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Sample records for neotropical mangrove species

  1. Leaf gas exchange characteristics of three neotropical mangrove species in response to varying hydroperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Twilley, Robert R.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Gardiner, Emile S.

    2006-01-01

    We determined how different hydroperiods affected leaf gas exchange characteristics of greenhouse-grown seedlings (2002) and saplings (2003) of the mangrove species Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f., and Rhizophora mangle L. Hydroperiod treatments included no flooding (unflooded), intermittent flooding (intermittent), and permanent flooding (flooded). Plants in the intermittent treatment were measured under both flooded and drained states and compared separately. In the greenhouse study, plants of all species maintained different leaf areas in the contrasting hydroperiods during both years. Assimilation–light response curves indicated that the different hydroperiods had little effect on leaf gas exchange characteristics in either seedlings or saplings. However, short-term intermittent flooding for between 6 and 22 days caused a 20% reduction in maximum leaf-level carbon assimilation rate, a 51% lower light requirement to attain 50% of maximum assimilation, and a 38% higher demand from dark respiration. Although interspecific differences were evident for nearly all measured parameters in both years, there was little consistency in ranking of the interspecific responses. Species by hydroperiod interactions were significant only for sapling leaf area. In a field study, R. mangle saplings along the Shark River in the Everglades National Park either demonstrated no significant effect or slight enhancement of carbon assimilation and water-use efficiency while flooded. We obtained little evidence that contrasting hydroperiods affect leaf gas exchange characteristics of mangrove seedlings or saplings over long time intervals; however, intermittent flooding may cause short-term depressions in leaf gas exchange. The resilience of mangrove systems to flooding, as demonstrated in the permanently flooded treatments, will likely promote photosynthetic and morphological adjustment to slight hydroperiod shifts in many settings..

  2. Pollinator-mediated competition between two co-flowering Neotropical mangrove species, Avicennia germinans (Avicenniaceae) and Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Three ecological relationships are possible between co-flowering plant species; they may have no effect on one another, compete for pollination services, or facilitate one another by attracting more pollinators to the area. In this study, the pollinator-mediated relationship between two mangrove species with overlapping flowering phenologies was investigated in one south Florida community. Methods Pollinator observations were recorded between 0900 h and 1700 h during June and July, 2008–2010. Insect visitation rates to Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa were estimated from 522 observation intervals of 10 min during three phenological time periods, when each species flowered alone and when they co-flowered. The number of timed intervals varied between years due to differences in flowering phenology, from four to 42 for A. germinans and from nine to 94 for L. racemosa. Key Results Avicennia germinans began flowering first in all years, and insect visitation rates were significantly greater to A. germinans than to L. racemosa (P<0·001). Flowers of both species received visits from bees, wasps, flies and butterflies; Apis mellifera was the most common floral visitor to both species. Visitation rates to L. racemosa increased significantly when A. germinans stopped flowering (P<0·001). However, there was no significant change in visitation rates to A. germinans after L. racemosa began flowering (P=0·628). Conclusions When they co-flowered, A. germinans outcompeted L. racemosa for pollinators. Laguncularia racemosa hermaphrodites self-pollinate autogamously when not visited by insects, so reduced visitation to L. racemosa flowers reduced the frequency of outcrossing and increased the frequency of selfing. Reduced outcrossing limits male reproductive success in this androdioecious species, which could lead to changes in the breeding system. The degree of overlap in flowering phenologies varied between years, so the effect on the mating

  3. Pollinator-mediated competition between two co-flowering Neotropical mangrove species, Avicennia germinans (Avicenniaceae) and Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, C L

    2013-02-01

    Three ecological relationships are possible between co-flowering plant species; they may have no effect on one another, compete for pollination services, or facilitate one another by attracting more pollinators to the area. In this study, the pollinator-mediated relationship between two mangrove species with overlapping flowering phenologies was investigated in one south Florida community. Pollinator observations were recorded between 0900 h and 1700 h during June and July, 2008-2010. Insect visitation rates to Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa were estimated from 522 observation intervals of 10 min during three phenological time periods, when each species flowered alone and when they co-flowered. The number of timed intervals varied between years due to differences in flowering phenology, from four to 42 for A. germinans and from nine to 94 for L. racemosa. Avicennia germinans began flowering first in all years, and insect visitation rates were significantly greater to A. germinans than to L. racemosa (P<0·001). Flowers of both species received visits from bees, wasps, flies and butterflies; Apis mellifera was the most common floral visitor to both species. Visitation rates to L. racemosa increased significantly when A. germinans stopped flowering (P<0·001). However, there was no significant change in visitation rates to A. germinans after L. racemosa began flowering (P=0·628). When they co-flowered, A. germinans outcompeted L. racemosa for pollinators. Laguncularia racemosa hermaphrodites self-pollinate autogamously when not visited by insects, so reduced visitation to L. racemosa flowers reduced the frequency of outcrossing and increased the frequency of selfing. Reduced outcrossing limits male reproductive success in this androdioecious species, which could lead to changes in the breeding system. The degree of overlap in flowering phenologies varied between years, so the effect on the mating and breeding system may differ between years.

  4. Patterns and individual-based modeling of spatial competition within two main components of Neotropical mangrove ecosystems.

    OpenAIRE

    Piou, Cyril

    2007-01-01

    The main focus of the thesis was to look at the role of competition in shaping the spatial organization of two main components of Neotropical mangrove ecosystems. The first component was the Caribbean mangrove tree community. The second was populations of an ecologically and economically important mangrove burrowing crab in North-Brazil: Ucides cordatus. These two components were studied in two respective parts with one field and two individual-based modeling studies each. The two individual-...

  5. Montane and cloud forest specialists among neotropical Xylaria species

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean Lodge; Thomas L& #230; ss& #248; e; M. Catherine Aime; Terry W. Henkel; M. Catherine Aime; Terry W. Henkel

    2008-01-01

    We compared recored of neotropical Xylaria species among Belize, Ecuador, the Guianas, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Venezuela to determine if there were neotropical taxa consistently found only in cloud forest or high montane forests that might be endangered by climate change.

  6. mangrove litter production and seasonality of dominant species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.A

    Mangrove litterfall usually exhibits seasonal variation influenced by several factors including geographical location, rainfall ... species variation in litter production of three dominant mangrove species in Zanzibar, namely. Avicennia marina ..... contributions to soil nutriment in a mangrove of French Guiana French. Canadian.

  7. Sap flow characteristics of neotropical mangroves in flooded and drained soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Young, P. Joy; Chambers, Jim L.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of flooding on water transport in mangroves have previously been investigated in a few studies, most of which were conducted on seedlings in controlled settings. In this study, we used heat-dissipation sap probes to determine if sap flow (Js) attenuates with radial depth into the xylem of mature trees of three south Florida mangrove species growing in Rookery Bay. This was accomplished by inserting sap probes at multiple depths and monitoring diurnal flow. For most species and diameter size class combinations tested, Js decreased dramatically beyond a radial depth of 2 or 4 cm, with little sap flow beyond a depth of 6 cm. Mean Js was reduced on average by 20% in Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. and Rhizophora mangle L. trees when soils were flooded. Species differences were highly significant, with L. racemosahaving the greatest midday Js of about 26g H2O H2O m−2s−1 at a radial depth of 2 cm compared with a mean for the other two species of about 15 g H2O m−2s−1. Sap flow at a depth of 2 cm in mangroves was commensurate with rates reported for other forested wetland tree species. We conclude that: (1) early spring flooding of basin mangrove forests causes reductions in sap flow in mature mangrove trees; (2) the sharp attenuations in Js along the radial profile have implications for understanding whole-tree water use strategies by mangrove forests; and (3) regardless of flood state, individual mangrove tree water use follows leaf-level mechanisms in being conservative.

  8. Pollutants Removal Efficiency of two Mangroves Species ( Avicennia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the performance of mangrove on nutrient removal, it was concluded that the two mangrove species could be used as phytoremediators of domestic wastewater in mangroves constructed wetlands in coastal areas. Key words: Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata, domestic sewage, inundation.

  9. Restoration of mangrove plantations and colonisation by native species in Leizhou bay, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Shuguang Jian; Hongfang Lu; Qianmei Zhang; Weijun Shen; Weidong Han; Zuoyun Yin; Qinfeng Guo

    2008-01-01

    To examine the natural colonisation of native mangrove species into remediated exotic mangrove stands in Leizhou Bay, South China, we compared soil physical–chemical properties, community structure and recruitments of barren mangrove areas, native mangrove species plantations, and exotic mangrove species—Sonneratia apetala Buch.Ham—between plantations and natural...

  10. Mangroves as alien species: the case of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Allen

    1998-01-01

    Prior to the early 1900s, there were no mangroves in the Hawaiian Archipelago. In 1902, Rhizophora mangle was introduced on the island of Molokai, primarily for the purpose of stabilizing coastal mud flats. This species is now well established in Hawaii, and is found on nearly all of the major islands. At least five other species of mangroves or...

  11. New species of Annonaceae from the Neotropics and miscellaneaous notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper six new Neotropical species in four genera are described, viz. Annona oxapampae, Duguetia vaupesana, Guatteria castilloi, G. pachyphylla, G. sanctae-crucis and Pseudoxandra xylopiifolia. Furthermore additional data on four poorly known species of Guatteria (G. denudata, G. glauca, G.

  12. New species of Annonaceae from the Neotropics and miscellaneous notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper six new Neotropical species in four genera are described, viz. Annona oxapampae, Duguetia vaupesana, Guatteria castilloi, G. pachyphylla, G. sanctae-crucis and Pseudoxandra xylopiifolia. Furthermore additional data on four poorly known species of Guatteria (G. denudata, G. glauca, G.

  13. DNA barcode detects high genetic structure within neotropical bird species.

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    Erika Sendra Tavares

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Towards lower latitudes the number of recognized species is not only higher, but also phylogeographic subdivision within species is more pronounced. Moreover, new genetically isolated populations are often described in recent phylogenies of Neotropical birds suggesting that the number of species in the region is underestimated. Previous COI barcoding of Argentinean bird species showed more complex patterns of regional divergence in the Neotropical than in the North American avifauna. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we analyzed 1,431 samples from 561 different species to extend the Neotropical bird barcode survey to lower latitudes, and detected even higher geographic structure within species than reported previously. About 93% (520 of the species were identified correctly from their DNA barcodes. The remaining 41 species were not monophyletic in their COI sequences because they shared barcode sequences with closely related species (N = 21 or contained very divergent clusters suggestive of putative new species embedded within the gene tree (N = 20. Deep intraspecific divergences overlapping with among-species differences were detected in 48 species, often with samples from large geographic areas and several including multiple subspecies. This strong population genetic structure often coincided with breaks between different ecoregions or areas of endemism. CONCLUSIONS: The taxonomic uncertainty associated with the high incidence of non-monophyletic species and discovery of putative species obscures studies of historical patterns of species diversification in the Neotropical region. We showed that COI barcodes are a valuable tool to indicate which taxa would benefit from more extensive taxonomic revisions with multilocus approaches. Moreover, our results support hypotheses that the megadiversity of birds in the region is associated with multiple geographic processes starting well before the Quaternary and extending to more recent

  14. Litter fall and decomposition of mangrove species Avicennia marina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Litter fall and decomposition of mangrove leaves were compared for different seasons, species (Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata) and sites in southern Mozambique. Mangrove leaf litter fall and decomposition was estimated using small mesh collecting-baskets and litter bags respectively in 2006 and ...

  15. Growth Response of Selected Mangrove Species to Domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sewage system of Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania, serves only 15% of the population, making sewage one of the leading sources of marine pollution. This study was initiated to assess the potential of peri-urban mangrove forests as filters and phyto-remediators of sewage and the growth of two mangrove species under ...

  16. Genetic variation of mangrove species Avicennia marina in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mangroves play an essential role in ecosystem dynamics but are reported to be regressing as human pressure increases on coastal zones. In order to ensure conservation of mangroves, genetic diversity in remaining population must be explored. Since Avicennia marina is an environmentally susceptible species, such ...

  17. Mangrove forest exploration of Tambelan And Serasan Islands: Species composition, mapping of mangrove forest distribution and potential threat

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    YAYA IHYA ULUMUDDIN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Ulumuddin YI, Setyawan AD. 2017. Mangrove forest exploration of Tambelan And Serasan Islands: Species composition, mapping of mangrove forest distribution and potential threat. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 45-55. Knowledge of the exact species plant composition of mangroves in any country or government is a basic and an important prerequisite to understanding all the aspects of structure and function of mangroves, as well as their conservation and management. The present study is going to describe the results of Natuna Sea Expedition, involving the inventory of mangrove species, mangrove forest mapping, and interview about mangrove use. This expedition has been conducted at 4th-16th November 2010 in Tambelan and Serasan Islands, Natuna Waters, Riau Archipelago. The inventory was conducted by survey method through the mangrove area, and the mapping was conducted by satellite imagery interpretation of ALOS AVNIR-2 acquisitions year 2009 and 2010, combined with the data field of mangrove position. There were 18 mangrove species and 31 associates species in Tambelan and Serasan Islands, which were the destination of the expedition. The vegetation was distributed in mangrove forests in the bays, the stream narrows, and covered islands. Mangrove forests in such two islands have not been treated significantly, but there was threat potential regarding of the tendency to occupy mangrove area for the homeland.

  18. Challenges and perspectives for species distribution modelling in the neotropics

    OpenAIRE

    Kamino, Luciana H. Y.; Stehmann, João Renato; Amaral, Silvana; De Marco, Paulo; Rangel, Thiago F.; de Siqueira, Marinez F.; De Giovanni, Renato; Hortal, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    The workshop ‘Species distribution models: applications, challenges and perspectives’ held at Belo Horizonte (Brazil), 29–30 August 2011, aimed to review the state-of-the-art in species distribution modelling (SDM) in the neotropical realm. It brought together researchers in ecology, evolution, biogeography and conservation, with different backgrounds and research interests. The application of SDM in the megadiverse neotropics—where data on species occurrences are scarce—presents several chal...

  19. Comparison of different discriminant functions for mangrove species analysis in Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve (MMFR), Perak based on statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Boon Chun; Tan, Kok Chooi; Mat Jafri, Mohd. Zubir; Lim, Hwee San

    2017-10-01

    Mangroves are known as salt-tolerant evergreen forests, whereas its create land-ocean interface ecosystems. Besides, mangroves bring direct and indirect benefits to human activities and play a major role as significant habitat for sustaining biodiversity. However, mangrove ecosystem study based on the mangrove species are very crucial to get a better understanding of their characteristics and ways to separate among them. In this paper, discriminant functions obtained using statistical approach were used to generate the score range for six mangrove species (Rhizophora apiculata, Acrostichum aurem, Acrostichum speciosum, Acanthus ilicifolius, Ceriops tagal and Sonneratia ovata) in Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve (MMFR), Perak. With the computation of score range for each species, the fraction of the species can be determined using the proposed algorithm. The results indicate that by using 11 discriminant functions out of 16 are more effective to separate the mangrove species as the higher accuracy was obtained. Overall, the determination of leaf sample's species is chosen base on the highest fraction measured among the six mangrove species. The obtained accuracy for mangrove species using statistical approach is low since it is impossible to successfully separate all the mangrove species in leaf level using their inherent reflectance properties. However, the obtained accuracy results are satisfactory and able to discriminate the examined mangrove species at species scale.

  20. Mangrove species' responses to winter air temperature extremes in China

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    Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Li, Qingshun Q.; Zhang, Yihui; Yang, Shengchang; Osland, Michael J.; Huang, Jinliang; Peng, Congjiao

    2017-01-01

    The global distribution and diversity of mangrove forests is greatly influenced by the frequency and intensity of winter air temperature extremes. However, our understanding of how different mangrove species respond to winter temperature extremes has been lacking because extreme freezing and chilling events are, by definition, relatively uncommon and also difficult to replicate experimentally. In this study, we investigated species-specific variation in mangrove responses to winter temperature extremes in China. In 10 sites that span a latitudinal gradient, we quantified species-specific damage and recovery following a chilling event, for mangrove species within and outside of their natural range (i.e., native and non-native species, respectively). To characterize plant stress, we measured tree defoliation and chlorophyll fluorescence approximately one month following the chilling event. To quantify recovery, we measured chlorophyll fluorescence approximately nine months after the chilling event. Our results show high variation in the geographic- and species-specific responses of mangroves to winter temperature extremes. While many species were sensitive to the chilling temperatures (e.g., Bruguiera sexangula and species in the Sonneratia and Rhizophora genera), the temperatures during this event were not cold enough to affect certain species (e.g., Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza). As expected, non-native species were less tolerant of winter temperature extremes than native species. Interestingly, tidal inundation modulated the effects of chilling. In comparison with other temperature-controlled mangrove range limits across the world, the mangrove range limit in China is unique due to the combination of the following three factors: (1) Mangrove species diversity is comparatively high; (2) winter air temperature extremes, rather than means, are particularly intense and play an important ecological

  1. A new subgenus and species of Neotropical Trichomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Maíra Xavier Araújo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A singular group of 19 species of Neotropical Trichomyia Haliday in Curtis, 1839 presents four segments in the palpus, the first two partially fused; five of these species were included in the subgenus Opisthotrichomyia Bravo, 2001 and seven in the subgenus BrachiotrichomyiaBravo & Araújo, 2013. A new species from Brazil is described and a new subgenus proposed for four Neotropical species of this morphological group: T. biloba Quate, 1999 from Panama, and T. onorei Bravo, 2002, T. queirozi Bravo, 2002 and T. horrida sp. nov. from Brazil. Syntrichomyia subgen. nov. can be recognized by its fused gonocoxites and gonostyli, and by its bilobed hypoproct. A key to the known species (males of this new subgenus is presented.

  2. Evolution of Philodendron (Araceae species in Neotropical biomes

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    Leticia Loss-Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Philodendron is the second most diverse genus of the Araceae, a tropical monocot family with significant morphological diversity along its wide geographic distribution in the Neotropics. Although evolutionary studies of Philodendron were conducted in recent years, the phylogenetic relationship among its species remains unclear. Additionally, analyses conducted to date suggested the inclusion of all American representatives of a closely-related genus, Homalomena, within the Philodendron clade. A thorough evaluation of the phylogeny and timescale of these lineages is thus necessary to elucidate the tempo and mode of evolution of this large Neotropical genus and to unveil the biogeographic history of Philodendron evolution along the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests as well as open dry forests of South America. To this end, we have estimated the molecular phylogeny for 68 Philodendron species, which consists of the largest sampling assembled to date aiming the study of the evolutionary affinities. We have also performed ancestral reconstruction of species distribution along biomes. Finally, we contrasted these results with the inferred timescale of Philodendron and Homalomena lineage diversification. Our estimates indicate that American Homalomena is the sister clade to Philodendron. The early diversification of Philodendron took place in the Amazon forest from Early to Middle Miocene, followed by colonization of the Atlantic forest and the savanna-like landscapes, respectively. Based on the age of the last common ancestor of Philodendron, the species of this genus diversified by rapid radiations, leading to its wide extant distribution in the Neotropical region.

  3. Evolution of Philodendron (Araceae) species in Neotropical biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss-Oliveira, Leticia; Sakuragui, Cassia; Soares, Maria de Lourdes; Schrago, Carlos G

    2016-01-01

    Philodendron is the second most diverse genus of the Araceae, a tropical monocot family with significant morphological diversity along its wide geographic distribution in the Neotropics. Although evolutionary studies of Philodendron were conducted in recent years, the phylogenetic relationship among its species remains unclear. Additionally, analyses conducted to date suggested the inclusion of all American representatives of a closely-related genus, Homalomena, within the Philodendron clade. A thorough evaluation of the phylogeny and timescale of these lineages is thus necessary to elucidate the tempo and mode of evolution of this large Neotropical genus and to unveil the biogeographic history of Philodendron evolution along the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests as well as open dry forests of South America. To this end, we have estimated the molecular phylogeny for 68 Philodendron species, which consists of the largest sampling assembled to date aiming the study of the evolutionary affinities. We have also performed ancestral reconstruction of species distribution along biomes. Finally, we contrasted these results with the inferred timescale of Philodendron and Homalomena lineage diversification. Our estimates indicate that American Homalomena is the sister clade to Philodendron. The early diversification of Philodendron took place in the Amazon forest from Early to Middle Miocene, followed by colonization of the Atlantic forest and the savanna-like landscapes, respectively. Based on the age of the last common ancestor of Philodendron, the species of this genus diversified by rapid radiations, leading to its wide extant distribution in the Neotropical region.

  4. Evolution of Philodendron (Araceae) species in Neotropical biomes

    OpenAIRE

    Loss-Oliveira, Leticia; Sakuragui, Cassia; Soares, Maria de Lourdes; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Philodendron is the second most diverse genus of the Araceae, a tropical monocot family with significant morphological diversity along its wide geographic distribution in the Neotropics. Although evolutionary studies of Philodendron were conducted in recent years, the phylogenetic relationship among its species remains unclear. Additionally, analyses conducted to date suggested the inclusion of all American representatives of a closely-related genus, Homalomena, within the Philodendron clade....

  5. Essential Oils from Neotropical Piper Species and Their Biological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Trindade, Rafaela; Alves, Nayara Sabrina; Figueiredo, Pablo Luís; Maia, José Guilherme S.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    The Piper genus is the most representative of the Piperaceae reaching around 2000 species distributed in the pantropical region. In the Neotropics, its species are represented by herbs, shrubs, and lianas, which are used in traditional medicine to prepare teas and infusions. Its essential oils (EOs) present high yield and are chemically constituted by complex mixtures or the predominance of main volatile constituents. The chemical composition of Piper EOs displays interspecific or intraspecific variations, according to the site of collection or seasonality. The main volatile compounds identified in Piper EOs are monoterpenes hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and large amounts of phenylpropanoids. In this review, we are reporting the biological potential of Piper EOs from the Neotropical region. There are many reports of Piper EOs as antimicrobial agents (fungi and bacteria), antiprotozoal (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma spp.), acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity against different tumor cells lines (breast, leukemia, melanoma, gastric, among others). These studies can contribute to the rational and economic exploration of Piper species, once they have been identified as potent natural and alternative sources to treat human diseases. PMID:29240662

  6. Status of neotropical migrant landbirds in the Midwest: identifying species of management concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R. Thompson; Stephen J. Lewis; Janet D. Green; David N. Ewert

    1993-01-01

    We ranked species of neotropical migrant landbirds by decreasing management concern for their viability in the Midwest. This was part of a coordinated effort by regional working groups of the Partners In Flight Program, an interagency program for the conservation of neotropical migratory birds (NTMBs). Species were ranked by seven criteria, developed by working group...

  7. Mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, S.; Untawale, A.G.

    by physical nature of the substratum, estuarine environment and nature of the coast. Mangroves tend to be extensive on the stable, and subsiding coast. Mangroves along India, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand are luxuriant, whereas in the countries...

  8. Challenges and perspectives for species distribution modelling in the neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamino, Luciana H. Y.; Stehmann, João Renato; Amaral, Silvana; De Marco, Paulo; Rangel, Thiago F.; de Siqueira, Marinez F.; De Giovanni, Renato; Hortal, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    The workshop ‘Species distribution models: applications, challenges and perspectives’ held at Belo Horizonte (Brazil), 29–30 August 2011, aimed to review the state-of-the-art in species distribution modelling (SDM) in the neotropical realm. It brought together researchers in ecology, evolution, biogeography and conservation, with different backgrounds and research interests. The application of SDM in the megadiverse neotropics—where data on species occurrences are scarce—presents several challenges, involving acknowledging the limitations imposed by data quality, including surveys as an integral part of SDM studies, and designing the analyses in accordance with the question investigated. Specific solutions were discussed, and a code of good practice in SDM studies and related field surveys was drafted. PMID:22031720

  9. Distribution and diversity of mangrove species in Gokana Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plots 1 and 2 were dominated by Rhizophora racemosa (62.07% and 41.17% respectively). Plots 3 were dominated by R. mangle (4 1.67%) while Plots 4 had 26.56% of Acrostichum aureum and 26.56% of Phoenix reclinata. The overlapping mangrove species occurrence (Laguncularia racemosa and R. mangle) at the ...

  10. An updated index to genera, species, and infraspecific taxa of Neotropical Annonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Westra, L.I.T.; Rainer, H.; Lobao, A.Q.; Erkens, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Annonaceae form the most diverse family within the Magnoliales. In 1990 an Index to generic names of Annonaceae was published and in 1994 an Index to Neotropical species of Annonaceae was compiled. Especially the latter proved an immensely useful tool for Neotropical botanists. Here, we present an

  11. Restoration of mangrove plantations and colonisation by native species in Leizhou bay, South China

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    Ren, H.; Jian, S.; Lu, H.; Zhang, Q.; Shen, W.; Han, W.; Yin, Z.; Guo, Q.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the natural colonisation of native mangrove species into remediated exotic mangrove stands in Leizhou Bay, South China, we compared soil physical-chemical properties, community structure and recruitments of barren mangrove areas, native mangrove species plantations, and exotic mangrove species-Sonneratia apetala Buch.Ham-between plantations and natural forest. We found that severely degraded mangrove stands could not regenerate naturally without human intervention due to severely altered local environments, whereas some native species had been recruited into the 4-10 year S. apetala plantations. In the first 10 years, the exotic species S. apetala grew better than native species such as Rhizophora stylosa Griff and Kandelia candel (Linn.) Druce. The mangrove plantation gradually affected soil physical and chemical properties during its recovery. The exotic S. apetala was more competitive than native species and its plantation was able to restore soil organic matter in about 14 years. Thus, S. apetala can be considered as a pioneer species to improve degraded habitats to facilitate recolonisation by native mangrove species. However, removal to control proliferation may be needed at late stages to facilitate growth of native species. To ensure sustainability of mangroves in South China, the existing mangrove wetlands must be managed as an ecosystem, with long-term scientific monitoring program in place. ?? 2007 The Ecological Society of Japan.

  12. Neotropical bats: estimating species diversity with DNA barcodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Clare

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI is frequently employed as an efficient method of species identification in animal life and may also be used to estimate species richness, particularly in understudied faunas. Despite numerous past demonstrations of the efficiency of this technique, few studies have attempted to employ DNA barcoding methodologies on a large geographic scale, particularly within tropical regions. In this study we survey current and potential species diversity using DNA barcodes with a collection of more than 9000 individuals from 163 species of Neotropical bats (order Chiroptera. This represents one of the largest surveys to employ this strategy on any animal group and is certainly the largest to date for land vertebrates. Our analysis documents the utility of this tool over great geographic distances and across extraordinarily diverse habitats. Among the 163 included species 98.8% possessed distinct sets of COI haplotypes making them easily recognizable at this locus. We detected only a single case of shared haplotypes. Intraspecific diversity in the region was high among currently recognized species (mean of 1.38%, range 0-11.79% with respect to birds, though comparable to other bat assemblages. In 44 of 163 cases, well-supported, distinct intraspecific lineages were identified which may suggest the presence of cryptic species though mean and maximum intraspecific divergence were not good predictors of their presence. In all cases, intraspecific lineages require additional investigation using complementary molecular techniques and additional characters such as morphology and acoustic data. Our analysis provides strong support for the continued assembly of DNA barcoding libraries and ongoing taxonomic investigation of bats.

  13. Contrasting demographic history and gene flow patterns of two mangrove species on either side of the Central American Isthmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón-Souza, Ivania; Gonzalez, Elena G; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Rivera-Ocasio, Elsie; Toro-Perea, Nelson; Bermingham, Eldredge; McMillan, W Owen

    2015-08-01

    Comparative phylogeography offers a unique opportunity to understand the interplay between past environmental events and life-history traits on diversification of unrelated but co-distributed species. Here, we examined the effects of the quaternary climate fluctuations and palaeomarine currents and present-day marine currents on the extant patterns of genetic diversity in the two most conspicuous mangrove species of the Neotropics. The black (Avicennia germinans, Avicenniaceae) and the red (Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophoraceae) mangroves have similar geographic ranges but are very distantly related and show striking differences on their life-history traits. We sampled 18 Atlantic and 26 Pacific locations for A. germinans (N = 292) and R. mangle (N = 422). We performed coalescence simulations using microsatellite diversity to test for evidence of population change associated with quaternary climate fluctuations. In addition, we examined whether patterns of genetic variation were consistent with the directions of major marine (historical and present day) currents in the region. Our demographic analysis was grounded within a phylogeographic framework provided by the sequence analysis of two chloroplasts and one flanking microsatellite region in a subsample of individuals. The two mangrove species shared similar biogeographic histories including: (1) strong genetic breaks between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins associated with the final closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI), (2) evidence for simultaneous population declines between the mid-Pleistocene and early Holocene, (3) asymmetric historical migration with higher gene flow from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans following the direction of the palaeomarine current, and (4) contemporary gene flow between West Africa and South America following the major Atlantic Ocean currents. Despite the remarkable differences in life-history traits of mangrove species, which should have had a strong influence on seed

  14. Contrasting demographic history and gene flow patterns of two mangrove species on either side of the Central American Isthmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón-Souza, Ivania; Gonzalez, Elena G; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Rivera-Ocasio, Elsie; Toro-Perea, Nelson; Bermingham, Eldredge; McMillan, W Owen

    2015-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography offers a unique opportunity to understand the interplay between past environmental events and life-history traits on diversification of unrelated but co-distributed species. Here, we examined the effects of the quaternary climate fluctuations and palaeomarine currents and present-day marine currents on the extant patterns of genetic diversity in the two most conspicuous mangrove species of the Neotropics. The black (Avicennia germinans, Avicenniaceae) and the red (Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophoraceae) mangroves have similar geographic ranges but are very distantly related and show striking differences on their life-history traits. We sampled 18 Atlantic and 26 Pacific locations for A. germinans (N = 292) and R. mangle (N = 422). We performed coalescence simulations using microsatellite diversity to test for evidence of population change associated with quaternary climate fluctuations. In addition, we examined whether patterns of genetic variation were consistent with the directions of major marine (historical and present day) currents in the region. Our demographic analysis was grounded within a phylogeographic framework provided by the sequence analysis of two chloroplasts and one flanking microsatellite region in a subsample of individuals. The two mangrove species shared similar biogeographic histories including: (1) strong genetic breaks between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins associated with the final closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI), (2) evidence for simultaneous population declines between the mid-Pleistocene and early Holocene, (3) asymmetric historical migration with higher gene flow from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans following the direction of the palaeomarine current, and (4) contemporary gene flow between West Africa and South America following the major Atlantic Ocean currents. Despite the remarkable differences in life-history traits of mangrove species, which should have had a strong influence on seed

  15. The loss of species: mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidoro, Beth A; Carpenter, Kent E; Collins, Lorna; Duke, Norman C; Ellison, Aaron M; Ellison, Joanna C; Farnsworth, Elizabeth J; Fernando, Edwino S; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Koedam, Nico E; Livingstone, Suzanne R; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Moore, Gregg E; Ngoc Nam, Vien; Ong, Jin Eong; Primavera, Jurgenne H; Salmo, Severino G; Sanciangco, Jonnell C; Sukardjo, Sukristijono; Wang, Yamin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong

    2010-04-08

    Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of the 70 known species of mangroves. Each species' probability of extinction was assessed under the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Eleven of the 70 mangrove species (16%) are at elevated threat of extinction. Particular areas of geographical concern include the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Central America, where as many as 40% of mangroves species present are threatened with extinction. Across the globe, mangrove species found primarily in the high intertidal and upstream estuarine zones, which often have specific freshwater requirements and patchy distributions, are the most threatened because they are often the first cleared for development of aquaculture and agriculture. The loss of mangrove species will have devastating economic and environmental consequences for coastal communities, especially in those areas with low mangrove diversity and high mangrove area or species loss. Several species at high risk of extinction may disappear well before the next decade if existing protective measures are not enforced.

  16. The loss of species: mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Polidoro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of the 70 known species of mangroves. Each species' probability of extinction was assessed under the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Eleven of the 70 mangrove species (16% are at elevated threat of extinction. Particular areas of geographical concern include the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Central America, where as many as 40% of mangroves species present are threatened with extinction. Across the globe, mangrove species found primarily in the high intertidal and upstream estuarine zones, which often have specific freshwater requirements and patchy distributions, are the most threatened because they are often the first cleared for development of aquaculture and agriculture. The loss of mangrove species will have devastating economic and environmental consequences for coastal communities, especially in those areas with low mangrove diversity and high mangrove area or species loss. Several species at high risk of extinction may disappear well before the next decade if existing protective measures are not enforced.

  17. Molecular phylogeny of mangroves IV. nature and extent of intra-specific genetic variation and species diversity in mangroves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parida, A.; Parani, M.; Lakshmi, M.; Elango, S.; Ram, N.; Anuratha, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    Mangroves occupy estuarine ecosystems in the tropical regions of the world. Despite their highly productive nature and the protective roles they play in the coastal region, the ecosystem as a whole is under severe threat due to various climatic and anthropogenic factors. Therefore, the need for conservation of mangroves is widely emphasised. However, information on existing genetic diversity based on which a strategy for genetic conservation is to be drawn is not available for mangroves. This is primarily because conventional genetic analysis is difficult in these species for various reasons. Therefore, as an aid to our on-going conservation programme, efforts were made to assess the nature and extent of diversity in a number of mangrove species of the Indian coast using molecular markers. The nature and extent of intra-population diversity in sixteen mangrove species and detailed analysis of inter-population genetic polymorphism in four species, Acanthus ilicifolius, Excoecaria agallocha, Avicennia spp and Rhizophora (species and hybrid), is reported in the present communication. (author)

  18. Mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo; Ernesto. Medina

    2014-01-01

    The mangrove environment is not globally homogeneous, but involves many environmental gradients to which mangrove species must adapt and overcome to maintain the familiar structure and physiognomy associated with the mangrove ecosystem. The stature of mangroves, measured by tree height, decreases along the following environmental gradients from low to high salinity,...

  19. Intertidal substrate modification as a result of mangrove planting: Impacts of introduced mangrove species on sediment microfacies characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christopher T.; Berkeley, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A programme of mangrove planting has been undertaken around the island of Rodrigues (SW Indian Ocean) since the mid-1980's involving the introduction of the species Rhizophora mucronata. We examined three coastal embayment sites (Baie Diamant, Anse Goeland and Anse Pansia) in which planting has been undertaken over different time periods within the past 20 years. Planting has met with variable success in the different sites, probably due to variations in fluvial and groundwater influence. At two sites (Baie Diamant - first planted in 1990, and Anse Pansia - first planted in 1995) ecological data indicates that the mangroves are becoming well-established, and sedimentary evidence suggests that relatively rapid modification of intertidal substrates has occurred. This is evident in the form of significant increases in sediment organic-matter content (especially fibrous organic-matter) and an increase in the accumulation of sediment fines inside the mangroves. A strong correlation exists between the magnitude and depth of substrate modification and mangrove forest density, especially root and sapling density. At the third site, Anse Goeland (first planted in 2001), mangrove establishment has not been successful, many of the seedlings have died and no secondary colonisation has occurred. Sediment substrates show no deviation from background levels in terms of organic content or weight % fines content, and we find no evidence for mangrove planting influencing sediment substrates. Despite evidence for the development of a distinctive mangrove facies at Baie Diamant and Anse Pansia there is, however, no evidence as yet for a marked change in substrate geochemistry such as would be demonstrated by evidence of active bioclast dissolution - a common process in many natural (mature) mangrove substrates. We infer this to be a function of the present relative immaturity of the still developing mangrove substrates, but may also be a function of the apparent paucity of burrowing

  20. Mangroves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    grove plants facing extreme environmental conditions. To cope with the situation, they have adapted themselves in various unprecedented ways [4]. By their subterranean tap root system, mangroves can grip the soil and try to collect capillary water. In some cases, corky stilt roots (Figure 2) develop that support the plant in ...

  1. Descriptions of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Paladini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region. Two new species of Sphenorhina Amyot & Serville, S. pseudoboliviana SP. NOV: from Bolivia and S. plata SP. NOV: from Argentina are described and illustrated.

  2. Separating Mangrove Species and Conditions Using Laboratory Hyperspectral Data: A Case Study of a Degraded Mangrove Forest of the Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the scale and rate of mangrove loss globally, it is increasingly important to map and monitor mangrove forest health in a timely fashion. This study aims to identify the conditions of mangroves in a coastal lagoon south of the city of Mazatlán, Mexico, using proximal hyperspectral remote sensing techniques. The dominant mangrove species in this area includes the red (Rhizophora mangle, the black (Avicennia germinans and the white (Laguncularia racemosa mangrove. Moreover, large patches of poor condition black and red mangrove and healthy dwarf black mangrove are commonly found. Mangrove leaves were collected from this forest representing all of the aforementioned species and conditions. The leaves were then transported to a laboratory for spectral measurements using an ASD FieldSpec® 3 JR spectroradiometer (Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc., USA. R2 plot, principal components analysis and stepwise discriminant analyses were then used to select wavebands deemed most appropriate for further mangrove classification. Specifically, the wavebands at 520, 560, 650, 710, 760, 2100 and 2230 nm were selected, which correspond to chlorophyll absorption, red edge, starch, cellulose, nitrogen and protein regions of the spectrum. The classification and validation indicate that these wavebands are capable of identifying mangrove species and mangrove conditions common to this degraded forest with an overall accuracy and Khat coefficient higher than 90% and 0.9, respectively. Although lower in accuracy, the classifications of the stressed (poor condition and dwarf mangroves were found to be satisfactory with accuracies higher than 80%. The results of this study indicate that it could be possible to apply laboratory hyperspectral data for classifying mangroves, not only at the species level, but also according to their health conditions.

  3. Morphological Caste Differences in Three Species of the Neotropical Genus Clypearia (Hymenoptera: Polistinae: Epiponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Tocchini Felippotti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clypearia is a rare genus of swarm-founding Neotropical wasp whose biology is very little known. Morphological castes differences, condition of ovaries, relative age, and color pattern differences were analyzed in three species of Clypearia. Physiological differences and low morphometric differentiation between queens and workers were present in all species studied, indicating that these species are characterized by “physiological caste only”. We suggest that caste determination in the three Clypearia species studied is postimaginal.

  4. Heavy Metal Concentrations in an Important Mangrove Species, Sonneratia caseolaris, in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fazlin Nazli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests in Peninsular Malaysia are increasingly threatened by heavy metal pollution. Due to their unique location, mangroves receive heavy metal pollution from upstream areas and the sea. However, little is known about the capacity of mangrove plants to take up and store heavy metals. In this study, the concentrations of cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in an important mangrove species, Sonneratia caseolaris, were measured. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the sediments were below the general critical soil concentrations. However, the total concentrations of Cu and Pb in both the roots and leaves of Sonneratia caseolaris exceeded the general normal upper range in plants. This study has therefore shown the potential of Sonneratia caseolaris as a phytoremediation species for selected heavy metals in Malaysian mangrove ecosystem.

  5. Bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roots of three mangrove species in Jiulong River Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.Q.; Zheng, W.J.; Ma, L. [Xiamen University, Xiamen (China). School of Life Science

    2005-07-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were determined in the root of three mangrove species (Kandelia candel, Avicennia marina and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) and their growing environment (sediment) in mangrove wetlands of Jiulong River Estuary, Fujian, China. The total PAHs (16 parent PAHs) in mangrove sediments ranged from 193.44 to 270.53 ng/g dw, with a mean value of 231.76 +/- 31.78 ng/g dw. Compared with other mangrove and coastal marine sediments, the PAHs concentrations of all the sampling areas in this study were at relatively lower level. The total PAHs (13 parent PAHs) values varied from 30.83 to 62.73 ng/g dw in mangrove roots. Benzo(a) pyrene, fluoranthene and pyrene dominated in mangrove sediments. Based on ratios of phenathrene/anthracene, fluoranthene/pyrene and fluoranthene/pyrene + fluoranthene, the main possible sources of surface sediment PAHs were identified as grass, wood or coal combustion for mangrove wetlands of Jiulong River Estuary. Naphthalene and phenathrene were the most abundant compounds in mangrove roots. Sediment-to-vegetation bioconcentration factors (BCF(SV)s) were calculated and their relationships with PAHs' physico-chemical properties were investigated. The average BCF(SV)s of PAHs for three mangrove species roots were almost all under the level of 1 except for naphthalene. Good linear relationship between BCFSV values for mangrove roots and PAHs water solubility, octanol-water partitioning coefficients was derived in present study. The solubility and the octanol-water partition coefficient were proved to be good predictors for the accumulation of PAHs in mangrove roots, respectively.

  6. Leaf Gas Exchange and Nutrient Use Efficiency Help Explain the Distribution of Two Neotropical Mangroves under Contrasting Flooding and Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cardona-Olarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa cooccur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1 were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A, stomatal conductance (gw, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE, and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and gw and, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for A at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  7. Leaf gas exchange and nutrient use efficiency help explain the distribution of two Neotropical mangroves under contrasting flooding and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Olarte, Pablo; Krauss, Ken W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa co-occur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1) were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (gw), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE), and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and stomatal conductance and gw, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated) during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for assimilation at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  8. Microsatellite loci for Orthophytum ophiuroides (Bromelioideae, Bromeliaceae) species adapted to neotropical rock outcrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki-Gonçalves, Felipe; Louzada, Rafael B; De Souza, Lívia Moura; Palma-Silva, Clarisse

    2014-03-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed for Orthophytum ophiuroides, a rupicolous bromeliad species endemic to neotropical rocky fields. These microsatellite loci will be used to investigate population differentiation and species cohesion in such fragmented environments. The loci were tested for cross-amplification in related bromeliad species. • Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized from an enriched library of O. ophiuroides. The loci were tested on 42 individuals from two populations of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to nine and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.167 to 0.870 and from 0.369 to 0.958, respectively. Seven loci successfully amplified in other related bromeliad species. • Our results suggest that the microsatellite loci developed here will be useful to assess genetic diversity and gene flow in O. ophiuroides for the investigation of population differentiation and species cohesion in neotropical mountainous habitats.

  9. Review of the Neotropical species of the family Pterophoridae, part I: Ochyroticinae, Deuterocopinae, Pterophorinae (Platyptiliini, Exelastini, Oxyptilini) (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielis, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Pterophoridae (Ochyroticinae, Deuterocopinae, Pterophorinae (Tribus: Platyptiliini, Exelastini, Oxyptilini)) species of the Neotropical fauna are reviewed. The species are redescribed. Moths are illustrated in colour for the first time, their genitalia are illustrated in line drawings. The

  10. Multiple-geographic-scale genetic structure of two mangrove tree species: the roles of mating system, hybridization, limited dispersal and extrinsic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M Mori

    Full Text Available Mangrove plants comprise a unique group of organisms that grow within the intertidal zones of tropical and subtropical regions and whose distributions are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. To understand how these extrinsic and intrinsic processes influence a more fundamental level of the biological hierarchy of mangroves, we studied the genetic diversity of two Neotropical mangrove trees, Avicenniagerminans and A. schaueriana, using microsatellites markers. As reported for other sea-dispersed species, there was a strong differentiation between A. germinans and A. schaueriana populations sampled north and south of the northeastern extremity of South America, likely due to the influence of marine superficial currents. Moreover, we observed fine-scale genetic structures even when no obvious physical barriers were present, indicating pollen and propagule dispersal limitation, which could be explained by isolation-by-distance coupled with mating system differences. We report the first evidence of ongoing hybridization between Avicennia species and that these hybrids are fertile, although this interspecific crossing has not contributed to an increase in the genetic diversity the populations where A. germinans and A. schaueriana hybridize. These findings highlight the complex interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that shape the distribution of the genetic diversity in these sea-dispersed colonizer species.

  11. Multiple-Geographic-Scale Genetic Structure of Two Mangrove Tree Species: The Roles of Mating System, Hybridization, Limited Dispersal and Extrinsic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Gustavo M.; Zucchi, Maria I.; Souza, Anete P.

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove plants comprise a unique group of organisms that grow within the intertidal zones of tropical and subtropical regions and whose distributions are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. To understand how these extrinsic and intrinsic processes influence a more fundamental level of the biological hierarchy of mangroves, we studied the genetic diversity of two Neotropical mangrove trees, Avicenniagerminans and A. schaueriana, using microsatellites markers. As reported for other sea-dispersed species, there was a strong differentiation between A. germinans and A. schaueriana populations sampled north and south of the northeastern extremity of South America, likely due to the influence of marine superficial currents. Moreover, we observed fine-scale genetic structures even when no obvious physical barriers were present, indicating pollen and propagule dispersal limitation, which could be explained by isolation-by-distance coupled with mating system differences. We report the first evidence of ongoing hybridization between Avicennia species and that these hybrids are fertile, although this interspecific crossing has not contributed to an increase in the genetic diversity the populations where A. germinans and A. schaueriana hybridize. These findings highlight the complex interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that shape the distribution of the genetic diversity in these sea-dispersed colonizer species. PMID:25723532

  12. Neotropical migratory landbird species and their habitats of special concern within the Southeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Hunter; David N. Pashley; Ronald E. F. Escano

    1993-01-01

    The Southeast Management Working Group for Partners in Flight initiated a prioritization scheme in April 1991 to help guide regional and local conservation efforts for Neotropical migratory landbirds. Preliminary breeding season priorities have been established in each of 24 physiographic areas for species and habitats, with some non-breeding season priorities set as...

  13. Attractant pheromone of the neotropical species Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood)(Heteroptera: Alydidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Neotropical broad-headed bug, Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood), is adapted to various leguminous crops, and is considered a pest in common bean and soybean. The chemical communication of this species was studied in order to identify an attractant pheromone. Males and females of N. parvus produce...

  14. Studies in Annonaceae. VII. New species from the Neotropics and miscellaneous notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Heusden, van E.C.H.; Koek-Noorman, J.; Setten, van A.K.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    1983-01-01

    Several species in neotropical genera are described, viz. 1 in Bocageopsis, 2 in Cremastosperma, 1 in Hornschuchia, 1 in Oxandra, 4 in Pseudoxandra, and 2 in Unonopsis. Cremastosperma anomalum R.E. Fries is transferred to Malmea. Cremastosperma pacificum R.E. Fries is recorded for Panama for the

  15. Bacterial Communities in the Rhizospheres of Three Mangrove Tree Species from Beilun Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Xiong, Xiaofei; Xu, Zhanzhou; Lu, Chuqian; Cheng, Hao; Lyu, Xiangli; Zhang, Jinghuai; He, Wei; Deng, Wei; Lyu, Yihua; Lou, Quansheng; Hong, Yiguo; Fang, Hongda

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial communities played important roles in the high productivity mangrove ecosystem. In this study, we investigated the vertical distributions of rhizosphere bacteria from three mangrove species (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Kandelia candel and Aegiceras corniculatum) in Beilun Estuary, China using high throughput DNA pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed that bacterial communities from mangrove rhizosphere sediments were dominated by Proteobacteria (mostly Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria), followed by Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria. However, the ANOVA analysis on Shannon and Chao1 indices indicated that bacterial communities among sediments of the three mangrove species varied more strongly than the sampling depths. In addition, the PCA result demonstrated that the bacterial communities could be separated into three groups according to the mangrove species. Moreover, the dominated orders Rhodospirillales, GCA004 and envOPS12 were significantly different among sediments of the three mangrove species. The results of this study provided valuable information about the distribution feature of rhizosphere bacteria from Chinese mangrove plants and shed insights into biogeochemical transformations driven by bacteria in rhizosphere sediments.

  16. Mangrove postcard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lianne C.

    2016-07-14

    Mangrove ecosystems protect vulnerable coastlines from storm effects, recycle nutrients, stabilize shorelines, improve water quality, and provide habitat for commercial and recreational fish species as well as for threatened and endangered wildlife. U.S. Geological Survey scientists conduct research on mangrove ecosystems to provide reliable scientific information about their ecology, productivity, hydrological processes, carbon storage stress response, and restoration success. The Mangrove Science Network is a collaboration of USGS scientists focused on working with natural resource managers to develop and conduct research to inform decisions on mangrove management and restoration. Information about the Mangrove Science Network can be found at: http://www.usgs.gov/ecosystems/environments/mangroves.html.

  17. A Global Trend towards the Loss of Evolutionarily Unique Species in Mangrove Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnabas H Daru

    Full Text Available The mangrove biome stands out as a distinct forest type at the interface between terrestrial, estuarine, and near-shore marine ecosystems. However, mangrove species are increasingly threatened and experiencing range contraction across the globe that requires urgent conservation action. Here, we assess the spatial distribution of mangrove species richness and evolutionary diversity, and evaluate potential predictors of global declines and risk of extinction. We found that human pressure, measured as the number of different uses associated with mangroves, correlated strongly, but negatively, with extinction probability, whereas species ages were the best predictor of global decline, explaining 15% of variation in extinction risk. Although the majority of mangrove species are categorised by the IUCN as Least Concern, our finding that the more threatened species also tend to be those that are more evolutionarily unique is of concern because their extinction would result in a greater loss of phylogenetic diversity. Finally, we identified biogeographic regions that are relatively species-poor but rich in evolutionary history, and suggest these regions deserve greater conservation priority. Our study provides phylogenetic information that is important for developing a unified management plan for mangrove ecosystems worldwide.

  18. Floristics of mangrove tree species in Angke-Kapuk Protected Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUGAYAH

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Angke-Kapuk Protected Forest with total area 44.76 ha is part of the Tegal Alur-Angke Kapuk mangrove forests. Therefore, this forest has important role as an interface between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, whether physical, biological or social-economic aspects, to determine mangrove ecosystem as a productive and unique ecosystem in the coastal area. However, the study of floristic of the mangrove vegetation in this forest has never to be done previously. According to the study on September to November 2003, in this forest found 8 species of mangrove trees. The tree species can be classified into two groups. The first group is true mangroves (7 species, i.e. Avicennia officinalis, Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, R. stylosa, Sonneratia caseolaris (major component, Excoecaria agallocha, and Xylocarpus moluccensis (minor component. The last group is mangrove associate, i.e. Terminalia catappa. In this forest also found 7 tree species, i.e. Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Calophyllum inophyllum, Cerbera manghas, Paraserianthes falcataria, Tamarindus indicus, Acacia mangium, and A. auriculiformis as introduced species. The growth level of B. gymnorhiza, C. inophyllum and C. manghas up to now is seedling and sapling, while the growth level of another introduced species is till in pole and tree.

  19. Three new species and reassessment of the rare Neotropical ant genus Leptanilloides (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Leptanilloidinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Borowiec, Marek; Longino, John

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We describe three new species of the Neotropical ant genus Leptanilloides : Leptanilloides gracilis sp. n. based on workers from Mexico and Guatemala, Leptanilloides erinys sp. n. based on workers and a gyne from Ecuador, and Leptanilloides femoralis sp. n. based on workers from Venezuela. The description of Leptanilloides gracilis is a northern extension of the known range of the genus, now numbering eleven described species. We also describe and discuss three unassociated male morp...

  20. High-resolution pattern of mangrove species distribution is controlled by surface elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Rick C.; Friess, Daniel A.; Crase, Beth; Lee, Wei Kit; Webb, Edward L.

    2018-03-01

    Mangrove vegetation species respond to multiple environmental gradients, and an enhanced understanding of how mangrove species are distributed across these gradients will facilitate conservation and management. Many environmental gradients correlate with tidal inundation; however small-scale inundation patterns resulting from microtopographical changes are difficult to capture empirically. In contrast, surface elevation is often a suitable, measurable and cost-effective proxy for inundation. This study investigated the relationships between species distribution and surface elevation in a mangrove forest in northwest Singapore. Through high-resolution land surveying, we developed a digital elevation model (DEM) and conducted a comprehensive survey of 4380 trees with a stem diameter ≥ 5 cm. A total of 15 species were encountered, and elevation envelopes were generated for 12. Species envelopes were distributed along an elevation continuum, with most species overlapping within the continuum. Spatial autocorrelation (SAC) was present for nine of the 15 species, and when taken into account, species ordering was modified across the elevation continuum. The presence of SAC strongly reinforces the need for research to control for SAC: classical spatial description of mangrove species distribution should be revised to account for ecological factors. This study suggests that (1) surface elevation applies strong controls on species distribution and (2) most mangroves at our study site have similar physiological tolerances.

  1. Diagnosing the level of stress on a mangrove species (Laguncularia racemosa) contaminated with oil: A necessary step for monitoring mangrove ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Fernanda; de Pinho, Camila Ferreira; Ferreira, Marcio Alves

    2016-12-15

    Monitoring the effects of pollution on mangrove vegetation is a challenge. A specific study using an oil spill simulation on mangrove species was conducted to address this challenge. We tested the effectiveness of the chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics as a fast and robust method to diagnose the vitality of Laguncularia racemosa. We used L. racemosa plants contaminated with marine fuel oil in mangrove microcosm models. Several parameters of the JIP-test were capable of detecting the impairment of the photosynthetic function prior to the visual manifestation of symptoms in response to oil contamination. The results support the use of the chlorophyll fluorescence transient as a reliable, fast and easy to apply diagnostic method for evaluating oil-impacted mangroves. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that consistent data showing photosynthetic impairment in response to oil contamination is shown for a mangrove tree species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Classification of mangroves vegetation species using texture analysis on Rapideye satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslani, M. A.; Mustapha, M. A.; Lihan, T.; Juliana, W. A. Wan

    2013-11-01

    Mangroves are unique ecosystem structures that are typically made up of salt tolerant species of vegetation that can be found in tropical and subtropical climate country. Mangrove ecosystem plays important role and also is known as highly productive ecosystem with high diversity of flora and fauna. However, these ecosystems have been declining over time due to the various kinds of direct and indirect pressures. Thus, there is an increasing need to monitor and assess this ecosystem for better conservation and management efforts. The multispectral RapidEye satellite image was used to identify the mangrove vegetation species within the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve in Perak, Malaysia using texture analysis. Classification was implemented using the maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) method. Total of eleven main mangrove species were found in the satellite image of the study site which includes Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera parviflora, Bruguiera cylindrica, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Avicennia alba, Avicennia officinalis, Sonneratia alba, Sonneratia caseolaris, Sonneratia ovata and Xylocarpus granatum. The classification results showed that the textured image produced high overall classification assessment recorded at 84% and kappa statistic of 0.8016. Meanwhile, the non-textured image produces 80% of overall accuracy and kappa statistic of 0.7061. The classification result indicated the capability of high resolution satellite image to classify the mangrove species and inclusion of texture information in the classification increased the classification accuracy.

  3. Climate Variability and Mangrove Cover Dynamics at Species Level in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumer Ghosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems are complex in nature. For monitoring the impact of climate variability in this ecosystem, a multidisciplinary approach is a prerequisite. Changes in temperature and rainfall pattern have been suggested as an influential factor responsible for the change in mangrove species composition and spatial distribution. The main aim of this study was to assess the relationship between temperature, rainfall pattern and dynamics of mangrove species in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh, over a 38 year time period from 1977 to 2015. To assess the relationship, a three stage analytical process was employed. Primarily, the trend of temperature and rainfall over the study period were identified using a linear trend model; then, the supervised maximum likelihood classifier technique was employed to classify images recorded by Landsat series and post-classification comparison techniques were used to detect changes at species level. The rate of change of different mangrove species was also estimated in the second stage. Finally, the relationship between temperature, rainfall and the dynamics of mangroves at species level was determined using a simple linear regression model. The results show a significant statistical relationship between temperature, rainfall and the dynamics of mangrove species. The trends of change for Heritiera fomes and Sonneratia apelatala show a strong relationship with temperature and rainfall, while Ceriops decandra shows a weak relationship. In contrast, Excoecaria agallocha and Xylocarpus mekongensis do not show any significant relationship with temperature and rainfall. On the basis of our results, it can be concluded that temperature and rainfall are important climatic factors influencing the dynamics of three major mangrove species viz. H. fomes, S. apelatala and C. decandra in the Sundarbans.

  4. Climatic controls on the global distribution, abundance, and species richness of mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J.; Feher, Laura C.; Griffith, Kereen; Cavanaugh, Kyle C.; Enwright, Nicholas M.; Day, Richard H.; Stagg, Camille L.; Krauss, Ken W.; Howard, Rebecca J.; Grace, James B.; Rogers, Kerrylee

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive tidal saline wetland ecosystems found along sheltered tropical and subtropical coasts. Ecologists have long assumed that climatic drivers (i.e., temperature and rainfall regimes) govern the global distribution, structure, and function of mangrove forests. However, data constraints have hindered the quantification of direct climate-mangrove linkages in many parts of the world. Recently, the quality and availability of global-scale climate and mangrove data have been improving. Here, we used these data to better understand the influence of air temperature and rainfall regimes upon the distribution, abundance, and species richness of mangrove forests. Although our analyses identify global-scale relationships and thresholds, we show that the influence of climatic drivers is best characterized via regional range limit-specific analyses. We quantified climatic controls across targeted gradients in temperature and/or rainfall within 14 mangrove distributional range limits. Climatic thresholds for mangrove presence, abundance, and species richness differed among the 14 studied range limits. We identified minimum temperature-based thresholds for range limits in eastern North America, eastern Australia, New Zealand, eastern Asia, eastern South America, and southeast Africa. We identified rainfall-based thresholds for range limits in western North America, western Gulf of Mexico, western South America, western Australia, Middle East, northwest Africa, east central Africa, and west central Africa. Our results show that in certain range limits (e.g., eastern North America, western Gulf of Mexico, eastern Asia), winter air temperature extremes play an especially important role. We conclude that rainfall and temperature regimes are both important in western North America, western Gulf of Mexico, and western Australia. With climate change, alterations in temperature and rainfall regimes will affect the global distribution, abundance, and

  5. Phylogeny, classification, and fruit evolution of the species-rich Neotropical bellflowers (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Laura P; Antonelli, Alexandre; Muchhala, Nathan; Timmermann, Allan; Mathews, Sarah; Davis, Charles C

    2014-12-01

    • The species-rich Neotropical genera Centropogon, Burmeistera, and Siphocampylus represent more than half of the ∼1200 species in the subfamily Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae). They exhibit remarkable morphological variation in floral morphology and habit. Limited taxon sampling and phylogenetic resolution, however, obscures our understanding of relationships between and within these genera and underscores our uncertainty of the systematic value of fruit type as a major diagnostic character.• We inferred a phylogeny from five plastid DNA regions (rpl32-trnL, ndhF-rpl32, rps16-trnK, trnG-trnG-trns, rbcL) using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference. Ancestral character reconstructions were applied to infer patterns of fruit evolution.• Our results demonstrate that the majority of species in the genera Centropogon, Burmeistera, and Siphocampylus together form a primarily mainland Neotropical clade, collectively termed the "centropogonids." Caribbean Siphocampylus, however, group with other Caribbean lobelioid species. We find high support for the monophyly of Burmeistera and the polyphyly of Centropogon and mainland Siphocampylus. The ancestral fruit type of the centropogonids is a capsule; berries have evolved independently multiple times.• Our plastid phylogeny greatly improves the phylogenetic resolution within Neotropical Lobelioideae and highlights the need for taxonomic revisions in the subfamily. Inference of ancestral character states identifies a dynamic pattern of fruit evolution within the centropogonids, emphasizing the difficulty of diagnosing broad taxonomic groups on the basis of fruit type. Finally, we identify that the centropogonids, Lysipomia, and Lobelia section Tupa form a Pan-Andean radiation with broad habitat diversity. This clade is a prime candidate for investigations of Neotropical biogeography and morphological evolution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  6. Aboveground biomass estimation of mangrove species using ALOS-2 PALSAR imagery in Hai Phong City, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tien Dat; Yoshino, Kunihiko

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the potential of using the HH and HV backscatter from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2 (ALOS-2) with enhanced phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) in high sensitive mode to estimate the above-ground biomass (AGB) of the two mangrove species of Hai Phong city, Vietnam. A positive correlation was observed between the mean backscattering coefficients of the dominant mangrove species at dual polarizations HH and HV and various biophysical parameters. In contrast, low correlations were observed between those coefficients and the tree densities for the two mangrove species. The AGB of the mangrove species were estimated at between 2.8 and 161.5 Mg ha-1 with an average of about 39 Mg ha-1 for Sonneratia caseolaris and between 27.6 and 209.2 Mg ha-1 with an average of ˜100 Mg ha-1 for Kandelia obovata. The main indicators used for the selection of the best potential models in estimating the AGB of different species were R2 and the root-mean-square error (RMSE). The results showed a satisfactory correlation between model estimation and field-based measurements with R2=0.51, RMSE=35.5 Mg ha-1 for S. caseolaris and R2=0.64, RMSE=41.3 Mg ha-1 for K. obovata. This research has illustrated the potential use of ALOS-2 PALSAR data in estimating the AGB of mangrove species in the tropics.

  7. Hyperspectral Data for Mangrove Species Mapping: A Comparison of Pixel-Based and Object-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Muhammad; Phinn, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Visual image interpretation and digital image classification have been used to map and monitor mangrove extent and composition for decades. The presence of a high-spatial resolution hyperspectral sensor can potentially improve our ability to differentiate mangrove species. However, little research has explored the use of pixel-based and object-based approaches on high-spatial hyperspectral datasets for this purpose. This study assessed the ability of CASI-2 data for mangrove species mapping u...

