can also be applied to devise an appropriate and practical biological treatment strategy for explosive contaminated wastewater.

  16. Seaweed as a source of novel nutraceuticals: sulfated polysaccharides and peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Escrig, A; Gómez-Ordóñez, E; Rupérez, P

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds and seaweed-derived products are underexploited marine bioresources and a source of natural ingredients for functional foods. Nutritional studies on seaweeds indicate that brown and red seaweeds possess a good nutritional quality and could be used as an alternative source of dietary fiber, protein, and minerals. Moreover, bioactive sulfated polysaccharides are the main components of soluble fiber in seaweeds and also bioactive peptides can be prepared from seaweed protein. This chapter gives an overview of the main biological properties of sulfated polysaccharides and peptides from brown and red seaweeds. Recent studies have provided evidence that sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds can play a vital role in human health and nutrition. Besides, peptides derived from algal protein are most promising as antihypertensive agents. Further research work, especially in vivo studies, are needed in order to gain a better knowledge of the relation structure-function by which bioactive compounds from seaweeds exert their bioactivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds in urban aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R L

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports results from a detailed chemical and meteorological data base that has been accumulated for the New York City subregion. Aerosol sampling during August 1976 and February 1977 sampling periods was done only in an urban New York site and a background site at High Point, NJ. The sampling program was expanded to Brookhaven (Long Island) and New Haven, Connecticut sites during summer 1977 and winter 1978 sampling. Time resolution for aerosol filter samples was 6 hr, with some 3 hr sampling for the latter three periods. Parameters measured included chemical constituents: strong acid (quartz filters only), ammonium, sulfate and nitrate, sulfuric acid (limited data); physical parameters: aerosol size distributions by cascade impactor, cyclone sampler, EAA, on optical counter and a special diffusion battery-CNC apparatus; light scattering nephelometer and other instrumentation; chemically-speciated size classification by diffusion sampler; trace metals by atomic absorption; halogen compounds by NAA; meteorological measurements of RH, temperature, wind speed and direction; gaseous measurements of SO/sub 2/, ozone, NO/sub x/ and hydrocarbons at some locations for some sampling periods. The existence of aerosol sulfate in the ambient environment predominantly in the chemical form of sulfuric acid mostly neutralized by ammonia is now well documented. The average composition of fine particle (< 3.5 ..mu..m) sulfate in summer 1976 aerosols was approximately that letovicite ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 3/H(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/). Based on the impactor data, about 85% of the aerosol sulfate mass was in the fine particle fraction. About 50% of this aerosol sulfate was deduced to be in the suboptical size regime (< 0.25 ..mu..m) from diffusion processor data. The H/sup +//SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ ratio in suboptical aerosols did not significantly differ from that in fine fraction aerosol. The coarse particle sulfate was not associated with H/sup +/ or NH/sub 4//sup +/ and comprised

  18. [H2en]2{La2M(SO4)6(H2O)2} (M=Co, Ni): First organically templated 3d-4f mixed metal sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yanping; Wang Ruiyao; Kong Deyuan; Mao Jianggao; Clearfield, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    The first organically templated 3d-4f mixed metal sulfates, [H 2 en] 2 {La 2 M(SO 4 ) 6 (H 2 O) 2 } (M=Co 1, Ni 2) have been synthesized and structurally determined from non-merohedrally twinned crystals. The two compounds are isostructural and their structures feature a three-dimensional anionic network formed by the lanthanum(III) and nickel(II) ions bridged by sulfate anions. The La(III) ions in both compounds are 10-coordinated by four sulfate anions in bidentate chelating fashion, and two sulfate anions in a unidentate fashion. The transition metal(II) ion is octahedrally coordinated by six oxygens from four sulfate anions and two aqua ligands. The doubly protonated enthylenediamine cations are located at the tunnels formed by 8-membered rings (four La and four sulfate anions)

  19. Can magnesium sulfate therapy impact lactogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldeman, W

    1993-12-01

    This case report describes a patient who ingested magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) for approximately four days as a treatment for pregnancy-induced hypertension. Stage II lactogenesis was delayed until the tenth postpartum day at which point the patient's breasts became fully engorged. No explanation for this delay was found, other than the possibility that magnesium sulfate treatment impeded lactogenesis. Implications for professionals who care for lactating women are discussed.

  20. Magnesium sulfate therapy in preeclampsia and eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witlin, A G; Sibai, B M

    1998-11-01

    To review the available evidence regarding efficacy, benefits, and risks of magnesium sulfate seizure prophylaxis in women with preeclampsia or eclampsia. The English-language literature in MEDLINE was searched from 1966 through February 1998 using the terms "magnesium sulfate," "seizure," "preeclampsia," "eclampsia," and "hypertension in pregnancy." Reviews of bibliographies of retrieved articles and consultation with experts in the field provided additional references. All relevant English-language clinical research articles retrieved were reviewed. Randomized controlled trials, retrospective reviews, and observational studies specifically addressing efficacy, benefits, or side effects of magnesium sulfate therapy in preeclampsia or eclampsia were chosen. Nineteen randomized controlled trials, five retrospective studies, and eight observational reports were reviewed. The criteria used for inclusion were as follows: randomized controlled trials evaluating use of magnesium sulfate in eclampsia, preeclampsia, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; nonrandomized studies of historical interest; "classic" observational studies; and recent retrospective studies evaluating efficacy of magnesium sulfate therapy, using relative risk and 95% confidence intervals where applicable. Magnesium sulfate therapy has been associated with increased length of labor, increased cesarean delivery rate, increased postpartum bleeding, increased respiratory depression, decreased neuromuscular transmission, and maternal death from overdose. A summary of randomized, controlled trials in women with eclampsia reveals recurrent seizures in 216 (23.1%) of 935 women treated with phenytoin or diazepam, compared with recurrent seizures in only 88 (9.4%) of 932 magnesium-treated women. Randomized controlled trials in women with severe preeclampsia collectively revealed seizures in 22 (2.8%) of 793 women treated with antihypertensive agents, compared with seizures in only seven of 815 (0

  1. Toxicity of copper sulfate and zinc sulfate to Macrobrachium lamarrel (H. Miline Edwards) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murti, R.; Shukla, G.S.

    1984-09-01

    Macrobrachium lamarrei were exposed to six different concentrations of copper sulfate and zinc sulfate solutions. The specimens showed increased activity immediately after their transfer to the test solutions. They subside their activity very soon in copper sulfate, whereas in zinc sulfate they remain active for about 2 hr frequently coming to the surface of the toxic solution. In both cases, profuse secretion of mucus has been noted on the whole body surface, but most pronounced in the gill region. The 96 h LC/sub 50/ values of copper sulfate (0.247 mg/l) and zinc sulfate (3.188 mg/l) show that copper is thirteen times more toxic to this species than zinc. The minimum concentration of zinc sulfate to initiate slight mortality was 1 mg/l while for copper the corresponding value was as low as 0.01 mg/l. The first mortality in copper sulfate solution of 0.5 mg/l was noted after 4 hr exposure in contrast to zinc sulfate where it required 6 hr in 15 mg/l solutions. 27 references, 2 tables.

  2. Bis(4-ethoxyanilinium sulfate trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-qun Fu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, 2C8H12NO+·SO42−·3H2O, consists of organic layers, water molecules and SO42− anions which lie within the organic layers. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O, N—H...S O—H...O and O—H...S hydrogen bonds, some of which are bifurcated, stabilize the structure.

  3. Effect of metakaolin on external sulfate attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramlochan, T.; Thomas, M. [Toronto Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The effect of high reactivity metakaolin (HRM) on the sulfate resistance of mortars was studied. Mortar bars with three cements of varying C{sub 3}A content were used for the experiment. After a six month exposure to a 5 per cent solution of sodium sulfate, mortar bars incorporating any level of HRM as a partial replacement for a high-C{sub 3}A was considered 'moderately sulfate resistant'; mortar bars with HRM and a moderate or low C{sub 3}A content as 'high sulfate resistant'. It was also determined that for long term sulfate resistance 15 per cent HRM or more may be required, depending on the C{sub 3}A content. The performance of HRM was found to be significantly influenced by the water-cementitious material ratio, and in turn, by permeability, suggesting that HRM might increase sulfate resistance more by lowering the permeability of the concrete than by any chemical action. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  4. Ammonium sulfate preparation from phosphogypsum waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hakim T. Kandil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian phosphogypsum waste is treated using sulfuric acid prior the ammonium sulfate production. The relevant factors that would affect the removal efficiencies of some impurities are studied. The optimum conditions of the treatment are 8 M sulfuric acid solution and 1/4 solid/liquid ratio for 30 min contact time at 80 °C. Moreover, the optimum conditions of the ammonium sulfate preparation are 10 g of the suspended impure or purified phosphogypsum in 40 ml of 3% ammonium sulfate solution (as initiator, 1/4 solid/liquid ratio at pH7 at an addition of an excess ammonium carbonate, and 150 rpm stirring speed for 4.0 h contact time at 55 °C as well as the 5 mg of barium chloride is added to remove the radium in the ammonium sulfate product. Finally, the ammonium sulfate is crystallized and the chemical analysis of the product shows 20% nitrogen and 23.6% sulfur. Therefore, the purity of the obtained ammonium sulfate is 95% from the purified phosphogypsum.

  5. Survey of Chemical Compounds Tested In Vitro against Rumen Protozoa for Possible Control of Bloat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, F. L.; Kodras, Rudolph

    1967-01-01

    Over 170 chemical agents were screened for antiprotozoal action in bovine ruminal fluid. Compounds were tested at 0.1 and 0.05% concentrations. Tested compounds included inorganic compounds, antibiotics, biocides, neuromuscular agents, arsenicals, plant and animal hormones, antimalarials, surface-active agents, anthelmintics, and many others. The most active compounds were cupric sulfate, nickel sulfate, nitrofurazone, hydrogen peroxide, dodecyl sodium sulfate, pelargonic acid, iodoacetic acid, 1-diethylaminoethylamino-4-methylthiaxanthrone, sodium arsanilate, sodium arsenate, bismuth glycolyl arsanilate, 1-β-hydroxyethyl-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, and p-nitroaniline. Copper ion was not particularly effective against entodinia; nickel ion had no effect on holotrichs. Hydrogen peroxide and iodoacetic acid were effective at a concentration of 0.005%. Anionic surface-active agents were very effective, especially long-chain sulfates and phosphates. These antiprotozoal agents warrant further in vivo studies for possible use in treating or curing bloat in ruminants. PMID:6077407

  6. A simple method for the small scale synthesis and solid-phase extraction purification of steroid sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Christopher C; McLeod, Malcolm D

    2014-12-01

    Steroid sulfates are a major class of steroid metabolite that are of growing importance in fields such as anti-doping analysis, the detection of residues in agricultural produce or medicine. Despite this, many steroid sulfate reference materials may have limited or no availability hampering the development of analytical methods. We report simple protocols for the rapid synthesis and purification of steroid sulfates that are suitable for adoption by analytical laboratories. Central to this approach is the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for purification, a technique routinely used for sample preparation in analytical laboratories around the world. The sulfate conjugates of sixteen steroid compounds encompassing a wide range of steroid substitution patterns and configurations are prepared, including the previously unreported sulfate conjugates of the designer steroids furazadrol (17β-hydroxyandrostan[2,3-d]isoxazole), isofurazadrol (17β-hydroxyandrostan[3,2-c]isoxazole) and trenazone (17β-hydroxyestra-4,9-dien-3-one). Structural characterization data, together with NMR and mass spectra are reported for all steroid sulfates, often for the first time. The scope of this approach for small scale synthesis is highlighted by the sulfation of 1μg of testosterone (17β-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one) as monitored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of the sulfate uptake and assimilation pathway from Xanthomonas citri - targets for bacterial growth inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambascia, C.; Balan, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Microorganisms require sulfur for growth and obtain it either for inorganic sulfate or organosulfur compounds. ATP-Binding Cassete (SulT family) or major facilitator superfamily-type (SulP) transporters are responsible for the sulfate transport into the cell. In Xanthomonas citri, the phytopathogenic bacterium that causes the canker citrus disease, there are no reports related to the importance of these transporters during in vitro or in vivo infection. We identified in X. citri genome all the genes that belong to the well-characterized cys regulon from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, which includes three ABC transporters and all the enzymes necessary for sulfate oxide reduction to sulfide and cysteine. Once these genes have been shown to be extremely important for bacteria growth and development in different environments, we chose the sbpcysWUA and cysDNCHIJG operons, which encodes the ABC inorganic sulfate ABC transporter and all the enzymes necessary for conversion of sulfate in cysteine, respectively. As a step for crystallization trials and resolution of their tridimensional structures, the referred genes were amplified and cloned into the cloning vector pGEM T-easy. In addition, using bioinformatics tools and molecular modeling we characterized all the protein functions as well as built tridimensional models of their structure for determination of the active sites. The importance of each protein is discussed aiming the discovery of a good target for development of inhibitors that could block the bacterium growth. (author)

  8. Characterization of the sulfate uptake and assimilation pathway from Xanthomonas citri - targets for bacterial growth inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambascia, C.; Balan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Microorganisms require sulfur for growth and obtain it either for inorganic sulfate or organosulfur compounds. ATP-Binding Cassete (SulT family) or major facilitator superfamily-type (SulP) transporters are responsible for the sulfate transport into the cell. In Xanthomonas citri, the phytopathogenic bacterium that causes the canker citrus disease, there are no reports related to the importance of these transporters during in vitro or in vivo infection. We identified in X. citri genome all the genes that belong to the well-characterized cys regulon from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, which includes three ABC transporters and all the enzymes necessary for sulfate oxide reduction to sulfide and cysteine. Once these genes have been shown to be extremely important for bacteria growth and development in different environments, we chose the sbpcysWUA and cysDNCHIJG operons, which encodes the ABC inorganic sulfate ABC transporter and all the enzymes necessary for conversion of sulfate in cysteine, respectively. As a step for crystallization trials and resolution of their tridimensional structures, the referred genes were amplified and cloned into the cloning vector pGEM T-easy. In addition, using bioinformatics tools and molecular modeling we characterized all the protein functions as well as built tridimensional models of their structure for determination of the active sites. The importance of each protein is discussed aiming the discovery of a good target for development of inhibitors that could block the bacterium growth. (author)

  9. Volatility of organic aerosol: evaporation of ammonium sulfate/succinic acid aqueous solution droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Juuti, Taina; Zardini, Alessandro A; Eriksson, Axel C; Hansen, Anne Maria K; Pagels, Joakim H; Swietlicki, Erik; Svenningsson, Birgitta; Glasius, Marianne; Worsnop, Douglas R; Riipinen, Ilona; Bilde, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol.

  10. Volatility of Organic Aerosol: Evaporation of Ammonium Sulfate/Succinic Acid Aqueous Solution Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol. PMID:24107221

  11. Preparing for chemical terrorism: stability of injectable atropine sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Joshua G; Ravikumar, Padinjarekuttu R; Nelson, Lewis S; Heller, Michael B; Howland, Mary Ann; Hoffman, Robert S

    2004-04-01

    A massive nerve agent attack may rapidly deplete in-date supplies of atropine. The authors considered using atropine beyond its labeled shelf life. The objective was to determine the stability of premixed injectable atropine sulfate samples with different expiration dates. This was an in-vitro study using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Four atropine solutions (labeled concentration of 400 microg/mL) ranging from in date to 12 years beyond expiration (exp) and an additional sample of atropine sulfate (labeled concentration of 2,000 microg/mL) obtained from a World War II era autoinjector were assayed for atropine stability. Standards of atropine sulfate and tropine were prepared and quantified by GC/MS. Study samples were prepared by adding a buffer solution to free the base, extracting with an isopropanol/methylene chloride mixture and followed by evaporating the organic layer to dryness. Pentafluoropropionic anhydride and pentafluoropropanol were then added as derivatization reagents. Study samples were heated, the derivitization reagents were evaporated, and the remaining compound was reconstituted in ethyl acetate for injection into the GC/MS. All solutions were clear and colorless. Atropine concentrations were as follows: in date, 252 microg/mL; 2001 exp, 290 microg/mL; 1999 exp, 314 microg/mL; 1990 exp, 398 microg/mL; and WW II specimen, 1,475 microg/mL. Tropine was found in concentrations of <10 microg/mL in all study samples. Significant amounts of atropine were found in all study samples. All samples remained clear and colorless, and no substantial amount of tropine was found in any study sample. Further testing is needed to determine clinical effect.

  12. Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence properties of amine-templated open-framework bismuth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, Subba R.; Behera, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Two organically-templated bismuth sulfates of the compositions, [C 6 N 2 H 14 ] [Bi(SO 4 ) 2 (NO 3 )], (1) and [C 4 N 2 H 12 ] 4 [Bi 4 (SO 4 ) 10 (H 2 O) 4 ], (2), with open architecture have been synthesized and their structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 has a corrugated layered structure with 8-membered aperture wherein the SO 4 tetrahedra and the BiO 8 polyhedra join together to form (4, 4) net sheets of the metal centers while 2 has a three-dimensional structure possessing 8- and 12-membered channels. Both the compounds show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence. Time-resolved fluorescence behavior of 1 and 2 shows mean fluorescence life time of 0.9 and 1.0 ns, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two open-framework bismuth sulfates with the layered and three-dimensional structures have been synthesized and characterized. Both the compounds show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two organically-templated bismuth sulfates with open architecture have been synthesized and characterized. • One has a corrugated layered structure while the other one has a three-dimensional structure possessing channels. • They are novel in that open-framework three-dimensional main group metal sulfates are first to be reported. • They show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence

  13. Oxygen isotopic fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, N.; Turchyn, A. V.; Lyons, T.; Bruchert, V.; Schrag, D. P.; Wall, J.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is understood to depend on a variety of environmental parameters, such as sulfate concentration, temperature, cell specific sulfate reduction rates, and the carbon substrate. What controls oxygen isotope fractionation during BSR is less well understood. Some studies have suggested that carbon substrate is important, whereas others concluded that there is a stoichiometric relationship between the fractionations of sulfur and oxygen during BSR. Studies of oxygen fractionation are complicated by isotopic equilibration between sulfur intermediates, particularly sulfite, and water. This process can modify the isotopic composition of the extracellular sulfate pool (δ18OSO4 ). Given this, the challenge is to distinguish between this isotopic equilibration and fractionations linked to the kinetic effects of the intercellular enzymes and the incorporation of sulfate into the bacterial cell. The δ18OSO4 , in concert with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4), could be a powerful tool for understanding the pathways and environmental controls of BSR in natural systems. We will present δ18OSO4 data measured from batch culture growth of 14 different species of sulfate reducing bacteria for which sulfur isotope data were previously published. A general observation is that δ18OSO4 shows little isotopic change (kinetic effect during BSR and/or equilibration between sulfur intermediates and the isotopically light water (~-5‰) of the growth medium. Our present batch culture data do not allow us to convincingly isolate the magnitude and the controlling parameters of the kinetic isotope effect for oxygen. However, ongoing growth of mutant bacteria missing enzymes critical in the different steps of BSR may assist in this mission.

  14. Pathway of Fermentative Hydrogen Production by Sulfate-reducing Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2015-02-16

    Biofuels are a promising source of sustainable energy. Such biofuels are intermediate products of microbial metabolism of renewable substrates, in particular, plant biomass. Not only are alcohols and solvents produced in this degradative process but energy-rich hydrogen as well. Non photosynthetic microbial hydrogen generation from compounds other than sugars has not been fully explored. We propose to examine the capacity of the abundant soil anaerobes, sulfate-reducing bacteria, for hydrogen generation from organic acids. These apparently simple pathways have yet to be clearly established. Information obtained may facilitate the exploitation of other microbes not yet readily examined by molecular tools. Identification of the flexibility of the metabolic processes to channel reductant to hydrogen will be useful in consideration of practical applications. Because the tools for genetic and molecular manipulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio are developed, our efforts will focus on two strains, D. vulgaris Hildenborough and Desulfovibrio G20.Therefore total metabolism, flux through the pathways, and regulation are likely to be limiting factors which we can elucidate in the following experiments.

  15. Ammonium nickel sulfate hexahydrate crystal: a new ultraviolet light filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Genbo; Zhuang Xinxin; He Youping; Li Zhengdong; Wang Guofu

    2002-01-01

    We propounded and grew a new crystal material of ammonium nickel sulfate hexahydrate (ANSH) for an ultraviolet light filter. The crystal structure of ANSH was solved by x-ray diffraction method and the empirical formula of the title compound is (NH 4 ) 2 Ni(SO 4 ) 2 c6H 2 O. The ANSH crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2 1 /C, a = 6.2351 A, b = 12.451(3) A, c = 9.1798(18) A, β = 106.88(3)deg , v = 681.9(2) A 3 , z = 2 and D c = 1.924 g cm -3 . The deep-green ANSH single crystal with a dimension of 20.5x28x15 mm 3 has been grown by the cooling solution method. Thermo-gravimetry analysis showed that the dehydration temperature of the ANSH crystal is above 96.06 deg. C, which is much higher than that of commercially available nickel sulfate hexahydrate (NSH) crystals. The optical transmission character of the ANSH crystal is discontinuous in the range from ultraviolet (UV) to near IR wavelengths, and has several transmission peaks at 250 nm, 500 nm, 875 nm and 1425 nm, respectively. The UV transmission peak (250 nm) especially has high transmission efficiency and a narrow spectrum band-width. The relationship between the structure and the optical transmission property is further discussed

  16. A potential role for chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate in arm regeneration in Amphiura filiformis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramachandra, R.; Namburi, R.B.; Dupont, S.T.; Ortega-Martinez, O.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Lindahl, U.; Spillmann, D.

    2017-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) from various vertebrate and invertebrate sources are known to be involved in diverse cellular mechanisms during repair and regenerative processes. Recently, we have identified CS/DS as the major GAG in the

  17. On the roles and regulation of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate in zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmborn, Katarina; Habicher, Judith; Kasza, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the roles of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in the development of zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage structures. uxs1 and b3gat3 mutants, predicted to have impaired biosynthesis of both HS and CS because of defective formation...

  18. New double sulfates of uranyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serezhkin, V.N.; Serezhkina, L.B.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility has been established of the formation of double uranyl sulphates with the composition MUO 2 (SO 4 ) 2 x5H 2 O (M=Mn or Co). These compounds are formed upon dissolution of MnSO 4 x5H 2 O or CoSO 4 x7H 2 O and UO 2 SO 4 x2.5H 2 O in a minimum amount of water with subsequent evaporation to dryness. The obtained monocrystals have been studied by X-ray structural analysis and the parameters of monoclinic elementary cells have been determined: MnUO 2 (SO 4 ) 2 x5H 2 O (a=6.524; b=11.396; c=8.362 A; β=90 deg 47') and CoUO 2 (SO 4 ) 2 x5H 2 O (a=6.448; b=11.305; c=8.286 A; β=90 deg). Possible spatial groups are P 2sub(1/m) or P2 1 ; Z=2. Thermographic study of the obtained compounds has been performed

  19. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  20. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... harmful K2SO4. In the present study the decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a kinetic model is proposed to describe the decomposition process. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from ferric sulfate decomposition are investigated in a laboratory......-scale tube reactor. It is revealed that approximately 40% of the sulfur is released as SO3, the remaining fraction being released as SO2. The proposed decomposition model of ferric sulfate is combined with a detailed gas phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation, and a simplified model of K2SO4 condensation...

  1. Hygroscopic properties of aminium sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Grazia; Miles, Rachael E. H.; Reid, Jonathan P.; Clegg, Simon L.

    2017-03-01

    Alkylaminium sulfates originate from the neutralisation reaction between short-chained amines and sulfuric acid and have been detected in atmospheric aerosol particles. Their physicochemical behaviour is less well characterised than their inorganic equivalent, ammonium sulfate, even though they play a role in atmospheric processes such as the nucleation and growth of new particles and cloud droplet formation. In this work, a comparative evaporation kinetics experimental technique using a cylindrical electrodynamic balance is applied to determine the hygroscopic properties of six short-chained alkylaminium sulfates, specifically mono-, di-, and tri-methylaminium sulfate and mono-, di-, and tri-ethyl aminium sulfate. This approach allows for the retrieval of a water-activity-dependent growth curve in less than 10 s, avoiding the uncertainties that can arise from the volatilisation of semi-volatile components. Measurements are made on particles > 5 µm in radius, avoiding the need to correct equilibrium measurements for droplet-surface curvature with assumed values of the droplet-surface tension. Variations in equilibrium solution droplet composition with varying water activity are reported over the range 0.5 to > 0.98, along with accurate parameterisations of solution density and refractive index. The uncertainties in water activities associated with the hygroscopicity measurements are typically 0.9 and ˜ ±1 % below 0.9, with maximum uncertainties in diameter growth factors of ±0.7 %. Comparison with previously reported measurements show deviation across the entire water activity range.

  2. Bis(4-aminopyridinium hexaaquanickel(II bis(sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thameur Sahbani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, (C5H7N22[Ni(H2O6](SO42, the NiII cation is located on an inversion centre and is coordinated by six aqua ligands in a slightly distorted octahedral coordination environment. The [Ni(H2O6]2+ ions are connected through an extensive network of O—H...O hydrogen bonds to sulfate anions, leading to the formation of layers parallel to (001. The 4-aminopyridinium cations are located between these layers and are connected to the anionic framework by N—H...O hydrogen bonds. Weak π–π interactions between the pyridine rings, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.754 (9 Å, provide additional stability to the crystal packing.

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entacti...

  4. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...

  5. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sydnone, the representative mesoionic compound has been extensively studied because of its unusual structure, chemi- cal properties and synthetic utility. Sydnone is used as a versatile synthon in heterocyclic synthesis. This article gives a brief account of the comparative studies of the structural features of mesoionic ...

  6. Sulfate reduction and anaerobic methane oxidation in Black Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, BB; Weber, A.; Zopfi, J.

    2001-01-01

    Beyond the shelf break at ca. 150 m water depth, sulfate reduction is the only important process of organic matter oxidation in Black Sea sediments from the surface down to the sulfate-methane transition at 2-4 m depth. Sulfate reduction rates were measured experimentally with (SO42-)-S-35...... the process was very sluggish with turnover times of methane within the sulfate-methane transition zone of 20 yr or more. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.Beyond the shelf break at ca. 150 m water depth, sulfate reduction is the only important process of organic matter oxidation in Black Sea...... oxidation accounted for 7-11% of the total sulfate reduction in slope and deep-sea sediments. Although this methane-driven sulfate reduction shaped the entire sulfate gradient, it was only equivalent to the sulfate reduction in the uppermost 1.5 cm of surface sediment. Methane oxidation was complete, yet...

  7. Pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease: evidence for the role of reduced heparan sulfate proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tonny Joran

    1997-01-01

    properties of the vessel wall, and the growth regulation of intimal smooth muscle cells. Recent studies have shown that heparin increases the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate in endothelial cell cultures and prevents the characteristic glomerular basement membrane thickening when given to diabetic rats...... problems. What are the mechanisms of action of glycosaminoglycans at the molecular biology level, and how can we select compounds without anticoagulant activity suitable for long-term use in the prevention and treatment of late diabetic complications?...

  8. p-Cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in pediatric patients on chronic dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate are important protein-bound uremic retention solutes whose levels can be partially reduced by renal replacement therapy. These solutes originate from intestinal bacterial protein fermentation and are associated with cardiovascular outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate as well as the effect of probiotics on reducing the levels of uremic toxins in pediatric patients on dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; We enrolled 20 pediatric patients undergoing chronic dialysis; 16 patients completed the study. The patients underwent a 12-week regimen of VSL#3, a high-concentration probiotic preparation, and the serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate were measured before treatment and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the regimen by using fluorescence liquid chromatography. To assess the normal range of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate we enrolled the 16 children with normal glomerular filtration rate who had visited an outpatient clinic for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria that had been detected by a school screening in August 2011. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; The baseline serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate in the patients on chronic dialysis were significantly higher than those in the children with microscopic hematuria. The baseline serum levels of p- cresyl sulfate in the peritoneal dialysis group were significantly higher than those in the hemodialysis group. There were no significant changes in the levels of these uremic solutes after 12-week VSL#3 treatment in the patients on chronic dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; The levels of the uremic toxins p- cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate are highly elevated in pediatric patients on dialysis, but there was no significant effect by

  9. Sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures for multipotent protein activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsoo S.; Fyrner, Timmy; Chen, Feng; Álvarez, Zaida; Sleep, Eduard; Chun, Danielle S.; Weiner, Joseph A.; Cook, Ralph W.; Freshman, Ryan D.; Schallmo, Michael S.; Katchko, Karina M.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Smith, Justin T.; Yun, Chawon; Singh, Gurmit; Hashmi, Sohaib Z.; McClendon, Mark T.; Yu, Zhilin; Stock, Stuart R.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.; Stupp , Samuel I. (NWU)

    2017-06-19

    Biological systems have evolved to utilize numerous proteins with capacity to bind polysaccharides for the purpose of optimizing their function. A well-known subset of these proteins with binding domains for the highly diverse sulfated polysaccharides are important growth factors involved in biological development and tissue repair. We report here on supramolecular sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures, which display a trisulfated monosaccharide on their surfaces and bind five critical proteins with different polysaccharide-binding domains. Binding does not disrupt the filamentous shape of the nanostructures or their internal β-sheet backbone, but must involve accessible adaptive configurations to interact with such different proteins. The glycopeptide nanostructures amplified signalling of bone morphogenetic protein 2 significantly more than the natural sulfated polysaccharide heparin, and promoted regeneration of bone in the spine with a protein dose that is 100-fold lower than that required in the animal model. These highly bioactive nanostructures may enable many therapies in the future involving proteins.

  10. Incorporation of radioactive sulfate (Na235SO4) by mouse adrenal medullary cells as shown by radioautography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munhoz, C.O.G.; Merzel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary radioautographic results, observed in the adreno-medullary cells of mice injected with radiosulfate, suggested that the cells might synthetize sulfur-containing compounds. Only further studies could make-clear if sulfate groups are linked to carbohydrate molecules and/or chromaffin granules [pt

  11. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  12. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  13. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 ± 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  14. Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  16. The impact of sulfate restriction on seed yield and quality of winter oilseed rape depends on the ability to remobilize sulfate from vegetative tissues to reproductive organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eGirondé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our current knowledge about sulfur (S management by winter oilseed rape to satisfy the S demand of developing seeds is still scarce, particularly in relation to S restriction. Our goals were to determine the physiological processes related to S use efficiency that led to maintain the seed yield and quality when S limitation occurred at the bolting or early flowering stages. To address these questions, a pulse-chase 34SO42- labelling method was carried out in order to study the S fluxes from uptake and remobilization at the whole plant level. In response of S limitation at the bolting or early flowering stages, the leaves are the most important source organ for S remobilization during reproductive stages. By combining 34S-tracer with biochemical fractionation in order to separate sulfate from other S-compounds, it appeared that sulfate was the main form of S remobilized in leaves at reproductive stages and that tonoplastic SULTR4-type transporters were specifically involved in the sulfate remobilisation in case of low S availability. In response to S limitation at the bolting stage, the seed yield and quality were dramatically reduced compared to control plants. These data suggest that the increase of both S remobilization from source leaves and the root proliferation in order to maximize sulfate uptake capacities, were not sufficient to maintain the seed yield and quality. When S limitation occurred at the early flowering stage, oilseed rape can optimize the mobilization of sulfate reserves from vegetative organs (leaves and stem to satisfy the demand of seeds and maintain the seed yield and quality. Our study also revealed that the stem may act as a transient storage organ for remobilized S coming from source leaves before its utilization by seeds. The physiological traits (S remobilization, root proliferation, transient S storage in stem observed under S limitation could be used in breeding programs to select oilseed rape genotypes with high S

  17. Isolation of sulfate-reducing bacteria from sediments above the deep-subseafloor aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Katja; Mathes, Falko; Könneke, Martin; Cypionka, Heribert; Engelen, Bert

    2012-01-01

    On a global scale, crustal fluids fuel a large part of the deep-subseafloor biosphere by providing electron acceptors for microbial respiration. In this study, we examined bacterial cultures from sediments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Northeast Pacific (IODP Site U1301). The sediments comprise three distinctive compartments: an upper sulfate-containing zone, formed by bottom-seawater diffusion, a sulfate-depleted zone, and a second (∼140 m thick) sulfate-containing zone influenced by fluid diffusion from the basaltic aquifer. In order to identify and characterize sulfate-reducing bacteria, enrichment cultures from different sediment layers were set up, analyzed by molecular screening, and used for isolating pure cultures. The initial enrichments harbored specific communities of heterotrophic microorganisms. Strains affiliated to Desulfosporosinus lacus, Desulfotomaculum sp., and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis were isolated only from the top layers (1.3-9.1 meters below seafloor, mbsf), while several strains of Desulfovibrio indonesiensis and a relative of Desulfotignum balticum were obtained from near-basement sediments (240-262 mbsf). Physiological tests on three selected strains affiliated to Dv. aespoeensis, Dv. indonesiensis, and Desulfotignum balticum indicated that all reduce sulfate with a limited number of short-chain n-alcohols or fatty acids and were able to ferment either ethanol, pyruvate, or betaine. All three isolates shared the capacity of growing chemolithotrophically with H(2) as sole electron donor. Strain P23, affiliating with Dv. indonesiensis, even grew autotrophically in the absence of any organic compounds. Thus, H(2) might be an essential electron donor in the deep-subseafloor where the availability of organic substrates is limited. The isolation of non-sporeforming sulfate reducers from fluid-influenced layers indicates that they have survived the long-term burial as active populations even after the separation from the seafloor hundreds

  18. A facile synthesis of phenazine and quinoxaline derivatives using magnesium sulfate heptahydrate as a catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAHADOR KARAMI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Convenient and simple procedures for the synthesis of phenazine and quinoxaline derivatives were developed via a reaction of o-phenylenediamines and 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds. In addition, the synthesis of two new 1,4-benzodiazine derivatives and the catalytic activity of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate (MgSO4·7H2O in the room temperature condensation of o-phenylenediamines and 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in ethanol as solvent are reported. This method has many appealing attributes, such as excellent yields, short reaction times, and simple work-up procedures.

  19. Some structural characteristics of sulfates forming in the system of Ce(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/-K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogachev, D.L.; Bondar' , S.A.; Letetskaya, M.A.; Rys' kina, M.P. (AN SSSR, Apatity. Inst. Khimii i Tekhnologii Redkikh Ehlementov i Mineral' nogo Syr' ya Kol' skogo Filiala)

    1983-02-01

    Refractive indexes, symmetry, lattice parameters and space group of five sulfates, separated during investigation into Ce(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/-K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O system at 50-150 deg C were determined. The properties of separated compounds were correlated with the properties of cerium and rubidium sulfates. Powder radiograms of these compounds are given.

  20. Reactions of yttria-stabilized zirconia with oxides and sulfates of various elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1978-01-01

    The reactions between partially stabilized zirconia, containing 8 weight-percent yttria, and oxides and sulfates of various elements were studied at 1200, 1300, and 1400 C for times to 800, 400, and 200 hours, respectively. These oxides and sulfates represent impurities and additives potentially present in gas turbine fuels or impurities in the turbine combustion air as well as the elements of the substrate alloys in contact with zirconia. Based on the results, these compounds can be classified in four groups: (1) compounds which did not react with zirconia (Na2SO4, K2SO4, Cr2O3, Al2O3 and NiO); (2) compounds that reached completely with both zirconia phases (CaO, BaO, and BaSO4); (3) compounds that reacted preferentially with monoclinic zirconia (Na2O, K2O, CoO, Fe2O3, MgO, SiO2, and ZnO); and (4) compounds that reacted preferentially with cubic zirconia (V2O5, P2O5).

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructured Sulfated Zirconias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lutecki, M.; Šolcová, Olga; Werner, S.; Breitkopf, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2010), s. 13-20 ISSN 0928-0707 Grant - others:DFG(DE) BR2068/2-1; DFG(DE) BR2068/2-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : sulfated zirconia * template assisted synthesis * porous materials Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.525, year: 2010

  2. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate. 558.364 Section 558.364 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... days. Amount consumed will vary depending on animal's consumption and weight. If symptoms persist after...

