Sample records for neoproterozoic kingston peak

  1. Key geophysical indicators of seismic vulnerability in Kingston, Jamaica (United States)

    Brown, L. A.; Hornbach, M. J.; Salazar, W.; Kennedy, M.


    Kingston, the major city and hub of all commercial and industrial activity in Jamaica, has a history of moderate seismic activity; however, two significant (>Mw 6) earthquakes (1692 and 1907) caused major devastation resulting in thousands of casualties. Both the 1692 and 1907 events also triggered widespread liquefaction and tsunamis within Kingston Harbor. Kingston remains vulnerable to these earthquakes today because the city sits on 200-m to 600-m thick alluvial fan deposits adjacent to the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault—the same fault system that activated during the Haiti 2010 earthquake. Recent GPS results suggest the potential for a Mw 7-7.5 earthquake near Kingston along the Enriquillo- Plantain Garden fault Zone (EPGFZ), the dominant east-west trending fault through Jamaica. Whether active strands EPGFZ extend through downtown Kingston remains unclear, however, recent sonar mapping in Kingston harbor show evidence for active faulting, with offshore faults connecting to proposed active on-land fault systems that extend through populated areas of the city. Seismic "Chirp" reflections also shows evidence for multiple recent (Holocene) submarine slide deposits in the harbor that may be associated with historic tsunamis. Using recently acquired chirp and sediment cores, we are currently studying the recurrence interval of earthquake events. We also recently performed a microtremor survey to identify areas prone to earthquake-induced ground shaking throughout the city of Kingston & St. Andrew parish. Data was collected at 200 points with a lateral spacing of 500 metres between each point. Our analysis shows significant variations in the fundamental frequency across the city and results clearly indicate areas of potential amplification, with areas surrounding Kingston harbor (much of which has been built on reclaimed land) showing the highest potential for ground amplification. The microtremor analysis suggests several high-density urban areas as well as key

  2. The fauna of the Port Royal mangal, Kingston, Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alleng, Gerard P.


    ALLENG, Gerard P., 1997. The fauna of the Port Royal mangal, Kingston, Jamaica. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam 1997: 23-42. An analysis and a characterization are presented of the Port Royal mangrove fauna. The existing literature on the subject is extensively reviewed and a fauna

  3. Chemostratigraphy of Neoproterozoic Banded Iron Formation (BIF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaucher, Claudio; Sial, Alcides N.; Frei, Robert


    Neoproterozoic banded iron formations (BIFs) are not restricted to the middle Cryogenian, c. 715 Ma glaciation, occurring in Tonian, Cryogenian, and Ediacaran successions. Many Neoproterozoic BIFs were deposited in glacially influenced settings, such as the Rapitan Group (Canada), Jacadigo Group (W...... for the study of BIFs include rare earth element distribution, especially Eu and Ce normalized concentrations, iron speciation, and Nd and Cr isotopes (δ53Cr). Whereas Rapitan type BIFs exhibit no Eu or Ce anomalies, the Algoma-type Neoproterozoic BIFs show both. Positive δ53Cr values characterize glacially...

  4. Reconstructing Rodinia by Fitting Neoproterozoic Continental Margins (United States)

    Stewart, John H.


    Reconstructions of Phanerozoic tectonic plates can be closely constrained by lithologic correlations across conjugate margins by paleontologic information, by correlation of orogenic belts, by paleomagnetic location of continents, and by ocean floor magmatic stripes. In contrast, Proterozoic reconstructions are hindered by the lack of some of these tools or the lack of their precision. To overcome some of these difficulties, this report focuses on a different method of reconstruction, namely the use of the shape of continents to assemble the supercontinent of Rodinia, much like a jigsaw puzzle. Compared to the vast amount of information available for Phanerozoic systems, such a limited approach for Proterozoic rocks, may seem suspect. However, using the assembly of the southern continents (South America, Africa, India, Arabia, Antarctica, and Australia) as an example, a very tight fit of the continents is apparent and illustrates the power of the jigsaw puzzle method. This report focuses on Neoproterozoic rocks, which are shown on two new detailed geologic maps that constitute the backbone of the study. The report also describes the Neoproterozoic, but younger or older rocks are not discussed or not discussed in detail. The Neoproterozoic continents and continental margins are identified based on the distribution of continental-margin sedimentary and magmatic rocks that define the break-up margins of Rodinia. These Neoproterozoic continental exposures, as well as critical Neo- and Meso-Neoproterozoic tectonic features shown on the two new map compilations, are used to reconstruct the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia. This approach differs from the common approach of using fold belts to define structural features deemed important in the Rodinian reconstruction. Fold belts are difficult to date, and many are significantly younger than the time frame considered here (1,200 to 850 Ma). Identifying Neoproterozoic continental margins, which are primarily