  8. Are Isomeric Alkenes Used in Species Recognition among Neo-Tropical Stingless Bees (Melipona Spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J; Shemilt, Sue; da S Lima, Cândida B; de Carvalho, Carlos A L

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of the role of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) in recognition is based largely on temperate ant species and honey bees. The stingless bees remain relatively poorly studied, despite being the largest group of eusocial bees, comprising more than 400 species in some 60 genera. The Meliponini and Apini diverged between 80-130 Myr B.P. so the evolutionary trajectories that shaped the chemical communication systems in ants, honeybees and stingless bees may be very different. The aim of this study was to study if a unique species CHC signal existed in Neotropical stingless bees, as has been shown for many temperate species, and what compounds are involved. This was achieved by collecting CHC data from 24 colonies belonging to six species of Melipona from North-Eastern Brazil and comparing the results with previously published CHC studies on Melipona. We found that each of the eleven Melipona species studied so far each produced a unique species CHC signal based around their alkene isomer production. A remarkable number of alkene isomers, up to 25 in M. asilvai, indicated the diversification of alkene positional isomers among the stingless bees. The only other group to have really diversified in alkene isomer production are the primitively eusocial Bumblebees (Bombus spp), which are the sister group of the stingless bees. Furthermore, among the eleven Neotropical Melipona species we could detect no effect of the environment on the proportion of alkane production as has been suggested for some other species.

  9. The impact of climate change and aquatic salinization on mangrove species in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Sobhan, Istiak; Wheeler, David

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the possible impacts of climate change on aquatic salinity and mangrove species in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. The impact analysis combines the salinity tolerance ranges of predominant mangrove species with aquatic salinity measures in 27 scenarios of climate change by 2050. The estimates indicate significant overall losses for Heritiera fomes; substantial gains for Excoecaria agallocha; modest changes for Avicennia alba, A. marina, A. officinalis, Ceriops decandra, and Sonneratia apetala; and mixed results for species combinations. Changes in mangrove stocks are likely to change the prospects for forest-based livelihoods. The implications for neighboring communities are assessed by computing changes in high-value mangrove species for the five sub-districts in the Sundarbans. The results of the impact analysis indicate highly varied patterns of gain and loss across the five sub-districts. Overall, however, the results suggest that salinity-induced mangrove migration will have a strongly regressive impact on the value of timber stocks because of the loss of highest value timber species, Heritiera fomes. In addition, the augmented potential for honey production will likely increase conflicts between humans and wildlife in the region.

  10. Two New Beggiatoa Species Inhabiting Marine Mangrove Sediments in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Maïtena R. N.; Gonzalez-Rizzo, Silvina; Gauffre-Autelin, Pauline; Lengger, Sabine K.; Schouten, Stefan; Gros, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Beggiatoaceae, giant sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, are well known to occur in cold and temperate waters, as well as hydrothermal vents, where they form dense mats on the floor. However, they have never been described in tropical marine mangroves. Here, we describe two new species of benthic Beggiatoaceae colonizing a marine mangrove adjacent to mangrove roots. We combined phylogenetic and lipid analysis with electron microscopy in order to describe these organisms. Furthermore, oxygen and sulphide measurements in and ex situ were performed in a mesocosm to characterize their environment. Based on this, two new species, Candidatus Maribeggiatoa sp. and Candidatus Isobeggiatoa sp. inhabiting tropical marine mangroves in Guadeloupe were identified. The species identified as Candidatus Maribeggiatoa group suggests that this genus could harbour a third cluster with organisms ranging from 60 to 120 μm in diameter. This is also the first description of an Isobeggiatoa species outside of Arctic and temperate waters. The multiphasic approach also gives information about the environment and indications for the metabolism of these bacteria. Our study shows the widespread occurrence of members of Beggiatoaceae family and provides new insight in their potential role in shallow-water marine sulphide-rich environments such as mangroves. PMID:25689402

  11. Edible species of the fungal genus hebeloma and two neotropical pines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, V.C.; Moreno, J.P.; Lizaola, R.Q.; Moreno, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Mexico has one of the largest diversities of pines and ectomycorrhizal fungi known world-wide. Therefore, describingnative ectomycorrizal species from the country associated with pines is important because of their biotechnological potential in the forestry and food sectors. Worldwide, Hebeloma has generally been considered a genus of poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, interestingly, in central Mexico there is a complex of under-studied Hebeloma species which are used as food in large quantities and have a great economic and social importance. Three edible species of Hebeloma widely marketed in the country were identified: Hebeloma alpinum, H. mesophaeum and H. leucosarx with scanning electron microscopy on the basis of different ornamentation patterns in the spores of these species. Synthesis was carried out by inoculating two Neotropical pines with sporomes of the three described Hebeloma species. To achieve this, inoculated pines were kept in greenhouse conditions during one year. A characteristic morphotype for each fungal species was observed and it is described here. The first known description of the morphotype of Hebeloma alpinum with pines is presented. This seminal work gives a tool to identify the morphotypes produced by the main edible ectomycorrhizal species of Hebeloma marketed in Mexico, with biotechnological potential to inoculate pines used in reforestation programmes in Neotropical areas. (author)

  12. Integrative taxonomy detects cryptic and overlooked fish species in a neotropical river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Laís Carvalho; Pessali, Tiago Casarim; Sales, Naiara Guimarães; Pompeu, Paulo Santos; Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso

    2015-10-01

    The great freshwater fish diversity found in the neotropical region makes management and conservation actions challenging. Due to shortage of taxonomists and insufficient infrastructure to deal with such great biodiversity (i.e. taxonomic impediment), proposed remedies to accelerate species identification and descriptions include techniques that combine DNA-based identification and concise morphological description. The building of a DNA barcode reference database correlating meristic and genetic data was developed for 75 % of the Mucuri River basin's freshwater fish. We obtained a total of 141 DNA barcode sequences from 37 species belonging to 30 genera, 19 families, and 5 orders. Genetic distances within species, genera, and families were 0.74, 9.5, and 18.86 %, respectively. All species could be clearly identified by the DNA barcodes. Divergences between meristic morphological characteristics and DNA barcodes revealed two cryptic species among the Cyphocharax gilbert and Astyanax gr. bimaculatus specimens, and helped to identify two overlooked species within the Gymnotus and Astyanax taxa. Therefore, using a simplified model of neotropical biodiversity, we tested the efficiency of an integrative taxonomy approach for species discovery, identification of cryptic diversity, and accelerating biodiversity descriptions.

  13. Seasonal drought limits tree species across the Neotropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane; Baker, Timothy R.; Dexter, Kyle G.; Lewis, Simon L.; Steege, ter Hans; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Brienen, Roel; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Pitman, Nigel; Alonso, Alfonso; Heijden, van der Geertje; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Ahuite, Manuel; Alexiaides, Miguel; Álvarez Dávila, Esteban; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aulestia, Milton; Balslev, Henrik; Barroso, Jorcely; Boot, Rene; Cano, Angela; Chama Moscoso, Victor; Comiskey, James A.; Cornejo, Fernando; Dallmeier, Francisco; Daly, Douglas C.; Dávila, Nallarett; Duivenvoorden, Joost F.; Duque Montoya, Alvaro Javier; Erwin, Terry; Fiore, Di Anthony; Fredericksen, Todd; Fuentes, Alfredo; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Gonzales, Therany; Guevara Andino, Juan Ernesto; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N.; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Killeen, Timothy J.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Mendoza, Casimiro; Mogollón, Hugo; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Montero, Juan Carlos; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Nauray, William; Neill, David; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Palacios, Sonia; Palacios Cuenca, Walter; Pallqui Camacho, Nadir Carolina; Peacock, Julie; Phillips, Juan Fernando; Pickavance, Georgia; Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma; Restrepo, Zorayda; Reynel Rodriguez, Carlos; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; Sierra, Rodrigo; Silveira, Marcos; Stevenson, Pablo; Stropp, Juliana; Terborgh, John; Tirado, Milton; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Umaña, María Natalia; Urrego, Ligia Estela; Vasquez Martinez, Rodolfo; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela; Vela, César I.A.; Vilanova Torre, Emilio; Vos, Vincent; Hildebrand, von Patricio; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R.; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Phillips, Oliver L.

    2017-01-01

    Within the tropics, the species richness of tree communities is strongly and positively associated with precipitation. Previous research has suggested that this macroecological pattern is driven by the negative effect of water-stress on the physiological processes of most tree species. This implies

  14. Nature and periodicity of growth rings in two Bangladeshi mangrove species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Q.; Schmitz, N.; Verheyden, A.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koedam, N.; Beeckman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Nature and periodicity of growth rings were investigated in Sonneratia opetala and Heritiera fomes, two Bangladeshi mangrove species. From both species we collected three stem discs in the natural forest reserve of the Sundarbans. In addition, three discs were sampled from plantation-grown S.

  15. Environmental variations drive polyploid evolution in neotropical Eugenia species (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, R M; Machado, R M; Forni-Martins, E R; Verola, C F; Costa, I R

    2016-10-24

    Polyploidy is one of the most important mechanisms of speciation and diversification in plant evolution. Polyploidy results in genetic variation among individuals of the same species and even between populations, and may be responsible for differences in environmental tolerance between populations of the same species. This study determined chromosome numbers of Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae, x = 11) for 26 populations of 14 species by conventional cytogenetic techniques. Nine species (13 populations) were diploid (2n = 2x = 22), but diploid and/or polyploid cytotypes were found in the other five species (13 populations), with 2n = 33, 2n = 44, and 2n = 55. Data on chromosome number/ploidy level for other Eugenia species/populations were collected from the literature and included in this cytogeographic analysis. For each collection point (32 species and 62 populations), environmental variables were recorded using georeferencing techniques through the DIVA-GIS v.7.5 program. Environmental variables such as temperature, altitude, rainfall, solar radiation, soil type, and vegetation were analyzed with the R program, using Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests, principal component analysis, and graphic analyses, such as scatterplots, boxplots, and barplot. Polyploid and diploid populations had different spatial distribution patterns and were found in areas subjected to different environmental conditions. Polyploid individuals were collected from locations with more adverse environmental conditions, usually at higher elevations than the diploid individuals. Polyploidy allows species to occur at locations with varying environmental conditions. As diploidy and polyploidy occur under different environmental conditions, species with cytotypes exhibit wide environmental tolerance.

  16. Mangrove litter production and seasonality of dominant species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at examining the litter production and seasonality of Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, and Rhizophora mucronata. Litter was collected using nylon litter traps of 1 mm2 mesh size in the Uzi-Nyeke mixed mangroves, Zanzibar, over a period of 2 years. Contents were sorted, dried, weighed, and the ...

  17. Microsatellite Loci for Orthophytum ophiuroides (Bromelioideae, Bromeliaceae Species Adapted to Neotropical Rock Outcrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Aoki-Gonçalves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Orthophytum ophiuroides, a rupicolous bromeliad species endemic to neotropical rocky fields. These microsatellite loci will be used to investigate population differentiation and species cohesion in such fragmented environments. The loci were tested for cross-amplification in related bromeliad species. Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized from an enriched library of O. ophiuroides. The loci were tested on 42 individuals from two populations of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to nine and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.167 to 0.870 and from 0.369 to 0.958, respectively. Seven loci successfully amplified in other related bromeliad species. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the microsatellite loci developed here will be useful to assess genetic diversity and gene flow in O. ophiuroides for the investigation of population differentiation and species cohesion in neotropical mountainous habitats.

  18. Microsatellite loci for Orthophytum ophiuroides (Bromelioideae, Bromeliaceae) species adapted to neotropical rock outcrops1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki-Gonçalves, Felipe; Louzada, Rafael B.; De Souza, Lívia Moura; Palma-Silva, Clarisse

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Orthophytum ophiuroides, a rupicolous bromeliad species endemic to neotropical rocky fields. These microsatellite loci will be used to investigate population differentiation and species cohesion in such fragmented environments. The loci were tested for cross-amplification in related bromeliad species. • Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized from an enriched library of O. ophiuroides. The loci were tested on 42 individuals from two populations of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to nine and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.167 to 0.870 and from 0.369 to 0.958, respectively. Seven loci successfully amplified in other related bromeliad species. • Conclusions: Our results suggest that the microsatellite loci developed here will be useful to assess genetic diversity and gene flow in O. ophiuroides for the investigation of population differentiation and species cohesion in neotropical mountainous habitats. PMID:25202607

  19. Retrieval of Mangrove Aboveground Biomass at the Individual Species Level with WorldView-2 Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhui Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research studies have demonstrated that the relationship between remote sensing-derived parameters and aboveground biomass (AGB could vary across different species types. However, there are few studies that calibrate reliable statistical models for mangrove AGB. This study quantifies the differences of accuracy in AGB estimation between the results obtained with and without the consideration of species types using Worldview-2 images and field surveys. A Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (BP ANN based model is developed for the accurate estimation of uneven-aged and dense mangrove forest biomass. The contributions of the input variables are further quantified using a “Weights” method based on BP ANN model. Two types of mangrove species, Sonneratia apetala (S. apetala and Kandelia candel (K. candel, are examined in this study. Results show that the species type information is the most important variable for AGB estimation, and the red edge band and the associated vegetation indices from WorldView-2 images are more sensitive to mangrove AGB than other bands and vegetation indices. The RMSE of biomass estimation at the incorporation of species as a dummy variable is 19.17% lower than that of the mixed species level. The results demonstrate that species type information obtained from the WorldView-2 images can significantly improve of the accuracy of the biomass estimation.

  20. Effects of saline tolerant Azospirillum species on the growth parameters of mangrove seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, S; Ignatiammal, S Thadedus Maria; Gnanadesigan, M; Kalaiarasi, A

    2012-09-01

    Five species of Azospirillum isolated from Manakkudi mangrove ecosystem were subjected for their efficiency to find out their growth parameters potential for the successful establishment of mangrove seedlings. Of the isolated five Azospirillum species, Azospirillum lipoferum (60%) was found to be the dominant one. But the level of maximum indole acetic acid (IAA) production (19.8 mg.ml(-1)) and nitrogen fixation (5.9 C2H2hr1) was identified with A. brasilense. Further, A. brasilense showed significant (p Azospirillum brasilense was found better for the growth of Avicennia officinalis and Ceriops decandra seedlings, but Azospirillum irakense was found better for Rhizophora apiculata seedlings.

  1. Fusarium species isolated from mangrove soil in kampung pantai acheh, balik pulau, pulau pinang, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latiffah, Zakaria; Mah Kok, Foong; Heng Mei, Hsuan; Maziah, Zakaria; Baharuddin, Salleh

    2010-08-01

    A total of 33 isolates of Fusarium sp. were isolated from soil samples collected from a mangrove forest in an area in Kampung Pantai Acheh, Balik Pulau, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. The isolates were isolated using soil dilution, direct isolation and debris isolation techniques. The debris isolation technique yielded the most isolates, with a total of 22 Fusarium isolates. Based on identification using morphological characteristics, three Fusarium species were identified: F. solani, F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. F. solani (91%) was the most common species recovered from the mangrove soil samples, followed by F. oxysporum (6%) and F. verticillioides (3%).

  2. Evaluation of multilocus marker efficacy for delineating mangrove species of West Coast India.

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    Ankush Ashok Saddhe

    Full Text Available The plant DNA barcoding is a complex and requires more than one marker(s as compared to animal barcoding. Mangroves are diverse estuarine ecosystem prevalent in the tropical and subtropical zone, but anthropogenic activity turned them into the vulnerable ecosystem. There is a need to build a molecular reference library of mangrove plant species based on molecular barcode marker along with morphological characteristics. In this study, we tested the core plant barcode (rbcL and matK and four promising complementary barcodes (ITS2, psbK-psbI, rpoC1 and atpF-atpH in 14 mangroves species belonging to 5 families from West Coast India. Data analysis was performed based on barcode gap analysis, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance, Automated Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD, TaxonDNA (BM, BCM, Poisson Tree Processes (PTP and General Mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC. matK+ITS2 marker based on GMYC method resolved 57.14% of mangroves species and TaxonDNA, ABGD, and PTP discriminated 42.85% of mangrove species. With a single locus analysis, ITS2 exhibited the higher discriminatory power (87.82% and combinations of matK + ITS2 provided the highest discrimination success (89.74% rate except for Avicennia genus. Further, we explored 3 additional markers (psbK-psbI, rpoC1, and atpF-atpH for Avicennia genera (A. alba, A. officinalis and A. marina and atpF-atpH locus was able to discriminate three species of Avicennia genera. Our analysis underscored the efficacy of matK + ITS2 markers along with atpF-atpH as the best combination for mangrove identification in West Coast India regions.

  3. Description of the first Neotropical species of Bassettia Ashmead, 1887 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini from Panama

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    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Bassettia Ashmead, 1887, Bassettia caulicola (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini, from Panama is described. The new species induces galls on the stems of Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae sect. Quercus. The diagnostic characteristics, distribution data, and biology of the new species are given. The new species is included in the existing key for the identification of the Nearctic species of Bassettia. The morphological diagnosis of Bassettia and the first record of this genus in the Neotropical region are noted.Se describe una nueva especie de Bassettia Ashmead, 1887, Bassettia caulicola (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini, de Panamá. La nueva especie induce agallas en los tallos de Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae secc. Quercus. Se aportan los caracteres diagnósticos de la nueva especie, su distribución y su biología. La nueva especie es incluida en la clave de identificación de la especies de Bassettia del Neártico. Se amplían los datos diagnósticos morfológicos del género Bassettia así como se comenta el primer registro de este género en la región neotropical.

  4. Sonneratia apetala Buch. Ham in the mangrove ecosystems of China: An invasive species or restoration species?

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    Hai Ren; Hongfang Lu; Weijun Shen; Charlie Huang; Qinfeng Guo; Zhi' an Li; Shuguang. Jian

    2010-01-01

    By the end of 1990s when China initiated a 10-year mangrove reforestation project, the mangrove forest area had decreased from250,000 to 15,000 ha. Over 80% of current Chinese mangroves are degraded secondary forests or plantations. As an initial restoration and reforestation effort, Sonneratia apetala, a native of...

  5. Object-Based Mangrove Species Classification Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Hyperspectral Images and Digital Surface Models

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    Jingjing Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are one of the most important coastal wetland ecosystems, and the compositions and distributions of mangrove species are essential for conservation and restoration efforts. Many studies have explored this topic using remote sensing images that were obtained by satellite-borne and airborne sensors, which are known to be efficient for monitoring the mangrove ecosystem. With improvements in carrier platforms and sensor technology, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs with high-resolution hyperspectral images in both spectral and spatial domains have been used to monitor crops, forests, and other landscapes of interest. This study aims to classify mangrove species on Qi’ao Island using object-based image analysis techniques based on UAV hyperspectral images obtained from a commercial hyperspectral imaging sensor (UHD 185 onboard a UAV platform. First, the image objects were obtained by segmenting the UAV hyperspectral image and the UAV-derived digital surface model (DSM data. Second, spectral features, textural features, and vegetation indices (VIs were extracted from the UAV hyperspectral image, and the UAV-derived DSM data were used to extract height information. Third, the classification and regression tree (CART method was used to selection bands, and the correlation-based feature selection (CFS algorithm was employed for feature reduction. Finally, the objects were classified into different mangrove species and other land covers based on their spectral and spatial characteristic differences. The classification results showed that when considering the three features (spectral features, textural features, and hyperspectral VIs, the overall classification accuracies of the two classifiers used in this paper, i.e., k-nearest neighbor (KNN and support vector machine (SVM, were 76.12% (Kappa = 0.73 and 82.39% (Kappa = 0.801, respectively. After incorporating tree height into the classification features, the accuracy of species classification

  6. Five new species of entomopathogenic fungi from the Amazon and evolution of neotropical Ophiocordyceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuan, Tatiana I; Franco-Molano, Ana E; Kepler, Ryan M; Spatafora, Joseph W; Tabima, Javier; Vasco-Palacios, Aída M; Restrepo, Silvia

    2015-10-01

    The neotropical biogeographic zone is a 'hot spot' of global biodiversity, especially for insects. Fungal pathogens of insects appear to track this diversity. However, the integration of this unique component of fungal diversity into molecular phylogenetic analyses remains sparse. The entomopathogenic fungal genus Ophiocordyceps is species rich in this region with the first descriptions dating to the early nineteenth century. In this study, material from various ecosystems throughout Colombia and Ecuador was examined. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear loci including SSU, LSU, TEF, RPB1, and RPB2 were conducted alongside a morphological evaluation. Thirty-five specimens were examined representing fifteen different species of Ophiocordyceps, and five new species, Ophiocordyceps blattarioides, Ophiocordyceps tiputini, Ophiocordyceps araracuarensis, Ophiocordyceps fulgoromorphila, and Ophiocordyceps evansii, were described. An accurate identification of the host allowed us to conclude that host identity and host habitat are positively correlated with phylogenetic species of Ophiocordyceps and are probably strong drivers for speciation of neotropical entomopathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diversity of endophytic fungi in the roots of mangrove species on the west coast of India.

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    Ananda, K; Sridhar, K R

    2002-10-01

    Because mangrove plant species are a valuable source of useful metabolites, their endophytes have gained more importance. Randomly sampled surface-sterilized whole root segments of four mangrove plant species, Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia officinalis, Rhizophora mucronata, and Sonneratia caseolaris from the mangroves of Udyavara (Karnataka) on the west coast of India, were characterized for fungal communities by direct plating, damp chamber, and bubbling chamber incubation methods. The richness of endophytic fungal species from whole root segments after direct plating and damp chamber incubation was greatest for R. mucronata than for other plants (18 vs. 8-13). Incubation of whole root segments in bubbling chambers yielded conidia of two freshwater hyphomycetes: Mycocentrospora acerina (in Avicennia officinalis) and Triscelophorus acuminatus (in R. mucronata and in S. caseolaris). Surface-sterilized whole root and root bark segments of R. mucronata sampled from the mid-tide level on direct plating yielded more fungi than that of the root segments sampled from low-tide and high-tide levels. The greatest number of isolates, species richness, and diversity of fungi were shown by the whole root segments of R. mucronata from the mid-tide level. Rarefaction indices also revealed the highest expected number of species out of 150 random isolations from the mid-tide level samples of whole root and root bark segments of R. mucronata. The present study showed that fungi in mangrove roots are composed of a consortium of soil, marine, and freshwater fungi.

  8. Community structure of endophytic fungi of four mangrove species in Southern China

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    Jia-Long Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests play an important role in subtropical and tropical coastal ecosystems. Endophytic fungi are widely distributed in various ecosystems and have great contribution to global biodiversity. In order to better understand the effects of mangrove species and tissue types on endophytic fungal community, we investigated cultivable endophytic fungi in leaves and twigs of four mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Kandelia candel in Guangxi, China. The four tree species had similar overall colonisation rates of endophytic fungi (24–33%. The colonisation rates of endophytic fungi were higher in twigs (30–58% than in leaves (6–25% in the four plant species. A total of 36 endophytic fungal taxa were identified based on morphological characteristics and molecular data, including 35 Ascomycota and 1 Basidiomycota, dominated by Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Xylaria, Leptosphaerulina, and Pestalotiopsis. The diversity of endophytic fungi was higher in twigs than in leaves in the four plant species. Some endophytic fungi showed host and tissue preference. The endophytic fungal community composition was different among four mangrove species and between leaf and twig tissues.

  9. Three new species and reassessment of the rare Neotropical ant genus Leptanilloides (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Leptanilloidinae

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    Marek Borowiec

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe three new species of the Neotropical ant genus Leptanilloides: L. gracilis sp. n. based on workers from Mexico and Guatemala, L. erinys sp. n. based on workers and a gyne from Ecuador, and L. femoralis sp. n. based on workers from Venezuela. The description of L. gracilis is a northern extension of the known range of the genus, now numbering eleven described species. We also describe and discuss three unassociated male morphotypes from Central America. We report the occurrence of a metatibial gland in Leptanilloides and a fused promesonotal connection (suture in some species. We provide a modified, detailed diagnosis of the genus and a revised key to the worker caste of the known species.

  10. The effect of increasing sediment accretion on the seedlings of three common Thai mangrove species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thampanya, U.; Vermaat, J.E.; Terrados, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Three to four-month-old seedlings of three common Thai mangrove species (Avicennia officinalis L., Rhizophora mucronata Lamk and Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engler) were experimentally buried using six sediment accretion levels (0, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 cm) in a randomized block design. Avicennia was

  11. How neotropical hummingbird versus bat species generate lift to hover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Rivers; Lentink, David

    2017-11-01

    Both hummingbirds and nectar bats evolved the ability to hover in front of flowers providing them access to energy rich nectar. Hummingbirds have been found to generate more than a quarter of their weight support during the upstroke by inverting their wings-much more than generalist birds during slow hovering flight. In contrast to hummingbirds, bats have membrane wings which they partially fold during the upstroke. It has been hypothesized that bats generate some vertical lift force during the upstroke although the complex wake structures make it hard to quantify upstroke function through flow measurement. To compare the kinematics and aerodynamic forces generated by both groups, we caught and trained over 100 individuals spanning 18 hummingbird and 3 bat species in Coto Brus, Costa Rica. We used 3D calibrated high-speed cameras to measure wingbeat kinematics and a novel aerodynamic force platform to measure the instantaneous vertical lift force in vivo. This data gives us new insight into how ecology shapes the evolution of hovering flight across taxa in the same ecosystem. This research is supported by NSF CAREER Award 1552419 and the KACST Center of Excellence for Aeronautics and Astronautics at Stanford.

  12. A revision of the Neotropical genus Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae with three new species

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    Norman Woodley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Paraberismyia Woodley, 1995, is revised. Three new species, P. chiapas sp. n., P.mathisi sp. n., and P. triunfo sp. n. are described, alltype localities in Chiapas, Mexico. A key to the four known species is provided.

  13. Winter climate change and coastal wetland foundation species: salt marshes vs. mangrove forests in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Enwright, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    We live in an era of unprecedented ecological change in which ecologists and natural resource managers are increasingly challenged to anticipate and prepare for the ecological effects of future global change. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of winter climate change upon salt marsh and mangrove forest foundation species in the southeastern United States. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) What is the relationship between winter climate and the presence and abundance of mangrove forests relative to salt marshes; (2) How vulnerable are salt marshes to winter climate change-induced mangrove forest range expansion; and (3) What is the potential future distribution and relative abundance of mangrove forests under alternative winter climate change scenarios? We developed simple winter climate-based models to predict mangrove forest distribution and relative abundance using observed winter temperature data (1970–2000) and mangrove forest and salt marsh habitat data. Our results identify winter climate thresholds for salt marsh–mangrove forest interactions and highlight coastal areas in the southeastern United States (e.g., Texas, Louisiana, and parts of Florida) where relatively small changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme winter events could cause relatively dramatic landscape-scale ecosystem structural and functional change in the form of poleward mangrove forest migration and salt marsh displacement. The ecological implications of these marsh-to-mangrove forest conversions are poorly understood, but would likely include changes for associated fish and wildlife populations and for the supply of some ecosystem goods and services.

  14. Transferability and characterization of microsatellite markers in two Neotropical Ficus species

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    Alison Gonçalves Nazareno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers were transferred and characterized for two Neotropical fig tree species, Ficus citrifolia and Ficus eximia. Our study demonstrated that microsatellite markers developed from different subgenera of Ficus can be transferred to related species. In the present case, 12 of the 15 primer pairs tested (80% were successfully transferred to both of the above species. Eleven loci were polymorphic when tested across 60 F. citrifolia and 60 F. eximia individuals. For F. citrifolia, there were 4 to 15 alleles per locus, whereas expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.31 to 0.91. In the case of F. eximia, this was 2 to 12 alleles per locus and expected heterozygosities from 0.42 to 0.87.

  15. Mapping mangrove leaf area index at the species level using IKONOS and LAI-2000 sensors for the Agua Brava Lagoon, Mexican Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, John M.; Wang, Jinfei; Flores-Verdugo, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Using both IKONOS and in situ LAI-2000 sensor data, a map of estimated LAI, based on NDVI, was created for the Agua Brava Lagoon, Mexican Pacific. The LAI values were then aggregated according to four classes; red mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle), healthy white mangrove ( Laguncularia racemosa), poor condition white mangrove and dead mangrove. Of the live mangrove, calculated at approximately 85% of the forest, mean LAI values of 2.49, 1.74 and 0.85 were determined for the red, healthy white and poor condition white mangrove, respectively. Excluding the dead areas, an overall estimated mangrove LAI value of 1.81 was ascertained for the 71 km 2 of mapped mangrove forest. Although the results do suggest the technique as a very rapid and effective method for monitoring the condition of mangroves at the species level, potential limitations are also discussed.

  16. Genetic diversity of neotropical Myotis (chiroptera: vespertilionidae with an emphasis on South American species.

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    Roxanne J Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South America alone to be at least 18, rather than the 15 species currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the perception of lower species richness in South American Myotis is largely due to a combination of cryptic morphological variation and insufficient sampling coverage in genetic-based systematic studies. A more accurate assessment of the level of diversity and species richness in New World Myotis is not only helpful for delimiting species boundaries, but also for understanding evolutionary processes within this globally distributed bat genus.

  17. Species diversity, biomass, and carbon stock assessments of a natural mangrove forest in palawan, philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abino, A.C.; Lee, Y.J.; Castillo, J.A.A

    2014-01-01

    Philippines claims international recognition for its mangrove-rich ecosystem which play significant functions from the viewpoint of ecosystem services and climate change mitigation. In this study, we assessed the species diversity of the natural mangrove forest of Bahile, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan and evaluated its potential to sequester and store carbon. Sixteen plots with a size of 10 m * 10 m were established using quadrat sampling technique to identify, record, and measure the trees. Diversity index and allometric equations were utilized to determine species diversity, and biomass and carbon stocks. Sediment samples in undisturbed portions using a 30 cm high and 5 cm diameter corer were collected in all plots to determine near-surface sediment carbon. The diversity index (H = 0.9918) was very low having a total of five true mangrove species identified dominated by Rhizophora apiculata Bl. with an importance value index of 148.1%. Among the stands, 74% of the total biomass was attributed to the above-ground (561.2 t ha-1) while 26% was credited to the roots (196.5 t ha-1). The total carbon sequestered and stored in the above-ground and root biomass were 263.8 t C ha-1 (50%) and 92.3 t C ha-1 (17%), respectively. Sediments contained 33% (173.75 t C ha-1) of the mangrove C-stocks. Stored carbon was equivalent to 1944.5 t CO/sub 2/ ha-1. These values suggest that Bahile natural mangrove forest has a potential to sequester and store substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon, hence the need for sustainable management and protection of this important coastal ecosystem. (author)

  18. An illustrated key to Neotropical species of the genus Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae

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    Helmuth Aguirre

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive key for 75 species of Meteorus distributed across 15 Neotropical countries is presented. Eleven new species from Bolivia, Costa Rica and Ecuador are described: M. albistigma, M. carolae, M. eurysaccavorus, M. fallacavus, M. flavistigma, M. haimowitzi, M. magnoculus, M. martinezi, M. microcavus, M. noctuivorus and M. orion. Expanded range distributions are recorded for M. andreae, M. farallonensis, M. guineverae, M. jerodi, M. kraussi, M. papiliovorus and M. quimbayensis. The host of M. jerodi is reported for the first time: a noctuid larva feeding on Asteraceae. Meteorus papiliovorus is recorded attacking Papilionidae larvae in Ecuador, therefore displaying a similar host family preference as formerly documented from Costa Rica and Colombia.

  19. An illustrated key to Neotropical species of the genus Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Helmuth; de Almeida, Luis Felipe; Shaw, Scott Richard; Sarmiento, Carlos E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive key for 75 species of Meteorus distributed across 15 Neotropical countries is presented. Eleven new species from Bolivia, Costa Rica and Ecuador are described: Meteorus albistigma, Meteorus carolae, Meteorus eurysaccavorus, Meteorus fallacavus, Meteorus flavistigma, Meteorus haimowitzi, Meteorus magnoculus, Meteorus martinezi, Meteorus microcavus, Meteorus noctuivorus and Meteorus orion. Expanded range distributions are recorded for Meteorus andreae, Meteorus farallonensis, Meteorus guineverae, Meteorus jerodi, Meteorus kraussi, Meteorus papiliovorus and Meteorus quimbayensis. The host of Meteorus jerodi is reported for the first time: a noctuid larva feeding on Asteraceae. Meteorus papiliovorus is recorded attacking Papilionidae larvae in Ecuador, therefore displaying a similar host family preference as formerly documented from Costa Rica and Colombia. PMID:25878531

  20. Are mangroves in arid environments isolated systems? Life-history and evidence of dietary contribution from inwelling in a mangrove-resident shrimp species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maslamani, I.; Walton, M. E. M.; Kennedy, H. A.; Al-Mohannadi, M.; Le Vay, L.

    2013-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf represents one of the more northerly extremes of mangrove distribution in the Indo-Pacific, and is populated only by Avicennia marina, due to its tolerance of high salinity and wide temperature extremes. Recent studies suggest that in the arid coastal environment of the western Arabian Gulf, export of carbon and nitrogen from mangroves to adjacent habitats may be limited, though it is not clear if this is due to low productivity or physical factors such as the lack of freshwater flow and the tidal regime. Although seagrass and macroalgal habitats are relatively much more dominant by area, with only small pockets of mangrove around the edges of embayments, it is not evident if inwelling from these habitats support mangrove fauna. Year-round sampling in mangroves at Al-Khor, Qatar, indicates that Palaemon khori, an endemic shrimp species, is strongly associated with mangroves throughout its post-settlement life cycle, from recruitment as small 9-10 mm juveniles through to mating and egg production. Rapid post-recruitment growth (k = 1.8, L∞ = 42 mm for females, k = 1.5, L∞ = 35 mm for male) means that most individuals reached adult size in the first few months after settlement, with reproduction occurring in the following spring. As might be expected from year-round residence in the mangrove, dual 13C and 15N isotope analysis indicated a strong contribution of mangroves to shrimp tissue growth (Mean and 95% confidence range, 37% and 27-48%), but with a weaker significant contribution from particulate organic matter (20% and 1-37%), mangrove epiphytes (16% and 2-33%) and seagrasses (9% and 0.2-18%). Other primary producers contribute the remaining 18% to shrimp nutrition but the 95% confidence ranges include zero, suggesting possibly non-significant roles in supporting the shrimp population. This dietary information supports the view that fauna resident within arid mangrove systems are mainly dependent on localised retention and cycling of

  1. A new genus and species of Neotropical Nemobiinae (Insecta: Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Trigonidiidae: Nemobiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Fabiene Maria DE; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Geanne Carla Ripani; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2017-06-09

    A new genus and a new species of Neotropical cricket is described: Pepoapua cariacica n. gen., n. sp., occurring in four Atlantic Forest remnants in the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. This new genus is morphologically similar in external characteristics, both male and female genitalia, with two other Neotropical genera of Nemobiinae: Amanayara and Kevanemobius. The combination of the external morphological characteristics, along with male genitalia, characterize a new genus through combination of the following characters: (i) males and females with morphologically similar tegmina; (ii) tegmina reduced, not reaching half of the second abdominal segment; (iii) dorsal field of the tegmina with parallel veins, without stridulatory vein or any specialized area for sound production; (iv) tibia of the first pair of legs without tympanum; (v) tibia of the third pair of legs with seven dorsal spurs, four inner and three outer, the proximo-dorsal inner spur reduced in size and the disto-dorsal inner spur without glandular aspect; (vi) ovipositor with distal portion of the dorsal and ventral valves serrated; (vii) male genitalia without evident bristles or sensillas; (viii) pseudepiphallic median lobe presenting apical and ventral projections.

  2. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae among Three Neotropical Ecoregions.

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    Hernán Mario Beccacece

    Full Text Available Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano. Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor.

  3. Nitrogen use strategies of seedlings from neotropical tree species of distinct successional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Halley Caixeta; da Silva, Ligia Maria Inocêncio; de Freitas, Letícia Dias; Debiasi, Tatiane Viegas; Marchiori, Nidia Mara; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Bianchini, Edmilson; Pimenta, José Antonio; Stolf-Moreira, Renata

    2017-05-01

    Few studies have analyzed the strategies of neotropical tree seedlings for absorbing, translocating and assimilating the nitrogen. Here, we compared the nitrogen use strategies of seedlings from six tree species that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and that belong to different successional groups: Trema micrantha, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Cecropia pachystachya (pioneers), Cariniana estrellensis, Eugenia brasiliensis and Guarea kunthiana (non-pioneers). The effects of cultivating seedlings with nitrate or ammonium on the growth, physiology and nitrogen metabolism were analyzed. Nitrate-grown pioneer species had much higher leaf nitrate reductase activity than non-pioneer ones, but non-pioneer seedlings were also able to use nitrate as a nitrogen source. In addition to this remarkable difference between the groups in the capacity for leaf nitrate assimilation, substantial variations in the nitrogen use strategies were observed within the successional classes. Differently from the other non-pioneers, the canopy species C. estrellensis seemed to assimilate nitrate mainly in the leaves. Morphophysiological analyses showed a gradient of ammonium toxicity response, with E. brasiliensis as the most tolerant species, and T. micrantha and H. popayanensis as the most sensitive ones. Guarea kunthiana showed a relatively low tolerance to ammonium and an unusual high translocation of this cation in the xylem sap. In contrast to the other pioneers, C. pachystachya had a high plasticity in the use of nitrogen sources. Overall, these results suggest that nitrogen use strategies of neotropical tree seedlings were not determined solely by their successional position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. New Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) from Brazil and a key for the Neotropical species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Viviane R DE; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-01-01

    Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) is a genus of leaf mining flies, including species with high economic importance. The knowledge of this genus is very poor in the neotropics, with 12 known species, only six of them recorded from Brazil. This paper describes two new Agromyza species from "Cerrado" and "Pantanal" biomes and records three other species represented only by females that could not be identified to species level. We also present a taxonomic key to segregate the 14 Neotropical species. The specimens were collected in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states and are deposited at Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil) and Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) collections. The adults were photographed and the male terminalia were dissected and illustrated.

  5. Influence of Propagule Flotation Longevity and Light Availability on Establishment of Introduced Mangrove Species in Hawaiʻi

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Allen; Ken W. Krauss

    2006-01-01

    Although no mangrove species are native to the Hawaiian Archipelago, both (Rhizophora mangle) and (Bruguiera sexangula) were introduced and have become naturalized. (Rhizophora mangle) has spread to almost every major Hawaiian island, but (B. sexangula) has established only on O...

  6. Aspergillus species isolated from mangrove forests in Borneo Island, Sarawak, Malaysia

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    J.S.S. Seelan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence of Aspergillus spp. on selected mangrove forests in Sarawak was conducted to find out their diversity and distribution. Samples were obtained from mangrove soils and leaf litters at different locations, i.e. Sematan, Lundu, Kampung Bako, Bako in Sarawak. Soil and leaf litter samples were taken randomly at different locations with five replicates from each area. A total of 138 isolates of Aspergillus species were obtained from the soil and leaf litter samples by using direct plating and Warcup method. Based on both macroscopic and microscopic observations, using an identification key, individual isolates were classified within the genus Aspergillus, belonging to three subgenera, four sections and five species. The fungi isolates were identified as A. terreus, A. flavipes, A. carneus, A. fumigatus and A. clavatus. The most frequent isolated species was A. flavipes (63.04%, followed by A. fumigatus (16.7%, A. terreus (13.04%, A. carneus (5.8% and A. clavatus (1.44%. All of the isolated Aspergillus species grew well on MEA and CYA at 25°C. A. carneus produced reddish sclerotia on MEA after seven days and this could be used as an important characteristic in this species identification. A. clavatus from mangrove soil in Kampung Bako has shown long conidiophores (ranging from 3-5 cm with swollen hyphal structures, while A. clavatus from Sematan area has shorter conidiophores (ranging from 2.5-3.5 cm on MEA.

  7. Large-scale patterns in morphological diversity and species assemblages in Neotropical Triatominae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergnani, Paula Nilda; Ruggiero, Adriana; Ceccarelli, Soledad; Menu, Frédéric; Rabinovich, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    We analysed the spatial variation in morphological diversity (MDiv) and species richness (SR) for 91 species of Neotropical Triatominae to determine the ecological relationships between SR and MDiv and to explore the roles that climate, productivity, environmental heterogeneity and the presence of biomes and rivers may play in the structuring of species assemblages. For each 110 km x 110 km-cell on a grid map of America, we determined the number of species (SR) and estimated the mean Gower index (MDiv) based on 12 morphological attributes. We performed bootstrapping analyses of species assemblages to identify whether those assemblages were more similar or dissimilar in their morphology than expected by chance. We applied a multi-model selection procedure and spatial explicit analyses to account for the association of diversity-environment relationships. MDiv and SR both showed a latitudinal gradient, although each peaked at different locations and were thus not strictly spatially congruent. SR decreased with temperature variability and MDiv increased with mean temperature, suggesting a predominant role for ambient energy in determining Triatominae diversity. Species that were more similar than expected by chance co-occurred near the limits of the Triatominae distribution in association with changes in environmental variables. Environmental filtering may underlie the structuring of species assemblages near their distributional limits.

  8. Attractant Pheromone of the Neotropical Species Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Heteroptera: Alydidae

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    Raul Alberto Laumann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical broad-headed bug, Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood, is adapted to various leguminous crops and is considered a pest in common bean and soybean. The chemical communication of this species was studied in order to identify an attractant pheromone. Males and females of N. parvus produce several short-chain esters and acids, and their antennae showed electrophysiological responses to five of these compounds, three common to both sexes (hexyl butanoate, 4-methylhexyl butanoate, and hexyl hexanoate, and two female-specific compounds (4-methylhexyl pentanoate and hexyl pentanoate. Both aeration extracts of females and a solution containing five synthetic compounds mimicking the natural blend were attractive to males and females N. parvus in a laboratory bioassay. Aspects of the chemical ecology of the broad-headed bugs and the possibility to use pheromone-baited traps in the field for monitoring are discussed.

  9. Comparative genetic structure of two mangrove species in Caribbean and Pacific estuaries of Panama

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    Cerón-Souza Ivania

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mangroves are ecologically important and highly threatened forest communities. Observational and genetic evidence has confirmed the long distance dispersal capacity of water-dispersed mangrove seeds, but less is known about the relative importance of pollen vs. seed gene flow in connecting populations. We analyzed 980 Avicennia germinans for 11 microsatellite loci and 940 Rhizophora mangle for six microsatellite loci and subsampled two non-coding cpDNA regions in order to understand population structure, and gene flow within and among four major estuaries on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Panama. Results Both species showed similar rates of outcrossing (t= 0.7 in A. germinans and 0.8 in R. mangle and strong patterns of spatial genetic structure within estuaries, although A. germinans had greater genetic structure in nuclear and cpDNA markers (7 demes > 4 demes and Sp= 0.02 > 0.002, and much greater cpDNA diversity (Hd= 0.8 > 0.2 than R. mangle. The Central American Isthmus serves as an exceptionally strong barrier to gene flow, with high levels nuclear (FST= 0.3-0.5 and plastid (FST= 0.5-0.8 genetic differentiation observed within each species between coasts and no shared cpDNA haplotypes between species on each coast. Finally, evidence of low ratios of pollen to seed dispersal (r = −0.6 in A. germinans and 7.7 in R. mangle, coupled with the strong observed structure in nuclear and plastid DNA among most estuaries, suggests low levels of gene flow in these mangrove species. Conclusions We conclude that gene dispersal in mangroves is usually limited within estuaries and that coastal geomorphology and rare long distance dispersal events could also influence levels of structure.

  10. Comparative genetic structure of two mangrove species in Caribbean and Pacific estuaries of Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mangroves are ecologically important and highly threatened forest communities. Observational and genetic evidence has confirmed the long distance dispersal capacity of water-dispersed mangrove seeds, but less is known about the relative importance of pollen vs. seed gene flow in connecting populations. We analyzed 980 Avicennia germinans for 11 microsatellite loci and 940 Rhizophora mangle for six microsatellite loci and subsampled two non-coding cpDNA regions in order to understand population structure, and gene flow within and among four major estuaries on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Panama. Results Both species showed similar rates of outcrossing (t= 0.7 in A. germinans and 0.8 in R. mangle) and strong patterns of spatial genetic structure within estuaries, although A. germinans had greater genetic structure in nuclear and cpDNA markers (7 demes > 4 demes and Sp= 0.02 > 0.002), and much greater cpDNA diversity (Hd= 0.8 > 0.2) than R. mangle. The Central American Isthmus serves as an exceptionally strong barrier to gene flow, with high levels nuclear (FST= 0.3-0.5) and plastid (FST= 0.5-0.8) genetic differentiation observed within each species between coasts and no shared cpDNA haplotypes between species on each coast. Finally, evidence of low ratios of pollen to seed dispersal (r = −0.6 in A. germinans and 7.7 in R. mangle), coupled with the strong observed structure in nuclear and plastid DNA among most estuaries, suggests low levels of gene flow in these mangrove species. Conclusions We conclude that gene dispersal in mangroves is usually limited within estuaries and that coastal geomorphology and rare long distance dispersal events could also influence levels of structure. PMID:23078287

  11. The genus Macrostemum Kolenati 1859 (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) in the Neotropical Region: Description of two new species, taxonomic notes, distributional records and key to males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Diogo; Paprocki, Henrique; Calor, Adolfo R

    2013-01-01

    The genus Macrostemum Kolenati contains 105. described species, with 15 valid species in the Neotropical region. The Adults are recognized principally by wing membranes strongly marked with dark and light colors. The Neotropical species Of Macrostemum were described based on the wing colors patterns and body morphology. In this paper we present a taxonomic study of the Neotropical species, descriptions of two new species from Brazil, distributional records and a key to males. The male of Macrostemum negrense Flint 1978 is described for the first time, Names of three Neotropical species, M. ramosum (Navás 1916), M. trigramma (Navás 1916), and M. triste (Navás 1916) are designated nomina dubia.

  12. Delimiting species boundaries within the Neotropical bamboo Otatea (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) using molecular, morphological and ecological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo; Sosa, Victoria

    2010-02-01

    Species delimitation is a task that has engaged taxonomists for more than two centuries. Recently, it has been demonstrated that molecular data and ecological niche modeling are useful in species delimitation. In this paper multiple data sets (molecular, morphological, ecological) were utilized to set limits for the species belonging to the Neotropical bamboo Otatea, because there is disagreement about species circumscriptions and also because the genus has an interesting distribution, with most of its populations in Mexico and a single disjunct population in Colombia. Molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses recovered trees with conflicting topologies. Tree-based morphological and character-based analyses recognized the same entities. Ecological niche models and PCA/MANOVAS agreed with the recognition of the same entities that resulted from the morphological analyses. Morphological analyses retrieved clades supported by diagnostic characters and coherent geographical distributions. Based on these results seven entities should be recognized in Otatea, instead of the three previously described species. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Mangrove habitat partitioning by Ucides cordatus (Ucididae): effects of the degree of tidal flooding and tree-species composition during its life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, A. C.; Pinheiro, M. A. A.

    2013-06-01

    Environmental factors strongly affect mangrove crabs, and some factors modulate population structure and habitat partitioning during the crabs' life cycle. However, the effect of these environmental factors on habitat selection by mangrove crabs is still unknown. We evaluated habitat selection by the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus in mangrove forests with different degrees of predominance of Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa or Avicennia schaueriana, two tidal flooding levels (less- and more-flooded), and two biological periods (breeding and non-breeding seasons). Sampling was conducted in four mangrove forests with different influences of these biotic and abiotic parameters. We used the data for sex ratio to explain environmental partitioning by this species. Females predominated in R. mangle mangroves, independently of the biological period (breeding or non-breeding seasons), and males predominated only in the less-flooded L. racemosa mangroves. The flooding level affected the sex ratio of U. cordatus, with a predominance of males in less-flooded mangroves, independently of the biological period; and a gender balance in the more-flooded mangroves only during the breeding season. Outside the breeding season, the largest specimens were recorded in the R. mangle mangroves, but in the breeding season, the largest crabs were recorded in the L. racemosa mangroves with a higher level of flooding. These results suggest that tree-species composition and tidal flooding level can have a significant effect on the habitat partitioning of sexes and sizes of the mangrove crab U. cordatus both during and outside the breeding season.

  14. Parametric and non-parametric species delimitation methods result in the recognition of two new Neotropical woody bamboo species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    The Neotropical woody bamboo genus Otatea is one of five genera in the subtribe Guaduinae. Of the eight described Otatea species, seven are endemic to Mexico and one is also distributed in Central and South America. Otatea acuminata has the widest geographical distribution of the eight species, and two of its recently collected populations do not match the known species morphologically. Parametric and non-parametric methods were used to delimit the species in Otatea using five chloroplast markers, one nuclear marker, and morphological characters. The parametric coalescent method and the non-parametric analysis supported the recognition of two distinct evolutionary lineages. Molecular clock estimates were used to estimate divergence times in Otatea. The results for divergence time in Otatea estimated the origin of the speciation events from the Late Miocene to Late Pleistocene. The species delimitation analyses (parametric and non-parametric) identified that the two populations of O. acuminata from Chiapas and Hidalgo are from two separate evolutionary lineages and these new species have morphological characters that separate them from O. acuminata s.s. The geological activity of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec may have isolated populations and limited the gene flow between Otatea species, driving speciation. Based on the results found here, I describe Otatea rzedowskiorum and Otatea victoriae as two new species, morphologically different from O. acuminata. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cryptic species? Patterns of maternal and paternal gene flow in eight neotropical bats.

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    Elizabeth L Clare

    Full Text Available Levels of sequence divergence at mitochondrial loci are frequently used in phylogeographic analysis and species delimitation though single marker systems cannot assess bi-parental gene flow. In this investigation I compare the phylogeographic patterns revealed through the maternally inherited mitochondrial COI region and the paternally inherited 7(th intron region of the Dby gene on the Y-chromosome in eight common Neotropical bat species. These species are diverse and include members of two families from the feeding guilds of sanguivores, nectarivores, frugivores, carnivores and insectivores. In each case, the currently recognized taxon is comprised of distinct, substantially divergent intraspecific mitochondrial lineages suggesting cryptic species complexes. In Chrotopterus auritus, and Saccopteryx bilineata I observed congruent patterns of divergence in both genetic regions suggesting a cessation of gene flow between intraspecific groups. This evidence supports the existence of cryptic species complexes which meet the criteria of the genetic species concept. In Glossophaga soricina two intraspecific groups with largely sympatric South American ranges show evidence for incomplete lineage sorting or frequent hybridization while a third group with a Central American distribution appears to diverge congruently at both loci suggesting speciation. Within Desmodus rotundus and Trachops cirrhosus the paternally inherited region was monomorphic and thus does not support or refute the potential for cryptic speciation. In Uroderma bilobatum, Micronycteris megalotis and Platyrrhinus helleri the gene regions show conflicting patterns of divergence and I cannot exclude ongoing gene flow between intraspecific groups. This analysis provides a comprehensive comparison across taxa and employs both maternally and paternally inherited gene regions to validate patterns of gene flow. I present evidence for previously unrecognized species meeting the criteria of

  16. Helminth Fauna Associated with Three Neotropical Bat Species (Chiroptera: Mormoopidae) in Veracruz, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Crespo, Emilio; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Montiel-Ortega, Salvador; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2017-08-01

    Bats are recognized as potential hosts of pathogens exploiting the food chain to reach them as definitive hosts. However, very little is known about their endoparasites, especially for Neotropical bats. In this study, we assessed the helminth fauna associated with 3 insectivorous bat species roosting in the same single hot cave in central Veracruz, México: Mormoops megalophylla, Pteronotus davyi, and Pteronotus personatus. During a period of 1 yr (April 2007-2008), 135 mormoopid bats in total were collected and examined for helminths. Six parasite species representing 3 types of intestinal helminths were found: 1 cestode Vampirolepis elongatus; 2 trematodes Maxbraunium tubiporum and Ochoterenatrema labda; and 3 nematodes Linustrongylus pteronoti, Molineidae gen. sp., and Capillaria sp. Overall, trematodes were the most abundant parasite group (72.4%), followed by nematodes (20.7%) and cestodes (6.9%). Species-accumulation curves suggest that the worms collected (n = 1,331) from these 6 parasite species comprise the helminth fauna associated with the 3 bat populations studied. The only species shared by the 3 bat species was Capillaria sp. Most (5/6) of the helminth species recorded use Lepidoptera and Diptera as intermediate hosts; therefore, diet is likely the main source of infection. Although insectivorous bats are considered dietary generalist species, the differences found in helminth diversity in these sympatric populations of closely related bat species, suggest that diet partitioning occurs in mormoopid bat communities. Helminths tend to exploit the food chain to reach their final hosts; therefore, studying these parasites can provide useful information to further understand the biology of bats.

  17. Diversity and associations between Drosophilidae (Diptera species and Basidiomycetes in a Neotropical forest

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    FELIPE B. VALER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drosophilidae is one of the most representative families of insects that occurs in fungal fruiting bodies of Basidiomycetes; however, the diversity and community structure of mycophagous Drosophilidae in the Neotropical region is poorly known. The aims of the present study were to describe the diversity of mycophagous Drosophilidae and to investigate its colonization of fungal hosts in a forest of southern Brazil. From 120 fungal samples (patches of mushrooms of 17 Basidiomycetes genera, flies were recorded emerging from 70 samples and collected in adult stages of 25 fungal samples, for a total of 4897 drosophilids belonging to 31 species and 5 genera. Drosophila Fallén was the most species-rich genus, whereas Hirtodrosophila Duda was the dominant genus. Studies performed in the Holarctic region indicate that mycophagous drosophilid have generalist habits; however, our results showed that most drosophilids use fewer than two fungal hosts, and most species of Hirtodrosophila and Leucophenga were restricted to abundant fungal species, suggesting a specialization for these resources. The most specialized fauna emerged from Auricularia, which was the most frequent fungal genus in our collection, and this result supports the assumption that specialization depends on the availability of fungal resources over time.

  18. Responses of neotropical mangrove seedlings grown in monoculture and mixed culture under treatments of hydroperiod and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Olarte, P.; Twilley, R.R.; Krauss, K.W.; Rivera-Monroy, V.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of salinity and hydroperiod on seedlings of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa grown under experimental conditions of monoculture and mixed culture by using a simulated tidal system. The objective was to test hypotheses relative to species interactions to either tidal or permanent flooding at salinities of 10 or 40 g/l. Four-month-old seedlings were experimentally manipulated under these environmental conditions in two types of species interactions: (1) seedlings of the same species were grown separately in containers from September 2000 to August 2001 to evaluate intraspecific response and (2) seedlings of each species were mixed in containers to evaluate interspecific, competitive responses from August 2002 to April 2003. Overall, L. racemosa was strongly sensitive to treatment combinations while R. mangle showed little effect. Most plant responses of L. racemosa were affected by both salinity and hydroperiod, with hydroperiod inducing more effects than salinity. Compared to R. mangle, L. racemosa in all treatment combinations had higher relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, stem elongation, total length of branches, net primary production, and stem height. Rhizophora mangle had higher biomass allocation to roots. Species growth differentiation was more pronounced at low salinity, with few species differences at high salinity under permanent flooding. These results suggest that under low to mild stress by hydroperiod and salinity, L. racemosa exhibits responses that favor its competitive dominance over R. mangle. This advantage, however, is strongly reduced as stress from salinity and hydroperiod increase. ?? Springer 2006.

  19. Changes in mangrove species assemblages and future prediction of the Bangladesh Sundarbans using Markov chain model and cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Mondal, Parimal; Barik, Jyotiskona; Chowdhury, S M; Ghosh, Tuhin; Hazra, Sugata

    2015-06-01

    The composition and assemblage of mangroves in the Bangladesh Sundarbans are changing systematically in response to several environmental factors. In order to understand the impact of the changing environmental conditions on the mangrove forest, species composition maps for the years 1985, 1995 and 2005 were studied. In the present study, 1985 and 1995 species zonation maps were considered as base data and the cellular automata-Markov chain model was run to predict the species zonation for the year 2005. The model output was validated against the actual dataset for 2005 and calibrated. Finally, using the model, mangrove species zonation maps for the years 2025, 2055 and 2105 have been prepared. The model was run with the assumption that the continuation of the current tempo and mode of drivers of environmental factors (temperature, rainfall, salinity change) of the last two decades will remain the same in the next few decades. Present findings show that the area distribution of the following species assemblages like Goran (Ceriops), Sundari (Heritiera), Passur (Xylocarpus), and Baen (Avicennia) would decrease in the descending order, whereas the area distribution of Gewa (Excoecaria), Keora (Sonneratia) and Kankra (Bruguiera) dominated assemblages would increase. The spatial distribution of projected mangrove species assemblages shows that more salt tolerant species will dominate in the future; which may be used as a proxy to predict the increase of salinity and its spatial variation in Sundarbans. Considering the present rate of loss of forest land, 17% of the total mangrove cover is predicted to be lost by the year 2105 with a significant loss of fresh water loving mangroves and related ecosystem services. This paper describes a unique approach to assess future changes in species composition and future forest zonation in mangroves under the 'business as usual' scenario of climate change.

  20. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature's desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771.

  1. Decadal changes and delayed avian species losses due to deforestation in the northern Neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David W.; Escalante, Patricia; Rappole, John H.; Oehlenschlager, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    How avifauna respond to the long-term loss and fragmentation of tropical forests is a critical issue in biodiversity management. We use data from over 30 years to gain insights into such changes in the northernmost Neotropical rainforest in the Sierra de Los Tuxtlas of southern Veracruz, Mexico. This region has been extensively deforested over the past half-century. The Estación de Biología Tropical Los Tuxtlas, of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), protects a 640 ha tract of lowland forest. It became relatively isolated from other forested tracts between 1975 and 1985, but it retains a corridor of forest to more extensive forests at higher elevations on Volcán San Martín. Most deforestation in this area occurred during the 1970s and early 1980s. Forest birds were sampled on the station and surrounding areas using mist nets during eight non-breeding seasons from 1973 to 2004 (though in some seasons netting extended into the local breeding season for some species). Our data suggested extirpations or declines in 12 species of birds subject to capture in mist nets. Six of the eight species no longer present were captured in 1992–95, but not in 2003–2004. Presence/absence data from netting and observational data suggested that another four low-density species also disappeared since sampling began. This indicates a substantial time lag between the loss of habitat and the apparent extirpation of these species. Delayed species loss and the heterogeneous nature of the species affected will be important factors in tropical forest management and conservation. PMID:24133637

  2. Interactions between terrestrial mammals and the fruits of two neotropical rainforest tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Sanabria, Angela A.; Mendoza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Mammalian frugivory is a distinctive biotic interaction of tropical forests; however, most efforts in the Neotropics have focused on cases of animals foraging in the forest canopy, in particular primates and bats. In contrast much less is known about this interaction when it involves fruits deposited on the forest floor and terrestrial mammals. We conducted a camera-trapping survey to analyze the characteristics of the mammalian ensembles visiting fruits of Licania platypus and Pouteria sapota deposited on the forest floor in a well preserved tropical rainforest of Mexico. Both tree species produce large fruits but contrast in their population densities and fruit chemical composition. In particular, we expected that more species of terrestrial mammals would consume P. sapota fruits due to its higher pulp:seed ratio, lower availability and greater carbohydrate content. We monitored fruits at the base of 13 trees (P. sapota, n = 4 and L. platypus, n = 9) using camera-traps. We recorded 13 mammal species from which we had evidence of 8 consuming or removing fruits. These eight species accounted for 70% of the species of mammalian frugivores active in the forest floor of our study area. The ensemble of frugivores associated with L. platypus (6 spp.) was a subset of that associated with P. sapota (8 spp). Large body-sized species such as Tapirus bairdii, Pecari tajacu and Cuniculus paca were the mammals more frequently interacting with fruits of the focal species. Our results further our understanding of the characteristics of the interaction between terrestrial mammalian frugivores and large-sized fruits, helping to gain a more balanced view of its importance across different tropical forests and providing a baseline to compare against defaunated forests.

  3. Description of a New Temnocephala Species (Platyhelminthes) from the Southern Neotropical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Rodrigo Ponce; Vera, Bárbara Berón; Volonterio, Odile

    2015-08-01

    The genus Temnocephala is endemic to the Neotropical region. Temnocephala mexicana and Temnocephala chilensis are the only 2 temnocephalans whose known distribution ranges extend to the south beyond Parallel 40°S. No Temnocephala species has ever been recorded from the extensive area between Parallel 43°S and the southern end of the South American continent, which makes the study of the southern limit of the distribution of the genus a topic of great interest. The southernmost report corresponds to T. chilensis from the Telsen River, Chubut Province, Argentina. In March 2000, several temnocephalans were found on the freshwater anomuran crustacean Aegla neuquensis from the same locality; the specimens were identified as belonging to a new species, which is described here. This species is characterized by possessing an unusually thin-walled, narrow zone that has the appearance of a deep groove connecting the introvert to the shaft of the penial stylet; an introvert with 36 longitudinal rows of spines, each bearing 6-8 spines that are progressively smaller towards the distal end; a distal end of the introvert with a very thin, sclerotized wall without spines; a seminal vesicle that opens sub-polarly into the contractile vesicle; a pair of paranephrocytes at the level of the pharynx and a second pair at the level of the anterior portion of the anterior testes, and eggs with very long stalks. On the basis of their overall morphology, host preference, and geographical distribution, T. chilensis and the new species are closely related, so a diagnostic key for the southern species of Temnocephala is also included. The type locality of the new species is in the southern limit of the known distribution area of T. chilensis, so after this work there are 2 known species marking the southern limit of the distribution of the genus.