  3. Mechanisms and Effectivity of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining-influenced water (MIW) is the main environmental challenges associated with the mining industry. Passive MIW remediation can be achieved through microbial activity in sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs), but their actual removal rates depend on different factors, one of which is the substrate composition. Chitinous materials have demonstrated high metal removal rates, particularly for the two recalcitrant MIW contaminants Zn and Mn, but their removal mechanisms need further study. We studied Cd, Fe, Zn, and Mn removal in bioactive and abiotic SRBRs to elucidate the metal removal mechanisms and the differences in metal and sulfate removal rates using a chitinous material as substrate. We found that sulfate-reducing bacteria are effective in increasing metal and sulfate removal rates and duration of operation in SRBRs, and that the main mechanism involved was metal precipitation as sulfides. The solid residues provided evidence of the presence of sulfides in the bioactive column, more specifically ZnS, according to XPS analysis. The feasibility of passive treatments with a chitinous substrate could be an important option for MIW remediation. Mining influenced water (MIW) remediation is still one of the top priorities for the agency because it addresses the most important environmental problem associated with the mining industry and that affects thousands of communities in the U.S. and worldwide. In this paper, the MIW bioremediation mechanisms are studied

  4. Determination of boron spectrophotometry in thorium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federgrun, L.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of microquantities of boron in nuclear grade thorium sulfate is described. The method is based on the extraction of BF - 4 ion associated to monomethylthionine (MMT) in 1,2 - dichloroethane. The extraction of the colored BF - 4 -MMT complex does not allow the presence of sulfuric and phosphoric acids; other anions interfere seriously. This fact makes the dissolution of the thorium sulfate impracticable, since it is insoluble in both acids. On the other hand, the quantitative separation of thorium is mandatory, to avoid the precipitation of ThF 4 . To overcome this difficulty, the thorium sulfate is dissolved using a strong cationic ion exchanger, Th 4+ being totally retained into the resin. Boron is then analysed in the effluent. The procedure allows the determination of 0.2 to 10.0 microgramas of B, with a maximum error of 10%. Thorium sulfate samples with contents of 0.2 to 2.0μg B/gTh have being analysed [pt

  5. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  6. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four strains of eri, Samia cynthia ricini Lepidoptera: Saturniidae that can be identified morphologically and maintained at North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat were characterized based on their protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and DNA by random ...

  7. Galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity in Morquio syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, T.; Okada, S.; Kato, T.; Inui, K.; Yabuuhi, H. (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-07-01

    The authors have prepared a new substrate, o-..beta..-D-sulfo-galactosyl-(1-4)-..beta..-D-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucosyl-(1-4)-D-(1-/sup 3/H)galactitol, from shark cartilage keratan sulfate, for the assay of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity. Using this substrate, they found there was a striking deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, in addition to the known deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase, in the cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with Morquio syndrome. Their results could be explained by the hypothesis that accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in Morquio syndrome is due to a deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, which are necessary for the degradation of these two mucopolysaccharides.

  8. Galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity in Morquio syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yutaka, T.; Okada, S.; Kato, T.; Inui, K.; Yabuuhi, H.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have prepared a new substrate, o-β-D-sulfo-galactosyl-(1-4)-β-D-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucosyl-(1-4)-D-[1- 3 H]galactitol, from shark cartilage keratan sulfate, for the assay of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity. Using this substrate, they found there was a striking deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, in addition to the known deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase, in the cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with Morquio syndrome. Their results could be explained by the hypothesis that accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in Morquio syndrome is due to a deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, which are necessary for the degradation of these two mucopolysaccharides. (Auth.)

  9. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production and characte...

  10. 21 CFR 172.270 - Sulfated butyl oleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.270 Sulfated butyl oleate. Sulfate butyl oleate may be safely...

  11. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with [35S] sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I

  12. Isolation of a sulfate reducing bacterium and its application in sulfate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the effect of C. freundii in removing sulfate was best when the temperature was 32°C, pH was 7.0, COD/SO42- was 5.0 and the initial SO42- concentration was 1500 mg/L. Also, the SRB was inoculated onto an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) to remove sulfate in actual tannery wastewater.

  13. Tetrathionate and Elemental Sulfur Shape the Isotope Composition of Sulfate in Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgul Balci

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur compounds in intermediate valence states, for example elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate, are important players in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. However, key understanding about the pathways of oxidation involving mixed-valance state sulfur species is still missing. Here we report the sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation effects during the oxidation of tetrathionate (S4O62− and elemental sulfur (S° to sulfate in bacterial cultures in acidic conditions. Oxidation of tetrathionate by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans produced thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and sulfate. Up to 34% of the tetrathionate consumed by the bacteria could not be accounted for in sulfate or other intermediate-valence state sulfur species over the experiments. The oxidation of tetrathionate yielded sulfate that was initially enriched in 34S (ε34SSO4−S4O6 by +7.9‰, followed by a decrease to +1.4‰ over the experiment duration, with an average ε34SSO4−S4O6 of +3.5 ± 0.2‰ after a month of incubation. We attribute this significant sulfur isotope fractionation to enzymatic disproportionation reactions occurring during tetrathionate decomposition, and to the incomplete transformation of tetrathionate into sulfate. The oxygen isotope composition of sulfate (δ18OSO4 from the tetrathionate oxidation experiments indicate that 62% of the oxygen in the formed sulfate was derived from water. The remaining 38% of the oxygen was either inherited from the supplied tetrathionate, or supplied from dissolved atmospheric oxygen (O2. During the oxidation of elemental sulfur, the product sulfate became depleted in 34S between −1.8 and 0‰ relative to the elemental sulfur with an average for ε34SSO4−S0 of −0.9 ± 0.2‰ and all the oxygen atoms in the sulfate derived from water with an average normal oxygen isotope fractionation (ε18OSO4−H2O of −4.4‰. The differences observed in δ18OSO4 and the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4

  14. 21 CFR 529.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate solution. 529.1044b Section 529... Gentamicin sulfate solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains gentamicin sulfate... solution with a gentamicin concentration of 250 to 1,000 parts per million. A concentration of 500 parts...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1 1...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2158a - Streptomycin sulfate oral solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptomycin sulfate oral solution. 520.2158a... Streptomycin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Solution containing 25 percent streptomycin sulfate. (b... administer for more than 4 days. Prepare fresh solution daily. Calves: Withdraw 2 days before slaughter. As...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b...

  3. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed on the Gusev Crater plains west of the Columbia Hills in January, 2004, during the Martian summer (sol 0; sol = 1 Martian day = 24 hr 40 min). Spirit explored the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater in the vicinity of Home Plate at the onset on its second winter (sol approximately 900) until the onset of its fourth winter (sol approximately 2170). At that time, Spirit became mired in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate-rich soil with dust-covered solar panels and unfavorable pointing of the solar arrays toward the sun. Spirit has not communicated with the Earth since sol 2210 (January, 2011). Like its twin rover Opportunity, which landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridiani Planum, Spirit has an Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument for chemical analyses and a Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) for measurement of iron redox state, mineralogical speciation, and quantitative distribution among oxidation (Fe(3+)/sigma Fe) and coordination (octahedral versus tetrahedral) states and mineralogical speciation (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, carbonate, and sulfate). The concentration of SO3 in Gusev rocks and soils varies from approximately 1 to approximately 34 wt%. Because the APXS instrument does not detect low atomic number elements (e.g., H and C), major-element oxide concentrations are normalized to sum to 100 wt%, i.e., contributions of H2O, CO2, NO2, etc. to the bulk composition care not considered. The majority of Gusev samples have approximately 6 plus or minus 5 wt% SO3, but there is a group of samples with high SO3 concentrations (approximately 30 wt%) and high total iron concentrations (approximately 20 wt%). There is also a group with low total Fe and SO3 concentrations that is also characterized by high SiO2 concentrations (greater than 70 wt%). The trend labeled "Basaltic Soil" is interpreted as mixtures in variable proportions between unaltered igneous material and oxidized and SO3-rich basaltic

  4. Sea cucumbers, the ocean of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers are one of the most echinoderms and from the class Holothuroidea. Some of their specific biological activities are including anti-cancer, anticoagulant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-atherosclerosis and anti-tumor properties, as well as accelerate wound healing. The presence of different compounds such as saponins, chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycans, sulfated Polysaccharides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential and non essential fatty acids, are the causes of their biological properties. Saponins, which are produced for compatibility with the environment, are as theire secondary metabolites. These active compounds have biological properties like hemolytic, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, ichthyotoxic, cytostatic, anti neogenic, antineoplastic, and uric acid lowering effects. Sea cucumber, have high economic value. In East Asia, Since ancient times, it have been traditionally used for the treatment of fatigue, sexual impotence, impotence caused by aging, constipation due to intestinal dryness, urinary incontinence, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and anemia. Also, toxins obtained from sea cucumber, have anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-cancer and anti-pregnancy properties. According to literatures, the aqueous extract and high molecular weight compounds from sea cucumbers can inhibit tumor activity, via the apoptosis induction. Sea cucumbers because of the high percentage of protein and the absence of cholesterol, classified as an invigorating food. Because of different species of sea cucumbers in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea the identification of compounds and biological properties of sea cucumber species in these regions is recommended to the researchers.

  5. Constraining Δ33S signatures of Archean seawater sulfate with carbonate-associated sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Bao, H.; Bekker, A.; Hofmann, A.

    2017-12-01

    Non-mass dependent sulfur isotope deviation of S-bearing phases in Archean sedimentary strata, and expressed as Δ33S, has a consistent pattern, i.e., sulfide (pyrite) predominantly bear positive Δ33S values, while Paleoarchean sulfate (barite) has negative Δ33S values. This pattern was later corroborated by observations of negative Δ33S values in Archean volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and negative Δ33S values in early diagenetic nodular pyrite with a wide range of δ34S values, which is thought to be due to microbial sulfate reduction. These signatures have provided a set of initial conditions for a mechanistic interpretation at physical chemistry level. Unlike the younger geological times when large bodies of seawater evaporite deposits are common, to expand seawater sulfate records, carbonate-associated sulfate (CAS) was utilized as a proxy for ancient seawater sulfate. CAS extracted from the Archean carbonates carries positive Δ33S values. However, CAS could be derived from pyrite oxidation following exposure to modern oxidizing conditions and/or during laboratory extraction procedures. It is, therefore, important for us understanding context of the overall early earth atmospheric condition to empirically confirm whether Archean seawater sulfate was generally characterized by negative Δ33S signatures. Combined δ18O, Δ17O, δ34S, and Δ33S analyses of sequentially extracted water-leachable sulfate (WLS) and acid-leachable sulfate (ALS = CAS) and δ34S and Δ33S analyses of pyrite can help to identify the source of extracted sulfate. We studied drill-core samples of Archean carbonates from the 2.55 Ga Malmani and Campell Rand supgroups, South Africa. Our preliminary results show that 1) neither WLS nor ALS were extracted from samples with extremely low pyrite contents (less than 0.05 wt.%); 2) extractable WLS and ALS is present in samples with relatively high pyrite contents (more than 1 wt.%), and that δ34S and Δ33S values of WLS, ALS, and

  6. Introduction of sulfate groups on poly(ethylene) surfaces by argon plasma immobilization of sodium alkyl sulfates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.P.; Lens, J.P.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Sulfate groups were introduced at the surface of poly(ethylene) (PE) samples. This was accomplished by immobilizing a precoated layer of either sodium 10-undecene sulfate (S11(:)) or sodium dodecane sulfate (SDS) on the polymeric surface by means of an argon plasma treatment. For this purpose,

  7. Bismaleimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  8. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  9. Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean Andrew; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column...... Archean seawater sulfate concentrations of less than 2.5 micromolar. At these low concentrations, marine sulfate residence times were likely 10(3) to 10(4) years, and sulfate scarcity would have shaped early global biogeochemical cycles, possibly restricting biological productivity in Archean oceans....

  10. Validation of determination of plasma metabolites derived from thyme bioactive compounds by improved liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubió, Laura; Serra, Aida; Macià, Alba; Borràs, Xenia; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2012-09-15

    In the present study, a selective and sensitive method, based on microelution solid-phase extraction (μSPE) plate and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was validated and applied to determine the plasma metabolites of the bioactive compounds of thyme. For validation process, standards of the more representative components of the phenolic and monoterpene fractions of thyme were spiked in plasma samples and then the quality parameters of the method were studied. Extraction recoveries (%R) of the studied compounds were higher than 75%, and the matrix effect (%ME) was lower than 18%. The LODs ranged from 1 to 65 μg/L, except for the thymol sulfate metabolite, which was 240 μg/L. This method was then applied for the analysis of rat plasma obtained at different times, from 0 to 6h, after an acute intake of thyme extract (5 g/kg body weight). Different thyme metabolites were identified and were mainly derived from rosmarinic acid (coumaric acid sulfate, caffeic acid sulfate, ferulic acid sulfate, hydroxyphenylpropionic acid sulfate, dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid sulfate and hydroxybenzoic acid) and thymol (thymol sulfate and thymol glucuronide). The most abundant thyme metabolites generated were hydroxyphenylpropionic acid sulfate and thymol sulfate, their respective concentrations in plasma being 446 and 8464 μM 1h after the intake of the thyme extract. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sodium sulfate crystallisation monitoring using IR thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, P.; Thomachot-Schneider, C.; Mouhoubi, K.; Bodnar, J.-L.; Avdelidis, N. P.; Charles, D.; Benavente, D.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the evaporation of sodium sulfate droplets with different concentrations and at different temperatures were studied using infrared thermography (IRT). IRT allows to detect the evaporation evolution, the crystal growth and for the first time, to observe in vivo the heat release related to sodium sulfate crystallisation. A detailed study revealed that dendritic Thenardite III crystals appeared at the edge of all the crystallised droplets, though they showed a fast increase of temperature related to crystallisation only when a hydrated phase crystallised also from the droplet. The observation of the heat of crystallisation is thus directly related to the supersaturation of the droplet and consequently to temperature. In addition, IRT detection is circumscribed by the location of crystallisation. The heat can be observed and measured only when the crystallisation occurs in the interface solution - air.

  12. Aluminophosphate glasses with high sulfate content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovsky, S.V.; Ivanov, I.A.; Gulin, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    To immobilize a high sulfate radioactive wastes a system Na 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 -SO 3 has been chosen as one where glasses have a relatively low melting points and good chemical durability. Glasses within partial system 44 Na 2 O, 20 Al 2 O 3 , (36-x)P 2 O 5 , x SO 3 have been prepared at 1,000 C. A possibility of assimilation up to 12 mole % of SO 3 has been established. The basic properties of sulfate-containing glasses as density, microhardness, thermal expansion coefficient, transformation and deformation temperatures, viscosity, electric resistivity, leach rate of ions and diffusion coefficients of 22 Na, 35 S, 90 Sr and 137 Cs have been measured. Glass structure by infrared and EPR spectroscopies has been investigated

  13. Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  14. Anthropogenic Sulfate, Clouds, and Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghan, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    This research work is a joint effort between research groups at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Virginia Tech University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Texas A&M University. It has been jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this research, a detailed tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model that predicts oxidant concentrations as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosols has been coupled to a general circulation model that distinguishes between cloud water mass and cloud droplet number. The coupled model system has been first validated and then used to estimate the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. Both the direct radiative impact of the aerosols and their indirect impact through their influence on cloud droplet number are represented by distinguishing between sulfuric acid vapor and fresh and aged sulfate aerosols, and by parameterizing cloud droplet nucleation in terms of vertical velocity and the number concentration of aged sulfur aerosols. Natural sulfate aerosols, dust, and carbonaceous and nitrate aerosols and their influence on the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, through competition as cloud condensation nuclei, will also be simulated. Parallel simulations with and without anthropogenic sulfur emissions are performed for a global domain. The objectives of the research are: To couple a state-of-the-art tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model with a global climate model. To use field and satellite measurements to evaluate the treatment of tropospheric chemistry and aerosol physics in the coupled model. To use the coupled model to simulate the radiative (and ultimately climatic) impacts of anthropogenic sulfur emissions.

  15. Optical constants of concentrated aqueous ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Using experimental data obtained from applying spectroscopy to a 39-wt-% aqueous ammonium sulfate solution, it is shown that, even though specific aerosol optical constants appear quite accurate, spectral variations may exist as functions of material composition or concentration or both. Prudent users of optical constant data must then include liberal data error estimates when performing calculations or in interpreting spectroscopic surveys of collected aerosol material.

  16. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  17. [Reptile brain cerebrosides and cerebroside sulfates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitina, M V

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been made on the content of cerebrosides and cerebroside sulfates, as well as on their fatty acid composition in the brain of reptiles, subclass Anapsida (tortoises Emys orbicularis and Testudo horsfieldi) and subclass Lepidosauria (lizards Agama caucasica, A. sanguinolenta, Phrynocephalus mystaceus and snake Natrix tesselata). Total content of cerebrosides and cerebroside sulfates is higher in the brain of Lepidosaurians than in that of Anapsids. In the brain of tortoises, the content of cerebroside fraction with hydroxy fatty acids is significantly higher than of the fraction with normal fatty acids, which is also typical of the brain of homoiothermic mammals and birds. In the brain of Lepidosaurians, concentration of hydroxycerebrosides is considerably lower than of cerebrosides with normal fatty acids, which is similar to lower vertebrates -- amphibians and fishes. Low content of hydroxycerebrosides was found in all the Lepidosaurians investigated, irrespectively of their ecological conditions, being therefore dependent on their phylogenetic position. The composition of fatty acids, both normal and hydroxyderivates, as well as that of glycolipids from the brain of Anapsids and Lepidosaurians is essentially similar. However, some interspecific differences were noted in the pattern of fatty acids of cerebrosides and cerebroside sulfates of the brain, which concern the content of saturated and long chain fatty acids.

  18. Regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Thomson, I.; Egan, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    As part of the Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) Design Project, a regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates has been developed. This quasi-Lagrangian three-dimensional grid numerical model uses a detailed SO 2 emission inventory of major anthropogenic sources in the Eastern U.S. region, and observed meteorological data during an episode as inputs. The model accounts for advective transport and turbulent diffusion of the pollutants. The chemical transformation of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ and the deposition of the species at the earth's surface are assumed to be linear processes at specified constant rates. The numerical model can predict the daily average concentrations of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ at all receptor locations in the grid region during the episode. Because of the spatial resolution of the grid, this model is particularly suited to investigate the effect of tall stacks in reducing the ambient concentration levels of sulfur pollutants. This paper presents the formulations and assumptions of the regional sulfate transport model. The model inputs and results are discussed. Isopleths of predicted SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ concentrations are compared with the observed ground level values. The bulk of the information in this paper is directed to air pollution meteorologists and environmental engineers interested in the atmospheric transport modeling studies of sulfur oxide pollutants

  19. Pathways of sulfate and hydrogen sulfide transformations in a BTEX- contaminated groundwater system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Anneser, B.; Griebler, C.

    2010-01-01

    in complex environmental systems. As a result, compound specific stable isotope signatures in various sulfur species were determined in a tar-oil contaminated site and were linked to the microbial community distribution in the aquifer. The goal of the study was to reach an integrated understanding of sulfur...... intermediate during abiotic oxidation of hydrogen sulphide, with the latter formed during bacterial sulfate reduction. The formed elemental sulfur may be used by the specific microbial community found in this aquifer for the oxidation of organic contaminants such as toluene. In contrast, reoxidation...... of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate by molecular oxygen may affect sulfur cycling within the transition between the unsaturated and the saturated zones and therefore attenuate concentrations of contaminants in groundwater as well....

  20. Effects of sulfate on heavy metal release from iron corrosion scales in drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huifang; Shi, Baoyou; Yang, Fan; Wang, Dongsheng

    2017-05-01

    Trace heavy metals accumulated in iron corrosion scales within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS) could potentially be released to bulk water and consequently deteriorate the tap water quality. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate the release of trace heavy metals in DWDS under changing source water conditions. Experimental pipe loops with different iron corrosion scales were set up to simulate the actual DWDS. The effects of sulfate levels on heavy metal release were systemically investigated. Heavy metal releases of Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cr and As could be rapidly triggered by sulfate addition but the releases slowly decreased over time. Heavy metal release was more severe in pipes transporting groundwater (GW) than in pipes transporting surface water (SW). There were strong positive correlations (R 2  > 0.8) between the releases of Fe and Mn, Fe and Ni, Fe and Cu, and Fe and Pb. When switching to higher sulfate water, iron corrosion scales in all pipe loops tended to be more stable (especially in pipes transporting GW), with a larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe 3 O 4 ) and fewer unstable compounds (β-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, FeCO 3 and amorphous iron oxides). The main functional iron reducing bacteria (IRB) communities were favorable for the formation of Fe 3 O 4 . The transformation of corrosion scales and the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) accounted for the gradually reduced heavy metal release with time. The higher metal release in pipes transporting GW could be due to increased Fe 6 (OH) 12 CO 3 content under higher sulfate concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Negative Electron Transfer Dissociation Sequencing of Increasingly Sulfated Glycosaminoglycan Oligosaccharides on an Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Franklin E.; Riley, Nicholas M.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    The structural characterization of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) carbohydrates remains an important target for analytical chemists attributable to challenges introduced by the natural complexity of these mixtures and the defined need for molecular-level details to elucidate biological structure-function relationships. Tandem mass spectrometry has proven to be the most powerful technique for this purpose. Previously, electron detachment dissociation (EDD), in comparison to other methods of ion activation, has been shown to provide the largest number of useful cleavages for de novo sequencing of GAG oligosaccharides, but such experiments are restricted to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers (FTICR-MS). Negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) provides similar fragmentation results, and can be achieved on any mass spectrometry platform that is designed to accommodate ion-ion reactions. Here, we examine for the first time the effectiveness of NETD-Orbitrap mass spectrometry for the structural analysis of GAG oligosaccharides. Compounds ranging in size from tetrasaccharides to decasaccharides were dissociated by NETD, producing both glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages that enabled the location of sulfate modifications. The highly-sulfated, heparin-like synthetic GAG, ArixtraTM, was also successfully sequenced by NETD. In comparison to other efforts to sequence GAG chains without fully ionized sulfate constituents, the occurrence of sulfate loss peaks is minimized by judicious precursor ion selection. The results compare quite favorably to prior results with electron detachment dissociation (EDD). Significantly, the duty cycle of the NETD experiment is sufficiently short to make it an effective tool for on-line separations, presenting a straightforward path for selective, high-throughput analysis of GAG mixtures. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Survey of electrochemical production of inorganic compounds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The electrochemical generation of inorganic compounds, excluding chlorine/caustic, has been critically reviewed. About 60 x 10/sup 12/ Btu/y fossil fuel equivalent will be used in the year 2000 for the electrosynthesis of inorganic compounds. Significant energy savings in chlorate production can result from the development of suitable electrocatalysts for lowering the cathodic overpotential. Perchlorates, electrolytic hypochlorite, electrolytic manganese dioxide, fluorine and other miscellaneous compounds use relatively small amounts of electrical energy. Implementation of caustic scrubber technology for stack gas cleanup would result in appreciable amounts of sodium sulfate which could be electrolyzed to regenerate caustic. Hydrogen peroxide, now produced by the alkyl anthraquinone process, could be made electrolytically by a new process coupling anodic oxidation of sulfate with cathodic reduction of oxygen in alkaline solution. Ozone is currently manufactured using energy-inefficient silent discharge equipment. A novel energy-efficient approach which uses an oxygen-enhanced anodic reaction is examined.

  3. Rare sulfur and triple oxygen isotope geochemistry of volcanogenic sulfate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Eiler, J. M.; Wing, B. A.; Farquhar, J.

    2007-05-01

    / 32S vs. 34S/ 32S, respectively. The data presented here are consistent with modification of a chemical mass-dependent fractionation of sulfur isotopes in the volcanic plume by either a kinetic gas phase reaction of volcanic SO 2 with OH and/or a Rayleigh processes involving a residual Rayleigh reactant—volcanic SO 2 gas, rather than a Rayleigh product. These results may also imply at least two removal pathways for SO 2 in volcanic plumes. Above-zero Δ17O values and their positive correlation with δ18O in sulfate can be explained by oxidation by high- δ18O and high- Δ17O compounds such as ozone and radicals such as OH that result from ozone break down. Large caldera-forming eruptions have the highest Δ17O values, and the largest range of δ18O, which can be explained by stratospheric reaction with ozone-derived OH radicals. These results suggest that massive eruptions are capable of causing a temporary depletion of the ozone layer. Such depletion may be many times that of the measured 3-8% depletion following 1991 Pinatubo eruption, if the amount of sulfur dioxide released scales with the amount of ozone depletion.

  4. Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence properties of amine-templated open-framework bismuth sulfates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marri, Subba R.; Behera, J.N., E-mail: jnbehera@niser.ac.in

    2014-02-15

    Two organically-templated bismuth sulfates of the compositions, [C{sub 6}N{sub 2}H{sub 14}] [Bi(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(NO{sub 3})], (1) and [C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}]{sub 4}[Bi{sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 10}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}], (2), with open architecture have been synthesized and their structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 has a corrugated layered structure with 8-membered aperture wherein the SO{sub 4} tetrahedra and the BiO{sub 8} polyhedra join together to form (4, 4) net sheets of the metal centers while 2 has a three-dimensional structure possessing 8- and 12-membered channels. Both the compounds show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence. Time-resolved fluorescence behavior of 1 and 2 shows mean fluorescence life time of 0.9 and 1.0 ns, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two open-framework bismuth sulfates with the layered and three-dimensional structures have been synthesized and characterized. Both the compounds show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two organically-templated bismuth sulfates with open architecture have been synthesized and characterized. • One has a corrugated layered structure while the other one has a three-dimensional structure possessing channels. • They are novel in that open-framework three-dimensional main group metal sulfates are first to be reported. • They show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence.

  5. Sulfide Generated by Sulfate Reduction is a Primary Controller of the Occurrence of Wild Rice (Zizania palustris) in Shallow Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrbo, A.; Swain, E. B.; Engstrom, D. R.; Coleman Wasik, J.; Brenner, J.; Dykhuizen Shore, M.; Peters, E. B.; Blaha, G.

    2017-11-01

    Field observations suggest that surface water sulfate concentrations control the distribution of wild rice, an aquatic grass (Zizania palustris). However, hydroponic studies show that sulfate is not toxic to wild rice at even unrealistically high concentrations. To determine how sulfate might directly or indirectly affect wild rice, potential wild rice habitat was characterized for 64 chemical and physical variables in over 100 sites spanning a relatively steep climatic and geological gradient in Minnesota. Habitat suitability was assessed by comparing the occurrence of wild rice with the field variables, through binary logistic regression. This analysis demonstrated that sulfide in sediment pore water, generated by the microbial reduction of sulfate that diffuses or advects into the sediment, is the primary control of wild rice occurrence. Water temperature and water transparency independently control the suitability of habitat for wild rice. In addition to generating phytotoxic sulfide, sulfate reduction also supports anaerobic decomposition of organic matter, releasing nutrients that can compound the harm of direct sulfide toxicity. These results are important because they show that increases in sulfate loading to surface water can have multiple negative consequences for ecosystems, even though sulfate itself is relatively benign.

  6. Purification of Keratan Sulfate-endogalactosidase and its action on keratan sulfates of different origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, K; Suzuki, S

    1975-02-10

    A glycosidase which attacks corneal keratan sulfate was purified from extracts of Pseudomonas sp. IFO-13309. When corneal keratan sulfate was degraded by the purified enzyme, Sephadex G-50 chromatography indicated the presence of a number of oligosaccharides differing in size and sulfate content. The characterization of two major fractions of the oligosaccharides indicated that the point of enzyme attack is limited to the endo-beta-D-galactoside bonds in which nonsulfated D-galactose residues participate. The enzyme, unlike ordinary exo-beta-D-galactosidases, did not catalyze the hydrolysis of phenyl beta-D-galactoside. Moreover, beta-D-galactosyl-(1 leads to 3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucosyl-(1 leads to 3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1 leads to 4)-D-glucose ("lacto-N-tetraose") was completely refractory to the action of this enzyme, suggesting that a structure of the type, X-(1 leads to 3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1 leads to 4)-Y, is not the only specificity-determining factor, i.e. neighboring sugars, X and Y, or even larger portions of substrate molecule must have an important effect. Compared with corneal keratan sulfate, keratan sulfates from human nucleus pulposus and shark cartilage were attacked at lower rates with a resultant production of oligosaccharides of relatively large size. The result is in agreement with the view that considerable variations exist in the structure of keratan sulfates of different origin, and further suggests that the enzyme may serve as a useful reagent in studying these variations.

  7. A potential role for chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate in arm regeneration in Amphiura filiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Dupont, Sam T; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2017-05-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) from various vertebrate and invertebrate sources are known to be involved in diverse cellular mechanisms during repair and regenerative processes. Recently, we have identified CS/DS as the major GAG in the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis, with high proportions of di- and tri-O-sulfated disaccharide units. As this echinoderm is known for its exceptional regeneration capacity, we aimed to explore the role of these GAG chains during A. filiformis arm regeneration. Analysis of CS/DS chains during the regeneration process revealed an increase in the proportion of the tri-O-sulfated disaccharides. Conversely, treatment of A. filiformis with sodium chlorate, a potent inhibitor of sulfation reactions in GAG biosynthesis, resulted in a significant reduction in arm growth rates with total inhibition at concentrations higher than 5 mM. Differentiation was less impacted by sodium chlorate exposure or even slightly increased at 1-2 mM. Based on the structural changes observed during arm regeneration we identified chondroitin synthase, chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2 and dermatan-4-O-sulfotransferase as candidate genes and sought to correlate their expression with the expression of the A. filiformis orthologue of bone morphogenetic factors, AfBMP2/4. Quantitative amplification by real-time PCR indicated increased expression of chondroitin synthase and chondroitin-4-O-sulfotransferase 2, with a corresponding increase in AfBMP2/4 during regeneration relative to nonregenerating controls. Our findings suggest that proper sulfation of GAGs is important for A. filiformis arm regeneration and that these molecules may participate in mechanisms controlling cell proliferation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their influence on the water uptake of ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their effects on ammonium sulfate were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA. No hygroscopic growth is observed for disodium oxalate, while ammonium oxalate shows slight growth (growth factor = 1.05 at 90%. The growth factors at 90% RH for sodium acetate, disodium malonate, disodium succinate, disodium tartrate, diammonium tartrate, sodium pyruvate, disodium maleate, and humic acid sodium salt are 1.79, 1.78, 1.69, 1.54, 1.29, 1.70, 1.78, and 1.19, respectively. The hygroscopic growth of mixtures of organic salts with ammonium sulfate, which are prepared as surrogates of atmospheric aerosols, was determined. A clear shift in deliquescence relative humidity to lower RH with increasing organic mass fraction was observed for these mixtures. Above 80% RH, the contribution to water uptake by the organic salts was close to that of ammonium sulfate for the majority of investigated compounds. The observed hygroscopic growth of the mixed particles at RH above the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate agreed well with that predicted using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR mixing rule. Mixtures of ammonium sulfate with organic salts are more hygroscopic than mixtures with organic acids, indicating that neutralization by gas-phase ammonia and/or association with cations of dicarbonxylic acids may enhance the hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particles.

  9. Evidence of Sulfate-Dependent Anaerobic Methane Oxidation within an Area Impacted by Coalbed Methane-Related Gas Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A. L.; Wikin, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated water quality characteristics in the northern Raton Basin of Colorado and documented the response of the Poison Canyon aquifer system several years after upward migration of methane gas occurred from the deeper Vermejo Formation coalbed production zone. Over a 17-month study period, water samples were obtained from domestic water wells and monitoring wells located within the impacted area, and analyzed for 245 constituents, including organic compounds, nutrients, major and trace elements, dissolved gases, and isotopic tracers for carbon, sulfur, oxygen, and hydrogen. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that sulfate-dependent methane biodegradation, which involves the oxidation of methane (CH4) to carbon dioxide (CO2) using sulfate (SO42-) as the terminal electron acceptor, is occurring: (i) consumption of methane and sulfate and production of sulfide and bicarbonate, (ii) methane loss coupled to production of higher molecular weight (C2+) gaseous hydrocarbons, (iii) patterns of 13C enrichment and depletion in methane and dissolved inorganic carbon, and (iv) a systematic shift in sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate, indicative of microbial sulfate reduction. Groundwater-methane attenuation is linked to the production of dissolved sulfide, and elevated dissolved sulfide concentrations represent an undesirable secondary water quality impact. The biogeochemical response of the aquifer system has not mobilized naturally occurring trace metals, including arsenic, chromium, cobalt, nickel, and lead, likely due to the microbial production of hydrogen sulfide, which favors stabilization of metals in aquifer solids.

  10. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  11. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingchong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta, marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.

  12. Overview on biological activities and molecular characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from marine green algae in recent years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-09-25

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.

  13. Perspective on the Use of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Organisms as a Source of New Antithrombotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. S. Mourão

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thromboembolic diseases are increasing worldwide and always require anticoagulant therapy. We still need safer and more secure antithrombotic drugs than those presently available. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may constitute a new source for the development of such drugs. Investigation of these compounds usually attempts to reproduce the therapeutic effects of heparin. However, we may need to follow different routes, focusing particularly in the following aspects: (1 defining precisely the specific structures required for interaction of these sulfated polysaccharides with proteins of the coagulation system; (2 looking for alternative mechanisms of action, distinct from those of heparin; (3 identifying side effects (mostly pro-coagulant action and hypotension rather than bleeding and preparing derivatives that retain the desired antithrombotic action but are devoid of side effects; (4 considering that sulfated polysaccharides with low anticoagulant action on in vitro assays may display potent effects on animal models of experimental thrombosis; and finally (5 investigating the antithrombotic effect of these sulfated polysaccharides after oral administration or preparing derivatives that may achieve this effect. If these aspects are successfully addressed, sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may conquer the frontier of antithrombotic therapy and open new avenues for treatment or prevention of thromboembolic diseases.

  14. Crystallization of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme from Sulfate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    It has been "known" that chicken egg white lysozyme does not crystallize from sulfate, particularly ammonium sulfate, salts, but instead gives amorphous precipitates. This has been the basis of several studies using lysozyme comparing macromolecule crystal nucleation and amorphous precipitation. Recently Ries-Kautt et al (Acta Cryst D50, (1994) 366) have shown that purified isoionic CEWL could be crystallized from low concentrations of sulfate at basic pH, and we subsequently showed that in fact CEWL could be purified in both the tetragonal and orthorhombic forms using ammonium sulfate over the pH range 4.0 to 7.8 (Acta Cryst D53, (1997) 795). We have now extended these observations to include a range of common sulfate salts, specifically sodium, potassium, rubidium, magnesium, and manganese sulfates. In all cases but the manganese sulfates both the familiar tetragonal and orthorhombic forms were obtained, with unit cell dimensions close to those known for the "classic" sodium chloride crystallized forms. Manganese sulfate has only yielded orthorhombic crystals to date. All crystallizations were carried out using low (typically less than or equal to 6 M) salt and high (greater than approximately 90 mg/ml) protein concentrations. As with ammonium sulfate, the tetragonal - orthorhombic phase shift appears to be a function of both the temperature and the protein concentration, with higher temperatures and concentrations favoring the orthorhombic and lower the tetragonal form. The phase change range is somewhat reduced for the sulfate salts, depending upon conditions being typically between approximately 15 - 20 C. Both the magnesium and manganese sulfates gave crystals at salt concentrations over 0.6 M as well, with magnesium sulfate giving a very slowly nucleating and growing hexagonal form. A triclinic crystal form, characterized by aggressively small crystals (typically 0.1 mm in size) has been occasionally obtained from ammonium sulfate. Finally, preliminary spot

  15. Hausa verbal compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McIntyre, Joseph Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Verbal compounds abound in Hausa (a Chadic language). A very broad definition of Hausa verbal compounds (henceforth: VC) is “a compound with a verb”. Four types of verbal compound are analysed: V[erb]+X compounds, PAC+V compounds (a PAC is a pronoun complex indicating TAM), VCs with a ma prefix

  16. Beneficial Effects of Marine Algal Compounds in Cosmeceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The name “cosmeceuticals” is derived from “cosmetics and pharmaceuticals”, indicating that a specific product contains active ingredients. Marine algae have gained much importance in cosmeceutical product development due to their rich bioactive compounds. In the present review, marine algal compounds (phlorotannins, sulfated polysaccharides and tyrosinase inhibitors) have been discussed toward cosmeceutical application. In addition, atopic dermatitis and the possible role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in skin-related diseases have been explored extensively for cosmeceutical products. The proper development of marine algae compounds will be helpful in cosmeceutical product development and in the development of the cosmeceutical industry. PMID:23344156

  17. Beneficial effects of marine algal compounds in cosmeceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-01-14

    The name "cosmeceuticals" is derived from "cosmetics and pharmaceuticals", indicating that a specific product contains active ingredients. Marine algae have gained much importance in cosmeceutical product development due to their rich bioactive compounds. In the present review, marine algal compounds (phlorotannins, sulfated polysaccharides and tyrosinase inhibitors) have been discussed toward cosmeceutical application. In addition, atopic dermatitis and the possible role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in skin-related diseases have been explored extensively for cosmeceutical products. The proper development of marine algae compounds will be helpful in cosmeceutical product development and in the development of the cosmeceutical industry.