  5. Tidal shelf sedimentation in the Neoproterozoic Chattisgarh ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Neoproterozoic Kansapathar Sandstone of the Chattisgarh basin, a shallow marine shelf bar sequence, consists of mineralogically and texturally mature sandstones with subordinate siltstones, mudstones and conglomerates. The sediments were transported, reworked and deposited in subtidal environments by strong ...

  6. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Neoproterozoic Mylliem ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Mylliem granitoids of the Meghalaya Plateau, northeastern India, represent one of the disharmonic. Neoproterozoic igneous plutons, which are intrusive into low-grade Shillong Group of metasediments. Field studies indicate that the Mylliem granitoids cover an area of about 40 km2 and is characterized by development ...

  7. Neoproterozoic marine carbonates and their paleoceanographic significance (United States)

    Hood, Ashleigh van Smeerdijk; Wallace, Malcolm William


    The primary mineralogy of marine carbonate precipitates has been a crucial factor in constraining the major element composition of ancient oceans. Secular changes in Phanerozoic marine chemistry, including Mg/Ca, have been well-documented using the original carbonate mineralogy of ooids, marine cements and biominerals. However, the history of Precambrian seawater chemistry is not as well constrained, partially due to the prevalence of dolomitisation in the Precambrian geological record. The Neoproterozoic ( 1000 Ma to 541 Ma) record of primary carbonate mineralogy is documented here using a combination of literature data and new analysis of marine carbonate precipitates from the Otavi Fold Belt, Namibia, the Death Valley succession, USA and the Adelaide Fold Belt, Australia. These data suggest that the last 460 million years of the Proterozoic were dominated by aragonite and high-Mg calcite precipitation in shallow marine settings. In contrast, low-Mg calcite has only been recognised in a small number of formations. In addition to aragonite and calcite precipitation, marine dolomite precipitation was widespread in Neoproterozoic oceans, including mimetic (syn-sedimentary) dolomitisation and primary dolomite marine cementation. The combination of marine aragonite, high Mg-calcite and dolomite precipitation during the Neoproterozoic suggests extremely high seawater Mg/Ca conditions relative to Phanerozoic oceans. Marine dolomite precipitation may also be linked to widespread marine anoxia during this time.

  8. The Neoproterozoic Malani magmatism of the northwestern Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Neoproterozoic; Malani; Sindreth Group; felsic volcanism; crust building. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci.), 113, No. 4, December 2004, pp. 795–807 ...... Tectonic evolution. The Neoproterozoic crustal building process in western Rajasthan is marked with the intrusion of. 1000 Ma old diorite and gabbro in the south ...

  9. Pressure-temperature evolution of Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the Welayati Formation (Kabul Block), Afghanistan (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Faryad, Shah Wali


    The Welayati Formation, consisting of alternating layers of mica-schist and quartzite with lenses of amphibolite, unconformably overlies the Neoarchean Sherdarwaza Formation of the Kabul Block that underwent Paleoproterozoic granulite-facies and Neoproterozoic amphibolite-facies metamorphic events. To analyze metamorphic history of the Welayati Formation and its relations to the underlying Sherdarwaza Formation, petrographic study and pressure-temperature (P-T) pseudosection modeling were applied to staurolite- and kyanite-bearing mica-schists, which crop out to the south of Kabul City. Prograde metamorphism, identified by inclusion trails and chemical zonation in garnet from the micaschists indicates that the rocks underwent burial from around 6.2 kbar at 525 °C to maximum pressure conditions of around 9.5 kbar at temperatures of around 650 °C. Decompression from peak pressures under isothermal or moderate heating conditions are indicated by formation of biotite and plagioclase porphyroblasts which cross-cut and overgrow the dominant foliation. The lack of sillimanite and/or andalusite suggests that cooling and further decompression occurred in the kyanite stability field. The results of this study indicate a single amphibolite-facies metamorphism that based on P-T conditions and age dating correlates well with the Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the underlying Sherdarwaza Formation. The rocks lack any paragenetic evidence for a preceding granulite-facies overprint or subsequent Paleozoic metamorphism. Owing to the position of the Kabul Block, within the India-Eurasia collision zone, partial replacement of the amphibolite-facies minerals in the micaschist could, in addition to retrogression of the Neoproterozoic metamorphism, relate to deformation associated with the Alpine orogeny.