  4. Decadal changes and delayed avian species losses due to deforestation in the northern Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Shaw

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available How avifauna respond to the long-term loss and fragmentation of tropical forests is a critical issue in biodiversity management. We use data from over 30 years to gain insights into such changes in the northernmost Neotropical rainforest in the Sierra de Los Tuxtlas of southern Veracruz, Mexico. This region has been extensively deforested over the past half-century. The Estación de Biología Tropical Los Tuxtlas, of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM, protects a 640 ha tract of lowland forest. It became relatively isolated from other forested tracts between 1975 and 1985, but it retains a corridor of forest to more extensive forests at higher elevations on Volcán San Martín. Most deforestation in this area occurred during the 1970s and early 1980s. Forest birds were sampled on the station and surrounding areas using mist nets during eight non-breeding seasons from 1973 to 2004 (though in some seasons netting extended into the local breeding season for some species. Our data suggested extirpations or declines in 12 species of birds subject to capture in mist nets. Six of the eight species no longer present were captured in 1992–95, but not in 2003–2004. Presence/absence data from netting and observational data suggested that another four low-density species also disappeared since sampling began. This indicates a substantial time lag between the loss of habitat and the apparent extirpation of these species. Delayed species loss and the heterogeneous nature of the species affected will be important factors in tropical forest management and conservation.

  5. Climatic changes can drive the loss of genetic diversity in a Neotropical savanna tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Jacqueline S; Ballesteros-Mejia, Liliana; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2017-11-01

    The high rates of future climatic changes, compared with the rates reported for past changes, may hamper species adaptation to new climates or the tracking of suitable conditions, resulting in significant loss of genetic diversity. Trees are dominant species in many biomes and because they are long-lived, they may not be able to cope with ongoing climatic changes. Here, we coupled ecological niche modelling (ENM) and genetic simulations to forecast the effects of climatic changes on the genetic diversity and the structure of genetic clusters. Genetic simulations were conditioned to climatic variables and restricted to plant dispersal and establishment. We used a Neotropical savanna tree as species model that shows a preference for hot and drier climates, but with low temperature seasonality. The ENM predicts a decreasing range size along the more severe future climatic scenario. Additionally, genetic diversity and allelic richness also decrease with range retraction and climatic genetic clusters are lost for both future scenarios, which will lead genetic variability to homogenize throughout the landscape. Besides, climatic genetic clusters will spatially reconfigure on the landscape following displacements of climatic conditions. Our findings indicate that climate change effects will challenge population adaptation to new environmental conditions because of the displacement of genetic ancestry clusters from their optimal conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Winter climate change and coastal wetland foundation species: salt marshes vs. mangrove forests in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J; Enwright, Nicholas; Day, Richard H; Doyle, Thomas W

    2013-05-01

    We live in an era of unprecedented ecological change in which ecologists and natural resource managers are increasingly challenged to anticipate and prepare for the ecological effects of future global change. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of winter climate change upon salt marsh and mangrove forest foundation species in the southeastern United States. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) What is the relationship between winter climate and the presence and abundance of mangrove forests relative to salt marshes; (2) How vulnerable are salt marshes to winter climate change-induced mangrove forest range expansion; and (3) What is the potential future distribution and relative abundance of mangrove forests under alternative winter climate change scenarios? We developed simple winter climate-based models to predict mangrove forest distribution and relative abundance using observed winter temperature data (1970-2000) and mangrove forest and salt marsh habitat data. Our results identify winter climate thresholds for salt marsh-mangrove forest interactions and highlight coastal areas in the southeastern United States (e.g., Texas, Louisiana, and parts of Florida) where relatively small changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme winter events could cause relatively dramatic landscape-scale ecosystem structural and functional change in the form of poleward mangrove forest migration and salt marsh displacement. The ecological implications of these marsh-to-mangrove forest conversions are poorly understood, but would likely include changes for associated fish and wildlife populations and for the supply of some ecosystem goods and services. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  8. The drivers of woody species richness and density in a Neotropical savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo Henrique; Batalha, Marco Antônio

    2013-01-01

    Environmental filtering prevents species without certain attributes from occurring in local communities. Traits respond differently to different abiotic factors, assembling communities with varying composition along environmental gradients. Here, we measured proxies of soil fertility, disturbance by fire, response and physiological traits to assess how these variables interact to determine woody species richness and density in a Neotropical savannah. We explicitly incorporated our assumptions about how different abiotic filters influence different subsets of traits into a statistical model using structural equation modelling, yielding a more accurate representation of the assembly process. Fire had an effect on resistance traits, whereas soil fertility influenced physiological traits. Resistance traits explained both the richness and density of plots, whereas physiological traits explained only the density. Fewer fire events led to richer and denser plots. Similarly, areas with lower cation exchange capacity assembled less dense communities. Furthermore, we showed that structural equation modelling yielded a realistic representation of the bivariate interactions of distinct environmental filters with different subsets of traits.

  9. Environment and host species shape the skin microbiome of captive neotropical bats

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    Virginie Lemieux-Labonté

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background A wide range of microorganisms inhabit animal skin. This microbial community (microbiome plays an important role in host defense against pathogens and disease. Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia are an ecologically and evolutionarily diversified group with a relatively unexplored skin microbiome. The bat skin microbiome could play a role in disease resistance, for example, to white nose syndrome (WNS, an infection which has been devastating North American bat populations. However, fundamental knowledge of the bat skin microbiome is needed before understanding its role in health and disease resistance. Captive neotropical frugivorous bats Artibeus jamaicensis and Carollia perspicillataprovide a simple controlled system in which to characterize the factors shaping the bat microbiome. Here, we aimed to determine the relative importance of habitat and host species on the bat skin microbiome. Methods We performed high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the skin microbiome of two different bat species living in captivity in two different habitats. In the first habitat, A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata lived together, while the second habitat contained only A. jamaicensis. Results We found that both habitat and host species shape the composition and diversity of the skin microbiome, with habitat having the strongest influence. Cohabitating A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata shared more similar skin microbiomes than members of the same species (A. jamaicensis across two habitats. Discussion These results suggest that in captivity, the skin microbial community is homogenised by the shared environments and individual proximities of bats living together in the same habitat, at the expense of the innate host species factors. The predominant influence of habitat suggests that environmental microorganisms or pathogens might colonize bat skin. We also propose that bat populations could differ in pathogen susceptibility depending on their immediate

  10. Environment and host species shape the skin microbiome of captive neotropical bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux-Labonté, Virginie; Tromas, Nicolas; Shapiro, B Jesse; Lapointe, François-Joseph

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of microorganisms inhabit animal skin. This microbial community (microbiome) plays an important role in host defense against pathogens and disease. Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia) are an ecologically and evolutionarily diversified group with a relatively unexplored skin microbiome. The bat skin microbiome could play a role in disease resistance, for example, to white nose syndrome (WNS), an infection which has been devastating North American bat populations. However, fundamental knowledge of the bat skin microbiome is needed before understanding its role in health and disease resistance. Captive neotropical frugivorous bats Artibeus jamaicensis and Carollia perspicillataprovide a simple controlled system in which to characterize the factors shaping the bat microbiome. Here, we aimed to determine the relative importance of habitat and host species on the bat skin microbiome. We performed high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the skin microbiome of two different bat species living in captivity in two different habitats. In the first habitat, A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata lived together, while the second habitat contained only A. jamaicensis. We found that both habitat and host species shape the composition and diversity of the skin microbiome, with habitat having the strongest influence. Cohabitating A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata shared more similar skin microbiomes than members of the same species (A. jamaicensis) across two habitats. These results suggest that in captivity, the skin microbial community is homogenised by the shared environments and individual proximities of bats living together in the same habitat, at the expense of the innate host species factors. The predominant influence of habitat suggests that environmental microorganisms or pathogens might colonize bat skin. We also propose that bat populations could differ in pathogen susceptibility depending on their immediate environment and habitat.

  11. In search of critically endangered species: the current situation of two tiny salamander species in the Neotropical mountains of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Comte, Adriana; Pineda, Eduardo; Aguilar-López, José L

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, one in every three species of amphibian is endangered, 39 species have gone extinct in the last 500 years and another 130 species are suspected to have gone extinct in recent decades. Of the amphibians, salamanders have the highest portion of their species in one of the risk categories, even higher than the frogs. To date there have been few studies that have used recent field data to examine the status of populations of endangered salamanders. In this study we evaluate the current situation of two tiny salamanders, Parvimolge townsendi and Thorius pennatulus, both of which are distributed at intermediate elevations in the mountains of the northern Neotropics and are considered to be critically endangered; the first has been proposed as possibly extinct. By carrying out exhaustive surveys in both historical and potentially suitable sites for these two species, we evaluated their abundance and the characteristics of their habitats, and we estimated their potential geographic distribution. We visited 22 sites, investing 672 person-hours of sampling effort in the surveys, and found 201 P. townsendi salamanders in 11 sites and only 13 T. pennatulus salamanders in 5 sites. Both species were preferentially found in cloud forest fragments that were well conserved or only moderately transformed, and some of the salamanders were found in shade coffee plantations. The potential distribution area of both species is markedly fragmented and we estimate that it has decreased by more than 48%. The results of this study highlight the importance of carrying out exhaustive, systematic field surveys to obtain accurate information about the current situation of critically endangered species, and help us better understand the crisis that amphibians are facing worldwide.

  12. Integrative taxonomy supports new candidate fish species in a poorly studied neotropical region: the Jequitinhonha River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugedo, Marina Lages; de Andrade Neto, Francisco Ricardo; Pessali, Tiago Casarim; Birindelli, José Luís Olivan; Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso

    2016-06-01

    Molecular identification through DNA barcoding has been proposed as a way to standardize a global biodiversity identification system using a partial sequence of the mitochondrial COI gene. We applied an integrative approach using DNA barcoding and traditional morphology-based bioassessment to identify fish from a neotropical region possessing low taxonomic knowledge: the Jequitinhonha River Basin (Southeastern Brazil). The Jequitinhonha River Basin (JRB) has a high rate of endemism and is considered an area of high priority for fish conservation, with estimates indicating the presence of around 110 native and non-indigenous species. DNA barcodes were obtained from 260 individuals belonging to 52 species distributed among 35 genera, 21 families and 6 orders, including threatened and rare species such as Rhamdia jequitinhonha and Steindachneridion amblyurum. The mean Kimura two-parameter genetic distances within species, genera and families were: 0.44, 12.16 and 20.58 %, respectively. Mean intraspecific genetic variation ranged from 0 to 11.43 %, and high values (>2 %) were recovered for five species. Species with a deep intraspecific distance, possibly flagging overlooked taxa, were detected within the genus Pimelodella. Fifteen species, only identified to the genus level, had unique BINs, with a nearest neighbor distance over 2 % and therefore, potential new candidate species supported by DNA barcoding. The integrative taxonomy approach using DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy may be a remedy to taxonomy impediment, accelerating species identification by flagging potential new candidate species and to adequately conserve the megadiverse neotropical ichthyofauna.

  13. Swimming with multiple propulsors: measurement and comparison of swimming gaits in three species of neotropical cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilich, Kara L

    2017-11-15

    Comparative studies of fish swimming have been limited by the lack of quantitative definitions of fish gaits. Traditionally, steady swimming gaits have been defined categorically by the fin or region of the body that is used as the main propulsor and named after major fish clades (e.g. carangiform, anguilliform, balistiform, labriform). This method of categorization is limited by the lack of explicit measurements, the inability to incorporate contributions of multiple propulsors and the inability to compare gaits across different categories. I propose an alternative framework for the definition and comparison of fish gaits based on the propulsive contribution of each structure (body and/or fin) being used as a propulsor relative to locomotor output, and demonstrate the effectiveness of this framework by comparing three species of neotropical cichlids with different body shapes. This approach is modular with respect to the number of propulsors considered, flexible with respect to the definition of the propulsive inputs and the locomotor output of interest, and designed explicitly to handle combinations of propulsors. Using this approach, gait can be defined as a trajectory through propulsive space, and gait transitions can be defined as discontinuities in the gait trajectory. By measuring and defining gait in this way, patterns of clustering corresponding to existing categorical definitions of gait may emerge, and gaits can be rigorously compared across categories. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Nuclear DNA content in 20 species of Siluriformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi from the Neotropical region

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    Paulo César Fenerich

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 20 species of Siluriformes fish were analyzed in order to determine their nuclear DNA content and compare these data with their diploid number. In addition, the extension and importance of the changes that occurred during the process of diversification in the group of Neotropical freshwater catfish were investigated. The only species studied of the family Doradidae, Rhinodoras d'orbignyi (2n = 58, presented 3.46 ± 0.13 pg of DNA. Among the species of the family Heptapteridae, the values of nuclear DNA content and the diploid numbers ranged from 1.13 ± 0.09 pg of DNA in Pimelodella sp. (2n = 46 to 2.38 ± 0.07 pg of DNA in Imparfinis mirini (2n = 58. The family Loricariidae showed the widest variation in diploid number and nuclear DNA content values, ranging from 2n = 52 and 3.96 ± 0.22 pg of DNA in Liposarcus anisitsi to 2n = 76 and 4.90 ± 0.12 pg of DNA in Hypostomus sp. 4. In this group, two local samples of Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae were analyzed, and both exhibited 2n = 56, but different nuclear DNA content values (2.68 ± 0.22 pg and 2.82 ± 0.20 pg, respectively. Among the Pseudopimelodidae species analyzed, Pseudopimelodus mangurus (2n = 54 showed 2.23 ± 0.15 pg and Microglanis cottoides (2n = 54 exhibited 2.50 ± 0.18 pg of DNA. Two species of Trichomycterus (Trichomycteridae also presented the same diploid number, 2n = 54 chromosomes, but, while the species from the Quinta stream presented a DNA content of 2.62 ± 0.19 pg, in the sample from the Capivara river this value was 2.30 ± 0.23 pg. In the analyzed species, the results showed that the changes in DNA content were frequently not followed by changes in the diploid number. This fact permits to suggest that, in addition to structural chromosome rearrangements, other mechanisms, including deletions, duplications and polyploidy, could be involved in the process of species differentiation in the representatives of the fish order Siluriformes.

  15. Two new Neotropical species of Drosophila peruensis species group (Diptera, Drosophilidae

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    Jonas S. Döge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila peruensis species group was recently proposed and includes four taxa: D. atalaia Vilela & Sene, 1982, D. boraceia Vilela & Val, 2004, D. pauliceia Ratcov & Vilela, 2007, and D. peruensis Wheeler, 1959. All these species have most of setae or setulae of mesonotum arinsing from dark spots, wings with crossveins darker (except in D. atalaia and hypandrium squared-shaped mostly fused to gonopods. Here, we describe two new species, Drosophila itacorubi sp. nov. and Drosophila paraitacorubi sp. nov., belonging to this species group. The male genitalia of these species are figured. An identification key to the D. peruensis species group is provided.

  16. Myxomycetes from mangroves: species occurring in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil

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    L. A. N. N. Agra

    Full Text Available Abstract Mangrove swamps and forests cover over 137,000 km2 distributed latitudinally among subtropical zones, 7% of which are in Brazil, with a greater density in the country’s northernmost region. Considering that the community of Myxomycetes recorded for this environment is hardly known, three areas located in the state of Maranhão were investigated. Two field trips were conducted, one at the beginning of the rainy season and another during the dry season. In each area, two plots (125 m2 equidistant 100 m apart from each other were surveyed. In these areas, standing dead tree trunks and dead branches still attached to the mother plant that were above the tideline, were examined. On these same occasions, samples of the aerial litter and from the cortex of living trees (Rhizophora were collected for the preparation of moist chambers cultures. Twenty-one specimens were obtained from field and moist chambers, belonging to 11 species, distributed in nine genera and five families. Seven species are new records from Maranhão. There was a predominance of r-strategist (73% over K-strategist (27% species. Cribraria violacea, Comatricha tenerrima, Echinostelium minutum, and Fuligo septica are new worldwide records from mangrove environments, and Oligonema flavidum is reported for the first time from Brazil.

  17. Trophic analysis of three species of Marilia (Trichoptera: Odontoceridae) from the neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaga, María Celina; Rueda Martín, Paola Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    The trophic ecology of the aquatic insect fauna has been widely studied for the Northern temperate zone. However, the taxa originally classified within a given particular trophic group in temperate ecosystems, do not necessarily exhibit the same dietary profile beyond its geographic limits. Since, the trophic ecology of caddisfly larvae is largely incomplete in the Neotropical Region, the present work aims to describe feeding habits inferred from quantitative analysis of data taxonomically resolved at the species level. For this, the feeding habits of three Trichoptera species Marilia cinerea, M. elongata and M. flexuosa were recorded in the Yungas forests of Argentina and Bolivia. A total of 15 larvae of each species were sampled from 13 different streams were selected for gut content analysis. The ingested material was extracted from the foregut and midgut by using ventral dissection of thorax. For each species, mandibles were dissected, mounted in glycerin and illustrated in order to highlight morphological differences between these mouth pieces purportedly associated to the dietary behavior of individuals, and their habitats. The niche overlap was estimated through Schoener's method. The diet analysis revealed that M. cinerea, M. elongata and M. flexuosa feed on the same food items, but through different patterns of preferences. Larvae of M. cinerea were collected on both emerging surfaces of rocks on which a thin layer of running water flows and streams sliding areas with stony bottoms attached to the rock surfaces. They displayed a gut content consisting predominantly of invertebrate vestiges and have strong mouthparts provided of large molar areas; this allowed us to allocate the species within the functional group of predators. M. elongata feeds mainly on fine particulate material, its mouthparts are scoop-shaped and occurs in areas of low flow; this set of features is linked to a collector-gatherer strategy. Finally, larvae of M. flexuosa have been

  18. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenoh, Elisha Mrabu; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Lehmann, Ingo; Kioko, Esther; Bosire, Jared O; Ngisiange, Noah; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s), the extent of infestation, the pests' biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host's defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s) responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida) was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea) of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga) and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa) of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to address the

  19. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Mrabu Jenoh

    Full Text Available Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s, the extent of infestation, the pests' biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host's defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae.The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to

  20. Dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Portillo, Jorge; Ewers, Frank W; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paredes López, Claudia L; Angeles, Guillermo; Alarcón Jiménez, Ana Luisa; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; Torres Barrera, María Del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• Methods: We collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. Following a series of extractions with the pressure chamber, we depressurized the shoot and pressurized again after various equilibration periods (minutes to hours) to test for dynamic control of osmolality. Transpiration and final sap osmolality were measured in shoots perfused with deionized water or different seawater dilutions.• Key results: For both species, the sap osmolality values of consecutive samples collected by vacuum extraction were stable and matched those of the initial samples extracted with the pressure chamber. Further extraction of samples with the pressure chamber decreased sap osmolality, suggesting reverse osmosis occurred. However, sap osmolalities increased when longer equilibration periods after sap extraction were allowed. Analysis of expressed sap with HPLC indicated a 1:1 relation between measured osmolality and the osmolality of the inorganic ions in the sap (mainly Na + , K + , and Cl - ), suggesting no contamination by organic compounds. In stems perfused with deionized water, the sap osmolality increased to mimic the native sap osmolality.• Conclusions: Xylem sap osmolality and ionic contents are dynamically adjusted by mangroves and may help modulate turgor pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and water potential, thus being important for mangrove physiology, survival, and distribution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  1. Chlorides retention of barium and chromium in two mangrove species Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangrove, developed in waters of the oil industry production, by means of the technique of hydroponics cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosso, J L; Sanchez L E; Avendano D; Restrepo, R

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the phytoremediation mechanism (phytoextraction y/o rhizofiltration) given by the mangroves Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans, when exposed to waters from an oil production field applying the hidroponia technique like system for growing the species. Determination of chlorides, barium and chromium bioaccumulation in tissues of mangrove species under study was compared with content of these elements in an inert substrate without mangroves. Bioaccumulation of the targeted elements was measured after 308 days exposure of the mangroves to production waters with initial barium and chromium contents of 1.25 g.m -3 and 0.002 g.m -3 respectively, and salinity in the range of 2,000 to 3,000 mg.kg -1 . Bioaccumulation of the studied elements (chlorides, barium and chromium) in tissues of both species was correlated to the increment in biomass of each species, as well as to the general physical condition of the plants. Survival rates higher than 95% of the exposed plants to production water during the time of study, increment in biomass of up to 5.88 g.day -1 , and concentrations of chlorides in tissues in the 0 - 170,000 mg.kg -1 during the considered period were observed. No significant difference between the two mangrove species was obtained. Bioaccumulation in tissues does not cause symptoms of deficiency in growing rates in the studied plants compared to natural rate indexes. Similarly, the analyses of inert substrate around the mangrove roots showed chloride and barium concentrations, contrary to the results of the targeted elements in the inert substrate when mangroves are not present. Both phytoremediation mechanisms were observed for the two mangrove species

  2. Characterisation and Comparison of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Extracted from Different Mangrove Species in Cochin estuary (South West Coast of India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolakkal Antony, R.

    2016-02-01

    The samples are collected from Malippuram (10.020 N, 76.210 E), Cochin estuary (South West Coast of India). The area contains various mangrove species, in which we have collected 4 common species (Acanthus Ilicifolis, Avicennia Marina, Avcennia Officianalis and Acrosticum Aurum) among the dominant species in the area. The leaves of these collected samples were freeze dried, grinded and extracted with solvents using standard protocols. The organic layer separated is used for analysing hydrocarbon (n-alkanes and n-alkenes) using Column Chromatography. Recent study (Gireeshkumar et al., 2015) revealed that, long-chain n-alkanes derived from higher plants predominated the inner part of the estuary, while short-chain n-alkanes derived from planktonic sources predominated the bar mouth region. Mangroves are one among the world's most productive ecosystem and form an important part of the coastal and estuarine environment. Living at the interface between land and sea, the mangrove plants have morphological and physiological adaptations to survive in harsh saline environment. Mangroves produce organic carbon well in excess of the ecosystem requirement and contribute significantly to global carbon cycle. They have enormous ecological value. This is the first report of n-alkanes and n-alkenes from these major species in the study area. The qualitative aspects of this study completed and the quantitative aspect is in progress. The stem and root of the collected samples are preserved for future extraction studies.

  3. Changes in carbon pool and stand structure of a native subtropical mangrove forest after inter-planting with exotic species Sonneratia apetala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weizhi; Yang, Shengchang; Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Du, Xiaona; Wang, Canmou; Ma, Yan; Lin, Guangxuan; Lin, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared stand structure, biomass and soil carbon pools, and litterfall production between a mixed mangrove forest consisting of Aegiceras corniculatum inter-planted with the exotic Sonneratia apetala and a native monospecific forest dominated by A. corniculatum in the intertidal area of Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province, southeast China. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that inter-planting fast growing exotic mangrove S. apetala into subtropical native mangrove forests will significantly increase C sequestration. Although the tree heights and basal diameters of S. apetala were significantly higher than those of A. corniculatum, the density of the 12-year-old S. apetala trees in the mixed forest was much smaller than that of A. corniculatum in the monospecific forest. In contrast to several previous studies on S. apetala forests planted directly on mangrove-free mudflats, the mixed mangrove forest showed no significant difference in either standing biomass or soil carbon pools from the native monospecific mangrove forest (p = 0.294 and 0.073, respectively) twelve years after inter-planting with S. apetala. Moreover, carbon cycling was likely speeded up after inter-planting S. apetala due to higher litterfall input and lower C/N ratio. Thus, inter-planting fast-growing S. apetala into native mangrove forest is not an effective way to increase carbon sequestration in this subtropical mangrove forest. Given that exotic plant species may exert negative impact on native mangrove species and related epifauna, this fast-growing mangrove species is not suitable for mangrove plantation projects aiming mainly at enhancing carbon sequestration.

  4. Efficient RNA extraction protocol for the wood mangrove species Laguncularia racemosa suited for next-generation RNA sequencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilwerth, M. W.; Rossetto, P.

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove flora and habitat have immeasurable importance in marine and coastal ecology as well as in the economy. Despite their importance, they are constantly threatened by oil spill accidents and environmental contamination; therefore, it is crucial to understand the changes in gene expression to better predict toxicity in these plants. Among the species of Atlantic coast mangrove (Americas and Africa), Laguncularia racemosa, or white mangrove, is a conspicuous species. The wide distribution of L. racemosa in areas where marine oil exploration is rapidly increasing make it a candidate mangrove species model to uncover the impact of oil spills at the molecular level with the use of massive transcriptome sequencing. However, for this purpose, the RNA extraction protocol should ensure low levels of contaminants and structure integrity. In this study, eight RNA extraction methods were tested and analysed using downstream applications. The InviTrap Spin Plant RNA Mini Kit performed best with regard to purity and integrity. Moreover, the obtained RNA was submitted to cDNA synthesis and RT-PCR, successfully generating amplification products of the expected size. These Results show the applicability of the RNA obtained here for downstream methodologies, such as the construction of cDNA libraries for the Illumina Hi-seq platform. (author)

  5. Nutrient removal in a closed silvofishery system using three mangrove species (Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-León-Herrera, R; Flores-Verdugo, F; Flores-de-Santiago, F; González-Farías, F

    2015-02-15

    The removal of ammonium (NH4(+)), nitrite (NO2(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)), and phosphate (PO4(-3)) in a closed silvofishery system was examined using three mangrove species (i.e., Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle). Specifically, six closed tanks were installed for this experiment with a population of 60 Dormitator latifrons fishes per tank. We planted 40 seedlings in each of three experimental tanks separated by species, while the remaining tanks were used as control. During 15 weeks, nutrient concentrations among the three mangrove systems presented no significant differences (P>0.05). However, nutrient removal variability was minimum during the last 2-5 weeks. Mangroves presented an average efficiency of 63% for the removal of NH4(+) and NO2(-). Contrary, the average removal potential of NO3(-) and PO4(-3) was 50%. Results from this study suggest that the three mangrove species could be used in a closed silvofishery systems for the biological removal of NH4(+), NO2(-), NO3(-), and PO4(-3). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phytopythium leanoi sp. nov. and Phytopythium dogmae sp. nov., Phytopythium species associated with mangrove leaf litter from the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuel M. Bennett

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Phytopythium is a monophyletic taxon of the Peronosporaceae with characteristics intermediate between Phytophthora and Pythium. In the Philippines, reports of Phytopythium are scarce, with the mangrove-swamp-inhabiting species Phytopythium kandeliae being the only species recorded to date. It was the aim of the current study to investigate the diversity of Phytopythium in mangrove habitats in more detail. Based on culture characteristics, morphology, and molecular phylogenetic position, two new species of Phytopythium are described from Philippine mangroves, P. leanoi USTCMS 4102 and P. dogmae USTCMS 4101. Phytopythium leanoi is a species morphologically similar to P. kandeliae, but with the ability to develop gametangia in a homothallic fashion. The other new species, P. dogmae, is characterized by having a short discharge tube, semipapillate to papillate sporangia and frequently exhibiting a clustering of two sporangia per sporangiogenic hypha. With the addition of the two species described in this study, the genus Phytopythium has grown from around 10 to beyond 20 recognized species over the past decade, and it seems likely that several more species of this genus await discovery.

  7. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Centro de Ciências Humanas e Naturais, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, 29075-910 Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Souza, Iara [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, 13565-905 São Carlos (Brazil); Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira [Associação Educational de Vitória, Departamento de Biologia, 29053-360 Vitória (Brazil); Rodella, Roberto Antônio [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Campus de Botucatu, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, C. Postal 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto, E-mail: dwunder@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos Córdoba (ICYTAC), CONICET, Dpto. Qca. Orgánica, Fac. Cs. Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); and others

    2014-04-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf and Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (− 0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. - Highlights: • We investigated adaptive modifications in plants in response to differences among three estuaries. • We used

  8. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Souza, Iara; Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira; Rodella, Roberto Antônio; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf and Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (− 0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. - Highlights: • We investigated adaptive modifications in plants in response to differences among three estuaries. • We used

  9. Hyperspectral Data for Mangrove Species Mapping: A Comparison of Pixel-Based and Object-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual image interpretation and digital image classification have been used to map and monitor mangrove extent and composition for decades. The presence of a high-spatial resolution hyperspectral sensor can potentially improve our ability to differentiate mangrove species. However, little research has explored the use of pixel-based and object-based approaches on high-spatial hyperspectral datasets for this purpose. This study assessed the ability of CASI-2 data for mangrove species mapping using pixel-based and object-based approaches at the mouth of the Brisbane River area, southeast Queensland, Australia. Three mapping techniques used in this study: spectral angle mapper (SAM and linear spectral unmixing (LSU for the pixel-based approaches, and multi-scale segmentation for the object-based image analysis (OBIA. The endmembers for the pixel-based approach were collected based on existing vegetation community map. Nine targeted classes were mapped in the study area from each approach, including three mangrove species: Avicennia marina, Rhizophora stylosa, and Ceriops australis. The mapping results showed that SAM produced accurate class polygons with only few unclassified pixels (overall accuracy 69%, Kappa 0.57, the LSU resulted in a patchy polygon pattern with many unclassified pixels (overall accuracy 56%, Kappa 0.41, and the object-based mapping produced the most accurate results (overall accuracy 76%, Kappa 0.67. Our results demonstrated that the object-based approach, which combined a rule-based and nearest-neighbor classification method, was the best classifier to map mangrove species and its adjacent environments.

  10. Two new species of the Neotropical spittlebug genus Monecphora Amyot & Serville (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) with key and notes of species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gervásio Silva; Sakakibara, Albino Morimasa; Webb, Michael D

    2016-02-09

    Two new species of the Neotropical spittlebug genus Monecphora Amyot & Serville are described: Monecphora machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in NMW: Brazil, "Natterer") and Monecphora broomfieldi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in BMNH: Costa Rica, Turrialba, 3-8.VII.1981, W.R. Dolling leg.) and a key and notes to species of the genus are provided. Lectotypes are designated for Tomaspis fryi Distant, Monecphora nigritarsis Stål, and Monecphora semilutea Stål. In addition, two corrections are made to the Cercopid Spittlebugs of the New World (Carvalho & Webb 2005) with respect to figures 70-73 and 193-194 (see Corrigenda).

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Pattern of Population Genetic Diversity in Three Indo-West Pacific Rhizophora Mangrove Species

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    Yu-Bin Yan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora species are the most widely distributed mangrove trees in the Indo-West Pacific (IWP region. Comparative studies of these species with shared life history traits can help identify evolutionary factors that have played most important roles in determining genetic diversity within and between populations in ocean-current dispersed mangrove tree species. We sampled 935 individuals from 54 natural populations for genotyping with 13 microsatellite markers to investigate the level of genetic variation, population structure, and gene flow on a broad geographic scale in Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, and R. stylosa across the IWP region. In contrast to the pattern expected of long-lived woody plants with predominant wind-pollination, water-dispersed seeds and wide geographic range, genetic variation within populations was generally low in all the three species, especially in those peripheral populations from geographic range limits. Although the large water-buoyant propagules of Rhizophora have capacity for long distance dispersal, such events might be rare in reality, as reflected by the low level of gene flow and high genetic differentiation between most of population pairs within each species. Phylogeographic separation of Australian and Pacific island populations from SE Asian lineages previously revealed with DNA sequence data was still detectable in R. apiculata based on genetic distances, but this pattern of disjunction was not always evident in R. mucronata and R. stylosa, suggesting that fast-evolving molecular markers could be more suitable for detecting contemporary genetic structure but not deep evolutionary divergence caused by historical vicariance. Given that mangrove species generally have small effective population sizes, we conclude that genetic drift coupled with limited gene flow have played a dominant role in producing the current pattern of population genetic diversity in the IWP Rhizophora species, overshadowing the

  12. Substrate characteristics and its impact on distributionn of mangrove species: a case study in Sungai Barong Kecil in the Sembilang National Park at Banyuasih South Sumatra

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    Yuanita Windusari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition and density of vegetation in the mangrove areas affected soil conditions. Areas with a smooth distribution of substrat particles contain higher organic matter, and is characterized by the growth of mangrove better and more diverse. How environmental conditions affect the distribution of mangrove substrats observed in this study. The study was conducted in the area of Sungai Barong Kecil and Sungai Barong Besar which is part of the Sembilang National Park, Banyuasin District, South Sumatra. The study was conducted in May and June 2014. Location determined substrats by purposive sampling with particular consideration, and samples were taken using a modified PVC pipe at a depth of 10-30 cm, while the checkered line method with parallel lines used for observation shoreline mangrove distribution. Physical parameters such as salinity environmental chemistry, pH, and moisture. Analysis was performed on substrat particle size, substrat organic matter content, as well as the condition and type of mangrove. The results showed that the Sungai Barong Kecil area tend to have a much smoother distribution of substrat particles (clay content and higher dust. This leads to more easily grow mangroves and mangrove species were found to be more diverse (Avicennia marina, Avicennia alba, Rhizophora mucronata and Avicennia officianalis. Avicennia marina is the dominant species that indicates that the species is highly adaptable to various environmental conditions.

  13. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia): how to prioritize species and populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Caroline; Becker, Fernando Gertum; Abadie, Michelle; Baldo, Diego; Maneyro, Raúl; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2014-01-01

    We used species distribution modeling to investigate the potential effects of climate change on 24 species of Neotropical anurans of the genus Melanophryniscus. These toads are small, have limited mobility, and a high percentage are endangered or present restricted geographical distributions. We looked at the changes in the size of suitable climatic regions and in the numbers of known occurrence sites within the distribution limits of all species. We used the MaxEnt algorithm to project current and future suitable climatic areas (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a and B2a for 2020 and 2080) for each species. 40% of the species may lose over 50% of their potential distribution area by 2080, whereas 28% of species may lose less than 10%. Four species had over 40% of the currently known occurrence sites outside the predicted 2080 areas. The effect of climate change (decrease in climatic suitable areas) did not differ according to the present distribution area, major habitat type or phylogenetic group of the studied species. We used the estimated decrease in specific suitable climatic range to set a conservation priority rank for Melanophryniscus species. Four species were set to high conservation priority: M. montevidensis, (100% of its original suitable range and all known occurrence points potentially lost by 2080), M. sp.2, M. cambaraensis, and M. tumifrons. Three species (M. spectabilis, M. stelzneri, and M. sp.3) were set between high to intermediate priority (more than 60% decrease in area predicted by 2080); nine species were ranked as intermediate priority, while eight species were ranked as low conservation priority. We suggest that monitoring and conservation actions should be focused primarily on those species and populations that are likely to lose the largest area of suitable climate and the largest number of known populations in the short-term.

  14. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia: how to prioritize species and populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Zank

    Full Text Available We used species distribution modeling to investigate the potential effects of climate change on 24 species of Neotropical anurans of the genus Melanophryniscus. These toads are small, have limited mobility, and a high percentage are endangered or present restricted geographical distributions. We looked at the changes in the size of suitable climatic regions and in the numbers of known occurrence sites within the distribution limits of all species. We used the MaxEnt algorithm to project current and future suitable climatic areas (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a and B2a for 2020 and 2080 for each species. 40% of the species may lose over 50% of their potential distribution area by 2080, whereas 28% of species may lose less than 10%. Four species had over 40% of the currently known occurrence sites outside the predicted 2080 areas. The effect of climate change (decrease in climatic suitable areas did not differ according to the present distribution area, major habitat type or phylogenetic group of the studied species. We used the estimated decrease in specific suitable climatic range to set a conservation priority rank for Melanophryniscus species. Four species were set to high conservation priority: M. montevidensis, (100% of its original suitable range and all known occurrence points potentially lost by 2080, M. sp.2, M. cambaraensis, and M. tumifrons. Three species (M. spectabilis, M. stelzneri, and M. sp.3 were set between high to intermediate priority (more than 60% decrease in area predicted by 2080; nine species were ranked as intermediate priority, while eight species were ranked as low conservation priority. We suggest that monitoring and conservation actions should be focused primarily on those species and populations that are likely to lose the largest area of suitable climate and the largest number of known populations in the short-term.

  15. A new species of Aplectana (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) parasite of Pleurodema nebulosum (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the Monte desert, Argentina, with a key to Neotropical species of the genus Aplectana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Mauricio D Piñeiro; González, Cynthya E; Sanabria, Eduardo A

    2017-03-27

    Here we describe a new cosmocercid nematode, Aplectana nebulosa sp. nov., from the small and large intestines of Pleurodema nebulosum (Anura: Leptodactylidae), from the Monte desert of San Juan, Argentina. The new species belongs to the Aplectana group that possesses a gubernaculum and unpaired adcloacal papilla anteriorly to cloaca. It resembles A. membranosa, A. paraelenae and A. travassosi by the presence of four adcloacal papillae, but differs from those species by the following characters: number and arrangement of precloacal papillae; number and arrangement of postcloacal papillae; shape and size of spicules and gubernaculum, and by the presence of lateral alae in caudal region of males. The description of the new species is based on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and we also provide a key to Neotropical species of Aplectana.

  16. Can contrasting environmental conditions of mangroves induce morphological variability in Aratus pisonii (Crustacea: Brachyura: Sesarmidae?

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    Beatriz López-Sánchez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aratus pisonii is one of the most common crab species in Neotropical mangroves. It shows great plasticity in its life history traits, which makes it an interesting subject for comparative studies. This study evaluated the morphometric variability in five populations of A. pisonii inhabiting mangroves with different degrees of structural development under contrasting environmental conditions. Mangrove forests located on the northwest coast of Venezuela were studied during the rainy season in 2006. The results showed morphometric differences and interaction between sampling sites and sex (PERMANOVA, P=0.0001, as well as the presence of five morphological groups in males and four in females. The findings support the existence of sexual dimorphism. Females from the dwarf hypersaline mangrove showed a wide variability associated with the chelipeds. The differences in crab morphology between sites seem to be related to a combination of environmental factors that is unique for each habitat, leading to the formation of different morphological groups, in which the mangrove structural development (resource availability and salinity (which compromises the energy budget play an important role. The presence of more robust chelipeds in females from the dwarf hypersaline mangrove seems to reflect an adaptation to the biomechanical properties of the leaves (sclerophylly.

  17. Ficus insipida subsp. insipida (Moraceae) reveals the role of ecology in the phylogeography of widespread Neotropical rain forest tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N; Dexter, Kyle G; Poelchau, Monica F; Hollingsworth, Peter M; Phillips, Oliver L; Pennington, R Toby; Carine, Mark

    2014-09-01

    To examine the phylogeography of Ficus insipida subsp. insipida in order to investigate patterns of spatial genetic structure across the Neotropics and within Amazonia. Neotropics. Plastid DNA ( trn H- psb A; 410 individuals from 54 populations) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS; 85 individuals from 27 populations) sequences were sampled from Mexico to Bolivia, representing the full extent of the taxon's distribution. Divergence of plastid lineages was dated using a Bayesian coalescent approach. Genetic diversity was assessed with indices of haplotype and nucleotide diversities, and genetic structure was examined using spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) and haplotype networks. Population expansion within Amazonia was tested using neutrality and mismatch distribution tests. trn H- psb A sequences yielded 19 haplotypes restricted to either Mesoamerica or Amazonia; six haplotypes were found among ITS sequences. Diversification of the plastid DNA haplotypes began c . 14.6 Ma. Haplotype diversity for trn H- psb A was higher in Amazonia. Seven genetically differentiated SAMOVA groups were described for trn H- psb A, of which two were also supported by the presence of unique ITS sequences. Population expansion was suggested for both markers for the SAMOVA group that contains most Amazonian populations. Our results show marked population genetic structure in F. insipida between Mesoamerica and Amazonia, implying that the Andes and seasonally dry areas of northern South America are eco-climatic barriers to its migration. This pattern is shared with other widespread pioneer species affiliated to wet habitats, indicating that the ecological characteristics of species may impact upon large-scale phylogeography. Ficus insipida also shows genetic structure in north-western Amazonia potentially related to pre-Pleistocene historical events. In contrast, evident population expansion elsewhere in Amazonia, in particular the presence of genetically

  18. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...

  19. Observations on the foliage production in some mangrove species of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, S.

    Growth with respect to the shoot height, production of leaves, buds, flowers and fruits in Rhizophora mucronata and Kandelia rheedii of mangroves were studied for a period of thirteen months by tagging method. Growth in both plants was continuous...

  20. Mangrove state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas Monroy, Oscar; Perdomo Trujillo, Laura

    2002-01-01

    The authors do a diagnostic of the mangroves in Colombia, on the natural regeneration of the mangrove forest, the quality of the waters in the Bay of Chengue and on the structure of the mangrove forest, among other topics

  1. Assessment of ecosystem health disturbance in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems using the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae as sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Rubí, J; Luna-Acosta, A; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, M; Zaldibar, B; Izagirre, U; Ahrens, M J; Villamil, L; Marigómez, I

    2018-03-15

    This investigation was aimed at contributing to develop a suitable multi-biomarker approach for pollution monitoring in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems using as sentinel species, the mangrove cupped oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae. A pilot field study was carried out in 8 localities (3 in Nicaragua; 5 in Colombia), characterized by different environmental conditions and subjected to different levels and types of pollution. Samples were collected in the rainy and dry seasons of 2012-2013. The biological effects at different levels of biological complexity (Stress-on-Stress response, reproduction, condition index, tissue-level biomarkers and histopathology) were determined as indicators of health disturbance, integrated as IBR/n index, and compared with tissue burdens of contaminants in order to achieve an integrative biomonitoring approach. Though modulated by natural variables and confounding factors, different indicators of oyster health, alone and in combination, were related to the presence of different profiles and levels of contaminants present at low-to-moderate levels. Different mixtures of persistent (As, Cd, PAHs) and emerging chemical pollutants (musk fragrances), in combination with different levels of organic and particulate matter resulting from seasonal oceanographic variability and sewage discharges, and environmental factors (salinity, temperature) elicited a different degree of disturbance in ecosystem health condition, as reflected in sentinel C. rhizophorae. As a result, IBR/n was correlated with pollution indices, even though the levels of biological indicators of health disturbance and pollutants were low-to-moderate, and seasonality and the incidence of confounding factors were remarkable. Our study supports the use of simple methodological approaches to diagnose anomalies in the health status of oysters from different localities and to identify potential causing agents and reflect disturbances in ecosystem health. Consequently, the

  2. Interoceanic occurrence of species of Aristocleidus Mueller, 1936 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of gerreid fishes in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Franco, Edgar F; Violante-González, Juan; Roche, Dominique G

    2009-09-01

    During investigations of fish parasites in the Neotropics (including the state of Veracruz and the Yucatán Peninsula in the Gulf of Mexico, the Chautengo Lagoon on the Pacific coast of the state of Guerrero in Mexico, and Lake Gatun in the Panama Canal), three monogenoidean (Dactylogyridae) species were found parasitizing the gills of gerreids (Gerreidae): Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936, was recovered from Eugerres plumieri (Cuvier) and Diapterus auratus Ranzani in Veracruz, from D. auratus and Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) in Yucatán, from Eugerres brasilianus (Cuvier) in Panama (all new hosts and geographical records), and from D. peruvianus (Cuvier) and Gerres cinereus (Walbaum) in Guerrero; Aristocleidus lamothei Kritsky and Mendoza-Franco, 2008, was recovered from E. plumieri in Veracruz and from D. rhombeus in Yucatan (new hosts and geographical records), and Aristocleidus sp. was recovered from G. cinereus in Guerrero. Results from this study suggest that species of Aristocleidus exhibit wide host specificity within gerreid fishes and that geminate species within this parasite genus may have originated with the formation of the Isthmus of Panama (3.1 to 3.5 ma). Evidence is also presented suggesting the potential role of the Panama Canal as a passageway allowing the interoceanic dispersal of Aristocleidus species across the isthmus.

  3. Cuticular n-alkane in leaves of seven Neotropical species of the family Lecythidaceae: a contribution to chemotaxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Maria da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biosynthesized from very long-chain fatty acid wax precursors, n-alkanes make a valuable contribution to the taxonomy of plants. The alkane components of foliar epicuticles of seven Neotropical species of Lecythidaceae were investigated: Bertholletia excelsa, Cariniana legalis, Couroupita guianensis, Eschweilera alvimii, Eschweilera ovata, Gustavia augusta and Lecythis pisonis. Specimens were collected in the metropolitan area of Recife, Pernambuco, and their n-alkane fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography. The chemical relationships among the species were then evaluated using cophenetic correlation and UPGMA. Among the seven species, a total of 15 n-alkanes, with 21-35 carbon atoms, were identified and formed a consistent group of B. excelsa, C. guianensis, E. ovata, G. augusta, and L. pisonis with n-C31. The greatest similarities were found between B. excelsa and L. pisonis, and between C. guianensis and G. augusta. Nevertheless, a phenetic analysis based on a larger number of species is needed to better understand the chemotaxonomic value of epicuticular n-alkanes within the Lecythidaceae.

  4. Two new species of Pergalumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) from Costa Rica, including a key to all species of the genus from the Neotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Retana-Salazar, Axel P

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of oribatid mites of the genus Pergalumna (Oribatida, Galumnidae), P. elongatiporosa sp. n. and P. striatiprodorsum sp. n., are described from leaf litter of a secondary forest in Costa Rica. Pergalumna elongatiporosa sp. n. is most similar morphologically to P. horvathorum P. Balogh, 1997 and P. sura P. Balogh, 1997, however, it differs from both by the body size, body surface ornamentation and morphology of notogastral porose areas A1 and A3. Pergalumna striatiprodorsum sp. n. is most similar morphologically to P. hawaiiensis hawaiiensis (Jacot, 1934) and P. strigulata Mahunka, 1978, however, it differs from P. hawaiiensis by the length of interlamellar setae and surface ornamentation of the prodorsum; from P. strigulata by the surface of ornamentation of the notogaster, length of interlamellar setae and morphology of bothridial setae. An identification key to known species of Pergalumna from the Neotropical region is given.

  5. Two new species of Pergalumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae from Costa Rica, including a key to all species of the genus from the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Ermilov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of oribatid mites of the genus Pergalumna (Oribatida, Galumnidae, P. elongatiporosa sp. n. and P. striatiprodorsum sp. n., are described from leaf litter of a secondary forest in Costa Rica. Pergalumna elongatiporosa sp. n. is most similar morphologically to P. horvathorum P. Balogh, 1997 and P. sura P. Balogh, 1997, however, it differs from both by the body size, body surface ornamentation and morphology of notogastral porose areas A1 and A3. Pergalumna striatiprodorsum sp. n. is most similar morphologically to P. hawaiiensis hawaiiensis (Jacot, 1934 and P. strigulata Mahunka, 1978, however, it differs from P. hawaiiensis by the length of interlamellar setae and surface ornamentation of the prodorsum; from P. strigulata by the surface of ornamentation of the notogaster, length of interlamellar setae and morphology of bothridial setae. An identification key to known species of Pergalumna from the Neotropical region is given.

  6. Demographic History and Reproductive Output Correlates with Intraspecific Genetic Variation in Seven Species of Indo-Pacific Mangrove Crabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fratini

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution and the amount of intraspecific genetic variation of marine organisms are strongly influenced by many biotic and abiotic factors. Comparing biological and genetic data characterizing species living in the same habitat can help to elucidate the processes driving these variation patterns. Here, we present a comparative multispecies population genetic study on seven mangrove crabs co-occurring in the West Indian Ocean characterized by planktotrophic larvae with similar pelagic larval duration. Our main aim was to investigate whether a suite of biological, behavioural and ecological traits could affect genetic diversities of the study species in combination with historical demographic parameters. As possible current explanatory factors, we used the intertidal micro-habitat colonised by adult populations, various parameters of individual and population fecundity, and the timing of larval release. As the genetic marker, we used partial sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Genetic and ecological data were collected by the authors and/or gathered from primary literature. Permutational multiple regression models and ANOVA tests showed that species density and their reproductive output in combination with historical demographic parameters could explain the intraspecific genetic variation indexes across the seven species. In particular, species producing consistently less eggs per spawning event showed higher values of haplotype diversity. Moreover, Tajima's D parameters well explained the recorded values for haplotype diversity and average γst. We concluded that current intraspecific gene diversities in crabs inhabiting mangrove forests were affected by population fecundity as well as past demographic history. The results were also discussed in terms of management and conservation of fauna in the Western Indian Ocean mangroves.

  7. Hydrological classification, a practical tool for mangrove restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van Anne F.; Brake, te Bram; Huijgevoort, Van Marjolein H.J.; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration

  8. Aquaporins in the wild: natural genetic diversity and selective pressure in the PIP gene family in five Neotropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigeos, Delphine; Buonamici, Anna; Belkadi, Laurent; Rymer, Paul; Boshier, David; Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Scotti, Ivan

    2010-06-29

    Tropical trees undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these species to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play a major adaptive role in these species. We describe genetic diversity in the PIP sub-family of the widespread gene family of Aquaporins in five Neotropical tree species covering four botanical families. PIP Aquaporin subfamily genes were isolated, and their DNA sequence polymorphisms characterised in natural populations. Sequence data were analysed with statistical tests of standard neutral equilibrium and demographic scenarios simulated to compare with the observed results. Chloroplast SSRs were also used to test demographic transitions. Most gene fragments are highly polymorphic and display signatures of balancing selection or bottlenecks; chloroplast SSR markers have significant statistics that do not conform to expectations for population bottlenecks. Although not incompatible with a purely demographic scenario, the combination of all tests tends to favour a selective interpretation of extant gene diversity. Tropical tree PIP genes may generally undergo balancing selection, which may maintain high levels of genetic diversity at these loci. Genetic variation at PIP genes may represent a response to variable environmental conditions.

  9. Aquaporins in the wild: natural genetic diversity and selective pressure in the PIP gene family in five Neotropical tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vendramin Giovanni G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tropical trees undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these species to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play a major adaptive role in these species. We describe genetic diversity in the PIP sub-family of the widespread gene family of Aquaporins in five Neotropical tree species covering four botanical families. Results PIP Aquaporin subfamily genes were isolated, and their DNA sequence polymorphisms characterised in natural populations. Sequence data were analysed with statistical tests of standard neutral equilibrium and demographic scenarios simulated to compare with the observed results. Chloroplast SSRs were also used to test demographic transitions. Most gene fragments are highly polymorphic and display signatures of balancing selection or bottlenecks; chloroplast SSR markers have significant statistics that do not conform to expectations for population bottlenecks. Although not incompatible with a purely demographic scenario, the combination of all tests tends to favour a selective interpretation of extant gene diversity. Conclusions Tropical tree PIP genes may generally undergo balancing selection, which may maintain high levels of genetic diversity at these loci. Genetic variation at PIP genes may represent a response to variable environmental conditions.

  10. BAT (MAMMALIA: CHIROPTERA DIVERSITY IN AN AREA OF MANGROVE FOREST IN SOUTHERN PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, WITH A NEW SPECIES RECORD AND NOTES ON ECTOPARASITES (DIPTERA: STREBLIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO A.M. SOARES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study reports the occurrence of bat species and their ectoparasites to a mangrove area of the State of Pernambuco. The bats were captured for seven consecutive months in four mangrove areas. Sampling occurred for 12 consecutive hours each night collection where mist-nets were used. Eighty-three bats of 14 species were captured. Of these, only 53 Phyllostomidae family bats found themselves parasited. We identified seven species of flies of the family Streblidae parasitizing bats. The diversity of bats is H’ = 2.19 for all areas sampled and the prevalence of streblid ranged from 8.3 to 66,6. The mean intensity ranged from one and five. It is reported for the first time the occurrence of Lophostoma brasiliense to the mangrove ecosystem, besides two species of streblid to Pernambuco.

  11. Development of allometric relations for three mangrove species in South Florida for use in the Greater Everglades Ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T. J.; Whelan, K.R.T.

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical relations that use easily measured variables to predict difficult-to-measure variables are important to resource managers. In this paper we develop allometric relations to predict total aboveground biomass and individual components of biomass (e.g., leaves, stems, branches) for three species of mangroves for Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. The Greater Everglades Ecosystem is currently the subject of a 7.8-billion-dollar restoration program sponsored by federal, state, and local agencies. Biomass and production of mangroves are being used as a measure of restoration success. A technique for rapid determination of biomass over large areas is required. We felled 32 mangrove trees and separated each plant into leaves, stems, branches, and for Rhizophora mangle L., prop roots. Wet weights were measured in the field and subsamples returned to the laboratory for determination of wet-to-dry weight conversion factors. The diameter at breast height (DBH) and stem height were also measured. Allometric equations were developed for each species for total biomass and components of biomass. We compared our equations with those from the same, or similar, species from elsewhere in the world. Our equations explained ???93% of the variance in total dry weight using DBH. DBH is a better predictor of dry weight than is stem height and DBH is much easier to measure. Furthermore, our results indicate that there are biogeographic differences in allometric relations between regions. For a given DBH, stems of all three species have less mass in Florida than stems from elsewhere in the world. ?? Springer 2006.

  12. Morphology of immature stages in the neotropical nonfrugivorous Tephritinae fruit fly species Rachiptera limbata Bigot (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Baccharis linearis (R. et Pav.) (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Rachiptera limbata Bigot develops on Baccharis linearis (R. et Pav.) in the areas around Santiago, Chile. The larvae feed on stem tissues and secrete a liquid that hardens to form a protective feeding and pupation chamber. The immature stages of Neotropical species of Tephritinae are poorly known. In this paper, the morphology of the immature stages of R. limbata are described and compared, in a phylogenetic context, with other Tephritinae species. Antennomaxillary complex, pads, oral ridge, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior and posterior spiracles and anal lobes of first-, second-, third-instar larvae and pupae were studied with optical and scanning electron microscopy. The cephalopharyngeal skeleton is darkly sclerotized and shows an opening or window in the ventral cornua. This trait seems to be plesiomorphic in R. limbata and in other Neotropical species. First-instar larvae anterior spiracles are absent; whereas in second and third instars spiracles are developed as a row of five short tubules. In first- and second-instar larvae, the posterior spiracular slit has only a single hair per bundle; whereas third-instar larvae lack hairs. This last trait seems to be consequence of a larval development delay and an apomorphic trait in R. limbata, compared to other Neotropical and Neartical species.

  13. A review of the Neotropical genus Bidessodes Régimbart, 1895 including description of four new species (Coleoptera, Adephaga, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini

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    Kelly B. Miller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Bidessodes Régimbart, 1895 is reviewed. Four new species are described, B. chlorus Miller, sp. n., B. erythros Miller, sp. n., B. leukus Miller, sp. n., and B. melas Miller, sp. n., bringing the total number of species in the genus to 20. A key to species is provided. Important diagnostic features are illustrated and described and distributions of all species based on examined specimens and published records are provided. Recognition of the subgenera of Bidessodes is not justified, and the two names Hughbosdineus Spangler, 1981 syn. n. and Youngulus Spangler, 1981 syn. n., described at the genus rank, are placed in synonymy with Bidessodes.

  14. Range-wide patterns of nuclear and chloroplast DNA diversity in Vriesea gigantea (Bromeliaceae), a neotropical forest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Silva, C; Lexer, C; Paggi, G M; Barbará, T; Bered, F; Bodanese-Zanettini, M H

    2009-12-01

    The processes that have shaped the extraordinary species diversity in neotropical rainforests are poorly understood, and knowledge about the patterns of genetic diversity across species' ranges is scarce, in contrast to other regions of the globe. We have conducted a range-wide study of genetic diversity in a plant endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, Vriesea gigantea (Bromeliaceae), based on a combined data set of nuclear microsatellites and chloroplast (cp) DNA markers typed in 429 plants from 13 populations. The results indicate a strong negative correlation between genetic diversity and population latitude, consistent with historical forest expansion from the northern half of the present distribution range. A deep phylogeographic split exists between the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro at ca. 23 degrees S latitude, probably reflecting past population isolation within more than one glacial refuge during the climatic changes of the Pleistocene. A comparison of genetic structures at cpDNA and nuclear markers revealed a pollen/seed flow ratio of more than 3:1, thus indicating an important role of the pollinating animals (that is, bats) in shaping the population genetic structure of this species. Diversity was reduced for cpDNA markers in the island populations off the coast, and reduced diversity and increased differentiation were observed for both nuclear and cpDNA at the edges of the species' range. The link between patterns of genetic and species diversity supports the hypothesis that both were shaped by the same biogeographic processes, triggered by the climatic oscillations of the Pleistocene.

  15. Mitogenomes of two neotropical bird species and the multiple independent origin of mitochondrial gene orders in Passeriformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparroz, Renato; Rocha, Amanda V; Cabanne, Gustavo S; Tubaro, Pablo; Aleixo, Alexandre; Lemmon, Emily M; Lemmon, Alan R

    2018-02-17

    At least four mitogenome arrangements occur in Passeriformes and differences among them are derived from an initial tandem duplication involving a segment containing the control region (CR), followed by loss or reduction of some parts of this segment. However, it is still unclear how often duplication events have occurred in this bird order. In this study, the mitogenomes from two species of Neotropical passerines (Sicalis olivascens and Lepidocolaptes angustirostris) with different gene arrangements were first determined. We also estimated how often duplication events occurred in Passeriformes and if the two CR copies demonstrate a pattern of concerted evolution in Sylvioidea. One tissue sample for each species was used to obtain the mitogenomes as a byproduct using next generation sequencing. The evolutionary history of mitogenome rearrangements was reconstructed mapping these characters onto a mitogenome Bayesian phylogenetic tree of Passeriformes. Finally, we performed a Bayesian analysis for both CRs from some Sylvioidea species in order to evaluate the evolutionary process involving these two copies. Both mitogenomes described comprise 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 13 protein-codon genes and the CR. However, S. olivascens has 16,768 bp showing the ancestral avian arrangement, while L. angustirostris has 16,973 bp and the remnant CR2 arrangement. Both species showed the expected gene order compared to their closest relatives. The ancestral state reconstruction suggesting at least six independent duplication events followed by partial deletions or loss of one copy in some lineages. Our results also provide evidence that both CRs in some Sylvioidea species seem to be maintained in an apparently functional state, perhaps by concerted evolution, and that this mechanism may be important for the evolution of the bird mitogenome.

  16. EXTINCTION RISK OR LACK OF SAMPLING IN A THREATENED SPECIES: GENETIC STRUCTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUITABILITY OF THE NEOTROPICAL FROG PRISTIMANTIS PENELOPUS (ANURA: CRAUGASTORIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    RESTREPO, ADRIANA; VELASCO, JULIAN A.; DAZA, JUAN M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT IUCN Red Lists have been a valuable tool to prioritize conservation plans in endemic neotropical frogs. However, many areas in this region are poorly known in terms of their diversity and endemism. Based on examined museum specimens of the threatened species Pristimantis penelopus we revised its geographic distribution and determined the habitat suitability using niche modeling techniques. Using a mitochondrial fragment of COI gene, we determine the phylogenetic position and the exte...