  18. First-row transition metal-pyridine (py)-sulfate [(py)xM](SO4) complexes (M = Ni, Cu and Zn): crystal field theory in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mrittika; Pham, Duyen N K; Kreider-Mueller, Ava; Golen, James A; Manke, David R

    2018-03-01

    The crystal structures of three first-row transition metal-pyridine-sulfate complexes, namely catena-poly[[tetrakis(pyridine-κN)nickel(II)]-μ-sulfato-κ 2 O:O'], [Ni(SO 4 )(C 5 H 5 N) 4 ] n , (1), di-μ-sulfato-κ 4 O:O-bis[tris(pyridine-κN)copper(II)], [Cu 2 (SO 4 ) 2 (C 5 H 5 N) 6 ], (2), and catena-poly[[tetrakis(pyridine-κN)zinc(II)]-μ-sulfato-κ 2 O:O'-[bis(pyridine-κN)zinc(II)]-μ-sulfato-κ 2 O:O'], [Zn 2 (SO 4 ) 2 (C 5 H 5 N) 6 ] n , (3), are reported. Ni compound (1) displays a polymeric crystal structure, with infinite chains of Ni II atoms adopting an octahedral N 4 O 2 coordination environment that involves four pyridine ligands and two bridging sulfate ligands. Cu compound (2) features a dimeric molecular structure, with the Cu II atoms possessing square-pyramidal N 3 O 2 coordination environments that contain three pyridine ligands and two bridging sulfate ligands. Zn compound (3) exhibits a polymeric crystal structure of infinite chains, with two alternating zinc coordination environments, i.e. octahedral N 4 O 2 coordination involving four pyridine ligands and two bridging sulfate ligands, and tetrahedral N 2 O 2 coordination containing two pyridine ligands and two bridging sulfate ligands. The observed coordination environments are consistent with those predicted by crystal field theory.

  19. Biochemical and medical importance of vanadium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbecki, Jan; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    Vanadium belongs to the group of transition metals and is present in the air and soil contaminants in large urban agglomerations due to combustion of fossil fuels. It forms numerous inorganic compounds (vanadyl sulfate, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, vanadium pentoxide) as well as complexes with organic compounds (BMOV, BEOV, METVAN). Depending on the research model, vanadium compounds exhibit antitumor or carcinogenic properties. Vanadium compounds generate ROS as a result of Fenton's reaction or of the reaction with atmospheric oxygen. They inactivate the Cdc25B(2) phosphatase and lead to degradation of Cdc25C, which induces G(2)/M phase arrest. In cells, vanadium compounds activate numerous signaling pathways and transcription factors, including PI3K-PKB/Akt-mTOR, NF-κB, MEK1/2-ERK, that cause cell survival or increased expression and release of VEGF. Vanadium compounds inhibit p53-dependent apoptosis and promote entry into the S phase of cells containing functional p53 protein. In addition, vanadium compounds, in particular organic derivatives, have insulin-mimetic and antidiabetic properties. Vanadium compounds lower blood glucose levels in animals and in clinical trials. They also inhibit the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. By activating the PI3K-PKB/Akt pathway, vanadium compaunds increase the cellular uptake of glucose by the GLUT4 transporter. The PKB/Akt pathway is also used to inactivate glycogen synthase kinase-3. The impact of vanadium compounds on inflammatory reactions has not been fully studied. Vanadium pentoxide causes expression of COX-2 and the release of proinflammatory cytokines in a human lung fibroblast model. Other vanadium compounds activate NF-κB in macrophages by activating IKKβ.

  20. Global source attribution of sulfate aerosol and its radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, H.; Smith, S.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P. L.; Qian, Y.; Li, C.; Yu, H.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate is an important aerosol that poses health risks and influences climate. Due to long-range atmospheric transport, local sulfate pollution could result from intercontinental influences, making domestic efforts of improving air quality inefficient. Accurate understanding of source attribution of sulfate and its radiative forcing is important for both regional air quality improvement and global climate mitigation. In this study, for the first time, a sulfur source-tagging capability is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) to quantify the global source-receptor relationships of sulfate and its direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF). Near-surface sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate is primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. The export of SO2 and sulfate from Europe contributes 20% of sulfate concentrations over North Africa, Russia and Central Asia. Sources from the Middle East account for 20% of sulfate over North Africa, Southern Africa and Central Asia in winter and autumn, and 20% over South Asia in spring. East Asia accounts for about 50% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in winter and autumn, 15% over Russia in summer, and 10% over North America in spring. South Asia contributes to 25% of sulfate over Southeast Asia in spring. Lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is found to determine regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is -0.42 W m-2, with 75% contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and 25% contributed by natural sulfate. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes the most to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20-30% over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high-latitudes. A 20% perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate IRF of -0.44 W m-2. DMS has the

  1. DENITRATION OF WASTEWATER GENERATED BY NITROSATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORIS M. LASKIN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject of the article was to study the method aimed at denitration of liquid wastes that appear during the nitrosation of organic compounds. Liquid waste represents an aqueous solution of sodium sulfate with sodium nitrate and nitrite as admixtures. The method involves addition of sulfuric acid to the wastes followed by drying and thermal treatment of a salt mixture at temperature above 150 °C. Experimental study revealed that sodium nitrite fully decomposes in the solution during the drying resulting in formation of sodium sulfate, nitrogen oxide, and nitrogen dioxide. Solid-phase interaction of sodium hydrogen sulfate and sodium nitrate was investigated by combined DSC-TG technique in the temperature range 100 - 270 °C. The mixture of salts was obtained by drying the aqueous solution. It was shown that the reaction rate is defined by the removal rate of vapors formed nitric acid.

  2. Synthesis of sulfates and sulfate derivates of selected metals under harsh conditions; Synthese von Sulfaten und Sulfatderivaten ausgewaehlter Metalle unter drastischen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuschulz, Kai

    2015-03-24

    In the course of this work sulfates und sulfate derivates of selected metals were synthesized under harsh conditions. The obtained compounds, in which the metal ions often reveal unusual oxidation states, have been characterized. Two mixed valent vanadium(IV/V) oxide sulfates (VO){sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 5}, and (VO){sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4} and a vanadium(V) oxide sulfate (VO){sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} as well as a complex anionic vanadium(V) oxide sulfate (NO)[VO(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}] have been obtained starting from vanadium or vanadium(V) oxide and oleum. All vanadium oxide sulfates reveal a similar thermal behavior. The decomposition residues are either pure vanadium(V) oxide or vanadium(IV) oxide or a mixture of both residues in different ratios. It was possible to synthesize binary tantalum(V) sulfate Ta{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 5} for the first time by reaction of pure sulfur(VI) oxide and tantalum(V) oxide at 150 C and to characterize. The complete absence of any oxide ligands at the metal center is of special interest in this compound. The reaction of tin(II) sulfate with oleum lead to the formation of tin(IV) sulfate Sn(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. Using IR spectroscopy, the oxidation state +IV was confirmed for tin, due to the absence of OH-band in the IR-spectra, which would have meant the oxidation state +II. Using methanesulfonic acid as solvent and reactant on different synthetic routes the anhydrous methanesulfonates Mn(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and Fe(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Ga(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 3}, In(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 3}, and Tl(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 3}, as well as VO(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} and SnCl{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} were obtained. For the element thallium it was possible to obtain two mixed anionic compounds with the composition TlX{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) (X = Cl or Br). All methanesulfonates show a similar thermal decomposition behavior forming the metal oxide as decomposition product. The thallium compounds represent

  3. Sulfated fucan as support for antibiotic immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Araújo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylofucoglucuronan from Spatoglossum schröederi algae was tested as a support for antibiotic immobilization. The polysaccharide (20 mg in 6 ml was first activated using carbodiimide, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino-propylcarbodiimide methiodide (20 mg in 2 ml, under stirring for 1 h at 25ºC and pH from 4.5 to 5.0. After adjusting the pH to 8.0, either gentamicin or amikacin (62.5 mg in 1.25 ml was then immobilized on this chemically modified polysaccharide with shaking for 24 h in a cold room. Infrared spectra of the activated carbodiimide xylofucoglucuronan showed two bands to carbonyl (C = O at 1647.9 and 1700.7 cm-1 and to amide (CÝ-NH2 groups (1662.8 and 1714.0 cm-1. Microbial characterization of the derivatives was carried out by the disk diffusion method using Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae incorporated in Müller Hinton medium. Inhibition halos of bacterial growth were observed for the antibiotics immobilized on this sulfated heteropolysaccharide before and after dialysis. However, the halos resulting from the samples after dialysis were much smaller, suggesting that dialysis removed either non-covalently bound antibiotic or other small molecules. In contrast, bacterial growth was not inhibited by either xylofucoglucuronan or its activated form or by gentamicin or amikacin after dialysis. An additional experiment was carried out which demonstrated that the sulfated heteropolysaccharide was hydrolyzed by the microorganism. Therefore, the antibiotic immobilized on xylofucoglucuronan can be proposed as a controlled drug delivery system. Furthermore, this sulfated heteropolysaccharide can be extracted easily from sea algae Spatoglossum schröederi.

  4. On effect of medium composition on strontium sulfate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, D.S.; Keskinov, V.A.; Karmanova, E.G.; Pyartman, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Solubility of strontium sulfate at 25 deg C in aqueous solutions of ammonium sulfate, as well as in solutions of the mixture of lanthanum nitrate and ammonium sulfate, at different acidities of the medium is determined. It is established that an increase in the medium acidity and addition of lanthanum nitrate at the constant total concentration of sulfate-ions in solution results in the increase of SrSO 4 solubility due to the binding of sulfate-ions into forms HSO 4 - and LaSO 4 + . The values of solubility product of SrSO 4 in solutions of the mixture of ammonium sulfate, strontium nitrate and lanthanum nitrate at different temperatures are determined

  5. Applications of heparin and heparan sulfate microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Seeberger, Peter H

    2010-01-01

    Carbohydrate microarrays have become crucial tools for revealing the biological interactions and functions of glycans, primarily because the microarray format enables the investigation of large numbers of carbohydrates at a time. Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin are the most structurally complex glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In this chapter, we describe the preparation of a small library of HS/heparin oligosaccharides, and the fabrication of HS/heparin microarrays that have been used to establish HS/heparin-binding profiles. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), and chemokines were screened to illuminate the very important biological functions of these glycans. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A new calcium sulfate hemi-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Jensen, Torben R; Nonat, André

    2010-02-28

    Calcium sulfate hydrates receive significant attention due to numerous large scale industrial applications. There has been a long debate on the possible existence of two gypsum hemi-hydrate polymorphs, denoted alpha- and beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O. In this work, a new crystal structure of calcium sulfate hemi-hydrates is presented, denoted beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O. The structure was solved using powder neutron diffraction data, the space group is P3(1) and the unit cell in a hexagonal setting a = 6.9268(1), c = 12.7565(3) A. The structure has two calcium-oxygen coordination polyhedra: Ca1 is eight coordinated and has Ca-O bond lengths in the range 2.31(3) to 2.89(2) A and Ca2 is nine coordinated and has one Ca-O(water) bond length of 2.43(3) A, and eight Ca-O bonds in the range 2.30(4) to 2.86(4) A. Two sulfate ions have S-O bonds in the range 1.47(3) to 1.49(4) A, and 1.47(3) to 1.50(3) A, respectively. The water molecule forms a hydrogen bond of 2.55(4) A to an oxygen atom in one of the sulfate ions. The structure of the hemi-hydrate beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O has one-dimensional channels running parallel to the c-axis where the water molecules are located. This relates the structures of alpha- and beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O and soluble anhydrite AIII-CaSO(4), which all have similar channel structures. The water molecules in the structure of beta-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O are packed in the channels with a three fold (3(1)) symmetry in a different way as compared to the pseudo hexagonal found in the structure of alpha-CaSO(4).0.5H(2)O.

  7. Pregnenolone sulfate activates NMDA receptor channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamusová, Eva; Cais, Ondřej; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Kudová, Eva; Chodounská, Hana; Horák, Martin; Vyklický ml., Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 6 (2013), s. 731-736 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1464; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0075; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : neurosteroids * pregnenolone sulfate * calcium imaging Subject RIV: ED - Physiology; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 1.487, year: 2013

  8. Benzene Oxidation Coupled to Sulfate Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Lovley, D. R.; Coates, J. D.; Woodward, J. C.; Phillips, E.

    1995-01-01

    Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to 1 (mu)M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [(sup14)C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as (sup14)CO(inf2). Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate r...

  9. Validated LC-MS/MS simultaneous assay of five sex steroid/neurosteroid-related sulfates in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Alain Y; Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Isabelle, Maxim; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Labrie, Fernand

    2015-05-01

    Conventionally, the concentration of steroidal sulfates was estimated by indirect or immuno‑based assays before the use of liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the present study, a validated LC-MS/MS method is described for the simultaneous quantification of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone sulfate (E1‑S), androsterone sulfate (ADT‑S), pregnenolone sulfate (Preg‑S) and allopregnanolone sulfate (Allopreg‑S). E1‑S binding to serum proteins was observed, especially for the high concentration quality control serum samples, leading to -10 to -15% bias using a polymer-based SPE. This protein binding can be efficiently eliminated using a Waters Oasis™ WAX following the same extraction procedure. Most likely, the E1‑S binding elimination on Oasis™ WAX can be attributed to its different sorbent structure, where the benzeno group of E1-S can interact with the benzene of the backbone of Oasis™ WAX. With this improvement, the method has been fully validated according to the FDA guidelines. The low quantification limits (LLOQs) are 40ng/mL, 40pg/mL, 5ng/mL, 1.5ng/mL and 0.25ng/mL for DHEA‑S, E1-S, ADT‑S, Preg‑S and Allopreg-S, respectively. A good linearity is obtained with R>0.99 for all compounds within the appropriate calibration range. Accuracies of all levels of QCs are within the range of 10% for DHEA-S, E1‑S, ADT‑S and Preg‑S while for Allopreg‑S, the accuracy is within the 15% range. The interday coefficient variance is 5.5-9.5% for the low limits of quantification of all five compounds while values of 1.3-9.9% are found for higher levels of QCs of all five compounds. Recovery of the five compounds in stripped serum is equivalent to that in unstripped serum. The average recovery difference is less than 5% between stripped and unstripped serum for each compound. All results of other test parameters such as matrix, hemolysis and lipemic effects as well as stabilities meet the acceptance criteria of

  10. A New Sulfated α-Ionone Glycoside from Sonchus erzincanicus Matthews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Ozgen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sonchus erzincanicus (Asteraceae is an endemic species in Turkey, where six Sonchus species grow. In this study, a phytochemical study was performed on the aerial parts of the plant. The study describes the isolation and structure elucidation of five flavonoids and two a-ionone glycosides from S. erzincanicus. The compounds were isolated using several and repeated chromatographic techniques from ethyl acetate and aqueous phases that were partitioned from a methanol extract obtained from the plant. 5,7,3',4'-Tetrahydroxy-3-methoxyflavone (1 and quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside (2 were isolated from the ethyl acetate phase, while corchoionoside C 6’-O-sulfate (3, corchoionoside C (4, luteolin 7-O-glucuronide (5 and luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (6, apigenin 7-O-glucuronide (7 were isolated from the aqueous phase. Corchoionoside C 6’-O-sulfate (3, isolated for the first time from a natural source, was a new compound. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by means of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and ESI-MS.

  11. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Cerezo, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a λ-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author)

  12. Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans from Kelp and Copper Sulfate ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2002, dioxins were discovered in animal feed ingredients during a random sampling by Irish officials and subsequently traced to particular mineral supplements produced at a Minnesota plant in the United States. These products sold under the names of SQM Mineral Products and Carbosan Mineral Products provide trace minerals complexed to polysaccharides for delivery of trace minerals. The products were voluntarily recalled by the company until the source of the dioxins could be identified and the dioxins eliminated from the supplements. Preliminary investigations by the company and federal agencies indicated that the dioxins were apparently produced during the manufacturing process of supplements containing copper, zinc, manganese, magnesium and iron. Additional studies were initiated to identify the specific ingredients required for dioxin formation and to provide further insight into the conditions necessary for their production. Citation: Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.; Winters, D.; Boone, T.; Vigo, C.; Dupuy, A.; 2003. Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans from Kelp and Copper Sulfate: Initial Investigations of Dioxin Formation in Mineral Feed Supplements. Organohalogen Compounds 63, 183-186.

  13. Dissolution kinetics of calcined ulexite in ammonium sulfate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin Demirkıran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ulexite is one of the boron minerals, which include a respectable amount of hydration water. It can be used as a raw material in the production of boron compounds. Some part of water in the composition of ulexite can be removed from the solid matrix applying dehydration treatment, and a porous structure can be obtained to increase the reaction rate. In the present study, the effect of dehydration temperature on dissolution kinetics of ulexite in ammonium sulfate solutions was researched in a batch reactor utilizing the parameters of solution concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio, stirring speed and reaction temperature. It was determined that the dissolution rate of calcined material increased with increasing solution concentration and reaction temperature and with decreasing solid-to-liquid ratio. The highest dissolution rate was attained with the sample calcined at 150 °C. It was found that the dissolution rate fit to the first order pseudo-homogeneous model. The activation energy of the dissolution process was estimated to be 42 kJ·mol-1.

  14. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaromb, Solomon; Lawson, Daniel B.

    1994-01-01

    A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10.degree. C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

  15. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I. (University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1987-10-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven ({sup 35}S)-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4{prime}-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, and 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (IC{sub 50}, {approximately}40 {mu}M). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation.

  16. Synthesis and anticoagulant activity of the quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lihong; Wu, Penghui; Zhang, Jinrong; Gao, Song; Wang, Libo; Li, Mingjia; Sha, Mingming; Xie, Weiguo; Nie, Min

    2012-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates with diverse degrees of substitution (DS) ascribed to sulfate groups between 0.52 and 1.55 were synthesized by reacting quaternary ammonium chitosan with an uncommon sulfating agent (N(SO(3)Na)(3)) that was prepared from sodium bisulfite (NaHSO(3)) through reaction with sodium nitrite (NaNO(2)) in the aqueous system homogeneous. The structures of the derivatives were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The factors affecting DS of quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates which included the molar ratio of NaNO(2) to quaternary ammonium chitosan, sulfated temperature, sulfated time and pH of sulfated reaction solution were investigated in detail. Its anticoagulation activity in vitro was determined by an activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay, a thrombin time (TT) assay and a prothrombin time (PT) assay. Results of anticoagulation assays showed quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates significantly prolonged APTT and TT, but not PT, and demonstrated that the introduction of sulfate groups into the quaternary ammonium chitosan structure improved its anticoagulant activity obviously. The study showed its anticoagulant properties strongly depended on its DS, concentration and molecular weight. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An Instrument to Measure Aircraft Sulfate Particle Emissions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerodyne is developing a sulfate detection instrument, based on the Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectrophotometer (TILDAS) technology and...

  18. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven [ 35 S]-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (IC 50 , ∼40 μM). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation

  19. Salicin-7-sulfate: A new salicinoid from willow and implications for herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noleto-Dias, Clarice; Ward, Jane L; Bellisai, Alice; Lomax, Charlotte; Beale, Michael H

    2018-02-12

    Willow (Salix sp.) is a historically well-known herbal medicine that provided the lead compound (salicin) for the discovery of aspirin, one of the most successful plant derived drugs in human medicine. During a metabolomics screen of 86 Salix species contained in the UK National Willow Collection, we have discovered, isolated and fully characterised a new natural salicinoid - salicin-7-sulfate. This molecule may have important human pharmacological actions that need to be considered in determining the efficacy and safety of willow herbal medicines. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 1,3-Diammonio-1,2,3-trideoxy-cis-inositol sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaspar Hegetschweiler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C6H16N2O32+·SO42−, each cation forms three O—H...O and five N—H...O hydrogen bonds to six neighbouring sulfate anions. In addition, interlinking of the cations by N—H...O interactions is also observed. The cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation with two axial hydroxy groups. Although the separation of 2.928 Å is almost ideal for a hydrogen bond, intramolecular hydrogen bonding between these two hydroxy groups is not observed.

  1. Specific inhibition of FGF-2 signaling with 2-O-sulfated octasaccharides of heparan sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikari-Hada, Satoko; Habuchi, Hiroko; Sugaya, Noriko; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kimata, Koji

    2009-06-01

    In fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 signaling, the formation of a ternary complex of FGF-2, tyrosine-kinase fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-1, and cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan is known to be critical for the activation of FGFR-1 and downstream signal transduction. Exogenous heparin polymer and some octasaccharides inhibited FGF-2-induced phosphorylation both of FGFR-1 and of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells transfected with FGFR-1, which present HS on their cell surface. The inhibitory effect of octasaccharide was dependent on the number of 2-O-sulfate groups within a molecule but independent of the number of 6-O-sulfate groups. Sulfation at the 2-O-position was a prerequisite not only for the binding of HS to FGF-2 but also for regulation of FGF-2 signaling and competitive inhibition with endogenous HS. Interestingly, FGF-4-induced phosphorylation was impeded only by specific octasaccharides containing both 2-O- and 6-O-sulfated groups, which were necessary for binding FGF-4. In CHO-677 cells deficient in HS biosynthesis, heparin enhanced FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2. On the other hand, an FGF-2-binding octasaccharide inhibited the phosphorylation. Our data suggest that the activity of particular heparin-binding factors can be inhibited by distinctive oligosaccharides that can bind the factors but cannot form functional signaling complexes irrespective of whether cells have a normal complement of HS or lack HS.

  2. Aluminophosphate glasses with high sulfate content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, S.V. [State Corp. Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I.A.; Gulin, A.N. [Inst. of Tech., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    To immobilize a high sulfate radioactive wastes a system Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SO{sub 3} has been chosen as one where glasses have a relatively low melting points and good chemical durability. Glasses within partial system 44 Na{sub 2}O, 20 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (36-x)P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, x SO{sub 3} have been prepared at 1,000 C. A possibility of assimilation up to 12 mole % of SO{sub 3} has been established. The basic properties of sulfate-containing glasses as density, microhardness, thermal expansion coefficient, transformation and deformation temperatures, viscosity, electric resistivity, leach rate of ions and diffusion coefficients of {sup 22}Na, {sup 35}S, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs have been measured. Glass structure by infrared and EPR spectroscopies has been investigated.

  3. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and...

  4. A novel generation of heparan sulfate mimetics for the treatment of prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjou, Karim Tarik; Simoneau, Steve; Salès, Nicole; Lamoury, François; Dormont, Dominique; Papy-Garcia, Dulce; Barritault, Denis; Deslys, Jean-Philippe; Lasmézas, Corinne Ida

    2003-09-01

    The accumulation of PrP(res), the protease-resistant abnormal form of the host-encoded cellular prion protein, PrP(C), plays a central role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Human contamination by bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has propelled many scientific teams on a highway for anti-prion drug development. This study reports that heparan sulfate mimetics (HMs), developed originally for their effect on tissue regeneration, abolish prion propagation in scrapie-infected GT1 cells. PrP(res) does not reappear for up to 50 days post-treatment. When tested in vivo, one of these compounds, HM2602, hampered PrP(res) accumulation in scrapie- and BSE-infected mice and prolonged significantly the survival time of 263K scrapie-infected hamsters. Interestingly, HM2602 is an apparently less toxic and more potent inhibitor of PrP(res) accumulation than dextran sulfate 500, a molecule known to exhibit anti-prion properties in vivo. Kinetics of PrP(res) disappearance in vitro and unaffected PrP(C) levels during treatment suggest that HMs are able to block the conversion of PrP(C) into PrP(res). It is speculated that HMs act as competitors of endogenous heparan sulfates known to act as co-receptors for the prion protein. Since these molecules are particularly amenable to drug design, their anti-prion potential could be developed further and optimized for the treatment of prion diseases.

  5. Extraction of Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride in Aqueous Two-phase System of Acetone and Ammonium Sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is an efficient implement for separation of various substrates, and extracted by an aqueous two-phase system has been successful ly applied in the downstream processing of various biological compounds. In this research, the extraction of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) was carried out in an aqueous two-phase system containing acetone and ammonium sulfate solution, which partitioned the antibiotic to the upper phase. The effects of some parameters on the extraction efficiency of OTC-HCl were studied in detail, including temperature, the volume of acetone, the pH value of ammonium sulfate solution, the concentrations of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/ and OTC-HCl. The results showed that the volume of acetone, the pH value of ammonium sulfate solution and the concentration of OTC-HCl in feed had significant effects on the extraction efficiency of OTC-HCl, but the effects of temperature on the extraction of OTC-HCl was not obvious. (author)

  6. The stability of sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals near ambient conditions and their significance in environmental and planetary sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Ming; Seal, Robert R.; Wang, Alian

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals are abundant and ubiquitous on the surface of the Earth and also on other planets and their satellites. The humidity-buffer technique has been applied to study the stability of some of these minerals at 0.1MPa in terms of temperature-relative humidity space on the basis of hydration-dehydration reversal experiments. Updated phase relations in the binary system MgSO"4-H"2O are presented, as an example, to show how reliable thermodynamic data for these minerals could be obtained based on these experimental results and thermodynamic principles. This approach has been applied to sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals of other metals, including Fe (both ferrous and ferric), Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, and Cu. Metal-sulfate salts play important roles in the cycling of metals and sulfate in terrestrial systems, and the number of phases extends well beyond the simple sulfate salts that have thus far been investigated experimentally. The oxidation of sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, is a common process that initiates the formation of efflorescent metal-sulfate minerals. Also, the overall abundance of iron-bearing sulfate salts in nature reflects the fact that the weathering of pyrite or pyrrhotite is the ultimate source for many of these phases. Many aspects of their environmental significance are reviewed, particularly in acute effects to aquatic ecosystems related to the dissolution of sulfate salts during rain storms or snow-melt events. Hydrous Mg, Ca, and Fe sulfates were identified on Mars, with wide distribution and very large quantities at many locations, on the basis of spectroscopic observations from orbital remote sensing and surface explorations by rovers. However, many of these findings do not reveal the detailed information on the degree of hydration that is essential for rigorous interpretation of the hydrologic history of Mars. Laboratory experiments on stability fields, reactions pathways, and reaction rates of hydrous

  7. Upper tropospheric ice sensitivity to sulfate geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioni, Daniele; Pitari, Giovanni; Mancini, Eva

    2017-04-01

    In light of the Paris Agreement which aims to keep global warming under 2 °C in the next century and considering the emission scenarios produced by the IPCC for the same time span, it is likely that to remain below that threshold some kind of geoengineering technique will have to be deployed. Amongst the different methods, the injection of sulfur into the stratosphere has received much attention considering its effectiveness and affordability. Aside from the rather well established surface cooling sulfate geoengineering (SG) would produce, the investigation on possible side-effects of this method is still ongoing. For instance, some recent studies have investigated the effect SG would have on upper tropospheric cirrus clouds, expecially on the homogenous freezing mechanisms that produces the ice particles (Kuebbeler et al., 2012). The goal of the present study is to better understand the effect of thermal and dynamical anomalies caused by SG on the formation of ice crystals via homogeneous freezing by comparing a complete SG simulation with a RCP4.5 reference case and with a number of sensitivity studies where atmospheric temperature changes in the upper tropospheric region are specified in a schematic way as a function of the aerosol driven stratospheric warming and mid-lower tropospheric cooling. These changes in the temperature profile tend to increase atmospheric stabilization, thus decreasing updraft and with it the amount of water vapor available for homogeneous freezing in the upper troposphere. However, what still needs to be assessed is the interaction between this dynamical effect and the thermal effects of tropospheric cooling (which would increase ice nucleation rates) and stratospheric warming (which would probably extend to the uppermost troposphere via SG aerosol gravitational settling, thus reducing ice nucleation rates), in order to understand how they combine together. Changes in ice clouds coverage could be important for SG, because cirrus ice

  8. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  9. Corrosion of Iron by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: New Views of an Old Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrelfs, Julia

    2014-01-01

    About a century ago, researchers first recognized a connection between the activity of environmental microorganisms and cases of anaerobic iron corrosion. Since then, such microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) has gained prominence and its technical and economic implications are now widely recognized. Under anoxic conditions (e.g., in oil and gas pipelines), sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are commonly considered the main culprits of MIC. This perception largely stems from three recurrent observations. First, anoxic sulfate-rich environments (e.g., anoxic seawater) are particularly corrosive. Second, SRB and their characteristic corrosion product iron sulfide are ubiquitously associated with anaerobic corrosion damage, and third, no other physiological group produces comparably severe corrosion damage in laboratory-grown pure cultures. However, there remain many open questions as to the underlying mechanisms and their relative contributions to corrosion. On the one hand, SRB damage iron constructions indirectly through a corrosive chemical agent, hydrogen sulfide, formed by the organisms as a dissimilatory product from sulfate reduction with organic compounds or hydrogen (“chemical microbially influenced corrosion”; CMIC). On the other hand, certain SRB can also attack iron via withdrawal of electrons (“electrical microbially influenced corrosion”; EMIC), viz., directly by metabolic coupling. Corrosion of iron by SRB is typically associated with the formation of iron sulfides (FeS) which, paradoxically, may reduce corrosion in some cases while they increase it in others. This brief review traces the historical twists in the perception of SRB-induced corrosion, considering the presently most plausible explanations as well as possible early misconceptions in the understanding of severe corrosion in anoxic, sulfate-rich environments. PMID:24317078

  10. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. 520.1044a Section 520.1044a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution contains gentamicin...

  11. 21 CFR 529.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529.1044a Section 529.1044a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 529.1044a Gentamicin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution...

  12. 21 CFR 529.50 - Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. 529.50 Section 529.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Amikacin sulfate intrauterine solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution...

  13. Stable isotope ratio measurements in atmospheric sulfate studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, P.T.; Holt, B.D.

    1976-01-01

    The isotopic composition of atmospheric sulfate has been determined by a number of workers and the results interpreted in terms of contributing sources and mechanisms of origin. A correlation between the /sup 18/O enrichment of atmospheric water and airborne particulate sulfate has been observed. Laboratory preparations of sulfate made from sulfur dioxide by two sets of sequential reactions, hydrolysis followed by oxidation and oxidation followed by hydrolysis, yielded products of distinguishable oxygen-isotope composition. Oxygen isotopic analysis of simultaneously collected field samples of ambient sulfate, sulfur dioxide, and water vapor indicated seasonal trends for all of the major constituents of atmospheric sulfation processes. Some isotopic data were also obtained on precipitation and precipitation sulfates. Field results suggest that ambient sulfates collected in the area of Argonne correpond more closely in oxygen isotope composition to a sulfate molecule containing two oxygens originating from sulfur dioxide, one oxygen from air and one oxygen from condensed-phased atmospheric water, SO/sub s/O/sub s/O/sub cw/O/sup 2 -//sub a/, than to the molecule SO/sub s/O/sub s/O/sub wv/O/sup 2//sub a/ in which one oxygen originates from vapor-phase atmospheric water.

  14. Characterization of Sulfate Groups and Assessment of Anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pyridine, DCC, salt and potential degradation products. Four sulfated KOGMS batches. (KOGMS-1 to KOGMS-4) with different DS were collected after lyophilizing. Purification of KOGMS. The crude polysaccharide sulfate was dissolved in distilled water (50 mg/mL) and applied to a. DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column [11].

  15. Role of Magnesium Sulfate in Prolonging the Analgesic Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium sulfate being an N‑methyl‑d‑aspartate receptor antagonist has both analgesic and sedative properties and has been extensively used in anesthesia in the recent past.[1‑4] Role of magnesium sulfate as prophylaxis in severe preeclampsia is well‑established.[1‑4] Intravenous (i.v) loading dose followed.

  16. Effects of magnesium sulfate on the acquisition and reinstatement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the current study, the effects of magnesium sulfate on the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in an animal model were investigated. The acquisition and extinction and reinstatement phases induced using morphine 40 and 10mg/kg. Magnesium sulfate 300 and 600 ...

  17. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water

    2005-01-01

    ... intake to the risk of high blood pressure and hypertension as well as other diseases and the amounts of water from beverages and foods needed to maintain hydration. In addition, since requirements for sulfur can be met by inorganic sulfate in the diets of animals, a review of the role in inorganic sulfur in the form of sulfate is included. The gro...

  18. Transmission spectra study of sulfate substituted potassium dihydrogen phosphate

    KAUST Repository

    LI, LIANG

    2013-04-18

    Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals with different amounts of sulfate concentration were grown and the transmittance spectrum was studied. A crystal with high sulfate replacement density exhibits heavy absorption property in the ultraviolet region which confirms and agrees well with former results. © 2013 Astro Ltd.

  19. Stable isotope ratio measurements in atmospheric sulfate studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, P.T.; Holt, B.D.

    1976-01-01

    The isotopic composition of atmospheric sulfate has been determined by a number of workers and the results interpreted in terms of contributing sources and mechanisms of origin. A correlation between the 18 O enrichment of atmospheric water and airborne particulate sulfate has been observed. Laboratory preparations of sulfate made from sulfur dioxide by two sets of sequential reactions, hydrolysis followed by oxidation and oxidation followed by hydrolysis, yielded products of distinguishable oxygen-isotope composition. Oxygen isotopic analysis of simultaneously collected field samples of ambient sulfate, sulfur dioxide, and water vapor indicated seasonal trends for all of the major constituents of atmospheric sulfation processes. Some isotopic data were also obtained on precipitation and precipitation sulfates. Field results suggest that ambient sulfates collected in the area of Argonne correpond more closely in oxygen isotope composition to a sulfate molecule containing two oxygens originating from sulfur dioxide, one oxygen from air and one oxygen from condensed-phased atmospheric water, SO/sub s/O/sub s/O/sub cw/O 2- /sub a/, than to the molecule SO/sub s/O/sub s/O/sub wv/O 2 /sub a/ in which one oxygen originates from vapor-phase atmospheric water

  20. Biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using polypeptides or recombinant cells comprising said polypeptides. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having aryl sulfotransferase activity......, recombinant host cells expressing same and processes for the production of aryl sulfates employing these polypeptides or recombinant host cells....

  1. The safety of copper sulfate to channel catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on channel catfish eggs and is widely used by the industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety of copper sulfate to channel catfish eggs when treated at the therapeutic rate (10 mg/L), and also...

  2. Sulfate reduction at low pH in organic wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, S.I.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to investigate the operational window of dissimilatory sulfate reduction at low pH (6, 5 and 4) during the acidification of organic wastewaters. High sulfate reduction efficiencies at low pH are desirable for a more sustainable operation of

  3. Reductive and sorptive properties of sulfate green rust (GRSO4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedel, Sorin

    The Fe(II), Fe(III) hydroxide containing sulfate in its structure, called sulfate green rust (GRSO4), can effectively reduce and convert contaminants to less mobile and less toxic forms. However, the ability of GRSO4 to remove positively charged species from solution, via sorption, is very limited...

  4. Ammonium sulfate obtainment and labelling with S-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, M.; Diaz, A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple technique to measure sulfur-35, using a light absorption method for sulfates as well as liquid scintillation to obtain the specific activity of the sample, is presented. The technique is based on the isotopic exchange of the sulfate ion from H 2 SO 4 S-35. The salt produced is identified by X-ray diffraction

  5. Annual sulfate budgets for Dutch lowland peat polders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaat, Jan E.; Harmsen, Joop; Hellmann, Fritz A.; Geest, van der Harm G.; Klein, de Jeroen J.M.; Kosten, Sarian; Smolders, Alfons J.P.; Verhoeven, Jos T.A.; Mes, Ron G.; Ouboter, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Annual sulfate mass balances have been constructed for four low-lying peat polders in the Netherlands, to resolve the origin of high sulfate concentrations in surface water, which is considered a water quality problem, as indicated amongst others by the absence of sensitive water plant species.

  6. Sulfation by human lung fibroblasts: SO4(2-) and sulfur-containing amino acids as sources for macromolecular sulfation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgavish, A; Meezan, E

    1991-06-01

    Studies were carried out in human lung fibroblasts (IMR-90) to investigate 1) the relative contribution of two extracellular pools, inorganic sulfate and sulfur-containing amino acids, to the intracellular fraction precipitable by trichloroacetic acid and 2) the possibility that the transport of these sulfur-containing substrates at the plasma membrane may be a limiting step for macromolecular sulfation. Our studies indicate that the ability to use SO4(2-) released by intracellular catabolism of the sulfur-containing amino acid L-cysteine differs from one cell system to another. In contrast to smooth muscle cells, in the human lung fibroblast, L-cysteine contributes significantly to the intercellular pool of SO4(2-) used for sulfation at extracellular [SO4(2-)] less than 100 microM. However, under physiological conditions with respect to SO4(2-) ([SO4(2-)]0 = 300 microM), L-cysteine does not contribute greater than 30% of the sulfate incorporated into the cellular fraction. Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) inhibits SO4(2-) incorporation into the cell-associated macromolecular fraction. However, results suggest that the effect is not due to either SO4(2-) released by its catabolism or to an effect on SO4(2-) transport into the cell. The fact that the transport inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid inhibits sulfate incorporation indicates that carrier-mediated sulfate transport at the cellular plasma membrane may be a limiting step for sulfate incorporation. In conclusion, under physiological conditions with respect to SO4(2-), inorganic sulfate is a major source of sulfate for sulfation in human lung fibroblasts and macromolecular sulfation may be limited by its transport into the cells.

  7. [Simultaneous determination of 1-sulfo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid and sulfate anion in the by-products of caprolactam by high performance liquid chromatography-indirect photometric analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhixiang; Duan, Zhengkang; Li, Linan; Li, Haitao; Chen, Qiuyun; Peng, Ye

    2013-02-01

    An improved anion-exchange chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous quantification of 1-sulfo-cyclohexane carboxylic acid (SCCA) and sulfate anion in the by-products of caprolactam. An strong anion chromatographic column and an ultraviolet (UV) detector were chosen for the assay of SCCA and sulfate anion. Non-chromophore-containing sulfate anion is not directly adaptable to the commonly used ultraviolet detection of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This paper reports the development and validation of an HPLC assay for SCCA and sulfate anion based on indirect ultraviolet detection. An ultraviolet-absorbing reagent (the probe), phthalic acid (PA), was added to the mobile phase to induce a signal for the compound. The proposed method was qualified based on the performance criteria of repeatability, intermediate precision and linearity. The limits of detection were 1.0 g/L for both the analytes. The linear ranges varied from 0.50 to 40.0 g/L for SCCA and from 0.10 to 10.0 g/L for sulfate anion, with the correlation coefficients of 0. 999 97 and 0.999 14, and the recoveries of 93.33%-97.40% and 98.50%-101.00%, respectively. The established method can be used in practice to determine SCCA and sulfate anion simultaneously with perfect separation selectivity.

  8. Pressure effect on dissimilatory sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, A. J.; Carlson, H. K.; Coates, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Biosouring is the production of H2S by sulfate reducing microorganisms (SRM) in-situ or in the produced fluids of oil reservoirs. Sulfide is explosive, toxic and corrosive which can trigger equipment and transportation failure, leading to environmental catastrophe. As oil exploration and reservoir development continue, subsequent enhanced recovery is occurring in progressively deeper formations and typical oil reservoir pressures range from 10-50 MPa. Therefore, an understanding of souring control effects will require an accurate understanding of the influence of pressure on SRM metabolism and the efficacy of souring control treatments at high pressure. Considerable work to date has focussed on souring control at ambient pressure; however, the influence of pressure on biogeochemical processes and souring treatments in oil reservoirs is poorly understood. To explore the impact of pressure on SRM, wild type Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 (isolated from a producing oil well in Ventura County, California) was grown under a range of pressures (0.1-14 MPa) at 30 °C. Complete sulfate reduction occurred in all pressures tested within 3 days, but microbial growth was inhibited with increasing pressure. Bar-seq identified several genes associated with flagella biosynthesis (including FlhB) and assembly as important for survival at elevated pressure and fitness was confirmed using individual transposon mutants. Flagellar genes have previously been implicated with biofilm formation and confocal microscopy on glass slides incubated with wild type D. alaskensis G20 showed more biomass associated with surfaces under pressure, highlighting the link between pressure, flagellar and biofilm formation. To determine the effect of pressure on the efficacy of SRM inhibitors, IC50 experiments were conducted and D. alaskensis G20 showed a greater resistance to nitrate and the antibiotic chloramphenicol, but a lower resistance to perchlorate. These results will be discussed in the context of

  9. Diversity of sulfur isotope fractionations by sulfate-reducing prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detmers, Jan; Brüchert, Volker; Habicht, K S

    2001-01-01

    .0 to 42.0 per thousand. Salinity, incubation temperature, pH, and phylogeny had no systematic effect on the sulfur isotope fractionation. There was no correlation between isotope fractionation and sulfate reduction rate. The type of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase also had no effect on fractionation...... sulfate reducers and cover a broad range of natural marine and freshwater habitats. Experimental conditions were designed to achieve optimum growth conditions with respect to electron donors, salinity, temperature, and pH. Under these optimized conditions, experimental fractionation factors ranged from 2....... Sulfate reducers that oxidized the carbon source completely to CO2 showed greater fractionations than sulfate reducers that released acetate as the final product of carbon oxidation. Different metabolic pathways and variable regulation of sulfate transport across the cell membrane all potentially affect...

  10. Preparation and characterization of a chemically sulfated cashew gum polysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura Neto, Erico de; Maciel, Jeanny da S.; Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Paula, Regina Celia M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Cashew gum (CG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the reagent. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical S=O stretching vibration at 1259 cm{sup -1}. The degrees of substitution were 0.02, 0.24 and 0.88 determined from the sulfur percentage. 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data showed that the sulfation occurred at primary carbons. An increase of at least 4% of the solution viscosity was observed due to sulfation. The thermal gravimetric curves (TGA) indicate that the derivatives are stable up to ca. 200 deg C. The sulfated CG is compared to carboxymethylated CG in order to verify the possibility of the use of the former in the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes; the latter is already being used for this application. (author)

  11. Extraction of uranyl sulfate with tri-n-laurylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satrova, J.; Mrnka, M.; Kyrsova, V.

    1976-01-01

    Chemical analyses of the organic phase showed that uranyl sulfate was only extracted by TLA sulfate, forming the complex (TLAH) 4 UO 2 (SO 4 ) 3 .4H 2 O. A decrease in uranyl sulfate extraction occurs at higher concentrations of sulfuric acid in the aqueous phase. This decrease corresponds to the conversion of the normal amine sulfate to hydrosulfate, hence the equilibrium of the reaction 4(R 3 NH.HSO 4 )sub(org.)+(UO 2 SO 4 )sub(aq) reversible [(R 3 NH) 4 UO 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ]sub(org)+2(H 2 SO 4 )sub(aq) is highly shifted to the left side. The presence of octanol in the organic phase does not affect the mechanism of extraction of uranyl sulfate, as evidenced by the IR spectra. (author)

  12. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etaix, E.S.

    1968-01-01

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author) [fr

  13. Large reservoir of sulfate and sulfonate resides within plasma cells from Ascidia ceratodes, revealed by x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, P.; Hedman, B.; Carlson, R.M.K.; Tyson, T.A.; Roe, A.L.; Hodgson, K.O.

    1987-08-11

    The study of sulfur within the plasma cells of Ascidia ceratodes has been extended with x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. An intense absorption feature at 2482.4 eV and a second feature at 2473.7 eV indicate a large endogenous sulfate concentration, as well as smaller though significant amounts of thiol or thioether sulfur, respectively. A strong shoulder was observed at 2481.7 eV on the low-energy side of the sulfate absorption edge, deriving from a novel type of sulfur having a slightly lower oxidation state than sulfate sulfur. The line width of the primary transition on the sulfur edge of a vanadium(III) sulfate solution was found to be broadened relative to that of sodium sulfate, possibly deriving from the formation of the VSO/sub 4//sup +/ complex ion. Similar broadening appears to characterize the oxidized sulfur types in vanadocytes. A very good linear correlation between oxidation state and peak position (in electronvolts) was found for a series of related sulfur compounds. This correlation was used to determine a 5+ oxidation state for the additional sulfur type at 2481.7 eV. Construction of a cellular sulfur minus vanadium(III) sulfate difference spectrum, along with comparison with spectra of known compounds, identified the novel sulfur(V) as an aliphatic sulfonic acid analogous to cysteic acid. The overall sulfonic acid concentration is comparable to that of sulfate in plasma cells and appears to be unprecedented in marine organisms.

  14. Utilization of sulfate additives in biomass combustion: fundamental and modeling aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2013-01-01

    Sulfates, such as ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate, are effective additives for converting the alkali chlorides released from biomass combustion to the less harmful alkali sulfates. Optimization of the use of these additives requires knowledge on their decomposition rate...... was combined with a detailed gas-phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results showed good agreements with the experiments conducted in a biomass grate-firing combustor, where ferric sulfate...... and elemental sulfur were used as additives. The results indicated that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition was the main contributor to KCl sulfation and that the effectiveness of ferric sulfate addition was sensitive to the applied temperature conditions. Comparison of the effectiveness...

  15. Global rates of marine sulfate reduction and implications for sub–sea-floor metabolic activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowles, M.W.; Mogollón, J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823783; Kasten, S.; Zabel, M.; Hinrichs, K.U.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfate reduction is a globally important yet poorly quantified redox process in marine sediments. We developed an artificial neural network trained with 199 sulfate profiles, constrained with geomorphological and geochemical maps to estimate global sulfate reduction rate distributions. Globally,

  16. Biological sulfate removal from gypsum contaminated construction and demolition debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-12-15

    Construction and demolition debris (CDD) contains high levels of sulfate that can cause detrimental environmental impacts when disposed without adequate treatment. In landfills, sulfate can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under anaerobic conditions. CDD can thus cause health impacts or odor problems to landfill employees and surrounding residents. Reduction of the sulfate content of CDD is an option to overcome these problems. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate removal system to reduce the sulfate content of gypsum contaminated CDD in order to decrease the amount of solid waste, to improve the quality of CDD waste for recycling purposes and to recover sulfur from CDD. The treatment leached out the gypsum contained in CDD by water in a leaching column. The sulfate loaded leachate was then treated in a biological sulfate reducing Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor to convert the sulfate to sulfide. The UASB reactor was operated at 23 ± 3 °C with a hydraulic retention time and upflow velocity of 15.5 h and 0.1 m h(-1), respectively while ethanol was added as electron donor at a final organic loading rate of 3.46 g COD L(-1) reactor d(-1). The CDD leachate had a pH of 8-9 and sulfate dissolution rates of 526.4 and 609.8 mg L(-1) d(-1) were achieved in CDD gypsum and CDD sand, respectively. Besides, it was observed that the gypsum dissolution was the rate limiting step for the biological treatment of CDD. The sulfate removal efficiency of the system stabilized at around 85%, enabling the reuse of the UASB effluent for the leaching step, proving the versatility of the bioreactor for practical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of new heparin-like compounds and other antithrombotic drugs and their interaction with vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, H B; Pinhal, M A; Baú, E C; Castro, R A; Medeiros, G F; Chavante, S F; Leite, E L; Trindade, E S; Shinjo, S K; Rocha, H A; Tersariol, I L; Mendes, A; Dietrich, C P

    2001-06-01

    The anticlotting and antithrombotic activities of heparin, heparan sulfate, low molecular weight heparins, heparin and heparin-like compounds from various sources used in clinical practice or under development are briefly reviewed. Heparin isolated from shrimp mimics the pharmacological activities of low molecular weight heparins. A heparan sulfate from Artemia franciscana and a dermatan sulfate from tuna fish show a potent heparin cofactor II activity. A heparan sulfate derived from bovine pancreas has a potent antithrombotic activity in an arterial and venous thrombosis model with a negligible activity upon the serine proteases of the coagulation cascade. It is suggested that the antithrombotic activity of heparin and other antithrombotic agents is due at least in part to their action on endothelial cells stimulating the synthesis of an antithrombotic heparan sulfate.

  18. Sulfated neo-clerodane diterpenoids and triterpenoid saponins from Sheareria nana S. Moore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongyan; Shen, Junmei; Zhang, Feng; Liang, Jingyu; Xia, Zhengxiang

    2018-01-01

    Three novel neo-clerodane diterpenoids Sheareria A-C (1-3) together with three known triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the whole herb of Sheareria nana S. Moore. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical method. This is the first natural sulfated neo-clerodane diterpenoids. This is the first report of all these compounds from this plant. These neo-clerodane diterpenoids and triterpenoid saponins from S. nana S. Moore may be considered as chemotaxonomic markers for the genus. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against three cancer cell lines, the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells. To date, this is the first report on the phytochemical and biological activity of secondary metabolites from S. nana S. Moore. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Quenching characteristics of bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt in aqueous solution and copper sulfate plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Toshiaki; Hirakawa, Chieko; Takeshita, Michinori; Terasaki, Nao

    2018-04-01

    Bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt (BCS) is generally used to detect Cu(I) through a color reaction. We newly found BCS fluorescence in the visible blue region in an aqueous solution. However, the fluorescence mechanism of BCS is not well known, so we should investigate its fundamental information. We confirmed that the characteristics of fluorescence are highly dependent on the molecular concentration and solvent properties. In particular, owing to the presence of the copper compound, the fluorescence intensity extremely decreases. By fluorescence quenching, we observed that a copper compound concentration of 10-6 mol/L or less could easily be measured in an aqueous solution. We also observed BCS fluorescence in copper sulfate plating solution and the possibility of detecting monovalent copper by fluorescence reabsorption.

  20. Inhibition of a sulfate reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio marinisediminis GSR3, by biosynthesized copper oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasvand Zarasvand, Kiana; Rai, V Ravishankar

    2016-06-01

    To control the severe problem of microbiologically influenced corrosion, industries require highly potent antibacterial agent which can inhibit the growth of bacteria on man-made surfaces. This need drove the research towards the synthesis of nanoscale antimicrobial compounds. We, therefore, screened several bacteria for the biosynthesis of copper/copper compound nanoparticles which could inhibit the growth of Desulfovibrio marinisediminis, a sulfate reducing bacterium. Supernatant of thirty bacteria isolated from the biofilm formed on ship hull was mixed with 1 mM CuCl 2 solution at room temperature. Eight bacterial strains, whose mixtures exhibited colour change, were selected for antimicrobial test. One nanoparticle which has been biosynthesized by Shewanella indica inhibited the growth of D. marinisediminis. Characterization of this particle by UV-visible spectrophotometer, XRD, TEM, DLS and FTIR showed that the particle is polydisperse CuO nanoparticle with average size of 400 nm.

  1. Solvent-free synthesis of three layered manganese sulfate-oxalates with different pore apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingyu; Guo, Furong; Yang, Meng; Zeng, Hongmei; Lin, Zhien

    2018-01-01

    Three manganese sulfate-oxalates, namely, H2pip·Mn2(SO4)2(ox)(H2O)2·2H2O (1), H3ipaṡMn2(SO4)(ox)2.5·H2O (2), and H3dptaṡMn2(SO4)2(ox)1.5(H2O)3 (3), were prepared under solvent-free conditions, where pip = piperazine, ox = oxalate, ipa = 3,3‧-iminobis(N,N-dimethylpropylamine), and dpta = dipropylenetriamine. These compounds have different layered structures intercalated with organic cations. Their pore apertures range from small 8-membered ring (8 MR) to large 12 MR and extra-large 20 MR. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of these compounds were also investigated.

  2. A Marine Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Producing Multiple Antibiotics: Biological and Chemical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A marine sulfate-reducing bacterium SRB-22 was isolated by means of the agar shake dilution method and identified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis. In the bioassay, its extract showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity using the paper disc agar diffusion method. This isolate showed a different antimicrobial profile than either ampicillin or nystatin and was found to produce at least eight antimicrobial components by bioautography. Suitable fermentation conditions for production of the active constituents were determined to be 28 day cultivation at 25 °C to 30 °C with a 10% inoculation ratio. Under these conditions, the SRB-22 was fermented, extracted and chemically investigated. So far an antimicrobial compound, mono-n-butyl phthalate, and an inactive compound, thymine, have been isolated and characterized.

  3. Potential for beneficial application of sulfate reducing bacteria in sulfate containing domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, T P H; Roest, K; Chen, G H; Brdjanovic, D; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-11-01

    The activity of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is often considered as a problem due to H2S formation and potential related odour and corrosion of materials. However, when controlled well, these bacteria can be effectively used in a positive manner for the treatment of wastewater. The main advantages of using SRB in wastewater treatment are: (1) minimal sludge production, (2) reduction of potential pathogens presence, (3) removal of heavy metals and (4) as pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. These advantages are accessory to efficient and stable COD removal by SRB. Though only a few studies have been conducted on SRB treatment of domestic wastewater, the many studies performed on industrial wastewater provide information on the potential of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. A key-parameter analyses literature study comprising pH, organic substrates, sulfate, salt, temperature and oxygen revealed that the conditions are well suited for the application of SRB in domestic wastewater treatment. Since the application of SRB in WWTP has environmental benefits its application is worth considering for wastewater treatment, when sulfate is present in the influent.

  4. Low levels of H2S may replace sulfate as sulfur source in sulfate-deprived onion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, Mark; De Kok, LJ

    2005-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) was exposed to low levels of H2S in order to investigate to what extent H2S could be used as a sulfur source for growth under sulfate-deprived conditions. Sulfate deprivation for a two-week period resulted in a decreased biomass production of the shoot, a subsequently

  5. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies identified PCB sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific...

  6. Thimerosal Exposure and the Role of Sulfation Chemistry and Thiol Availability in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Geier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurological disorder in which a significant number of the children experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously acquired skills and abilities. Typically reported are losses of verbal, nonverbal, and social abilities. Several recent studies suggest that children diagnosed with an ASD have abnormal sulfation chemistry, limited thiol availability, and decreased glutathione (GSH reserve capacity, resulting in a compromised oxidation/reduction (redox and detoxification capacity. Research indicates that the availability of thiols, particularly GSH, can influence the effects of thimerosal (TM and other mercury (Hg compounds. TM is an organomercurial compound (49.55% Hg by weight that has been, and continues to be, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, particularly in developing countries. Thiol-modulating mechanisms affecting the cytotoxicity of TM have been identified. Importantly, the emergence of ASD symptoms post-6 months of age temporally follows the administration of many childhood vaccines. The purpose of the present critical review is provide mechanistic insight regarding how limited thiol availability, abnormal sulfation chemistry, and decreased GSH reserve capacity in children with an ASD could make them more susceptible to the toxic effects of TM routinely administered as part of mandated childhood immunization schedules.

  7. Final report of the amended safety assessment of sodium laureth sulfate and related salts of sulfated ethoxylated alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Valerie C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-07-01

    Sodium laureth sulfate is a member of a group of salts of sulfated ethoxylated alcohols, the safety of which was evaluated by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel for use in cosmetics. Sodium and ammonium laureth sulfate have not evoked adverse responses in any toxicological testing. Sodium laureth sulfate was demonstrated to be a dermal and ocular irritant but not a sensitizer. The Expert Panel recognized that there are data gaps regarding use and concentration of these ingredients. However, the overall information available on the types of products in which these ingredients are used and at what concentrations indicates a pattern of use. The potential to produce irritation exists with these salts of sulfated ethoxylated alcohols, but in practice they are not regularly seen to be irritating because of the formulations in which they are used. These ingredients should be used only when they can be formulated to be nonirritating.

  8. The nitrogen cycle in anaerobic methanotrophic mats of the Black Sea is linked to sulfate reduction and biomass decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Taubert, Martin; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen-Tomm, Martin; Basen, Mirko; Bastida, Felipe; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) mats host methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes. Little is known about the nitrogen cycle in these communities. Here, we link the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) to the nitrogen cycle in microbial mats of the Black Sea by using stable isotope probing. We used four different (15)N-labeled sources of nitrogen: dinitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium. We estimated the nitrogen incorporation rates into the total biomass and the methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR). Dinitrogen played an insignificant role as nitrogen source. Assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction occurred. High rates of nitrate reduction to dinitrogen were stimulated by methane and sulfate, suggesting that oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfides was necessary for AOM with nitrate as electron acceptor. Nitrate reduction to dinitrogen occurred also in the absence of methane as electron donor but at six times slower rates. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium was independent of AOM. Ammonium was used for biomass synthesis under all conditions. The pivotal enzyme in AOM coupled to sulfate reduction, MCR, was synthesized from nitrate and ammonium. Results show that AOM coupled to sulfate reduction along with biomass decomposition drive the nitrogen cycle in the ANME mats of the Black Sea and that MCR enzymes are involved in this process. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. HABA-based ionic liquid matrices for UV-MALDI-MS analysis of heparin and heparan sulfate oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Cedric; Gonnet, Florence; Bonnaffé, David; Hersant, Yael; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Daniel, Regis

    2010-02-01

    Polysulfated carbohydrates such as heparin (HP) and heparan sulfate (HS) are not easily amenable to usual ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI)-MS analysis due to the thermal lability of their O- and N-SO(3) moieties, and their poor ionization efficiency with common crystalline matrices. Recently, ionic liquid matrices showed considerable advantages over conventional matrices for MALDI-MS of acidic compounds. Two new ionic liquid matrices (ILMs) based on the combination of 2-(4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzoic acid (HABA) with 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine and spermine were evaluated in the study herein. Both ILMs were successfully applied to the analysis of synthetic heparin oligosaccharides of well-characterized structures as well as to heparan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides from enzymatic depolymerization. HABA-based ILMs showed improved signal-to-noise ratio as well as a decrease of fragmentation/desulfation processes and cation exchange. Sulfated oligosaccharides were detected with higher sensitivity than usual crystalline matrices, and their intact fully O- and N-sulfated species [M-Na](-) were easily observed on mass spectra. MALDI-MS characterization of challenging analytes such as heparin octasaccharide carrying 8-O and 4 N-sulfo groups, and heparin octadecasulfated dodecasaccharide was successfully achieved.

  10. Sulfate Reduction Remediation of a Metals Plume Through Organic Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory testing and a field-scale demonstration for the sulfate reduction remediation of an acidic/metals/sulfate groundwater plume at the Savannah River Site has been conducted. The laboratory testing consisted of the use of anaerobic microcosms to test the viability of three organic substrates to promote microbially mediated sulfate reduction. Based upon the laboratory testing, soybean oil and sodium lactate were selected for injection during the subsequent field-scale demonstration. The field-scale demonstration is currently ongoing. Approximately 825 gallons (3,123 L) of soybean oil and 225 gallons (852 L) of 60 percent sodium lactate have been injected into an existing well system within the plume. Since the injections, sulfate concentrations in the injection zone have significantly decreased, sulfate-reducing bacteria concentrations have significantly increased, the pH has increased, the Eh has decreased, and the concentrations of many metals have decreased. Microbially mediated sulfate reduction has been successfully promoted for the remediation of the acidic/metals/sulfate plume by the injection of soybean oil and sodium lactate within the plume

  11. Interpreting isotopic analyses of microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, C. G.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Druhan, J. L.; Cheng, Y.; Li, L.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Coates, J. D.; Conrad, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs is often associated with secondary production of oil where seawater (28 mM sulfate) is commonly injected to maintain reservoir pressure and displace oil. The hydrogen sulfide produced can cause a suite of operating problems including corrosion of infrastructure, health exposure risks and additional processing costs. We propose that monitoring of the sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate can be used as early indicators that microbial sulfate reduction is occurring, as this process is well known to cause substantial isotopic fractionation. This approach relies on the idea that reactions with reservoir (iron) minerals can remove dissolved sulfide, thereby delaying the transport of the sulfide through the reservoir relative to the sulfate in the injected water. Changes in the sulfate isotopes due to microbial sulfate reduction may therefore be measurable in the produced water before sulfide is detected. However, turning this approach into a predictive tool requires (i) an understanding of appropriate fractionation factors for oil reservoirs, (ii) incorporation of isotopic data into reservoir flow and reactive transport models. We present here the results of preliminary batch experiments aimed at determining fractionation factors using relevant electron donors (e.g. crude oil and volatile fatty acids), reservoir microbial communities and reservoir environmental conditions (pressure, temperature). We further explore modeling options for integrating isotope data and discuss whether single fractionation factors are appropriate to model complex environments with dynamic hydrology, geochemistry, temperature and microbiology gradients.

  12. Sanskrit Compound Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

    Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

  13. Evolutionary relationships and functional diversity of plant sulfate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eTakahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate is an essential nutrient cycled in nature. Ion transporters that specifically facilitate the transport of sulfate across the membranes are found ubiquitously in living organisms. The phylogenetic analysis of known sulfate transporters and their homologous proteins from eukaryotic organisms indicate two evolutionarily distinct groups of sulfate transport systems. One major group named Tribe 1 represents yeast and fungal SUL, plant SULTR and animal SLC26 families. The evolutionary origin of SULTR family members in land plants and green algae is suggested to be common with yeast and fungal sulfate transporters (SUL and animal anion exchangers (SLC26. The lineage of plant SULTR family is expanded into four subfamilies (SULTR1 to SULTR4 in land plant species. By contrast, the putative SULTR homologues from Chlorophyte green algae are in two separate lineages; one with the subfamily of plant tonoplast-localized sulfate transporters (SULTR4, and the other diverged before the appearance of lineages for SUL, SULTR and SLC26. There also was a group of yet undefined members of putative sulfate transporters in yeast and fungi divergent from these major lineages in Tribe 1. The other distinct group is Tribe 2, primarily composed of animal sodium-dependent sulfate/carboxylate transporters (SLC13 and plant tonoplast-localized dicarboxylate transporters (TDT. The putative sulfur-sensing protein (SAC1 and SAC1-like transporters (SLT of Chlorophyte green algae, bryophyte and lycophyte show low degrees of sequence similarities with SLC13 and TDT. However, the phylogenetic relationship between SAC1/SLT and the other two families, SLC13 and TDT in Tribe 2, is not clearly supported. In addition, the SAC1/SLT family is completely absent in the angiosperm species analyzed. The present study suggests distinct evolutionary trajectories of sulfate transport systems for land plants and green algae.

  14. Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Wang, Hailong [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Steven J. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park MD USA; Easter, Richard C. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rasch, Philip J. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2018-02-08

    Source attributions of Arctic sulfate and its direct radiative effect for 2010–2014 are quantified in this study using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) equipped with an explicit sulfur source-tagging technique. Regions that have high emissions and/or are near/within the Arctic present relatively large contributions to Arctic sulfate burden, with the largest contribution from sources in East Asia (27%). East Asia and South Asia together have the largest contributions to Arctic sulfate concentrations at 9–12 km, whereas sources within or near the Arctic account largely below 2 km. For remote sources with strong emissions, their contributions to Arctic sulfate burden are primarily driven by meteorology, while contributions of sources within or near the Arctic are dominated by their emission strength. The sulfate direct radiative effect (DRE) is –0.080 W m-2 at the Arctic surface, offsetting the net warming effect from the combination of in-snow heating and DRE cooling from black carbon. East Asia, Arctic local and Russia/Belarus/Ukraine sources contribute –0.017, –0.016 and –0.014 W m-2, respectively, to Arctic sulfate DRE. A 20% reduction in anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to a net increase of +0.013 W m-2 forcing at the Arctic surface. These results indicate that a joint reduction in BC emissions could prevent possible Arctic warming from future reductions in SO2 emissions. Sulfate DRE efficiency calculations suggest that short transport pathways together with meteorology favoring long sulfate lifetimes make certain sources more efficient in influencing the Arctic sulfate DRE.

  15. Magnesium sulfate prophylaxis in preeclampsia: Lessons learned from recent trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibai, Baha M

    2004-06-01

    In the US, the routine use of magnesium sulfate for seizure prophylaxis in women with preeclampsia is an ingrained obstetric practice. During the past decade, several observational studies and randomized trials have described the use of various regimens of magnesium sulfate to prevent or reduce the rate of seizures and complications in women with preeclampsia. There are only 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the use of magnesium sulfate in mild preeclampsia. There were no instances of eclampsia among 181 women assigned to placebo, and there were no differences in the percentage of women who progressed to severe preeclampsia (12.5% in magnesium group vs 13.8% in the placebo group, relative risk [RR] 0.90; 95% CI 0.52-1.54). However, the number of women enrolled in these trials is too limited to draw any valid conclusions. There are 4 randomized controlled trials that compare the use of no magnesium sulfate, or a placebo vs magnesium sulfate, to prevent convulsions in patients with severe preeclampsia. The rate of eclampsia was 0.6% among 6343 patients assigned to magnesium sulfate vs 2.0 % among 6330 patients assigned to a placebo or control (RR 0.39; 95% CI 0.28-0.55). However, the reduction in the rate of eclampsia was not associated with a significant benefit in either maternal or perinatal outcome. In addition, there was a higher rate of maternal respiratory depression among those assigned magnesium sulfate (RR 2.06; 95% CI 1.33-3.18). The evidence to date confirms the efficacy of magnesium sulfate in reduction of seizures in women with eclampsia and severe preeclampsia; however, this benefit does not affect overall maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidities. The evidence regarding the benefit-to-risk ratio of magnesium sulfate prophylaxis in mild preeclampsia remains uncertain, and does not justify its routine use for that purpose.

  16. Biokinetics and effects of barium sulfate nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Nagarjun; Keller, Jana; Ma-Hock, Lan; Gröters, Sibylle; Landsiedel, Robert; Donaghey, Thomas C; Brain, Joseph D; Wohlleben, Wendel; Molina, Ramon M

    2014-10-21

    Nanoparticulate barium sulfate has potential novel applications and wide use in the polymer and paint industries. A short-term inhalation study on barium sulfate nanoparticles (BaSO₄ NPs) was previously published [Part Fibre Toxicol 11:16, 2014]. We performed comprehensive biokinetic studies of ¹³¹BaSO₄ NPs administered via different routes and of acute and subchronic pulmonary responses to instilled or inhaled BaSO₄ in rats. We compared the tissue distribution of ¹³¹Ba over 28 days after intratracheal (IT) instillation, and over 7 days after gavage and intravenous (IV) injection of ¹³¹BaSO₄. Rats were exposed to 50 mg/m³ BaSO₄ aerosol for 4 or 13 weeks (6 h/day, 5 consecutive days/week), and then gross and histopathologic, blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analyses were performed. BAL fluid from instilled rats was also analyzed. Inhaled BaSO₄ NPs showed no toxicity after 4-week exposure, but a slight neutrophil increase in BAL after 13-week exposure was observed. Lung burden of inhaled BaSO₄ NPs after 4-week exposure (0.84 ± 0.18 mg/lung) decreased by 95% over 34 days. Instilled BaSO₄ NPs caused dose-dependent inflammatory responses in the lungs. Instilled BaSO₄ NPs (0.28 mg/lung) was cleared with a half-life of ≈ 9.6 days. Translocated ¹³¹Ba from the lungs was predominantly found in the bone (29%). Only 0.15% of gavaged dose was detected in all organs at 7 days. IV-injected ¹³¹BaSO₄ NPs were predominantly localized in the liver, spleen, lungs and bone at 2 hours, but redistributed from the liver to bone over time. Fecal excretion was the dominant elimination pathway for all three routes of exposure. Pulmonary exposure to instilled BaSO₄ NPs caused dose-dependent lung injury and inflammation. Four-week and 13-week inhalation exposures to a high concentration (50 mg/m³) of BaSO₄ NPs elicited minimal pulmonary response and no systemic effects. Instilled and inhaled BaSO₄ NPs were cleared quickly yet

  17. Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfateβ-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugahara Kazuyuki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we have reported the presence of highly sulfated dermatans in solitary ascidians from the orders Phlebobranchia (Phallusia nigra and Stolidobranchia (Halocynthia pyriformis and Styela plicata. Despite the identical disaccharide backbone, consisting of [→4IdoA(2Sβ-1→3GalNAcβ-1→], those polymers differ in the position of sulfation on the N-Acetyl galactosamine, which can occur at carbon 4 or 6. We have shown that position rather than degree of sulfation is important for heparin cofactor II activity. As a consequence, 2,4- and 2,6-sulfated dermatans have high and low heparin cofactor II activities, respectively. In the present study we extended the disaccharide analysis of ascidian dermatan sulfates to additional species of the orders Stolidobranchia (Herdmania pallida, Halocynthia roretzi and Phlebobranchia (Ciona intestinalis, aiming to investigate how sulfation evolved within Tunicata. In addition, we analysed how heparin cofactor II activity responds to dermatan sulfates containing different proportions of 2,6- or 2,4-disulfated units. Results Disaccharide analyses indicated a high content of disulfated disaccharide units in the dermatan sulfates from both orders. However, the degree of sulfation decreased from Stolidobranchia to Phlebobranchia. While 76% of the disaccharide units in dermatan sulfates from stolidobranch ascidians are disulfated, 53% of disulfated disaccharides are found in dermatan sulfates from phlebobranch ascidians. Besides this notable difference in the sulfation degree, dermatan sulfates from phlebobranch ascidians contain mainly 2,6-sulfated disaccharides whereas dermatan sulfate from the stolidobranch ascidians contain mostly 2,4-sulfated disaccharides, suggesting that the biosynthesis of dermatan sulfates might be differently regulated during tunicates evolution. Changes in the position of sulfation on N-acetylgalactosamine in the disaccharide [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAcβ-1

  18. Sulfated oligosaccharide structures, as determined by NMR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseda, M.D.; Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. De Bioquimica; Cerezo, A.S. [Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-31

    Carrageenans are sulfated polysaccharides, produced by red seaweeds (Rhodophyta), that have important biological and physico-chemical properties. Using partial autohydrolysis, we obtained sulfated oligosaccharides from a {lambda}-carrageenan (Noseda and Cerezo, 1993). These oligosaccharides are valuable not only for the study of the structures of the parent carrageenans but also for their possible biological activities. In this work we determined the chemical structure of one of the sulfated oligosaccharides using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs.

  19. Improved biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using recombinant host cells. More particularly, the present invention pertains to recombinant host cells comprising (e.g., expressing) a polypeptide having aryl sulfotransferase...... activity, wherein said recombinant host cells have been modified to have an increased uptake of sulfate compared to identical host cells that does not carry said modification. Further provided are processes for the production of aryl sulfates, such as zosteric acid, employing such recombinant host cells....

  20. Micro-SHINE Uranyl Sulfate Irradiations at the Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youker, Amanda J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kalensky, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schneider, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Byrnes, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Peroxide formation due to water radiolysis in a uranyl sulfate solution is a concern for the SHINE Medical Technologies process in which Mo-99 is generated from the fission of dissolved low enriched uranium. To investigate the effects of power density and fission on peroxide formation and uranyl-peroxide precipitation, uranyl sulfate solutions were irradiated using a 50-MeV electron linac as part of the micro-SHINE experimental setup. Results are given for uranyl sulfate solutions with both high and low enriched uranium irradiated at different linac powers.

  1. Bacterial sulfate reduction limits natural arsenic contamination in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Holm, Thomas R.; Park, Jungho; Jin, Qusheng; Sanford, Robert A.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Bethke, Craig M.

    2004-11-01

    Natural arsenic contamination of groundwater, increasingly recognized as a threat to human health worldwide, is characterized by arsenic concentrations that vary sharply over short distances. Variation in arsenic levels in the Mahomet aquifer system, a regional glacial aquifer in central Illinois, appears to arise from variable rates of bacterial sulfate reduction in the subsurface, not differences in arsenic supply. Where sulfate-reducing bacteria are active, the sulfide produced reacts to precipitate arsenic, or coprecipitate it with iron, leaving little in solution. In the absence of sulfate reduction, methanogenesis is the dominant type of microbial metabolism, and arsenic accumulates to high levels.

  2. Damage modelling in concrete subject to sulfate attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cefis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the mechanical effect of the sulfate attack on concrete. The durability analysis of concrete structures in contact to external sulfate solutions requires the definition of a proper diffusion-reaction model, for the computation of the varying sulfate concentration and of the consequent ettringite formation, coupled to a mechanical model for the prediction of swelling and material degradation. In this work, we make use of a two-ions formulation of the reactive-diffusion problem and we propose a bi-phase chemo-elastic damage model aimed to simulate the mechanical response of concrete and apt to be used in structural analyses.

  3. Modeling the Use of Sulfate Additives for Potassium Chloride Destruction in Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Morten Nedergaard; Jespersen, Jacob Boll

    2014-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from biomass combustion may lead to ash deposition and corrosion problems in boilers. Sulfates are effective additives for converting KCl to the less harmful K2SO4 and HCl. In the present study, the rate constants for decomposition of ammonium sulfate and aluminum......-dependent distribution of SO2 and SO3 from ammonium sulfate decomposition. On the basis of these data as well as earlier results, a detailed chemical kinetic model for sulfation of KCl by a range of sulfate additives was established. Modeling results were compared to biomass combustion experiments in a bubbling...... fluidized-bed reactor using ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, and ferric sulfate as additives. The simulation results for ammonium sulfate and ferric sulfate addition compared favorably to the experiments. The predictions for aluminum sulfate addition were only partly in agreement with the experimental...