  17. Comparison of flooding-tolerance in four mangrove species in a diurnal tidal zone in the Beibu Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Binyuan; Lai, Tinghe; Fan, Hangqing; Wang, Wenqing; Zheng, Hailei

    2007-08-01

    The flood tolerance of four mangrove species, Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco (AC), Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. (Am), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Savigny (Bg) and Rhizophora stylosa Griff. (Rs) was examined in a field trial conducted from August 2004 until August 2005 in a diurnal tidal zone in Yingluo Bay, Guangxi province, China. In a section of tidal flat, three replicate artificial platforms were constructed for seedling cultivation. Eight different tidal flat elevation (TFE) treatments were created on each platform. After one year of cultivation under the TFE treatments, the survival rate and growth parameters of seedlings were measured. Seedlings of A. corniculatum and A. marina seedlings survived all treatments. The survival rate of B. gymnorrhiza and R. stylosa seedlings, however, decreased sharply as the TFE fell; in any treatment, fewer B. gymnorrhiza seedlings survived than R. stylosa seedlings. Stem elongation in A. corniculatum and A. marina seedlings was significantly increased by lower TFEs. Lower TFE treatments also increased stem heights in B. gymnorrhiza and R. stylosa seedlings; however, growth was significantly higher as TFE increased. Leaf number, leaf conservation rate and leaf area per seedling changed relatively little among treatments in A. corniculatum and A. marina seedlings, while these three indexes in B. gymnorrhiza and R. stylosa seedlings all decreased dramatically with decreasing TFE. A. marina seedlings reached a higher neonatal biomass at lower TFE treatments, whereas A. corniculatum seedlings attained a higher biomass under moderate TFEs. In contrast, B. gymnorrhiza and R. stylosa seedlings accumulated more biomass in the higher TFEs habitats. Biomass partitioning among the components of both A. corniculatum and A. marina seedlings changed evenly; however, A. corniculatum accumulated more biomass in the leaf while A. marina accumulated more in the stem. The TFE treatments greatly influenced biomass partitioning in B

  18. Identifying mangrove species and their surrounding land use and land cover classes using object-oriented approach with a lacunarity spatial measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, S.W.; Giri, C.P.; Wang, L.; Zhu, Z.; Gillete, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and reliable information on the spatial distribution of mangrove species is needed for a wide variety of applications, including sustainable management of mangrove forests, conservation and reserve planning, ecological and biogeographical studies, and invasive species management. Remotely sensed data have been used for such purposes with mixed results. Our study employed an object-oriented approach with the use of a lacunarity technique to identify different mangrove species and their surrounding land use and land cover classes in a tsunami-affected area of Thailand using Landsat satellite data. Our results showed that the object-oriented approach with lacunarity-transformed bands is more accurate (over-all accuracy 94.2%; kappa coefficient = 0.91) than traditional per-pixel classifiers (overall accuracy 62.8%; and kappa coefficient = 0.57). Copyright ?? 2008 by Bellwether Publishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Growth, survival and herbivory of seedlings in Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae), a species from the Neotropical undergrowth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballina-Gómez, H S; Iriarte-Vivar, S; Orellana, R; Santiago, L S

    2008-12-01

    Growth responses, survival, and herbivory, on seedlings of Brosimum alicastrum were studied in a neotropical Mexican forest. We selected 122 seedlings and divided them into three groups assigned to defoliation treatments: control or 0 (n=21), 50 (n=51) and 90% (n=50). Every 4 months during two years we measured seedling growth (in terms of relative growth rate in biomass, leaf area growth, produced leaves and height growth) and survival. In addition, we evaluated every 12 months pathogen damage and insect herbivory using a 2 mm(-2) grid. Separately, we estimated mammal herbivory in 3-month old seedlings that were selected within a plot of 500 m x 10 m (N=1095). Pathogen damage and insect herbivory were evaluated within the same plot in 113 seedlings. We found that 50% defoliated seedlings showed compensatory responses in all growth parameters. Relative growth rate and height growth also had a compensatory response in seedlings at 90% defoliation. Relative growth rate and leaf area growth gradually decreased with time although height growth seedling showed an opposite pattern. Leaves produced were not affected by time. Estimated seedling survival probability increased with defoliation to a maximum of 97%, decreasing at 24 month to 37%. Mammal herbivory was more frequent and severe than herbivory caused by pathogens and insects. In some cases, mammal herbivory produced total defoliation. Compensatory growth in leaf area growth, produced leaves and height growth seedling suggest a synergic compensatory mechanism expressed in a whole-plant growth biomass (relative growth rate). Compensation and survival results suggest trade-offs at the leaf level, such as leaf area growth and produced leaves versus chemical defenses, respectively.

  20. Description of a Neotropical New Species of OxysarcodexiaTownsend, 1917 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae

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    Carina Souza

    2015-12-01

    Resumo. Uma nova espécie de Oxysarcodexia Townsend, 1917 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae é descrita com base em espécimes machos. As espécies deste gênero de sarcofagídeos apresentam distribuição majoritariamente Neotropical, com algumas espécies ocorrendo também nas regiões Neártica, Australásia e Oceânica. As espécies deste gênero podem ser encontradas associadas à matéria orgânica em decomposição (fezes de mamíferos ou aves – espécies coprófilas e podem apresentar importância forense quando associadas a carcaças (fauna atraída e, em alguns casos, espécies que se criam. Fotografias digitais do hábito em vista lateral e da terminália em vistas lateral, posterior e ventral são apresentadas. Oxysarcodexia mineirensis sp. n. pertence ao “grupo Xarcophaga” (i.e. possui o falo alargado postero-distalmente e contém similaridades com Oxysarcodexia favorabilis (Lopes, 1935 devido à conformação da terminália, especialmente o formato do falo, semelhante a uma flor.

  1. New species of the endemic Neotropical caddisfly genus Contulma from the Andes of Ecuador (Trichoptera: Anomalopsychidae

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    Ralph W. Holzenthal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Contulma Flint (Trichoptera: Anomalopsychidae is composed mostly of regionally endemic species occurring above 2,000 m, with a few more widespread species and some that are found at lower elevations. Adults of three new species of Contulma are described and illustrated from the Andes of Ecuador, Contulma lina, new species, Contulma quito, new species, and Contulma sangay, new species. These species are similar to previously described species from the region, including C. paluguillensis, C. nevada, and C. lancelolata. New provincial records are provided for C. bacula, C. cataracta, and C. echinata. Contulma duffi Oláh, 2016 is considered a junior, subjective synonym of C. penai, Holzenthal & Flint, 1995. Also, we provide an identification key to males of the 30 Contulma species now known.

  2. Potential for sulfate reduction in mangrove forest soils: Comparison between two dominant species of the Americas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balk, M.; Keuskamp, J.A.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Avicennia and Rhizophora are globally occurring mangrove genera with different traits that place them in different parts of the intertidal zone. It is generally accepted that the oxidizing capacity of Avicennia roots is larger than that of Rhizophora roots, which initiates more reduced conditions in

  3. Potential of sulfate reduction in mangrove forest soils: Comparison between two dominant species of the Americas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balk, M.; Keuskamp, Joost; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Avicennia and Rhizophora are globally occurring mangrove genera with different traits that place them in different parts of the intertidal zone. It is generally accepted that the oxidizing capacity of Avicennia roots is larger than that of Rhizophora roots, which initiates more reduced conditions in

  4. Insight into the long-term effect of mangrove species on removal of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from BDE-47 contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Chao; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Gui-Feng; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants, particularly in mangrove wetlands. However, little is known about the long-term effect of mangrove plants on PBDE removal from contaminated sediments. A 12-month microcosm experiment was conducted to understand the effect of two mangrove species, namely Avicennia marina (Am) and Aegiceras corniculatum (Ac), on PBDE removal from the sediments spiked with 2000ngg -1 dry weight of BDE-47, and to explore the microbial mechanism responsible for the planting-induced effects on BDE-47 removal. Results showed that planting of mangrove species, either Am or Ac, could accelerate BDE-47 removal from contaminated sediments during the 12months experiment, mainly through enhancing microbial degradation process. In particular, Am sediment had significantly higher BDE-47 degradation efficiency compared with Ac sediment, which may be mainly attributed to higher activities of urease and dehydrogenase, as well as higher 16S rRNA gene copies of total bacteria and organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) in Am sediment. Moreover, planting could shift sediment bacterial community composition and selectively enrich some bacterial genera responsible for PBDE degradation. Such selective enrichment effect of Am on the potential PBDE-degrading bacteria differed distinctly from that of Ac. These results indicated that long-term planting of mangrove species, especially Am, could significantly promote BDE-47 removal from the contaminated sediments by enhancing microbial activity, increasing total bacterial and OHRB abundances and altering bacterial community composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A New Species of Austrocarabodes (Austrocarabodes) from Brazil, Including Keys to Known Species of the Subgenus from the Neotropical Region and to the agressor-Group (Acari: Oribatida: Carabodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermilov, S G; Tolstikov, A V

    2015-06-01

    A new species of oribatid mites, Austrocarabodes (Austrocarabodes) brasiliensis Ermilov & Tolstikov n. sp., is described from soil litter of the Atlantic forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is most similar morphologically to Austrocarabodes (A.) armatus Mahunka. However, the new species differs from the latter by the morphology of bothridial and adanal setae. Identification keys to known species of Austrocarabodes (Austrocarabodes) from the Neotropical region and the agressor-group are provided.

  6. Isotopic niches of sympatric native and exotic fish species in a Neotropical floodplain

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    Juliana S. Philippsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the isotopic niches of two fish species, one exotic and one native. It was hypothesized that these species would show little or no isotopic niche overlap. This hypothesis was tested with the isotopic niche concept and the trophic Layman's metrics. A considerable isotopic niche overlap was observed between the species, mainly for the exotic that showed the greater percentage of overlapping, indicating an interspecific competition for food resources. Layman's metrics also showed this species probably exploits a more specific array of food resources when compared with the native species. The native species probably has the ability to exploit a wider array of resources, highlighted by the higher values given for the Layman's metrics. The juveniles and adults of native species showed minor overlapping between the isotopic niches. This indicates that they have probably adopted different foraging strategies, minimizing intraspecific competition. Evidences that the exotic species explores a narrower range of resources and that the native species has a greater isotopic niche and possibly suffer less intraspecific competition, indicates that the native species can tolerate the presence of the exotic species and promote survival and maintenance of its population even under possible competition effects imposed by the exotic species.

  7. On the spider genus Thymoites in the Neotropical Region (Araneae, Theridiidae): nine new species, complementary descriptions and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Everton Nei Lopes; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2015-06-11

    The theridiid genus Thymoites Keyserling, 1884 is distributed worldwide. Spiders of this genus are mainly known from the Neotropical Region, but are poorly studied in Brazil. In this paper nine new species of Thymoites are described from Brazil, one from the state of Alagoas: Thymoites murici n. sp.; two from São Paulo: T. bocaina n. sp., T. ilhabela n. sp. and T. taiobeiras n. sp. from states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo; one from the state of Santa Catarina: Thymoites tabuleiro n. sp.; and, three from state of Rio Grande do Sul: Thymoites cristal n. sp., T. camaqua n. sp. and T. piratini n. sp., all based on males and females; and one from the state of Rio de Janeiro: T. pinheiral n. sp. based on male. The male of Thymoites puer (Mello-Leitão, 1941) and the female of T. melloleitaoni (Bristowe, 1938) are here described and illustrated for the first time. Additionally, new records from Brazil are provided for Thymoites ilvan Levi, 1964 for state of Santa Catarina; T. iritus Levi, 1964 for state of Goiás; T. piarco (Levi, 1959) for state of Amazonas; and, T. struthio (Simon, 1895) for Bolivia.

  8. Inferring the provenance of an alien species with DNA barcodes: the neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Noah A; Pradhan, Ashman; Gonzalez, Rebecca M; Morban, Emely Z; Zhen, Erica W; Sakchoowong, Watana; Lohman, David J

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia has been collected from several locations in Thailand and Malaysia since 2007, and has been observed breeding in the wild, using introduced Passiflora foetida as a larval host plant. The butterfly is bred by a butterfly house in Phuket, Thailand, for release at weddings and Buddhist ceremonies, and we hypothesized that this butterfly house was the source of wild, Thai individuals. We compared wing patterns and COI barcodes from two, wild Thai populations with individuals obtained from this butterfly house. All Thai individuals resemble the subspecies D. iulia modesta, and barcodes from wild and captive Thai specimens were identical. This unique, Thai barcode was not found in any of the 30 specimens sampled from the wild in the species' native range, but is most similar to specimens from Costa Rica, where many exporting butterfly farms are located. These data implicate the butterfly house as the source of Thailand's wild D. iulia populations, which are currently so widespread that eradication efforts are unlikely to be successful.

  9. Inferring the provenance of an alien species with DNA barcodes: the neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah A Burg

    Full Text Available The Neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia has been collected from several locations in Thailand and Malaysia since 2007, and has been observed breeding in the wild, using introduced Passiflora foetida as a larval host plant. The butterfly is bred by a butterfly house in Phuket, Thailand, for release at weddings and Buddhist ceremonies, and we hypothesized that this butterfly house was the source of wild, Thai individuals. We compared wing patterns and COI barcodes from two, wild Thai populations with individuals obtained from this butterfly house. All Thai individuals resemble the subspecies D. iulia modesta, and barcodes from wild and captive Thai specimens were identical. This unique, Thai barcode was not found in any of the 30 specimens sampled from the wild in the species' native range, but is most similar to specimens from Costa Rica, where many exporting butterfly farms are located. These data implicate the butterfly house as the source of Thailand's wild D. iulia populations, which are currently so widespread that eradication efforts are unlikely to be successful.

  10. Inferring the Provenance of an Alien Species with DNA Barcodes: The Neotropical Butterfly Dryas iulia in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Noah A.; Pradhan, Ashman; Gonzalez, Rebecca M.; Morban, Emely Z.; Zhen, Erica W.; Sakchoowong, Watana; Lohman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia has been collected from several locations in Thailand and Malaysia since 2007, and has been observed breeding in the wild, using introduced Passiflora foetida as a larval host plant. The butterfly is bred by a butterfly house in Phuket, Thailand, for release at weddings and Buddhist ceremonies, and we hypothesized that this butterfly house was the source of wild, Thai individuals. We compared wing patterns and COI barcodes from two, wild Thai populations with individuals obtained from this butterfly house. All Thai individuals resemble the subspecies D. iulia modesta, and barcodes from wild and captive Thai specimens were identical. This unique, Thai barcode was not found in any of the 30 specimens sampled from the wild in the species' native range, but is most similar to specimens from Costa Rica, where many exporting butterfly farms are located. These data implicate the butterfly house as the source of Thailand's wild D. iulia populations, which are currently so widespread that eradication efforts are unlikely to be successful. PMID:25119899

  11. Amphibian diversity and threatened species in a severely transformed neotropical region in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yocoyani Meza-Parral

    Full Text Available Many regions around the world concentrate a large number of highly endangered species that have very restricted distributions. The mountainous region of central Veracruz, Mexico, is considered a priority area for amphibian conservation because of its high level of endemism and the number of threatened species. The original tropical montane cloud forest in the region has been dramatically reduced and fragmented and is now mainly confined to ravines and hillsides. We evaluated the current situation of amphibian diversity in the cloud forest fragments of this region by analyzing species richness and abundance, comparing assemblage structure and species composition, examining the distribution and abundance of threatened species, and identifying the local and landscape variables associated with the observed amphibian diversity. From June to October 2012 we sampled ten forest fragments, investing 944 person-hours of sampling effort. A total of 895 amphibians belonging to 16 species were recorded. Notable differences in species richness, abundance, and assemblage structure between forest fragments were observed. Species composition between pairs of fragments differed by an average of 53%, with the majority (58% resulting from species replacement and the rest (42% explained by differences in species richness. Half of the species detected are under threat of extinction according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, and although their distribution and abundance varied markedly, there were also ubiquitous and abundant species, along with rare species of restricted distribution. The evident heterogeneity of the ten study sites indicates that to conserve amphibians in a mountainous region such as this one it is necessary to protect groups of fragments which represent the variability of the system. Both individually and together cloud forest fragments are very important to conservation because each remnant is inhabited by several threatened

  12. Chemical contamination assessment in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems using the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae as biomonitor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Rubí, Javier R; Luna-Acosta, Andrea; Etxebarría, Nestor; Soto, Manu; Espinoza, Félix; Ahrens, Michael J; Marigómez, Ionan

    2017-05-24

    This paper aims to contribute to the use of mangrove cupped oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, as a biomonitor species for chemical contamination assessment in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems. Sampling was carried out in eight localities (three in Nicaragua and five in Colombia) with different types and levels of contamination. Oysters were collected during the rainy and dry seasons of 2012-2013 and the tissue concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined. Low tissue concentrations of metals (except Hg) and PAHs; moderate-to-high tissue concentrations of Hg, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs); detectable levels of chlorpyrifos, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (mainly CB28, CB118, CB138 and CB 153) and brominated diphenyl ethers 85 (BDE85); and negligible levels of musks were recorded in Nicaraguan oysters. A distinct profile of POPs was identified in Colombia, where the tissue concentrations of PCBs and synthetic musk fragrances were low to moderate, and Ag, As, Cd, Pb, and PAHs ranged from moderate to extremely high. Overall, the values recorded for HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in Nicaraguan mangrove cupped oysters greatly exceeded the reference values in tissues of C. rhizophorae from the Wider Caribbean Region, whereas only the levels of PCBs were occasionally surpassed in Colombia. Different contaminant profiles were distinguished between oysters from Nicaragua and Colombia in radar plots constructed using the main groups of contaminants (metals, PAHs, musks, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)). Likewise, integrated pollution indices revealed differences in the levels of contaminants. Moreover, the profiles and levels in oyster tissues also varied with season. Thus, principal component analysis clearly discriminated Nicaraguan and Colombian localities and, especially in Colombia, seasonal trends in chemical contamination and differences

  13. Metazoan parasite species richness in Neotropical fishes: hotspots and the geography of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, J L; Poulin, R

    2007-06-01

    Although research on parasite biodiversity has intensified recently, there are signs that parasites remain an underestimated component of total biodiversity in many regions of the planet. To identify geographical hotspots of parasite diversity, we performed qualitative and quantitative analyses of the parasite-host associations in fishes from Latin America and the Caribbean, a region that includes known hotspots of plant and animal biodiversity. The database included 10,904 metazoan parasite-host associations involving 1660 fish species. The number of host species with at least 1 parasite record was less than 10% of the total known fish species in the majority of countries. Associations involving adult endoparasites in actinopterygian fish hosts dominated the database. Across the whole region, no significant difference in parasite species richness was detected between marine and freshwater fishes. As a rule, host body size and study effort (number of studies per fish species) were good predictors of parasite species richness. Some interesting patterns emerged when we included only the regions with highest fish species biodiversity and study effort (Brazil, Mexico and the Caribbean Islands). Independently of differences in study effort or host body sizes, Mexico stands out as a hotspot of parasite diversity for freshwater fishes, as does Brasil for marine fishes. However, among 57 marine fish species common to all 3 regions, populations from the Caribbean consistently harboured more parasite species. These differences may reflect true biological patterns, or regional discrepancies in study effort and local priorities for fish parasitology research.

  14. Differentiation of neotropical fish species with statistical analysis of fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Francylaine S; Lima, Sandro M; Andrade, Luis H C; Súarez, Yzel R

    2012-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was applied to nineteen fish species in Brazil's Upper Paraná River basin to identify differences in the structural composition of their scales. To differentiate the species, a canonical discriminant analysis was used to indicate the most important absorption peaks in the mid-infrared region. Significant differences were found in the chemical composition of scales among the studied fish species, with Wilk's lambda = 5.2 × 10(-6), F((13,18,394)) = 37.57, and P absorbance is related to the biological traits of each species. This procedure can also be used to complement evolutionary studies.

  15. Advancing mangrove macroecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Osland, Michael J.; Day, John W.; Ray, Santanu; Rovai, Andre S.; Day, Richard H.; Mukherjee, Joyita; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Lee, Shing Yip; Kristensen, Erik; Twilley, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services to society, yet they are among the most anthropogenically impacted coastal ecosystems in the world. In this chapter, we discuss and provide examples for how macroecology can advance our understanding of mangrove ecosystems. Macroecology is broadly defined as a discipline that uses statistical analyses to investigate large-scale, universal patterns in the distribution, abundance, diversity, and organization of species and ecosystems, including the scaling of ecological processes and structural and functional relationships. Macroecological methods can be used to advance our understanding of how non-linear responses in natural systems can be triggered by human impacts at local, regional, and global scales. Although macroecology has the potential to gain knowledge on universal patterns and processes that govern mangrove ecosystems, the application of macroecological methods to mangroves has historically been limited by constraints in data quality and availability. Here we provide examples that include evaluations of the variation in mangrove forest ecosystem structure and function in relation to macroclimatic drivers (e.g., temperature and rainfall regimes) and climate change. Additional examples include work focused upon the continental distribution of aboveground net primary productivity and carbon storage, which are rapidly advancing research areas. These examples demonstrate the value of a macroecological perspective for the understanding of global- and regional-scale effects of both changing environmental conditions and management actions on ecosystem structure, function, and the supply of goods and services. We also present current trends in mangrove modeling approaches and their potential utility to test hypotheses about mangrove structural and functional properties. Given the gap in relevant experimental work at the regional scale, we also discuss the potential use of mangrove restoration and

  16. Phylogenetic and ecological factors impact the gut microbiota of two Neotropical primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Katherine R; Martinez-Mota, Rodolfo; Righini, Nicoletta; Raguet-Schofield, Melissa; Corcione, Fabiana Paola; Marini, Elisabetta; Humphrey, Greg; Gogul, Grant; Gaffney, James; Lovelace, Elijah; Williams, LaShanda; Luong, Albert; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Stumpf, Rebecca M; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that variation in diet across time and space results in changes in the mammalian gut microbiota. This variation may ultimately impact host ecology by altering nutritional status and health. Wild animal populations provide an excellent opportunity for understanding these interactions. However, compared to clinical studies, microbial research targeting wild animals is currently limited, and many published studies focus only on a single population of a single host species. In this study we utilize fecal samples from two species of howler monkey (Alouatta pigra and A. palliata) collected at four sites to investigate factors influencing the gut microbiota at three scales: taxonomic (host species), ecosystemic (forest type), and local (habitat disturbance/season). The results demonstrate that the effect of host species on the gut microbiota is stronger than the effect of host forest type, which is stronger than the effect of habitat disturbance or seasonality. Nevertheless, within host species, gut microbiota composition differs in response to forest type, habitat disturbance, and season. Variations in the effect size of these factors are associated both with host species and environment. This information may be beneficial for understanding ecological and evolutionary questions associated with Mesoamerican howler monkeys, as well as determining conservation challenges facing each species. These mechanisms may also provide insight into the ecology of other species of howler monkeys, non-human primates, and mammals.

  17. Studies in the Neotropical Apocynaceae LI: a new species of Laubertia (Apocynaceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Francisco Morales

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Laubertia from Brazil supported by morphological characters and molecular data is described and illustrated. Laubertia brasiliensis sp. nov. is closely related to L. contorta from northern Mesoamerica and Mexico, but differs by its straight corolla tube, whereas L. contorta has a spirally contorted corolla tube. A key to the species of Laubertia is also provided.

  18. New species and previously unknown males of neotropical cleptobiotic stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Lestrimelitta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new species of cleptobiotic stingless bees of the genus Lestrimelitta Friese, L. opita sp. n. and L. huilensis sp. n. from Colombia and L. catira sp. n. from Venezuela, are described and figured. The males of the Central American species L. chamelensis, L. danuncia, and L. mourei are also desc...

  19. Plant Species Richness is Associated with Canopy Height and Topography in a Neotropical Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassan S. Saatchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most plant species are non-randomly distributed across environmental gradients in light, water, and nutrients. In tropical forests, these gradients result from biophysical processes related to the structure of the canopy and terrain, but how does species richness in tropical forests vary over such gradients, and can remote sensing capture this variation? Using airborne lidar, we tested the extent to which variation in tree species richness is statistically explained by lidar-measured structural variation in canopy height and terrain in the extensively studied, stem-mapped 50-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama. We detected differences in species richness associated with variation in canopy height and topography across spatial scales ranging from 0.01-ha to 1.0-ha. However, species richness was most strongly associated with structural variation at the 1.0-ha scale. We developed a predictive generalized least squares model of species richness at the 1.0-ha scale (R2 = 0.479, RMSE = 8.3 species using the mean and standard deviation of canopy height, mean elevation, and terrain curvature. The model demonstrates that lidar-derived measures of forest and terrain structure can capture a significant fraction of observed variation in tree species richness in tropical forests on local-scales.

  20. Predicting future mangrove forest migration in the Everglades under rising sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems that provide valued habitat for fish and shorebirds. Mangrove forests are universally composed of relatively few tree species and a single overstory strata. Three species of true mangroves are common to intertidal zones of the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Coast, namely, black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Mangrove forests occupy intertidal settings of the coastal margin of the Everglades along the southwest tip of the Florida peninsula (fig. 1).

  1. Dictyota adnata Zanardini (Phaeophyta, Dictyotales) a remarkable mangrove inhabiting species in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Coppejans, E.

    1990-01-01

    A prostrate Dictyotaceae was collected on the sandy-silty mangrove substratum close to high tide level in Gazi Bay (Kenya). It appears to be the rarely observed Dictyota adnata Zan., characterized by the prostrate growth form, marginal groups of rhizoids, marginal sori of tetraspores, high Cl/Cw and Ml/Mw ratios. According to these observations D. adnata Auct. ("sensu Weber-van Bosse") is another taxon.

  2. A new species of Eutrachytes (Acari: Uropodina: Eutrachytidae) associated with the indian mangrove (Avicennia officinalis)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Moraza, M.L.; Kontschan, J.; Sahoo, G.; Ansari, Z.A.

    September 2015; accepted 13 November 2015; published online 04 March 2016) 1 Departamento de Biología Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona E-31080, Spain. mlmoraza@unav.es (* Corresponding author) 2 Plan Protection Institute.... These pneumatophores are very unique structures because they bear lenticels for gaseous exchange en- abling the mangroves to survive in the hypoxic wa- terlogged environment. Pneumatophores are ideal substratum for the epibiosis and are believed to bear many more...

  3. Sarcodon in the Neotropics I: new species from Guyana, Puerto Rico and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. C. Grupe; A. D. Baker; J. K. Uehling; M. E. Smith; T. J. Baroni; D. J. Lodge; T. W. Henkel

    2015-01-01

    Four species of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) genus Sarcodon (Bankeraceae, Thelephorales, Basidiomycota) are described as new to science. Sarcodon pakaraimensis sp. nov. is described from forests dominated by the ECM trees Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea (Dipterocarpaceae) and Dicymbe jenmanii (...

  4. New distribution data for two species of the Neotropical genus Lathecla Robbins, 2004 (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Eumaeini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint, Zs.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The species Lathecla carolyna Busby, 2015 described recently from Ecuador is reported to occur also in Venezuela and Colombia. An additional Peruvian occurrence of L. mimula (Draudt, 1920 is also documented.

  5. Ecological relationships of meso-scale distribution in 25 neotropical vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Lincoln José; Norris, Darren; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Michalski, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos). Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river) on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca) and Puma (Puma concolor)] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons). Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy) all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase) during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%). Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major) and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy) were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all species

  6. Ecological Relationships of Meso-Scale Distribution in 25 Neotropical Vertebrate Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Lincoln José; Norris, Darren; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Michalski, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos). Generalized linear models (GLMs) were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river) on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca) and Puma (Puma concolor)] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons). Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy) all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase) during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%). Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major) and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy) were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all species

  7. Ecological relationships of meso-scale distribution in 25 neotropical vertebrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln José Michalski

    Full Text Available Vertebrates are a vital ecological component of Amazon forest biodiversity. Although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the Amazon. Here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We examined seasonal differences in the per species encounter rates (number of photos per camera trap and number of cameras with photos. Generalized linear models (GLMs were then used to examine the influence of five variables (altitude, canopy cover, basal area, distance to nearest river and distance to nearest large river on the number of photos per species and on functional groups. GLMs were also used to examine the relationships between large predators [Jaguar (Panthera onca and Puma (Puma concolor] and their prey. A total of 649 independent photos of 25 species were obtained from 1,800 camera trap days (900 each during wet and dry seasons. Only ungulates and rodents showed significant seasonal differences in the number of photos per camera. The number of photos differed between seasons for only three species (Mazama americana, Dasyprocta leporina and Myoprocta acouchy all of which were photographed more (3 to 10 fold increase during the wet season. Mazama americana was the only species where a significant difference was found in occupancy, with more photos in more cameras during the wet season. For most groups and species variation in the number of photos per camera was only explained weakly by the GLMs (deviance explained ranging from 10.3 to 54.4%. Terrestrial birds (Crax alector, Psophia crepitans and Tinamus major and rodents (Cuniculus paca, Dasyprocta leporina and M. acouchy were the notable exceptions, with our GLMs significantly explaining variation in the distribution of all

  8. Assessing the use of forest islands by parrot species in a neotropical savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Berkunsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the effect of habitat fragmentation is a fundamental yet complicated aim of many ecological studies. Beni savanna is a naturally fragmented forest habitat, where forest islands exhibit variation in resources and threats. To understand how the availability of resources and threats affect the use of forest islands by parrots, we applied occupancy modeling to quantify use and detection probabilities for 12 parrot species on 60 forest islands. The presence of urucuri (Attalea phalerata and macaw (Acrocomia aculeata palms, the number of tree cavities on the islands, and the presence of selective logging,and fire were included as covariates associated with availability of resources and threats. The model-selection analysis indicated that both resources and threats variables explained the use of forest islands by parrots. For most species, the best models confirmed predictions. The number of cavities was positively associated with use of forest islands by 11 species. The area of the island and the presence of macaw palm showed a positive association with the probability of use by seven and five species, respectively, while selective logging and fire showed a negative association with five and six species, respectively. The Blue-throated Macaw (Ara glaucogularis, the critically endangered parrot species endemic to our study area, was the only species that showed a negative association with both threats. Monitoring continues to be essential to evaluate conservation and management actions of parrot populations. Understanding of how species are using this natural fragmented habitat will help determine which fragments should be preserved and which conservation actions are needed.

  9. On the importance of geographic and taxonomic sampling in phylogeography: A reevaluation of diversification and species limits in a Neotropical thrush (Aves, Turdidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, Jorge Enrique; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Phylogeographic studies seeking to describe biogeographic patterns, infer evolutionary processes, and revise species-level classification should properly characterize the distribution ranges of study species, and thoroughly sample genetic variation across taxa and geography. This is particularly necessary for widely distributed organisms occurring in complex landscapes, such as the Neotropical region. Here, we clarify the geographic range and revisit the phylogeography of the Black-billed Thrush (Turdus ignobilis), a common passerine bird from lowland tropical South America, whose evolutionary relationships and species limits were recently evaluated employing phylogeographic analyses based on partial knowledge of its distribution and incomplete sampling of populations. Our work employing mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences sampled all named subspecies and multiple populations across northern South America, and uncovered patterns not apparent in earlier work, including a biogeographic interplay between the Amazon and Orinoco basins and the occurrence of distinct lineages with seemingly different habitat affinities in regional sympatry in the Colombian Amazon. In addition, we found that previous inferences about the affinities and taxonomic status of Andean populations assumed to be allied to populations from the Pantepui region were incorrect, implying that inferred biogeographic and taxonomic scenarios need re-evaluation. We propose a new taxonomic treatment, which recognizes two distinct biological species in the group. Our findings illustrate the importance of sufficient taxon and geographic sampling to reconstruct evolutionary history and to evaluate species limits among Neotropical organisms. Considering the scope of the questions asked, advances in Neotropical phylogeography will often require substantial cross-country scientific collaboration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Geographic distribution, evolution, and disease importance of species within the Neotropical Anopheles albitarsis Group (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Desmond H; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Ruiz-Lopez, J Freddy; Conn, Jan E; Sallum, Maria Anice M; Póvoa, Marinete M; Bergo, Eduardo S; Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Sucupira, Izis; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    The Anopheles albitarsis group of mosquitoes comprises eight recognized species and one mitochondrial lineage. Our knowledge of malaria vectorial importance and the distribution and evolution of these taxa is incomplete. We constructed ecological niche models (ENMs) for these taxa and used hypothesized phylogenetic relationships and ENMs to investigate environmental and ecological divergence associated with speciation events. Two major clades were identified, one north (Clade 1) and one south (Clade 2) of the Amazon River that likely is or was a barrier to mosquito movement. Clade 1 species occur more often in higher average temperature locations than Clade 2 species, and taxon splits within Clade 1 corresponded with a greater divergence of variables related to precipitation than was the case within Clade 2. Comparison of the ecological profiles of sympatric species and sister species support the idea that phylogenetic proximity is related to ecological similarity. Anopheles albitarsis I, An. janconnae, and An. marajoara ENMs had the highest percentage of their predicted suitable habitat overlapping distribution models of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and warrant additional studies of the transmission potential of these species. Phylogenetic proximity may be related to malaria vectorial importance within the Albitarsis Group. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  11. Dispersion and establishment of the species of mangrove of the Rancheria River in the period of maximum fructification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lema Velez, Luisa Fernanda; Polania, Jaime; Urrego Giraldo, Ligia Estela

    2003-01-01

    Dispersion and establishment patterns of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Laguncularia racemosa, at the Rancheria River were studied using marked propagules. These mangroves are small, and surrounded by subtropical dry forest, subtropical thorn forest and the city of Riohacha. Significant relationships were found between the number of propagules retained and species, time, distance to release site, and retention structure. Avicennia germinans and L. racemosa propagules left the ecosystem within two weeks while a portion of R. mangle propagules remained during the two months study and were able to settle. Goat predation affected mainly the propagules, especially of A. germinans and L. racemosa. Predation did not follow the current dominance-predation model. A pre-dispersion consumption of 30% of A. germinans propagules by Pyralidae larvae was also documented. Batis maritima plants were the most effective structures that retain propagules of the three species and R. mangle propagules remained in greater quantities and for longer periods in the ecosystem

  12. Occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas species in tropical seafood, aquafarms and mangroves off Cochin coast in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonsa Vijaya Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Aeromonas include gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped and oxidase positive bacteria comprising several species, associated with the aquatic environment. Aeromonas species have been implicated in human pathogenesis and are linked with gastroenteritis, muscle infections, septicemia, and skin diseases. In fish they are renowned as enteric pathogens causing haemorrhagic septicemia, fin rot, soft tissue rot and furunculosis resulting in major die-offs and fish kills. Aim: This study reports the occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas sp. in tropical seafood (Squids, Prawns and Mussels, aquafarms and mangroves of Cochin, Kerala, South India. Materials and Methods :Tropical seafood (Squid, Prawn and Mussel, sediment and water samples from aquafarms and associated mangroves were screened for Aeromonas contamination. The isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and subjected to morphological and biochemical characterization. Haemolytic assay was used for determining pathogenicity of the organisms. Antibiotic susceptibility against 12 antibiotics were performed and the MAR index was calculated. Results: A total of 134 isolates were recovered from the samples of which 15 were identified as Aeromonas species by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and were assigned to 5 species namely, A. hydrophila, A. enteropelogenes, A. caviae, A. punctataand A. aquarorium. Morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses revealed relatedness and variability among the strains. All the isolates were haemolytic on blood agar indicating their pathogenicity. The isolates exhibited varying degrees of resistance to vancomycin (86.66%, ampicillin (46.66%, nalidixic acid (20%, tetracycline (6.66%, co-trimaxozole (6.66% and rifampicin (6.66% and were susceptible to antibiotics like gentamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim, azithromycin, cefixime and chloramphenicol. 20% of Aeromonas sp. showed MAR index > 0.2 indicative of the

  13. Plant species diversity in a Neotropical wetland: patterns of similarity, effects of distance, and altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCIELLI BAO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Brazilian Pantanal is an extensive wetland with heterogeneous habitats, primarily due to the river-floodplain system and plants with differential adaptations and reproductive strategies. Factors such as altitude, distance among plant formations, and flood pulse must be considered to better understand its diversity. Aiming to assess the influence of biogeographic patterns in this system, we analyzed the floristic composition of six areas along the Paraguay River, including residual relieves, verifying the pattern of similarity, and effects of distance and altitude. We recorded 356 species in 87 families, mostly perennial (75%, and some annuals (15% and pluriannuals (5%. Herbaceous plants were the most represented (48%, followed by arboreal (23%, shrubby (15% and epiphytic (14% habits, only 12% being endemic to Brazil. The studied areas showed low floristic similarity, but higher resemblance of species between neighboring areas, and no relation with altitude. The upper Paraguay River is diverse, with high spatial variability of species, predominantly perennial. The river-floodplain connectivity may be a determinant factor in species richness and occurrence of endemic species.

  14. Three invasive species occurring in the diets of fishes in a Neotropical floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Isaac

    Full Text Available The composition of the diets of 66 species of fishes was investigated from September 2009 to June 2010 in three subsystems of the Upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil, following invasion by the two mollusk species Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 and Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774, and the macrophyte Hydrilla verticillata (L.f. Royle. Limnoperna fortunei was consumed in all three subsystems and occurred in the diet of 15 fish species, with a high proportion in the diet of Leporinus obtusidens. Corbicula flumineawas present in the diet of Pterodoras granulosus caught in the Paraná and Ivinheima subsystems. Hydrilla verticillataoccurred in the diet of Schizodon nasutus caught in the Ivinheima and Paraná subsystems. It is not yet possible to evaluate the potential of these species to control invasive mollusks in the study area or the impact of these species on the structure of the food chain. Omnivorous and herbivorous fishes in the study area may have little impact on the population of H. verticillata.

  15. Low species richness of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Neotropical artificial urban water bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamerlik, Ladislav; Jacobsen, Dean; Brodersen, Klaus Peter

    2011-01-01

    Chironomid assemblages of 22 artificial water bodies, mainly fountains, in two South American cities were surveyed. We found surprisingly low diversities, with a total of 11 taxa, averaging two taxa per site. The typical fountain assemblages mainly consisted of common species that have a wide...... of the water bodies of Quito and Bogota differed significantly. There was no correlation between sample similarities and distances among the sites either. The low number of taxa recorded can be attributed to the combination of naturally limited species pool and the heavy pollution in natural water bodies...... distribution pattern and are tolerant to organic pollution. Also taxa independent of the natural aquatic sources, such as tap-water and semi-terrestrial species were represented. There was no significant difference between the taxa richness of the two S. American regions, however, the assemblage structures...

  16. Molecular identification of two Culex (Culex) species of the neotropical region (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurito, Magdalena; Ayala, Ana M; Almirón, Walter R; Gardenal, Cristina N

    2017-01-01

    Culex bidens and C. interfor, implicated in arbovirus transmission in Argentina, are sister species, only distinguishable by feature of the male genitalia; however, intermediate specimens of the species in sympatry have been found. Fourth-instar larvae and females of both species share apomorphic features, and this lack of clear distinction creates problems for specific identification. Geometric morphometric traits of these life stages also do not distinguish the species. The aim of the present study was to assess the taxonomic status of C. bidens and C. interfor using two mitochondrial genes and to determine the degree of their reproductive isolation using microsatellite loci. Sequences of the ND4 and COI genes were concatenated in a matrix of 993 nucleotides and used for phylogenetic and distance analyses. Bayesian and maximum parsimony inferences showed a well resolved and supported topology, enclosing sequences of individuals of C. bidens (0.83 BPP, 73 BSV) and C. interfor (0.98 BPP, 97 BSV) in a strong sister relationship. The mean K2P distance within C. bidens and C. interfor was 0.3% and 0.2%, respectively, and the interspecific variation was 2.3%. Bayesian clustering also showed two distinct mitochondrial lineages. All sequenced mosquitoes were successfully identified in accordance with the best close match algorithm. The low genetic distance values obtained indicate that the species diverged quite recently. Most morphologically intermediate specimens of C. bidens from Córdoba were heterozygous for the microsatellite locus GT51; the significant heterozygote excess observed suggests incomplete reproductive isolation. However, C. bidens and C. interfor should be considered good species: the ventral arm of the phallosome of the male genitalia and the ND4 and COI sequences are diagnostic characters.

  17. Growth and reproduction respond differently to climate in three Neotropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Sánchez, Raquel; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Wright, S Joseph; Camarero, J Julio

    2017-06-01

    The response of tropical forests to anthropogenic climate change is critically important to future global carbon budgets, yet remains highly uncertain. Here, we investigate how precipitation, temperature, solar radiation and dry- and wet-season lengths are related to annual tree growth, flower production, and fruit production in three moist tropical forest tree species using long-term datasets from tree rings and litter traps in central Panama. We also evaluated how growth, flower, and fruit production were interrelated. We found that growth was positively correlated with wet-season precipitation in all three species: Jacaranda copaia (r = 0.63), Tetragastris panamensis (r = 0.39) and Trichilia tuberculata (r = 0.39). Flowering and fruiting in Jacaranda were negatively related to current-year dry-season rainfall and positively related to prior-year dry-season rainfall. Flowering in Tetragastris was negatively related to current-year annual mean temperature while Trichilia showed no significant relationships of reproduction with climate. Growth was significantly related to reproduction only in Tetragastris, where it was positively related to previous year fruiting. Our results suggest that tree growth in moist tropical forest tree species is generally reduced by drought events such as those associated with strong El Niño events. In contrast, interannual variation in reproduction is not generally associated with growth and has distinct and species-specific climate responses, with positive effects of El Niño events in some species. Understanding these contrasting climate effects on tree growth and reproduction is critical to predicting changes in tropical forest dynamics and species composition under climate change.

  18. Chromosome complement and meiosis in three species of the Neotropical bug genus Antiteuchus (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Discocephalinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Lanzone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Orcein staining of spermatocytes was used to study the meiotic behavior of holocentric chromosomes in three member of the genus Antiteuchus (commonly known as stink bugs. We describe and illustrate the karyotype of Antiteuchus mixtus, A. sepulcralis and A. macraspis which were cytogenetically characterized as having a diploid number of 2n = 14 and an XY sex chromosome system showing pre-reductional meiosis for autosomes and post-reductional meiosis for sex chromosomes. These species were also shown to have a long diffuse stage during meiotic prophase I and aberrant harlequin-type meiocytes. The chiasma frequency was also analyzed for two of the three species studied.

  19. Fine-scale genetic structure patterns in two freshwater fish species, Geophagus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae) and Astyanax altiparanae (Osteichthyes, Characidae) throughout a Neotropical stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, D G; Lima, S C; Frantine-Silva, W; Silva, J F; Apolinário-Silva, C; Sofia, S H; Carvalho, S; Galindo, B A

    2016-10-24

    Streams are very important environments for Neotropical freshwater fish fauna, and possess a high number of species. These small drainages are also highlighted by their intrinsic biological and physicochemical features; however, knowledge on the genetic distribution of fish in these drainages is limited. Therefore, in the present study, RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and microsatellite markers were used to analyze population differentiation and gene flow of Astyanax altiparanae and Geophagus brasiliensis from three sites (high, medium, and low) throughout the Penacho stream (about 32 km long), which is a Neotropical stream. Both markers revealed higher levels of genetic diversity levels for A. altiparanae (: 90.05; H S : 0.350) compared to G. brasiliensis (: 30.43; H S : 0.118), which may be related to the particular biology of each species. AMOVA revealed significant genetic variation among populations of each species. All pairwise Φ ST values were significant, ranging from 0.020 to 0.056 for A. altiparanae samples, and from 0.065 to 0.190 for G. brasiliensis samples. Bayesian clustering analysis corroborated these results and revealed clusters of both A. altiparanae (two based on RAPD data) and G. brasiliensis (two based on RAPD data and three on microsatellite data). Gene flow estimates showed that there were similar rates of migration among A. altiparanae samples and low rates of migration among some G. brasiliensis samples. These results suggest patterns of fine-scale genetic structure for both species in the Penacho stream. This information may enhance knowledge of Neotropical streams and may be useful for future management and conservation activities.

  20. On Leishmania enriettii and Other Enigmatic Leishmania Species of the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lainson

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available There are 20 named species of the genus Leishmania at present recognized in the New World, of which 14 are known to infect man. The present paper discusses the biological, biochemical and ecological features, where known, of six species which have not till now been found to cause human leishmaniasis; namely, Leishmania (Leishmania enriettii, L. (L. hertigi, L. (L. deanei, L. (L. aristidesi, L. (L. forattinii and L. (Viannia equatorensis. A protocol is suggested for attempts to discover the natural mammalian host(s and sandfly vector of L. (L. enriettii. Doubt is cast on the validity of the species L. herreri, described in Costa Rican sloths. Following the concensus of opinion that modern trypanosomatids derive from monogenetic intestinal flagellates of arthropods, phlebotomine sandflies are best regarded as the primary hosts of Leishmania species, with mammals acting as secondary hosts providing a source of parasites for these insects. There are probably natural barriers limiting the life-cycle of most leishmanial parasites to specific sandfly vectors

  1. Successful invasion of the neotropical species Piper aduncum in rain forests in Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lepš, Jan; Novotný, Vojtěch; Čížek, Lukáš; Molem, K.; Isua, B.; Boen, W.; Kutil, R.; Auga, J.; Kasbal, M.; Manumbor, M.; Hiuk, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2002), s. 255-262 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/99/1112; GA AV ČR IAA6007106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Alien species * Biological invasion * Disturbance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. The trait contribution to wood decomposition rates of 15 neotropical tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van K.G.; Poorter, L.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Logtestijn, R.S.P.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2010-01-01

    The decomposition of dead wood is a critical uncertainty in models of the global carbon cycle. Despite this, relatively few studies have focused on dead wood decomposition, with a strong bias to higher latitudes. Especially the effect of inter-specific variation in species traits on differences wood

  3. Diaspore bank of aquatic macrophytes maintaining species diversity in a Neotropical pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diaspore bank is an important component of biological diversity acting mainly as storage and source of diaspores, which also indicate dynamics and patterns of maintenance of plant diversity. We tested the hypothesis that the diaspore bank would be the responsible factor for the maintenance of the aquatic plant species, used two techniques to evaluate the diaspore bank: seedling emergence and direct counting of field samples. Density and richness of the diaspore bank were correlated with plant cover of the aquatic macrophyte communities and also with the euphotic zone radiation in different phases of the hydrological cycle. The diaspore bank is a key factor in maintenance of aquatic macrophyte assemblages in this pond. Nymphaea amazonum was one of the dominant species in the pond and presented temporally peaks of plant cover. Furthermore, depth allowed induction of germination of stored diaspores. Therefore, the diaspore bank may predict which species colonizes a site when environmental characteristics are favorable and allows inferring which processes are linked to changes in structure of aquatic macrophyte assemblages. These mechanisms are the means for recovery of macrophyte species under natural disturbances, represented by water level oscillations in floodplains.

  4. Old-growth Neotropical forests are shifting in species and trait composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sande, van der M.T.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Pena Claros, M.; Avila, L.A.; Roopsind, A.; Mazzei, L.; Ascarrunz, N.; Finegan, B.; Alarcón, A.; Caceres-Siani, Yasmani; Licona, J.C.; Ruschel, A.R.; Toledo, M.; Poorter, L.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset contains the underlaying data for the study: Tropical forests have long been thought to be in stable state, but recent insights indicate that global change is leading to shifts in forest dynamics and species composition. These shifts may be driven by environmental changes such as

  5. The endemic Patagonian vespertilionid assemblage is a depauperate ecomorphological vicariant of species-rich neotropical assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Norberto P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Vespertilionidae is the most diverse chiropteran family, and its diversity is concentrated in warm regions of the World; however, due to physiological and behavioral adaptations, these bats also dominate bat faunas in temperate regions. Here we performed a comparative study of vespertilionid assemblages from two broad regions of the New World, the cold and harsh Patagonia, versus the remaining temperate-to-subtropical, extra-Patagonian eco-regions of the South American Southern Cone. We took an ecomorphological approach and analyzed the craniodental morphological structure of these assemblages within a phylogenetic framework. We measured 17 craniodental linear variables from 447 specimens of 22 currently recognized vespertilionid species of the study regions. We performed a multivariate analysis to define the morphofunctional space, and calculated the pattern and degree of species packing for each assemblage. We assessed the importance of phylogeny and biogeography, and their impact on depauperate (Patagonian) versus rich (extra-Patagonian) vespertilionid assemblages as determinants of morphospace structuring. We implemented a sensitivity analysis associated to small samples of rare species. The morphological patterns were determined chiefly by the evolutionary history of the family. The Patagonian assemblage can be described as a structurally similar but comparatively depauperate ecomorphological version of those assemblages from neighboring extra-Patagonian eco-regions. The Patagonian assemblage seems to have formed by successively adding populations from Northern regions that eventually speciated in the region, leaving corresponding sisters (vicariants) in extra-Patagonian eco-regions that continued to be characteristically richer. Despite being structurally akin, degree of species packing in Patagonia was comparatively very low, which may reflect the effect of limited dispersal success into a harsh region for bat survival. PMID:29492009

  6. Diaspore bank of aquatic macrophytes maintaining species diversity in a Neotropical pond

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Fernando Alves; Catian, Gisele; Pott, Arnildo

    2016-01-01

    The diaspore bank is an important component of biological diversity acting mainly as storage and source of diaspores, which also indicate dynamics and patterns of maintenance of plant diversity. We tested the hypothesis that the diaspore bank would be the responsible factor for the maintenance of the aquatic plant species, used two techniques to evaluate the diaspore bank: seedling emergence and direct counting of field samples. Density and richness of the diaspore bank were correlated with p...

  7. Anatomy and histology of the prostate and glands of Cowper in three species of neotropical bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotti, María Daniela; Mollerach, Marcos I; Barquez, Ruben M

    2018-03-01

    The reproductive accessory glands (RAG) are essential components in reproduction because their secretion products ensure survival, viability, and sperm motility. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the morphological and histological structure of the RAG in three species of bats of the genus Sturnira (S. erythromos, S. lilium, and S. oporaphilum). The RAG complex comprise a compact gland (prostate), which surrounds the urethra, and a pair of Glands of Cowper at the base of penis. Anatomical and histologically, the prostate are differentiated in two regions, ventral and dorsal. The dorsal region has tubuloalveolar glands with secretions fine granular or accumulations of a gel-like substance with bubbles and the ventral region, has alveolar glands with secretory cells form a single-layer of small cells. The seminal vesicles are absent. The prostatic morphology of the three species is similar to that of other studied Stenodermatinae and Desmodontinae, but differs from other subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Carollinae, Glossophaginae, and Phyllostominae) as that of Molossidae and Vespertilionidae. The RAG complex has no annual variation in relation to functionality or size, but it is variable depending on age (subadults and adults). This agrees with the annual reproductive pattern described for these species in these latitudes, where adult males are reproductively active throughout the year. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Relaxed random walk model coupled with ecological niche modeling unravel the dispersal dynamics of a Neotropical savanna tree species in the deeper Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collevatti, Rosane G; Terribile, Levi C; Rabelo, Suelen G; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dispersal routes of Neotropical savanna tree species is an essential step to unravel the effects of past climate change on genetic patterns, species distribution and population demography. Here we reconstruct the demographic history and dispersal dynamics of the Neotropical savanna tree species Tabebuia aurea to understand the effects of Quaternary climate change on its current spatial patterns of genetic diversity. We sampled 285 individuals from 21 populations throughout Brazilian savannas and sequenced all individuals for three chloroplast intergenic spacers and ITS nrDNA. We analyzed data using a multi-model inference framework by coupling the relaxed random walk model (RRW), ecological niche modeling (ENM) and statistical phylogeography. The most recent common ancestor of T. aurea lineages dated from ~4.0 ± 2.5 Ma. T. aurea lineages cyclically dispersed from the West toward the Central-West Brazil, and from the Southeast toward the East and Northeast Brazil, following the paleodistribution dynamics shown by the ENMs through the last glacial cycle. A historical refugium through time may have allowed dispersal of lineages among populations of Central Brazil, overlapping with population expansion during interglacial periods and the diversification of new lineages. Range and population expansion through the Quaternary were, respectively, the most frequent prediction from ENMs and the most likely demographic scenario from coalescent simulations. Consistent phylogeographic patterns among multiple modeling inferences indicate a promising approach, allowing us to understand how cyclical climate changes through the Quaternary drove complex population dynamics and the current patterns of species distribution and genetic diversity.

  9. A large historical refugium explains spatial patterns of genetic diversity in a Neotropical savanna tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Helena Augusta Viana E; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Lemos-Filho, José Pires de; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

    2017-01-01

    The relative role of Pleistocene climate changes in driving the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of South American species is not well known, especially from open biomes such as the Cerrado, the most diverse tropical savanna, encompassing high levels of endemism. Here the effects of Quaternary climatic changes on demographic history, distribution dynamics and genetic diversity of Dimorphandra mollis, an endemic tree species widely distributed in the Cerrado, were investigated. A total of 38 populations covering most of the distribution of D. mollis were analysed using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and nuclear microsatellite variation [simple sequence repeats (SSRs)]. The framework incorporated statistical phylogeography, coalescent analyses and ecological niche modelling (ENM). Different signatures of Quaternary climatic changes were found for ITS sequences and SSRs corresponding to different time slices. Coalescent analyses revealed large and constant effective population sizes, with high historical connectivity among the populations for ITS sequences and low effective population sizes and gene flow with recent population retraction for SSRs. ENMs indicated a slight geographical range retraction during the Last Glacial Maximum. A large historical refugium across central Brazil was predicted. Spatially explicit analyses showed a spatial cline pattern in genetic diversity related to the paleodistribution of D. mollis and to the centre of its historical refugium. The complex genetic patterns found in D. mollis are the result of a slight geographical range retraction during the Last Glacial Maximum followed by population expansion to the east and south from a large refugium in the central part of the Cerrado. This historical refugium is coincident with an area predicted to be climatically stable under future climate scenarios. The identified refugium should be given high priority in conservation polices to safeguard the evolutionary

  10. Interoceanic occurrence of species of Aristocleidus Mueller, 1936 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of gerreid fishes in the Neotropics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.; Violante-González, J.; Roche, D. G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2009), s. 703-708 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Neotropics * Gerreidae * Aristocleidus * Diapterus * Gerres * host specificity * Isthmus of Panama Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.721, year: 2009

  11. Coexistence of two species of whip spiders (Genus Heterophrynus) in the neotropical rain forest (Arachnida, Amblypygi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weygoldt, Peter

    1977-12-01

    Heterophrynus longicornis Butler and H. alces Pocock are sympatric and syntopic in Serra do Navio in the central part of Amapá, N.-E. Brazil. Both species are of similar sizes during part of their life cycles. Competition is probably reduced by utilization of different hiding places and strata. In H. longicornis, adults are tolerant towards conspecifics. Male and female are usually found close to each other and, under laboratory conditions, courtship behaviour can be observed even when the female is not receptive. H. alces, on the other hand, is very intolerant, and usually only single specimens are found. Under laboratory conditions, cannibalism is frequent. The ecological implications of these differences are discussed.

  12. Induced spawning of the endangered Neotropical species Steindachneridion parahybae (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Caneppele

    Full Text Available The "surubim do Paraíba" (Steindachneridion parahybae is a freshwater catfish endemic to the Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. This species has been seriously threatened by environmental disturbances in the last several decades. Wild Steindachneridion parahybae males and females were collected in 2003 and taken to the hatchery of a power plant of the Companhia Energética de São Paulo (CESP. Steindachneridion parahybae broodstocks were artificially induced to reproduce in December 2003 using a combination of carp pituitary extract (CPE and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. Oocytes and milt were stripped; the fertilized eggs were transferred to 60-liter conical incubators and hatched larvae distributed in nine horizontal trays. Exogenous feed was started just after yolk sac absorption. A high rate of cannibalism and photophobia were observed during the larval period, resulting in a 26% survival rate from larvae to fingerlings.

  13. A new species of Neotropical freshwater stingray (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae) from the Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil: the smallest species of Potamotrygon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Marcelo R De; Rosa, Ricardo S; Araújo, Maria Lúcia G De

    2016-05-04

    A new species of Potamotrygon is described from the Rio Negro drainage, Amazonas, Brazil. In spite of being cited or pictured several times in the scientific and aquarium fish literature since the 19th Century, it had been misidentified and still lacked a scientific name. Potamotrygon wallacei, n. sp., is diagnosed by the following characters: dorsal surface of disc light brown, with black irregularly-shaped vermiculate markings forming an amphora- or Ω-shaped figure on mid-disc, delimiting light brown reniform areas at disc center, and with subcircular light brown ocellate markings on disc margins; small body size (smallest known Potamotrygon species; largest examined specimen measured 310 mm DW); dorsal spines on tail usually rather low, without broad bases, in one to rarely three irregular rows, but extending posteriorly only to tail mid-length and not to caudal stings, with altogether relatively few spines; denticles on posterior mid-disc and tail base Y-shaped, with a central, anterior, bulbous cusp and usually two posterior pairs of smaller, rounded cusps; and single (anterior) angular cartilage. The new species is similar to P. orbignyi and other "reticulated" species in having a single (anterior) angular cartilage and in the color pattern of the tail, but is easily distinguished based on its size, dorsal tail spine arrangement, and specific details of color pattern.

  14. Modeling hurricane effects on mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems are at their most northern limit along the coastline of Florida and in isolated areas of the gulf coast in Louisiana and Texas. Mangroves are marine-based forests that have adapted to colonize and persist in salty intertidal waters. Three species of mangrove trees are common to the United States, black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems and provide valuable habitat for fisheries and shorebirds. They are susceptible to lightning and hurricane disturbance, both of which occur frequently in south Florida. Climate change studies predict that, while these storms may not become more frequent, they may become more intense with warming sea temperatures. Sea-level rise alone has the potential for increasing the severity of storm surge, particularly in areas where coastal habitats and barrier shorelines are rapidly deteriorating. Given this possibility, U.S. Geological Survey researchers modeled the impact of hurricanes on south Florida mangrove communities.

  15. Effects of domestic effluent discharges on mangrove crab physiology: Integrated energetic, osmoregulatory and redox balances of a key engineer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuerkauff, Dimitri; Rivera-Ingraham, Georgina A; Mercky, Yann; Lejeune, Mathilde; Lignot, Jehan-Hervé; Sucré, Elliott

    2018-03-01

    Mangroves are increasingly used as biofiltering systems of (pre-treated) domestic effluents. However, these wastewater discharges may affect local macrofauna. This laboratory study investigates the effects of wastewater exposure on the mangrove spider crab Neosarmatium meinerti, a key engineering species which is known to be affected by waste waters in effluent-impacted areas. These effects were quantified by monitoring biological markers of physiological state, namely oxygen consumption, the branchial cavity ventilation rate, gill physiology and morphology, and osmoregulatory and redox balance. Adults acclimated to clean seawater (SW, 32 ppt) and freshwater (FW, ∼0 ppt) were compared to crabs exposed to wastewater for 5 h (WW, ∼0 ppt). Spider crabs exposed to WW increased their ventilation and whole-animal respiration rates by 2- and 3-fold respectively, while isolated gill respiration increased in the animals exposed to FW (from 0.5 to 2.3 and 1.1 nmol O 2 min -1  mg DW -1 for anterior and posterior gills, respectively) but was not modified in WW-exposed individuals. WW exposure also impaired crab osmoregulatory capacity; an 80 mOsm kg -1 decrease was observed compared to FW, likely due to decreased branchial NKA activity. ROS production (DCF fluorescence in hemolymph), antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase and catalase activities) and oxidative damage (malondialdehyde concentration) responses varied according to animal gender. Overall, this study demonstrates that specific physiological parameters must be considered when focusing on crabs with bimodal breathing capacities. We conclude that spider crabs exposed to WW face osmoregulatory imbalances due to functional and morphological gill remodeling, which must rapidly exhaust energy reserves. These physiological disruptions could explain the ecological changes observed in the field. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. A patchy growth via successive and simultaneous cambia: key to success of the most widespread mangrove species Avicennia marina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Nele; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Verheyden, Anouk; Kairo, James Gitundu; Beeckman, Hans; Koedam, Nico

    2008-01-01

    Secondary growth via successive cambia has been intriguing researchers for decades. Insight into the mechanism of growth layer formation is, however, limited to the cellular level. The present study aims to clarify secondary growth via successive cambia in the mangrove species Avicennia marina on a macroscopic level, addressing the formation of the growth layer network as a whole. In addition, previously suggested effects of salinity on growth layer formation were reconsidered. A 1-year cambial marking experiment was performed on 80 trees from eight sites in two mangrove forests in Kenya. Environmental (soil water salinity and nutrients, soil texture, inundation frequency) and tree characteristics (diameter, height, leaf area index) were recorded for each site. Both groups of variables were analysed in relation to annual number of growth layers, annual radial increment and average growth layer width of stem discs. Between trees of the same site, the number of growth layers formed during the 1-year study period varied from only part of a growth layer up to four growth layers, and was highly correlated to the corresponding radial increment (0-5 mm year(-1)), even along the different sides of asymmetric stem discs. The radial increment was unrelated to salinity, but the growth layer width decreased with increasing salinity and decreasing tree height. A patchy growth mechanism was proposed, with an optimal growth at distinct moments in time at different positions around the stem circumference. This strategy creates the opportunity to form several growth layers simultaneously, as observed in 14 % of the studied trees, which may optimize tree growth under favourable conditions. Strong evidence was provided for a mainly endogenous trigger controlling cambium differentiation, with an additional influence of current environmental conditions in a trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and mechanical stability.

  17. Temporal patterns in species zonation in a mangrove forest in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, using a time series of Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Eric L.; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Nardin, William; Vo-Luong, Phuoc; Nguyen, Phong; Woodcock, Curtis E.

    2017-09-01

    Time-series analysis of Landsat imagery was used to evaluate trends in species zonation in a restored mangrove forest in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Dating back throughout the primary expansion of the forest, the Landsat archive provides a unique opportunity to examine the evolution of a restored forest in all stages of maturity. Through temporal trend analysis, areas of the forest were divided into four development stages: Pre-mangrove water, initial mangrove colonization, a period dominated by Sonneratia spp., and the arrival and zonation of secondary species. Field inventory data was used in conjunction with satellite data to investigate the geomorphic and hydrologic influences behind the species zonation. We hypothesize that the development of Sonneratia spp. facilitates initial sedimentation. The trees mature at higher soil elevations and a region develops with low forest density, high light availability, and reduced tidal inundation. Multi-species zonation then develops through the timely exploitation of the geomorphic conditions suitable for the establishment of secondary species.