  4. CALCIUM CARBONATE REDUCES IRON ABSORPTION FROM IRON SULFATE, BUT NOT WHEN IRON IS PRESENTED AS AN ORGANIC COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. CONCEIÇÃO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Experimental and epidemiological evidences have demonstrated that calcium inhibits iron absorption; calcium carbonate being one of the most effective calcium sources to reduce iron absorption from dietary origin or from iron sulfate. In the present work, the short-term effect of calcium from calcium carbonate on iron absorption was studied in rats, using different iron compounds (monosodium ferric EDTA, iron-bys-glicine, iron peptide complex with iron sulfate as a control. Eighty (80 animals were divided into groups of 10 animals each with homogeneous weight. After 18h fast, the animals received by gavage 5 mL of a dispersion containing one of the iron compounds (1mg Fe/kg body weight, concomitantly or not with calcium carbonate at a molar ratio of 150:1 (Ca/Fe. Two hours after the administration, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected for serum iron determination (iron transfer rate from intestinal lumen to blood compartment. Additionally, the intestines were collected for soluble iron determination (available iron. The results demonstrated that calcium ion from calcium carbonate inhibits the iron absorption from iron sulfate, but not from organic iron (di- or trivalent complexes.

  5. Sulfated polysaccharide, curdlan sulfate, efficiently prevents entry/fusion and restricts antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection in vitro: a possible candidate for clinical application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Ichiyama

    Full Text Available Curdlan sulfate (CRDS, a sulfated 1→3-β-D glucan, previously shown to be a potent HIV entry inhibitor, is characterized in this study as a potent inhibitor of the Dengue virus (DENV. CRDS was identified by in silico blind docking studies to exhibit binding potential to the envelope (E protein of the DENV. CRDS was shown to inhibit the DENV replication very efficiently in different cells in vitro. Minimal effective concentration of CRDS was as low as 0.1 µg/mL in LLC-MK2 cells, and toxicity was observed only at concentrations over 10 mg/mL. CRDS can also inhibit DENV-1, 3, and 4 efficiently. CRDS did not inhibit the replication of DENV subgenomic replicon. Time of addition experiments demonstrated that the compound not only inhibited viral infection at the host cell binding step, but also at an early post-attachment step of entry (membrane fusion. The direct binding of CRDS to DENV was suggested by an evident reduction in the viral titers after interaction of the virus with CRDS following an ultrafiltration device separation, as well as after virus adsorption to an alkyl CRDS-coated membrane filter. The electron microscopic features also showed that CRDS interacted directly with the viral envelope, and caused changes to the viral surface. CRDS also potently inhibited DENV infection in DC-SIGN expressing cells as well as the antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV-2 infection. Based on these data, a probable binding model of CRDS to DENV E protein was constructed by a flexible receptor and ligand docking study. The binding site of CRDS was predicted to be at the interface between domains II and III of E protein dimer, which is unique to this compound, and is apparently different from the β-OG binding site. Since CRDS has already been tested in humans without serious side effects, its clinical application can be considered.

  6. Hair protein removal by sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cássia Comis Wagner, Rita; Joekes, Inés

    2005-03-10

    The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on protein loss was studied. Three kinds of human hair were tested by rubbing or immersion in water or immersion in SDS solution, at 25, 40 and 70 degrees C. Under friction, hair treated with SDS solution loses seven times more protein than in water, while by immersion, protein loss is roughly two times higher in SDS than in water. Protein loss increases at higher temperatures. Estimated activation energy values for protein loss by immersion are 69+/-22 kJ mol(-1) for blended brown hair; 40+/-12 kJ mol(-1) for blond hair (tip-end region) and 61+/-4 kJ mol(-1) for blond hair (root-end region) for samples treated in water, while 53+/-8, 7+/-5 and 32+/-8 kJ mol(-1) were the corresponding activation energy values for samples treated in 5% SDS solution. These values indicate that protein loss is mainly a diffusion-controlled process. The more damaged the hair, the lower the activation energy and the higher the protein loss. From these data, it can be estimated that daily care shampooing at room temperature will cause opacity and combing difficulties in 1 year and split ends after 3 years by removal of all cuticle layers.

  7. Effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate of polyphenoloxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.M.; Flurkey, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the enzymatic and physical characteristics of purified broad bean polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were examined. A sigmoidal increase in PPO activation was observed with increasing SDS concentrations. Half maximal activation occurred at .9 mM SDS well below the CMC of 3.5 mM. No apparent changes in the Km for catechol, pH optimum, of I 50 for tropolone were observed in the presence vs absence of SDS. Thermal inactivation and binding of 14 C dopa increased in the presence of SDS. Analytical ultracentrifugation and HPLC-SEC indicated that SDS did not change the apparent size of the PPO under nondenaturing conditions. Scanning fluorescence spectroscopy showed an increase in intrinsic trp/tyr fluorescence at approximately the same concentration in which SDS activation began. Further addition of SDS caused a large increase in intrinsic fluorescence. These results suggest the SDS causes an apparent conformational change induced by SDS binding which leads to enzyme activation

  8. Age of Sulfate Methane Transition Zone Determined by Modelling Barium Sulfate Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S.; Wang, W. C.; Lien, K. L.; Liu, C. C.; Fan, L. F.

    2017-12-01

    Methane seep to the sediment/water interface could initiate anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) with subsequent build up of chemosynthetic community, carbonate, pyrite and a number of other authigenic mineral formation. Determination the duration, sequence and time of methane seeps are keys to understand how methane seep to the environment and degree of alteration to the vicinity area. However, limited method existed in defining time of methane seep since there are some known problems involving typical dating methods, i.e. old carbon on C14 of fossil test or authigenic carbonate, thorium from surrounding matrix on U/Th authigenic carbonate dating. In this study, we have employed barium determination method (Dickens, 2001) to model timing of methane seep at two locations in the South China Sea. Our objective is to compare timing of the barium accumulation near the sulfate methane transition zone (SMTZ) on these two different locations and to seek if a similar mechanism driving the methane seep at two locations far apart. Dissolved barium, total sediment barium and aluminum were measured as well as pore water sulfate, and sediment pyrite concentrations. Time for the barium sulfate accumulation is calculated by: T = C/F, C= ∫ I x p x (1-Ø) Our results show that SMTZ is stabilized at each site for a duration of about 4000-5000 years. AOM process have been active at both sites at about the same time. In conjunction, pyrite also accumulated at a depth near the SMTZ as a result of methane oxidation. This result show that AOM could stay at the SMTZ for a relatively long period of time, on a scale of thousands of years.

  9. Expanding the role of 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate in herpes simplex virus type-1 entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, Christopher D.; Kovacs, Maria; Akhtar, Jihan; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Shukla, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are commonly exploited by multiple viruses for initial attachment to host cells. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is unique because it can use HS for both attachment and penetration, provided specific binding sites for HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein gD are present. The interaction with gD is mediated by specific HS moieties or 3-O sulfated HS (3-OS HS), which are generated by all but one of the seven isoforms of 3-O sulfotransferases (3-OSTs). Here we demonstrate that several common experimental cell lines express unique sets of 3-OST isoforms. While the isoforms 3-OST-3, -5 and -6 were most commonly expressed, isoforms 3-OST-2 and -4 were undetectable in the cell lines examined. Since most cell lines expressed multiple 3-OST isoforms, we addressed the significance of 3-OS HS in HSV-1 entry by down-regulating 2-O-sulfation, a prerequisite for 3-OS HS formation, by knocking down 2-OST expression by RNA interference (RNAi). 2-OST knockdown was verified by reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot analysis, while 3-OS HS knockdown was verified by immunofluorescence. Cells showed a significant decrease in viral entry, suggesting an important role for 3-OS HS. Implicating 3-OS HS further, cells knocked down for 2-OST expression also demonstrated decreased cell-cell fusion when cocultivated with effector cells transfected with HSV-1 glycoproteins. Our findings suggest that 3-OS HS may play an important role in HSV-1 entry into many different cell lines.

  10. Antibody recognizing 4-sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans restores memory in tauopathy-induced neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sujeong; Hilton, Sam; Alves, João Nuno; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy; Matthews, Russell T; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Kwok, Jessica C F; Fawcett, James W

    2017-11-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the main active component of perineuronal nets (PNNs). Digestion of the glycosaminoglycan chains of CSPGs with chondroitinase ABC or transgenic attenuation of PNNs leads to prolongation of object recognition memory and activation of various forms of plasticity in the adult central nervous system. The inhibitory properties of the CSPGs depend on the pattern of sulfation of their glycosaminoglycans, with chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) being the most inhibitory form. In this study, we tested a number of candidates for functional blocking of C4S, leading to selection of an antibody, Cat316, which specifically recognizes C4S and blocks its inhibitory effects on axon growth. It also partly blocks binding of semaphorin 3A to PNNs and attenuates PNN formation. We asked whether injection of Cat316 into the perirhinal cortex would have the same effects on memory as chondroitinase ABC treatment. We found that masking C4S with the Cat316 antibody extended long-term object recognition memory in normal wild-type mice to 24 hours, similarly to chondroitinase or transgenic PNN attenuation. We then tested Cat316 for restoration of memory in a neurodegeneration model. Mice expressing tau with the P301S mutation showed profound loss of object recognition memory at 4 months of age. Injection of Cat316 into the perirhinal cortex normalized object recognition at 3 hours in P301S mice. These data indicate that Cat316 binding to C4S in the extracellular matrix can restore plasticity and memory in the same way as chondroitinase ABC digestion. Our results suggest that antibodies to C4S could be a useful therapeutic to restore memory function in neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sulfate- and Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria as Terrestrial Analogs for Microbial Life on Jupiter's Satellite Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Observations from the Voyager and Galileo spacecraft have revealed Jupiter's moon Io to be the most volcanically active body of our Solar System. The Galileo Near Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (NIMS) detected extensive deposits of sulfur compounds, elemental sulfur and SO2 frost on the surface of Io. There are extreme temperature variations on Io's surface, ranging from -130 C to over 2000 C at the Pillan Patera volcanic vent. The active volcanoes, fumaroles, calderas, and lava lakes and vast sulfur deposits on this frozen moon indicate that analogs of sulfur- and sulfate-reducing bacteria might inhabit Io. Hence Io may have great significance to Astrobiology. Earth's life forms that depend on sulfur respiration are members of two domains: Bacteria and Archaea. Two basic links of the biogeochemical sulfur cycle of Earth have been studied: 1) the sulfur oxidizing process (occurring at aerobic conditions) and 2) the process of sulfur-reduction to hydrogen sulfide (anaerobic conditions). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (StRB) and sulfur-reducing bacteria (SrRB) are responsible for anaerobic reducing processes. At the present time the systematics of StRB include over 112 species distributed into 35 genera of Bacteria and Archaea. Moderately thermophilic and mesophilic SrRB belong to the Bacteria. The hyperthermophilic SrRB predominately belong to the domain Archaea and are included in the genera: Pyrodictium, Thermoproteus, Pyrobaculum, Thermophilum, Desulfurococcus, and Thermodiscus. The StRB and SrRB use a wide spectrum of substrates as electron donors for lithotrophic and heterotrophic type nutrition. The electron acceptors for the StRB include: sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, sulfur, arsenate, dithionite, tetrathionate, sulfur monoxide, iron, nitrite, selenite, fumarate, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and chlorine-containing phenol compounds. The Sulfate- and Sulfur-reducing bacteria are widely distributed in anaerobic ecosystems, including extreme environments like hot springs

  12. Correction: Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfateβ-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugahara Kazuyuki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After the publication of the work entitled "Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfateβ-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfateβ-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate on heparin cofactor II activity", by Kozlowski et al., BMC Biochemistry 2011, 12:29, we found that the legends to Figures 2 to 5 contain serious mistakes that compromise the comprehension of the work. This correction article contains the correct text of the legends to Figures 2 to 5.

  13. Electrowinning of cobalt from sulfate-chloride and sulfate solutions of cobalt and manganese under dynamic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. П. Хоменко

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of an electrolyzer for electrowinning in dynamic conditions is developed. The dependence of the results of electrowinning of cobalt and manganese from sulfate and sulfate-chloride solutions under dynamic conditions using a titanium cathode and a lead anode with 1 % of silver was studied. It was found that the best extraction results for the current yield and the specific energy consumption were obtained by electrolysis from sulfate solutions at a low concentration of manganese in an electrolyser without a perforated baffle plate separating the cathode and anode spaces.

  14. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans support osteoblast functions and concurrently suppress osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbach-Hirsch, Juliane; Ziegler, Nicole; Thiele, Sylvia; Moeller, Stephanie; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Hintze, Vera; Scharnweber, Dieter; Rauner, Martina; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2014-06-01

    In order to improve bone regeneration, development and evaluation of new adaptive biomaterials is warranted. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) are major extracellular matrix (ECM) components of bone, and display osteogenic properties that are potentially useful for biomaterial applications. Using native and synthetic sulfate-modified GAGs, we manufactured artificial collagen/GAG ECM (aECMs) coatings, and evaluated how the presence of GAGs and their degree of sulfation affects the differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts (OB) cultivated on these aECMs. GAG sulfation regulated osteogenesis at all key steps of OB development. Adhesion, but not migration, was diminished by 50% (P osteogenesis and suppressing their paracrine support of OC functions, thus displaying a favorable profile on bone remodeling. Whether these cellular properties translate into improved bone regeneration needs to be validated in vivo. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition Raster 2011-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2011 to 2013. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  16. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition Raster 1989-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 1989 to 1991. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  17. Sulfate and nitrate levels in aqueous, atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.W.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of sulfates and nitrates in marine aerosol particles is investigated. A simulation of the growth and chemical reactions of an aerosol particle composed initially of an equilibrium mixture of NaCl and MgCl 2 and exposed to SO 2 , NO, NO 2 , NH 3 and H 2 SO 4 vapor is used to predict the relative compositions of sulfates, nitrates and ammonium, assuming gas-phase sulfur dioxide oxidation and liquid-phase nitrate formation. Results indicate an increase in nitrate concentration and a decrease in sulfate and ammonium concentrations with increasing particle radius and a near-stoichiometric ratio of nitrate and sulfate to ammonium. The noted deviations of this ratio from those observed experimentally are considered to indicate the relative importances of liquid-phase sulfur dioxide oxidation at various locations

  18. Recoverable immobilization of transuranic elements in sulfate ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash at least about 20% of which is sulfates of transuranic elements. The ash is mixed with a metal which can be aluminum, cerium, samarium, europium, or a mixture thereof, in amounts sufficient to form an alloy with the transuranic elements, plus an additional amount to reduce the transuranic element sulfates to elemental form. Also added to the ash is a fluxing agent in an amount sufficient to lower the percentage of the transuranic element sulfates to about 1% to about 10%. The mixture of the ash, metal, and fluxing agent is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the fluxing agent and the metal. The mixture is then cooled and the alloy is separated from the remainder of the mixture.

  19. Initial kinetics of the direct sulfation of limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Shang, Lei; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The initial kinetics of direct sulfation of Faxe Bryozo, a porous bryozoan limestone was studied in the temperature interval from 873 to 973 K in a pilot entrained flow reactor with very short reaction times (between 0.1 and 0.6 s). The initial conversion rate of the limestone - for conversions...... less than 0.3% - was observed to be significantly promoted by higher SO2 concentrations and lower CO2 concentrations, whereas 02 showed negligible influence. A mathematical model for the sulfation of limestone involving chemical reaction at calcite grain surfaces and solid-state diffusion of carbonate...... ions in calcite grains is established. The validity of the model is limited to the initial sulfation period, in which nucleation of the solid product calcium sulphate is not started. This theoretical reaction-diffusion model gives a good simulation of the initial kinetics of the direct sulfation...

  20. The Sulfinator: predicting tyrosine sulfation sites in protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monigatti, Flavio; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Bairoch, Amos; Jung, Eva

    2002-05-01

    Protein tyrosine sulfation is an important post-translational modification of proteins that go through the secretory pathway. No clear-cut acceptor motif can be defined that allows the prediction of tyrosine sulfation sites in polypeptide chains. The Sulfinator is a software tool that can be used to predict tyrosine sulfation sites in protein sequences with an overall accuracy of 98%. Four different Hidden Markov Models were constructed, each of them specialized to recognize sulfated tyrosine residues depending on their location within the sequence: near the N-terminus, near the C-terminus, in the center of a window with a size of at least 25 amino acids, as well as in windows containing several tyrosine residues. The Sulfinator is accessible at (http://www.expasy.org/tools/sulfinator/). Sulfinator documentation is accessible at (http://www.expasy.org/tools/sulfinator/sulfinator-doc.html).

  1. Acidity characterization of a titanium and sulfate modified vermiculite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, W.Y.; Centeno, M.A.; Odriozola, J.A.; Moreno, S.; Molina, R.

    2008-01-01

    A natural vermiculite has been modified with titanium and sulfated by the intercalation and impregnation method in order to optimize the acidity of the clay mineral, and characterization of samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature programmed desorption with ammonia (TPD-NH 3 ). All the modified solids have a significantly higher number of acidic sites with respect to the parent material and in all of these, Broensted as well as Lewis acidity are identified. The presence of sulfate appears not to increase the number of acidic centers in the modified clay. For the materials sulfated with the intercalation method, it is observed that the strength of the acidic sites found in the material increases with the nominal sulfate/metal ratio. Nevertheless, when elevated quantities of sulfur are deposited, diffusion problems in the heptane reaction appear

  2. Distributions of /sup 35/S-sulfate and /sup 3/H-glucosamine in the angular region of the hamster: light and electron microscopic autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.

    1983-06-01

    The distribution of /sup 35/S-sulfate and /sup 3/H-glucosamine in the angular region of the hamster was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography following intraperitoneal injection of these compounds to hamsters. Exposed silver grains of /sup 35/S-sulfate were concentrated in the trabecular meshwork, sclera, and cornea, and grains of /sup 3/H-glucosamine were localized in the trabecular region. The radioactivity of both isotopes was observed in the Golgi apparatuses of the endothelial cells of the angular aqueous plexus and the trabecular meshwork. The grains were noted over the entire cytoplasm, except for the nucleus, and then were incorporated into the amorphous substance and collagen fibers in the region adjacent to the angular aqueous sinus. These results suggest that endothelial cells in the angular region synthesize and secrete the sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid.

  3. Distributions of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine in the angular region of the hamster: light and electron microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of 35 S-sulfate and 3 H-glucosamine in the angular region of the hamster was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography following intraperitoneal injection of these compounds to hamsters. Exposed silver grains of 35 S-sulfate were concentrated in the trabecular meshwork, sclera, and cornea, and grains of 3 H-glucosamine were localized in the trabecular region. The radioactivity of both isotopes was observed in the Golgi apparatuses of the endothelial cells of the angular aqueous plexus and the trabecular meshwork. The grains were noted over the entire cytoplasm, except for the nucleus, and then were incorporated into the amorphous substance and collagen fibers in the region adjacent to the angular aqueous sinus. These results suggest that endothelial cells in the angular region synthesize and secrete the sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid

  4. Synthesis, structure and topological analysis of glycine templated highly stable cadmium sulfate framework: A New Lewis Acid catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Avijit Kumar

    2018-04-01

    One new open-framework two-dimensional layer, [Cd(NH3CH2COO)(SO4)], I, has been synthesized using amino acid as templating agent. Single crystal structural analysis shows that the compound crystallizes in monoclinic cell with non-centrosymmetric space group P21, a = 4.9513(1) Å, b = 7.9763(2) Å, c = 8.0967(2) Å, β = 105.917(1)° and V = 307.504(12) Å3. The compound has connectivity between the Cd-centers and the sulfate units forming a two-dimensional layer structure. Sulfate unit is coordinated to metal center with η3, μ4 mode possessing a coordination free oxygen atom. The zwitterionic form of glycine molecule is present in the structure bridging with two metal centers through μ2-mode by carboxylate oxygens. The topological analysis reveals that the two-dimensional network is formed with a novel 4- and 6-connected binodal net of (32,42,52)(34,44,54,63) topology. Although one end of the glycine molecule is free from coordination, the structure is highly stable up to 350 °C. Strong N-H⋯ O hydrogen bonding interactions play an important role in the stabilization and formation of three-dimensional supramolecular structure. The cyanosilylation of imines using the present compounds as heterogeneous catalyst indicates good catalytic behavior. The present study illustrates the usefulness of the amino acid for the structure building in less studied sulfate based framework materials as well as designing of new heterogeneous catalysts for the broad application. The compound has also been characterized through elemental analysis, PXRD, IR, SEM and TG-DT studies.

  5. Effects of precursor and sulfation on OMS-2 catalyst for oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renhu; Li, Junhua

    2010-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from many industrial processes and transportation activities are major organic pollutants in the atmosphere and toxic to human health. Octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalysts with different precursors and sulfate-acidified OMS-2 catalysts were synthesized using refluxing methods. The catalysts were investigated on complete oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde, and both demonstrated good reactivity. However, acidification resulted in a decrease in activity. OMS-2 catalyst using MnSO(4) as precursor exhibited the best catalytic performance and, thus, was selected for catalyst deactivation by sulfur dioxide. The results of this study suggested that the Mn-O bond of OMS-2 catalysts was the main determinant of the catalytic activity toward oxygenated VOC oxidation and weaker acid sites benefited higher acetaldehyde selectivity. Catalyst deactivation resulted from a strong but slow chemical interaction between the Mn-O bond and sulfur dioxide, probably forming manganese sulfate.

  6. Shape control synthesis of low-dimensional calcium sulfate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cium sulfate hemihydrate, CaSO4·0·5H2O) and anhydrite. (CaSO4). Calcium sulfate is a very important industrial mate- rial which is used as food additive, paper-making material, timbering, medical material, inorganic filler or intensifier in composite (Winn and Hollinger 2000; McKee et al 2002;. Nilsson et al 2002; Baux et al ...

  7. An immunoglobulin E assay using radiolabelled Fab' and ammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcsek, R.J.; Hamburger, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    An immunochemical assay is described in which a radiolabelled antibody fragment, Fab', is bound specifically to immunoglobulin E (IgE), and precipitated with ammonium sulfate. The radioactivity in the precipitate is a measure of the amount of IgE in the sample. Results for six serum samples are compared using the double antibody and ammonium sulfate methods as well as the papωr radioimmunosorbent test (PRIST)

  8. Plagioclase dissolution during CO₂-SO₂ cosequestration: effects of sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yujia; Kubicki, James D; Jun, Young-Shin

    2015-02-03

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) is one of the most promising methods to mitigate the adverse impacts of global climate change. The performance of GCS can be affected by mineral dissolution and precipitation induced by injected CO2. Cosequestration with acidic gas such as SO2 can reduce the high cost of GCS, but it will increase the sulfate's concentration in GCS sites, where sulfate can potentially affect plagioclase dissolution/precipitation. This work investigated the effects of 0.05 M sulfate on plagioclase (anorthite) dissolution and subsequent mineral precipitation at 90 °C, 100 atm CO2, and 1 M NaCl, conditions relevant to GCS sites. The adsorption of sulfate on anorthite, a Ca-rich plagioclase, was examined using attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and then simulated using density functional theory calculations. We found that the dissolution rate of anorthite was enhanced by a factor of 1.36 by the formation of inner-sphere monodentate complexes between sulfate and the aluminum sites on anorthite surfaces. However, this effect was almost completely suppressed in the presence of 0.01 M oxalate, an organic ligand that can exist in GCS sites. Interestingly, sulfate also inhibited the formation of secondary mineral precipitation through the formation of aluminum-sulfate complexes in the aqueous phase. This work, for the first time, reports the surface complexation between sulfate and plagioclase that can occur in GCS sites. The results provide new insights for obtaining scientific guidelines for the proper amount of SO2 coinjection and finally for evaluating the economic efficiency and environmental safety of GCS operations.

  9. Alkylation of isobutane by butenes on zirconium sulfate catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrenov, A.V.; Perelevskij, E.V.; Finevich, V.P.; Zajkovskij, V.I.; Paukshtis, E.A.; Duplyakiv, V.K.; Bal'zhinimaev, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Preparation of applied zirconium sulfate catalysts obtained by the method of impregnation is investigated. Results of comparative study of structural, acid-base and catalytic properties of sulfated zirconium dioxide applied on silica gel and aluminium oxide are represented. Intervals of values of synthesis basic parameters and characteristics of catalysts properties providing achievement of high activity and selectivity in isobutane alkylation by butenes in liquid phase are determined [ru

  10. A novel chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for nerve repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conovaloff, Aaron William

    Brachial plexus injuries affect numerous patients every year, with very debilitating results. The majority of these cases are very severe, and involve damage to the nerve roots. To date, repair strategies for these injuries address only gross tissue damage, but do not supply cells with adequate regeneration signals. As a result, functional recovery is often severely lacking. Therefore, a chondroitin sulfate hydrogel that delivers neurotrophic signals to damaged neurons is proposed as a scaffold to support nerve root regeneration. Capillary electrophoresis studies revealed that chondroitin sulfate can physically bind with a variety of neurotrophic factors, and cultures of chick dorsal root ganglia demonstrated robust neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate hydrogels. Outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels was greater than that observed in control gels of hyaluronic acid. Furthermore, the chondroitin sulfate hydrogel's binding activity with nerve growth factor could be enhanced by incorporation of a synthetic bioactive peptide, as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. This enhanced binding was observed only in chondroitin sulfate gels, and not in hyaluronic acid control gels. This enhanced binding activity resulted in enhanced dorsal root ganglion neurite outgrowth in chondroitin sulfate gels. Finally, the growth of regenerating dorsal root ganglia in these gels was imaged using label-free coherent anti-Stokes scattering microscopy. This technique generated detailed, high-quality images of live dorsal root ganglion neurites, which were comparable to fixed, F-actin-stained samples. Taken together, these results demonstrate the viability of this chondroitin sulfate hydrogel to serve as an effective implantable scaffold to aid in nerve root regeneration.

  11. Effect of Sulfate on Selenium Uptake And Chemical Speciation in Convolvulus Arvensis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Peralta-Video, J.R.; Rosa, G.de la; Meitzner, G.; Parson, J.G.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

    2007-08-08

    Hydroponic experiments were performed to study several aspects of Se uptake by C. arvensis plants. Ten day old seedlings were exposed for eight days to different combinations of selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). The results showed that in C. arvensis, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} had a negative effect (P < 0.05) on SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake. However, a positive interaction produced a significant increase in SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} uptake when SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was at high concentration in the media. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies showed that C. arvensis plants converted more than 70% of the supplied SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} into organoselenium compounds. However, only approximately 50% of the supplied SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was converted into organoselenium species while the residual 50% remained in the inorganic form. Analysis using LC-XANES fittings confirmed that the S metabolic pathway was affected by the presence of Se. The main Se compounds that resembled those Se species identified in C. arvensis were Se-cystine, Se-cysteine, SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, whereas for S the main compounds were cysteine, cystine, oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The results of these studies indicated that C. arvensis could be considered as a possible option for the restoration of soil moderately contaminated with selenium even in the presence of sulfate.

  12. New synthetic peptide with efficacy for heparin reversal and low toxicity and immunogenicity in comparison to protamine sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tong; Meng, Zhiyun; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Gan, Hui; Gu, Ruolan; Wu, Zhuona; Li, Jian; Zheng, Ying; Liu, Taoyun; Han, Peng; Han, Su; Dou, Guifang, E-mail: douguifang@vip.sina.com

    2015-11-20

    Protamine sulfate (PS), the only clinically approved antidote to unfractionated heparin (UFH), is widely used for cardiopulmonary surgery or other extracorporeal circulation situations. However, the applications of PS have accompanied various severe side-effects. In this study, we presented a novel synthesized peptide compound (RRRRR-RRRRR-RRRRR-sulfate, R15S) served as a safer UFH antidote. Comparison studies were conducted between PS and R15S on efficacy and safety, aided by heparin neutralization studies, drug toxicity studies and anaphylactic analysis. Our research demonstrated that R15S contained comparable UFH neutralization activity in vitro and in rats in vivo as to active partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and anti-FXa assays. There was no cytotoxicity for R15S at 60 μg mg{sup −1} or below and the median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of R15S in mice was 35.4 mg kg{sup −1}, both of which were similar to that of PS. Furthermore, R15S exhibited no immunogenicity while it was obvious in guinea pigs immunized with PS. The level of cross-reactivity to anti-PS antibodies of R15S was about 30%. Both of which indicated much safer properties of R15S than PS. In conclusion, we presented a promising candidate R15S for UFH reversal, which is effective in neutralizing UFH and potentially safer in use. - Highlights: • R15 sulfate has a comparable unfractionated heparin neutralization activity to PS. • R15 sulfate avoided severe anaphylactic responses which happened to PS in clinical use. • R15 sulfate could provide a stricter quality control compared to PS which may vary with different batches.

  13. [Influence of different iron compounds on lipid complex of vitamin fortified wheat flour under storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'eva, I S; Baĭkov, V G; Vorob'eva, V M; Shatniuk, L N

    2009-01-01

    Influence of different iron compounds at combined vitamin fortification on hygienic and biochemical properties of freshly grounded first-class wheat flour under storage was studied. It proved, that more intensive oxidative and hydrolytic processes take place in the lipid complex of the flour, fortified with ferrous sulfate heptahydrate.

  14. [Solubilizing effect of anionic detergents on cobalamin-protein compounds in Propionibacterium shermanii cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, S A; Datsiuk, N M; Snezhko, I A

    1985-01-01

    The effect of some anionic detergents on Propionibacterium shermanii cells was studied. The correlation was investigated between detergent concentrations and the content of solubilized protein in cell-free extracts. Sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium deoxycholate and sodium cholate were shown to be capable of extracting cobalamin-protein and flavin-protein compounds from P. shermanii cells.

  15. Physiochemical properties of alkylaminium sulfates: hygroscopicity, thermostability, and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chong; Zhang, Renyi

    2012-04-17

    Although heterogeneous interaction of amines has been recently shown to play an important role in the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols, little information is available on the physicochemical properties of aminium sulfates. In this study, the hygroscopicity, thermostability, and density of alkylaminium sulfates (AASs) have been measured by an integrated aerosol analytical system including a tandem differential mobility analyzer and an aerosol particle mass analyzer. AAS aerosols exhibit monotonic size growth at increasing RH without a well-defined deliquescence point. Mixing of ammonium sulfate (AS) with AASs lowers the deliquescence point corresponding to AS. Particles with AASs show comparable or higher thermostability than that of AS. The density of AASs is determined to be 1.2-1.5 g cm(-3), and an empirical model is developed to predict the density of AASs on the basis of the mole ratio of alkyl carbons to total sulfate. Our results reveal that the heterogeneous uptake of amines on sulfate particles may considerably alter the aerosol properties. In particular, the displacement reaction of alkylamines with ammonium sulfate aerosols leads to a transition from the crystalline to an amorphorous phase and an improved water uptake, considerably enhancing their direct and indirect climate forcing.

  16. Tyrosine sulfation modulates activity of tick-derived thrombin inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert E.; Liu, Xuyu; Ripoll-Rozada, Jorge; Alonso-García, Noelia; Parker, Benjamin L.; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Payne, Richard J.

    2017-09-01

    Madanin-1 and chimadanin are two small cysteine-free thrombin inhibitors that facilitate blood feeding in the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. Here, we report a post-translational modification—tyrosine sulfation—of these two proteins that is critical for potent anti-thrombotic and anticoagulant activity. Inhibitors produced in baculovirus-infected insect cells displayed heterogeneous sulfation of two tyrosine residues within each of the proteins. One-pot ligation-desulfurization chemistry enabled access to homogeneous samples of all possible sulfated variants of the proteins. Tyrosine sulfation of madanin-1 and chimadanin proved crucial for thrombin inhibitory activity, with the doubly sulfated variants three orders of magnitude more potent than the unmodified inhibitors. The three-dimensional structure of madanin-1 in complex with thrombin revealed a unique mode of inhibition, with the sulfated tyrosine residues binding to the basic exosite II of the protease. The importance of tyrosine sulfation within this family of thrombin inhibitors, together with their unique binding mode, paves the way for the development of anti-thrombotic drug leads based on these privileged scaffolds.

  17. Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gehui; Zhang, Renyi; Gomez, Mario E; Yang, Lingxiao; Levy Zamora, Misti; Hu, Min; Lin, Yun; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Jianjun; Cheng, Chunlei; Hu, Tafeng; Ren, Yanqin; Wang, Yuesi; Gao, Jian; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng; Zhou, Weijian; Li, Guohui; Wang, Jiayuan; Tian, Pengfei; Marrero-Ortiz, Wilmarie; Secrest, Jeremiah; Du, Zhuofei; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Wang, Weigang; Huang, Yao; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Yujiao; Li, Yixin; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Cai, Li; Cheng, Yuting; Ji, Yuemeng; Zhang, Fang; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Liss, Peter S; Duce, Robert A; Kolb, Charles E; Molina, Mario J

    2016-11-29

    Sulfate aerosols exert profound impacts on human and ecosystem health, weather, and climate, but their formation mechanism remains uncertain. Atmospheric models consistently underpredict sulfate levels under diverse environmental conditions. From atmospheric measurements in two Chinese megacities and complementary laboratory experiments, we show that the aqueous oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 is key to efficient sulfate formation but is only feasible under two atmospheric conditions: on fine aerosols with high relative humidity and NH 3 neutralization or under cloud conditions. Under polluted environments, this SO 2 oxidation process leads to large sulfate production rates and promotes formation of nitrate and organic matter on aqueous particles, exacerbating severe haze development. Effective haze mitigation is achievable by intervening in the sulfate formation process with enforced NH 3 and NO 2 control measures. In addition to explaining the polluted episodes currently occurring in China and during the 1952 London Fog, this sulfate production mechanism is widespread, and our results suggest a way to tackle this growing problem in China and much of the developing world.

  18. Enzymatic sulfation of mucus glycoprotein in gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liau, Y.H.; Carter, S.R.; Gwozdzinski, K.; Nadziejko, C.; Slomiany, A.; Slomiany, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Among the posttranslational modifications that mucus glycoprotein undergo prior to secretion into the gastric lumen is the process of sulfation of the carbohydrate chains. These sulfate groups impart strongly negative charge to nucus glycoprotein and are thought to play a major role in the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity. The authors report here the presence and some properties of an enzyme involved in the sulfation of gastric mucus glycoprotein. The sulfotransferase activity which catalyzes the transfer of sulfate ester group from PAPS to mucus glycoprotein was located in the detergent extracts of the microsomal fraction of rat gastric mucosa. Optimum enzymatic activity for sulfation of gastric mucin was obtained using 0.5% Triton X-100 and 25mM NaF at a pH of 6.8. ATP, ADP, MgCl 2 and MnCl 2 at concentrations examined were inhibitory. Under optimal conditions, the rate of sulfate incorporation was proportional to the microsomal enzyme protein concentration up to 50μg and remained constant with time of incubation for at least 1h. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for gastric mucus glycoprotein was 8.3 x 10 -6 M. The 35 S-labeled product of the enzyme reaction cochromatographed on Bio-Gel A-50 with gastric mucin, and gave on CsCl equilibrium density gradient centrifugation a band at the density of 1.48 in which the 35 S label coincided with the glycoprotein

  19. Sulfate uptake in photosynthetic Euglena gracilis. Mechanisms of regulation and contribution to cysteine homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Jorge Donato; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Saavedra, Emma; Girard, Lourdes; Hernández, Georgina; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    Sulfate uptake was analyzed in photosynthetic Euglena gracilis grown in sulfate sufficient or sulfate deficient media, or under Cd(2+) exposure or Cys overload, to determine its regulatory mechanisms and contribution to Cys homeostasis. In control and sulfate deficient or Cd(2+)-stressed cells, one high affinity and two low affinity sulfate transporters were revealed, which were partially inhibited by photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors and ionophores, as well as by chromate and molybdate; H(+) efflux also diminished in presence of sulfate. In both sulfate deficient and Cd(2+)-exposed cells, the activity of the sulfate transporters was significantly increased. However, the content of thiol-metabolites was lower in sulfate-deficient cells, and higher in Cd(2+)-exposed cells, in comparison to control cells. In cells incubated with external Cys, sulfate uptake was strongly inhibited correlating with 5-times increased intracellular Cys. Re-supply of sulfate to sulfate deficient cells increased the Cys, γ-glutamylcysteine and GSH pools, and to Cys-overloaded cells resulted in the consumption of previously accumulated Cys. In contrast, in Cd(2+) exposed cells none of the already elevated thiol-metabolites changed. (i) Sulfate transport is an energy-dependent process; (ii) sulfate transporters are over-expressed under sulfate deficiency or Cd(2+) stress and their activity can be inhibited by high internal Cys; and (iii) sulfate uptake exerts homeostatic control of the Cys pool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering impacts on global agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Lawrence, P.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering has been proposed to reduce the impacts of anthropogenic climate change. If it is ever used, it would change agricultural production, and so is one of the future climate scenarios for the third phase of the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison. As an example of those impacts, we use the Community Land Model (CLM-crop 4.5) to simulate how climate changes from the G4 geoengineering scenario from the Geoengineering Modeling Intercomparison Project. The G4 geoengineering scenario specifies, in combination with RCP4.5 forcing, starting in 2020 daily injections of a constant amount of SO2 at a rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year at one point on the Equator into the lower stratosphere. Eight climate modeling groups have completed G4 simulations. We use the crop model to simulate the impacts of climate change (temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation) on the global agriculture system for five crops - rice, maize, soybeans, cotton, and sugarcane. In general, without irrigation, compared with the reference run (RCP4.5), global production of cotton, rice and sugarcane would increase significantly due to the cooling effect. Maize and soybeans show different regional responses. In tropical regions, maize and soybean have a higher yield in G4 compared with RCP4.5, while in the temperate regions they have a lower yield under a geoengineered climate. Impacts on specific countries in terms of different crop production depend on their locations. For example, the United States and Argentina show soybean production reduction of about 15% under G4 compared to RCP4.5, while Brazil increases soybean production by about 10%.