  18. Examining the Influence of Seasonality, Condition, and Species Composition on Mangrove Leaf Pigment Contents and Laboratory Based Spectroscopy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Flores-de-Santiago

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the seasonal relationships (dry vs. rainy between reflectance (400–1000 nm and leaf pigment contents (chlorophyll-a (chl-a, chlorophyll-b (chl-b, total carotenoids (tcar, chlorophyll a/b ratio in three mangrove species (Avicennia germinans (A. germinans, Laguncularia racemosa (L. racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle (R. mangle according to their condition (stressed vs. healthy. Based on a sample of 360 leaves taken from a semi-arid forest of the Mexican Pacific, it was determined that during the dry season, the stressed A. germinans and R. mangle show the highest maximum correlations at the green (550 nm and red-edge (710 nm wavelengths (r = 0.8 and 0.9, respectively for both chl-a and chl-b and that much lower values (r = 0.7 and 0.8, respectively were recorded during the rainy season. Moreover, it was found that the tcar correlation pattern across the electromagnetic spectrum was quite different from that of the chl-a, the chl-b, and chl a/b ratio but that their maximum correlations were also located at the same two wavelength ranges for both seasons. The stressed L. racemosa was the only sample to exhibit minimal correlation with chl-a and chl-b for either season. In addition, the healthy A. germinans and R. mangle depicted similar patterns of chl-a and chl-b, but the tcar varied depending on the species. The healthy L. racemosa recorded higher correlations with chl-b and tcar at the green and red-edge wavelengths during the dry season, and higher correlation with chl-a during the rainy season. Finally, the vegetation index Red Edge Inflection Point Index (REIP was found to be the optimal index for chl-a estimation for both stressed and healthy classes. For chl-b, both the REIP and the Vogelmann Red Edge Index (Vog1 index were found to be best at prediction. Based on the results of this investigation, it is suggested that caution be taken as mangrove leaf pigment contents from spectroscopy data

  19. Post-Glacial Expansion and Population Genetic Divergence of Mangrove Species Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn and Rhizophora mangle L. along the Mexican Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Castro, Eduardo; Dodd, Richard S.; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Enríquez-Paredes, Luis Manuel; Tovilla-Hernández, Cristian; López-Vivas, Juan Manuel; Aguilar-May, Bily; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests in the Gulf of California, Mexico represent the northernmost populations along the Pacific coast and thus they are likely to be source populations for colonization at higher latitudes as climate becomes more favorable. Today, these populations are relatively small and fragmented and prior research has indicated that they are poor in genetic diversity. Here we set out to investigate whether the low diversity in this region was a result of recent colonization, or fragmentation and genetic drift of once more extensive mangroves due to climatic changes in the recent past. By sampling the two major mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans, along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of Mexico, we set out to test whether concordant genetic signals could elucidate recent evolution of the ecosystem. Genetic diversity of both mangrove species showed a decreasing trend toward northern latitudes along the Pacific coast. The lowest levels of genetic diversity were found at the range limits around the Gulf of California and the outer Baja California peninsula. Lack of a strong spatial genetic structure in this area and recent northern gene flow in A. germinans suggest recent colonization by this species. On the other hand, lack of a signal of recent northern dispersal in R. mangle, despite the higher dispersal capability of this species, indicates a longer presence of populations, at least in the southern Gulf of California. We suggest that the longer history, together with higher genetic diversity of R. mangle at the range limits, likely provides a gene pool better able to colonize northwards under climate change than A. germinans. PMID:24699389

  20. Post-glacial expansion and population genetic divergence of mangrove species Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn and Rhizophora mangle L. along the Mexican coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Castro, Eduardo; Dodd, Richard S; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Enríquez-Paredes, Luis Manuel; Tovilla-Hernández, Cristian; López-Vivas, Juan Manuel; Aguilar-May, Bily; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests in the Gulf of California, Mexico represent the northernmost populations along the Pacific coast and thus they are likely to be source populations for colonization at higher latitudes as climate becomes more favorable. Today, these populations are relatively small and fragmented and prior research has indicated that they are poor in genetic diversity. Here we set out to investigate whether the low diversity in this region was a result of recent colonization, or fragmentation and genetic drift of once more extensive mangroves due to climatic changes in the recent past. By sampling the two major mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia germinans, along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of Mexico, we set out to test whether concordant genetic signals could elucidate recent evolution of the ecosystem. Genetic diversity of both mangrove species showed a decreasing trend toward northern latitudes along the Pacific coast. The lowest levels of genetic diversity were found at the range limits around the Gulf of California and the outer Baja California peninsula. Lack of a strong spatial genetic structure in this area and recent northern gene flow in A. germinans suggest recent colonization by this species. On the other hand, lack of a signal of recent northern dispersal in R. mangle, despite the higher dispersal capability of this species, indicates a longer presence of populations, at least in the southern Gulf of California. We suggest that the longer history, together with higher genetic diversity of R. mangle at the range limits, likely provides a gene pool better able to colonize northwards under climate change than A. germinans.

  1. Above-ground biomass of mangrove species. I. Analysis of models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mário Luiz Gomes; Schaeffer-Novelli, Yara

    2005-10-01

    This study analyzes the above-ground biomass of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa located in the mangroves of Bertioga (SP) and Guaratiba (RJ), Southeast Brazil. Its purpose is to determine the best regression model to estimate the total above-ground biomass and compartment (leaves, reproductive parts, twigs, branches, trunk and prop roots) biomass, indirectly. To do this, we used structural measurements such as height, diameter at breast-height (DBH), and crown area. A combination of regression types with several compositions of independent variables generated 2.272 models that were later tested. Subsequent analysis of the models indicated that the biomass of reproductive parts, branches, and prop roots yielded great variability, probably because of environmental factors and seasonality (in the case of reproductive parts). It also indicated the superiority of multiple regression to estimate above-ground biomass as it allows researchers to consider several aspects that affect above-ground biomass, specially the influence of environmental factors. This fact has been attested to the models that estimated the biomass of crown compartments.

  2. IDENTIFIKASI TINGKAT KERAWANAN DEGRADASI KAWASAN HUTAN MANGROVE DESA MUARA, TANGERANG, BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadisti Nur Aini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to estimate the vulnerability of degradation of mangrove forest in Muara Village, Tangerang, Banten. There are five species of mangroves found in mangrove forest of Muara, which are: Avicennia alba, Avicennia officinnalis. Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora stylosa, and Rhizophora mucronata. The results showed that the mangrove forest in Muara has a high vulnerability of degradation based on the three vegetation characteristics, such as: density, domination, and biodiversity of mangrove species. The density of mangrove vegetation has only reached 739 individual/Ha. While the biodiversity of mangrove species is low and the domination level of mangrove species is high, in which the dominant species is Rhizophora mucronata. Mangrove rehabilitation activities are required by revegetation methods, and the mangrove species that are used in revegetation process are local species which available in the mangrove forest of Muara. Mangrove rehabilitation process that needs to be done is by revegetation of mangroves and mangrove species conservation. Mangrove species which is suitable for mangrove rehabilitation in Muara Village are Rhizophora mucronata and Avecinnea alba. Keywords: mangrove, forest, degradation, rehabilitation

  3. Vicariance and Oceanic Barriers Drive Contemporary Genetic Structure of Widespread Mangrove Species Sonneratia alba J. Sm in the Indo-West Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison K. S. Wee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic structure are essential for a comprehensive understanding of the evolution and biogeography of a species. Here, we investigated the genetic patterns of one of the most widespread and abundant mangrove species in the Indo-West Pacific, Sonneratia alba J. Sm., in order to gain insights into the ecological and evolutionary drivers of genetic structure in mangroves. We employed 11 nuclear microsatellite loci and two chloroplast regions to genotyped 25 S. alba populations. Our objectives were to (1 assess the level of genetic diversity and its geographic distribution; and (2 determine the genetic structure of the populations. Our results revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations. We detected a major genetic break between Indo-Malesia and Australasia, and further population subdivision within each oceanic region in these two major clusters. The phylogeographic patterns indicated a strong influence of vicariance, oceanic barriers and geographic distance on genetic structure. In addition, we found low genetic diversity and high genetic drift at range edge. This study advances the scope of mangrove biogeography by demonstrating a unique scenario whereby a widespread species has limited dispersal and high genetic divergence among populations.

  4. Corrections and additions to Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera (Tabanidae of Coscarón & Papavero (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Loureiro Henriques

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some corrections and omitted taxonomic information for the "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae" are presented. Fifteen recently described species are listed for the Neotropical region. Presently, the Neotropical region has 1,205 Tabanidae species, besides 35 unrecognized species and 29 nomina nuda.

  5. Taxonomia e morfologia de espécies neotropicais de Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae Taxonomic study of neotropical species of Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Marques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae pode ser reconhecido por padrões cromáticos característicos no mesonoto e abdômen e pelas cerdas catepisternais 0:2. Das 14 espécies citadas na literatura para a Região Neotropical, sete são redescritas, com descrições das terminálias masculina e feminina - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein e G. tropicalis Malloch, aqui revalidada. Ilustrações coloridas do mesonoto e do abdômen são apresentadas para facilitar o reconhecimento das espécies. O neótipo de G. maculata é designado. A fêmea de G. podexaurea é registrada pela primeira vez. O registro geográfico das seguintes espécies é ampliado: G. meridionalis para o Equador e Peru; G. mexicana e G. podexaurea para o Brasil; G. tropicalis para Colômbia e Brasil.Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae is recognized by characteristic color patterns on mesonotum and abdomen and by the disposition of the katepisternal setae 0:2. From the 14 species recorded in the Neotropical Region, seven are redescribed with the descriptions of male and female terminalia - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein and G. tropicalis Malloch, herein revalidated. Colored illustrations of mesonotum and abdomen are presented in order to aid the recognition of the species. The neotype of G. maculata is designated. The female of G. podexaurea is recorded for the first time. The geographic record of the following species is enlarged: G. meridionalis for Ecuador and Peru; G. mexicana and G. podexaurea for Brazil and G. tropicalis for Colombia and Brazil.

  6. Habitat constraints on the distribution of passerine residents and neotropical migrants in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    With continuing tropical deforestation, there is increased concern for birds that depend on forest habitats in Latin America. During the past 10 northern winters, we have conducted quantitative studies of habitat use by wintering migrant songbirds and by residents in the Greater Antilles, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Many migrants, but few residents, winter in forest fragments and in certain arboreal agricultural habitats (citrus, cacao, shade coffee). Many other agricultural habitats (sun coffee, mango, commercial banana plantations, and heavily grazed pasture) are avoided by most birds. Some species, such as thrushes and ground-feeding warblers, depend on closed-canopy forest. Some, such as Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) and Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), winter primarily in mangroves or other swamp forests. The majority of neotropical migrant passerines winter in forest fragments and certain agricultural habitats, as well as mature forest; but many resident species, especially suboscines (Furnariidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Formicariidae, Papridae), are heavily impacted by loss and fragmentation of the forest.

  7. Potential for Sulfate Reduction in Mangrove Forest Soils: Comparison between Two Dominant Species of the Americas

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2016-11-18

    Avicennia and Rhizophora are globally occurring mangrove genera with different traits that place them in different parts of the intertidal zone. It is generally accepted that the oxidizing capacity of Avicennia roots is larger than that of Rhizophora roots, which initiates more reduced conditions in the soil below the latter genus. We hypothesize that the more reduced conditions beneath Rhizophora stands lead to more active sulfate-reducing microbial communities compared to Avicennia stands. To test this hypothesis, we measured sulfate reduction traits in soil samples collected from neighboring Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle stands at three different locations in southern Florida. The traits measured were sulfate reduction rates (SRR) in flow-through reactors containing undisturbed soil layers in the absence and presence of easily degradable carbon compounds, copy numbers of the dsrB gene, which is specific for sulfate-reducing microorganisms, and numbers of sulfate-reducing cells that are able to grow in liquid medium on a mixture of acetate, propionate and lactate as electron donors. At the tidal locations Port of the Islands and South Hutchinson Islands, steady state SRR, dsrB gene copy numbers and numbers of culturable cells were higher at the A. germinans than at the R. mangle stands, although not significantly for the numbers at Port of the Islands. At the non-tidal location North Hutchinson Island, results are mixed with respect to these sulfate reduction traits. At all locations, the fraction of culturable cells were significantly higher at the R. mangle than at the A. germinans stands. The dynamics of the initial SRR implied a more in situ active sulfate-reducing community at the intertidal R. mangle stands. It was concluded that in agreement with our hypothesis R. mangle stands accommodate a more active sulfate-reducing community than A. germinans stands, but only at the tidal locations. The differences between R. mangle and A. germinans stands

  8. Insect pollination and self-planting seed dispersal strategy in the true viviparous mangrove tree species Ceriops tagal (Perr. C.B. Robinson (Rhizophoraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ceriops tagal is a seaward and high salt-tolerant specialist mangrove species. It flowers during the winter season. The flowers have an explosive pollen release mechanism and are adapted for tripping by flies and honey bees. The tripped flowers achieve self or cross-pollination. High winds can also trip flowers, but this only contributes to autogamy. The plant is viviparous; most propagules fall off and settle near the mother plant. We have observed that such propagules do not show healthy growth, hence the establishment of successive offspring in the same habitat is doubtful. These results suggest that C. tagal requires introduction of propagules from other mangrove forests to promote gene flow and maintain sufficient genetic diversity for the successful establishment and expansion of populations.

  9. Element uptake, accumulation, and resorption in leaves of mangrove species with different mechanisms of salt regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Medina; W. Fernandez; F. Barboza

    2015-01-01

    Element uptake from substrate and resorption capacity of nutrients before leaf shedding are frequently species-specific and difficult to determine in natural settings. We sampled populations of Rhizophora mangle (salt-excluding species) and Laguncularia racemosa (salt-secreting species) in a coastal lagoon in the upper section of the Maracaibo strait in western...

  10. KEANEKARAGAM MANGROVE DI WILAYAH TAPAK, TUGUREJO, SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NKT Martuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Konversi kawasan mangrove menjadi lahan tambak ikan/udang merupakan penyebab utama rusaknya ekosistem mangrove di Indonesia. Eksploitasi kawasan mangrove yang terus menerus dilakukan berpotensi mereduksi keanekaragaman spesies tumbuhan yang memiliki peran dan fungsi utama secara ekologis. Dusun Tapak merupakan salah satu wilayah di Kota Semarang yang ekosistem mangrovenya masih terjaga. Pengumpulan data primer pada penelitian ini meliputi pengukuran sebaran vegetasi mangrove. Data vegetasi mangrove dianalisis untuk mendapatkan Indeks Nilai Penting (INP dan Indeks Keanekaragaman. Pada tingkat pertumbuhan pohon, Avicennia marina merupakan spesies yang memiliki nilai penting tertinggi pada S II (300 %, S III (287,14 %, dan S IV (186,08 %, sedangkan spesies Rhizophora mucronata memiliki nilai penting tertinggi pada S I (232,06. Berdasarkan hasil analisis vegetasi mangrove di Wilayah Tapak, terdapat 5 spesies mangrove yang berhasil dijumpai, yaitu Rhizophora mucronata, Avicennia marina, Excoecaria aghalloca, Brugueira cylindrical, dan Xylocarpus mocullensis. Hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan  bahwa Nilai Keanekaragaman mangrove wilayah Tapak rendah (0-0,469.  Hal ini dikarenakan ekosistem mangrove Wilayah Tapak merupakan ekosistem buatan, dengan jenis dan jumlah mangrove yang dominan terdiri dari Rhizophora mucronata dan Avicennia marina.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ The conversion of the mangrove conservation area into fish/shrimp ponds has been the major cause of the destruction of mangrove ecosystem in Indonesia. The ongoing exploitation of mangrove area potentially reduces the plant species diversity of the area. The mangrove area in Tapak Sub-Village of Semarang City is relatively conserved. The primary data collected in this research consisted of the mangrove vegetation

  11. Protuberancias intercelulares pécticas en especies neotropicales de Marattia (Marattiaceae- Pteridophyta Intercellular pectic protuberances in neotropical species of Marattia (Marattiaceae-Pteridophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Lavalle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las protuberancias intercelulares pécticas (PIP presentes en las células del mesofilo de especies neotropicales de Marattia fueron estudiadas con MEB. Morfológicamente se encontraron 3 tipos principales: verrugas, filamentos y conexiones pécticas. El uso de su variación morfológica con carácter taxonómico resulta de utilidad como complemento de otros rasgos del esporófito.Intercellular pectic protuberances (IPP found in mesophyll cells of neotropical species of Marattia were studied with SEM. The IPP were examinated to determine if they could provide diagnostic characters. Morphologically, three major types are described: pectic warts, filaments and connections (strands. The use of morphological variation with taxonomic character is useful as a complement of other sporophyte traits.

  12. Population differentiation and species cohesion in two closely related plants adapted to neotropical high-altitude 'inselbergs', Alcantarea imperialis and Alcantarea geniculata (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbará, T; Martinelli, G; Fay, M F; Mayo, S J; Lexer, C

    2007-05-01

    Isolated granitic rock outcrops or 'inselbergs' may provide a window into the molecular ecology and genetics of continental radiations under simplified conditions, in analogy to the use of oceanic islands in studies of species radiations. Patterns of variability and gene flow in inselberg species have never been thoroughly evaluated in comparison to related taxa with more continuous distribution ranges, or to other species in the same kingdom in general. We use nuclear microsatellites to study population differentiation and gene flow in two diploid, perennial plants adapted to high-altitude neotropical inselbergs, Alcantarea imperialis and Alcantarea geniculata (Bromeliaceae). Population differentiation is pronounced in both taxa, especially in A. imperialis. Gene flow in this species is considerably lower than expected from the literature on plants in general and Bromeliaceae in particular, and too low to prevent differentiation due to drift (N(e)m < 1), unless selection coefficients/effect sizes of favourable alleles are great enough to maintain species cohesion. Low gene flow in A. imperialis indicates that the ability of pollinating bats to promote gene exchange between inselbergs is smaller than previously assumed. Population subdivision in one inselberg population of A. imperialis appears to be associated with the presence of two colour morphs that differ in the coloration of rosettes and bracts. Our results indicate a high potential for inselbergs as venues for studies of the molecular ecology and genetics of continental radiations, such as the one that gave rise to the extraordinary diversity of adaptive strategies and phenotypes seen in Bromeliaceae.

  13. Larval interference competition between the native Neotropical mosquito Limatus durhamii and the invasive Aedes aegypti improves the fitness of both species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Dejean, Alain; Mouza, Clémence; Dumont, Yves; Leroy, Céline

    2017-05-12

    Interspecific competition with native species during biological invasions can sometimes limit alien expansion. We aimed to determine the potential ecological effects of Limatus durhamii Theobald 1901, a native Neotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species, on the invasive species Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus 1762) that breeds in the same artificial water containers. Development time and adult dry mass were measured in 3 rearing conditions: control (a single larva), intraspecific competition (2 conspecific larvae), and interspecific competition (2 heterospecific larvae). Food was provided ad libitum to eliminate exploitative competition. For Ae. aegypti, development time was not affected by interspecific interference competition (nonsignificant differences with the control) and the adult dry mass was significantly higher, meaning that individual fitness likely increased. Yet, because previous studies showed longer development time and lighter adults during competition with other invasive mosquitoes, it is likely that Ae. aegypti can express a different phenotype depending on the competing species. The similar pattern found for Li. durhamii females and the nonsignificant difference with the control for males explain in part why this species can compete with Ae. aegypti. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Impact of converison of mangrove ecosystem for aquaculture purposes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.

    Mangroves, one of the highly productive ecosystems are considered as nature's own aquaculture systems because species of marine fishes, molluscs and crustaceans use tham as nursery grounds. Thus the mangrove ecosystem sustains tremendous fishery...

  15. Issues and challenges of mangrove conservation in the Anthropocene - Desafios de la conservacion del mangle en el Antropoceno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel. E. Lugo; Ernesto Medina; Kathleen McGinley

    2014-01-01

    This essay addresses the conservation issues facing mangroves in the Anthropocene, defined as the era of human domination over the world. We review the laws, policies, international agreements, and local actions that address the conservation of mangrove forests in the Neotropics and relate them to the Anthropocene. Collaboration between governments, non-governmental...

  16. Akumulasi Logam Berat Tembaga (Cu) Dan Timbal (Pb) Pada Pohon Avicennia marina Di Hutan Mangrove

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Grace Yanti

    2009-01-01

    Tumbuhan mangrove mempunyai kecenderungan untuk mengakumulasi logam-logam berat yang terdapat dalam ekosistem tempat tumbuhnya. Kemampuan akumulasi logam berat tersebut berbeda untuk setiap species. Salah satu species tumbuhan mangrove yang mampu mengakumulasi logam berat adalah Avicennia marina. Kajian ini dilakukan di dua lokasi, yaitu Hutan Mangrove Pesisir Belawan dan Hutan Mangrove Jaring Halus. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menganalisis kandungan logam berat Cu dan...

  17. Analysis of end member detection and subpixel classification algorithms on hyperspectral imagery for tropical mangrove species discrimination in the Sunderbans Delta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravortty, Somdatta

    2013-01-01

    The Sunderban Biosphere Reserve of West Bengal, India, is an ideal locale where hyperspectral image data may be successfully utilized for accurate mapping of dominant mangrove species that exist there. This study attempts to apply and analyze automated end member detection algorithms such as N-Finder (N-FINDR) where N is the number of end members and automated target generation process (ATGP) on Hyperion data of the study area to enable species-level discrimination of mangroves. The identified end members have been further unmixed using constrained and unconstrained linear unmixing and the fractional abundance images of individual end members generated. It has been found that classification results generated by unconstrained linear unmixing with N-FINDR algorithm shows higher accuracy than the unconstrained classification results of ATGP. The classified output of unconstrained linear unmixing also shows higher accuracy than constrained linear unmixing with ATGP and N-FINDR. The subpixel classification output identifies dominant species on the study area to be Avicennia Marina, Avicennia Officinallis, Excoecaria Agallocha, Ceriops Decandra, Phoenix Paludosa, Bruguiera Cylindrica, and Aegialitis. The results also identify mixed patches of Ceriops-Excoecaria Agallocha and Aegialitis-Avicennia Marina var aquitesima in many places. The accuracy assessment of subpixel classification showing mangrove species distribution has been done by generation of confusion matrix and calculation of kappa coefficient of field data collected during ground survey. It has been observed that unconstrained linear unmixing with N-FINDR has been more successful in detecting more target species as compared to the other algorithms applied.

  18. Karyotype description of two Neotropical Psittacidae species: the endangered Hyacinth Macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, and the Hawk-headed Parrot, Deroptyus accipitrinus (Psittaciformes: Aves), and its significance for conservation plans

    OpenAIRE

    Lunardi, Vitor de Oliveira; Francisco, Mercival Roberto; Rocha, Guaracy Tadeu [UNESP; Goldschmidt, Beatriz; Galetti Junior, Pedro Manoel

    2003-01-01

    Neotropical parrots are among the most threatened groups of birds in the world, and many species are facing extinction in a near future. At the same time, the taxonomic position of many species remains unclear. Karyotype analysis has been used to elucidate the phylogenetic status of many bird groups, also providing important information for both in situ and ex situ conservation plans. The objective of the present study was to describe for the first time the karyotypes of the endangered Hyacin...

  19. Assessing species boundaries using multilocus species delimitation in a morphologically conserved group of neotropical freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Poeciliidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C Bagley

    Full Text Available Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including 'non-adaptive radiations' containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci from 10/15 species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial 'major-lineages' diverged by ≥2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ~15% in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the

  20. Rainforest understory beetles of the Neotropics: Mizotrechus Bates 1872, a generic synopsis with descriptions of new species from Central America and northern South America (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Perigonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Erwin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Information on the single previously described species, Mizotrechus novemstriatus Bates 1872 (type locality: Brazil – Amazonas, Tefé, is updated and 17 new species for the genus from Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guyane are described. The species records in the literature and on determined specimens in some collections of M. novemstriatus Bates from Central America are not that species; currently, M. novemstriatus is known only from its type locality in Amazonian Brazil. For the new species described, their known general distributions are as follows: Mizotrechus batesi sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus bellorum sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus brulei sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus belevedere sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus costaricensis sp. n. (Costa Rica, Mizotrechus dalensi sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus edithpiafae sp. n. (provenance unknown, Mizotrechus fortunensis sp. n. (Panamá, Mizotrechus gorgona. sp. n. (Colombia, Mizotrechus grossus sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus jefe sp. n. (Panamá, Mizotrechus marielaforetae sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus minutus sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus neblinensis sp. n. (Guyane, Venezuela, Mizotrechus poirieri sp. n. (Guyane, and Mizotrechus woldai sp. n. (Panamá. Long-term use of flight intercept traps in Guyane provided so many new species that apparently the use of FITs is the way to collect adults of this taxon, previously known from very few specimens. Many more species of this genus can be expected to be discovered throughout the Neotropics; the present contribution is a preliminary synopsis with identification key and adult images of all known species. Likely numerous species are yet to be discovered throughout tropical climes.

  1. PERBEDAAN SUBSTRAT DAN DISTRIBUSI JENIS MANGROVE (STUDI KASUS : HUTAN MANGROVE DI KOTA TARAKAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosaria Indah; Jabarsyah, Abdul; Asbar Laga

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research are to know tpe of soil pursuant to type of mangrove, to know correlation of soil to species composition distribution of mangrove.  Benefit of this research are to give information regarding how far plant of mangrove in region coastal area of Tarakan city can grow at certain substrat.  To government of Tarakan city as supporter information regarding readyly seed stok of mangrove needed to area of mangrove matching with place growing.  Equiping researchs which have...

  2. Mangrove Swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrove swamps are coastal wetlands found in tropical and subtropical regions. They are characterized by halophytic (salt loving) trees, shrubs and other plants growing in brackish to saline tidal waters.

  3. Osmolality and δ 13C of Leaf Tissues of Mangrove Species from Environments of Contrasting Rainfall and Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, E.; Francisco, M.

    1997-09-01

    Neotropical species of the generaRhizophora, LagunculariaandAvicenniagrow in environments of variable salinity and flooding stress. Species ofRhizophorapredominate in riverine and low-energy coastal fringe environments with continuous water movement, whileLaguncularia racemosa, and particularlyAvicennia germinans, grow in areas with stagnating water.Avicennia germinansappears to have the largest range of salinity tolerance. The osmotic characteristics ofRhizophoraspp.,L. racemosaandA. germinansin riverine and coastal environments of north-eastern Venezuela are described and correlated with edaphic and climatic factors. Mature, fully-exposed leaves were collected in humid riverine sites (San Juan River Estuary, Monagas and Sucre States), and seasonally dry coastal fringe habitats (the Unare Coastal Lagoon, and the Chimana Islands off-shore Puerto de La Cruz, Anzoátegui State). Cleaned leaf samples were frozen until measurement of leaf dimensions, chlorophyll, phosphorus and nitrogen contents, δ13C, osmolality of cell sap, and cell sap content of Na, K and Cl. Results indicate: (1) in all species, leaf sap osmolality is highly and positively correlated with interstitial water salinity, and negatively correlated with leaf area; (2) nitrogen and phosphorus contents of leaves are generally lower in dry areas, but average values are not significantly different. Therefore, it appears that nutrient deficiency is not a main factor determining variations in community structure. Nitrogen content per unit dry weight is, in general, twice as high inA. germinanscompared toRhizophoraspecies andL. racemosa; (3) cell sap osmolality is mostly explained by the concentration of Na and Cl; (4) osmolality of riverine plants (957-1253 mmol kg-1) is lower than that of coastal plants (1558-1761 mmol kg-1); and (5) δ13C values are more negative in riverine (-27·4 to -28·1‰) than in coastal plants (-25·4 to -27·2‰), indicating a higher water-use efficiency in the latter. Coastal

  4. Influences of salinity and shade on seedling photosynthesis and growth of two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and Bruguiera sexangula, introduced to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Allen, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Rhizophora mangle was first introduced to Hawaii in 1902 to promote shoreline stabilization. Intertidal competition with native and introduced salt marsh species was low, and beyond the early 1920s, mangrove forests expanded rapidly. An additional mangrove species, Bruguiera sexangula, was introduced in 1922 and currently co-occurs with R. mangle in only a few stands on the north shore and windward sides of Oahu. Where the two species overlap, R. mangle, having colonized intertidal zones first, forms nearly monospecific forest stands. To determine why R. mangle remains the dominant mangrove, we initiated a greenhouse study to compare seedling growth and photosynthetic light response of both species growing at two light levels and contrasting salinity regimes (2, 10, 32 PSU). The asymptotic nature of B. sexangula' s assimilation response is indicative of stomatal regulation, whereas only light level appears to regulate photosynthesis in R. mangle. Shifts in patterns of biomass allocation and physiological response indicate two contrasting strategies relative to sunlight and salinity. B. sexangula's strategy is characterized by slow growth with little variation under favorable conditions and morphological plasticity under stressful conditions, which allows for adjustments in carbon gain efficiency (morphological strategy). On the other hand, R. mangle's strategy involves faster growth under a wide range of environmental conditions with physiological enhancement of carbon assimilation (physiological strategy). Low salinity combined with reduced light, or simply low sunlight alone, appears to favor R. mangle and B. sexangula equally. High salinity places greater, but not overwhelming, stress on B. sexangula seedlings, but tends to favor R. mangle at higher light levels.

  5. [Research advances in endophytic fungi of mangrove].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-Rong; Wu, Xiao-Peng; Xu, Tong

    2007-04-01

    Mangrove, a kind of special host plants, is a resource of abundant endophytic fungi. More than 200 species of endophytic fungi are isolated and identified from mangrove, being the second largest community of marine fungi. The reported endophytic fungi of mangrove are mainly Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta and Trichoderma. Most endophytic fungi have wide range of hosts, and a few only have single host. However, the composition and dominant species on each mangrove plant are different. The colonization of endophytic fungi always varies with different parts (leaves, twigs, stems) and age of host plants and with seasons. The endophytic fungi of mangrove can produce many kinds of metabolites with great potential for anti-microbial and anti-tumor medicinal use. In this paper, the research advances in biodiversity of endophytic fungi in mangrove, their distribution, biological and ecological function, and secondary metabolites were reviewed.

  6. The mangrove as a temporary habitat for fish: the Eucinostomus Species at Guaratuba Bay, Brazil (25º 52'S;48º 39'W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso C. Chaves

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Several coastal fish use the estuarine habitat during a part of their life cycle. These sites are considered good for the reproductive activity, as well as for the growth of larvae and juveniles. Concerning the Gerreidae, however, many studies reveal that most species leave the estuaries to reproduce at sea. At Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil, this family is represented by three genera and five species, which make an important fraction of the local assemblage. The present study investigated the populational structure and breeding habits of three Eucinostomus species, in order to know what relationship exists between them and the mangrove. It was found that the Guaratuba mangrove represents a transitory habitat for the life cycle of the Eucinostomus species. The sub-adults grow in the mangrove throughout the year and leave this milieu in spring or summer, when they complete the gonadal maturation and presumably spawn. E. argenteus and E. gula do not return to the mangrove after spawning. The three species feed mainly on polychaetes, but differences occur with respect to the secondary components of the diet.No manguezal da Baía de Guaratuba, litoral sul do Brasil, os Gerreidae são representados por 3 gêneros e 5 espécies, compondo uma parcela numericamente importante da ictiofauna local. Este trabalho descreve a estrutura populacional e os hábitos reprodutivos de Eucinostomus argenteus, E. gula e E. melanopterus, reconhecendo as relações que mantêm com o manguezal. Os resultados indicam que o manguezal representa para elas um habitat transitório. Os subadultos crescem na área ao longo do ano, deixando-na na primavera ou no verão, quando completam a maturação e desovam, no mar ou em outra região da Baía. E. argenteus e E. gula não retornam ao manguezal após a desova, mas E. melanopterus provavelmente sim. As três espécies alimentam-se sobretudo de poliquetos, apresentando diferenças nos itens secundários da dieta.

  7. EXTINCTION RISK OR LACK OF SAMPLING IN A THREATENED SPECIES: GENETIC STRUCTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUITABILITY OF THE NEOTROPICAL FROG PRISTIMANTIS PENELOPUS (ANURA: CRAUGASTORIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA RESTREPO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT IUCN Red Lists have been a valuable tool to prioritize conservation plans in endemic neotropical frogs. However, many areas in this region are poorly known in terms of their diversity and endemism. Based on examined museum specimens of the threatened species Pristimantis penelopus we revised its geographic distribution and determined the habitat suitability using niche modeling techniques. Using a mitochondrial fragment of COI gene, we determine the phylogenetic position and the extent of the genetic variation across its distribution in Colombia. We present the first records of P. penelopus for the Cordillera Oriental, the western versant of Cordillera Occidental and the northern portion of the Cauca river basin. Based on the molecular phylogenetic analysis, Pristimantis penelopus belongs to the P. ridens series sensu (Padial et al., 2014. The mean of intraspecific genetic variation is 2.1% and the variation among population ranges between 2.3 and 3.5%. The genetic distance between the western populations and the Magdalena Valley populations suggests a potential phylogeographic break in northwestern Antioquia. We expand the realized distribution by 258 kilometers north, 200 km east and 223 km northwest. Based on our results and according to the IUCN criteria we propose a new category for the species and highlight the need to increase the surveys in poorly known regions to better understand the geographic distribution and conservation status of listed species.

  8. Temporal and spatial variation of limnological variables and biomass of different macrophyte species in a Neotropical reservoir (São Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Bottino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study reports an investigation of limnological characteristics and aquatic macrophyte occurrence in a neotropical reservoir in order to assess the spatio-temporal variation of water and sediment variables and their influence on plant distribution. METHODS: Macrophytes, water and sediment samples were collected from a Brazilian reservoir in different seasons from four main arms of the reservoir. In total sixteen water-sediment variables were analyzed including N:P ratio and Trophic State Index. The plants were collected using a quadrat sampling procedure and the dry weight per sample was measured. MANOVA was performed to evaluate spatial and temporal variation of environmental variables as well as seasonal biomass differences. To assess the relationship among environmental variables and macrophytes an ordination analysis (using Canonical Correspondence Analysis: CCA was carried out. RESULTS: The spatial and temporal variation of limnological variables generated a heterogeneous system which supports the presence of different species of macrophyte. pH, dissolved oxygen and sediment composition were important predictors of Polygonum lapathifolium occurrence while nutrients were associated with Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes. Inorganic substances were related to biomass variation of Eichhornia azurea and Myriophyllum aquaticum. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial variation of the environmental variables has caused heterogeneity in the reservoir and it may support the occurrence of different species of macrophyte. Limnological variables highlighted in CCA are important to predict the species occurrence and their control in the study area.

  9. The description of a new species Polymastigos javaensis n.sp. (Annelida: Capitellidae) from the Segara Anakan mangroves, Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamungkas, Joko

    2015-06-29

    A new species, Polymastigos javaensis n. sp., is described from sandy clay sediment (0-30 cm depth) of the Segara Anakan mangroves. The species is described based on the distribution of capillaries and hooks, and the form of the prostomium, thorax, abdomen, lateral organs, genital pores, branchiae and pygidium. Methyl green staining pattern was applied to examine the similarity between the material of this study and Green's material. Polymastigos javaensis n. sp. is the second species belonging to the genus Polymastigos, after P. reishi Green, 2002. It differs from P. reishi in the form of abdominal segments and hooks, and the methyl green staining pattern. A key to distinguish the two species is provided in this paper.

  10. Species identification in the taxonomically neglected, highly diverse, neotropical parasitoid wasp genus Notiospathius (Braconidae: Doryctinae) based on an integrative molecular and morphological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Fadia Sara; Sharkey, Michael J; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Various DNA sequence-based methods for species delineation have recently been developed to assess the species-richness of highly diverse, neglected invertebrate taxa. These methods, however, need to be tested under a variety of conditions, including the use of different markers and parameters. Here, we explored the species diversity of a species-rich group of braconid parasitoid wasps, the Neotropical genus Notiospathius, including 233 specimens from 10 different countries. We examined sequences of two mitochondrial (mt) (COI, cyt b) and one nuclear (wg) gene fragments. We analysed them separately as well as concatenating the mt data with the general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model for species delineation using different tree-building methods and parameters for reconstructing ultrametric trees. We evaluated the performance of GMYC analyses by comparing their species delineations with our morphospecies identifications. Reconstructing ultrametric trees with a relaxed lognormal clock rate using the program BEAST gave the most congruent results with morphology for the two mt markers. A tree obtained with wg using the programs MrBayes+Pathd8 had the fewest cases of incongruence with morphology, though the performance of this nuclear marker was considerably lower than that of COI and cyt b. Species delimitation using the coalescent prior to obtain ultrametric trees was morphologically more congruent with COI, whereas the Yule prior was more congruent with cyt b. The analyses concatenating the mt datasets failed to recover some species supported both by morphology and the separate analyses of the mt markers. The highest morphological congruence was obtained with the GMYC analysis on an ultrametric tree reconstructed with cyt b using the relaxed lognormal clock rate and the Yule prior, thus supporting the importance of using alternative markers when the information of the barcoding locus (COI) is not concordant with morphological evidence. Seventy-one species were

  11. A post-classifier for mangrove mapping using ecological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaiphasa, C.; Skidmore, A.K.; Boer, de W.F.

    2006-01-01

    global decline in tropical mangrove forests is one of the most serious problems of the world's coastal ecosystems. This problem results in an increasing demand of detailed mangrove maps at the species level for monitoring mangrove ecosystems and their diversity. Consequently, this research is the

  12. Quantitative Review and Distribution Status of Mangrove Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    UNEP (2007) indicated West African mangroves as widely spread along west coast from Senegal to the Congo, and occur ... found across the nineteen countries (Tomlinson, 1986). Tables 3 and 4 show the distribution of mangrove .... Seas Programme/UNEP-WCMC. Table 1: Common West African mangroves species.

  13. New species of leaf-mining Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) from the Neotropical and Ando-Patagonian regions, with new data on host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Remeikis, Andrius; Diškus, Arūnas; Megoran, Nick

    2017-05-26

    The paper treats fifteen species of leaf-mining pygmy moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae) discovered in the Neotropics (British Virgin Islands, Belize, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and Ecuador), and Ando-Patagonian region (Argentina and Chile). Except for two species, all belong to Stigmella Schrank. Twelve species are new, and are named and described in the current paper: Stigmella apicibrunella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. decora Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. unicaudata Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. sanmartini Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. patula Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. torosa Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. monstrata Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. huahumi Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. venezuelica Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. virginica Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; Fomoria miranda Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; and Hesperolyra robinsoni Stonis, sp. n. Newly discovered variation of male genitalia of the Andean Stigmella rudis Puplesis & Robinson, 2000 is briefly discussed, and the formerly poorly understood Stigmella hylomaga (Meyrick, 1931) is redescribed and documented with photographs for the first time. We also present more photographs and add some addtional information on Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, a recently described gall-maker from Costa Rica.The paper also provides new host-plant data: some of the described (or redescribed) species are reported for the first time as leaf-miners on plants belonging to Euphorbiaceae (Acalypha padifolia Kunth), Salicaceae (Azara microphylla Hook. f.), Fabaceae (Inga spectabilis (Vahl) Willd. or I. edulis Mart.), Rhamnaceae (Colletia spinosissima J. F. Gmel.), Geraniaceae or Vivianiaceae (Rhynchotheca spinosa Ruiz & Pav.), and Asteraceae (Mutisia decurrens Cav.). All species treated in the paper are illustrated with photographs of the adults and genitalia, a distribution map, and also photographs of the leaf-mines and host plants when available.

  14. KEANEKARAGAMAN TUMBUHAN MANGROVE DI TAMAN NASIONAL BALI BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Ketut Arinasa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of mangrove at West Bali National Park has not been reported completely. The exploration was conducted from 12 - 16 June, 2011 from Banyuwedang to Gilimanuk and from Gilimanuk to Sumbersari-Melaya mangrove forests. The result showed that 18 families consist of 21 genera and 28 mangrove species were recorded at West Bali National Park, these are 11,5% of the Indonesian mangroves.

  15. CASE STUDY: Community Based Ecological Mangrove Rehabilitation (CBEMR) in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ben; Fadillah, Ratna; Nurdin, Yusran; Soulsby, Iona; Ahmad, Rio

    2014-01-01

    While successful examples of large-scale (5 000-10 000 ha) ecological wetland/mangrove rehabilitation projects exist worldwide, mangrove rehabilitation efforts in Indonesia, both large and small, have mainly failed. The majority of projects (both government programs and non-government initiatives) have oversimplified the technical processes of mangrove rehabilitation, favouring the direct planting of a restricted subset of mangrove species (from the family Rhizophoracea), commonly in the lowe...

  16. Recent advances in understanding Colombian mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanía, J.; Urrego, L. E.; Agudelo, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    Throughout the last 15 years, researchers at the National University of Colombia at Medellin have studied Colombian mangroves. Remote sensing, pollen analysis of superficial and deep sediments, Holocene coastal vegetation dynamics, sediment dating using 14C and 210Pb, sampling in temporary plots, sampling in temporary and permanent plots, and other techniques have been applied to elucidate long- and short-term mangrove community dynamics. The studied root fouling community is structured by several regulatory mechanisms; habitat heterogeneity increases species richness and abundance. Fringe mangroves were related to Ca concentration in the soil and the increased dominance of Laguncularia racemosa and other nonmangrove tree species, while the riverine mangroves were associated with Mg concentration and the dominance of Rhizophora mangle. The seedling and mangrove tree distributions are determined by a complex gradient of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Mangrove pollen from surface sediments and the existing vegetation and geomorphology are close interrelated. Plant pollen of mangrove and salt marsh reflects environmental and disturbance conditions, and also reveals forest types. Forest dynamics in both coasts and their sensitivity of to anthropogenic processes are well documented in the Late Quaternary fossil record. Our studies of short and long term allow us to predict the dynamics of mangroves under different scenarios of climate change and anthropogenic stress factors that are operating in Colombian coasts. Future research arises from these results on mangrove forests dynamics, sea-level rise at a fine scale using palynology, conservation biology, and carbon dynamics.

  17. Global change impacts on mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal forests are important coastal ecosystems that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services. Major local threats to mangrove ecosystems worldwide include clearcutting and trimming of forests for urban, agricultural, or industrial expansion; hydrological alterations; toxic chemical spills; and eutrophication. In many countries with mangroves, much of the human population resides in the coastal zone, and their activities often negatively impact the integrity of mangrove forests. In addition, eutrophication, which is the process whereby nutrients build up to higher than normal levels in a natural system, is possibly one of the most serious threats to mangroves and associated ecosystems such as coral reefs. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand global impacts on these significant ecosystems.Changes in climate and other factors may also affect mangroves, but in complex ways. Global warming may promote expansion of mangrove forests to higher latitudes and accelerate sea-level rise through melting of polar ice or steric expansion of oceans. Changes in sea level would alter flooding patterns and the structure and areal extent of mangroves. Climate change may also alter rainfall patterns, which would in turn change local salinity regimes and competitive interactions of mangroves with other wetland species. Increases in frequency or intensity of tropical storms and hurricanes in combination with sea-level rise may alter erosion and sedimentation rates in mangrove forests. Another global change factor that may directly affect mangrove growth is increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), caused by burning of fossil fuels and other factors. Elevated CO2 concentration may increase mangrove growth by stimulating photosynthesis or improving water use

  18. Algae associated with mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    are uprooted and enter the mangrove area. The epiphytic algal flora on mangrove trunks, pneumatophores, stilt roots, upper branches and canopies are comparatively poor. With regard to biotic factors there are a number of animals grazing on mangrove associated...

  19. FISHERIES ASSOCIATED WITH MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM IN INDONESIA: A View from a Mangrove Ecologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKRISTIJONO SUKARDJO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Blessed with mangrove area of some 9.6 million ha in extent, Indonesia represents an important country with fishery resources being a source of food an d nutrients. The fishery resources utilized by man, such as fishes, crustaceans and mollusks that are found in the mangrove ecosystem/swamp ar ea arc enormous. There is a range of species caught in the mangrove and surrounding areas with over 70 species. However, commercially valued species are limited to a few such as rabbit fish, snapper, grouper, marline catfish, fringe-scale sard ine, and anchovy. Leaf detritus from mangroves contribute a major energy input into fisheries. But information about the study on the relationship between fishery species and mangroves, ecologically and biologically, arc scanty. The mangrove is a physiographic unit, the principal components of which arc organisms. Therefore, the problems are predominantly of a biological nature (e.g., mangroves - fishery relationship. Positive correlation between the mangrove area and penaeid shrimp catch found in Indonesia, the Philippines, Australia and Mexico. Finally, the most important part of the variance of the MSY (Maximum Sustainable Yield of penaieds (53% of the variance could be explained by a combination of area of mangrove habitats and latitude.

  20. A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical electric fish genus Brachyhypopomus (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae, with descriptions of 15 new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. R. Crampton

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The bluntnose knifefish genus BrachyhypopomusMago-Leccia, 1994, is diagnosed from other Rhamphichthyoidea (Rhamphichthyidae + Hypopomidae by the presence of a disk-like ossification in the anterior portion of the palatoquadrate, and by the following external characters: short snout, 18.7-32.6% of head length (vs. 33.3-68.6% in Hypopomus, Gymnorhamphichthys, Iracema, and Rhamphichthys, absence of a paired accessory electric organ in the mental or humeral region (vs. presence in Hypopygus and Steatogenys, presence of 3-4 pectoral proximal radials (vs. 5 in Akawaio, presence of the antorbital + infraorbital, and the preopercular cephalic lateral line canal bones (vs. absence in Racenisia. Brachyhypopomus cannot be diagnosed unambiguously from Microsternarchus or from Procerusternarchus on the basis of external characters alone. Brachyhypopomus comprises 28 species. Here we describe 15 new species, and provide redescriptions of all 13 previously described species, based on meristic, morphometric, and other morphological characters. We include notes on ecology and natural history for each species, and provide regional dichotomous keys and distribution maps, based on the examination of 12,279 specimens from 2,787 museum lots. A lectotype is designated for Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus (Hopkins, Comfort, Bastian & Bass, 1990. Brachyhypopomus species are abundant in shallow lentic and slow-flowing freshwater habitats from southern Costa Rica and northern Venezuela to Uruguay and northern Argentina. Species diversity is highest in Greater Amazonia, where 20 species occur: B. alberti, new species, B. arrayae, new species, and B. cunia, new species, in the upper rio Madeira drainage; B. batesi, new species, in the central Amazon and rio Negro; B. beebei, B. brevirostris, B. regani, new species, B. sullivani, new species, and B. walteri, widespread through the Amazon and Orinoco basins and the Guianas; B. belindae, new species, in the central

  1. DNA barcoding of Neotropical black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae): Species identification and discovery of cryptic diversity in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Chaverri, Luis G; Rodríguez- Pérez, Mario A; Prosser, Sean W J; Hebert, Paul D N; Gregory, T Ryan; Johnson, Nick

    2015-03-18

    Although correct taxonomy is paramount for disease control programs and epidemiological studies, morphology-based taxonomy of black flies is extremely difficult. In the present study, the utility of a partial sequence of the COI gene, the DNA barcoding region, for the identification of species of black flies from Mesoamerica was assessed. A total of 32 morphospecies were analyzed, one belonging to the genus Gigantodax and 31 species to the genus Simulium and six of its subgenera (Aspathia, Eusimulium, Notolepria, Psaroniocompsa, Psilopelmia, Trichodagmia). The Neighbour Joining tree (NJ) derived from the DNA barcodes grouped most specimens according to species or species groups recognized by morphotaxonomic studies. Intraspecific sequence divergences within morphologically distinct species ranged from 0.07% to 1.65%, while higher divergences (2.05%-6.13%) in species complexes suggested the presence of cryptic diversity. The existence of well-defined groups within S. callidum (Dyar & Shannon), S. quadrivittatum Loew, and S. samboni Jennings revealed the likely inclusion of cryptic species within these taxa. In addition, the suspected presence of sibling species within S. paynei Vargas and S. tarsatum Macquart was supported. DNA barcodes also showed that specimens of species that are difficult to delimit morphologically such as S. callidum, S. pseudocallidum Díaz Nájera, S. travisi Vargas, Vargas & Ramírez-Pérez, relatives of the species complexes such as S. metallicum Bellardi s.l. (e.g., S. horacioi Okazawa & Onishi, S. jobbinsi Vargas, Martínez Palacios, Díaz Nájera, and S. puigi Vargas, Martínez Palacios & Díaz Nájera), and S. virgatum Coquillett complex (e.g., S. paynei and S. tarsatum) grouped together in the NJ analysis, suggesting they represent valid species. DNA barcoding combined with a sound morphotaxonomic framework provided an effective approach for the identification of medically important black flies species in Mesoamerica and for the

  2. The contrasting nature of woody plant species in different neotropical forest biomes reflects differences in ecological stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lavin, Matt

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental premise of this review is that distinctive phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns in clades endemic to different major biomes illuminate the evolutionary process. In seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), phylogenies are geographically structured and multiple individuals representing single species coalesce. This pattern of monophyletic species, coupled with their old species stem ages, is indicative of maintenance of small effective population sizes over evolutionary timescales, which suggests that SDTF is difficult to immigrate into because of persistent resident lineages adapted to a stable, seasonally dry ecology. By contrast, lack of coalescence in conspecific accessions of abundant and often widespread species is more frequent in rain forests and is likely to reflect large effective population sizes maintained over huge areas by effective seed and pollen flow. Species nonmonophyly, young species stem ages and lack of geographical structure in rain forest phylogenies may reflect more widespread disturbance by drought and landscape evolution causing resident mortality that opens up greater opportunities for immigration and speciation. We recommend full species sampling and inclusion of multiple accessions representing individual species in phylogenies to highlight nonmonophyletic species, which we predict will be frequent in rain forest and savanna, and which represent excellent case studies of incipient speciation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Anatomical explanations for acute depressions in radial pattern of axial sap flow in two diffuse-porous mangrove species: implications for water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hewei; Yang, Shengchang; Guo, Xudong; Peng, Congjiao; Gu, Xiaoxuan; Deng, Chuanyuan; Chen, Luzhen

    2018-02-01

    Mangrove species have developed uniquely efficient water-use strategies in order to survive in highly saline and anaerobic environments. Herein, we estimated the stand water use of two diffuse-porous mangrove species of the same age, Sonneratia apetala Buch. Ham and Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) Engl., growing in a similar intertidal environment. Specifically, to investigate the radial patterns of axial sap flow density (Js) and understand the anatomical traits associated with them, we measured axial sap flow density in situ together with micromorphological observations. A significant decrease of Js was observed for both species. This result was accompanied by the corresponding observations of wood structure and blockages in xylem sapwood, which appeared to influence and, hence, explained the acute radial reductions of axial sap flow in the stems of both species. However, higher radial resistance in sapwood of S. caseolaris caused a steeper decline of Js radially when compared with S. apetala, thus explaining the latter's more efficient use of water. Without first considering acute reductions in Js into the sapwood from the outer bark, a total of ~55% and 51% of water use would have been overestimated, corresponding to average discrepancies in stand water use of 5.6 mm day-1 for S. apetala trees and 2.5 mm day-1 for S. caseolaris trees. This suggests that measuring radial pattern of Js is a critical factor in determining whole-tree or stand water use. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Soil-plant nutrient interactions in two mangrove areas at Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Lang Martins Madi; Maria Regina Torres Boeger; Carlos Bruno Reissmann; Kelly Geronazzo Martins

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove forests have a simple architecture. They shelter a few number of arboreal species that grow in a saline environment subject to tidal activity. The research objective was to evaluate possible interactions between physical-chemical soil attributes and plant-leaf nutrient concentrations of different mangrove species. Different mangrove species growing in the same soil, and the same mangrove species growing in two different soil classes were evaluated as to their leaf nutrient concentrat...

  5. Early growth interactions between a mangrove and an herbaceous salt marsh species are not affected by elevated CO2 or drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Stagg, Camille L.; Utomo, Herry S.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are likely to influence future distributions of plants and plant community structure in many regions of the world through effects on photosynthetic rates. In recent decades the encroachment of woody mangrove species into herbaceous marshes has been documented along the U.S. northern Gulf of Mexico coast. These species shifts have been attributed primarily to rising sea levels and warming winter temperatures, but the role of elevated CO2 and water availability may become more prominent drivers of species interactions under future climate conditions. Drought has been implicated as a major factor contributing to salt marsh vegetation dieback in this region. In this greenhouse study we examined the effects of CO2 concentration (∼380 ppm, ∼700 ppm) and water regime (drought, saturated, flooded) on early growth of Avicennia germinans, a C3 mangrove species, and Spartina alterniflora, a C4 grass. Plants were grown in monocultures and in a mixed-species assemblage. We found that neither species responded to elevated CO2 over the 10-month duration of the experiment, and there were few interactions between experimental factors. Two effects of water regime were documented: lower A. germinanspneumatophore biomass under drought conditions, and lower belowground biomass under flooded conditions regardless of planting assemblage. Evidence of interspecific interactions was noted. Competition for aboveground resources (e.g., light) was indicated by lower S. alterniflora stem biomass in mixed-species assemblage compared to biomass in S. alterniflora monocultures. Pneumatophore biomass of A. germinans was reduced when grown in monoculture compared to the mixed-species assemblage, indicating competition for belowground resources. These interactions provide insight into how these species may respond following major disturbance events that lead to vegetation dieback. Site variation in propagule availability

  6. Aquaporins in the wild: natural genetic diversity and selective pressure in the PIP gene family in five neotropical tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Audigeos, Delphine; Buonamici, Anna; Belkadi, Laurent; Rymer, Paul; Boshier, David; Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Vendramini, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tropical trees undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these species to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play a major adaptive role in these species. We describe genetic diversity in the PIP sub-family of the widespr...

  7. A New Species of Neotropical Carpenter Ant in the Genus Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Apparently without Major Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Mackay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of carpenter ants from Ecuador, which apparently has an obligatory relationship with the ant plants Cecropia membranacea Trécul, C. herthae Diels and C. marginalis Cuatrec. The workers are relatively small and hairy, and based on a number of collections, it does not appear to have major workers. We compare the new species to Camponotus balzani, to which it appears to be similar and which has normal major workers, and also lives in Cecropia spp.

  8. Degradation of mangrove-derived organic matter in mangrove associated sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; de Goeij, J.M.; Asselman, M.; van Soest, R.W.M.; van der Geest, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Sponge communities found in Caribbean mangroves are typical to this habitat: partly endemic and very distinct from sponge communities on nearby reefs. A trade-off between resistance to competitors and predators appears to influence success of individual sponge species in mangrove habitats. We

  9. Influence of fire history and soil properties on plant species richness and functional diversity in a neotropical savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Muniz Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Differences in plant species richness and composition are associated with soil properties and disturbances such as fire, which can therefore be key determinants of species occurrence in savanna plant communities. We measured species richness, using nine plant functional traits and abundance to calculate three functional diversity indices. We then used model selection analyses to select the best model for predicting functional diversity and richness based on soil variables at sites with three different fire frequencies. We also calculated the community-weighted mean of each trait and used ordination to examine how traits changed across fire frequencies. We found higher species richness and functional dispersion at sites that were more fertile and where fire was frequent, and the opposite at such sites where fire was infrequent. However, soil properties influenced functional evenness and divergence only where fire was infrequent, with higher values where soils were poorer. Fire can change functional traits directly by hindering development of plants and indirectly by altering competition. Different fire frequencies lead to different plant-soil relationships, which can affect the functioning of tropical savanna communities. Functional diversity components and functional identity of the communities are both affected by fire frequency and soil conditions.

  10. Ecophysiological approach to mangroves: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávia Soares Pascoalini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p1 Mangrove has a high primary productivity that partly results from physiological mechanisms applied by plant species to environmental restrictions. This synthesis aims to assess the state of the art of ecophysiological studies on mangroves and identify gaps that allow increasing scientific knowledge on Brazilian mangroves and their potential contributions to climate changes. The worsening of environmental restrictions, such as increased salinity, longer flooding, and nutrient deficiency, induces a decrease of photosynthetic assimilation, resulting in a reduction in the development of species. The response of a given species to stress depends on its tolerance. We conclude that ecophysiological studies on mangrove vegetation are occasional, and their results differ between field and laboratory studies. In Brazil, this knowledge is still incipient, making it difficult to predict the behavior of species in face of climate change.

  11. Potential influence of thermal effluents on the production and water-use efficiency of mangrove species in South Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.C.; Stoner, W.A.; Hom, J.; Poole, D.K.

    1976-01-01

    Data on mangrove-water relations and photosynthesis and energy-balance relationships between solar and infrared radiation, wind, air and surface temperature, and humidity profiles in mangrove canopies in south Florida were synthesized in a simulation model of leaf energy exchange, water relations, and photosynthesis. The model calculates the diurnal courses of these processes for sunlit and shaded leaves at different levels in the canopy. The model includes only canopy microclimate interaction and does not include the possible effects of changing root temperatures. The data on which model parameters are based are reviewed, and results of simulated changes in air and ground-surface temperature are discussed. Changes in ground-surface temperature showed little effect. Several trends and patterns appear in the simulations. Daily net photosynthesis is suppressed throughout the year by air temperatures over 5 0 C above ambient. Peak production occurs in spring when solar irradiance is high and air temperatures are moderate. Increased air temperatures shift the diurnal pattern of photosynthesis in winter, when maximum photosynthesis occurs at midday, to the pattern of summer, when maximum photosynthesis occurs in early morning and late afternoon. Increased temperatures are expected to affect Rhizophora mangle most adversely, but photosynthesis in Laguncularia racemosa showed the greatest sensitivity to temperature changes

  12. Ecology of mangroves in the Jewfish Chain, Exuma, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, L. V.; Yocom, Thomas G.; Forbes, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    The structure and function of mangrove communities in the Jewfish Chain, Exumas, Bahamas, were investigated for 3-1/2 years. Mangrove vegetation in the Jewfish Chain is similar to that in all the Caribbean-Florida area; Rhizophora mangle L. dominates and is interspersed with Avicennia germinans (L.) Lamk. and Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. There is no apparent zonation of these three species. The mangrove communities in the Jewfish Chain occur only where they are protected from prevailing winds, storms, and tides, although all are periodically devastated by hurricanes. We found little or no evidence of coast building within these protected locations. The importance of the mangroves appears to be in providing protection and food for other flora and fauna within this unique ecosystem. Twenty-four species of algae were found in the mangroves, 9 of which had not previously been reported from the Bahamas. Distribution of these algae appears to be correlated to incident solar radiation, desiccation, and tide level. A total of 56 species of fish were found in the mangroves, 2 of which were not previously known from the Bahamas. Many fish taken were juveniles, suggesting that mangroves are a nursery ground for numerous species. Nine species of molluscs were found. Each species had a distinct distribution pattern relative to distance from the seaward edge of the mangroves, as well as a distinct vertical distribution pattern. Seventeen species of decapod crustaceans were recorded. Though several species of birds were noted in the mangroves, three species were most abundant: the white-crowned pigeon (Columba leucocephala) uses the mangrove for nesting but feeds in nearby shrub-thorn communities; the gray kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis) and green heron (Butorides virescens) nest and feed in the mangroves. Our data do not completely describe a stereotyped mangrove community in the Bahamas, but they do give an indication of community structure and suggest several

  13. Nest poaching in Neotropical parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T.F.; Toft, C.A.; Enkerlin-Hoeflich, E.; Gonzalez-Elizondo, J.; Albornoz, M.; Rodriguez-Ferraro, A.; Rojas-Suarez, F.; Sanz, V.; Trujillo, A.; Beissinger, S.R.; Berovides A., V.; Galvez A., X.; Brice, A.T.; Joyner, K.; Eberhard, J.; Gilardi, J.; Koenig, S.E.; Stoleson, S.; Martuscelli, P.; Meyers, J.M.; Renton, K.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Sosa-Asanza, A.C.; Vilella, F.J.; Wiley, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Although the poaching of nestlings for the pet trade is thought to contribute to the decline of many species of parrots, its effects have been poorly demonstrated. We calculated rates of mortality due to nest poaching in 23 studies of Neotropical parrots, representing 4024 nesting attempts in 21 species and 14 countries. We also examined how poaching rates vary with geographic region, presence of active protection programs, conservation status and economic value of a species, and passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act. The average poaching rate across all studies was 30% of all nests observed. Thirteen studies reported poaching rates of >20%, and four reported rates of >70%. Only six studies documented no nest poaching. Of these, four were conducted on islands in the Caribbean region, which had significantly lower poaching rates than the mainland Neotropics. The other two studies that showed no poaching were conducted on the two species with the lowest economic value in our sample (U.S. retail price). In four studies that allowed direct comparison between poaching at sites with active nest protection versus that at unprotected sites, poaching rates were significantly lower at protected sites, suggesting that active protection efforts can be effective in reducing nest poaching. In those studies conducted both before and after the passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act, poaching rates were found to be significantly lower following its enactment than in the period before. This result supports the hypothesis that the legal and illegal parrot trades are positively related, rather than inversely related as has been suggested by avicultural interests. Overall, our study indicates that poaching of parrot nestlings for economic gain is a widespread and biologically significant source of nest mortality in Neotropical parrots.