  1. Development and validation of an alternative titration method for the determination of sulfate ion in indinavir sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno de Carvalho e Silva

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid precipitation titration method was developed and validated to determine sulfate ion content in indinavir sulfate raw material. 0.1 mol L-1 lead nitrate volumetric solution was used as titrant employing potentiometric endpoint determination using a lead-specific electrode. The United States Pharmacopoeia Forum indicates a potentiometric method for sulfate ion quantitation using 0.1 mol L-1 lead perchlorate as titrant. Both methods were validated concerning linearity, precision and accuracy, yielding good results. The sulfate ion content found by the two validated methods was compared by the statistical t-student test, indicating that there was no statistically significant difference between the methods.

  2. Sulfate resistance of nanosilica contained Portland cement mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batilov, Iani B.

    Soils, sea water and ground water high in sulfates are commonly encountered hostile environments that can attack the structure of concrete via chemical and physical mechanisms which can lead to costly repairs or replacement. Sulfate attack is a slow acting deteriorative phenomenon that can result in cracking, spalling, expansion, increased permeability, paste-to-aggregate bond loss, paste softening, strength loss, and ultimately, progressive failure of concrete. In the presented research study, Portland cement (PC) mortars containing 1.5% to 6.0% nanosilica (nS) cement replacement by weight were tested for sulfate resistance through full submersion in sodium sulfate to simulate external sulfate attack. Mortars with comparable levels of cement replacement were also prepared with microsilica (mS). Three cement types were chosen to explore nS' effectiveness to reduce sulfate expansion, when paired with cements of varying tricalcium aluminate (C3A) content and Blaine fineness, and compare it to that of mS. Mortars were also made with combined cement replacement of equal parts nS and mS to identify if they were mutually compatible and beneficial towards sulfate resistance. Besides sulfate attack expansion of mortar bars, the testing program included investigations into transport and microstructure properties via water absorption, sulfate ion permeability, porosimetry, SEM with EDS, laser diffraction, compressive strength, and heat of hydration. Expansion measurements indicated that mS replacement mortars outperformed both powder form nS, and nS/mS combined replacement mixtures. A negative effect of the dry nS powder replacement attributed to agglomeration of its nanoparticles during mixing negated the expected superior filler, paste densification, and pozzolanic activity of the nanomaterial. Agglomerated nS was identified as the root cause behind poor performance of nS in comparison to mS for all cement types, and the control when paired with a low C3A sulfate resistant

  3. Experimental investigation on thermochemical sulfate reduction by H2S initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Amrani, A.; Ellis, G.S.; Ma, Q.; Tang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to catalyze thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) by hydrocarbons (HC), but the reaction mechanism remains unclear. To understand the mechanism of this catalytic reaction, a series of isothermal gold-tube hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted at 330 ??C for 24 h under a constant confining pressure of 24.1 MPa. The reactants used were saturated HC (sulfur-free) and CaSO4 in the presence of variable H2S partial pressures at three different pH conditions. The experimental results showed that the in-situ pH of the aqueous solution (herein, in-situ pH refers to the calculated pH of aqueous solution under the experimental conditions) can significantly affect the rate of the TSR reaction. A substantial increase in the TSR reaction rate was recorded with a decrease in the in-situ pH value of the aqueous solution involved. A positive correlation between the rate of TSR and the initial partial pressure of H2S occurred under acidic conditions (at pH ???3-3.5). However, sulfate reduction at pH ???5.0 was undetectable even at high initial H2S concentrations. To investigate whether the reaction of H2S(aq) and HSO4- occurs at pH ???3, an additional series of isothermal hydrous pyrolysis experiments was conducted with CaSO4 and variable H2S partial pressures in the absence of HC at the same experimental temperature and pressure conditions. CaSO4 reduction was not measurable in the absence of paraffin even with high H2S pressure and acidic conditions. These experimental observations indicate that the formation of organosulfur intermediates from H2S reacting with hydrocarbons may play a significant role in sulfate reduction under our experimental conditions rather than the formation of elemental sulfur from H2S reacting with sulfate as has been suggested previously (Toland W. G. (1960) Oxidation of organic compounds with aqueous sulphate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 82, 1911-1916). Quantification of labile organosulfur compounds (LSC), such as thiols

  4. Analysis and interpretation of specific ethanol metabolites, ethyl sulfate, and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent for the quantitative measurement of regional alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Malcolm J; Langford, Katherine H; Mørland, Jørg; Thomas, Kevin V

    2011-09-01

    The quantitative measurement of urinary metabolites in sewage streams and the subsequent estimation of consumption rates of the parent compounds have previously been demonstrated for pharmaceuticals and narcotics. Ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide are excreted in urine following the ingestion of alcohol, and are useful biomarkers for the identification of acute alcohol consumption. This study reports a novel ion-exchange-mediated chromatographic method for the quantitative measurement of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent, and presents a novel calculation method for the purposes of relating the resulting sewage concentrations with rates of alcohol consumption in the region. A total of 100 sewage samples covering a 25-day period were collected from a treatment plant servicing approximately 500,000 people, and analyzed for levels of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide. The resulting data were then used to estimate combined alcohol consumption rates for the region, and the results were compared with alcohol related sales statistics for the same region. Ethyl glucuronide was found to be unstable in sewage effluent. Ethyl sulfate was stable and measurable in all samples at concentrations ranging from 16 to 246 nM. The highest concentrations of the alcohol biomarker were observed during weekend periods. Sixty one percent of the total mass of ethyl sulfate in sewage effluent corresponds to alcohol consumption on Friday and Saturday. Sales statistics for alcohol show that consumption in the region is approximately 6,750 kg/d. The quantity of ethyl sulfate passing through the sewage system is consistent with consumption of 4,900 to 7,800 kg/d.   Sewage epidemiology assessments of ethyl sulfate can provide accurate estimates of community alcohol consumption, and detailed examination of the kinetics of this biomarker in sewage streams can also identify time-dependent trends in alcohol consumption patterns. 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restaino, Odile Francesca, E-mail: odilefrancesca.restaino@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Finamore, Rosario, E-mail: rosario.finamore@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Diana, Paola, E-mail: paola.diana@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Marseglia, Mariacarmela, E-mail: marimars84@hotmail.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Vitiello, Mario, E-mail: mariovitiello.ita@gmail.com [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Casillo, Angela, E-mail: angela.casillo@unina.it [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); Bedini, Emiliano, E-mail: emiliano.bedini@unina.it [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); Parrilli, Michelangelo, E-mail: michelangelo.parrilli@unina.it [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); and others

    2017-03-15

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. - Highlights: • A multi-analytical approach was set up, for the first time, for the determination of the residual keratan sulfate

  6. Sulfur allocation and vanadium-sulfate interactions in whole blood cells from the tunicate Ascidia ceratodes, investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, P.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1999-01-25

    Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to investigate the distribution of sulfur types in two whole blood cell samples, in selected subcellular blood fractions, and in cell-free plasma from the tunicate Ascidia ceratodes. Whole blood cells are rich in sulfate, aliphatic sulfonate, and l0w-valent sulfur. The sulfur K-edge XAS spectrum of washed blood cell membranes revealed traces of sulfate and low-valent sulfur, but no sulfate ester or sulfonate. Sulfonate is thus exclusively cytosolic. Cell-free blood plasma contains primarily sulfate sulfur. Gaussian fitting and sulfate quantitation for two whole blood cell samples, each representing dozens of individuals from separate collections taken per annum, yielded average sulfur type concentrations for the two populations: (first year, second year): [sulfate], 110 mM, 150 mM; [sulfonate], 99 mM, 70 mM, and; [low-valent sulfur], 41 mM, 220 mM. On titration of sulfate with acid or V(III) in aqueous solution, the strong 2,482.4 eV 1s {r_arrow} (valence t{sub 2}) sulfur K-edge XAS transition of tetrahedral SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} splits into 1s {r_arrow} a{sub 1} and 1s {r_arrow} e transitions, because HSO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and VSO{sub 4}{sup +} are of C{sub 3v} symmetry. Gaussian fits and appropriate comparisons allow the following assignments: (compound/complex, 1s {r_arrow}a{sub 1} (eV), 1s {r_arrow} e (eV)): myo-inositol hexasulfate, 2,480.8, 2,482.8; HSO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, 2,481.4, 2,482.7; VSO{sub 4}{sup +}, 2,481.2, 2,482.9. The energy separating the a{sub 1} and e states of complexed sulfate appears to be solvation dependent. From these studies is derived an explicit inorganic spectrochemical model for biological V(III) and sulfate. The average endogenous equilomer concentrations of sulfate complexed with V(III) and/or H{sup +} within the two blood cell samples are calculated from this model. The results provide a natural explanation for the observed biological broadening of A. ceratodes

  7. Impacts of Hydrogen Peroxide and Copper Sulfate on the Control of Microcystis aeruginosa and MC-LR and the Inhibition of MC-LR Degrading Bacterium Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelline M. R. Kansole

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the impacts of H2O2 and copper sulfate on M. aeruginosa PCC7820, microcystin-LR (MC-LR and its degrading bacteria Bacillus sp., previously isolated from Hulupi Lake in Taiwan. The study shows that 3 mg·L−1 hydrogen peroxide removed only 9% M. aeruginosa within seven days of exposure, from an initial cell concentration of 2 × 106 cells/mL. With copper sulfate, a concentration of 2 mg·L−1 removed 99% M. aeruginosa cells, but showed negligible efficacy in removing 0.05 mg·L−1 MC-LR. At a higher dosage, 20 mg·L−1 H2O2 led to 40% and 95% removal, respectively for MC-LR and M. aeruginosa cells. Copper sulfate and H2O2 were both lethal to Bacillus sp. population, with mortality rate constants of k = 0.04 h−1 and 0.03 h−1 under 1 mg·L−1 copper sulfate and 5 mg·L−1 H2O2, respectively. H2O2 is competitive in terms of cost, with a capability of degrading organic compounds with the assistance of ultraviolet (UV light, and it may be considered as an alternative algaecide to copper sulfate in reservoirs for algae growth control.

  8. Efficient peroxydisulfate activation process not relying on sulfate radical generation for water pollutant degradation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2014-05-20

    Peroxydisulfate (PDS) is an appealing oxidant for contaminated groundwater and toxic industrial wastewaters. Activation of PDS is necessary for application because of its low reactivity. Present activation processes always generate sulfate radicals as actual oxidants which unselectively oxidize organics and halide anions reducing oxidation capacity of PDS and producing toxic halogenated products. Here we report that copper oxide (CuO) can efficiently activate PDS under mild conditions without producing sulfate radicals. The PDS/CuO coupled process is most efficient at neutral pH for decomposing a model compound, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). In a continuous-flow reaction with an empty-bed contact time of 0.55 min, over 90% of 2,4-DCP (initially 20 μM) and 90% of adsorbable organic chlorine (AOCl) can be removed at the PDS/2,4-DCP molar ratio of 1 and 4, respectively. Based on kinetic study and surface characterization, PDS is proposed to be first activated by CuO through outer-sphere interaction, the rate-limiting step, followed by a rapid reaction with 2,4-DCP present in the solution. In the presence of ubiquitous chloride ions in groundwater/industrial wastewater, the PDS/CuO oxidation shows significant advantages over sulfate radical oxidation by achieving much higher 2,4-DCP degradation capacity and avoiding the formation of highly chlorinated degradation products. This work provides a new way of PDS activation for contaminant removal. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  9. Diversity and abundance of sulfate-reducing microorganisms in the sulfate and methane zones of a marine sediment, Black Sea RID A-8182-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leloup, Julie; Loy, Alexander; Knab, Nina J.

    2007-01-01

    The Black Sea, with its highly sulfidic water column, is the largest anoxic basin in the world. Within its sediments, the mineralization of organic matter occurs essentially through sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In this study, the sulfate-reducing community was investigated in order...... to understand how these microorganisms are distributed relative to the chemical zonation: in the upper sulfate zone, at the sulfate-methane transition zone, and deeply within the methane zone. Total bacteria were quantified by real-time PCR of 16S rRNA genes whereas sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) were...... quantified by targeting their metabolic key gene, the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase (dsrA). Sulfate-reducing microorganisms were predominant in the sulfate zone but occurred also in the methane zone, relative proportion was maximal around the sulfate-methane transition, c. 30%, and equally high...

  10. Origin of secondary sulfate minerals on active andesitic stratovolcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, D.R.; Rye, R.O.; Breit, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals in altered rocks on the upper flanks and summits of active andesitic stratovolcanoes result from multiple processes. The origin of these sulfates at five active volcanoes, Citlalte??petl (Mexico), and Mount Adams, Hood, Rainier, and Shasta (Cascade Range, USA), was investigated using field observations, petrography, mineralogy, chemical modeling, and stable-isotope data. The four general groups of sulfate minerals identified are: (1) alunite group, (2) jarosite group, (3) readily soluble Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates, and (4) simple alkaline-earth sulfates such as anhydrite, gypsum, and barite. Generalized assemblages of spatially associated secondary minerals were recognized: (1) alunite+silica??pyrite??kaolinite?? gypsum??sulfur, (2) jarosite+alunite+silica; (3) jarosite+smectite+silica??pyrite, (4) Fe- and Al-hydroxysulfates+silica, and (5) simple sulfates+silica??Al-hydroxysulfates??alunite. Isotopic data verify that all sulfate and sulfide minerals and their associated alteration assemblages result largely from the introduction of sulfur-bearing magmatic gases into meteoric water in the upper levels of the volcanoes. The sulfur and oxygen isotopic data for all minerals indicate the general mixing of aqueous sulfate derived from deep (largely disproportionation of SO2 in magmatic vapor) and shallow (oxidation of pyrite or H2S) sources. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of alunite indicate the mixing of magmatic and meteoric fluids. Some alunite-group minerals, along with kaolinite, formed from sulfuric acid created by the disproportionation of SO2 in a condensing magmatic vapor. Such alunite, observed only in those volcanoes whose interiors are exposed by erosion or edifice collapse, may have ??34S values that reflect equilibrium (350??50 ??C) between aqueous sulfate and H2S. Alunite with ??34S values indicating disequilibrium between parent aqueous sulfate and H2S may form from aqueous sulfate created in higher level low

  11. 21 CFR 524.960 - Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... which microorganisms are not susceptible to the antibiotics incorporated in the drug. (ii) The drug is... fundamental healing mechanism. Adrenocorticoid compounds have been reported to cause an increase in...

  12. Glyoxal in aqueous ammonium sulfate solutions: products, kinetics and hydration effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ge; Bayer, Amanda R; Galloway, Melissa M; Korshavn, Kyle J; Fry, Charles G; Keutsch, Frank N

    2011-08-01

    Reactions and interactions between glyoxal and salts in aqueous solution were studied. Glyoxal was found to react with ammonium to form imidazole, imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde, formic acid, N-glyoxal substituted imidazole, and minor products at very low concentrations. Overall reaction orders and rates for each major product were measured. Sulfate ions have a strong and specific interaction with glyoxal in aqueous solution, which shifts the hydration equilibria of glyoxal from the unhydrated carbonyl form to the hydrated form. This ion-specific effect contributes to the observed enhancement of the effective Henry's law coefficient for glyoxal in sulfate-containing solutions. The results of UV-vis absorption and NMR spectroscopy studies of solutions of glyoxal with ammonium, methylamine, and dimethylamine salts reveal that light absorbing compounds require the formation of nitrogen containing molecules. These findings have implications on the role of glyoxal in the atmosphere, both in models of the contribution of glyoxal to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the role of nitrogen containing species for aerosol optical properties and in predictions of the behavior of other carbonyls or dicarbonyls in the atmosphere.

  13. Sulfated Hexasaccharides Attenuate Metastasis by Inhibition of P-selectin and Heparanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubor Borsig

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of compounds that target both heparanase and selectins is emerging as a promising approach for cancer therapy. Selectins are vascular cell adhesion molecules that mediate tumor cell interactions with platelets, leukocytes, and the vascular endothelium. Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that degrades heparan sulfate in the tumor microenvironment, cell surfaces, and vessel wall. Acting together, these molecules facilitate tumor cell arrest, extravasation, and metastasis. Here, we report the preparation of novel semisynthetic sulfated tri mannose C-C-linked dimers (STMCs endowed with heparanase and selectin inhibitory activity. The P-selectin specificity of the STMC was defined by the anomeric linkage of the C-C bond. This STMC hexasaccharide is an effective inhibitor of P-selectin in vivo. We show that selective inhibition of heparanase attenuates metastasis in B16-BL6 melanoma cells, expressing high levels of this endoglycosidase, but has no effect on the metastasis of MC-38 carcinoma cells that express little or no heparanase activity. P-selectin-specific STMC attenuated metastasis in both animal models, indicating that inhibition of tumor cell interaction with the vascular endothelium is critical for cancer dissemination. Thus, the small size, the stability of the C-C bond, and the chemically defined structure of the newly generated STMCs make them superior to heparin derivatives and signify STMCs as valuable candidates for further evaluation.

  14. Novel sulfated xylogalactoarabinans from green seaweed Cladophora falklandica: Chemical structure and action on the fibrin network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Paula X; Quintana, Irene; Raffo, María Paula; Ciancia, Marina

    2016-12-10

    The water-soluble sulfated xylogalactoarabinans from green seaweed Cladophora falklandica are constituted by a backbone of 4-linked β-l-arabinopyranose units partially sulfated mainly on C3 and also on C2. Besides, partial glycosylation mostly on C2 with single stubs of β-d-xylopyranose, or single stubs of β-d-galactofuranose or short chains comprising (1→5)- and/or (1→6)-linkages, was also found. These compounds showed anticoagulant activity, although much lower than that of heparin. The effect of a purified fraction (F1) on the fibrin network was studied in detail. It modifies the kinetics of fibrin formation, suggesting an impaired polymerization process. Scanning electron microscopy showed a laxer conformation, with larger interstitial pores than the control. Accordingly, this network was lysed more easily. These fibrin properties would reduce the time of permanence of the clot in the blood vessel, inducing a lesser thrombogenic state. One of the possible mechanisms of its anticoagulant effect is direct thrombin inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anaerobic benzene degradation by Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Laban, Nidal; Selesi, Drazenka; Jobelius, Carsten; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2009-06-01

    Despite its high chemical stability, benzene is known to be biodegradable with various electron acceptors under anaerobic conditions. However, our understanding of the initial activation reaction and the responsible prokaryotes is limited. In the present study, we enriched a bacterial culture that oxidizes benzene to carbon dioxide under sulfate-reducing conditions. Community analysis using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and FISH revealed 95% dominance of one phylotype that is affiliated to the Gram-positive bacterial genus Pelotomaculum showing that sulfate-reducing Gram-positive bacteria are involved in anaerobic benzene degradation. In order to get indications of the initial activation mechanism, we tested the substrate utilization, performed cometabolism tests and screened for putative metabolites. Phenol, toluene, and benzoate could not be utilized as alternative carbon sources by the benzene-degrading culture. Cometabolic degradation experiments resulted in retarded rates of benzene degradation in the presence of phenol whereas toluene had no effect on benzene metabolism. Phenol, 2-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and benzoate were identified as putative metabolites in the enrichment culture. However, hydroxylated aromatics were shown to be formed abiotically. Thus, the finding of benzoate as an intermediate compound supports a direct carboxylation of benzene as the initial activation mechanism but additional reactions leading to its formation cannot be excluded definitely.

  16. Synthesis of [19- 2H3]-analogs of dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone and their sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerný, Ivan; Pouzar, Vladimír; Budesínský, Milos; Bicíková, Marie; Hill, Martin; Hampl, Richard

    2004-03-01

    Deuterated analogs of pregnenolone and pregnenolone sulfate with three atoms of deuterium in position 19 were prepared. The synthetic approach was developed on derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone, where initial intermediates were well characterized, and then applied to the pregnenolone series. Starting 19-hydroxy compounds were transformed into 3alpha,5-cycloderivatives to simplify the Jones oxidation into the corresponding 19-oic acids. After oxidation, rearrangement to 3-hydroxy-5-enes, and suitable protection, two deuterium atoms were introduced by lithium aluminum deuteride reduction. Mesylate exchange by iodide in the presence of zinc and deuterium oxide added third deuterium atom. Deprotection gave title analogs with about 93-95% content of d3-derivative, the rest was mainly not fully deuterated d2-analogue as followed from the mass spectra analysis. Thus, 3beta-hydroxy[19-2H3]androst-5-en-17-one was prepared in 14 steps from 19-hydroxy-17-oxoandrost-5-en-3beta-yl acetate in 8.9% yield, the analogous sequence in the pregnenolone series gave 3beta-hydroxy[19-2H3]pregn-5-en-20-one in 7.3% yield. Corresponding sulfates were prepared via pyridinium salts in 53 and 57% yields, respectively. Fully assigned NMR data of selected pregnenolone derivatives were given.

  17. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eJaekel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5×0.8 m. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkanes propane and n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes.

  18. The removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using an aqueous metal sulfate absorbent : Part I. the absorption of hydrogen sulfide in metal sulfate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Maat, H.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    The desulfurization of gas streams using aqueous iron(II)sulfate (Fe(II)SO4), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and copper sulfate (CuSO4) solutions as washing liquor is studied theoretically and experimentally. The desulfurization is accomplished by a precipitation reaction that occurs when sulfide ions and

  19. Expression and activity of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in curly kale in response to sulfate deprivation and re-supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koralewska, Aleksandra; Buchner, Peter; Stuiver, C. Elisabeth E.; Posthumus, Freek S.; Kopriva, Stanislav; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2009-01-01

    Both activity and expression of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in plants are modulated by the sulfur status of the plant. To examine the regulatory mechanisms in curly kale (Brossica olerracea L.), the sulfate supply was manipulated by the transfer of seedlings to sulfate-deprived

  20. Esterification of fatty acids using sulfated zirconia and composites activated carbon/sulfated zirconia catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brum, Sarah S.; Santos, Valeria C. dos; Destro, Priscila; Guerreiro, Mario Cesar

    2011-01-01

    In this work sulfated zirconia (SZr) and activated carbon/SZr composites produced by impregnation method with or without heating treatment step (CABC/SZr-I and CABC/SZr-I SC) and by the method of synthesis of SZr on the carbon (CABC/SZr-S) was used as catalysts in the esterification reactions of fatty acids. The SZr presented very active, conversions higher than 90% were obtained after 2 h of reaction. The activity of the composite CABC/SZr-I20%SC was up to 92%, however, this was directly related to time and temperature reactions. CABC/SZr-I and CABC/SZr-S were less active in esterification reactions, what could be attributed to its low acidity. (author)

  1. Russian experience with injectable chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate: a review of clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Karateev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of parenteral chondroprotectors is a feature of Russian medical practice. There are many drugs of this series in a Russian physician's arsenal, including chondroitin sulfate (CS,  glucosamine sulfate (GS, glycosaminoglycan-peptide complex, and  bioactive concentrate from small sea fish for intramuscular  injections. The paper analyzes Russian trials of the efficacy and  safety of two injectable formulations of CS and GS (ICS and IGS.  ICS was tested in 17 articles containing a total of 1639 patients with  osteoarthritis (OA, non-specific back pain (NBP, or shoulder  fractures and pain after stroke. Standard therapy (NSAIDs +  physiotherapy served as a control in the majority of the paper. In  these trials, the reductions in visual analog scale (VAS and WOMAC pain in OA treated with ICS averaged 58.2±22.3% and those were 26.1±14.7% in the control groups; the reductions in VAS NBP  reached an average of 87.1±16.8 and 62.2±21.7%, respectively.  ICS also showed a good effect in shoulder fractures and pain after a  stroke. The number of local adverse reactions after injections was  insignificant (4.4%; they did not threaten the health of patients and they caused ICS to be discontinued only in 3 cases. IGS was  investigated in two trials (n=154, which confirmed its efficacy (total pain relief >50% and relative safety. Thus, the data of Russian trials suggest that ICS and IGS have good therapeutic potential and favorable tolerance.

  2. Microbial methanogenesis in the sulfate-reducing zone of sediments in the Eckernförde Bay, SW Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Johanna; Steinle, Lea; Löscher, Carolin R.; Bange, Hermann W.; Fischer, Martin A.; Schmidt, Mark; Treude, Tina

    2018-01-01

    analyses were conducted to identify key functional methanogenic groups during methylotrophic methanogenesis. To also compare the magnitudes of SRZ methanogenesis with methanogenesis below the sulfate reduction zone (> 30 cm b.s.f.), hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was determined by 14C-bicarbonate radiotracer incubation in samples collected in September 2013.SRZ methanogenesis changed seasonally in the upper 30 cm b.s.f. with rates increasing from March (0.2 nmol cm-3 d-1) to November (1.3 nmol cm-3 d-1) 2013 and March (0.2 nmol cm-3 d-1) to September (0.4 nmol cm-3 d-1) 2014. Its magnitude and distribution appeared to be controlled by organic matter availability, C / N, temperature, and oxygen in the water column, revealing higher rates in the warm, stratified, hypoxic seasons (September-November) compared to the colder, oxygenated seasons (March-June) of each year. The majority of SRZ methanogenesis was likely driven by the usage of noncompetitive substrates (e.g., methanol and methylated compounds) to avoid competition with sulfate reducers, as was indicated by the 1000-3000-fold increase in potential methanogenesis activity observed after methanol addition. Accordingly, competitive hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis increased in the sediment only below the depth of sulfate penetration (> 30 cm b.s.f.). Members of the family Methanosarcinaceae, which are known for methylotrophic methanogenesis, were detected by PCR using Methanosarcinaceae-specific primers and are likely to be responsible for the observed SRZ methanogenesis.The present study indicates that SRZ methanogenesis is an important component of the benthic methane budget and carbon cycling in Eckernförde Bay. Although its contributions to methane emissions from the sediment into the water column are probably minor, SRZ methanogenesis could directly feed into methane oxidation above the sulfate-methane transition zone.

  3. Distribution and direct radiative forcing of carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols in an interactive size-resolving aerosol-climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongchul; Wang, Chien; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Barth, Mary C.; Rasch, Phil J.

    2008-08-01

    ), and an enhancement in atmospheric heating per BC mass due to the stronger absorption extinction of the MBS than external BC (warming). The combined result of including a prognostic size distribution and the mixed aerosols in the model is a much smaller total negative TOA forcing (-0.12 W m-2) of all carbonaceous and sulfate aerosol compounds compared to the cases using one-moment scheme either excluding or including internal mixtures (-0.42 and -0.71 W m-2, respectively). In addition, the global mean all-sky TOA direct forcing of aerosols is significantly more positive than the clear-sky value due to the existence of low clouds beneath the absorbing (external BC and MBS) aerosol layer, particularly over a dark surface. An emission reduction of about 44% for BC and 38% of primary OC is found to effectively change the TOA radiative forcing of the entire aerosol family by -0.14 W m-2 for clear-sky and -0.29 W m-2 for all-sky.

  4. Behaviour of cementitious materials: sulfates and temperature actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarulo, Remi

    2002-09-01

    The research work presented in this Ph.D. thesis is related to the nuclear waste underground repository concept. Concrete could be used in such a repository, and would be subjected to variations of temperature in presence of sulfate, a situation that could induce expansion of concrete. The research was lead in three parts: an experimental study of the possibility of an internal sulfate attack on mortars; an experimental study and modeling of the chemical equilibriums of the CaO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O system; and a modeling of the mechanisms of internal and external sulfate attacks, and the effect of temperature. The results show that mortars can develop expansions after a steam-cure during hydration, but also when a long steam-cure is applied to one-year-old mortars, which is a new point. Ettringite precipitation can be considered as responsible for these expansions. The experimental study of the CaO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -SO 3 -H 2 O system clarified the role of Calcium Silicate Hydrates (C-S-H) on chemical equilibriums of cementitious materials. Sulfate sorption on C-S-H has been studied in detail. The quantity of sulfate bound to the C-S-H mainly depends on the sulfate concentration in solution, on the Ca/Si ratio of the C-S-H and is not significantly influenced by temperature. Aluminium inclusion in the C-S-H seems to be a significant phenomenon. Temperature increases the calcium sulfo-aluminate solubilities and thus increases sulfates concentration in solution. A modeling of the chemical system is proposed. Simulations of external sulfate attack (15 mmol/L of Na 2 SO 4 ) predict ettringite precipitation at 20 and 85±C. Simulation of internal sulfate attack was performed at a local scale (a hydrated cement grain). An initial inhomogeneity can lead, after a thermal curing at 85±C, to ettringite precipitation in zones originally free from ettringite. This new-formed ettringite could be the origin of the expansions. (author) [fr

  5. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben

    2009-07-28

    We used a general circulation model of Earth\\'s climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  6. Sulfate radicals enable a non-enzymatic Krebs cycle precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Markus A; Kampjut, Domen; Harrison, Stuart A; Ralser, Markus

    2017-03-13

    The evolutionary origins of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), or Krebs cycle, are so far unclear. Despite a few years ago, the existence of a simple non-enzymatic Krebs-cycle catalyst has been dismissed 'as an appeal to magic', citrate and other intermediates have meanwhile been discovered on a carbonaceous meteorite and do interconvert non-enzymatically. To identify the non-enzymatic Krebs cycle catalyst, we used combinatorial, quantitative high-throughput metabolomics to systematically screen iron and sulfate reaction milieus that orient on Archean sediment constituents. TCA cycle intermediates are found stable in water and in the presence of most iron and sulfate species, including simple iron-sulfate minerals. However, we report that TCA intermediates undergo 24 interconversion reactions in the presence of sulfate radicals that form from peroxydisulfate. The non-enzymatic reactions critically cover a topology as present in the Krebs cycle, the glyoxylate shunt and the succinic semialdehyde pathways. Assembled in a chemical network, the reactions achieve more than ninety percent carbon recovery. Our results show that a non-enzymatic precursor for the Krebs cycle is biologically sensible, efficient, and forms spontaneously in the presence of sulfate radicals.

  7. Is Encephalopathy a Mechanism to Renew Sulfate in Autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lentz-Marino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two claims: (1 autism can be characterized as a chronic low-grade encephalopathy, associated with excess exposure to nitric oxide, ammonia and glutamate in the central nervous system, which leads to hippocampal pathologies and resulting cognitive impairment, and (2, encephalitis is provoked by a systemic deficiency in sulfate, but associated seizures and fever support sulfate restoration. We argue that impaired synthesis of cholesterol sulfate in the skin and red blood cells, catalyzed by sunlight and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, creates a state of colloidal instability in the blood manifested as a low zeta potential and increased interfacial stress. Encephalitis, while life-threatening, can result in partial renewal of sulfate supply, promoting neuronal survival. Research is cited showing how taurine may not only help protect neurons from hypochlorite exposure, but also provide a source for sulfate renewal. Several environmental factors can synergistically promote the encephalopathy of autism, including the herbicide, glyphosate, aluminum, mercury, lead, nutritional deficiencies in thiamine and zinc, and yeast overgrowth due to excess dietary sugar. Given these facts, dietary and lifestyle changes, including increased sulfur ingestion, organic whole foods, increased sun exposure, and avoidance of toxins such as aluminum, mercury, and lead, may help to alleviate symptoms or, in some instances, to prevent autism altogether.

  8. The specificity of interactions between proteins and sulfated polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulloy Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides are capable of binding with proteins at several levels of specificity. As highly acidic macromolecules, they can bind non-specifically to any basic patch on a protein surface at low ionic strength, and such interactions are not likely to be physiologically significant. On the other hand, several systems have been identified in which very specific substructures of sulfated polysaccharides confer high affinity for particular proteins; the best-known example of this is the pentasaccharide in heparin with high affinity for antithrombin, but other examples may be taken from the study of marine invertebrates: the importance of the fine structure of dermatan sulfate (DS to its interaction with heparin cofactor II (HCII, and the involvement of sea urchin egg-jelly fucans in species specific fertilization. A third, intermediate, kind of specific interaction is described for the cell-surface glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS, in which patterns of sulfate substitution can show differential affinities for cytokines, growth factors, and morphogens at cell surfaces and in the intracellular matrix. This complex interplay of proteins and glycans is capable of influencing the diffusion of such proteins through tissue, as well as modulating cellular responses to them.

  9. Tyrosine Sulfation as a Protein Post-Translational Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shyong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of inorganic sulfate into biological molecules plays an important role in biological systems and is directly involved in the instigation of diseases. Protein tyrosine sulfation (PTS is a common post-translational modification that was first reported in the literature fifty years ago. However, the significance of PTS under physiological conditions and its link to diseases have just begun to be appreciated in recent years. PTS is catalyzed by tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST through transfer of an activated sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate to tyrosine in a variety of proteins and peptides. Currently, only a small fraction of sulfated proteins is known and the understanding of the biological sulfation mechanisms is still in progress. In this review, we give an introductory and selective brief review of PTS and then summarize the basic biochemical information including the activity and the preparation of TPST, methods for the determination of PTS, and kinetics and reaction mechanism of TPST. This information is fundamental for the further exploration of the function of PTS that induces protein-protein interactions and the subsequent biochemical and physiological reactions.

  10. Sulfation of Condensed Potassium Chloride by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Louise With; Hansen, Troels Bruun; Bartolomé, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K and with rea......The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K...... and with reactant concentrations of 500–3000 ppm SO2, 1–20% O2, and 4–15% H2O. The degree of sulfation was monitored by measuring the formation of HCl. Analysis of the solid residue confirmed that the reaction proceeds according to a shrinking core model and showed the formation of an eutectic at higher...... temperatures. On the basis of the experimental results, a rate expression for the sulfation reaction was derived. The model compared well with literature data for sulfation of KCl and NaCl, and the results indicate that it may be applied at even higher SO2 concentrations and temperatures than those...

  11. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamvarn, Vararas; Boontanon, Narin; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  12. Synthesis and solid state properties of the 4-naphthyloxymethyl-2,2-dioxo-1,3,2-dioxathiolane, cyclic sulfate not available through sulfite oxidation procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredikhina, Zemfira A.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.; Bredikhin, Alexander A.

    2010-12-01

    The chiral adrenoblocker propranolol precursor 4-naphthyloxymethyl-2,2-dioxo-1,3,2-dioxathiolane, 2, was obtained in racemic and scalemic form. It was found that sulfates 2 are practically unavailable through the standard Ru-catalyzed sulfite oxidation procedure, but could be obtained by the direct action of SO 2Cl 2 on the corresponding vicinal diols 3. The published properties of the sulfate were corrected. Thermodynamic characteristics and binary melting phase diagram were evaluated for compound 2 by DSC. The crystal structure of rac- and scal- 2 was established by single crystal X-ray analysis and the absolute configuration of scal- 2 was established by the Flack method. The flexible nature of the sulfur-containing cycle, and the sensitivity of the compound conformation to homo- and heterochiral crystal environment was demonstrated.

  13. Sulfated Titania Nanoparticles: an Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of Polyhydroquinoline Derivatives through Hantzsch Multicomponent Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tadjarodi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated titania nanoparticles (SO42-/TiO2 NPs were synthesized using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP by the sol-gel method. The structure and morphology of the prepared nanocatalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET methods as well as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles were used as an efficient, reusable and environmentally friendly catalyst for the synthesis of polyhydroquinoline (PHQ derivatives via a one-pot multicomponent reaction of various aldehydes, ammonium acetate and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds under reflux conditions. The desired Hantzsch esters were obtained in good to excellent yields and short reaction times. The SO42- /TiO2 NPs could be recycled at least three times without significant loss of their catalytic activity.

  14. Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence properties of amine-templated open-framework bismuth sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Subba R.; Behera, J. N.

    2014-02-01

    Two organically-templated bismuth sulfates of the compositions, [C6N2H14] [Bi(SO4)2(NO3)], (1) and [C4N2H12]4[Bi4(SO4)10(H2O)4], (2), with open architecture have been synthesized and their structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 has a corrugated layered structure with 8-membered aperture wherein the SO4 tetrahedra and the BiO8 polyhedra join together to form (4, 4) net sheets of the metal centers while 2 has a three-dimensional structure possessing 8- and 12-membered channels. Both the compounds show good fluorescence properties exhibiting blue luminescence. Time-resolved fluorescence behavior of 1 and 2 shows mean fluorescence life time of 0.9 and 1.0 ns, respectively.

  15. Essential Oil of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) Wood Increases Salivary Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Levels after Monotonous Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Eri; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Ohira, Tatsuro; Sugiyama, Masaki

    2017-01-21

    Employee problems arising from mental illnesses have steadily increased and become a serious social problem in recent years. Wood is a widely available plant material, and knowledge of the psychophysiological effects of inhalation of woody volatile compounds has grown considerably. In this study, we established an experimental method to evaluate the effects of Japanese cedar wood essential oil on subjects performing monotonous work. Two experiment conditions, one with and another without diffusion of the essential oil were prepared. Salivary stress markers were determined during and after a calculation task followed by distribution of questionnaires to achieve subjective odor assessment. We found that inhalation of air containing the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil increased the secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s). Slight differences in the subjective assessment of the odor of the experiment rooms were observed. The results of the present study indicate that the volatile compounds of Japanese cedar wood essential oil affect the endocrine regulatory mechanism to facilitate stress responses. Thus, we suggest that this essential oil can improve employees' mental health.

  16. Two novel bioactive sulfated guaiane sesquiterpenoid salt alkaloids from the aerial parts of Scorzonera divaricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Quan-Xiang; He, Xiao-Feng; Jiang, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Zhuan-Ning; Li, Hong-Fang; Zhu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Extracts of the aerial parts of Scorzonera divaricata afforded sulfoscorzonin D (1) and sulfoscorzonin E (2), two novel pyrrolidine inner salt alkaloids with a sulfated guaiane sesquiterpene lactone nucleus, along with 22 known compounds. Especially, sulfoscorzonin D containing a unusual monoterpene moiety is very rare. The structures of new compounds were established using spectroscopic analysis including one- and two-dimensional NMR and HRESIMS. The cytotoxicities of compounds 1-4 and 10 against three tumor cell lines (K562, Hela, and HepG2) were evaluated using the MTT assay. Compounds 2 and 10 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity. The biological properties of 1-3, 5-8, 10-14, and 16-24, were screened against nine different gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Compounds 1, 5-8, 10, and 18, showed potent antibacterial activities. Glucozaluzanin C (PubChem CID: 442320); 1β,4α-dihydroxy-5α,6β,7α,11βH-eudermn-12; 6-olide (CID: 11119093); oleanolic acid (CID: 10494); lup-20(29)-ene-3β,28-diol (CID: 72326); (22E)-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (CID: 5469431); ergosta-3β,5α, 6β-trialcohol (CID: 44558918); stigma-5-en-3-O-β-glucoside (CID: 5742590); vomifoliol (CID: 12444927); trans-caffeic acid (CID: 689043); trans-p-hydroxy coumaric acid (CID: 637542); 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl ferulate (CID: 11500646); 7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavonol (CID: 5281614); tricin (ID: 5281702); luteolin (CID: 5280445); diosmetin (CID: 5281612); 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (CID: 5281703); 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone (CID: 5320315); methyl-3,4-dihydroxy benzoate (CID: 287064); m-hydroxy benzoic acid (CID: 7420); 7-hydroxy-coumarin (CID: 5281426); and scopoletin (CID: 5280460). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Radionuclide imaging using Technetium-99m labelled Sucralfate and Potassium Sucrose Sulfate to detect gastric and duodenal ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, T.E.; Evans, D.G.; Hartman, M.T.; Hagan, P.; Fardi, M.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of the first 33 patients studied with Thechnetium-99m labelled Sucralfate for the detection of peptic ulcers and report preliminary results in 6 patients studied with a new analog of the original labelled compound: Potassium Sucrose Sulfate. Of 33 human studies utilizing 99m Tc-Sucralfate, 16 gave true-positive, 9 gave true-negative, 8 gave false-negative and 0 gave false-positive results. The sensitivity of the scan was 66%; the specificity was 100% for the detection of peptic ulcers

  18. Processes affecting δ34S and δ18O values of dissolved sulfate in alluvium along the Canadian River, central Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Breit, George N.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2009-01-01

    The δ34S and δ18O values for dissolved sulfate in groundwater are commonly used in aquifer studies to identify sulfate reservoirs and describe biogeochemical processes. The utility of these data, however, often is compromised by mixing of sulfate sources within reservoirs and isotope fractionation during sulfur redox cycling. Our study shows that, after all potential sulfate sources are identified and isotopically characterized, the δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values differentiate processes such as sulfate-source mixing, sulfide oxidation, barite dissolution, and organosulfur decomposition. During bacterial reduction of sulfate, the values reflect kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation and exchange of oxygen isotopes between sulfate and water. Detailed analysis of the chemistry (Cl and SO4 concentrations) and isotopic composition (δ2HH2Oand δ18OH2O) of groundwater in an alluvial aquifer in Central Oklahoma, USA allowed the identification of five distinct end members that supply water to the aquifer (regional groundwater flowing into the study area, river water, leachate from a closed landfill that operated within the site, rain, and surface runoff). The δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values in each end member differentiated three sources of sulfate: sulfate dissolved from Early to Late Permian rocks within the drainage basin (δ34SSO4 = 8–12‰ and δ18OSO4 = 10‰), iron sulfides oxidized by molecular oxygen during low water-table levels (δ34SSO4 = − 16‰ and δ18OSO4 = 10‰), and organosulfur compounds (predominately ester sulfates) from decomposition of vegetation on the surface and from landfill trash buried in the alluvium (δ34SSO4 = 8‰ and δ18OSO4 = 6‰). During bacterial reduction of these sulfate sources, similar isotope fractionation processes are recorded in the parallel trends of increasing δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values. When extensive reduction occurs, the kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation (estimated by εH2S–SO4 = − 23

  19. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Ho; Park, Chul; Choi, In Hag

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate as litter amendments on ammonia, soluble reactive phosphorus, and pathogen populations in poultry litters. Increasing levels of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate were applied onto the surface of rice hull as a top-dress application; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone resulted in lower litter pH (p aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone and controls at 2-4 wk (not at 1 wk). Ammonia levels reduced on an average by 29%, 30%, and 32% for 10 g, 20 g Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate, and aluminum sulfate alone, respectively, as compared with controls at 4 wk. During the experiment, Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate treatment had an effect (p aluminum sulfate and aluminum sulfate alone, as compared with the control, except at 1-3 wk for Salmonella enterica and 1 wk and 4 wk for Escherichia coli, respectively. The results showed that using Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate (blends), which act as acidifying agents by reducing the pH of the litter, was equally effective as aluminum sulfate in reducing the environmental impact.

  20. In vitro sulfate turnover in osteogenesis imperfacta congenita and tarda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvin, E.E.; Glorieux, F.H.; Lopez, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sulfate (/sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup -2/) uptake was studied in confluent skin fibroblasts from three patients with osteogenesis imperfecta congenita, six patients with osteogenesis imperfecta tarda, three clinically unaffected relatives of an osteogenesis imperfecta tarda patient, and four controls. Only two of the osteogenesis imperfecta congenita cell strains showed an increased uptake of sulfate, all other cell strains being comparable to the control group. The degradation rate of glycosaminolgycans in mutants as seen by the chase experiments was comparable to that found in the normal control cell strains. Glucose oxidation was normal in the osteogenesis imperfecta cell strains having an abnormal sulfate uptake. This rules out the possibility of an hypermetabolic state of these cells. These findings do not warrant the use of /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup -2/ incorporation in cultured cells as a tool for prenatal diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta.

  1. Uranyl Sulfate Nanotubules Templated by N-phenylglycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg I. Siidra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, structure, and infrared spectroscopy properties of the new organically templated uranyl sulfate Na(phgH+7[(UO26(SO410](H2O3.5 (1, obtained at room temperature by evaporation from aqueous solution, are reported. Its structure contains unique uranyl sulfate [(UO26(SO410]8− nanotubules templated by protonated N-phenylglycine (C6H5NH2CH2COOH+. Their internal diameter is 1.4 nm. Each of the nanotubules is built from uranyl sulfate rings sharing common SO4 tetrahedra. The template plays an important role in the formation of the complex structure of 1. The aromatic rings are stacked parallel to each other due to the effect of π–π interaction with their side chains extending into the gaps between the nanotubules.

  2. Investigation into kinetics of obtaining sodium and ammonium sulfate zirconates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilova, R.V.; Kolenkova, M.A.; Sazhina, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of the process of sodium and ammonium sulfate zirconates precipitation is studied. The following optimum conditions of their separation are determined: ZrO 2 concentration in sulfate solution (with αsub(s)=2.0) is 200 g/dm 3 , the quantity of precipitator-sodium (ammonium) chloride-is 3.5 mole per 1 mole ZrO 2 , the temperature is 90 deg C, the duration of mixing is 1 hr. It is established that the process of precipitation of sulfatozirconates is within the kinetic region. The average values of activation energy constitute 40 and 50 kJ/mol for sodium and ammonium sulfate zirconates respectively [ru

  3. Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Swapnil R; Keller, Kimberly L.; Wall, Judy D.

    2011-03-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria are physiologically important given their nearly ubiquitous presence and have important applications in the areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides details on the steps used for homologous-recombination mediated chromosomal manipulation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a well-studied sulfate reducer. More specifically, we focus on the implementation of a 'parts' based approach for suicide vector assembly, important aspects of anaerobic culturing, choices for antibiotic selection, electroporation-based DNA transformation, as well as tools for screening and verifying genetically modified constructs. These methods, which in principle may be extended to other sulfate-reducing bacteria, are applicable for functional genomics investigations, as well as metabolic engineering manipulations.

  4. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  5. Reconstruction of secular variation in seawater sulfate concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algeo, T. J.; Luo, G. M.; Song, H. Y.; Lyons, T. W.; Canfield, D. E.

    2014-09-01

    Long-term secular variation in seawater sulfate concentrations ([SO42-]SW) is of interest owing to its relationship to the oxygenation history of Earth's surface environment, but quantitative approaches to analysis of this variation remain underdeveloped. In this study, we develop two complementary approaches for assessment of the [SO42-] of ancient seawater and test their application to reconstructions of [SO42-]SW variation since the late Neoproterozoic Eon (that [SO42-]SW was low during the late Neoproterozoic (that have varied only slightly since 250 Ma. However, Phanerozoic seawater sulfate concentrations may have been drawn down to much lower levels (~ 1-4 mM) during short (≲ 2 Myr) intervals of the Cambrian, Early Triassic, Early Jurassic, and possibly other intervals as a consequence of widespread ocean anoxia, intense MSR, and pyrite burial. The procedures developed in this study offer potential for future high-resolution quantitative analyses of paleoseawater sulfate concentrations.

  6. Predictive mapping of the acidifying potential for acid sulfate soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boman, A; Beucher, Amélie; Mattbäck, S

    for detailed characterization of soil properties (grain size, structure, texture, field-pH, oxidation depth, ground water level) and acidifying potential (incubation-pH and titratable incubation acidity) whereas the four other cores were used for checking the soil variability. Soil observations from......Developing methods for the predictive mapping of the potential environmental impact from acid sulfate soils is important because recent studies (e.g. Mattbäck et al., under revision) have shown that the environmental hazards (e.g. leaching of acidity) related to acid sulfate soils vary depending...... on their texture (clay, silt, sand etc.). Moreover, acidity correlates, not only with the sulfur content, but also with the electrical conductivity (EC) measured after incubation. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) data collected from an EM38 proximal sensor also enabled the detailed mapping of acid sulfate soils...

  7. Improved LC-MS/MS of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides via Chip-based Pulsed Make-up Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Shi, Xiaofeng; Yu, Xiang; Leymarie, Nancy; Staples, Gregory O.; Yin, Hongfeng; Killeen, Kevin; Zaia, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic chip-based hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) is a useful separation system for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in compositional profiling of heparan sulfate (HS) oligosaccharides; however, ions observed using HILIC LC-MS are low in charge. Tandem MS of HS oligosaccharide ions with low charge results in undesirable losses of SO3 from precursor ions during collision induced dissociation. One solution is to add metal cations to stabilize sulfate groups. Another is to add a non-volatile, polar compound such as sulfolane, a molecule known to supercharge proteins, to produce a similar effect for oligosaccharides. We demonstrate use of a novel pulsed make-up flow (MUF) HPLC-chip. The chip enables controlled application of additives during specified chromatographic time windows and thus minimizes the extent to which non-volatile additives build up in the ion source. The pulsed MUF system was applied to LC-MS/MS of HS oligosaccharides. Metal cations and sulfolane were tested as additives. The most promising results were obtained for sulfolane, for which supercharging of the oligosaccharide ions increased their signal strengths relative to controls. Tandem MS of these supercharged precursor ions showed decreased abundances of product ions from sulfate losses yet more abundant product ions from backbone cleavages. PMID:21923145

  8. Improved liquid chromatography-MS/MS of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides via chip-based pulsed makeup flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Shi, Xiaofeng; Yu, Xiang; Leymarie, Nancy; Staples, Gregory O; Yin, Hongfeng; Killeen, Kevin; Zaia, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Microfluidic chip-based hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) is a useful separation system for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in compositional profiling of heparan sulfate (HS) oligosaccharides; however, ions observed using HILIC LC-MS are low in charge. Tandem MS of HS oligosaccharide ions with low charge results in undesirable losses of SO(3) from precursor ions during collision induced dissociation. One solution is to add metal cations to stabilize sulfate groups. Another is to add a nonvolatile, polar compound such as sulfolane, a molecule known to supercharge proteins, to produce a similar effect for oligosaccharides. We demonstrate use of a novel pulsed makeup flow (MUF) HPLC-chip. The chip enables controlled application of additives during specified chromatographic time windows and thus minimizes the extent to which nonvolatile additives build up in the ion source. The pulsed MUF system was applied to LC-MS/MS of HS oligosaccharides. Metal cations and sulfolane were tested as additives. The most promising results were obtained for sulfolane, for which supercharging of the oligosaccharide ions increased their signal strengths relative to controls. Tandem MS of these supercharged precursor ions showed decreased abundances of product ions from sulfate losses yet more abundant product ions from backbone cleavages.

  9. Aluminum ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate purified from traditional Chinese medicinal herb Korean monkshood root is a potent matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yehua; Liu, Sen; Jin, Fenghai; Mu, Tianyang; Li, Cong; Jiang, Kun; Tian, Weihua; Yu, Dahai; Zhang, Yingqi; Fang, Xuexun

    2012-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases and key regulators for many physiological and pathological functions. The MMP inhibitors have been shown to modulate diseases such as cancer, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases. In this paper we tracked the MMP inhibitory activities of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Korean Monkshood Root. The purified active ingredient was identified by the elemental analysis, infrared spectrum (IR) and X-ray diffraction as aluminum ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate. This inorganic compound showed inhibitory activities toward a number of MMP family members. In particular, it has a strong inhibitory effect toward MMP-2 and MMP-9, with IC50 values of 0.54 and 0.50 μM, respectively. Further analysis suggested that the MMP inhibitory activity is mainly due to Al(3+). Cell viability assays using human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells showed aluminum ammonium sulfate had minimal cyto-toxicity with a concentration up to 500 μM. However, within 50 μM, it exhibited significant inhibition of cell invasion. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of inorganic form of the MMP inhibitor with strong inhibitory activity. Our results for the first time showed that aluminum ammonium sulfate is an inorganic form of MMP inhibitor with high potency, and can be used to interfere with MMP related cellular processes.

  10. Effect of particle size and ammonium sulfate concentration on rice bran fermentation with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cristiano Gautério; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2012-11-01

    The effects of rice bran particle size (0.18-0.39mm) and ammonium sulfate concentration in the nutrient solution (2-8g/L) on biomass production, protein and phenolic content generated by solid state fermentation with the fungus Rhizopus oryzae (CCT 1217) were studied. Particle size had a positive effect on biomass production and a negative effect (p⩽0.05) on protein and phenolic contents. Ammonium sulfate concentration had a positive effect (p⩽0.05) on biomass and phenolic content gain. Cultivation of fungus in rice bran with particle size of 0.18mm and in the presence of 8g/L ammonium sulfate, resulted in protein levels of 20g/100g dry wt and phenolics content of 4mg/g dry wt. These values were 53 and 65% higher than those achieved with unfermented rice bran. The results demonstrate that the fermentation process increased the value of compounds recovered for potential use in food formulations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurotoxic disorders of organophosphorus compounds and their managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Balali-Mood, Kia

    2008-01-01

    Organophosphorus compounds have been used as pesticides and as chemical warfare nerve agents. The mechanism of toxicity of organophosphorus compounds is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, which results in accumulation of acetylcholine and the continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors. Therefore, they are also called anticholinesterase agents. Organophosphorus pesticides have largely been used worldwide, and poisoning by these agents, particularly in developing countries, is a serious health problem. Organophosphorus nerve agents were used by Iraqi army against Iranian combatants and even civilian population in 1983 - 1988. They were also used for chemical terrorism in Japan in 1994 - 1995. Their use is still a constant threat to the population. Therefore, medical and health professionals should be aware and learn more about the toxicology and proper management of organophosphorus poisoning. Determination of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity in blood remains a mainstay for the fast initial screening of organophosphorus compounds but lacks sensitivity and specificity. Quantitative analysis of organophosphorus compounds and their degradation products in plasma and urine by mass spectrometric methods may prove exposure but is expensive and is limited to specialized laboratories. However, history of exposure to organophosphorous compounds and clinical manifestations of a cholinergic syndrome are sufficient for management of the affected patients. The standard management of poisoning with organophosphorous compounds consists of decontamination, and injection of atropine sulfate with an oxime. Recent advances on treatment of organophosphorus pesticides poisoning revealed that blood alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate and also magnesium sulfate as adjunctive therapies are promising. Patients who receive prompt proper treatment usually recover from acute toxicity but may suffer from neurologic complications.

  12. Bacterial PerO Permeases Transport Sulfate and Related Oxyanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Marie-Christine; Pfänder, Yvonne; Tintel, Marc; Masepohl, Bernd

    2017-07-15

    Rhodobacter capsulatus synthesizes the high-affinity ABC transporters CysTWA and ModABC to specifically import the chemically related oxyanions sulfate and molybdate, respectively. In addition, R. capsulatus has the low-affinity permease PerO acting as a general oxyanion transporter, whose elimination increases tolerance to molybdate and tungstate. Although PerO-like permeases are widespread in bacteria, their function has not been examined in any other species to date. Here, we present evidence that PerO permeases from the alphaproteobacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens , Dinoroseobacter shibae , Rhodobacter sphaeroides , and Sinorhizobium meliloti and the gammaproteobacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri functionally substitute for R. capsulatus PerO in sulfate uptake and sulfate-dependent growth, as shown by assimilation of radioactively labeled sulfate and heterologous complementation. Disruption of perO genes in A. tumefaciens , R. sphaeroides , and S. meliloti increased tolerance to tungstate and, in the case of R. sphaeroides , to molybdate, suggesting that heterometal oxyanions are common substrates of PerO permeases. This study supports the view that bacterial PerO permeases typically transport sulfate and related oxyanions and, hence, form a functionally conserved permease family. IMPORTANCE Despite the widespread distribution of PerO-like permeases in bacteria, our knowledge about PerO function until now was limited to one species, Rhodobacter capsulatus In this study, we showed that PerO proteins from diverse bacteria are functionally similar to the R. capsulatus prototype, suggesting that PerO permeases form a conserved family whose members transport sulfate and related oxyanions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Synthesis and Antiplasmodial Activity of 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl-4-Phenyl-1,10-Phenanthroline Derivative Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazudin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A unique of synthetic methods was employed to prepare 2-(4-methoxyphenyl-4-phenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (5 derivatives from 4-methoxy-benzaldehyde (1, acetophenone (2, and 8-aminoquinoline (4 with aldol condensation and cyclization reactions. The derivatives were tested through antiplasmodial test. The synthesis of derivatives compound 5 was conducted in three steps. The 3-(4-methoxyphenyl-1-phenylpropenone 3 was synthesized through aldol condensation of 1 and 2 which has a yield of 96.42%. The compound 5 was synthesized through cyclization of compound 4 and 3 with 84.55% yield. The derivative of compound 5 was synthesized from compound 5 using DMS and DES reagents which refluxed for 21 and 22 h, to produce (1-N-methyl-9-(4-methoxyphenyl-7-phenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulfate (6 and (1-N-ethyl-9-(4-methoxyphenyl-7-phenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulfate (7 with 91.42 and 86.36% yields, respectively. Results of in vitro testing of antiplasmodial activity of compound 5 derivatives (i.e., compound 6 and 7 against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum FCR3 strain showed that compound 7 had higher antimalarial activity than compounds 5 and 6. Whereas, results of in vitro testing against chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum D10 strain showed that compound 6 has higher antimalarial activity than compounds 5 and 7.

  14. Ferrous ammonium phosphate (FeNH₄PO₄) as a new food fortificant: iron bioavailability compared to ferrous sulfate and ferric pyrophosphate from an instant milk drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Thomas; Kastenmayer, Peter; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Zeder, Christophe; Grathwohl, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to establish bioavailability data in humans for the new (Fe) fortification compound ferrous ammonium phosphate (FAP), which was specially developed for fortification of difficult-to-fortify foods where soluble Fe compounds cannot be used due to their negative impact on product stability. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial with cross-over design was conducted to obtain bioavailability data for FAP in humans. In this trial, Fe absorption from FAP-fortified full-cream milk powder was compared to that from ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) and ferrous sulfate. Fe absorption was determined in 38 young women using the erythrocyte incorporation dual stable isotope technique (⁵⁷Fe, ⁵⁸Fe). Geometric mean Fe absorption from ferrous sulfate, FAP and FPP was 10.4, 7.4 and 3.3 %, respectively. Fe from FAP was significantly better absorbed from milk than Fe from FPP (p soluble reference compound (p = 0.0002). Absorption ratios of FAP and FPP relative to ferrous sulfate as a measure of relative bioavailability were 0.71 and 0.32, respectively. The results of the present studies show that replacing FPP with FAP in full-cream milk could significantly improve iron bioavailability.

  15. Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite, and diadochite. Additional specimens whose identification is more tentative include pickeringite, aluminite, basaluminite, and botryogen. Alum Cave is a ``Dana locality`` for apjohnite and potash alum, and is the first documented North American occurrence of slavikite.

  16. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans made by different basement-membrane-producing tumors have immunological and structural similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R; Hassell, J R

    1985-01-01

    Using immunological assays, we determined the relationship between the heparan sulfate proteoglycans produced by two different murine basement-membrane-producing tumors, i.e., the mouse Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) tumor and the L2 rat yolk-sac tumor. Antibodies prepared against the heparan sulfate...... mainly heparan sulfate (75%) along with smaller amounts of chondroitin sulfate (19%), whereas the L2 rat yolk-sac tumor produced mainly chondroitin sulfate (76%) with smaller amounts of heparan sulfate (21%). We conclude that these two murine basement-membrane-producing tumors elaborate...

  17. Coordination Compounds in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Coordination Compounds in Biology - The Chemistry of Vitamin B12 and Model Compounds. K Hussian Reddy. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 67-77 ...

  18. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  19. Investigating actinide compounds within a hybrid MCSCF-DFT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromager, E.; Jensen, H.J.A.; Wahlin, P.; Real, F.; Wahlgren, U.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Investigations of actinide chemistry with quantum chemical methods still remain a complicated task since it requires an accurate and efficient treatment of the environment (crystal or solvent) as well as relativistic and electron correlation effects. Concerning the latter, the current correlated methods, based on either Density-Functional Theory (DFT) or Wave-Function Theory (WFT), have their advantages and drawbacks. On the one hand, Kohn-Sham DFT (KS-DFT) calculates the dynamic correlation quite accurately and at a fairly low computational cost. However, it does not treat adequately the static correlation, which is significant in some actinide compounds because of the near-degeneracy of the 5f orbitals: a first example is the bent geometry obtained in KS-DFT(B3LYP) for the neptunyl ion NpO 2 3+ , which is found to be linear within a Multi-Configurational Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) model [1]. A second one is the stable and bent geometry obtained in KS-DFT(B3LYP) for the plutonyl ion PuO 2 4+ , which disintegrates at the MCSCF level [1]. On the other hand, WFT can describe the static correlation, using for example a MCSCF model, but then an important part of the dynamic correlation has to be neglected. This can be recovered with perturbation-theory based methods like for example CASPT2 or NEVPT2, but their computational complexity prevents large scale calculations. It is therefore of great interest to develop a hybrid MCSCF-DFT model which combines the best of both WFT and DFT approaches. The merge of WFT and DFT can be achieved by splitting the two-electron interaction into long-range and short-range parts [2]. The long-range part is then treated by WFT and the short-range part by DFT. We use the so-called 'erf' long-range interaction erf(μr 12 )/r 12 , which is based on the standard error function, and where μ is a free parameter which controls the long/short-range decomposition. The newly proposed recipe for the

  20. Structure and anticoagulant properties of sulfated glycosaminoglycans from primitive Chordates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURO S. G. PAVÃO

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatan sulfates and heparin, similar to the mammalian glycosaminoglycans, but with differences in the degree and position of sulfation were previously isolated from the body of the ascidian Styela plicata and Ascidia nigra. These differences produce profound effects on their anticoagulant properties. S. plicata dermatan sulfate composed by 2-O-sulfatedalpha-L-iduronic acid and 4-O-sulfated N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosamine residues is a potent anticoagulant due to a high heparin cofactor II activity. Surprisingly, it has a lower potency to prevent thrombus formation on an experimental model and a lower bleeding effect in rats than the mammalian dermatan sulfate. In contrast, A. nigra dermatan sulfate, also enriched in 2-O-sulfated alpha-L-iduronic acid, but in this case sulfated at O-6 of the N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosamine units, has no in vitro or in vivo anticoagulant activity, does not prevent thrombus formation but shows a bleeding effect similar to the mammalian glycosaminoglycan. Ascidian heparin, composed by 2-O-sulfated alpha-L-iduronic acid, N- and 6-O-sulfated glucosamine (75% and alpha-L-iduronic acid, N- and 6-O-sulfated glucosamine (25% disaccharide units has an anticoagulant activity 10 times lower than the mammalian heparin, is about 20 times less potent in the inhibition of thrombin by antithrombin, but has the same heparin cofactor II activity as mammalian heparin.Dermatam sulfato e heparina semelhantes aos glicosaminoglicanos de mamíferos, mas apresentando diferenças no grau e posição de sulfatação foram previamente isolados do corpo das ascídias Styela plicata e Ascidia nigra. Estas diferenças produzem efeitos profundos nas suas propriedades anticoagulantes. O dermatam sulfato de S. plicata, composto por resíduos de ácido alfa-L-idurônico 2-O-sulfatados e N-acetilgalactosamina 4-O-sulfatados é um potente anticoagulante devido a sua alta atividade de cofator II da heparina. Surpreendentemente, este polímero possui uma

  1. Relationship between microbial sulfate reduction rates and sulfur isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsu'Ura, F.

    2009-12-01

    Sulfate reduction is one of the common processes to obtain energy for certain types of microorganisms.They use hydrogen gas or organic substrates as electron donor and sulfates as electron acceptor, and reduce sulfates to sulfides. Sulfate reducing microbes extend across domains Archea and Bacteria, and are believed to be one of the earliest forms of terrestrial life (Shen 2004). The origin of 34S-depleted (light) sulfide sulfur, especially δ34S bacteria (SRB) to explain the 34S-depleted sulfide sulfur. [Experiments] To compare the result with Canfield et al. (2006), I used Desulfovibrio desulfuricans for my laboratory culture experiment. D. desulfuricans was inoculated into glass vials, which contain 40ml of liquid culture media slightly modified from DSMZ #63 medium.Excess amount of Fe (II) is added to the DSMZ#63 medium to precipitate sulfide as iron sulfide. The vials were incubated at 25°C, 30°C, and 37°C, respectively. 21 vials were used for one temperature and sulfide and sulfate was collected from each three glass vials at every 12 hours from 72 hours to 144 hours after start of incubation. The sulfide was precipitated as iron sulfide and the sulfate was precipitated as barite. Sulfur isotope compositions of sulfate and sulfide were measured by standard method using Delta Plus mass-spectrometer. [Results and Discussion] The fractionation between sulfide and sulfate ranged from 2.7 to 11.0. The fractionation values varied among the different incubation temperature and growth phase of D. desulfuricans. The maximum fractionation values of three incubation temperatures were 9.9, 11.0, and 9.7, for 25 °C, 30°C, and 37°C, respectively. These results were different from standard model and Canfield et al. (2006). I could not find the clear correlation between ∂34S values and incubation temperatures in this experiment. The measured fractionation values during the incubation varied with incubation stage. The fractionation values clearly increased with

  2. MTF of compound eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Hamid Reza; Karimzadeh, Ayatollah

    2010-06-07

    Compound eye is a new field of research about miniaturizing imaging systems. We for the first time introduce a dual compound eye that contains three micro lens arrays with aspheric surfaces. The designed dual compound eye in one state is a superposition system in which each channel images all of field of view of the system. With adding a field stop we have decreased the stray light. MTF of ideal superposition compound eye calculated. Also with changing field stop the system is converted to an apposition compound eye in which each channel images only a part of total field of view and so the field of view is larger than that of superposition type.

  3. Sound production in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and its alteration by exposure to aldicarb and copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ik Joon; Qiu, Xuchun; Moroishi, Junya; Oshima, Yuji

    2017-08-01

    This study is the first to report sound production in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Sound production was affected by exposure to the carbamate insecticide (aldicarb) and heavy-metal compound (copper sulfate). Medaka were exposed at four concentrations (aldicarb: 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg L -1 ; copper sulfate: 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg L -1 ), and sound characteristics were monitored for 5 h after exposure. We observed constant average interpulse intervals (approx 0.2 s) in all test groups before exposure, and in the control groups throughout the experiment. The average interpulse interval became significantly longer during the recording periods after 50 min of exposure to aldicarb, and reached a length of more than 0.3 s during the recording periods after 120 min exposure. Most medaka fish stopped to produce sound after 50 min of exposure to copper sulfate at 1 and 2 mg L -1 , resulting in significantly declined number of sound pulses and pulse groups. Relative shortened interpulse intervals of sound were occasionally observed in medaka fish exposed to 0.5 mg L -1 copper sulfate. These alternations in sound characteristics due to toxicants exposure suggested that they might impair acoustic communication of medaka fish, which may be important for their reproduction and survival. Our results suggested that using acoustic changes of medaka has potential to monitor precipitate water pollutions, such as intentional poisoning or accidental leakage of industrial waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagenetic sulfurization of reactive compounds in late Paleozoic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, E. A.; Strauss, H.

    2003-04-01

    New sulfur isotope data for pairs of organic (OBS: organically bound sulfur from kerogen) and inorganic sulfur (CRS: chromium reducible sulfur, mostly pyrite) compounds of late Palaeozoic sediments (n=145) facilitate an improved insight into diagenetic reactions between bacterially formed hydrogen sulfide and reactive phases in the sediment (i.e. iron and organic matter). Most informative is a very strong correlation between the sulfur isotopic compositions of CRS and OBS (r=0.95), that indicates their mutual origin via bacterial sulfate reduction. Isotopic differences between OBS and CRS (begin{math}Δ34S = begin{math}δ34Sbegin{math}OBS - δ34Sbegin{math}CRS) range between -11 and +21 per mil. The abundance of more negative begin{math}δ34Sbegin{math}OBS values compared to begin{math}δ34Sbegin{math}CRS is relatively high (20% in our dataset). 30% of all samples show similar isotopic compositions. The remaining half displays the expected positive isotopic difference. Iron availability appears to be the key factor for preferential reaction with hydrogen sulfide an expected feature. Although a surprisingly high number of samples (20%) with sulfur isotope values of OBS more negative than CRS, we cannot necessarily state a higher reactivity of organic compounds towards hydrogen sulfide in comparison to iron. Instead we suggest a more likely reaction of organic compounds with hydrogen sulfide derived from further disproportionation reactions. This implies that highly reactive iron has already been exhausted during the earliest stages of diagenesis. Our data further suggest a causal relation between high TOCbegin{math}BSR (i.e. organic carbon used for bacterial sulfate reduction) values and high apparent isotope fractionation between sulfate and sulfide. This indicates a very efficient and fast turnover of metabolizable organic matter during early diagenesis.

  5. Microbial methanogenesis in the sulfate-reducing zone of sediments in the Eckernförde Bay, SW Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Maltby

    2018-01-01

    methanol, molecular analyses were conducted to identify key functional methanogenic groups during methylotrophic methanogenesis. To also compare the magnitudes of SRZ methanogenesis with methanogenesis below the sulfate reduction zone (> 30 cm b.s.f., hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was determined by 14C-bicarbonate radiotracer incubation in samples collected in September 2013.SRZ methanogenesis changed seasonally in the upper 30 cm b.s.f. with rates increasing from March (0.2 nmol cm−3 d−1 to November (1.3 nmol cm−3 d−1 2013 and March (0.2 nmol cm−3 d−1 to September (0.4 nmol cm−3 d−1 2014. Its magnitude and distribution appeared to be controlled by organic matter availability, C / N, temperature, and oxygen in the water column, revealing higher rates in the warm, stratified, hypoxic seasons (September–November compared to the colder, oxygenated seasons (March–June of each year. The majority of SRZ methanogenesis was likely driven by the usage of noncompetitive substrates (e.g., methanol and methylated compounds to avoid competition with sulfate reducers, as was indicated by the 1000–3000-fold increase in potential methanogenesis activity observed after methanol addition. Accordingly, competitive hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis increased in the sediment only below the depth of sulfate penetration (> 30 cm b.s.f.. Members of the family Methanosarcinaceae, which are known for methylotrophic methanogenesis, were detected by PCR using Methanosarcinaceae-specific primers and are likely to be responsible for the observed SRZ methanogenesis.The present study indicates that SRZ methanogenesis is an important component of the benthic methane budget and carbon cycling in Eckernförde Bay. Although its contributions to methane emissions from the sediment into the water column are probably minor, SRZ methanogenesis could directly feed into methane oxidation above the sulfate–methane transition zone.