  14. Flow cytometric characterization of peripheral blood leukocyte populations of 3 neotropical snake species: Boa constrictor, Bothrops jararaca, and Crotalus durissus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Marcelo P N; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle G T; Massoco, Cristina O; Rossi, Silmara; Sant'Anna, Sávio S; Catão-Dias, José L; Grego, Kathleen F

    2016-06-01

    The reptilian immune system is represented by innate, humoral, and cell-mediated mechanisms, involving different types of blood leukocytes. The development of optimized methods for the advanced study of origin and function of reptilian blood leukocytes is needed. The purpose of the study was to optimize leukocyte density gradient isolation protocols from snake peripheral blood samples, and characterize recovered cells by flow cytometry based on size and internal complexity for a qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of leukocyte populations in one boa (Boa constrictor), and 2 viper species (Bothrops jararaca, Crotalus durissus). Blood samples from 30 snakes (10 from each species, 5 males and 5 females) were collected in tubes with sodium heparin. Fresh blood was centrifuged with either ficoll-paque PLUS or percoll density gradients for leukocyte isolation. Flow cytometric leukocyte gates were defined based on size (forward scatter [FSC]) and internal complexity (side scatter [SSC]). Relative leukocyte differential counts after sorting the cells in these gates in one snake for each species were compared to conventional light microscopic differential counts on unsorted isolated leukocytes. There was no statistical difference in the relative leukocyte populations, including heterophils, azurophils, and small and large lymphocytes between samples isolated by ficoll or percoll. Four leukocyte gates were identified based on their location in FSC/SSC cytograms. The relative leukocyte differential counts after sorting in single animals showed some agreement with the light microscopy differential count on unsorted cells. Based on FSC and SSC, 4 distinct leukocyte populations were found in ficoll or percoll density gradient isolated leukocytes from peripheral blood from boa and viper species. Further optimization of the technique should allow the performance of functional assays. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  15. Biogeography of speciation of two sister species of neotropical amazona (Aves, Psittaciformes based on mitochondrial sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda V Rocha

    Full Text Available Coalescent theory provides powerful models for population genetic inference and is now increasingly important in estimates of divergence times and speciation research. We use molecular data and methods based on coalescent theory to investigate whether genetic evidence supports the hypothesis of A. pretrei and A. tucumana as separate species and whether genetic data allow us to assess which allopatric model seems to better explain the diversification process in these taxa. We sampled 13 A. tucumana from two provinces in northern Argentina and 28 A. pretrei from nine localities of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A 491 bp segment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I was evaluated using the haplotype network and phylogenetic methods. The divergence time and other demographic quantities were estimated using the isolation and migration model based on coalescent theory. The network and phylogenetic reconstructions showed similar results, supporting reciprocal monophyly for these two taxa. The divergence time of lineage separation was estimated to be approximately 1.3 million years ago, which corresponds to the lower Pleistocene. Our results enforce the current taxonomic status for these two Amazon species. They also support that A. pretrei and A. tucumana diverged with little or no gene flow approximately 1.3 million years ago, most likely after the establishment of a small population in the Southern Yungas forest by dispersion of a few founders from the A. pretrei ancestral population. This process may have been favored by habitat corridors formed in hot and humid periods of the Quaternary. Considering that these two species are considered threatened, the results were evaluated for their implications for the conservation of these two species.

  16. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and community structure on three co-occurring leguminous canopy tree species in a Neotropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Henkel, Terry W; Catherine Aime, M; Fremier, Alex K; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2011-11-01

    • The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis was historically considered restricted to the temperate zones, but recent studies have shown the importance of this symbiosis across the tropics. We examined ECM fungal diversity, host plant phylogeny and ECM host preferences in a rainforest dominated by the leguminous host plants Dicymbe corymbosa, Dicymbe altsonii and Aldina insignis. • Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified by internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequencing and host species were verified with chloroplast trnL sequencing. To test whether Dicymbe and Aldina represent independent gains of the ECM symbiosis, we constructed a Fabaceae phylogeny using MatK and trnL. We identified four independent ECM lineages within the Fabaceae. • We detected a diverse community of 118 ECM species dominated by the /clavulina, /russula-lactarius, /boletus, and /tomentella-thelephora lineages. Ectomycorrhizal species in Agaricales, Atheliales and Polyporales may represent previously unrecognized tropical-endemic ECM lineages. Previous studies suggested that ECM fungi did not diversify in the tropics, but the /clavulina lineage appears to have a center of diversity in tropical South America. • Dicymbe and Aldina represent independent gains of the ECM symbiosis in Fabaceae but their fungal symbionts showed no host preferences. Spatial factors are more important than hosts in structuring the ECM fungal community in this ecosystem. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Does intraspecific behavioural variation of pollinator species influence pollination? A quantitative study with hummingbirds and a Neotropical shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, P K; Justino, D G; Oliveira, P E

    2016-11-01

    Floral visitors differ in their efficacy as pollinators, and the impact of different pollinator species on pollen flow and plant reproduction has been frequently evaluated. In contrast, the impact of intraspecific behavioural changes on their efficacy as pollinators has seldom been quantified. We studied a self-incompatible shrub Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae) and its hummingbird pollinators, which adjust their behaviour according to floral resource availability. Fluorescence microscopy was used to access pollen tube growth and incompatibility reaction in pistils after a single visit of territorial or intruder hummingbirds in two populations. To characterise the plant populations and possible differences in resource availability between areas we used a three-term quadrat variance method to detect clusters of floral resources. Within-species variation in foraging behaviour, but not species identity, affected pollinator efficacy. Effectively, hummingbirds intruding into territories deposited more compatible pollen grains on P. rigida stigmas than territory holders in both study areas. Additionally, territory holders deposited more incompatible than compatible pollen grains. Our results imply that intraspecific foraging behaviour variation has consequences for pollination success. Quantifying such variation and addressing the implications of intraspecific variability contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics and consequences of plant-pollinator interactions. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Large tree species richness is associated with topography, forest structure and spectral heterogeneity in a neotropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, G. A.; Wolf, J. A.; Gillespie, T.; Meyer, V.; Hubbell, S. P.; Santo, F. E.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Large tropical canopy trees contain the majority of forest biomass in addition to being the primary producers in the forest ecosystem in terms of both food and structural habitat. The spatial distributions of large tropical trees are non-randomly distributed across environmental gradients in light, water and nutrients. These environmental gradients are a result of the biophysical processes related to topography and three-dimensional forest structure. In this study we examine large (>10 cm) diameter tree species richness across Barro Colorado Nature Monument in a tropical moist forest in Panama using active and passive remote sensing. Airborne light detection and ranging and high-resolution satellite imagery were used to quantify spectral heterogeneity, sub-canopy topography and vertical canopy structure across existing vegetation plots to model the extent to which remote sensing variables can be used to explain variation in large tree species richness. Plant species richness data was calculated from the stem mapped 50-ha forest dynamics plot on Barro Colorado Island in addition to 8 large tree plots across the Barro Colorado Nature Monument at 1.0 ha and 0.25 ha spatial scales. We investigated four statistical models to predict large tree species richness including spectral, topographic, vertical canopy structure and a combined ';global' model which includes all remote sensing derived variables. The models demonstrate that remote sensing derived variables can capture a significant fraction (R2= 0.54 and 0.36) of observed variation in tree species richness across the 1.0 and 0.25 ha spatial scales respectively. A selection of remote sensing derived predictor variables. A) World View-2 satellite imagery in RGB/true color. B) False color image of the principal component analysis. C) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). D) Simple Ratio Index. E) Quickbird satellite imagery in RGB/true color. F) False color image of the principal component analysis. G) NDVI. H

  19. Hydrological Classification, a Practical Tool for Mangrove Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Van Loon, Anne F.; Te Brake, Bram; Van Huijgevoort, Marjolein H. J.; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration practice. In 15 natural and 8 disturbed sites (i.e. disused shrimp ponds) in three case study regions in south-east Asia, water levels were measured and vegetation species composition was determined....

  20. Reappraisal of Goezeella Fuhrmann, 1916 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae), parasites of Neotropical catfi shes (Siluriformes), with description of a new species from Pimelodella cristata (Heptapteridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alves, Philippe Vieira; de Chambrier, A.; Luque, J.L.; Scholz, Tomáš

    19 June, č. 124 (2017), s. 335-350 ISSN 0035-418X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : morphology * taxonomy * tapeworms * Onchoproteocephalidea * systematics * host-associations * Neotropical Region * South America Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.380, year: 2016

  1. Infestation of arboreal nests of coatis by triatomine species, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, in a large Neotropical wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Juliane Saab; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Alves, Fernanda Moreira; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Jansen, Ana Maria; de Miranda Mourão, Guilherme

    2015-12-01

    The coati (Nasua nasua, Carnivora) is a medium-sized mammal common in the Pantanal of Brazil. Unlike most mammals, coatis construct arboreal nests used for resting and reproduction. In this region, the coati is an important host of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. There are two possible routes through coatis can be infected by T. cruzi: the oral route or the vectorial route. However, the relative importance of each of these routes in the infection of coatis and its role in the sylvatic cycle of the parasite are unknown. Our objectives were to investigate: (i) whether coati nests were infested by triatomine bugs, (ii) what species were frequent in the nests, (iii) whether the triatomines in nests were infected by T. cruzi, and (iv) what were the food resources of these triatomines. Eight of the 24 nests sampled were infested with triatomines, a total of 37 specimens of at least two species (Rhodnius stali and Triatoma sordida). In one nest, R. stali and T. sordida co-occurred and both fed on multiple resources, including coatis. This is the first report of triatomines occurring in arboreal nests of coatis. The co-occurrence of two different genera of triatomine vectors and coatis within the limited space of the coati nests provide multiple opportunities for the exchange of the protozoan parasite through both the vectorial and oral transmission routes. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  2. Embryonic development and larval stages of Steindachneridion parahybae (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: implications for the conservation and rearing of this endangered Neotropical species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato M. Honji

    Full Text Available Steindachneridion parahybae is a freshwater catfish endemic to the Paraíba do Sul River and is classified as an endangered Neotropical species. An increasing number of conservation biologists are incorporating morphological and physiological research data to help conservation managers in rescue these endangered species. This study investigated the embryonic and larval development of S. parahybae in captivity, with emphasis in major events during the ontogeny of S. parahybae. Broodstocks were artificially induced to reproduce, and the extrusion occurred 200-255 degree-hours after hormonal induction at 24°C. Larval ontogeny was evaluated every 10 minutes under microscopic/stereomicroscopic using fresh eggs samples. The main embryogenic development stages were identified: zygote, cleavage, including the morula, blastula, gastrula phase, organogenesis, and hatching. The extruded oocytes showed an average diameter of 1.10 ± 0.10 mm, and after fertilization and hydration of eggs, the average diameter of eggs increased to about 1.90 ± 0.60 mm, characterized by a large perivitelline space that persisted up to embryo development, the double chorion, and the poles (animal and vegetative. Cell division started about 2 minutes after fertilization (AF, resulting in 2, 4, 8 (4 x 2 arrangement of cells, 16 (4 x 4, 32 (4 x 8 and 64 (2 x 4 x 8 cells. Furthermore, the blastula and gastrula stages followed after these cells divisions. The closed blastopore occurred at 11 h 20 min AF; following the development, the organogenetic stages were identified and subdivided respectively in: early segmentation phase and late segmentation phase. In the early segmentation phase, there was the establishment of the embryonic axis, and it was possible to distinguish between the cephalic and caudal regions; somites, and the optic vesicles developed about 20 h AF. Total hatching occurred at 54 h AF, and the larvae average length was 4.30 ± 0.70 mm. Gradual yolk sac reduction

  3. Photosynthetic traits of five neotropical rainforest tree species: interactions between light response curves and leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schramm Mielke

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of leaf gas exchange at different photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD levels were conducted in order to compare the photosynthetic traits of five neotropical rainforest tree species, with a special emphasis on empirical mathematical models to estimate the light response curve parameters incorporating the effects of leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (D on the saturated photosynthetic rate (Amax. All empirical mathematical models seemed to provide a good estimation of the light response parameters. Comparisons of the leaf photosynthetic traits between different species needed to select an appropriate model and indicated the microenvironmental conditions when the data were collected. When the vapour pressure deficit inside the chamber was not controlled, the incorporation of linear or exponencial functions that explained the effects of D on leaf gas exchange, was a very good method to enhance the performance of the models.Medições das trocas gasosas foliares em diferentes níveis do densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossintéticamente ativos (PPFD foram realizadas com o objetivo de comparar as características fotossintéticas de cinco espécies arbóreas de florestas úmidas neotropicais, com especial ênfase em modelos matemáticos empíricos para estimativa de parâmetros derivados das curvas de resposta à radiação luminosa e dos efeitos da diferença de pressão de vapor entre a folha e o ar (D na taxa fotossintética em saturação luminosa (Amax. Os modelos analisados proporcionaram boas estimativas para os parâmetros derivados das curvas de resposta à radiação luminosa. Comparações entre as características fotossintéticas de diferentes espécies devem sempre considerar os modelos utilizados, seguidas de indicações pormenorizadas das condições microambientais no momento em que os dados foram coletados. Quando a diferença de pressão de vapor não for controlada artificialmente durante as medições, a

  4. Understanding the Risk to Neotropical Migrant Bird Species of Multiple Human-Caused Stressors: Elucidating Processes Behind the Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph S. Hames

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous human-caused changes to the environment act as multiple stressors for organisms in the wild, and the effects of these stressors may be synergistic, rather than merely additive, with unexpected results. However, understanding how focal organisms respond to these stressors is crucial for conservation planning for these species. We propose a paradigm that alternates extensive, broadscale data collection by volunteer collaborators to document patterns of response, with intensive fine-scale studies by professional researchers, to elucidate the processes underlying these patterns. We demonstrate this technique, building on our existing work linking patterns of population declines in the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina to synergistic effects of acid rain and habitat fragmentation. To better understand the processes behind these patterns, we use a simple protocol to explore linkages between acid rain, leaching of calcium from the soil, and declines in the abundance of calcium-rich invertebrate prey species, which may be necessary for successful breeding by this thrush. We sampled at 40 study sites across New York that were chosen based on estimated acid deposition and soil properties. Our results show that the calcium content of the soils sampled is proportional to the soil pH, that the abundance of calcium-rich invertebrate prey tracks soil properties, and that the presence of a breeding Wood Thrush was correctly predicted in >70% of study sites by the biomass of calcium-rich prey, and in particular, the biomass of myriapods (Diplopoda. We show that a simple repeatable protocol, suitable for use by volunteers across broad geographic extents and ranges of habitat fragmentation, can help us understand the reactions of some forest birds to acid rain in combination with habitat fragmentation. We detail the development of this protocol for volunteers in the Birds in Forested Landscapes project, and describe future plans.

  5. Karyotype description of two Neotropical Psittacidae species: the endangered Hyacinth Macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, and the Hawk-headed Parrot, Deroptyus accipitrinus (Psittaciformes: Aves, and its significance for conservation plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor de Oliveira Lunardi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical parrots are among the most threatened groups of birds in the world, and many species are facing extinction in a near future. At the same time, the taxonomic position of many species remains unclear. Karyotype analysis has been used to elucidate the phylogenetic status of many bird groups, also providing important information for both in situ and ex situ conservation plans. The objective of the present study was to describe for the first time the karyotypes of the endangered Hyacinth Macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, and of the Hawk-headed Parrot, Deroptyus accipitrinus. A diploid number of 2n = 70 and a karyotype similar to the main pattern previously found for the genera Ara, Cyanopsitta, Aratinga, Propyrrhura, Pionites, Pionopsitta, Nandayus, and Guaruba were found for both species. These karyotype descriptions can be a starting point for the genetic monitoring of these two declining species.

  6. Windows of opportunity: tresholds to mangrove seedling establishement on tidal flats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balke, T.; Bouma, T.J.; Horstman, Erik; Webb, E.L.; Erftemeijer, P.L.A.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Physical processes limiting colonization of bare tidal flats by pioneer mangrove species have commonly been described but not yet quantified. Understanding thresholds to early seedling establishment is critical for successful restoration and management of mangrove forests. We determined how seedling

  7. Occurrence and biology of Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802 (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae parasitising different species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera in Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB Silva

    Full Text Available Surveys on Coccinellidae (Coleoptera in Sete Lagoas city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, indicated the parasitism of adults of the species Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, 1775, Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824 and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866, by Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802 (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae. Since then, the parasitoid have been maintained in its original hosts at the Insect Rearing Laboratory - LACRI of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Institution - Embrapa Milho e Sorgo. Besides the citation of occurrence in Brazil, this work also indicates the parasitoid preference for C. maculata (70% of parasitism, followed by O. v-nigrum (43.3% of parasitism and E. connexa (36.7% of parasitism. Total life cycle of D. coccinellae was longer on C. maculata (32.4 ± 0.48 days, compared to O. v-nigrum (29.5 ± 0.49 days and E. connexa (27.8 ± 0.4 days. Due to the relatively high percentage of field parasitism, D. coccinellae can reduce the efficiency of biological pest control by Coccinellidae predators especially in the case of C. maculata.

  8. Occurrence and biology of Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae) parasitising different species of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in Neotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R B; Cruz, I; Figueiredo, M L C; Pereira, A G; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2012-02-01

    Surveys on Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in Sete Lagoas city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, indicated the parasitism of adults of the species Coleomegilla maculata De Geer, 1775, Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824) and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866), by Dinocampus coccinellae (Schrank, 1802) (Hymenoptera; Braconidae: Euphorinae). Since then, the parasitoid have been maintained in its original hosts at the Insect Rearing Laboratory - LACRI of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Institution - Embrapa Milho e Sorgo. Besides the citation of occurrence in Brazil, this work also indicates the parasitoid preference for C. maculata (70% of parasitism), followed by O. v-nigrum (43.3% of parasitism) and E. connexa (36.7% of parasitism). Total life cycle of D. coccinellae was longer on C. maculata (32.4 ± 0.48 days), compared to O. v-nigrum (29.5 ± 0.49 days) and E. connexa (27.8 ± 0.4 days). Due to the relatively high percentage of field parasitism, D. coccinellae can reduce the efficiency of biological pest control by Coccinellidae predators especially in the case of C. maculata.

  9. Morphologic analysis of developmental phases and gill ontogenesis in neotropical species Poecilia vivipara (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae exposed to different salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Rocha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated and characterized the different phases of development and the cell types present in the gill epithelium of embryos, larvae, and fingerlings of guppy (Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider, 1801 specimens exposed to water with salinity ranging from 0‰ to 20‰. The development of P. vivipara was classified into eight phases. The yolk was intensely eosinophilic, with glycidic and lipidic components between phases 1 to 7. After the development of their branchial epithelium, the presence of pavement cells, mitochondria-rich cells, and mucous cells (MCs was observed. The understanding of ontogenesis indicates the sequence of cellular origin. Only type IV MCs located in the gill rays was detected from phase 3 through phase 7. Other types of MCs were observed only when the fingerlings were exposed to salinity changes and showed to be lectin-reactive, thus indicating that P. vivipara modulates the cellular behavior when submitted to salinity changes. Exposure to variable saline concentrations did not interfere in the initial development of guppies. The presence of a yolk sac until the fingerling phase characterized this species as ovoviviparous.

  10. Revisão do gênero neotropical Amazunculus Rafael (Diptera: Pipunculidae com descrição de três novas espécies e chave de identificação Revision of the Neotropical genus Amazunculus Rafael (Diptera: Pipunculidae with description of three new species and identification key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Galinkin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Amazunculus é exclusivo da região Neotropical, com a maioria dos seus registros no bioma amazônico. São pipunculídeos grandes, facilmente identificados pelos tarsos posteriores achatados e a veia alar dm-cu curva. Aqui são descritas as espécies Amazunculus cordigaster sp. nov., A. deargentatus sp. nov. e A. duckei sp. nov., cujas diagnoses são baseadas principalmente em características da genitália masculina. É apresentada uma chave para identificação das seis espécies do gênero.Amazunculus is an exclusively Neotropical genus which occurs mostly in the Amazon biome. They are large bodied Pipunculidae, easily identified by their flattened hind tarsus and curved dm-cu wing vein. Described here are Amazunculus cordigaster n. sp., A. deargentatus n. sp. and A. duckei n. sp., whose diagnoses are based mostly on male genitalia characteristics. An identification key to the six species of Amazunculus is provided.

  11. Demographical history and palaeodistribution modelling show range shift towards Amazon Basin for a Neotropical tree species in the LGM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Luciana Cristina; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Terribile, Levi Carina; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2016-10-13

    We studied the phylogeography and demographical history of Tabebuia serratifolia (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographical distribution of South American seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs). We specifically tested if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the so called South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, using ecological niche modelling (ENM) and statistical phylogeography. We sampled 235 individuals of T. serratifolia in 17 populations in Brazil and analysed the polymorphisms at three intergenic chloroplast regions and ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA. Coalescent analyses showed a demographical expansion at the last c. 130 ka (thousand years before present). Simulations and ENM also showed that the current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range expansion and range shift towards the Amazon Basin during the colder and arid climatic conditions associated with the LGM, matching the expected for the South American dry forest refugia hypothesis, although contrasting to the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis. Populations in more stable areas or with higher suitability through time showed higher genetic diversity. Postglacial range shift towards the Southeast and Atlantic coast may have led to spatial genome assortment due to leading edge colonization as the species tracks suitable environments, leading to lower genetic diversity in populations at higher distance from the distribution centroid at 21 ka. Haplotype sharing or common ancestry among populations from Caatinga in Northeast Brazil, Atlantic Forest in Southeast and Cerrado biome and ENM evince the past connection among these biomes.

  12. Evaluation of molluscicidal activity of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle) and their effects on the bioactivity of Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Renato Juvino de Aragão; Pereira, Adalberto Alves; Nogueira, Aline de Jesus Lustosa; Araújo, Karla Regina Freitas; França, Clícia Rosane Costa; de Carvalho, Iramar Borba; da Silva, Natale Maria Lindoso; Azevedo, Alexandre Santana; Rosa, Ivone Garros

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Schistosomiasis is a disease of global extent reaching populations in social vulnerability. One of the control measures of this parasitosis is the use of molluscicidal substances that can fight snails of the genus Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The aim of this work was to study the toxic activity of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana Stapf. & Leech, ex Moldenke, 1939, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) CF Gaertn, 1807 and Rhizophora mangle L. 1753) on the biological activities of snails Biomphalaria glabrata. Hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared from the stem and leaves of each of the three plant species to which mollusks were exposed. The phytochemical analysis of plants showed the presence of important metabolites in the leaves and stems of L. racemosa and R. mangle, such as tannins and saponins, but the absence of these metabolites in A. schaueriana. Leaf and stem extracts of the three plant species showed low molluscicidal activity, not reaching the standards determined by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1983). L. racemosa and R. mangle has interfered with motility, feeding and oviposition of snails, unlike the extracts of A. schaueriana, which had no effect on these activities. PMID:29451595

  13. Coleopterous galls from the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on Neotropical coleopterous galls were compiled from the literature, which showed that 82 galls have so far been recorded among 77 plant species. The Fabaceae and Asteraceae plant families display the greatest richness in galls. Most galls are induced on stems or buds, while leaves constitute the second most attacked plant organ. Only 16 coleopteran gallers have been identified at the species level; most records are presented at the order level. The identified species belong to four families: Apionidae, Buprestidae, Curculionidae and Erirhinidae. The galls are found in Argentina, Brazil, Belize, Chile, Colombia (probably, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela. Eighteen species of Coleoptera are inquilines of galls and are associated with 18 plant species, most frequently with Asteraceae, Melastomataceae and Fabaceae. The inquilines were recorded mainly in leaf galls induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The identity of these weevils is poorly known. General data indicate a lack of taxonomic studies in the Neotropical region.

  14. Impacts of Climate Variability and Climate Change on the Mangrove ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The mangrove ecosystem of Tumbes plays a pivotal role in providing protection against tides, winds and storm surges, and habitat for a number of fish species. ... and other species to changing salinity and sediment levels, and assess the economic value of environmental services provided by the mangrove ecosystem.

  15. Mangrove microclimates alter seedling dynamics at the range edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, John L; Lehmann, Michael; Feller, Ilka C; Parker, John D

    2017-10-01

    Recent climate warming has led to asynchronous species migrations, with major consequences for ecosystems worldwide. In woody communities, localized microclimates have the potential to create feedback mechanisms that can alter the rate of species range shifts attributed to macroclimate drivers alone. Mangrove encroachment into saltmarsh in many areas is driven by a reduction in freeze events, and this encroachment can further modify local climate, but the subsequent impacts on mangrove seedling dynamics are unknown. We monitored microclimate conditions beneath mangrove canopies and adjacent open saltmarsh at a freeze-sensitive mangrove-saltmarsh ecotone and assessed survival of experimentally transplanted mangrove seedlings. Mangrove canopies buffered night time cooling during the winter, leading to interspecific differences in freeze damage on mangrove seedlings. However, mangrove canopies also altered biotic interactions. Herbivore damage was higher under canopies, leading to greater mangrove seedling mortality beneath canopies relative to saltmarsh. While warming-induced expansion of mangroves can lead to positive microclimate feedbacks, simultaneous fluctuations in biotic drivers can also alter seedling dynamics. Thus, climate change can drive divergent feedback mechanisms through both abiotic and biotic channels, highlighting the importance of vegetation-microclimate interactions as important moderators of climate driven range shifts. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Mangrove expansion and saltmarsh decline at mangrove poleward limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintilan, Neil; Wilson, Nicholas C.; Rogers, Kerrylee; Rajkaran, Anusha; Krauss, Ken W.

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are species of halophytic intertidal trees and shrubs derived from tropical genera and are likely delimited in latitudinal range by varying sensitivity to cold. There is now sufficient evidence that mangrove species have proliferated at or near their poleward limits on at least five continents over the past half century, at the expense of salt marsh. Avicennia is the most cold-tolerant genus worldwide, and is the subject of most of the observed changes. Avicennia germinans has extended in range along the US Atlantic coast and expanded into salt marsh as a consequence of lower frost frequency and intensity in the southern USA. The genus has also expanded into salt marsh at its southern limit in Peru, and on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Mangroves of several species have expanded in extent and replaced salt marsh where protected within mangrove reserves in Guangdong Province. In south-eastern Australia, the expansion of Avicennia marina into salt marshes is now well documented, and Rhizophora stylosa has extended its range southward, while showing strong population growth within estuaries along its southern limits in northern New South Wales. Avicennia marina has extended its range southwards in South Africa. The changes are consistent with the pole-ward extension of temperature thresholds co-incident with sea-level rise, although the specific mechanism of range extension might be complicated by limitations on dispersal or other factors. The shift from salt marsh to mangrove dominance on subtropical and temperate shorelines has important implications for ecological structure, function, and global change adaptation.

  17. Evolutionary diversity among Atlantic coast mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard S.; Rafii, Zara A.; Fromard, François; Blasco, François

    1998-06-01

    Current knowledge of intraspecific variation of mangrove species is limited in terms of rangewide distributions and is mostly restricted to morphological analyses, which have indicated a high degree of homogeneity. However, our analyses of the aliphatic hydrocarbon and triterpenoid fraction of foliar waxes (by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy) of mangrove species ( Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa) from Gabon in West Africa and French Guiana in South America show significant genetic differentiation between eastern and western Atlantic provenances. The greater diversity in lipid composition, and the tendency for longer carbon chain lengths in all taxa from Africa, may suggest that American mangroves exhibit derived characteristics. A consequence of this hypothesis would be that Atlantic mangroves are unlikely to have dispersed from the Tethys via the Pacific, as has been proposed by some authors. More widespread sampling within the Atlantic and east Pacific region is needed to support and confirm these results.

  18. Changes in biotic and abiotic processes following mangrove clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Elise; Ruttenberg, Benjamin I.

    2008-12-01

    Mangrove forests, important tropical coastal habitats, are in decline worldwide primarily due to removal by humans. Changes to mangrove systems can alter ecosystem properties through direct effects on abiotic factors such as temperature, light and nutrient supply or through changes in biotic factors such as primary productivity or species composition. Despite the importance of mangroves as transitional habitats between land and sea, little research has examined changes that occur when they are cleared. We examined changes in a number of biotic and abiotic factors following the anthropogenic removal of red mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle) in the Panamanian Caribbean, including algal biomass, algal diversity, algal grazing rates, light penetration, temperature, sedimentation rates and sediment organic content. In this first study examining multiple ecosystem-level effects of mangrove disturbance, we found that areas cleared of mangroves had higher algal biomass and richness than intact mangrove areas. This increase in algal biomass and richness was likely due to changes in abiotic factors (e.g. light intensity, temperature), but not biotic factors (fish herbivory). Additionally the algal and cyanobacterial genera dominating mangrove-cleared areas were rare in intact mangroves and included a number of genera that compete with coral for space on reefs. Interestingly, sedimentation rates did not differ between intact and cleared areas, but the sediments that accumulated in intact mangroves had higher organic content. These findings are the first to demonstrate that anthropogenic clearing of mangroves changes multiple biotic and abiotic processes in mangrove forests and that some of these changes may influence adjacent habitats such as coral reefs and seagrass beds. Additional research is needed to further explore the community and ecosystem-level effects of mangrove clearing and their influence on adjacent habitats, but it is clear that mangrove conservation is an

  19. Bacterial N2-fixation in mangrove ecosystems: insights from a diazotroph-mangrove interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Espinoza, Gabriela; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive ecosystems but represent low nutrient environments. Nitrogen availability is one of the main factors limiting mangrove growth. Diazotrophs have been identified as key organisms that provide nitrogen to these environments. N2-fixation by such organisms was found to be higher in the mangrove roots than in surrounding rhizosphere. Moreover, previous studies showed that mangroves grew better in the presence of N2-fixers indicating a potentially mutualistic relationship. However, the molecular signals and mechanisms that govern these interactions are still poorly understood. Here we present novel insights in the interaction of a diazotroph with a mangrove species to improve our understanding of the molecular and ecophysiological relationship between these two organisms under controlled conditions. Our results showed that Marinobacterium mangrovicola is a versatile organism capable of competing with other organisms to survive for long periods in mangrove soils. N2-fixation by this bacterium was up-regulated in the presence of mangrove roots, indicating a possible beneficial interaction. The increase in N2-fixation was limited to cells of the exponential growth phase suggesting that N2-fixation differs over the bacterial growth cycle. Bacterial transformants harboring a transcriptional nifH::gusA fusion showed that M. mangrovicola successfully colonized mangrove roots and simultaneously conducted N2-fixation. The colonization process was stimulated by the lack of an external carbon source suggesting a possible mutualistic relationship. M. mangrovicola represents an interesting genetically accessible diazotroph, which colonize mangrove roots and exhibit higher N2-fixation in the presence of mangrove roots. Consequently, we propose this microorganism as a tool to study molecular interactions between N2-fixers and mangrove plants and to better understand how changes in the environment could impact these important and relatively unknown

  20. Altitudinal gradients, biogeographic history and microhabitat adaptation affect fine-scale spatial genetic structure in African and Neotropical populations of an ancient tropical tree species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Torroba-Balmori

    Full Text Available The analysis of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS within populations can provide insights into eco-evolutionary processes. Restricted dispersal and locally occurring genetic drift are the primary causes for FSGS at equilibrium, as described in the isolation by distance (IBD model. Beyond IBD expectations, spatial, environmental or historical factors can affect FSGS. We examined FSGS in seven African and Neotropical populations of the late-successional rain forest tree Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae to discriminate the influence of drift-dispersal vs. landscape/ecological features and historical processes on FSGS. We used spatial principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering to assess spatial genetic heterogeneity at SSRs and examined its association with plastid DNA and habitat features. African populations (from Cameroon and São Tomé displayed a stronger FSGS than Neotropical populations at both marker types (mean Sp = 0.025 vs. Sp = 0.008 at SSRs and had a stronger spatial genetic heterogeneity. All three African populations occurred in pronounced altitudinal gradients, possibly restricting animal-mediated seed dispersal. Cyto-nuclear disequilibria in Cameroonian populations also suggested a legacy of biogeographic history to explain these genetic patterns. Conversely, Neotropical populations exhibited a weaker FSGS, which may reflect more efficient wide-ranging seed dispersal by Neotropical bats and other dispersers. The population from French Guiana displayed an association of plastid haplotypes with two morphotypes characterized by differential habitat preferences. Our results highlight the importance of the microenvironment for eco-evolutionary processes within persistent tropical tree populations.

  1. Embryonic development and larval stages of Steindachneridion parahybae (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: implications for the conservation and rearing of this endangered Neotropical species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato M. Honji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steindachneridion parahybae is a freshwater catfish endemic to the Paraíba do Sul River and is classified as an endangered Neotropical species. An increasing number of conservation biologists are incorporating morphological and physiological research data to help conservation managers in rescue these endangered species. This study investigated the embryonic and larval development of S. parahybae in captivity, with emphasis in major events during the ontogeny of S. parahybae. Broodstocks were artificially induced to reproduce, and the extrusion occurred 200-255 degree-hours after hormonal induction at 24°C. Larval ontogeny was evaluated every 10 minutes under microscopic/stereomicroscopic using fresh eggs samples. The main embryogenic development stages were identified: zygote, cleavage, including the morula, blastula, gastrula phase, organogenesis, and hatching. The extruded oocytes showed an average diameter of 1.10 ± 0.10 mm, and after fertilization and hydration of eggs, the average diameter of eggs increased to about 1.90 ± 0.60 mm, characterized by a large perivitelline space that persisted up to embryo development, the double chorion, and the poles (animal and vegetative. Cell division started about 2 minutes after fertilization (AF, resulting in 2, 4, 8 (4 x 2 arrangement of cells, 16 (4 x 4, 32 (4 x 8 and 64 (2 x 4 x 8 cells. Furthermore, the blastula and gastrula stages followed after these cells divisions. The closed blastopore occurred at 11 h 20 min AF; following the development, the organogenetic stages were identified and subdivided respectively in: early segmentation phase and late segmentation phase. In the early segmentation phase, there was the establishment of the embryonic axis, and it was possible to distinguish between the cephalic and caudal regions; somites, and the optic vesicles developed about 20 h AF. Total hatching occurred at 54 h AF, and the larvae average length was 4.30 ± 0.70 mm. Gradual yolk sac reduction

  2. Description of a marine nematode Hopperia sinensis sp. nov. (Comesomatidae) from mangrove forests of Quanzhou, China, with a pictorial key to Hopperia species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuqing; Chang, Yu; Chen, Yuzhen; Li, Yongxiang; Liu, Aiyuan

    2015-12-01

    A new free-living marine nematode species Hopperia sinensis sp. nov. from mangrove forests of Fujian Province, China, is identified and illustrated. Hopperia sinensis sp. nov. is characterized by its cephalic setae 2.4-2.8 µm long or 17%-20% head diameter, and amphids of 2.25-2.5 turns. Lateral differentiation appears with larger, more irregularly distributed dots behind 3-5 transverse rows of dots posterior to amphid. Buccal cavity is consisted of a shallow and weakly sclerotized cup-shaped portion with strongly sclerotized walls of 18-21 µm deep. There are three sclerotized and size-equally pointed teeth at the junction between the two parts. Spicules of 41-45 µm long are slightly curved with broadband velum and central strips at the proximal end. The gubernacula, with apparent lateral guiding pieces, are formed by one central tubular piece that is weakly sclerotized with 11-16 µm long dorso-caudally directed apophyses. There are 13-14 fine tubular precloacal supplements. Conico-cylindrical tail gradually tapers till pointed tail tip. Female is similar to male, but have a longer body and tail. Ovaries are opposed and outstretched, with anterior ovary to the left and posterior ovary to the right of the intestine. A pictorial key to all the valid known species in genus Hopperia is given.

  3. Re-Evaluation of Phylogenetic Relationships among Species of the Mangrove Genus Avicennia from Indo-West Pacific Based on Multilocus Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinnian; Duke, Norman C; Yang, Yuchen; Huang, Lishi; Zhu, Yuxiang; Zhang, Zhang; Zhou, Renchao; Zhong, Cairong; Huang, Yelin; Shi, Suhua

    2016-01-01

    Avicennia L. (Avicenniaceae), one of the most diverse mangrove genera, is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical intertidal zones worldwide. Five species of Avicennia in the Indo-West Pacific region have been previously described. However, their phylogenetic relationships were determined based on morphological and allozyme data. To enhance our understanding of evolutionary patterns in the clade, we carried out a molecular phylogenetic study using wide sampling and multiple loci. Our results support two monophyletic clades across all species worldwide in Avicennia: an Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) lineage and an Indo-West Pacific (IWP) lineage. This split is in line with biogeographic distribution of the clade. Focusing on the IWP branch, we reconstructed a detailed phylogenetic tree based on sequences from 25 nuclear genes. The results identified three distinct subclades, (1) A. rumphiana and A. alba, (2) A. officinalis and A. integra, and (3) the A. marina complex, with high bootstrap support. The results strongly corresponded to two morphological traits in floral structure: stigma position in relation to the anthers and style length. Using Bayesian dating methods we estimated diversification of the IWP lineage was dated to late Miocene (c. 6.0 million years ago) and may have been driven largely by the fluctuating sea levels since that time.

  4. Hydrological Classification, a Practical Tool for Mangrove Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Anne F; Te Brake, Bram; Van Huijgevoort, Marjolein H J; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration practice. In 15 natural and 8 disturbed sites (i.e. disused shrimp ponds) in three case study regions in south-east Asia, water levels were measured and vegetation species composition was determined. Using an existing hydrological classification for mangroves, sites were classified into hydrological classes, based on duration of inundation, and vegetation classes, based on occurrence of mangrove species. For the natural sites hydrological and vegetation classes were similar, showing clear distribution of mangrove species from wet to dry sites. Application of the classification to disturbed sites showed that in some locations hydrological conditions had been restored enough for mangrove vegetation to establish, in some locations hydrological conditions were suitable for various mangrove species but vegetation had not established naturally, and in some locations hydrological conditions were too wet for any mangrove species (natural or planted) to grow. We quantified the effect that removal of obstructions such as dams would have on the hydrology and found that failure of planting at one site could have been prevented. The hydrological classification needs relatively little data, i.e. water levels for a period of only one lunar tidal cycle without additional measurements, and uncertainties in the measurements and analysis are relatively small. For the study locations, the application of the hydrological classification gave important information about how to restore the hydrology to suitable conditions to improve natural regeneration or to plant mangrove species, which could not have been obtained by estimating elevation only. Based on this research a number of recommendations

  5. Associational resistance protects mangrove leaves from crab herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Amy A.; Bell, Susan S.; Dawes, Clinton J.

    2012-05-01

    While associational defenses have been well documented in many plant and algal ecosystems, this study is the first to document associational resistance in mangroves. Mangrove tree crab (Aratus pisonii) density and herbivory on three life-stages of the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were documented in pure red versus mixed-species and predominantly non-red mangrove stands containing black (Avicennia germinans) and white (Laguncularia racemosa) mangroves in 1999-2000 in Tampa Bay, Florida. This study first established that R. mangle is the focal species in the context of associational resistance because it is damaged more than either of the other mangrove species. Next, it was hypothesized that crab density and leaf damage on R. mangle would be lower when in mixed-species and predominantly non-red versus red mangrove stands. A non-significant trend suggested that crab density varies among stands, and crab damage on R. mangle leaves was significantly lower in mixed-species and non-red stands. Mechanisms to explain associational resistance were examined. Positive Pearson correlations between the percent of adult R. mangle in a stand and both crab density and R. mangle leaf damage provided support for the resource concentration hypothesis. Limited support was found for the attractant-decoy hypothesis because the total amount of damaged leaves of all mangrove species combined typically differed among stands, suggesting that crabs were not shifting to alternative mangrove species to offset reduced availability of R. mangle leaves. Finally, while R. mangle seedlings were shorter in non-red stands compared to others, intra-specific differences in R. mangle leaf chemistry and sclerophylly among stands failed to explain associational patterns. These combined results argue for the need for additional experiments to elucidate mechanisms responsible for defensive plant associations in mangrove ecosystems and to determine whether such associations could be of use in mangrove

  6. Hydrological Classification, a Practical Tool for Mangrove Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Anne F.; Te Brake, Bram; Van Huijgevoort, Marjolein H. J.; Dijksma, Roel

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration practice. In 15 natural and 8 disturbed sites (i.e. disused shrimp ponds) in three case study regions in south-east Asia, water levels were measured and vegetation species composition was determined. Using an existing hydrological classification for mangroves, sites were classified into hydrological classes, based on duration of inundation, and vegetation classes, based on occurrence of mangrove species. For the natural sites hydrological and vegetation classes were similar, showing clear distribution of mangrove species from wet to dry sites. Application of the classification to disturbed sites showed that in some locations hydrological conditions had been restored enough for mangrove vegetation to establish, in some locations hydrological conditions were suitable for various mangrove species but vegetation had not established naturally, and in some locations hydrological conditions were too wet for any mangrove species (natural or planted) to grow. We quantified the effect that removal of obstructions such as dams would have on the hydrology and found that failure of planting at one site could have been prevented. The hydrological classification needs relatively little data, i.e. water levels for a period of only one lunar tidal cycle without additional measurements, and uncertainties in the measurements and analysis are relatively small. For the study locations, the application of the hydrological classification gave important information about how to restore the hydrology to suitable conditions to improve natural regeneration or to plant mangrove species, which could not have been obtained by estimating elevation only. Based on this research a number of recommendations

  7. Hydrological Classification, a Practical Tool for Mangrove Restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Van Loon

    Full Text Available Mangrove restoration projects, aimed at restoring important values of mangrove forests after degradation, often fail because hydrological conditions are disregarded. We present a simple, but robust methodology to determine hydrological suitability for mangrove species, which can guide restoration practice. In 15 natural and 8 disturbed sites (i.e. disused shrimp ponds in three case study regions in south-east Asia, water levels were measured and vegetation species composition was determined. Using an existing hydrological classification for mangroves, sites were classified into hydrological classes, based on duration of inundation, and vegetation classes, based on occurrence of mangrove species. For the natural sites hydrological and vegetation classes were similar, showing clear distribution of mangrove species from wet to dry sites. Application of the classification to disturbed sites showed that in some locations hydrological conditions had been restored enough for mangrove vegetation to establish, in some locations hydrological conditions were suitable for various mangrove species but vegetation had not established naturally, and in some locations hydrological conditions were too wet for any mangrove species (natural or planted to grow. We quantified the effect that removal of obstructions such as dams would have on the hydrology and found that failure of planting at one site could have been prevented. The hydrological classification needs relatively little data, i.e. water levels for a period of only one lunar tidal cycle without additional measurements, and uncertainties in the measurements and analysis are relatively small. For the study locations, the application of the hydrological classification gave important information about how to restore the hydrology to suitable conditions to improve natural regeneration or to plant mangrove species, which could not have been obtained by estimating elevation only. Based on this research a number

  8. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafy, Joseph E.; Shideler, Geoffrey S.; Araújo, Rafael J.; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as “mangrove-dependent”. Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  9. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafy, Joseph E; Shideler, Geoffrey S; Araújo, Rafael J; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  10. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Serafy

    Full Text Available Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1 Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2 Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1 focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2 consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3 quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i

  11. A new synonym of the Neotropical parasitoid wasp genus Notiospathius (Braconidae, Doryctinae), with redescription of two species and description of five new species from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesús-Bonilla, Vladimir Salvador; Nunes, Juliano F.; Penteado-Dias, Angélica M.; Csösz, Sándor; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A junior synonym of the parasitoid wasp genus Notiospathius Matthews and Marsh, Hansonorum syn. n., with two new combinations, Notiospathius carolinae (Marsh) comb. n. and Notiospathius pauli (Marsh) comb. n., are proposed. Two species of Notiospathius from Brazil originally described in early twentieth century are redescribed, Notiospathius caudatus (Szépligeti) and Notiospathius diversus (Szépligeti). Five new species of Notiospathius from southern Brazil are also described: Notiospathius atra sp. n., Notiospathius johnlennoni sp. n., Notiospathius novateutoniae sp. n., Notiospathius sulcatus sp. n., and Notiospathius xanthofasciatus sp. n. Most of the type specimens of the above new species were collected in the mid twentieth century in the Nova Teutonia region, which is now part of the municipality of Seara in the state of Santa Catarina. PMID:21998528

  12. Can mangrove plantation enhance the functional diversity of macrobenthic community in polluted mangroves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jonathan Y S; Cheung, Napo K M

    2017-03-15

    Mangrove plantation is widely applied to re-establish the plant community in degraded mangroves, but its effectiveness to restore the ecological functions of macrobenthic community remains poorly known, especially when pollution may overwhelm its potential positive effect. Here, we tested the effect of mangrove plantation on the ecological functions of macrobenthic community in a polluted mangrove by analyzing biological traits of macrobenthos and calculating functional diversity. Mangrove plantation was shown to enhance the functional diversity and restore the ecological functions of macrobenthic community, depending on seasonality. Given the polluted sediment, however, typical traits of opportunistic species (e.g. small and short-lived) prevailed in all habitats and sampling times. We conclude that mangrove plantation can help diversify the ecological functions of macrobenthic community, but its effectiveness is likely reduced by pollution. From the management perspective, therefore, pollution sources must be stringently regulated and mangrove plantation should be conducted to fully recover degraded mangroves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An assessment of commonly employed satellite-based remote sensors for mapping mangrove species in Mexico using an NDVI-based classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama-Landeros, L; Flores-de-Santiago, F; Kovacs, J M; Flores-Verdugo, F

    2017-12-14

    Optimizing the classification accuracy of a mangrove forest is of utmost importance for conservation practitioners. Mangrove forest mapping using satellite-based remote sensing techniques is by far the most common method of classification currently used given the logistical difficulties of field endeavors in these forested wetlands. However, there is now an abundance of options from which to choose in regards to satellite sensors, which has led to substantially different estimations of mangrove forest location and extent with particular concern for degraded systems. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of mangrove forest classification using different remotely sensed data sources (i.e., Landsat-8, SPOT-5, Sentinel-2, and WorldView-2) for a system located along the Pacific coast of Mexico. Specifically, we examined a stressed semiarid mangrove forest which offers a variety of conditions such as dead areas, degraded stands, healthy mangroves, and very dense mangrove island formations. The results indicated that Landsat-8 (30 m per pixel) had  the lowest overall accuracy at 64% and that WorldView-2 (1.6 m per pixel) had the highest at 93%. Moreover, the SPOT-5 and the Sentinel-2 classifications (10 m per pixel) were very similar having accuracies of 75 and 78%, respectively. In comparison to WorldView-2, the other sensors overestimated the extent of Laguncularia racemosa and underestimated the extent of Rhizophora mangle. When considering such type of sensors, the higher spatial resolution can be particularly important in mapping small mangrove islands that often occur in degraded mangrove systems.

  14. Effects of hydrology on red mangrove recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Coastal wetlands along the Gulf of Mexico have been experiencing significant shifts in hydrology and salinity levels over the past century as a result of changes in sea level and freshwater drainage patterns. Local land management in coastal zones has also impacted the hydrologic regimes of salt marshes and mangrove areas. Parks and refuges in south Florida that contain mangrove forests have, in some cases, been ditched or impounded to control mosquito outbreaks and to foster wildlife use. And while mangroves dominate the subtropical coastlines of Florida and thrive in saltwater environments, little is known about how they respond to changes in hydrology under managed or variable tidal conditions. USGS researchers designed a study to evaluate the basic hydrological requirements of mangroves so that their health and survival may be more effectively managed in controlled impoundments and restored wetlands. Mangroves are commonly found in the intertidal zone (between low and high tides) in a rather broad spectrum of hydrologic settings. Because they thrive at the interface of land and sea, mangroves are subject to changes in freshwater flow (flow rate, nutrients, pollutants) and to marine influences (sea-level rise, salinity). Salinity has long been recognized as a controlling factor that determines the health and distribution of mangrove forests. Field and experimental observations indicate that most mangrove species achieve their highest growth potential under brackish conditions (modest salinity) between 10 and 20 parts per thousand (ppt). Yet, if provided with available propagules, successful regeneration, and limited competition from other plants, then mangroves can survive and thrive in freshwater systems as well. Because little is known about the growthand survival patterns of mangrove species relative to changing hydrology, USGS scientists conducted greenhouse and field experiments to determine how flooded or drained patterns of hydrology would influence

  15. [Carbon storage and carbon sink of mangrove wetland: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhi-hua; Li, Zhi-yong

    2013-04-01

    Mangrove forest is a special wetland forest growing in the inter-tidal zone of tropical and subtropical regions, playing important roles in windbreak, promoting silt sedimentation, resisting extreme events such as cyclones and tsunamis, and protecting coastline, etc. The total area of global mangrove forests is about 152000 km2, only accounting for 0. 4% of all forest area. There are about 230 km2 mangrove forests in China. The mangrove forests in the tropics have an average carbon storage as high as 1023 Mg hm-2, and the global mangrove forests can sequestrate about 0. 18-0. 228 Pg C a-1. In addition to plant species composition, a variety of factors such as air temperature, seawater temperature and salinity, soil physical and chemical properties, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and human activities have significant effects on the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove forests. Many approaches based onfield measurements, including allometric equations, remote sensing, and model simulation, are applied to quantify the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove forest wetland. To study the carbon storage and sink ability of mangrove wetland can promote the further understanding of the carbon cycle of mangrove wetland and related controlling mechanisms, being of significance for the protection and rational utilization of mangrove wetland.

  16. Differences in Ca2+-management between the ventricle of two species of neotropical teleosts: the jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829, and the acara, Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Jones Costa

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the physiological role of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR of two neotropical teleosts, the jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Erythrinidae, and the acara, Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae. While the in vivo heart frequency (fH - bpm of acara (79.6 ± 6.6 was higher than that of the jeju (50.3 ± 2.7, the opposite was observed for the ventricular inotropism (Fc - mN/mm² at 12 bpm (acara = 28.66 ± 1.86 vs. jeju = 36.09 ± 1.67. A 5 min diastolic pause resulted in a strong potentiation of Fc (≅ 90% of strips from jeju, which was completely abolished by ryanodine. Ryanodine also resulted in a ≅ 20% decrease in the Fc developed by strips from jeju at both subphysiological (12 bpm and physiological (in vivo frequencies. However, this effect of ryanodine reducing the Fc from jeju was completely compensated by adrenaline increments (10-9 and 10-6 M. In contrast, strips from acara were irresponsive to ryanodine, irrespective of the stimulation frequency, and increases in adrenaline concentration (to 10-9 and 10-6 M further increased Fc. These results reinforce the hypothesis of the functionality of the SR as a common trait in neotropical ostariophysian (as jeju, while in acanthopterygians (as acara it seems to be functional mainly in 'athletic' species.

  17. Revision of the Neotropical trahiras of the Hoplias lacerdae species-group (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Erythrinidae with descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo T. Oyakawa

    Full Text Available Hoplias lacerdae was originally described from the rio Ribeira de Iguape, Iporanga, São Paulo State. The Hoplias lacerdae group is defined as containing generally large trahiras with the medial margins of dentaries running parallel to each other and lacking teeth on the basihyal compared to the H. malabaricus group in which the medial margins of the dentaries converge towards the mandibular symphysis and which have teeth on the basihyal. A taxonomic revision of the group based on meristic and morphometric data identified five distinct species: H. lacerdae distributed in the rio Ribeira de Iguape and rio Uruguai; H. intermedius from the rio São Francisco, upper rio Paraná basin, and rio Doce; H. brasiliensis from rivers of the Atlantic Coastal drainage from the rio Paraguaçu to the rio Jequitinhonha; H. australis new species, endemic to the rio Uruguai; and H. curupira new species present in northern South America, including the rios Negro, Trombetas, Tapajós, Xingu, Tocantins and Capim in the Amazon basin, upper rio Orinoco near the rio Casiquiare (Venezuela, and coastal rivers of Guyana and Suriname. A lectotype for Hoplias intermedius and a neotype for H. brasiliensis are designated.

  18. Application of remote sensing techniques to study the distribution of mangroves along the estuaries of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    the mangrove forests occupy ca. 2,000 hectares. About 900 ha of mangroves are found in the Zuari estuary, 700 ha along the Mandovi estuary and 200 ha in the Cumbarjua Canal. The mangrove vegetation is represented by 10 genera and 15 species. The dominant...

  19. Plant diversity and biomass of Marudu bay mangroves in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanum, F.; Kudus, K.A.; Saari, N.S

    2012-01-01

    The mangroves of Marudu Bay in the state of Sabah is situated at the tip of Borneo Island, and at the southern limit of the Coral Triangle whose waters hold the highest diversity of corals, fish, molluscks, crustaceans and marine plant species in the world. The ecosystem shows a deterioration due to unsustainable fishing, pollution and encroachment, and these are impacting the Marudu Bay coastal communities economically. Fishing is the major economic activity here. Realising the importance of conserving the mangroves to uplift the socio-economic livelihood of the coastal community, a resource inventory of the mangroves and its productivity study were carried out. A total of 16 plant species in 12 genera and 9 families were identified. It was also found that 0.7 ha is capable of capturing all the species in the mangrove forest. The mangrove forests of Marudu Bay are dominated by Rhizopora apiculata and R. mucronata. The highest Importance Value index (IVI) was given by Rhizophora mucronata. Total Above Ground Biomass (TAGB) for 1-ha of mangrove forest in Marudu Bay was estimated to be 98.4 t/ha. It was found in other parallel studies that the mangroves of Marudu Bay are productive ecosystems that provide valuable habitats, nurseries and spawning grounds for various commercially important species of fish and invertebrates such as shrimp besides many species of wildlife. The mangroves at Marudu Bay are not only aesthetically attractive but provide opportunities for ecotourism activities that can be undertaken by the local community inhabiting the area to uplift their meagre income, These activities include mangrove cruising, recreational fishing, educational tourism and mangrove honey production, amongst others. This way, the degradation of the mangrove in Marudu Bay can be halted and reversed. (author)

  20. Long-term differences in annual litter production between alien (Sonneratia apetala) and native (Kandelia obovata) mangrove species in Futian, Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lina; Li, Fenglan; Yang, Qiong; Tam, Nora F Y; Liao, Wenbo; Zan, Qijie

    2014-08-30

    Annual litter production in alien (Sonneratia apetala) and native (Kandelia obovata) mangrove forests in Shenzhen, China were compared from 1999 to 2010. S. apetala had significantly higher litter production than K. obovata, with mean annual total litter of 18.1 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and 15.2 t ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. The higher litter production in S. apetala forest indicates higher productivity and consequently more nutrient supply to the estuarine ecosystems but may be more invasive due to positive plant-soil feedbacks and nutrient availability to this alien species. Two peaks were recorded in S. apetala (May and October), while only one peak was observed in K. obovata, in early spring (March and April). Leaf and reproductive materials were the main contributors to litter production (>80%) in both forests. These results suggest that the ecological function of S. apetala and its invasive potential can be better understood based on a long-term litter fall analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic secretion changes in the salt glands of the mangrove tree species Avicennia officinalis in response to a changing saline environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lin, Qingsong; Lim, Tit-Meng; Kumar, Prakash; Loh, Chiang-Shiong

    2013-08-01

    The specialized salt glands on the epidermis of halophytic plants secrete excess salts from tissues by a mechanism that is poorly understood. We examined the salt glands as putative salt and water bi-regulatory units that can respond swiftly to altering environmental cues. The tropical mangrove tree species (Avicennia officinalis) is able to grow under fluctuating salinities (0.7-50.0 dS m(-1)) at intertidal zones, and its salt glands offer an excellent platform to investigate their dynamic responses under rapidly changing salinities. Utilizing a novel epidermal peel system, secretion profiles of hundreds of individual salt glands examined revealed that these glands could secrete when exposed to varying salinities. Notably, rhythmic fluctuations observed in secretion rates were reversibly inhibited by water channel (aquaporin) blocker, and two aquaporin genes (PIP and TIP) preferentially expressed in the salt gland cells were rapidly induced in response to increasing salt concentration. We propose that aquaporins are involved and contribute to the re-absorption of water during salt removal in Avicennia officinalis salt glands. This constitutes an adaptive feature that contributes to salt balance of trees growing in saline environments where freshwater availability is limited. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Mangrove exploitation effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Abdul; Fensholt, Rasmus; Mertz, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are one of the most important coastal ecosystems as they support many local communities. However, over the last two decades harvesting of mangrove forests has been extensive with effects on mangrove biodiversity and ecosystem services. We investigate the effect of mangrove...... with local forestry and fishery workers to determine the level of exploitation. Ten mangrove species were recorded (Avicennia alba, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora stylosa, and Sonneratia...... alba) belonging to six families (Avicenniaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Combretaceae, Arecaceae and Sonneratiaceae). Mangrove forests are now dominated by saplings and seedlings, with few trees above 15 cm diameter at breast height. Rhizophora sp. were found to be the most important and dominant...

  3. IDENTIFIKASI TINGKAT KERAWANAN DEGRADASI KAWASAN HUTAN MANGROVE DESA MUARA, TANGERANG, BANTEN

    OpenAIRE

    Hadisti Nur Aini; Omo Rusdiana; Sri Mulatsih

    2015-01-01

    This study is intended to estimate the vulnerability of degradation of mangrove forest in Muara Village, Tangerang, Banten. There are five species of mangroves found in mangrove forest of Muara, which are: Avicennia alba, Avicennia officinnalis. Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora stylosa, and Rhizophora mucronata. The results showed that the mangrove forest in Muara has a high vulnerability of degradation based on the three vegetation characteristics, such as: density, domination, and biodivers...

  4. Conservation problems of mangrove ecosystem in coastal area of Rembang Regency, Central Java

    OpenAIRE

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN; KUSUMO WINARNO

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the research were to find out (i) species diversity of mangrove plats, (ii) the conservation problems of mangrove ecosystem, and (iii) restoration efford of mangrove ecosystem at coastal area of Rembang Regency, Central Java. This was descriptive research that was done qualitatively, in July until December 2003, at 3 sites of mangrove habitat in Rembang Regency, namely Pecangakan, Pasar Banggi, and Lasem. The data was collected in field surveys, in-depth interview to local people ...

  5. The physiology of mangrove trees with changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Osland, Michael J.; Reef, Ruth; Ball, Marilyn C.; Meinzer, Frederick C.; Niinemets, Ülo

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove forests grow on saline, periodically flooded soils of the tropical and subtropical coasts. The tree species that comprise the mangrove are halophytes that have suites of traits that confer differing levels of tolerance of salinity, aridity, inundation and extremes of temperature. Here we review how climate change and elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 will influence mangrove forests. Tolerance of salinity and inundation in mangroves is associated with the efficient use of water for photosynthetic carbon gain which unpins anticipated gains in productivity with increasing levels of CO2. We review evidence of increases in productivity with increasing CO2, finding that enhancements in growth appear to be similar to trees in non-mangrove habitats and that gains in productivity with elevated CO2 are likely due to changes in biomass allocation. High levels of trait plasticity are observed in some mangrove species, which potentially facilitates their responses to climate change. Trait plasticity is associated with broad tolerance of salinity, aridity, low temperatures and nutrient availability. Because low temperatures and aridity place strong limits on mangrove growth at the edge of their current distribution, increasing temperatures over time and changing rainfall patterns are likely to have an important influence on the distribution of mangroves. We provide a global analysis based on plant traits and IPCC scenarios of changing temperature and aridity that indicates substantial global potential for mangrove expansion.

  6. Generic placement of the Neotropical species of “Phragmatobia” (Erebidae, Arctiinae, with a remarkable matrivorous species from the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schmidt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Phragmatobia Stephens is briefly reviewed and a diagnosis is provided. The South American species currently placed in Phragmatobia Stephens are revised to two new genera, Andesobia Schmidt and De Freina, gen. n., and Patagobia Schmidt and De Freina, gen. n. (subtribe Spilosomina. Both Andesobia and Patagobia exhibit adaptations to high altitude habitats, including micropterous females in Andesobia (Patagobia females are unknown and diurnal flight of males. The adults, immature stages, and mating behaviour of Andesobia jelskii (Oberthür, 1881 are described. Males of A. jelskii enter the female cocoon to mate, and the micropterous, flightless females remain in the cocoon following oviposition where newly hatched larvae feed initially on the female’s body.Four species are included in Andesobia, A. jelskii comb. n. (= Paracles imitatrix Rothschild, 1922, syn. n., A. flavata (Hampson, 1901, comb. n., A. boliviana (Gaede, 1923, comb. n. (=Turuptiana flavescens Rothschild, 1933, syn. n., and A. sanguinea (Hampson, 1907, comb. n. Patagobia includes only P. thursbyi (Rothschild, 1910, comb. n., and P. thursbyi pluto Toulgoët is relegated to its synonymy. Patagobia shows affinities to Phaos Walker, 1855 of Australia, Metacrias Meyrick, 1886 of New Zealand, and Pseudophragmatobia Krüger, 2009 of South Africa, suggesting a common ancestry of circumantarctic origin. Phragmatobia karsholti Toulgoët, 1991 is transferred to Venedictoffia Toulgoët, comb. n., an unrelated genus that is removed from subtribe Arctiina and provisionally placed in the Phaegopterina. Phragmatobia oberthueri Rothschild, 1910, described from Tibet, is a synonym of Lachana alpherakii (Grum-Grzhimailo, 1891 [Erebidae: Lymantriinae], syn. n., comb. n.

  7. A revision of Spondias L. (Anacardiaceae in the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Mitchell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of an ongoing study of Anacardiaceae subfamily Spondioideae, the ten native and one introduced species of Spondias in the Neotropics are revised. The genus is circumscribed. Three new species, S. admirabilis, S. expeditionaria, and S. globosa, are described and illustrated; a key to the taxa found in the Neotropics and distribution maps are provided. The Paleotropical species and allied genera are reviewed. Diagnostic character sets include leaf architecture, habit, flower morphology, and gross fruit morphology. Notes on the ecology and economic botany of the species are provided.

  8. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  9. MANGROVE RESOURCE USES BY LOCAL COMMUNITY IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Kusmana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is an archipelagic country of more than 17,504 islands (28 big islands and 17,475 small islands with the length of coastline estimated at 95,181 km, which bears mangroves from several meters to several kilometers. They are estimated at 3.2 million hectares growing extensively in the five big islands (Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Papua with various community types comprising of about 157 species (52 species of trees, 21 species of shrubs, 13 species of lyana, seven species of palms, 14 species of grasses, eight species of herbs, three species of parasites, 36 species of epiphytes, three species of ferns. The mangroves resources in Indonesia involve the flora, fauna, and land resources which are needed for supporting many kinds of human needs, especially for local community living in surrounding mangroves. For centuries, the Indonesian people have traditionally utilized mangroves. The most significant value of mangrove utilization is the gathering of forest products, classified into timber and non-timber products. The timber refers to poles and firewood, charcoal, and construction materials (e.g. housing material and fishing gears; the latter include tannin, medicines, dye, nypa thatch and shingles, nypa sap for vinegar and winemaking, and food drinks. Traditional uses of mangrove forest products are mainly the direct utilization of the products, usually in small scale. Beside of those, local community are used to utilizing associated mangrove aquatic fauna for supporting their daily life as well as utilizing mangrove habitat for multipurpose uses through agroforestry techniques (silvofishery, agrosilvofishery, agrosilvopastoralfishery systems. So that, the good mangrove ecosystem serves luxurious both flora and fauna species (biodiversity as well as their abundance for signicantly supporting the welfare of coastal community

  10. Implications of a Neotropical Origin of the Genus Leishmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noyes Harry

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis of a Neotropical origin of the Leishmania/Endotrypanum clade is reviewed. The position of the L. (Sauroleishmania external to the subgenus L. (Leishmania is not consistent with the Neotropical origin of the latter subgenus. It is suggested that this may be a consequence of a faster evolutionary rate in the L. (Sauroleishmania. The implications for the classsification of the phlebotomine sandflies of the hypothesis for a Neotropical origin of the Leishmania is also considered. The classification of Galati (1995 is proposed to be most consistent with the hypothesis of a Neotropical origin of the Leishmania, whilst classifications which place the New and Old World species in separate taxa are inconsistent with this hypothesis.

  11. Geomorphic settings of mangrove ecosystem in South Andaman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the field surveys, ground truth of topographic elevation, mangrove species, and associated coastal land cover features were identified and confirmed in these geomorphic settings. It is concluded that topography and bathymetry settings of the island play an indispensable role in this fragile mangrove ecosystem. 1.

  12. Estimating mangrove in Florida: trials monitoring rare ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove species are keystone components in coastal ecosystems and are the interface between forest land and sea. Yet, estimates of their area have varied widely. Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data from ground-based sample plots provide one estimate of the resource. Initial FIA estimates of the mangrove resource in Florida varied dramatically from those compiled...

  13. Size at Sexual Maturity in the Red Mangrove Crab Neosarmatium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sesarmid crab Neosarmatium meinertiis one of the most abundant species inhabiting the upper mangrove areas of many East African mangrove forests. However, several aspects concerning its reproduction are scarcely known. In this study, sexual maturity of N. meinerti is investigated. Samples were obtained during ...

  14. Destruction of mangrove vegetation by Sphaeroma terebrans along Kerala coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    the incidence of various borer and fouler species was recorded, Sphaeroma terebrans was found to be the chief destroyer of the prop roots and stems of the mangroves of Kerala. The major portions of the mangrove trees had their prop roots cut off at approximately...

  15. Genetics of neotropical fish: from chromosomes to populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C; Foresti, F; Hilsdorf, A W S

    2009-03-01

    The Neotropical freshwater fish fauna is very rich--according to the most recent catalogue 71 families and 4,475 species have been described. However, only a small amount of general information is available on the composition of Neotropical marine fishes. In Brazil, 1,298 marine species have been recorded. General analysis of available cytogenetic and population genetic data clearly indicates research has been mainly concentrated on freshwater fishes. Thus, today, cytogenetic information is available for 475 species of Characiformes, 318 species of Siluriformes, 48 species of Gymnotiformes, 199 freshwater species that do not belong to the superorder Ostariophysi, and only 109 species of marine fishes. For the species studied, only about 6% have sex chromosomes and about 5% have supernumerary or B chromosomes. A review of the cytogenetic studies shows that these data have provided valuable information about the relationships between fish groups, the occurrence of cryptic species and species complexes, the mechanism of sex determination and sex chromosome evolution, the distribution of nucleolus organizer regions, the existence supernumerary chromosomes, and the relationship between polyploidy and evolution. In relation to populations in Neotropical marine waters, the studies have shown the presence of cryptic species, which has important implications for fishery management. Different levels of genetic structuring can be found among Neotropical freshwater migratory fish species. This raises important implications for fish population genetic diversity and consequently its sustainable utilization in inland fisheries and aquaculture, specifically for conservation of ichthyo-diversity and survival.

  16. Vegetation and sediment characteristics in an expanding mangrove forest in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Gao, Jay; Cheung, Alan; Liu, Baolin; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Costello, Mark John

    2013-12-01

    Mangrove expansion in inlets has been widely observed in the North Island of New Zealand over recent decades. There is just one mangrove species in New Zealand, Avicennia marina var. resinifera. Our main objective was to investigate the response of mangroves to sedimentary patterns. Remote sensing and GIS was used to quantify the change in mangrove area. Vegetation and sediment characteristics were studied across seasons from December 2009 to August 2010. Comparison of digital images in 1940 and 2003 revealed that the mangrove area in our study inlet had increased by 21%. The mangroves created a rim of high fringe mangroves surrounding high-density but low height trees in the interior. The relatively low pH level and seasonally fluctuating pore water total dissolved salt (TDS) concentration reveal potentially stressful conditions in the interior mangrove zone, which may influence the forest structure in the interior.

  17. Description of a New Mangrove Root Dwelling Species of Teleotanais (Crustacea: Peracarida: Tanaidacea) from India, with a Key to Teleotanaidae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Larsen, K.; Sahoo, G.; Ansari, Z.A.

    of Teleotanais Lang, 1956 is given. The new species can be distinguished from it two congeners by the following combination of characters: cephalothorax shorter than pereonites 1–3 combined; antennule without pigmentation, distal article incompletely fused...

  18. Revision of the Neotropical Xanthandrus Verral (Diptera, Syrphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleica M. Borges

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Xanthandrus Verral, 1901 is revised. Six species are redescribed: X. bucephalus (Wiedemann, 1830, X. cubanus Fluke, 1936, X. mellinoides (Macquart, 1846, X. mexicanus Curran, 1930, X. nitidulus Fluke, 1937, and X. plaumanni Fluke, 1937. Three species are included based on original descriptions: X. flavomaculatus Shannon, 1927, X. palliatus (Fluke, 1945, and X. simplex (Loew, 1861. New synonyms proposed: Argentinomyia longicornis (Walker, 1837 = Xanthandrus biguttatus Hull, 1945 syn. nov., and Xanthandrus bucephalus (Wiedemann, 1830 = Melanostoma quadrinotata Bigot, 1884 syn. nov. Description of terminalia, a key for Neotropical species, and illustrations are also presented.

  19. OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTIONAL RANGE OF MANGROVE VASCULAR FLORA OF CATANDUANES ISLAND, LUZON, PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIMMY TEVAR MASAGCA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves play very significant roles not only on the economic aspects but also on the ecological aspects as biobelting for tidal surges and tsunamis. The loss of human lives due to the deadly tsunamis in East Asia and the unabated destruction of coastal vegetation have resulted in a renewed focus on the mangrove resources. The purpose of this paper is to report the existing mangrove database of the typhoon-prone island province of Catanduanes in Luzon, Philippines which will be used as bases in determining the appropriate educational management initiatives of various sectors for mangrove rehabilitation and regeneration. A total of 37 species of mangrove vascular flora (13 species of major mangrove elements, 10 species of minor mangrove elements and 14 associated mangrove species were identified in the island under study. Two species of the genus Avicennia ( A. marina and A. officinalis were noted in the island. The other genera ( Bruguiera , Ceriops , Sonneratia and Rhizophora are well distributed in the designated eco-zones. Nypa fruticans is the most important mangrove plant species and a member of the screwpine family (Pandanaceae, Pandanus tectorius which is an associated mangrove species is well-distributed all throughout the island.

  20. Assemblages of drosophilids (Diptera, Drosophilidae in mangrove forests: community ecology and species diversity Assembléias de drosofilídeos (Diptera, Drosophilidae em manguezais: ecologia de comunidades e diversidade de espécies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes J. Schmitz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian fauna of drosophilids has been researched in various ecosystems, but those in mangrove forests remain overlooked in Brazil and elsewhere. The present study attempts to characterise the assemblages of drosophilids of this environment, based on 28 collections taken in three mangrove areas in Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil. The three mangroves surveyed were different in their surroundings, which varied from highly urbanised areas to conservation areas with natural vegetation. Overall, 69 species were collected, and no remarkable difference was detected in species composition and abundances or in the richness, evenness and heterogeneity between sites. The species abundance distribution observed fitted to a theoretical lognormal distribution in the three mangroves. The species richness scored and the performance of the species richness estimators showed an unexpectedly high diversity, considering the very low floristic diversity and the harsh conditions of the environment. Regarding species composition and abundances, the drosophilid mangrove assemblages were shown to be more similar to those found in open environments, with a marked dominance of exotic species. Finally, considering the apparent lack of feeding and breeding sites, we suggest that mangrove forests are acting as sink habitats for the drosophilids populations.A fauna brasileira de drosofilídeos tem sido estudada em vários ecossistemas, mas os manguezais têm sido negligenciados a esse respeito no Brasil e em todo o mundo. O presente estudo traz uma caracterização das assembléias de drosofilídeos neste ambiente, baseando-se em 28 coletas realizadas em três áreas de manguezais na ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. Os três manguezais estudados apresentam diferenças marcantes quanto aos ambientes que os cercam, desde regiões altamente urbanizadas até áreas de proteção ambiental com vegetação natural. Ao todo, 69 espécies foram coletadas, e nenhuma

  1. Leaf secretion composition of the mangrove species Avicennia germinans (L.) in relation to salinity: a case study by using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrado; Greaves

    2000-10-16

    The aim here was to use total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to determine the elemental composition (besides Na), and the relative contribution of each element in leaf secretion of the mangrove species Avicennia germinans, grown under contrasting salinities (0-865 mol m(-3) NaCl). Na was determined by conventional atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Total secretion was 2.00+/-0.28 mmol m(-2) per day in control plants (at 0 NaCl) and increased progressively up to 46.87+/-7.14 mmol m(-2) per day at 865 mol m(-3) NaCl. Na and Cl accounted for 85.91+/-1.81% of the total secretion in control plants and about 96.32+/-0.30% in salt-treated plants. The excretion of Na exceeded that of Cl when salinity increased and this led to a progressive increase in Na/Cl ratios from 0.46+/-0.02 in control plants up to 2.75+/-0.42 (at 865 mol m(-3) NaCl). Other elements were also secreted in sizeable amounts such as K, S, Ca, Br and Zn. However, the relative importance of these elements, in terms of total secretion, was considerable in control plants (15% of the total secretion) and declined significantly under salinity treatments (total secretion). In conclusion, TXRF has been shown to be a powerful tool allowing quantitative determination of Cl (1.2-13 mmol m(-2) per day), secreted in relatively large quantities, as well as other elements secreted in intermediate (S, Ca and K; 0.07-1.00 mmol m(-2) per day) and in trace quantities (Br and Zn; 0.6-4 µmol m(-2) per day).

  2. Wildlife survey and monitoring in the Sky Island Region with an emphasis on neotropical felids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergio Avila-Villegas; Jessica Lamberton-Moreno

    2013-01-01

    The Sky Island region of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico consists of isolated mountain ranges separated by deserts and grasslands. It mixes elements from five major ecosystems: the Rocky Mountains, Sierra Madre Occidental, the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts and the Neotropics. Here some Neotropical species reach their northern ranges, such as jaguars...

  3. The mangroves of Búzios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Soffiati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the city of Buzios (RJ, Brazil, from the Una River, mangroves tend to develop the physiographic type of fringe or border, that is, mangroves growing on beaches without a upstream freshwater source. In Buzios, however, the three mangroves of this type benefit from aquifers derived from sea cliffs and dunes that provide fresh water not as rivers, but as outcrops. Beside them two riparian mangroves were also registered. All are mainly threatened by tourism, and require special protection instruments.

  4. Mangrove forest decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Abdul; Mertz, Ole; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests in the tropics and subtropics grow in saline sediments in coastal and estuarine environments. Preservation of mangrove forests is important for many reasons, including the prevention of coastal erosion and seawater intrusion; the provision of spawning, nursery, and feeding grounds...... change in dense mangrove forest cover (8.37 %) occurred during the period 2006–2011. The changes were caused mainly by the mangrove clearing and conversion to aquaculture, and consequences have been increasing forest degradation, coastal abrasion, seawater intrusion, a decline in fish capture...

  5. Identifikasi Bakteri Pada Serasah Daun Mangrove yang Terdekomposisi di Kawasan Konservasi Mangrove dan Bekantan (KKMB Kota Tarakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yulma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in mangrove ecosystem has a significant role in litter decomposition that is essential to provide organic nutrition for organisms in mangrove forest. The research was aimed to identify decomposition bacteria that exist in KKMB Tarakan mangrove conservation area. The identification focused on litters from several mangrove vegetation, which are Bruguiera parviflora, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia alba, dan Avicennia alba. The method used was explorative descriptive while testing parameter was genus. The research identified seven bacteria genera for litter from Bruguiera parviflora which are Bacillus, Aeromonas, Nocardiae, Corynebacterium, Listeria, Bacteroides, Pseudomonas. Six genera from Rhizophora apiculata which are Bacillus, Listeria, Enterobacteria, Aeromonas, Actinobacilus, and Bacteroides. Five genera for Sonneratia alba which are Bacillus, Aeromonas, Listeria, Enterobacteria, Staphylococcus. Also eight genera from Avicennia alba which are Bacillus, Clostridium, Enterobacteria, Bacteroides, Plesiomonas, Bordella, Streptococcus, and Neisseria. The results conclude that different species of mangrove vegetation attracts different species of bacteria as well.

  6. Birds Communities at Mangrove of Batu Ampar, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarwadi Budi Hernowo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar mangrove is an important bird habitat especially for birds which have relation to mangrove ecosystem in West Kalimantan. The research was conducted in February to March 2007, at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. Sampling was done to get representative area for bird survey. The 19 transects were chosen as sampling site to collect bird data such as species and number of individual. Bird surveys were carried out using Reconnaissance method and index point of abundance (IPA count method. The length of each transect was approximately 500 m. The results showed that the bird community's structure dominated by insectivorous birds represented approximately 60 % of total bird's species at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. The abundance numbers of the individual with the bird's species has relation pattern like J opposite. Percentage of dominant bird species was approximately 11%, those are such as stork billed kingfisher, white-collared kingfisher, common iora, chestnuts-rumped babbler, Strip-Tit Babbler, magpie robin, ashy tailorbird, mangrove blue flycatcher, pied fantail, mangrove whistler, Brown-throated Sunbird and Cooper-Throated Sunbird. Vertical structure of mangrove vegetation was used by birds at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site is mainly B stratum, and it used around 60% birds species. Based on dendrogram analysis there were 5 cluster birds species. The mangrove bird specialists found at sampling area were mangrove blue flycatcher and Cooper throated sunbird.

  7. Microhabitat Assessment of Mangrove Pit Viper Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus in Restricted Mangrove Area, Dumai, Riau Province, Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Kurniawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandar Bakau is a mangrove conservation area with approximately 20 ha that preserves many kinds of fauna, including Mangrove Pit Viper Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus. However, this species and its habitat are still poorly studied in Indonesia, particularly Sumatera island, despite it has a wide distribution in Southeast Asian countries. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the microhabitat of Mangrove Pit Viper C. purpureomaculatus that found at a restricted mangrove area in Dumai, Riau Province. Visual Encounter Survey (VES and deep interview methods were used in this study. The survey found six individuals of C. purpureomaculatus that mostly basking on the Avicennia marina and artificial building. Although Bandar Bakau is a tourism object, but no snakebite cases were found.

  8. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae. VII, Chrysophyllum

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1978-01-01

    In the neotropics, the genus Chrysophyllum consists of C. cainito and a number of species which have recently been assigned to the genus Cynodendron. Many taxonomists have not accepted the new genus Cynodendron and this is supported by the present study of the wood anatomy. In this restricted sense, Chrysophyllum consists of a group of closely related species that are...

  9. Effect of mangrove forest structures on wave attenuation in coastal Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Quang Bao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses wave attenuation in coastal mangrove forests in Vietnam. Data from 32 mangrove plots of six species located in 2 coastal regions are used for this study. In each plot, mangrove forest structures and wave height at different cross-shore distances are measured. Wave height closely relates to cross-shore distances. 92 exponential regression equations are highly significant with R2 > 0.95 and P val. < 0.001. Wave height reduction depends on initial wave height, cross-shore distances, and mangrove forest structures. This relationship is used to define minimum mangrove band width for coastal protection from waves in Vietnam.

  10. Contrasting Seasonal Survivorship of Two Migratory Songbirds Wintering in Threatened Mangrove Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Calvert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance migrants wintering in tropical regions face a number of critical conservation threats throughout their lives, but seasonal estimates of key demographic parameters such as winter survival are rare. Using mist-netting-based mark-recapture data collected in coastal Costa Rica over a six-year period, we examined variation in within- and between-winter survivorship of the Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea; 753 young and 376 adults banded, a declining neotropical habitat specialist that depends on threatened mangrove forests during the nonbreeding season. We derived parallel seasonal survivorship estimates for the Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis; 564 young and 93 adults banded, a cohabitant mangrove specialist that has not shown the same population decline in North America, to assess whether contrasting survivorship might contribute to the observed differences in the species’ population trajectories. Although average annual survival probability was relatively similar between the two species for both young and adult birds, monthly estimates indicated that relative to Northern Waterthrush, Prothonotary Warblers exhibited: greater interannual variation in survivorship, especially within winters; greater variation in survivorship among the three study sites; lower average between-winter survivorship, particularly among females, and; a sharp decline in between-winter survivorship from 2003 to 2009 for both age groups and both sexes. Rather than identifying one seasonal vital rate as a causal factor of Prothonotary Warbler population declines, our species comparison suggests that the combination of variable within-winter survival with decreasing between-winter survival demands a multi-seasonal approach to the conservation of this and other tropical-wintering migrants.

  11. Conservation problems of mangrove ecosystem in coastal area of Rembang Regency, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to find out (i species diversity of mangrove plats, (ii the conservation problems of mangrove ecosystem, and (iii restoration efford of mangrove ecosystem at coastal area of Rembang Regency, Central Java. This was descriptive research that was done qualitatively, in July until December 2003, at 3 sites of mangrove habitat in Rembang Regency, namely Pecangakan, Pasar Banggi, and Lasem. The data was collected in field surveys, in-depth interview to local people and/or local government, and examination of topographic maps of Java (1963-1965 and digital satellite image of Landsat 7 TM (July-September 2001. The result indicated that northern coast of Rembang had 27 mangrove species, i.e. 12 species of major mangrove, 2 species of minor mangrove, and 13 species of associated plants. Rhizophora had been dominated mangrove ecosystem in Lasem and Pasar Bangi; while Avicennia had been dominated in Pecangakan. The most degrading factors of mangrove ecosysrems were aquaculture and salt pond, timber logging, land reclamation and soil sedimentation, and environmental pollution. Mangrove restoration by Rhizophora in coast of Pasar Bangi had been successfully, because community based management.

  12. KAJIAN SOSIO-EKOLOGIS KAWASAN MANGROVE DI PESISIR PANTAI KECAMATAN BIDUK-BIDUK, KALIMANTAN TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandy E Prasetiyo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine the existing condition of mangrove as well as to asses dependency of coastal communities to the mangrove system at districts Biduk-biduk, East Kalimantan. The  primary data related to the mangrove condition was conducted using random sampling while sosio-ecology was taken through direct interviewing. The results obtained composition studies  as many as 31 species of mangrove species consisting of 13 species of true mangrove and 18 species of mangrove associates, where the average value of the density of mangroves in the study site was 1489 individuals/ha. True mangrove species found in this study include Acathus ilicifolius, Aegiceras corniculatum, Brugueira gymnorhizza, B. parviflora, Ceriops tagal,Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, Sonneratia alba, Sonneratia lanceolata, Xylocarpus granatum. Social studies results obtained information that the level of utilization direct of mangrove forests by the communities in the districts Biduk-biduk was relatively low as they were aware with the mangrove functionnement ecologically.

  13. Using expert knowledge and modeling to define mangrove composition, functioning, and threats and estimate time frame for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nibedita; Sutherland, William J; Khan, Md Nabiul I; Berger, Uta; Schmitz, Nele; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2014-06-01

    Mangroves are threatened worldwide, and their loss or degradation could impact functioning of the ecosystem. Our aim was to investigate three aspects of mangroves at a global scale: (1) their constituents (2) their indispensable ecological functions, and (3) the maintenance of their constituents and functions in degraded mangroves. We focused on answering two questions: "What is a mangrove ecosystem" and "How vulnerable are mangrove ecosystems to different impacts"? We invited 106 mangrove experts globally to participate in a survey based on the Delphi technique and provide inputs on the three aspects. The outputs from the Delphi technique for the third aspect, i.e. maintenance of constituents and functions were incorporated in a modeling approach to simulate the time frame for recovery. Presented here for the first time are the consensus definition of the mangrove ecosystem and the list of mangrove plant species. In this study, experts considered even monospecific (tree) stands to be a mangrove ecosystem as long as there was adequate tidal exchange, propagule dispersal, and faunal interactions. We provide a ranking of the important ecological functions, faunal groups, and impacts on mangroves. Degradation due to development was identified as having the largest impact on mangroves globally in terms of spatial scale, intensity, and time needed for restoration. The results indicate that mangroves are ecologically unique even though they may be species poor (from the vegetation perspective). The consensus list of mangrove species and the ranking of the mangrove ecological functions could be a useful tool for restoration and management of mangroves. While there is ample literature on the destruction of mangroves due to aquaculture in the past decade, this study clearly shows that more attention must go to avoiding and mitigating mangrove loss due to coastal development (such as building of roads, ports, or harbors).

  14. Nutrient enrichment shifts mangrove height distribution: Implications for coastal woody encroachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Carolyn A; Armitage, Anna R

    2018-01-01

    Global changes, such as increased temperatures and elevated CO2, are driving shifts in plant species distribution and dominance, like woody plant encroachment into grasslands. Local factors within these ecotones can influence the rate of regime shifts. Woody encroachment is occurring worldwide, though there has been limited research within coastal systems, where mangrove (woody shrub/tree) stands are expanding into salt marsh areas. Because coastal systems are exposed to various degrees of nutrient input, we investigated how nutrient enrichment may locally impact mangrove stand expansion and salt marsh displacement over time. We fertilized naturally co-occurring Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) stands in Port Aransas, TX, an area experiencing mangrove encroachment within the Northern Gulf of Mexico mangrove-marsh ecotone. After four growing seasons (2010-2013) of continuous fertilization, Avicennia was more positively influenced by nutrient enrichment than Spartina. Most notably, fertilized plots had a higher density of taller (> 0.5 m) mangroves and mangrove maximum height was 46% taller than in control plots. Fertilization may promote an increase in mangrove stand expansion within the mangrove-marsh ecotone by shifting Avicennia height distribution. Avicennia individuals, which reach certain species-specific height thresholds, have reduced negative neighbor effects and have higher resilience to freezing temperatures, which may increase mangrove competitive advantage over marsh grass. Therefore, we propose that nutrient enrichment, which augments mangrove height, could act locally as a positive feedback to mangrove encroachment, by reducing mangrove growth suppression factors, thereby accelerating the rates of increased mangrove coverage and subsequent marsh displacement. Areas within the mangrove-marsh ecotone with high anthropogenic nutrient input may be at increased risk of a regime shift from grass to woody

  15. Seasonal variation in heavy metal concentration in mangrove foliage

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Seasonal variation in the concentration of some heavy metals in the leaves of seven species of mangrove vegetation from Goa, revealed that maximum concentration of iron and manganese occurs during the monsoon season without any significant toxic...

  16. Massarina armatispora sp. nov., a new intertidal ascomycete from mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hyde, K.D.; Vrijmoed, L.L.P.; Chinnaraj, S.; Jones, E.B.G.

    Massarina armatispora sp. nov. is described from dead intertidal mangrove wood collected in India and Hong Kong. The new taxon is compared with other M. species, and its placement in the genus Massarina is discussed...

  17. Trophic characteristics of a mangrove fish community in Southwest Thailand: Important mangrove contribution and intraspecies feeding variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagars, Matiss; Ikejima, Kou; Kasai, Akihide; Arai, Nobuaki; Tongnunui, Prasert

    2013-03-01

    Mangrove production has been found to make a major contribution to the nutrition of a fish community in the Sikao Creek mangrove estuary, Southwest Thailand. Gut content analysis and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis were used to assess fish feeding behavior and trophic reliance on different primary producers (mangrove leaves, phytoplankton, microphytobenthos) focusing on 19 dominant fish species, and 4 potential fish food items. Cluster analysis identified 5 trophic groups and the IsoSource model indicated the importance of primary food sources in trophically supporting different fish species. Most analyzed fish species had carbon isotopic signatures that were more depleted than those reported in previous studies, and the IsoSource model indicated that mangrove leaves were an important primary food source. This may be a specific characteristic of our study site, which is not well connected to other productive coastal habitats that provide alternative primary food sources. Thus we suggest that food chains in trophically isolated mangrove estuaries of southwest Thailand are more dependent on mangrove tree production. We also assessed the relationship of individuality in fish feeding habits and variability of δ13C values and showed that several mangrove fish species have significant intraspecies variability in feeding habits, possibly due to high intraspecific competition.

  18. Developing community-based mangrove management through eco-tourism in North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Bimantara, Y.; Siagian, M.; Wati, R.; Slamet, B.; Sulistiyono, N.; Nuryawan, A.; Leidonad, R.

    2018-03-01

    Mangrove forests in North Sumatera, Indonesia existed in the east coast of Sumatera Island and commonly thrived in Langkat, Deli Serdang, Batubara, Tanjung Balai, Asahan, Labuhanbatu until Serdang Bedagai. The present study describes the developing community-based mangrove management (CBMM) through eco-tourism in two locations, Lubuk Kertang (LK) of Langkat and Sei Nagalawan (SN) of Serdang Bedagai, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Mangrove ecosystem, coastal villagers and visitors, and related stakeholder were analyzed to present the potential of mangrove ecosystem, the ecological suitability, and the carrying capacity then continued with SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis. Results showed that mangrove diversity in LK consist of fifteen species which Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia lanata dominated the area, where mangroves in SN found seven species dominated by R. apiculata and A. officinalis. Based on the suitability level of mangrove ecosystem for ecotourism development, LK and SN were categorized as suitable and conditionally suitable, respectively. The carrying capacity of mangrove ecotourism for LK and SN were 36 and 36 people/day respectively. SWOT analysis revealed that both locations of eco-tourism have a potential eco-tourism attraction, high mangrove biodiversity, possible human resources, and real people’s perception on the importance of mangrove conservation, and relatively easy access. The study present suggested that mangrove ecotourism is a sustainable form of land use, to contributing the environmental protection and providing socio-economic benefits to the local people through indirect values of the natural resources.

  19. Herbivory enhances the resistance of mangrove forest to cordgrass invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihui; Meng, Hanyu; Wang, Yi; He, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    The biotic resistance hypothesis proposes that biotic interactions, such as competition and herbivory, resist the establishment and spread of non-native species. The relative and interactive role of competition and herbivory in resisting plant invasions, however, remains poorly understood. We investigated the interactive role of competition and herbivory (by the native rodent Rattus losea) in resisting Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) invasions into mangrove forests. In southern China, although exotic cordgrass numerically dominates intertidal mudflats and open gaps in mangrove forests, intact forests appear to be highly resistant to cordgrass invasion. A field transplant and rodent exclusion experiment showed that while the impact of rodent grazing on cordgrass was weak on mangrove forest edges and open mudflats, rodent grazing strongly suppressed cordgrass in mangrove understory habitats. A greenhouse experiment confirmed a synergistic interaction between grazing and light availability (a proxy for mangrove shading and light competition) in suppressing cordgrass establishment, with the strongest impacts of grazing in low light conditions that likely weakened cordgrass to survive and resprout. When both were present, as in mangrove understory habitats, grazing and low light acted in concert to eliminate cordgrass establishment, resulting in resistance of mangrove forests to cordgrass invasion. Our results reveal that grazing by native herbivores can enhance the resistance of mangrove forests to cordgrass invasion in southern China, and suggest that investigating multifactor interactions may be critical to understanding community resistance to exotic invasions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Cheсklist of gastropod molluscs in mangroves of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonareva, Sofya; Kantor, Yuri

    2016-09-12

    Gastropod molluscs are one of the most important components of mangrove ecosystem. Mangroves in Central Vietnam have a rather limited distribution due to peculiarities of the coastline morphology and presently their fauna remains understudied. Extensive surveys were conducted in both natural vegetation and artificial mangrove plantations in several localities in Nha Trang Bay from 2005 to 2015. In total 65 species of gastropod molluscs were found alive, 17 of which can be considered as predominantly mangrove-associated. An illustrated guide is provided, with short synonymies and data on ecology and distribution. The recorded molluscan diversity is compared with published data on mangrove gastropods in different regions of the Indo-Pacific. Total species number and the proportion of mangrove-associated species are similar to studied faunas in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand, but the diversity is much lower than that of the mangal fauna of the Philippines.

  1. Effect of mangrove restoration on crab burrow density in Luoyangjiang Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Mangrove restoration seeks to restore or rebuild degraded mangrove systems. The methods of mangrove restoration include ecological projects and restoration-oriented technologies, the latter of which are designed to restore the structure, processes as well as related physical, chemical and biological characteristics of wetlands and to ensure the provision of ecosystem services. As important components of mangrove ecosystem, benthic organisms and crabs play a key role in nutrient cycling. In addition, mangrove restoration, such as vegetation restoration measures, can lead to changes in the benthic faunal communities. This study investigates whether the presence of different mangrove species, age and canopy cover of mangrove communities affect the density of crab burrows. Methods The Luoyangjiang Estuary, in the southeast of Fujian Province, was selected as our research area. A survey, covering 14 sites, was conducted to investigate the impacts of mangrove restoration on the density of crab burrows in four rehabilitated forests with different stand ages and canopy. Results It was found that differences in vegetation types had a large impact on crab density and that the density of crab burrows was lower on exposed beaches (non-mangrove than under mature Kandelia candel, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina communities. In general, the amount of leaf litter and debris on mangrove mudflats was greater than on the beaches as food sources for crabs. Two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA shows that changes in mangrove species and age since restoration had different effects on crab burrow density. The effect of canopy cover was highly significant on crab burrow density. Conclusions The results suggest that in the process of mangrove restoration the combined effects of mangrove stand age, canopy cover and other factors should be taken into account. This study further supports the findings of the future scientific research and practice on

  2. Are mangroves in the tropical Atlantic ripe for invasion? Exotic mangrove trees in the forests of South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, James W.; Smith, Thomas J.; Possley, Jennifer; Collins, Timothy M.; Lee, David; Namoff, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Two species of mangrove trees of Indo-Pacific origin have naturalized in tropical Atlantic mangrove forests in South Florida after they were planted and nurtured in botanic gardens. Two Bruguiera gymnorrhiza trees that were planted in the intertidal zone in 1940 have given rise to a population of at least 86 trees growing interspersed with native mangrove species Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa along 100 m of shoreline; the population is expanding at a rate of 5.6% year−1. Molecular genetic analyses confirm very low genetic diversity, as expected from a population founded by two individuals. The maximum number of alleles at any locus was three, and we measured reduced heterozygosity compared to native-range populations. Lumnitzera racemosa was introduced multiple times during the 1960s and 1970s, it has spread rapidly into a forest composed of native R. mangle, A. germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus and now occupies 60,500 m2 of mangrove forest with stem densities of 24,735 ha−1. We estimate the population growth rate of Lumnitzera racemosa to be between 17 and 23% year−1. Populations of both species of naturalized mangroves are dominated by young individuals. Given the long life and water-dispersed nature of propagules of the two exotic species, it is likely that they have spread beyond our survey area. We argue that the species-depauperate nature of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests and close taxonomic relatives in the more species-rich Indo-Pacific region result in the susceptibility of tropical Atlantic mangrove forests to invasion by Indo-Pacific mangrove species.

  3. Mollusks in the Mangrove Rehabilitation Areas in Western Pangasinan, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene B. De Vera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mollusks are predominantly found inmangrove ecosystems. Nowadays, these are declining due to habitat disturbances. This study was conducted in Western, Pangasinan, with mangrove rehabilitation projects under Community Based Forest Management Agreement. Four mangrove rehabilitation areas were looked into: Pilar and Victory, Bolinao; and Awile and Tori-tori, Anda, Pangasinan. Purposive sampling was done in selecting the mangrove rehabilitation areas. Ten percent sampling of the areas using the belt transect quadrat method was employed. Diversity, dominance , richness and evenness indices for mollusks were determined. Mann Whitney test, Student’s t-test and Kruskal Wallis test were used. A total of fourteen kinds of mollusks species were identified. The species were Tectusfenestratus (fenestrate top, Terebraliasulcata (Sulcate swamp perith, Haliotisovinagemelin (oval abalone, Neritaplanospiraanton (flat spired nerite, Clithionoualensis(dubious nerite, Fasciolaria trapezium (trapezium horse conch, Nasarriuspullus (ribbed dog whelk, Trochusmaculatus (maculated top, Rhinoclavisvertagus (Common vertagus , Telescopium telescopium (Telescope Snail, Isognomonephippium (saddle tree oyster Crassostriairedali (slipper oyster, Strombuslabiatus (Plicate conch and Polymesodaexpansa (Yellowish mangrove clam. The highest mollusks species diversity and richness indeces were observed in Victory, Bolinao. Mollusks species dominance and evenness indeces were highest in Pilar, Bolinao and Tori-tori, Anda, respectively. The study revealed a significant difference in the probability of gathering mollusks species in the four mangrove rehabilitation areas. It is recommended that fisherfolkand coastal communities be educated about the need for mollusks conservation and habitat protection. It is expected that this study may provide light to future research on mangrove fauna particularly mollusks in Pangasinan.

  4. Catalog of the Neotropical Trichoptera (Caddisflies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzenthal, Ralph W; Calor, Adolfo R

    2017-01-01

    The Neotropical caddisfly (Trichoptera) fauna is cataloged from a review of over 1,000 literature citations through 2015 (partial 2016) to include 3,262 currently recognized, valid species-group names in 25 families and 155 extant genera. Fourteen subspecies are included in the total as well as 35 fossil species and 1 fossil genus. The region covered includes all of Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. Genus-group and species-group synonyms are listed. For each nominal species, information on the type locality, type depository, sex of type, distribution by country, and other pertinent taxonomic or biological information is included. Summary information on taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution, immature stages, and biology are provided for each family and genus where known. An extensive index to all nominal taxa is included to facilitate use of the catalog. The glossosomatid species Mexitrichia usseglioi Rueda Martín & Gibon, is transferred to Mortoniella comb. n .

  5. Catalog of the Neotropical Trichoptera (Caddisflies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzenthal, Ralph W.; Calor, Adolfo R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical caddisfly (Trichoptera) fauna is cataloged from a review of over 1,000 literature citations through 2015 (partial 2016) to include 3,262 currently recognized, valid species-group names in 25 families and 155 extant genera. Fourteen subspecies are included in the total as well as 35 fossil species and 1 fossil genus. The region covered includes all of Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. Genus-group and species-group synonyms are listed. For each nominal species, information on the type locality, type depository, sex of type, distribution by country, and other pertinent taxonomic or biological information is included. Summary information on taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution, immature stages, and biology are provided for each family and genus where known. An extensive index to all nominal taxa is included to facilitate use of the catalog. The glossosomatid species Mexitrichia usseglioi Rueda Martín & Gibon, is transferred to Mortoniella comb. n. PMID:28331396

  6. Relics habitat of mangrove vegetation in south coast of Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARI SUSILOWATI

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove vegetation is one of the most richness ecosystems in tropical forest. It has high value economically and ecologically. Mangrove product can be used directly as timber, firewood, charcoal, tannin, dyes, food, medicine, raw material of industries, etc. It also can be used indirectly as fisheries, wastes processing, seashore protection, ecoturisms, educations, etc. In the past time, river estuaries in south coast of Java was mangrove habitat. However, anthropogenic activities had been reduced mangrove vegetation into relix habitat. The aim of the research was to know (1 sites of mangrove vegetation in river estuaries in south coast of Java, (2 diversity of mangrove vegetation, (3 density of Sonneratia alba J.E. Smith, and (4 physical and chemical properties of these sites. The research was conducted in March-April 2002, at 20 river estuaries from Pacitan until Cilacap, south coast of Java. The results indicated that mangrove remnant could be met in 10 river estuaries, namely Grindulu, Teleng, Bogowonto, Cakrayasan, Lukulo, Cincingguling, Ijo, Bengawan, Serayu, and Jeruk Legi-Donan. There were 29 mangrove species in estuaries, consist of major components (9 sp., minor components (2 sp., and mangrove associated (18 sp.. The density of Sonneratia alba J.E. Smith varied from 0 till > 250 individual per hectare. The soil sediment could be grouped into sand, silt, and clay, where silt and clay could support mangrove growth finely. The average of environmental parameters as follows: temperature of water and sediment respectively were 32.0oC and 31.4oC, pH of water and sediment respectively were 7.29 and 6.96, total dissolved solid of water was ~ 2000 ppm, dissolved oxygen of water was 9.29 ppm, and water salinity was 16 ppt.

  7. Potensi Sumberdaya Alam Hayati Kawasan Mangrove Pasar Banggi Kabupaten Rembang Sebagai Objek Ekowisata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusaeri -

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kawasan Mangrove Pasar Banggi merupakan salah satu tegakan mangrove yang masih baik dan sudah direboisasi sejak tahun 1960-an. Kawasan tersebut memiliki sentra persemaian mangrove yang cukup dikenal oleh masyarakat luas di Pulau Jawa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kondisi vegetasi dan kualitas lingkungan mangrove serta menyusun rekomendasi strategi pengembangan ekowisata mangrove di kawasan tersebut. Metode penelitian menggunakan deskriptif analitik melalui pendekatan kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hutan mangrove Pasar Banggi seluas 14,88 ha dalam kondisi cukup baik dengan identifikasi jenis mangrove yang ditemukan Avicennia marina, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucranata, Rhizophora stylosa, Sonneratia alba, dan Sonneratia caseolaris. Indeks Nilai Penting (INP untuk vegetasi mangrove tertinggi terdapat pada jenis Rhizophora mucronata sebesar 281,82%, dan Indeks Kesesuaian  Wisata Mangrove pada 9 lokasi (plot diperoleh data 61,54% yang masuk kedalam kategori “sesuai bersyarat”. Strategi pengembangan potensi mangrove berdasarkan Matriks Grand Strategy SWOT berada pada kuadran I yang berarti menggunakan “strategi agresif”. Dalam strategi ini yang diprioritaskan adalah penentuan master plan zonasi pemanfaatan secara terpadu, manajemen pengelolaan objek ekowisata yang profesional serta membangun komitmen semua pihak dalam menjaga kelestarian lingkungan.Mangrove areas of Pasar Banggi is one of the mangrove stands has been reforested since the 1960s. The region has a mangrove nursery centers well known by the public on Java Island. This study aimed to determine the condition of mangrove vegetation and environmental quality. It also aimed to make a recommendation for mangrove eco-tourism development strategy. The research method used was descriptive qualitative analytical approach. The results showed that mangrove forests of Pasar Banggi was 14.88 ha in good condition with the identification of mangrove species

  8. Mangrove vulnerability index using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Zulkifli Mohd; Ahmad, Fatimah Shafinaz; Ibrahim, Nuremira

    2018-02-01

    Climate change, particularly its associated sea level rise, is major threat to mangrove coastal areas, and it is essential to develop ways to reduce vulnerability through strategic management planning. Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. Mangrove vulnerability ranking using up to 14 parameters found in study area, which is in Pulau Kukup and Sg Pulai, where 1 is low vulnerability and 5 is very high vulnerability. Mangrove Vulnerability Index (MVI) is divided into 3 main categories Physical Mangrove Index (PMI), Biological Mangrove Index (BMI) and Hazard Mangrove Index (HMI).

  9. The neotropical genus Opeatocerata Melander (Díptera, Empididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G. V. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical empidid genus Opeatocerata Melander, hitherto known from only a sigle female from Mexico, is redefined in the light of new material, including males. Three new species are described and illustrated, a key provided and the presence of the genus now additionally established in Costa Rica, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador, Trinidad and Brazil.

  10. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae : XIV. Elaeoluma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohumil Francis Kukachka

    1980-01-01

    The genus Elaeoluma consists of three species distributed in the Amazon Basin, Surinam, Guyana, and Venezuela. The description presented here is based on E. glabrescens of the Amazon Basin. The wood is easily differentiated from all other neotropical Sapotaceae by its pale brown color, reticulate parenchyma, which is hardly discernable with a hand lens, and a low...

  11. Fish communities of a disturbed mangrove wetland and an adjacent tidal river in Palmar, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervette, V. R.; Aguirre, W. E.; Blacio, E.; Cevallos, Rodrigo; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Pozo, Francisco; Gelwick, F.

    2007-03-01

    Coastal Ecuador has lost 20-30% of mangrove wetlands over the past 30 years. Such habitat loss can impair the ecological functions of wetlands. A paucity of information exists concerning mangrove fish communities of Ecuador. In this study we identify the fish community of the remaining mangrove wetland in Palmar, Ecuador. Fish were sampled in the dry season of 2003 and the wet season of 2004 by seining in mangrove creeks and Main channel of Rio Palmar. For comparison, an adjacent tidal river without mangroves, Rio Javita, was also sampled. We collected a total of 12,231 individuals comprising 36 species in 16 families from Rios Palmar and Javita. Gobiidae (7 species) was the most diverse family for mangrove sites followed by Gerreidae (5 species) and Engraulidae (4 species). A total of 34 species were collected in the mangrove wetland, 21 of which were exclusive to the mangroves including three species of juvenile snook (Centropomidae), indicating that the mangrove habitat of Palmar may provide nursery habitat for these economically valued species. In Rio Javita, Carangidae (3 species) was the most diverse family followed by Engraulidae and Gerreidae (2 species each). A total of 14 species were collected in the tidal river, only two of which were exclusive to the river. Multivariate analyses of fish community data indicated significant differences in community composition between the mangrove creeks and the tidal river and between seasons in both. Juvenile white mullet, Mugil curema, were collected in high relative abundance in both Rios Palmar and Javita, as was the tropical silverside Atherinella serrivomer an ecologically important species. Although Rios Palmar and Javita are characterized by relatively low fish species richness compared to other tropical estuarine systems, they appear to provide an important habitat for several economically and ecologically valued species.

  12. Mangroves - Nursery for fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Singh, C.

    for agriculture and urbanization. Lately, these ecologically sensitive habitats are included under CRZ-I category of Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Act of the country. Mangrove in the state, being limited, need stringent and effective management regulations....

  13. Mangrove Study Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Southern Biscayne Bay's shoreline fish community been monitored visually twice a year since 1998 to compare fish use of mangrove prop root habitats along the...

  14. Body Size Diversity and Frequency Distributions of Neotropical Cichlid Fishes (Cichliformes: Cichlidae: Cichlinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Sarah E.; López-Fernández, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    Body size is an important correlate of life history, ecology and distribution of species. Despite this, very little is known about body size evolution in fishes, particularly freshwater fishes of the Neotropics where species and body size diversity are relatively high. Phylogenetic history and body size data were used to explore body size frequency distributions in Neotropical cichlids, a broadly distributed and ecologically diverse group of fishes that is highly representative of body size d...

  15. Ambophily in the Dioecious Weedy Mangrove Associate, Excoecaria agallocha (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamsetty Henry Jonathan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Excoecaria agallocha is a deciduous tree species dispersed as mangrove associate in oligohaline to polyhaline areas of the mangrove forest. The existence of male and female tree ratio is 2:1. The ratio of male to female flowers is 16:1. It is an constrained out-crosser and is pollinated by insects like bees, flies, butterflies, and wind, which constitute ambophily. Anemophily make certain the realization of sexual reproduction if the insect pollinators are nor present and such a breeding system is a “fail-safe” strategy for reproductive assurance during colonization. Natural fruit set rate is 92%. Fruit predation by Chrysocoris partricius is 25%; it consumes the fruits prior to their fall from the mother plant. This tree species occupies the cleared or open areas within the mangrove forest and acts as an invasive mangrove associate.

  16. Patterns, biases and prospects in the distribution and diversity of Neotropical snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Thaís B; Sawaya, Ricardo J; Zizka, Alexander; Laffan, Shawn; Faurby, Søren; Pyron, R Alexander; Bérnils, Renato S; Jansen, Martin; Passos, Paulo; Prudente, Ana L C; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F; Braz, Henrique B; Nogueira, Cristiano de C; Antonelli, Alexandre; Meiri, Shai

    2018-01-01

    We generated a novel database of Neotropical snakes (one of the world's richest herpetofauna) combining the most comprehensive, manually compiled distribution dataset with publicly available data. We assess, for the first time, the diversity patterns for all Neotropical snakes as well as sampling density and sampling biases. We compiled three databases of species occurrences: a dataset downloaded from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), a verified dataset built through taxonomic work and specialized literature, and a combined dataset comprising a cleaned version of the GBIF dataset merged with the verified dataset. Neotropics, Behrmann projection equivalent to 1° × 1°. Specimens housed in museums during the last 150 years. Squamata: Serpentes. Geographical information system (GIS). The combined dataset provides the most comprehensive distribution database for Neotropical snakes to date. It contains 147,515 records for 886 species across 12 families, representing 74% of all species of snakes, spanning 27 countries in the Americas. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity show overall similar patterns. Amazonia is the least sampled Neotropical region, whereas most well-sampled sites are located near large universities and scientific collections. We provide a list and updated maps of geographical distribution of all snake species surveyed. The biodiversity metrics of Neotropical snakes reflect patterns previously documented for other vertebrates, suggesting that similar factors may determine the diversity of both ectothermic and endothermic animals. We suggest conservation strategies for high-diversity areas and sampling efforts be directed towards Amazonia and poorly known species.

  17. Global Mangrove Forests Distribution, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Mangrove Forests Distribution, 2000 data set is a compilation of the extent of mangroves forests from the Global Land Survey and the Landsat archive with...

  18. ANALISIS FINANSIALPOLA PENGGUNAAN LAHAN MANGROVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Gumay Febryano

    2014-11-01

    The expansion of aquaculture in coastal areas has become a major cause of mangroves deforestation. That has been taking place on a massive scale and impact on the social, economics, and ecology aspects in coastal areas. This study aims to explain the value of mangrove resources through the study of the financial analysis of some mangrove land use patterns. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation, and document analysis. The results showed that some landuse patterns of mangrove in Pesawaran Regency are intensive shrimp farming, mangrove nursery, and ecotourism that financially feasible to be developed. The high value of landuse patterns for intensive shrimp ponds created a high interest on the bussinesmen to own the mangrove. When intensive shrimp farms have a negative impact to the environment and its surrounding communities, also the constrain of mangrove nursery by market, then ecotourism gives great potential to mangrove protection and its biodiversity along the empowerment of local communities.

  19. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla) growth

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Renata Assis; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Almeida, Jaqueline Raquel de; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Nave, André; Melo, Itamar Soares de; Azevedo, João Lucio de; Quecine, Maria Carolina

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast). Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for th...

  20. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla) growth

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Renata Assis; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Almeida, Jaqueline Raquel de; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Nave, André; Melo, Itamar Soares de; Azevedo, João Lucio de; Quecine, Maria Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast). Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their abili...

  1. Is Climate Change Shifting the Poleward Limit of Mangroves?

    KAUST Repository

    Hickey, Sharyn M.

    2017-02-01

    Ecological (poleward) regime shifts are a predicted response to climate change and have been well documented in terrestrial and more recently ocean species. Coastal zones are amongst the most susceptible ecosystems to the impacts of climate change, yet studies particularly focused on mangroves are lacking. Recent studies have highlighted the critical ecosystem services mangroves provide, yet there is a lack of data on temporal global population response. This study tests the notion that mangroves are migrating poleward at their biogeographical limits across the globe in line with climate change. A coupled systematic approach utilising literature and land surface and air temperature data was used to determine and validate the global poleward extent of the mangrove population. Our findings indicate that whilst temperature (land and air) have both increased across the analysed time periods, the data we located showed that mangroves were not consistently extending their latitudinal range across the globe. Mangroves, unlike other marine and terrestrial taxa, do not appear to be experiencing a poleward range expansion despite warming occurring at the present distributional limits. Understanding failure for mangroves to realise the global expansion facilitated by climate warming may require a focus on local constraints, including local anthropogenic pressures and impacts, oceanographic, hydrological, and topographical conditions.

  2. Arsenic enrichment in mangroves, and sediments along Karachi coast, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida Parveen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the arsenic (As concentration in different parts of mangroves Avicennia marina and sediments in Karachi coastal area i.e. Korangi Creek , Manora, Kakapir and Sandspit. Methods: Sites are identified for sampling owing to their vicinity to industrial activities. Sandspit is targeted for its being devoid of industries. The hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS were used to analyse the concentration of arsenic in mangrove and sediment. Results: The high concentration of As was found in roots and middle aerial part as compared to the upper part of mangroves. The concentrations of As was found higher in sediments as compared to the mangroves. There is a seasonal variation of As enrichment in mangrove and sediments as dry seasons showed higher concentration while in rainy season dilution factors may be attributed to the low level of As. The concentration variation of As in sampling sites of mangroves and sediments following the trend i.e. Korangi Creek >Manora>Kakapir>Sandspit. The statistical analysis (Two way ANOVA of data exhibited no significant difference (P>0.05 for trace metals concentrations in mangrove as well as in sediments. Conclusions: It is obvious to conclude that As should be continuously monitored in different environmental segments. The data must correlate with geographical distribution of As, quantification in different species, their solubility and bioavailability to understand the possible factors responsible for environmental pollution. The present study will be helpful to improve water management resources.

  3. Some observations on the development of the mangrove on the Equador and Peru continental coast

    OpenAIRE

    Cintron, G M; Horna, R R; Paredes, R S; Solis, I C; Bonifaz, C B

    1982-01-01

    The mangrove swamps of Ecuador and Peru are described and the principal species of the Rhizophora family are identified, as well as the principal factors, physical structure, climate, temperature, weather conditions, rain fall and tidal changes, for the purpose of establishing a pattern of forests and zones of mangrove swamps. It is concluded that the theory of West concerning the latitudinal distribution of the mangrove swamps (1977), is the best for that coastal area. In conclusion it is re...

  4. Eksplorasi Aktinomiset Sebagai Penghasil Antibiotika Dari Tanah Mangrove Sonneratia Caseolaris Di Tanjung Api Api

    OpenAIRE

    Fatiqin, Awalul

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycetes are soil organisms that have traits that are common to bacteria and fungi but also have quite different characteristics that limit into one group which is distinctly different. Study aimed to explore the mangrove actinomycetes from soil and tested the antibacterial potency. Soil samples taken from the mangrove land at Tanjung Api-api mangrove species Sonneratia caseolaris. Activity test antibacterial using a method modified disk a test bacterium Escherichia coli. Identification ...

  5. Phosphorus mediation of cadmium stress in two mangrove seedlings Avicennia marina and Kandelia obovata differing in cadmium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Minyue; Lu, Haoliang; Liu, Wenwen; Jia, Hui; Hong, Hualong; Liu, Jingchun; Yan, Chongling

    2017-05-01

    Mangrove ecosystems are vulnerable to environmental threats. In order to elucidate the effect of phosphorus (P) on cadmium (Cd) tolerance and physiological responses in mangroves under Cd stress, a mangrove specie with salt exclusion Kandelia obovata and a specie with salt secretion Avicennia marina were compared in a hydroponic experiment. The results showed that most Cd was accumulated in mangrove roots and that P addition induced Cd immobilisation in them. Cd stress significantly increased malonaldehyde content, whereas P significantly decreased malonaldehyde in mangroves. Phosphorus positively regulated the photosynthetic pigment, proline content and synthesis of non-protein thiols, glutathione and phytochelatins in the leaves under Cd stress conditions. The results suggest different adaptive strategies adopted by two mangroves in a complex environment and A. marina showed a stronger Cd tolerance than K. obovata. The study provides a theoretical basis for P mediated detoxification of Cd in mangrove plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Abiotic Factors on the Geographic Distribution of Body Size Variation and Chromosomal Polymorphisms in Two Neotropical Grasshopper Species (Dichroplus: Melanoplinae: Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio J. Bidau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the effects of abiotic factors on body size in two grasshopper species with large geographical distributions: Dichroplus pratensis and D. vittatus, inhabiting Argentina in diverse natural habitats. Geographical spans for both species provide an opportunity to study the effects of changes in abiotic factors on body size. The analyses of body size distribution in both species revealed a converse Bergmannian pattern: body size is positively correlated with latitude, altitude, and seasonality that influences time available for development and growth. Allen’s rule is also inverted. Morphological variability increases towards the ends of the Bergmannian clines and, in D. pratensis, is related with a central-marginal distribution of chromosomal variants that influence recombination. The converse Bergmannian patterns influence sexual size dimorphism in both species but in different fashions. Body size variation at a microspatial scale in D. pratensis is extremely sensitive to microclimatic clines. We finally compare our results with those for other Orthopteran species.

  7. A model of seasonal foliage dynamics of the subtropical mangrove species Rhizophora stylosa Griff. growing at the northern limit of its distribution

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    Sahadev Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Progress of forest production in response to the environment requires a quantitative understanding of leaf area development. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the dynamics of seasonal crown foliage in order to understand the productivity of mangroves, which play an important role in the subtropical and tropical coastlines of the world. Method Crown foliage dynamics of the mangrove Rhizophora stylosa were studies to reveal patterns of leaf recruitment, survival and seasonal leaf area growth. Results Flushing of leaves occurred throughout the year, but both flushing and leaf area growth pattern of leaves varied with season. Maximum flushing occurred in summer, but leaf areas did not differ significantly with season. The half-expansion period is longer, and the intrinsic rate of increase was lower in winter. Summer flushed leaves grew faster at their initial stage and reached their maximum area over a shorter period of time. The difference in temperature and air vapor pressure deficit (VPD between summer and winter contributed to the present dynamics of foliage patterns. The mean leaf longevity was estimated to be 13.1 month. The crown foliage area was almost stable throughout the year. Conclusions Homeostatic control of the crown foliage area may be accompanied by the existence of ecophysiological mechanisms in R. stylosa. Integrating crown foliage dynamics into forest models represents an important step towards incorporating physiological mechanisms into the models for predicting growth responses to environmental changes and for understanding the complex responses of tree growth and litter production.

  8. Extent of mangrove nursery habitats determines the geographic distribution of a coral reef fish in a South-Pacific archipelago.

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    Christelle Paillon

    Full Text Available Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year. The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r = 0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass. These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes.

  9. Biotic interactions mediate the expansion of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) into salt marshes under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyu; Zhang, Yihui; Lan, Zhenjiang; Pennings, Steven C

    2013-09-01

    Many species are expanding their distributions to higher latitudes due to global warming. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these distribution shifts is critical for better understanding the impacts of climate changes. The climate envelope approach is widely used to model and predict species distribution shifts with changing climates. Biotic interactions between species, however, may also influence species distributions, and a better understanding of biotic interactions could improve predictions based solely on climate envelope models. Along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, USA, subtropical black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) at the northern limit of its distribution grows sympatrically with temperate salt marsh plants in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. In recent decades, freeze-free winters have led to an expansion of black mangrove into salt marshes. We examined how biotic interactions between black mangrove and salt marsh vegetation along the Texas coast varied across (i) a latitudinal gradient (associated with a winter-temperature gradient); (ii) the elevational gradient within each marsh (which creates different marsh habitats); and (iii) different life history stages of black mangroves (seedlings vs. juvenile trees). Each of these variables affected the strength or nature of biotic interactions between black mangrove and salt marsh vegetation: (i) Salt marsh vegetation facilitated black mangrove seedlings at their high-latitude distribution limit, but inhibited black mangrove seedlings at lower latitudes; (ii) mangroves performed well at intermediate elevations, but grew and survived poorly in high- and low-marsh habitats; and (iii) the effect of salt marsh vegetation on black mangroves switched from negative to neutral as black mangroves grew from seedlings into juvenile trees. These results indicate that the expansion of black mangroves is mediated by complex biotic interactions. A better understanding of the impacts of climate change on ecological

  10. Body size diversity and frequency distributions of Neotropical cichlid fishes (Cichliformes: Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

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    Sarah E Steele

    Full Text Available Body size is an important correlate of life history, ecology and distribution of species. Despite this, very little is known about body size evolution in fishes, particularly freshwater fishes of the Neotropics where species and body size diversity are relatively high. Phylogenetic history and body size data were used to explore body size frequency distributions in Neotropical cichlids, a broadly distributed and ecologically diverse group of fishes that is highly representative of body size diversity in Neotropical freshwater fishes. We test for divergence, phylogenetic autocorrelation and among-clade partitioning of body size space. Neotropical cichlids show low phylogenetic autocorrelation and divergence within and among taxonomic levels. Three distinct regions of body size space were identified from body size frequency distributions at various taxonomic levels corresponding to subclades of the most diverse tribe, Geophagini. These regions suggest that lineages may be evolving towards particular size optima that may be tied to specific ecological roles. The diversification of Geophagini appears to constrain the evolution of body size among other Neotropical cichlid lineages; non-Geophagini clades show lower species-richness in body size regions shared with Geophagini. Neotropical cichlid genera show less divergence and extreme body size than expected within and among tribes. Body size divergence among species may instead be present or linked to ecology at the community assembly scale.

  11. The impact of shrimp farming on mangrove ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Elizabeth Clare

    2008-01-01

    . Policy to position shrimp farms behind mangroves can be effective but also requires good institutional capacity and coordination, effective enforcement, incentives, land tenure and participation of all stakeholders for success. Better management practices have been identified which reduce impacts......Farmed shrimp production and value continue to increase with Asia producing the global majority of shrimp and the USA, Japan and Europe being the main importers. Shrimp farming systems are very diverse in their management, size and impacts. There are many causes for mangrove loss but the conversion...... of mangroves to shrimp farms has caused considerable attention. The major issues of shrimp farming include the loss of important ecological and socio-economic functions of mangrove ecosystems, changes in hydrology, salinization, introduction of non-native species and diseases, pollution from effluents...

  12. Evolution of opercle bone shape along a macrohabitat gradient: species identification using mtDNA and geometric morphometric analyses in neotropical sea catfishes (Ariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Madlen; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Cooke, Richard G; Barros, Tito; Salzburger, Walter; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R

    2016-08-01

    Transitions between the marine and freshwater macrohabitat have occurred repeatedly in the evolution of teleost fishes. For example, ariid catfishes have moved from freshwater to marine environments, and vice versa. Opercles, a skeletal feature that has been shown to change during such transitions, were subjected to 2D geometric morphometric analyses in order to investigate evolutionary shape changes during habitat transition in ariid catfishes and to test the influence of habitat on shape changes. A mtDNA marker, which proved useful in previous studies, was used to verify species identities. It greatly improved the assignment of specimens to a species, which are difficult to assign by morphology alone. The application of a mtDNA marker confirmed the occurrence of Notarius biffi in Central America, South of El Salvador. Molecular identification together with principal component analysis (PCA) and further morphological inspection of neurocrania indicated the existence of a cryptic species within Bagre pinnimaculatus. Principal component (PC) scores of individual specimens clustered in morphospace by genus rather than by habitat. Strong phylogenetic structure was detected using a permutation test of PC scores of species means on a phylogenetic tree. Calculation of Pagel's λ suggested that opercle shape evolved according to a Brownian model of evolution. Yet canonical variate analysis (CVA) conducted on the habitat groups showed significant differences in opercle shapes among freshwater and marine species. Overall, opercle shape in tropical American Ariidae appears to be phylogenetically constrained. This verifies the application of opercle shape as a taxonomic tool for species identification in fossil ariid catfishes. At the same time, adaptation to freshwater habitats shows characteristic opercle shape trajectories in ariid catfishes, which might be used to detect habitat preferences in fossils.