  6. Diversity and composition of sulfate- and sulfite-reducing prokaryotes as affected by marine-freshwater gradient and sulfate availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lan-Feng; Tang, Sen-Lin; Chen, Chang-Po; Hsieh, Hwey-Lian

    2012-01-01

    Sulfate- and sulfite-reducing prokaryotes (SSRP) communities play a key role in both sulfur and carbon cycles. In estuarine ecosystems, sulfate concentrations change with tides and could be limited in tidal freshwater reach or deep sediments. In a subtropical estuary of northern Taiwan in December 2007, we examined the compositional changes of SSRP communities. We examined three sites: from the lower estuarine brackish-water reach (site GR and mangrove vegetation site, GM) to the upper estuarine tidal freshwater reach (site HR), as well as from surface to a 50-cm depth. The partial sequence of sulfite reductase (dsrB) genes was used as a molecular marker of SSRP, linked to polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. SSRP communities of the DGGE profiles varied with sites according to one-way analyses of similarities (Global R = 0.69, P = 0.001). Using cluster analysis, the DGGE profile was found to show site-specific clusters and a distinct depth zonation (five, six, and two SSRP communities at the GM, GR, and HR sites, respectively). SSRP composition was highly correlated to the combination of salinity, reduced sulfur, and total organic carbon contents (BIO-ENV analysis, r ( s ) = 0.56). After analyzing a total of 35 dsrB sequences in the DGGE gel, six groups with 15 phylotypes were found, which were closely related to marine-freshwater gradient. Moreover, sequences neighboring sulfite-reducing prokaryotes were observed, in addition to those affiliated to sulfate-reducing prokaryotes. Four phylotypes harvested in HR resembled the genus Desulfitobacterium, a sulfite-reducing prokaryote, which failed to use sulfate as an electron acceptor and were active in freshwater and sulfate-limited habitat. The other five phylotypes in the HR reach belonged to the sulfate-reducing prokaryotes of the genera Desulfatiferula, Desulfosarcina, Desulfovibrio, and Desulfotomaculum, which appeared to tolerate low salinity and

  7. Heparin and a cyclic octaphenol-octasulfonic acid (GL-522-Y-1) bind with high affinity to a 47-kda protein from vascular endothelial cell surface and stimulate the synthesis and structural changes of heparan sulfate proteoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhal, M A; Trindade, E S; Fareed, J; Dietrich, C P; Nader, H B

    2001-07-01

    The effect of a cyclic octaphenol-octasulfonic acid (GL-522-Y-1), upon the synthesis of a heparan sulfate proteoglycan synthesized by endothelial cells (rabbit aorta and human umbilical vein) were studied. The cells were exposed to the compounds at various concentrations for different periods of time and the synthesized heparan sulfates analyzed by a combination of agarose gel electrophoresis and enzymatic degradation. The GL-522-Y-1, like heparin, change the sulfation pattern and stimulate two- to three-fold the synthesis of heparan sulfate proteoglycan secreted by rabbit and human endothelial cells in culture. GL-522-Y-1, besides being 100 times more active than heparin, also produces a significant enhancement of cell surface heparan sulfate in human vein endothelial cells. The effect of GL-522-Y-1 is completely abolished by methylation or acetylation of its free hydroxyl groups. Both heparin and GL-522-Y-1 have high affinity for a 47-kDa protein present at the surface of endothelial cells. These and other results lead us to speculate that the antithrombotic activity of heparin and GL522 "in vivo" could be related, at least in part, to the increased production of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan by endothelial cells.

  8. Study of dosimetric systems-ferrous sulfate-ferric sulfate, glass slides and dyed aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, L.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of some variables which can effect the preparation of the ferrous sulfate used as dosimetric solution has been studied. Among these variables the purity of the water used for the preparation of the solution and the presence (or absence) of oxygen in the dosimetric solution were considered. The dose rate distribution according to the transverse and longitudinal sections of the Co 60 irradiator was studied experimentally, using the dosimetric solution, and theoretically, using a computer program (KIFE). The results obtained with the ferrous sulface dosimetric solution were used as reference for the study of the application of EM and MSG glass slide as a dosimetric system. For this purpose the effects of the weakening of the coloration induced in the glass by gamma rays (Co 60 ) and the relationship between the absorbed dose of radiation and the ratio between the variation in absorbation value and the thickness of the glass irradiated, were studied. A study was also made of the use of the dye indicators bromothymol-blue, methyl-orange, Congo-red, neutral-red and p-nitrophenol, in aqueous solution, for radiation dose measurements. The bleaching of each indicator solution, under gamma-radiation (Co 60 ) was studied in oxygen and nitrogen atmospheres.(Author) [pt

  9. Mercury and lead tolerance in hypersaline sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harithsa, S.; Kerkar, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    -sporulating, non-motile rods lacking in desulfoviridin and cytochromes. Examination of these isolates for heavy metal tolerance and response studies in terms of growth and sulfate-reducing activity (SRA) were carried out using HgCl sub(2) and Pb(NO sub(3)) sub(2...

  10. Shape control synthesis of low-dimensional calcium sulfate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Calcium sulfate nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts and sheets had been synthesized via a facile solution reaction of CaCl2 and H2SO4 in mixed solvents of ethanol/N, N-dimethylformamide and deionized water at 35◦C. The results indicated that well-crystallized CaSO4 nanomaterials with different morphology were ...

  11. Selective discrimination of cyclodextrin diols using cyclic sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrillo, Marta; Marinescu, Lavinia; Rousseau, Cyril

    2009-01-01

    A method for selective monofunctionalition of readily available cyclodextrin diols (2(A-F),3(A-F),6(B,C,E,F)-hexadeca-O-benzyl-alpha-cyclodextrin and 2(A-G),3(A-G),6(B,C,E-G)-nonadeca-O-benzyl-beta-cyclodextrin) by regioselective nucleophilic opening of their cyclic sulfates is presented. Althoug...

  12. The importance of thyroid hormone sulfation during fetal development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractNormal fetal development requires the presence of thyroid hormone. Disruption of any of the processes regulating the bioavailability of thyroid hormone may contribute to congenital anomalies. This thesis is focussed a) on the importance of thyroid hormone sulfation during

  13. 21 CFR 520.110 - Apramycin sulfate soluble powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Apramycin sulfate soluble powder. 520.110 Section 520.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... water consumption which varies depending on ambient temperature, humidity, and other factors. (3...

  14. Anaerobic degradation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) by denitrifying bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, A.; Plugge, C.M.; Garcia Encina, P.A.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Two denitrifying bacteria were isolated using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as substrate. Strains SN1 and SN2 were isolated from an activated sludge reactor of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A2/O) steps. Based on 16S rRNA gene analysis strain SN1 is 99% similar to

  15. Use of magnesium sulfate before 32 weeks of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, H. T.; Weber, T.; Piedvache, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The use of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in European obstetric units is unknown. We aimed to describe reported policies and actual use of MgSO4 in women delivering before 32 weeks of gestation by indication. Methods: We used data from the European Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe (EPICE...

  16. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  17. Acute Copper Sulfate Poisoning: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chand Meena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Copper sulfate ingestion is a relatively popular method for committing suicide in Indian subcontinent. It causes a high mortality rate, and so a growing concern has been raised to identify the severe alarming signs suggestive of poor prognosis and to improve treatment approaches. Case report: A 22-year-old unmarried man working as a painter was found unconscious at his friend residence. The patient developed hypotension, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with hematemesis and melena, renal and hepatic failure, severe metabolic acidosis and intravascular hemolysis during admission at hospital. His signs were refractory to treatment with fluid replacement therapy, vasoactive drugs, antiemetic drugs, ranitidine, furosemide, methylene blue and 2,3 dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate. He died six hours post-admission. In post-mortem examinations, there were multiple sub-pleural and sub-epicardial hemorrhages and the gastrointestinal mucosa was congested, hemorrhagic, and greenish blue in color. The liver, on histological examination, showed sub-massive hepatic necrosis. On toxicological analyses, copper sulfate was detected in preserved viscera and results for other heavy metals were negative. Conclusion: Hypotension, cyanosis, uremia and jaundice can be considered as signs of poor prognosis in copper sulfate poisoning. Copper sulfate ingestion is life-threatening due to its deleterious effects on the upper GI, kidneys, liver and blood. Having no time to waste, aggressive treatments should be immediately instituted and signs of poor prognosis should be kept in mind.

  18. Characterization of Sulfate Groups and Assessment of Anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourier transform infrared FT-IR spectra, Laser Raman spectra and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR spectra were obtained and used to analyze the sulfate groups. The anti-coagulant activity of KOGM and KOGMS was evaluated in vitro using activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and ...

  19. Shape control synthesis of low-dimensional calcium sulfate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Calcium sulfate nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts and sheets had been synthesized via a facile solution reaction of CaCl2 and H2SO4 in mixed solvents of ethanol/, -dimethylformamide and deionized water at 35°C. The results indicated that well-crystallized CaSO4 nanomaterials with different morphology were obtained ...

  20. Pre-harvest calcium sulfate application improves postharvest quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of cut rose flowers at the postharvest stage is affected by pre-harvest conditions. The present study was conducted to examine the possible involvement of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) in regulation of rose flower senescence. Roses (Rosa hybrida L.) cultivars 'Cool Water' and 'Pretty Blinda', were treated with either ...

  1. Estimation of interfacial acidity of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on various molecules in micro-heterogeneous media such as micelles,3 cyclodextrins4 and polymer-micelle ... of the micro-heterogenous media such as sodium dode- cyl sulfate (SDS) micelles to enhance the ESPT ...... tations. AD thanks Council of Scientific and Indus- trial Research, New Delhi (CSIR) for junior research.

  2. Stability of sulfate complexes of electronically excited uranyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostakhov, S.S.; Kazakov, V.P.; Afonichev, D.D. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Ufa (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-01

    The complex formation of electronically excited uranyl ions with SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}anions in 0.1 M aqueous HClO{sub 4} has been studied by time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. The stability constants of uranyl sulfate complexes (UO{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) (K=870 1 mol{sup -1}) and [UO{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup 2-}](K=47000 1 mol{sup -1}) in excited state have been determined; they are more than an order of magnitude greater than those reported for complex formation of uranyl ions in the ground state. The complex formation of uranyl with sulfate ions is accompanied by the increase of the quantum yield of the uranyl lumenescence. The maxima of luminescence and absorption bands of uranyl ions are shifted with increasing the total concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in solution, which supports the data obtained. The shift of the maxima of luminescence bands is observed at a sulfate concentration that is considerably lower than that causing the same shift of the maxima of the absorption bands. Such effect is consistent with the calculated stability constants of sulfate complexes of excited uranyl ions.

  3. Estimation of interfacial acidity of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An enhancement in the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) processes of coumarin-102 (C-102) dye was observed upon addition of salicylic acid and hydrochloric acid in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solution. The phenomenon was observed only in the micellar medium of anionic surfactant SDS and not in case of ...

  4. Combined aluminium sulfate/hydroxide process for fluoride removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined aluminium sulfate/hydroxide process for fluoride removal from drinking water. ... The reported removal efficiency of Nalgonda Technique is 70% at alum dose of 150-170 mg alum/mg F. Besides, sludge production is also minimized. Therefore, this process is highly efficient and could be applied in areas where the ...

  5. Sulfated mucopolysaccharides from different types of mastocytes kept in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    Two different types of mice mastocitomas - solid and/or ascitic - are analysed in detail using a methodology based mainly in azarose gel microelectrophoresis and degradation by specific mucopolysaccharidases. Sulfated mucopolysaccharides are assayed in both types of tumors in cells cultivated in vitro. Radioactive precursors and autoradiographic techniques are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  6. Anaerobic BTEX biodegradation linked to nitrate and sulfate reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Junfeng; Liu Xiang; Hu Zhifeng; Deng Dong

    2008-01-01

    Effective anaerobic BTEX biodegradation was obtained under nitrate and sulfate reducing conditions by the mixed bacterial consortium that were enriched from gasoline contaminated soil. Under the conditions of using nitrate or sulfate as reducing acceptor, the degradation rates of the six tested substrates decreased with toluene > ethylbenzene > m-xylene > o-xylene > benzene > p-xylene. The higher concentrations of BTEX were toxic to the mixed cultures and led to reduce the degradation rates of BTEX. Benzene and p-xylene were more toxic than toluene and ethylbenzene. Nitrate was a more favorable electron acceptor compared to sulfate. The measured ratios between the amount of nitrate consumed and the amount of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene degraded were 9.47, 9.26, 11.14, 12.46, 13.36 and 13.02, respectively. The measured ratios between sulfate reduction and BTEX degradation were 3.51, 4.33, 4.89, 4.81, 4.86 and 4.76, respectively, which were nearly the same to theoretical ones, and the relative error between the measured and calculated ratios was less than 10%

  7. Effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of adding aluminum sulfate to different litters on blood plasma concentrations of some principal microelements and some vitamins in broilers. In this experiment, 645 day old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into 4 litter group (straw, sawdust, alum ...

  8. Estimation of interfacial acidity of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An enhancement in the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) processes of coumarin-102 (C-102) dye was observed upon addition of salicylic acid and hydrochloric acid in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solution. The phenomenon was observed only in the micellar medium of anionic surfactant SDS and.

  9. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranghel, D., E-mail: daranghe@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Extreme Light Intrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Reactorului 30,RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Badita, C. R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomiştilor 405, CP MG - 11, RO – 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Radulescu, A. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, 85747 Garching (Germany); Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O. [National Institute R& D for Biological Sciences, Splaiul Independenţei 296, sector 6, cod 060031, C.P. 17-16, Bucharest (Romania); Balasoiu, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, daranghe@nipne.ro (Romania); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-25

    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca{sup 2+} cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca{sup 2+} by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl{sub 2}) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  10. Sulfated polyborate: A mild, efficient catalyst for synthesis of N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid, efficient and inexpensive method for synthesis of N-tert-butyl/N-trityl protected amides via Ritter reaction of nitriles with tertiary alcohols in the presence of a sulfated polyborate catalyst under solvent-free conditions is described. The catalyst has the advantage of Lewis as well as Bronsted acidity and recyclability ...

  11. Differential expression of heparan sulfate domains in rat spleen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, G.B. ten; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2003-01-01

    The microarchitecture of the spleen is composed of a meshwork of reticulum cells and their matrix. Heparan sulfates (HS) are important components of this meshwork and are involved in processes such as cell adhesion, cell migration, and cytokine/growth factor binding. The expression of HS epitopes

  12. Aluminum toxicity in acid sulfate soil alleviated with biogenic liming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low crop yield from acid sulfate soil was caused by high concentrations of aluminum and iron in soil. Aluminum ion which cause root injury at root region inhibits the uptake of the nutrients by the root and lead to nutrient deficiency. Ground magnesium limestones can be applied to overcome this problem but incurred more ...

  13. Using copper sulfate to control fungus on fish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish industry as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on catfish eggs. This is an overview of our effectiveness and safety studies. Channel catfish spawns were 24 - 48 hrs old. Comparable portions of a single spawn were place...

  14. Safety of copper sulfate to channel catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used in the catfish industry to control saprolegniasis (caused by watermolds) on eggs. This study was designed to establish the safety of CuSO4 when applied to hatching troughs containing channel catfish eggs in 26 degrees C flow-through well water at 10, 30, and ...

  15. Combining ability estimates of sulfate uptake efficiency in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motto, M; Saccomani, M; Cacco, G

    1982-03-01

    Plant root nutrient uptake efficiency may be expressed by the kinetic parameters, Vmax and Km, as well as by normal enzymatic reactions. These parameters are apparently useful indices of the level of adaptation of genotypes to the nutrient conditions in the soil. Moreover, sulfate uptake capacity has been considered a valuable index for selecting superior hybrid characterized by both high grain yield and efficiency in nutrient uptake. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine combining ability for sulfate uptake, in a diallel series of maize hybrids among five inbreds. Wide differences among the 20 single crosses were obtained for Vmax and Km. The general and specific combining ability mean squares were significant and important for each trait, indicating the presence of considerable amount of both additive and nonadditive gene effects in the control of sulfate uptake. In addition, maternal and nonmaternal components of F1 reciprocal variation showed sizeable effects on all the traits considered. A relatively high correlation was also detected between Vmax and Km. However, both traits displayed enough variation to suggest that simultaneous improvement of both Vmax and Km should be feasible. A further noteworthy finding in this study was the identification of one inbred line, which was the best overall parent for improving both affinity and velocity strategies of sulfate uptake.

  16. Dynamics of heparan sulfate explored by neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasnin, Marion; van Eijck, Lambert; Koza, Michael Marek; Peters, Judith; Laguri, Cédric; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Zaccai, Giuseppe

    2010-04-14

    The temperature dependence of atomic fluctuations in heparan sulfate was measured for different time-scales between the picosecond and the nanosecond. The data established the role of hydration for the emergence of high-amplitude motions at 200-240 K, and the higher resilience of the polysaccharide compared to proteins measured under similar conditions.

  17. Distribution of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides in Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerryn Mason

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate (HS catabolism begins with endo-degradation of the polysaccharide to smaller HS oligosaccharides, followed by the sequential action of exo-enzymes to reduce these oligosaccharides to monosaccharides and inorganic sulfate. In mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA the exo-enzyme, N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase, is deficient resulting in an inability to hydrolyze non-reducing end glucosamine N-sulfate esters. Consequently, partially degraded HS oligosaccharides with non-reducing end glucosamine sulfate esters accumulate. We investigated the distribution of these HS oligosaccharides in tissues of a mouse model of MPS IIIA using high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Oligosaccharide levels were compared to total uronic acid (UA, which was used as a measure of total glycosaminoglycan. Ten oligosaccharides, ranging in size from di- to hexasaccharides, were present in all the tissues examined including brain, spleen, lung, heart, liver, kidney and urine. However, the relative levels varied up to 10-fold, suggesting different levels of HS turnover and storage. The relationship between the di- and tetrasaccharides and total UA was tissue specific with spleen and kidney showing a different disaccharide:total UA ratio than the other tissues. The hexasaccharides showed a stronger correlation with total UA in all tissue types suggesting that hexasaccharides may more accurately reflect the storage burden in these tissues.

  18. Recombinant heparan sulfate for use in tissue engineering applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitelock, J.; Ma, J.L.; Davies, N.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Heparan sulfate (HS) is an important component of many extracellular matrices that interacts with mitogens and morphogens to guide and control tissue and organ development. These interactions are controlled by its structure, which varies when produced by different cell types and diffe...

  19. Radionuclide flow during the conversion of phosphogypsum to ammonium sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.C.; Schultz, M.K.; Hull, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    Approximately 30 million tons of the by-product phosphogypsum are currently produced annually by the phosphate fertilizer industry in Florida. Nearly all of this material is stockpiled because radioactive impurities prevent utilization of what could otherwise be a useful agricultural amendment or construction material. Long-term storage and maintenance of this material presents economic as well as potential environmental concerns. One partial solution to this problem may be conversion of phosphogypsum to ammonium sulfate by the so-called Merseberg ammonocarbonation process. Ammonium sulfate is an excellent fertilizer which supplies sulfur as well as nitrogen to soils. We have assessed the flow of the natural decay-series radionuclides 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po through the Merseberg process by the analysis of starting materials and products from overseas industrial-scale plants. Results indicate that the radionuclides associated with phosphogypsum do not report to the ammonium sulfate product but are found instead almost exclusively in the by-product calcium carbonate. Thus, the radiochemical results are encouraging in terms of using this process as an option for partial removal of waste phosphogypsum. Although there is a clear and recognized need for increased sulfur addition to many crops, the price of sulfur has been so low and alternative supplies of ammonium so common that investment in this process has been discouraged. Recent price increases and demand for ammonium sulfate may make the Merseberg process more attractive. (author)

  20. Case study of elevated layers of high sulfate concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNaughton, D.J.; Orgill, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    During studies in August 1976 that were part of the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollutant Study (MAP3S), Alkezweeny et al., (1977) noted that in the Milwaukee urban plume, layers of relatively high sulfate concentrations occurred at high altitudes with respect to the boundary layer. This paper represents a progress report on studies undertaken to investigate possible causes for a bimodel vertical profile of sulfate concentrations. Data presented by Alkezweeny et al., (1977) serve as a basis for this study. Data from August 23, 1976, and August 24, 1978, indicate concentrations relatively high in sulfate, at 1000 and 6000 ft, respectively, with lower concentrations at lower altitudes. Concentrations of trace metals also indicate no peaks in the vertical concentration profiles above the surface. Initial studies of the high, elevated sulfate concentrations have centered on the August 23 measurements taken over southeast Wisconsin using synoptic data from the national weather service, emissions data from the national emissions data bank system (EPA), air quality data from the national air surveillance network (EPA), and satellite photographs from the EROS Data Center

  1. Copper sulfate acute ecotoxicity and environmental risk for tropical fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ferreira da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate copper sulfate acute toxicity and to determine death percentage and environmental risk on guppy fish (Phallocerus caudimaculatus, zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio, mato grosso (Hyphessobrycon eques, and pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus. Fish were exposed to 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.30 mg L-1 (guppy, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.30 mg L-1 (zebrafish, 0.07, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 mg L-1 (mato grosso and 9.5, 10.0, 10.5, 11.0, 11.5, and 12.0 mg L-1 (pacu of copper sulfate, with triplicate control. The estimated 50% average lethal concentrations (LC50; 96 hours were 0.05 (guppy, 0.13 (zebrafish; 0.16 (mato grosso and 10.36 mg L-1 (pacu. Copper sulfate was extremely toxic for guppy, highly toxic for zebrafish and mato grosso and lightly toxic for pacu and presents environmental risk of high adverse effects on the guppy, zebrafish and mato grosso and moderate adverse effect to the pacu. Therefore, the guppy fish, zebrafish, and mato grosso are important alternatives for copper sulfate toxicity evaluation in waterbodies.

  2. Determination of Sulfate by Conductometric Titration: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jennifer; Schultz, Linda D.

    2016-01-01

    The classic technique for sulfate analysis in an undergraduate quantitative analysis lab involves precipitation as the barium salt with barium chloride, collection of the precipitate by gravity filtration using ashless filter paper, and removal of the filter paper by charring over a Bunsen burner. The entire process is time-consuming, hazardous,…

  3. Sulfate Reduction at Low Ph To Remediate Acid Mine Drainage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Andrea, I.; Sanz, J.L.; Bijmans, M.F.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities,

  4. Comparative evaluation of ankaferd blood stopper, ferric sulfate, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of the study was to provide a comparative evaluation of the clinical and radiographic success of Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS), formocresol (FC), and ferric sulfate (FS) as pulpotomy agent in primary teeth. Settings and Design: This is a clinical study. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 primary mandibular ...

  5. Alginate Sulfate-Nanocellulose Bioinks for Cartilage Bioprinting Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Michael; Öztürk, Ece; Arlov, Øystein; Gatenholm, Paul; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2017-01-01

    One of the challenges of bioprinting is to identify bioinks which support cell growth, tissue maturation, and ultimately the formation of functional grafts for use in regenerative medicine. The influence of this new biofabrication technology on biology of living cells, however, is still being evaluated. Recently we have identified a mitogenic hydrogel system based on alginate sulfate which potently supports chondrocyte phenotype, but is not printable due to its rheological properties (no yield point). To convert alginate sulfate to a printable bioink, it was combined with nanocellulose, which has been shown to possess very good printability. The alginate sulfate/nanocellulose ink showed good printing properties and the non-printed bioink material promoted cell spreading, proliferation, and collagen II synthesis by the encapsulated cells. When the bioink was printed, the biological performance of the cells was highly dependent on the nozzle geometry. Cell spreading properties were maintained with the lowest extrusion pressure and shear stress. However, extruding the alginate sulfate/nanocellulose bioink and chondrocytes significantly compromised cell proliferation, particularly when using small diameter nozzles and valves.

  6. Biogeography of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miletto, M.; Loy, A.; Antheunisse, A.M.; Loeb, R.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Laanbroek, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a large-scale field survey was conducted to describe the biogeography of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRPs) in river floodplains. Fingerprints obtained with three methods, i.e. 16S rRNA gene-based oligonucleotide microarray, dsrB-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)

  7. Post-flame gas-phase sulfation of potassium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Sun, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongshan

    2013-01-01

    The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously homogene......The sulfation of KCl during biomass combustion has implications for operation and emissions: it reduces the rates of deposition and corrosion, it increases the formation of aerosols, and it leads to higher concentrations of HCl and lower concentrations of SO2 in the gas phase. Rigorously...... homogeneous systems are required to characterize the gas-phase formation of alkali sulfates. We have measured the temperature and gas-phase concentrations of KCl and HCl, and detected the presence of aerosols in the post-flame region of a range of hydrocarbon flames seeded with KCl, with and without...... and HCl and aerosols formed, most pronounced in flames with the lowest post-flame temperatures. This shows that KCl is sulfated in the gas phase to K2SO4, and this is followed by homogeneous nucleation of K2SO4 to form aerosols. Predictions from a kinetic model of the S/Cl/K chemistry agreed well...

  8. Modeling of Sulfate Double-Salt in Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toghiani, B.; Lindner, J.S.; Weber, C.F.; Hunt, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) continues to adequately predict the solubility of most key chemical systems in the Hanford tank waste. For example, the ESP predictions were in fair agreement with the solubility experiments for the fluoride-phosphate system, although ESP probably underestimates the aqueous amounts. Due to the importance of this system in the formation of pipeline plugs, additional experiments have been made at elevated temperatures, and improvements to the ESP database will be made. ESP encountered problems with sulfate systems because the Public database for ESP does not include anhydrous sodium sulfate in mixed solutions below 32.4 C. This limitation leads to convergence problems and to spurious predictions of solubility near the transition point with sodium sulfate decahydrate when other salts such as sodium nitrate are present. However, ESP was able to make reasonable solubility predictions with a corrected database, demonstrating the need to validate and document the various databases that can be used by ESP. Even though ESP does not include the sulfate-nitrate double salt, this omission does not appear to be a major problem. The solubility predictions with and without the sulfate-nitrate double salt are comparable. In sharp contrast, the sulfate-fluoride double salt is included, but ESP still underestimates solubility in some cases. This problem can misrepresent the ionic strength of the solution, which is an important factor in the formation of pipeline plugs. Solubility tests on the sulfate-fluoride system are planned to provide additional data at higher temperatures and in caustic solutions. These results will be used to improve the range and accuracy of ESP predictions. ESP will continue to provide important predictions for waste processing operations while being evaluated and improved. For example, ESP will be used to determine the amount of water for the saltcake dissolution efforts at Hanford. When ESP underestimates the

  9. Isolation and characterization of anticoagulant compound from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharides found in the extracellular matrix and biological fluids of animals where they interact with hundreds of proteins and perform a variety of critical roles. There are five classes of animal GAGs: heparan sulfate (HS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), keratan ...

  10. Calcium-based stabilizer induced heave in Oklahoma sulfate-bearing soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The addition of lime stabilizers can create problems in soils containing sulfates. In most cases, lime is mixed with expansive soils rendering them non-expansive; however, when a certain amount of sulfate is present naturally in expansive soils, the ...

  11. Parameterization and evaluation of sulfate adsorption in a dynamic soil chemistry model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, Liisa; Alveteg, Mattias; Warfvinge, Per

    2003-01-01

    Including sulfate adsorption improves the dynamic behavior of the SAFE model. - Sulfate adsorption was implemented in the dynamic, multi-layer soil chemistry model SAFE. The process is modeled by an isotherm in which sulfate adsorption is considered to be fully reversible and dependent on sulfate concentration as well as pH in soil solution. The isotherm was parameterized by a site-specific series of simple batch experiments at different pH (3.8-5.0) and sulfate concentration (10-260 μmol l -1 ) levels. Application of the model to the Lake Gaardsjoen roof covered site shows that including sulfate adsorption improves the dynamic behavior of the model and sulfate adsorption and desorption delay acidification and recovery of the soil. The modeled adsorbed pool of sulfate at the site reached a maximum level of 700 mmol/m 2 in the late 1980s, well in line with experimental data

  12. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Chung

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that using Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate (blends, which act as acidifying agents by reducing the pH of the litter, was equally effective as aluminum sulfate in reducing the environmental impact.

  13. Sorption of carrier-free sulfate (35S) by diatomaceous earth pretreated with zirconium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, Ch.; Schoenfeld, T.

    1977-01-01

    By pretreating diatomaceous earth with zirconium ion solutions of pH 1.5-2.0, a good sorbent for carrier-free sulfate ( 35 S) from weakly acid solutions is obtained. In contrast, there is practically no sulfate sorption by untreated diatomaceous earth. As the pH is increased, sulfate sorption by the pretreated sorbent is suppressed. An increase in the concentration of Cl - or NO 3 - ions also reduces sorption. Analysis of the influence of the concentration of these ions on sulfate sorption shows that a 1:1 exchange process takes place, i.e. when one sulfate ion is sorbed it replaces one chloride (or nitrate) ion at a sorption site on the surface. The affinity of the Zr pretreated sorbent for sulfate is much greater than that for chloride or nitrate; an estimate of the mass action exchange constants sulfate-chloride and sulfate-nitrate leads to values between 10 3 and 10 4 . (author)

  14. Compounding around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding is universal in its prevalence. Variations in disease patterns, culture, and tradition; the role of government in health care; and the availability of essential equipment and required agents shape a compounding profile unique to each country worldwide. In the following reflections, pharmacists form Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Germany, Puerto Rico, Spain, and the United States describe their experiences in the compounding setting unique to their practice and their nation. The unifying theme in their comments is the dedication of each contributor to enabling recovery and ensuring the good health of his or her clients.

  15. Sulfate assimilation in eukaryotes: fusions, relocations and lateral transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durnford Dion G

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sulfate assimilation pathway is present in photosynthetic organisms, fungi, and many bacteria, providing reduced sulfur for the synthesis of cysteine and methionine and a range of other metabolites. In photosynthetic eukaryotes sulfate is reduced in the plastids whereas in aplastidic eukaryotes the pathway is cytosolic. The only known exception is Euglena gracilis, where the pathway is localized in mitochondria. To obtain an insight into the evolution of the sulfate assimilation pathway in eukaryotes and relationships of the differently compartmentalized isoforms we determined the locations of the pathway in lineages for which this was unknown and performed detailed phylogenetic analyses of three enzymes involved in sulfate reduction: ATP sulfurylase (ATPS, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR and sulfite reductase (SiR. Results The inheritance of ATPS, APR and the related 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (PAPR are remarkable, with multiple origins in the lineages that comprise the opisthokonts, different isoforms in chlorophytes and streptophytes, gene fusions with other enzymes of the pathway, evidence a eukaryote to prokaryote lateral gene transfer, changes in substrate specificity and two reversals of cellular location of host- and endosymbiont-originating enzymes. We also found that the ATPS and APR active in the mitochondria of Euglena were inherited from its secondary, green algal plastid. Conclusion Our results reveal a complex history for the enzymes of the sulfate assimilation pathway. Whilst they shed light on the origin of some characterised novelties, such as a recently described novel isoform of APR from Bryophytes and the origin of the pathway active in the mitochondria of Euglenids, the many distinct and novel isoforms identified here represent an excellent resource for detailed biochemical studies of the enzyme structure/function relationships.

  16. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use Modifies the Sulfation of Sex Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Isaac V; Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Mitchell, Matthew W; Jonsson, Thomas J; Yu, James; Shah, Naisha; Spector, Tim D; Guo, Lining; Venter, J Craig; Telenti, Amalio

    2018-02-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is one of the most common medications used for management of pain in the world. There is lack of consensus about the mechanism of action, and concern about the possibility of adverse effects on reproductive health. We first established the metabolome profile that characterizes use of acetaminophen, and we subsequently trained and tested a model that identified metabolomic differences across samples from 455 individuals with and without acetaminophen use. We validated the findings in a European ancestry adult twin cohort of 1880 individuals (TwinsUK), and in a study of 1235 individuals of African American and Hispanic ancestry. We used genomics to elucidate the mechanisms targeted by acetaminophen. We identified a distinctive pattern of depletion of sulfated sex hormones with use of acetaminophen across all populations. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to characterize the role of Sulfotransferase Family 2A Member 1 (SULT2A1) as the site of the interaction. Although CYP3A7-CYP3A51P variants also modified levels of some sulfated sex hormones, only acetaminophen use phenocopied the effect of genetic variants of SULT2A1. Overall, acetaminophen use, age, gender and SULT2A1 and CYP3A7-CYP3A51P genetic variants are key determinants of variation in levels of sulfated sex hormones in blood. The effect of taking acetaminophen on sulfated sex hormones was roughly equivalent to the effect of 35years of aging. These findings raise concerns of the impact of acetaminophen use on hormonal homeostasis. In addition, it modifies views on the mechanism of action of acetaminophen in pain management as sulfated sex hormones can function as neurosteroids and modify nociceptive thresholds. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Glycan Sulfation Modulates Dendritic Cell Biology and Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland El Ghazal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In cancer, proteoglycans have been found to play roles in facilitating the actions of growth factors, and effecting matrix invasion and remodeling. However, little is known regarding the genetic and functional importance of glycan chains displayed by proteoglycans on dendritic cells (DCs in cancer immunity. In lung carcinoma, among other solid tumors, tumor-associated DCs play largely subversive/suppressive roles, promoting tumor growth and progression. Herein, we show that targeting of DC glycan sulfation through mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1 in mice increased DC maturation and inhibited trafficking of DCs to draining lymph nodes. Lymphatic-driven DC migration and chemokine (CCL21-dependent activation of a major signaling pathway required for DC migration (as measured by phospho-Akt were sensitive to Ndst1 mutation in DCs. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in mice deficient in Ndst1 were reduced in size. Purified CD11c+ cells from the tumors, which contain the tumor-infiltrating DC population, showed a similar phenotype in mutant cells. These features were replicated in mice deficient in syndecan-4, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the DC surface: Tumors were growth-impaired in syndecan-4–deficient mice and were characterized by increased infiltration by mature DCs. Tumors on the mutant background also showed greater infiltration by NK cells and NKT cells. These findings indicate the genetic importance of DC heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tumor growth and may guide therapeutic development of novel strategies to target syndecan-4 and heparan sulfate in cancer.

  18. Metal-organic framework based on copper(I) sulfate and 4,4'-bipyridine catalyzes the cyclopropanation of styrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Fanian; Silva, Ana Rosa; Rocha, Joao

    2011-01-01

    The hydrothermal synthesis of a new metal-organic framework (MOF) formulated as Cu 2 (4,4'-bpy) 2 SO 4 .6(H 2 O), [abbreviation: (1); bpy or 4,4'-bpy=4,4'-bipyridine; SO 4 2- =sulfate group] has been reported. The structure of this MOF consists of Cu + nodes connected via 4,4'-bpy to form infinite chains, with two neighboring chains further bridged on the nodes by SO 4 2- , resulting in a 1-D double chain network. Guest water molecules reside in between the chains and are hydrogen-bonded to the O and S atoms from the nearest sulfate groups, leading to the formation of a 3-D supramolecular framework. This MOF is good heterogeneous catalyst for the cyclopropanation of styrene, with high trans cyclopropane diastereoselectivity and was recycled and reused for three consecutive cycles without a significant loss of catalytic activity. - Graphical Abstract: A new MOF structure built up of 4,4 ' -bipyridine, sulphate and Cu(I), is an active heterogeneous catalyst for cyclopropanation of styrene with ethyldiazoacetate. Highlights: → The synthesis is different from solvothermal synthesis for other Cu(I) compounds. → The compound and the structure are new. → H bonds form infinite planes among water molecules and sulphate species. → H bonding interaction makes the structure into a 3D supramolecular framework. → Active catalytic property as heterogeneous catalyst for cyclopropanation of styrene.

  19. On the hygroscopic growth of ammoniated sulfate particles of non-stoichiometric composition

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkola, H.; Joutsensaari, J.; Hyppönen, N.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Laaksonen, A.

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The hygroscopic growth of ammoniated sulfate particles was studied by measurements and model calculations for particles with varying ammonium-to-sulfate ratio. In the measurements, the ammonium-to-sulfate ratio was adjusted by using mixtures of ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate in generating the solid particles. The hygroscopic growth was measured using a tandem differential mobility analyzer. The measurements were simulated using a thermodynamical equilibrium mo...

  20. Quantification and isotopic analysis of intracellular sulfur metabolites in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Min Sub; Paris, Guillaume; Adkins, Jess F.; Orphan, Victoria J.; Sessions, Alex L.

    2017-06-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction exhibits a normal isotope effect, leaving unreacted sulfate enriched in 34S and producing sulfide that is depleted in 34S. However, the magnitude of sulfur isotope fractionation is quite variable. The resulting changes in sulfur isotope abundance have been used to trace microbial sulfate reduction in modern and ancient ecosystems, but the intracellular mechanism(s) underlying the wide range of fractionations remains unclear. Here we report the concentrations and isotopic ratios of sulfur metabolites in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway of Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Intracellular sulfate and APS levels change depending on the growth phase, peaking at the end of exponential phase, while sulfite accumulates in the cell during stationary phase. During exponential growth, intracellular sulfate and APS are strongly enriched in 34S. The fractionation between internal and external sulfate is up to 49‰, while at the same time that between external sulfate and sulfide is just a few permil. We interpret this pattern to indicate that enzymatic fractionations remain large but the net fractionation between sulfate and sulfide is muted by the closed-system limitation of intracellular sulfate. This 'reservoir effect' diminishes upon cessation of exponential phase growth, allowing the expression of larger net sulfur isotope fractionations. Thus, the relative rates of sulfate exchange across the membrane versus intracellular sulfate reduction should govern the overall (net) fractionation that is expressed. A strong reservoir effect due to vigorous sulfate reduction might be responsible for the well-established inverse correlation between sulfur isotope fractionation and the cell-specific rate of sulfate reduction, while at the same time intraspecies differences in sulfate uptake and/or exchange rates could account for the significant scatter in this relationship. Our approach, together with ongoing investigations of the kinetic isotope