  13. [Protection of mangroves in Venezuela and its impact on environment management: retrospective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, M; Villamizar, A; Olivo, M L

    1996-01-01

    In Venezuela, the law protects mangroves specifically. This paper is a retrospective review of the existing regulations on mangrove to find out: how has it been protected?; which have been the results of different approaches followed to do so?; which could be the problems for its protection in the near future? The result from the analysis indicates that regulations should not protect a specific mangrove species. The focal point on the regulation should be the protection of mangrove, as well as the vital relationships between this landscape unit and the existing others. Therefore, decisions of mangrove should be proposed as part of a plan for the basin where it belongs. Intervention on mangrove must be based on expert judgement, due to high uncertainty about the success of corrective or mitigative actions.

  14. Spatial Management on Mangrove response to Sea Level Rise (SLR) in Kukup Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Mohd.; Yunus, Mohd.; Shafinaz Ahmad, Fatimah; Maslinda Omar, Chik

    2017-08-01

    Mangroves are known for their global environmental and socioeconomic value. It lives in two worlds at once which growing in the intertidal areas and estuary mouths between land and sea. Despite their importance, mangrove like other ecosystems is now being threatened by natural and human-induced processes that damage them at alarming rates, thereby diminishing the limited number of existing mangrove vegetation. If sea level is rising relative to the mangrove surface, the mangrove’s seaward and landward margins retreat landward where unobstructed, as mangrove species zones migrate inland in order to maintain their preferred environmental conditions, such as period, frequency and depth of inundation and salinity. The capability of storing data using GIS will reduce vulnerability coastal risk and evacuation models, raising the issues of integration, visualization, and proliferation of mapping applications, and the ease of use and intended audience of these products. Monitoring and predicting mangrove forest became easier using GIS tools.

  15. Protection of mangroves in Venezuela and its impact on environment management: retrospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastiani, M; Villamizar, A; Olivo, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    In Venezuela, the law protects mangroves specifically. This paper is a retrospective review of the existing regulations on mangrove to find out: how has it been protected?; which have been the results of different approaches followed to do so?; which could be the problems for its protection in the near future? The result from the analysis indicates that regulations should not protect a specific mangrove species. The focal point on the regulation should be the protection of mangrove, as well as the vital relationships between this landscape unit and the existing others. Therefore, decisions of mangrove should be proposed as part of a plan for the basin where it belongs. Intervention on mangrove must be based on expert judgement, due to high uncertainty about the success of corrective or mitigative actions

  16. Carbon Stock Assesment on Mangrove Forest Ecosystem in Jorong Ujuang Labuang District Agam West Sumatera Province

    OpenAIRE

    Oktaviona, Silvi; Amin, Bintal; Ghalib, Musrifin

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove is a tree that normally grows in the intertidal zone of marine coastal environments. This study aims to estimate the carbon content of mangrove forest ecosystems within a certain area, to analyze biomass differences, carbon stocks and CO2 uptake and to analyze the effect of mangrove density on biomass, carbon stock and CO2 uptake. This research held on February 2017 by survey method and used the data of mangrove species, it's number and diameter of breast height (DBH) on each sub plo...

  17. Mangrove plantation over a limestone reef - Good for the ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaeda, Takashi; Barnuevo, Abner; Sanjaya, Kelum; Fortes, Miguel D.; Kanesaka, Yoshikazu; Wolanski, Eric

    2016-05-01

    There have been efforts to restore degraded tropical and subtropical mangrove forests. While there have been many failures, there have been some successes but these were seldom evaluated to test to what level the created mangrove wetlands reproduce the characteristics of the natural ecosystem and thus what ecosystem services they can deliver. We provide such a detailed assessment for the case of Olango and Banacon Islands in the Philippines where the forest was created over a limestone reef where mangroves did not exist in one island but they covered most of the other island before deforestation in the 1940s and 1950s. The created forest appears to have reached a steady state after 60 years. As is typical of mangrove rehabilitation efforts worldwide, planting was limited to a single Rhizophora species. While a forest has been created, it does not mimic a natural forest. There is a large difference between the natural and planted forests in terms of forest structure and species diversity, and tree density. The high density of planted trees excludes importing other species from nearby natural forests; therefore the planted forest remains mono-specific even after several decades and shows no sign of mimicking the characteristics of a natural forest. The planted forests provided mangrove propagules that invaded nearby natural forests. The planted forest has also changed the substratum from sandy to muddy. The outline of the crown of the planted forest has become smooth and horizontal, contrary to that of a natural forest, and this changes the local landscape. Thus we recommend that future mangrove restoration schemes should modify their methodology in order to plant several species, maintain sufficient space between trees for growth, include the naturally dominant species, and create tidal creeks, in order to reproduce in the rehabilitated areas some of the key ecosystem characteristics of natural mangrove forests.

  18. Can DNA barcoding accurately discriminate megadiverse Neotropical freshwater fish fauna?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The megadiverse Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna is the richest in the world with approximately 6,000 recognized species. Interestingly, they are distributed among only 17 orders, and almost 80% of them belong to only three orders: Characiformes, Siluriformes and Perciformes. Moreover, evidence based on molecular data has shown that most of the diversification of the Neotropical ichthyofauna occurred recently. These characteristics make the taxonomy and identification of this fauna a great challenge, even when using molecular approaches. In this context, the present study aimed to test the effectiveness of the barcoding methodology (COI gene) to identify the mega diverse freshwater fish fauna from the Neotropical region. For this purpose, 254 species of fishes were analyzed from the Upper Parana River basin, an area representative of the larger Neotropical region. Results Of the 254 species analyzed, 252 were correctly identified by their barcode sequences (99.2%). The main K2P intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence values (0.3% and 6.8%, respectively) were relatively low compared with similar values reported in the literature, reflecting the higher number of closely related species belonging to a few higher taxa and their recent radiation. Moreover, for 84 pairs of species that showed low levels of genetic divergence (2%), pointing to at least 23 strong candidates for new species. Conclusions Our study is the first to examine a large number of freshwater fish species from the Neotropical area, including a large number of closely related species. The results confirmed the efficacy of the barcoding methodology to identify a recently radiated, megadiverse fauna, discriminating 99.2% of the analyzed species. The power of the barcode sequences to identify species, even with low interspecific divergence, gives us an idea of the distribution of inter-specific genetic divergence in these megadiverse fauna. The results also revealed hidden genetic

  19. Can DNA barcoding accurately discriminate megadiverse Neotropical freshwater fish fauna?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luiz H G; Hanner, Robert; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2013-03-09

    The megadiverse Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna is the richest in the world with approximately 6,000 recognized species. Interestingly, they are distributed among only 17 orders, and almost 80% of them belong to only three orders: Characiformes, Siluriformes and Perciformes. Moreover, evidence based on molecular data has shown that most of the diversification of the Neotropical ichthyofauna occurred recently. These characteristics make the taxonomy and identification of this fauna a great challenge, even when using molecular approaches. In this context, the present study aimed to test the effectiveness of the barcoding methodology (COI gene) to identify the mega diverse freshwater fish fauna from the Neotropical region. For this purpose, 254 species of fishes were analyzed from the Upper Parana River basin, an area representative of the larger Neotropical region. Of the 254 species analyzed, 252 were correctly identified by their barcode sequences (99.2%). The main K2P intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence values (0.3% and 6.8%, respectively) were relatively low compared with similar values reported in the literature, reflecting the higher number of closely related species belonging to a few higher taxa and their recent radiation. Moreover, for 84 pairs of species that showed low levels of genetic divergence (2%), pointing to at least 23 strong candidates for new species. Our study is the first to examine a large number of freshwater fish species from the Neotropical area, including a large number of closely related species. The results confirmed the efficacy of the barcoding methodology to identify a recently radiated, megadiverse fauna, discriminating 99.2% of the analyzed species. The power of the barcode sequences to identify species, even with low interspecific divergence, gives us an idea of the distribution of inter-specific genetic divergence in these megadiverse fauna. The results also revealed hidden genetic divergences suggestive of

  20. Possible fruit protein effects on primate communities in madagascar and the neotropics.

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    Jörg U Ganzhorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ecological factors contributing to the evolution of tropical vertebrate communities are still poorly understood. Primate communities of the tropical Americas have fewer folivorous but more frugivorous genera than tropical regions of the Old World and especially many more frugivorous genera than Madagascar. Reasons for this phenomenon are largely unexplored. We developed the hypothesis that Neotropical fruits have higher protein concentrations than fruits from Madagascar and that the higher representation of frugivorous genera in the Neotropics is linked to high protein concentrations in fruits. Low fruit protein concentrations in Madagascar would restrict the evolution of frugivores in Malagasy communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed the literature for nitrogen concentrations in fruits from the Neotropics and from Madagascar, and analyzed fruits from an additional six sites in the Neotropics and six sites in Madagascar. Fruits from the Neotropical sites contain significantly more nitrogen than fruits from the Madagascar sites. Nitrogen concentrations in New World fruits are above the concentrations to satisfy nitrogen requirements of primates, while they are at the lower end or below the concentrations to cover primate protein needs in Madagascar. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fruits at most sites in the Neotropics contain enough protein to satisfy the protein needs of primates. Thus, selection pressure to develop new adaptations for foods that are difficult to digest (such as leaves may have been lower in the Neotropics than in Madagascar. The low nitrogen concentrations in fruits from Madagascar may contribute to the almost complete absence of frugivorous primate species on this island.

  1. External morphology of sensory structures of fourth instar larvae of neotropical species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, some morphological structures of antennae, maxillary palps and caudal setae of fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared phlebotomine sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. evandroi, L. lenti, L. sericea, L. whitmani and L. intermedia of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The antennal structures exhibited considerable variation in the morphology and position. A prominent digitiform distal segment has been observed only on the antenna of species of the subgenus Nyssomyia. The taxonomic relevance of this and other antennal structure is discussed. The papiliform structures found in the maxillae and the porous structures of the caudal setae of all species examined may have chemosensory function. Further studies with transmission electron microscopy are needed to better understand the physiological function of these external structures.

  2. Within-population spatial genetic structure in four naturally fragmented species of a neotropical inselberg radiation, Alcantarea imperialis, A. geniculata, A. glaziouana and A. regina (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbará, T; Lexer, C; Martinelli, G; Mayo, S; Fay, M F; Heuertz, M

    2008-09-01

    Studies of organisms on 'terrestrial islands' can improve our understanding of two unresolved issues in evolutionary genetics: the likely long-term effects of habitat fragmentation and the genetic underpinnings of continental species radiations in island-like terrestrial habitats. We have addressed both issues for four closely related plant species of the adaptive radiation Bromeliaceae, Alcantarea imperialis, A. geniculata, A. regina and A. glaziouana. All four are adapted to ancient, isolated inselberg rock outcrops in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest and are thus long-term fragmented by nature. We used eight nuclear microsatellites to study within-population spatial genetic structure (SGS) and historical gene dispersal in nine populations of these species. Within-population SGS reflected known between-species differences in mating systems. The strongest SGS observed in A. glaziouana (Sp=0.947) was stronger than literature estimates available for plants. Analysis of short- and long-distance components of SGS identified biparental inbreeding, selfing and restricted seed dispersal as main determinants of SGS, with restricted pollen dispersal by bats contributing in some localities. The ability of Alcantarea spp. to colonize isolated inselbergs probably stems from their flexible mating systems and an ability to tolerate inbreeding. Short-ranging gene dispersal (average sigma=7-27 m) is consistent with a loss of dispersal power in terrestrial island habitats. Population subdivision associated with sympatric colour morphs in A. imperialis is accompanied by between-morph differences in pollen and seed dispersal. Our results indicate a high potential for divergence with gene flow in inselberg bromeliads and they provide base-line data about the long-term effects of fragmentation in plants.

  3. Corrections and additions to Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera (Tabanidae of Coscarón & Papavero (2009 Correções e adições ao Catálogo de Diptera Neotropical (Tabanidae de Coscarón & Papavero (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Loureiro Henriques

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some corrections and omitted taxonomic information for the "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae" are presented. Fifteen recently described species are listed for the Neotropical region. Presently, the Neotropical region has 1,205 Tabanidae species, besides 35 unrecognized species and 29 nomina nuda.São apresentadas correções e informações taxonômicas omitidas no "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae". Quinze espécies recentemente descritas para a região Neotropical são adicionadas. Atualmente a Região Neotropical possui 1.205 espécies de Tabanidae, além de 35 espécies não reconhecidas e 29 nomina nuda.

  4. Effects of food availability and habitat features on the Ephemeroptera species composition at seasonal and spatial scales from neotropical floodplain rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Melo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazilian floodplains have suffered great changes in their natural characteristics in recent decades, mainly in the flood pulse. The Upper Paraná River floodplain is one of the few places where are found remained areas in which such peculiar characteristics keep reflecting on its high biodiversity. Ephemeroptera nymphs are one of the higher density groups among benthic community, occurring in many water bodies like large rivers and secondary channels. We sought to understand which factors are needed for the species establishment and how much important is the species colonization, especially in environments with anthropogenic changes. The marginal areas, which are more structured with presence of macrophytes, showed the highest density and richness even in the Paraná River that has great human impact. We verified dominance of Americabaetis alphus, Tricorythopsis araponga, Tricorythopsis artigas on the Parana River, correlated with transparency, depth and electric conductivity, while the dominance of Traverella sp. was correlated with water temperature, especially in marginal areas. Consequently, the increasing transparency and electric conductivity due to the Porto Primavera dam in Parana River can be favoring those Ephemeroptera species. We demonstrated the importance of preserving the wetlands of Ivinhema River State Park mainly for Guajirolus sp., which was only registered in this region. Therefore, our study provides support for understanding gaps from previously studies using artificial substrates in three large rivers which are of great importance to the upper Paraná River floodplain.

  5. Investigating the timing of origin and evolutionary processes shaping regional species diversity: Insights from simulated data and neotropical butterfly diversification rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Maraví, Pável

    2016-07-01

    Different diversification scenarios have been proposed to explain the origin of extant biodiversity. However, most existing meta-analyses of time-calibrated phylogenies rely on approaches that do not quantitatively test alternative diversification processes. Here, I highlight the shortcomings of using species divergence ranks, which is a method widely used in meta-analyses. Divergence ranks consist of categorizing cladogenetic events to certain periods of time, typically to either Pleistocene or to pre-Pleistocene ages. This approach has been claimed to shed light on the origin of most extant species and the timing and dynamics of diversification in any biogeographical region. However, interpretations drawn from such method often confound two fundamental questions in macroevolutionary studies, tempo (timing of evolutionary rate shifts) and mode ("how" and "why" of speciation). By using simulated phylogenies under four diversification scenarios, constant-rate, diversity-dependence, high extinction, and high speciation rates in the Pleistocene, I showed that interpretations based on species divergence ranks might have been seriously misleading. Future meta-analyses of dated phylogenies need to be aware of the impacts of incomplete taxonomic sampling, tree topology, and divergence time uncertainties, as well as they might be benefited by including quantitative tests of alternative diversification models that acknowledge extinction and diversity dependence. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Antioxident activity of the mangrove endophytic fungus (Trichoderma sp.

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    Saravanakumar Kandasamy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test antioxidant property of the endophytic Trichoderma species isolated from the leaves of 12 mangroves of Andaman Nicobar Islands. Methods: Eight strains of Trichoderma species were found predominant and their crude extracts were assessed for antioxidant activity by using seven assays. Results: Total antioxidant activity varied with the strains and it was maximum in Trichoderma EMFCAS8 and other strains also showed considerable activity. Conclusions: This work concluded that mangroves are rich in endophytic Trichoderma species with potential for antioxidant activity.

  7. An Object-Based Classification of Mangroves Using a Hybrid Decision Tree—Support Vector Machine Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Heumann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves provide valuable ecosystem goods and services such as carbon sequestration, habitat for terrestrial and marine fauna, and coastal hazard mitigation. The use of satellite remote sensing to map mangroves has become widespread as it can provide accurate, efficient, and repeatable assessments. Traditional remote sensing approaches have failed to accurately map fringe mangroves and true mangrove species due to relatively coarse spatial resolution and/or spectral confusion with landward vegetation. This study demonstrates the use of the new Worldview-2 sensor, Object-based image analysis (OBIA, and support vector machine (SVM classification to overcome both of these limitations. An exploratory spectral separability showed that individual mangrove species could not be spectrally separated, but a distinction between true and associate mangrove species could be made. An OBIA classification was used that combined a decision-tree classification with the machine-learning SVM classification. Results showed an overall accuracy greater than 94% (kappa = 0.863 for classifying true mangroves species and other dense coastal vegetation at the object level. There remain serious challenges to accurately mapping fringe mangroves using remote sensing data due to spectral similarity of mangrove and associate species, lack of clear zonation between species, and mixed pixel effects, especially when vegetation is sparse or degraded.

  8. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii in small neotropical wild felids

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    William Alberto Cañon-Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, studies on wildlife worldwide have discovered key epidemiological aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. However, despite the known role of wild felines as definitive hosts in the transmission and maintenance of this parasite, few studies have focused on the involvement of these animals. Brazil exhibits the largest number of wild felid species in the Americas, all of which have a critical conservation status. However, serological detections, epidemiological studies and some molecular characterizations of T. gondii have primarily used Neotropical felid populations that are maintained in captivity, which does not reflect the disease behavior in free-living conditions. A systematic review of the worldwide scientific literature was conducted focusing on toxoplasmosis in small Neotropical felids. This review covered a number of aspects, including the state of scientific research, parasite transmission in the wild, the genetic characteristics of isolates, the relationship between these genetic characteristics and the pathogenicity of the parasite, and the risk factors linked to conflicts with humans. The present review shows the relevance of studying these felid populations based on their frequent interactions with humans in peri-urban areas and the need for further comprehensive studies to establish the real significance of T. gondii in public and animal health in tropical and temperate regions.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical monogeneans (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) from catfishes (Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-03-18

    The phylogenetic relationships of dactylogyrids (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitising catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Neotropical region were investigated for the first time. Partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene of 40 specimens representing 25 dactylogyrid species were analysed together with sequences from GenBank using Bayesian inference, Maximum likelihood and Parsimony methods. Monophyly of dactylogyrids infecting catfishes and the Ancyrocephalinae was evaluated using the Approximately Unbiased test. The Ancyrocephalinae is a paraphyletic group of species clustering in three main clades as follows: (i) clade A comprising freshwater dactylogyrids from the Holarctic parasitising perciforms clustering together with species (Ameloblastella, Unibarra and Vancleaveus) parasitising Neotropical catfishes; (ii) clade B including species of Dactylogyrus (Dactylogyrinae) and Pseudodactylogyrus (Pseudodactylogyrinae) along with Ancyrocephalus mogurndae, and marine dactylogyrids with cosmopolitan distribution, parasites of scorpaeniforms and perciforms, along with the freshwater Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus (infecting African cichlids [Cichlidae]) and (iii) clade C containing exclusively dactylogyrids of siluriforms, freshwater and marine, with Palaearctic, Ethiopian, Oriental and Neotropical distributions; species of Aphanoblastella and Dactylogyridae gen. sp. 4 from the Neotropical region clustering together with species allocated in the Ancylodiscoidinae, along with species of Cosmetocleithrum, Demidospermus and Dactylogyridae gen. spp. The position of the Ancylodiscoidinae within a larger clade of dactylogyrids (ancyrocephalines) indicates that this subfamily does not represent a natural group. Instead, species allocated to this clade (dactylogyrids of siluriforms along with species of the Ancylodiscoidinae) should be considered as a separate subfamily within the Dactylogyridae. The erection of this taxon requires the search for morphological diagnostic characters

  11. Modelling reveals endogenous osmotic adaptation of storage tissue water potential as an important driver determining different stem diameter variation patterns in the mangrove species Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Guyot, Adrien; Hubeau, Michiel; De Swaef, Tom; Lockington, David A; Steppe, Kathy

    2014-09-01

    Stem diameter variations are mainly determined by the radial water transport between xylem and storage tissues. This radial transport results from the water potential difference between these tissues, which is influenced by both hydraulic and carbon related processes. Measurements have shown that when subjected to the same environmental conditions, the co-occurring mangrove species Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa unexpectedly show a totally different pattern in daily stem diameter variation. Using in situ measurements of stem diameter variation, stem water potential and sap flow, a mechanistic flow and storage model based on the cohesion-tension theory was applied to assess the differences in osmotic storage water potential between Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa. Both species, subjected to the same environmental conditions, showed a resembling daily pattern in simulated osmotic storage water potential. However, the osmotic storage water potential of R. stylosa started to decrease slightly after that of A. marina in the morning and increased again slightly later in the evening. This small shift in osmotic storage water potential likely underlaid the marked differences in daily stem diameter variation pattern between the two species. The results show that in addition to environmental dynamics, endogenous changes in the osmotic storage water potential must be taken into account in order to accurately predict stem diameter variations, and hence growth.

  12. Prioritising Mangrove Ecosystem Services Results in Spatially Variable Management Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Scott C.; Jupiter, Stacy D.; Adams, Vanessa M.; Ingram, J. Carter; Narayan, Siddharth; Klein, Carissa J.; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating the values of the services that ecosystems provide into decision making is becoming increasingly common in nature conservation and resource management policies, both locally and globally. Yet with limited funds for conservation of threatened species and ecosystems there is a desire to identify priority areas where investment efficiently conserves multiple ecosystem services. We mapped four mangrove ecosystems services (coastal protection, fisheries, biodiversity, and carbon storage) across Fiji. Using a cost-effectiveness analysis, we prioritised mangrove areas for each service, where the effectiveness was a function of the benefits provided to the local communities, and the costs were associated with restricting specific uses of mangroves. We demonstrate that, although priority mangrove areas (top 20%) for each service can be managed at relatively low opportunity costs (ranging from 4.5 to 11.3% of overall opportunity costs), prioritising for a single service yields relatively low co-benefits due to limited geographical overlap with priority areas for other services. None-the-less, prioritisation of mangrove areas provides greater overlap of benefits than if sites were selected randomly for most ecosystem services. We discuss deficiencies in the mapping of ecosystems services in data poor regions and how this may impact upon the equity of managing mangroves for particular services across the urban-rural divide in developing countries. Finally we discuss how our maps may aid decision-makers to direct funding for mangrove management from various sources to localities that best meet funding objectives, as well as how this knowledge can aid in creating a national mangrove zoning scheme. PMID:27008421

  13. Prioritising Mangrove Ecosystem Services Results in Spatially Variable Management Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Scott C; Jupiter, Stacy D; Adams, Vanessa M; Ingram, J Carter; Narayan, Siddharth; Klein, Carissa J; Possingham, Hugh P

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating the values of the services that ecosystems provide into decision making is becoming increasingly common in nature conservation and resource management policies, both locally and globally. Yet with limited funds for conservation of threatened species and ecosystems there is a desire to identify priority areas where investment efficiently conserves multiple ecosystem services. We mapped four mangrove ecosystems services (coastal protection, fisheries, biodiversity, and carbon storage) across Fiji. Using a cost-effectiveness analysis, we prioritised mangrove areas for each service, where the effectiveness was a function of the benefits provided to the local communities, and the costs were associated with restricting specific uses of mangroves. We demonstrate that, although priority mangrove areas (top 20%) for each service can be managed at relatively low opportunity costs (ranging from 4.5 to 11.3% of overall opportunity costs), prioritising for a single service yields relatively low co-benefits due to limited geographical overlap with priority areas for other services. None-the-less, prioritisation of mangrove areas provides greater overlap of benefits than if sites were selected randomly for most ecosystem services. We discuss deficiencies in the mapping of ecosystems services in data poor regions and how this may impact upon the equity of managing mangroves for particular services across the urban-rural divide in developing countries. Finally we discuss how our maps may aid decision-makers to direct funding for mangrove management from various sources to localities that best meet funding objectives, as well as how this knowledge can aid in creating a national mangrove zoning scheme.

  14. Prioritising Mangrove Ecosystem Services Results in Spatially Variable Management Priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott C Atkinson

    Full Text Available Incorporating the values of the services that ecosystems provide into decision making is becoming increasingly common in nature conservation and resource management policies, both locally and globally. Yet with limited funds for conservation of threatened species and ecosystems there is a desire to identify priority areas where investment efficiently conserves multiple ecosystem services. We mapped four mangrove ecosystems services (coastal protection, fisheries, biodiversity, and carbon storage across Fiji. Using a cost-effectiveness analysis, we prioritised mangrove areas for each service, where the effectiveness was a function of the benefits provided to the local communities, and the costs were associated with restricting specific uses of mangroves. We demonstrate that, although priority mangrove areas (top 20% for each service can be managed at relatively low opportunity costs (ranging from 4.5 to 11.3% of overall opportunity costs, prioritising for a single service yields relatively low co-benefits due to limited geographical overlap with priority areas for other services. None-the-less, prioritisation of mangrove areas provides greater overlap of benefits than if sites were selected randomly for most ecosystem services. We discuss deficiencies in the mapping of ecosystems services in data poor regions and how this may impact upon the equity of managing mangroves for particular services across the urban-rural divide in developing countries. Finally we discuss how our maps may aid decision-makers to direct funding for mangrove management from various sources to localities that best meet funding objectives, as well as how this knowledge can aid in creating a national mangrove zoning scheme.

  15. Carbon stocks and potential carbon storage in the mangrove forests of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongxiao; Ren, Hai; Hui, Dafeng; Wang, Wenqing; Liao, Baowen; Cao, Qingxian

    2014-01-15

    Mangrove forests provide important ecosystem services, and play important roles in terrestrial and oceanic carbon (C) cycling. Although the C stocks or storage in terrestrial ecosystems in China have been frequently assessed, the C stocks in mangrove forests have often been overlooked. In this study, we estimated the C stocks and the potential C stocks in China's mangrove forests by combining our own field data with data from the National Mangrove Resource Inventory Report and from other published literature. The results indicate that mangrove forests in China store about 6.91 ± 0.57 Tg C, of which 81.74% is in the top 1 m soil, 18.12% in the biomass of mangrove trees, and 0.08% in the ground layer (i.e. mangrove litter and seedlings). The potential C stocks are as high as 28.81 ± 4.16 Tg C. On average, mangrove forests in China contain 355.25 ± 82.19 Mg C ha(-1), which is consistent with the global average of mangrove C density at similar latitudes, but higher than the average C density in terrestrial forests in China. Our results suggest that C storage in mangroves can be increased by selecting high C-density species for afforestation and stand improvement, and even more by increasing the mangrove area. The information gained in this study will facilitate policy decisions concerning the restoration of mangrove forests in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Avaliação de efeitos de espécies de mangue na distribuição de Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae no Ceará, nordeste do Brasil Evaluation of local effects of mangrove species on the distribution of Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae in Ceara, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela C. Maia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 é um gastrópode pulmonado, macrodetritívoro, importante na transferência de energia em manguezais neotropicais, mas sua distribuição em diferentes escalas espaciais ainda é pouco conhecida nas regiões brasileiras. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a distribuição de M. coffeus com relação: 1 às espécies Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2 à posição dos rizóforos de R. mangle e 3 à altura das árvores em diferentes manguezais. O seu comportamento ao longo do ciclo de marés também foi descrito. A densidade de M. coffeus foi similar entre R. mangle e L. racemosa, porém os maiores caramujos foram encontrados nas árvores de R. mangle. A distribuição dos caramujos encontrados no sedimento diferiu em relação aos rizóforos, com maior densidade no centro e o maior tamanho na borda da área amostral. Entretanto, não houve relação com a disponibilidade de recursos alimentares formados por folhas. A densidade também foi maior nos manguezais baixo e médio quando comparados ao alto, porém não foram encontradas diferenças de tamanho dos caramujos em mangues de alturas distintas. Observamos também que, durante a maré alta, M. coffeus sobe nas árvores mais próximas. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados principalmente com a disponibilidade de recursos e abrigos fornecidos por R. mangle. Desta forma, novos estudos sobre a distribuição de M. coffeus sob diversas condições são recomendáveis, já que as regiões de manguezais estão cada vez mais sujeitas a perturbações.Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a pulmonate, macrodetritivore gastropod, important in energy flows in neotropical mangroves, but its distribution in different spatial scales is still unknown in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of M. coffeus: 1 among the mangrove trees Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae and Laguncularia racemosa

  17. Use classification of mangrove areas, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora N. Devoe

    1992-01-01

    An integrated biotic inventory of mangrove areas of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, was undertaken to determine priority areas for preservation and sustained-yield management. Criteria for the designation of reserve areas included: the presence of threatened or endangered species; rare species or particularly rich biota; undisturbed old-growth communities; the...

  18. LESSON LEARNED FROM MANGROVE REHABILITATION PROGRAM IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Kusmana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as an archipelagic country more than 17,504 islands with the length of coastline estimated at 95,181 km bears mangroves from several meters to several kilometers. They grow extensively in the five big islands (Jawa, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Papua. At the year of 2009, Agency of Survey Coordination and National Mapping (Bakosurtanal of Indonesia reported the existing mangrove forest area in Indonesia of about 3,244,018 ha, however Directorate General of Land Rehabilitation and Social Forestry, Ministry of Forestry (Ditjen RLPS MoF of Indonesia at 2007 reported about 7,758,411 ha of mangrove area in Indonesia (including existing vegetated mangrove area. It was further reported that those mangroves were 30.7% in good condition, 27.4% moderate-destroyed, and 41.9% heavy-destroyed. In order to rehabilitate destroyed mangrove ecosystems, Indonesia applies at least three type of planting designs (square planting design, zig zag planting design, and cluster planting design and eight planting techniques (“banjar harian” technique, bamboo pole technique, guludan technique, water break technique, huge polybag technique, ditch muddy technique, huge mole technique, cluster technique. Generally, in Indonesia Rhizophora spp. are used for mangrove rehabilitation and/or restoration with the spacing of 1x1 m spending varied planting cost based on the site local condition and planting technique used. The mangrove planting ranged from about Rp. 14.2 million using propagules to Rp. 18.5 million using cultured seedlings. Recently, local community used to utilizing associated mangrove aquatic fauna for supporting their daily life as well as utilizing mangrove habitat for multipurpose uses through agroforestry techniques (silvofishery, agrosilvofishery, agrosilvopastoralfishery systems. So that, the good mangrove ecosystem serves luxurious both flora and fauna species (biodiversity as well as their abundance for significantly

  19. The specimens of Parulidae from the Neotropics in the collection of the Zoological Museum Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Tineke G.

    1992-01-01

    The Parulidae form a group of little dainty birds with slender bills consisting of 126 species. The family is confined to the New World, the largest number of species and genera being found in North and Central America. Neotropical material of 35 species is represented in the collection of the

  20. Fate and effects of anthropogenic chemicals in mangrove ecosystems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael, E-mail: lewis.michael@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561 (United States); Pryor, Rachel; Wilking, Lynn [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, 1 Sabine Island Drive, Gulf Breeze, FL 32561 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    The scientific literature for fate and effects of non-nutrient contaminant concentrations is skewed for reports describing sediment contamination and bioaccumulation for trace metals. Concentrations for at least 22 trace metals have been reported in mangrove sediments. Some concentrations exceed sediment quality guidelines suggesting adverse effects. Bioaccumulation results are available for at least 11 trace metals, 12 mangrove tissues, 33 mangrove species and 53 species of mangrove-habitat biota. Results are specific to species, tissues, life stage, and season and accumulated concentrations and bioconcentration factors are usually low. Toxicity tests have been conducted with 12 mangrove species and 8 species of mangrove-related fauna. As many as 39 effect parameters, most sublethal, have been monitored during the usual 3 to 6 month test durations. Generalizations and extrapolations for toxicity between species and chemicals are restricted by data scarcity and lack of experimental consistency. This hinders chemical risk assessments and validation of effects-based criteria. - Chemical risk assessments and resource management are restricted by the limited chemical fate and effects database for mangroves.

  1. Checklist of sea turtles endohelminth in Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck M. R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a list of parasites described in sea turtles from the Neotropical region. Through the review of literature the occurrence of 79 taxa of helminthes parasites were observed, mostly consisting of the Phylum Platyhelminthes with 76 species distributed in 14 families and 2 families of the Phylum Nematoda within 3 species. Regarding the parasite records, the most studied host was the green turtle (Chelonia mydas followed by the hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata, olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea, loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea. Overall helminths were reported in 12 countries and in the Caribbean Sea region. This checklist is the largest compilation of data on helminths found in sea turtles in the Neotropical region.

  2. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  3. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Miller

    Full Text Available In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna. Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology

  4. Breakdown of Leaf Litter in a Neotropical Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Mathuriau, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric

    2002-01-01

    International audience; We investigated the breakdown of 2 leaf species, Croton gossypifolius (Euphorbiaceae) and Clidemia sp. (Melastomataceae), in a 4th-order neotropical stream (Andean Mountains, southwestern Colombia) using leaf bags over a 6-wk period. We determined the initial leaf chemical composition and followed the change in content of organic matter, C, N, and ergosterol, the sporulation activity of aquatic hyphomy cetes, and the structure and composition of leaf-associated aquatic...

  5. Neotropical migrant landbirds and landscape changes in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, A.; Coates-Estrada, R.; Diaz-Islas, E.; Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Meritt, D.; Wilson, Marcia H.; Sader, Steven A.

    1995-01-01

    Faced with the problem of habitat loss and with the need to preserve the remaining components of the original avian biodiversity in neotropical regions such as Los Tuxtlas, it is imperative to determine how the neotropical migrant bird species have responded to the anthropogenic alterations of their natural habitats. To provide data in this direction, we censused neotropical migrant birds in undisturbed and in disturbed forest fragments and in regeneratlng forests (young second growths and old second growths). In addition, we conducted censuses in the following man-made habitats: arboreal agricultural habitats (cacao, coffee, mixed, citrus, and allspice), non-arboreal agricultural habitats (corn and jalapeno chili pepper), live fences, and pastures. We censused 4186 neotropical migrant birds representing 71 species. Seven species (Magnolia Warbler, Hooded Warbler, Wilson's Warbler, American Redstart, White-eyed Vireo, Yellow-rumped Warbler, Black-and-white Warbler) accounted for 50% of total records. Isolating distance was an important variable influencing species richness at the non-pasture habitats studied. Disturbed forest fragments had significantly fewer species and individuals than undisturbed forest fragments and than regenerating forests. Pastures were the poorest habitat in neotropical migrant birds. Agricultural habitats, however, were particularly rich in individuals and species (3479 individuals of 59 species). Arboreal agricultural habitats and live fences were richer in species and in birds than non-arboreal man-made habitats and were also the habitats most similar to the undisturbed forest fragments in species assemblage. We discuss the conservation value for neotropical migrant birds of agricultural habitats and of live fences as landscape elements that help reduce physical and biotic isolation among the remaining configurations of forest fragments and compensate, in part, for the loss of vegetation area and habitat heterogeneity that has resulted

  6. Mean latitudinal range sizes of bird assemblages in six Neotropical forest chronosequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Robert R.; Romdal, Tom Skovlund

    2005-01-01

    understood. We examined how the mean latitudinal range sizes of species in Neotropical bird species assemblages shift during forest clearance and subsequent regeneration. We tested the hypothesis that bird species assemblages in early successional habitats tend to have larger latitudinal ranges than those...... in more mature forests. Location We considered breeding bird chronosequence data from six Neotropical forests. Results Breeding bird assemblages were found to have the species with the largest average latitudinal range sizes in cleared areas, intermediate in young secondary forests and smallest in old...... secondary and mature forests. Similar differences were also found when we compared congeners differing in their successional preferences. Sizes of regional ranges (within the Neotropics) did not, however, differ consistently among successional stages. The larger latitudinal (but not regional) ranges...

  7. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a Brazilian subtropical mangrove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mariana M DE; Colpo, Karine D

    2017-01-01

    It is not unusual to find epiphytic bromeliads in mangroves, but most studies on mangrove vegetation do not record their presence. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a subtropical mangrove. The richness, abundance and life form (atmospheric and tank) of bromeliads were recorded and compared among host tree species and waterline proximity. The effects of diameter and height of host trees on the abundance of bromeliads were also assessed. The mangrove was composed of Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle. We recorded seven bromeliad species of the genera Tillandsia and Vriesea. The waterline proximity did not affect the abundance or diversity of bromeliads, but atmospheric forms were predominant near the waterline, whereas tank bromeliads were more frequent in the interior of the mangrove. The three mangrove species hosted bromeliads, but L. racemosa was the preferred host. The species composition showed that the distribution of bromeliads is more related to the host species than to the distance from the waterline. Bromeliad abundance increased with tree size. Bromeliads can be biological indicators of ecosystem health; therefore, inventories and host tree preferences are necessary knowledge for an adequate management of sensitive ecosystems as mangroves.

  8. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a Brazilian subtropical mangrove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA M. DE SOUSA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is not unusual to find epiphytic bromeliads in mangroves, but most studies on mangrove vegetation do not record their presence. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity and distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in a subtropical mangrove. The richness, abundance and life form (atmospheric and tank of bromeliads were recorded and compared among host tree species and waterline proximity. The effects of diameter and height of host trees on the abundance of bromeliads were also assessed. The mangrove was composed of Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle. We recorded seven bromeliad species of the genera Tillandsia and Vriesea. The waterline proximity did not affect the abundance or diversity of bromeliads, but atmospheric forms were predominant near the waterline, whereas tank bromeliads were more frequent in the interior of the mangrove. The three mangrove species hosted bromeliads, but L. racemosa was the preferred host. The species composition showed that the distribution of bromeliads is more related to the host species than to the distance from the waterline. Bromeliad abundance increased with tree size. Bromeliads can be biological indicators of ecosystem health; therefore, inventories and host tree preferences are necessary knowledge for an adequate management of sensitive ecosystems as mangroves.

  9. KAJIAN DEGRADASI LAHAN MANGROVE DI PESISIR DESA LABUHAN SANGORO KECAMATAN MARONGE KABUPATEN SUMBAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Samsul Rizal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research was to determine the perceptions of stakeholders (Community, Government and Employers, to know the potential of mangrove species and determine the impact of mangrove degradation on fish and non-fish biota, at Labuhan Sangoro coastal village. This study was conducted for three months from April to June 2012. Data were analyzed descriptively using a Likert scale for the perception of stakeholders. Potential mangrove species was examined using transects and to determine the impact of mangrove degradation on species diversity of aquatic fauna associated with mangrove were obtained by observation of nonparticipant method. The results showed that perceptions of stakeholders towards preservation and conservation of mangrove land, the 87% strongly agreed, 66% agreed and 22% disagreed, government and employers 86% strongly agree, 78% agree and disagree 3%, but not yet to the application phase. The potential of mangrove type in the coastal village of Labuan Sangoro at Station 1, 2, 3, and 4 by R. mucronata and R. stylosa, Transect I dominated by Rhizophora mucronata, R. stylosa, R. apiculata, Sonneratia alba, Lumnitzera racemosa and Ceriops tagal, transect II by Avicennia marina, R. mucronata and R. stylosa, Transect III by A. marina and R. mucronata and transect IV by R. mucronata and R. stylosa. Fish eatch on the condition of low and high degradation condition, the dominant fish species caught is Beronang (Siganus sp, non-fish species dominated by Crab (Scylla serrata. The number of catches in the low mangrove land degradation conditions wais 2,609 species of fish and non-fish tail 4678, on the high mangrove degradation conditions, the fish catch was 1,090 and non-fish was 1,114. The diversity, uniformity and the dominance of species, classified in the category of low and moderate levels.

  10. Cumulative impacts of hurricanes on Florida mangrove ecosystems: Sediment deposition, storm surges and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T. J.; Anderson, G.H.; Balentine, K.; Tiling, G.; Ward, G.A.; Whelan, K.R.T.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes have shaped the structure of mangrove forests in the Everglades via wind damage, storm surges and sediment deposition. Immediate effects include changes to stem size-frequency distributions and to species relative abundance and density. Long-term impacts to mangroves are poorly understood at present. We examine impacts of Hurricane Wilma on mangroves and compare the results to findings from three previous storms (Labor Day, Donna, Andrew). Surges during Wilma destroyed ??? 1,250 ha of mangroves and set back recovery that started following Andrew. Data from permanent plots affected by Andrew and Wilma showed no differences among species or between hurricanes for stem mortality or basal area lost. Hurricane damage was related to hydro-geomorphic type of forest. Basin mangroves suffered significantly more damage than riverine or island mangroves. The hurricane by forest type interaction was highly significant. Andrew did slightly more damage to island mangroves. Wilma did significantly more damage to basin forests. This is most likely a result of the larger and more spatially extensive storm surge produced by Wilma. Forest damage was not related to amount of sediment deposited. Analyses of reports from Donna and the Labor Day storm indicate that some sites have recovered following catastrophic disturbance. Other sites have been permanently converted into a different ecosystem, namely intertidal mudflats. Our results indicate that mangroves are not in a steady state as has been recently claimed. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  11. [Ants as biological indicators of human impact in mangroves of the southeastern coast of Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabie, Jacques H C; Paim, Valéria R L de M; Do Nascimento, Ivan C; Campiolo, Sofia; Mariano, Cléa dos S F

    2006-01-01

    Mangroves are common in estuaries along the Atlantic coast of Brazil. Although plant diversity is low, this ecosystem supports a range of animals, offering some resources for non-aquatic organisms. Many insects live in mangroves and, between them, many ant species that are exclusively arboreous. Mangroves throughout the world suffer from high levels of human impact, and this is particularly true for southeastern Bahia, where land-uses include traditional crab and fish exploitation, urban development, refuse pollution, recreation, and timber extraction. The ants of 13 mangrove sites, representing a range of levels of human use, have been studied along 250 km of the southern Bahia littoral, between Itacaré and Porto Seguro. Ants were sampled both inside and on the periphery of the tidal zone, using entomological rainbow, baiting, collect of hollow branches and pit-fall. A total of 108 species have been collected, with the richest genera being Camponotus and Pseudomyrmex, and the most frequent belonging to the genera Azteca and Crematogaster. The ant community living on the periphery of mangrove areas is rather homogeneous regardless of the degree of environmental perturbation, but varies markedly with the disturbance inside the mangroves themselves. The evolution of richness of the both communities, mangrove and periphery, is negatively related to the human effects, even limited to the periphery. Ant communities therefore have the potential to be useful as biological indicators of ecological impacts of land-use in these mangrove systems.

  12. Mangrove removal in the belize cays: effects on mangrove-associated fish assemblages in the intertidal and subtidal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D.S.; Reyier, E.A.; Davis, W.P.; McIvor, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of mangrove cutting on fish assemblages in Twin Cays, Belize, in two habitat types. We conducted visual censuses at two sites in adjoining undisturbed/disturbed (30%–70% of shoreline fringe removed) sub-tidal fringing Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753. Observers recorded significantly more species and individuals in undisturbed sites, especially among smaller, schooling species (e.g., atherinids, clupeids), where densities were up to 200 times greater in undisturbed habitat. Multivariate analyses showed distinct species assemblages between habitats at both sites. In addition, extensive trapping with wire minnow traps within the intertidal zone in both undisturbed and disturbed fringing and transition (landward) mangrove forests was conducted. Catch rates were low: 638 individuals from 24 species over 563 trap-nights. Trap data, however, indicated that mangrove disturbance had minimal effect on species composition in either forest type (fringe/transition). Different results from the two methods (and habitat types) may be explained by two factors: (1) a larger and more detectable species pool in the subtidal habitat, with visual "access" to all species, and (2) the selective nature of trapping. Our data indicate that even partial clearing of shoreline and more landward mangroves can have a significant impact on local fish assemblages.

  13. Pharmacognosy of mangrove plants in the system of unani medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Govindasamy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove plants are found to have medicinal values and have been used traditionally by local medical practitioners in worldwide. In nature, more than 65 species of mangrove plants, 18 species are found to be widely used by local medical practitioners in many countries like India, Africa, Southeast Asia, South America, Australia etc. Moreover, etanobotanical records regarding medical use of mangrove plants are very limited and very unique. One to its astringent property, tannin is suitable in the treatment of tonsillitis, pharyngeatis, hemorrhoids. slaik eruion and burns. It is taken internally, to diarrohea and intestinal bleeding. The extracts of barks of Bruguiera sexangula are active against two human tumors, sarcoma 180 and lexis lung carcinoma. Tannin is also used as an antidote for metallic, alkaloidal and sylycosidic poisons with which it forms a soluble precipitate. Stigma sterol has been shown to have slight hyper cholesterolinic effect which exerts no effect on heart or liver in unani medicine.

  14. Struktur komunitas mangrove dan strategi pengelolaannya di Kabupaten Pidie, Province Aceh (Community structure of mangrove and its management strategy in Pidie District, Aceh Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Karnanda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the community structure of mangrove vegetation in Pidie District, Aceh Province and to plan its management strategies. The study was conducted from August to November 2014 in three subdistricts namely Batee, Kota Sigli, and Simpang Tiga. A total of three sampling stations were determined purposively at every subdistrict where every station has two substations and every substation has three sampling plots of 10 m x 10 m. In addition, a total of 297 respondents as representative of the fish farmer, fishermen, and other stakeholders were interviewed to collect data to plan the management strategies using the SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats analysis. The results showed that there were six species of mangrove found in Pidie District namely Avicennia alba, A. officinalis, A. marina, Rhizophora mucronata, R. apiculata and Sonneratia alba. For seedlings and saplings categories can be classified into very good condition, except in Kecamatan Batee  where S. alba for seedlings was classified into moderate damage and the saplings was in highly damaged condition. The mangrove of trees category was classified into heavily damaged condition. The management strategies of mangrove ecosystem in Kabupaten Pidie can be done by maximizing the function of mangrove ecosystems by replanting the species of mangrove that match with the habitat for their life so that can produce the specific functions; improve the role of government and society in controlling and monitoring the mangrove ecosystems; and establish the local regulations about the management of mangrove ecosystems in Kabupaten Pidie. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis struktur komunitas vegetasi mangrove dan menetapkan strategi pengelolaannya di Kabupaten Pidie Provinsi Aceh. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada Agustus sampai November 2014 pada tiga kecamatan yaitu Kecamatan Batee, Kota Sigli, dan Kecamatan Simpang Tiga. Metode yang

  15. Transcriptome profiling during mangrove viviparity in response to abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liwei; Su, Wenyue; Zhang, Yuanye; Ye, Congting; Shen, Yingjia; Li, Qingshun Q

    2018-01-15

    Mangrove plants adapt to coastal tidal mudflats with specially evolved viviparity seed development. However, very little is known about the genetic and molecular mechanisms of mangrove viviparity. Here, we tested a hypothesis that plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a significant role in precocious germination of viviparous Kandelia obovata seeds by exogenous applications. Through transcriptome analysis of ABA treated seeds, it was found that ABA repressed mangrove fruit growth and development, and there were thousands of genes differentially expressed. As a result, dynamics of the pathways were dramatically altered. In particular, "Plant hormone signal transduction" and "MAPK signaling pathway" were represented significantly. Among differentially expressed genes, some key genes of ABA signal transduction were induced, while ABA biosynthesis genes were repressed. Take ABI1 and ABI2, key negative regulators in ABA signal pathway, as examples, homologous alignment and a phylogenetic tree in various species showed that ABI1 and ABI2 are highly conserved among various species. The functional similarity of these genes was confirmed by transgenic work in Arabidopsis. Taken together, ABA inhibited mangrove viviparity, but mangroves developed a mechanism to prevent accidently increase of ABA in the harsh environment for maintaining viviparous reproductive strategy.

  16. Food sources of dominant macrozoobenthos between native and non-native mangrove forests: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luzhen; Yan, Ting; Xiong, Yiyi; Zhang, Yihui; Lin, Guanghui

    2017-03-01

    The macrozoobenthos is an important link of the food web in coastal wetlands. Diet-habitat relationships may significantly depend on qualitative differences and seasonal availability of food sources. Increasing interest has been shown in food web structure altered by non-native plants. In particular, however, a non-native mangrove species from Bangladesh, Sonneratia apetala, has been widely planted in China, but little is known about its possible impact on food sources of macrozoobenthos living in these non-native mangrove forests. Therefore, in this study, we used fatty acid analysis to compare the food sources of one littorinid snail and two grapsid crab species between two native mangrove forests and one non-native S. apetala plantation in the Zhanjiang Mangrove National Nature Reserve of China. We found that the sediment of all three forests had high diatom and bacteria signals, but low mangrove leaf signals, while the opposite patterns were detected in the three macrozoobenthos. Specifically, the gastropod Littoraria melanostoma relied mainly on mangrove leaves and brown algae as food sources, with significant differences among the three mangrove forests, and showed significant seasonal variation in its diet. The grapsidae species (Perisesarma bidens and Parasesarma plicatum) mainly grazed on mangrove litter, brown and green algae, and occasionally consumed diatoms and bacteria, also showing significant seasonal variation in their diet. Overall, Principle Components Analysis (PCA) of the fatty acid profiles showed a significant overlapping in food sources among the macrozoobenthos living in the non-native and native mangrove forests, but significant seasonal variations in their food sources. This suggests that the planting of non-native S. apetala near original mangrove forests has had little effect on the feeding behavior of macrozoobenthos some 10 years after planting.

  17. Phylogenetics of neotropical Platymiscium (Leguminosae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Chase, Mark W; Robinson, Daniel N

    2008-01-01

    + Etaballia, Inocarpus + Tipuana and Paramachaerium + Maraniona. Our results support monophyly of Platymiscium, which is resolved into three major clades, each with distinct geographic ranges and ecological preferences. Diversification in Platymiscium has been driven by habitat fragmentation, invasion...... of novel geographic regions, and ecological diversification, revealing general patterns of diversification in the neotropics. We hypothesize that Platymiscium arose in dry habitats of South America and radiated northward. The Amazon basin was invaded twice both within the last 5.6 My and Central America...

  18. Plant-plant interactions in a subtropical mangrove-to-marsh transition zone: effects of environmental drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cormier, Nicole; Day, Richard H.; Biagas, Janelda M.; Allain, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    Questions Does the presence of herbaceous vegetation affect the establishment success of mangrove tree species in the transition zone between subtropical coastal mangrove forests and marshes? How do plant–plant interactions in this transition zone respond to variation in two primary coastal environmental drivers? Location Subtropical coastal region of the southern United States. Methods We conducted a greenhouse study to better understand how abiotic factors affect plant species interactions in the mangrove-to-marsh transition zone, or ecotone. We manipulated salinity (fresh, brackish or salt water) and hydrologic conditions (continuously saturated or 20-cm tidal range) to simulate ecotonal environments. Propagules of the mangroves Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa were introduced to mesocosms containing an established marsh community. Both mangrove species were also introduced to containers lacking other vegetation. We monitored mangrove establishment success and survival over 22 mo. Mangrove growth was measured as stem height and above-ground biomass. Stem height, stem density and above-ground biomass of the dominant marsh species were documented. Results Establishment success of A. germinans was reduced under saturated saltwater conditions, but establishment of L. racemosa was not affected by experimental treatments. There was complete mortality of A. germinans in mesocosms under freshwater conditions, and very low survival of L. racemosa. In contrast, survival of both species in monoculture under freshwater conditions exceeded 62%. The marsh species Distichlis spicata and Eleocharis cellulosa suppressed growth of both mangroves throughout the experiment, whereas the mangroves did not affect herbaceous species growth. The magnitude of growth suppression by marsh species varied with environmental conditions; suppression was often higher in saturated compared to tidal conditions, and higher in fresh and salt water compared to

  19. How mangroves salinize the soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. van Duijn (Hans); G. Galiano; J.H. Knight; M.A. Peletier (Mark)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA transient one-dimensional model of the vertical movement of water and salt in the mangrove root zone is investigated. This is an extension of a previous steady state model which assumed that the ability of the mangrove roots to take up water is uniformly distributed throughout the soil

  20. Aspects of productivity of mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar

    The term 'mangroves' refers to an assemblage of different flowering plants which can grow in saline brackish water areas like creeks, backwaters, estuaries and deltas. Mangrove forest cover in the tropical area is about 0.5 million km sup(2...

  1. Review: Mangrove ecosystem in Java: 2. Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURIN CANDRA PURNAMA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available R E V I E W:Ekosistem Mangrove di Jawa: 2. RestorasiThe restoration of mangroves has received a lot of attentions world wide for several reasons. Mangrove ecosystem is very important in term of socio-economic and ecology functions. Because of its functions, wide range of people paid attention whenever mangrove restoration taken place. Mangrove restoration potentially increases mangrove resource value, protect the coastal area from destruction, conserve biodiversity, fish production and both of directly and indirectly support the life of surrounding people. This paper outlines the activities of mangrove restoration on Java island. The extensive research has been carried out on the ecology, structure and functioning of the mangrove ecosystem. However, the findings have not been interpreted in a management framework, thus mangrove forests around the world continue to be over-exploited, converted to aquaculture ponds, and polluted. We strongly argue that links between research and sustainable management of mangrove ecosystem should be established.

  2. Role of mangroves as a nursery ground for juvenile reef fishes in the southern Egyptian Red Sea

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    Mohamed A. Abu El-Regal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the importance of mangrove area as nursery grounds for the juvenile of reef fishes in the Red Sea. Juvenile fishes were collected during three seasons in 2010 from three mangrove swamps by a beach seine net. The net was dragged on the bottom for 100 m three times. A total of 269 juvenile fishes were collected, representing 21 species in 19 families. The most abundant species formed about 86% of all collected fishes. Nine species were collected for the first time from mangrove areas in the Egyptian Red Sea. Most of the collected fishes are economically important fishes. Moreover, eleven families were belonging to coral reef fishes. The highest species richness value was recorded in Hamata mangroves. This finding showed that how mangroves could support the life history of many coral reef fishes.

  3. Essential oils from neotropical Myrtaceae: chemical diversity and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Pascoal, Aislan C R F; Salvador, Marcos J

    2011-01-01

    Myrtaceae family (121 genera, 3800-5800 spp.) is one of the most important families in tropical forests. They are aromatic trees or shrubs, which frequently produce edible fruits. In the neotropics, ca. 1000 species were found. Several members of this family are used in folk medicine, mainly as an antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cleanser, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory agent and to decrease the blood cholesterol. In addition, some fruits are eaten fresh or used to make juices, liqueurs, and sweets very much appreciated by people. The flavor composition of some fruits belonging to the Myrtaceae family has been extensively studied due to their pleasant and intense aromas. Most of the essential oils of neotropical Myrtaceae analyzed so far are characterized by predominance of sesquiterpenes, some with important biological properties. In the present work, chemical and pharmacological studies carried out on neotropical Myrtaceae species are reviewed, based on original articles published since 1980. The uses in folk medicine and chemotaxonomic importance of secondary metabolites are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Response of neotropical bat assemblages to human land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Rodrigo; Badano, Ernesto I; Moreno, Claudia E

    2013-10-01

    Neotropical bats are sensitive to human-induced habitat changes, and some authors believe bats can be used as bioindicators. In the literature, however, the results are disparate. Some results show bat diversity deceases as disturbance increases, whereas others indicate no effect. Determining the general response patterns of bats when they encounter different degrees of human-induced disturbance across the Neotropics would help to determine their usefulness as bioindicators. In a series of meta-analyses, we compared the occurrence frequency of bat species between well-preserved forests and human-use areas. We obtained data through an extensive review of published peer-reviewed articles, theses, and reports. The overall effect size indicated that human-use areas harbored more bat species than well-preserved forests. Different response patterns emerged when meta-analyses were conducted separately by family, feeding habit, vegetation stratum, and conservation status. Our results suggest that bat assemblages display strong responses to forest loss and land-use change and that the direction and magnitude of these responses depends on the bat group under study and the type of disturbance. Our results are consistent with the idea that bats are useful for assessing the effects of habitat changes in the Neotropics. However, with our meta-analyses we could not detect fine differences in bat feeding habits, especially within Phyllostomidae, or elucidate the effect of landscape configuration. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Assembly and phylogenetic structure of Neotropical palm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Balslev, Henrik

    Diversity, composition and dynamics of Neotropical palm communities are receiving an increasing amount of attention due to their economic importance, but also because their high species richness and functional diversity render them valuable model systems for overall forest biodiversity. However......, to better understand these palm communities, it is crucial to gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for their assembly. These can be dispersal limitation, environmental filtering, or biotic interactions. If the degree of niche conservatism is known for a group of organisms, patterns of community...... phylogenetic structure can be directly traced back to mechanisms of community assembly. We aim to examine this for Neotropical palm communities. Phylogenetic structure will be inferred on different spatial scales and for different community definitions (plot-based and environment-based). To overcome...

  6. Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Bo; Ye, Wan-Wan; Han, Ying; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. The mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for natural product discovery and bioactivity survey. Diverse mangrove actinomycetes as promising and productive sources are worth being explored and uncovered. At the time of writing, we report 73 novel compounds and 49 known compounds isolated from mangrove actinomycetes including alkaloids, benzene derivatives, cyclopentenone derivatives, dilactones, macrolides, 2-pyranones and sesquiterpenes. Attractive structures such as salinosporamides, xiamycins and novel indolocarbazoles are highlighted. Many exciting compounds have been proven as potential new antibiotics, antitumor and antiviral agents, anti-fibrotic agents and antioxidants. Furthermore, some of their biosynthetic pathways have also been revealed. This review is an attempt to consolidate and summarize the past and the latest studies on mangrove actinomycetes natural product discovery and to draw attention to their immense potential as novel and bioactive compounds for marine drugs discovery. PMID:24798926

  7. Study of mangrove environment of Maharashtra coast using remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.; Inamdar, S.N.

    Analysis of remote sensing data indicate approximately 210 km super(2) of the mangrove area along the Maharashtra coast in India. The dominant species along the coast are Rhizophora mucronata, Avicennia officinalis, A. marina, Sonneratia alba, S...

  8. KERUSAKAN EKOSISTEM MANGROVE AKIBAT KONVERSI LAHAN DI KAMPUNG TOBATI DAN KAMPUNG NAFRI, JAYAPURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meivy Arizona

    2016-10-01

    menunjukkan bahwa pembentukan mangrove masih dalam kondisi baik.    ABSTRACT The research area are Tobati and Nafri villages in Jayapura-Papua. The aim of this research is 1 to study the kinds of mangrove that had been changed by human activities, 2 to study the condition of water and soil in the area which had been changed by land conversion, 3 to know the society responses about the mangrove ecosystems damaged and their contributes in mangrove ecosystems management.The methods used are transect line quadrate plots across the mangrove zones and distribution area with three times repeating. The quadrate plot sizes were 10m x 20m for trees, 1m x 1m for herbs, seedling and grasses. The parameter measures were densities, frequencies, basal areas and important values of mangrove. The physic parameter measures were water that included temperature pH, salinity, and soil qualities such as organic matters, Savailable Pavailable, Caavailable, Mgavailable, Naavailable,  Ntotal, pH, temperature and the soil textures. The analysis of the physic parameter was using variant analysis. Social parameter that been measured were numbers of population, occupation, education, and knowledge about mangrove ecosystems. The methods that used for identifying the culture of the society of Tobati villagers were survied and interviewed with 50 respondents. The respondents have been separated in 2 groups of 40 repondents that were taken from Tobati village and the rest of it were taken from Nafri village.The results showed that mere are seven species of mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora sfylosa, Csriops tagal, Snnneratia alba, Xylocarpus mollucensis and Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea in Tobati village. Species mangrove that showed in Nafri village were nine species, seven species which similar with Tobati except for Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Aegiceras comiculatum were not showed in Tobati village. The existence of mangrove vegetation that been changed by land conversion in

  9. Perancangan Promosi Dan Kemasan Teh Mangrove Druju

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Roselinee Nathania; Adib, Ahmad; Suhartono, Ani Wijayanti

    2015-01-01

    Perancangan tugas akhir ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi tentang teh mangrove pertama di Indonesia. Teh Mangrove Druju merupakan produk olahan mangrove yang belum dikenal dan belum melakukan banyak kegiatan promosi. Sehingga perancangan ini bertujuan untuk mengenalkan produk Teh Mangrove Druju dan membantu merubah brand image akan produk olahan mangrove. Sedangkan tujuan dari perancangan ini untuk merancang media promosi dan kemasan yang komunikatif dan efektif agar promosi yang dilak...

  10. A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical poison frog genus Ranitomeya (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.L.; Twomey, E.; Amézquita, A.; Souza, M.B.; Caldwell, J.P.; Lötters, S.; May, R.; Melo-Sampaio, P.R.; Mejía-Vargas, D.; Perez-Peña, P.; Pepper, M.; Poelman, E.H.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Summers, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Neotropical poison frog genus Ranitomeya is revised, resulting in one new genus, one new species, five synonymies and one species classified as nomen dubium. We present an expanded molecular phylogeny that contains 235 terminals, 104 of which are new to this study. Notable additions to this

  11. Patterns, biases and prospects in the distribution and diversity of Neotropical snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Ricardo J.; Zizka, Alexander; Laffan, Shawn; Faurby, Søren; Pyron, R. Alexander; Bérnils, Renato S.; Jansen, Martin; Passos, Paulo; Prudente, Ana L