  10. Indoor air quality in 300 homes in Kingston/Harriman, Tennessee: winter phase status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Uziel, M.; Vo-Dinh, T.; Cohen, M.A.; Orebaugh, C.T.; Miller, G.H.; Ironsides, K.; Monar, K.P.; Dudney, C.S.; Tyndall, R.L.


    This report summarizes the status of the 300-Home Kingston/Harriman Indoor Air Quality Study at the end of the winter phase of monitoring. Plans for the summer monitoring phase are also presented. The report is organized by the major pollutants monitored. Reporting focuses on study protocols and summaries of winter monitoring activities. A minimum of results are presented since, for many pollutants, laboratory analyses are not yet complete.

  11. Life, Writing, and Peace: Reading Maxine Hong Kingston's The Fifth Book of Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Hsing Shan


    Full Text Available Unlike her former award-winning and critically acclaimed works, Maxine Hong Kingston's The Fifth Book of Peace has received little attention. This is an unthinkable phenomenon for a writer who has been hailed as one of the most widely taught authors living in the United States. One of the main reasons is that critics and reviewers do not know how to cope with this complicated, heterogeneous, and "weird" text that defies easy categorization. Nor do they know how to respond to the ways the author urges her readers to squarely face collective American traumas and symptoms through writing (especially the Vietnam War. This paper attempts to approach this intriguing text from the perspective of life writing. Part I points out the undue neglect of this book, refutes some serious misunderstandings, and offers "life writing" as a critical approach. Part II places this book in the context of Kingston's career and life trajectory in order to show that "peace" has always been her major concern. Part III argues that, whereas the 1991 Berkeley-Oakland fire destroyed the manuscript of her "Fourth Book of Peace" along with her house, this "baptism of fire" and its accompanying sense of devastation generated a special empathy, enabling her to better understand those who suffer, especially Vietnam War veterans. Part IV deals with both the subjects of writing trauma and trauma narrative and indicates how Kingston combines her writing expertise with the Buddhist mindfulness expounded by the Vietnamese monk Thich Nhat Hanh to lead the Veterans Writing Workshop. Finally, Part V stresses how Kingston and her writing community, by combining life, writing, and peace, tell their own stories and create new lives both personally and collectively.

  12. Palaeomagnetism of neoproterozoic formations in the volta basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Volta basin lies on the southern part of the West African craton, more precisely on the Leo (or Man) craton. The Dahomeyides chain is thrust onto its eastern fringe. The Volta basin is filled with Neoproterozoic to Cambro- Ordovician sediments. From bottom to top they are: the Boumbouaka Supergroup made of ...

  13. Neoproterozoic tectonics of the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasband, B.


    The Neoproterozoic tectonic development of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) can be divided in three parts: 1) the oceanic stage; 2) the arc-accretion stage; 3) the extensional stage. Three key-areas in the Arabian-Nubian Shield, namely the Bi'r Umq Complex, The Tabalah and Tarj Complex and the Wadi

  14. In situ gamma radiation measurements in the Neoproterozoic rocks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Gamma ray spectrometry; Neoproterozoic; uranium; Sirohi; Sindreth; NW India. ... variable in their signatures reflecting their variable source rocks. In the area between the Balda and Paladi villages, northeast of Sirohi, measurements in vicinity of a N–S running shear zone, have shown U enrichment up to 8 ppm.

  15. Palaeomagnetism of neoproterozoic formations in the volta basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The palaeolatitudes of the older formations about 44.9° S and that of the younger sites about 9.1° S show a migration of the West African craton from medium to low latitude during the Neoproterozoic, in conformity with the Snowball Earth hypothesis. KEYWORDS: West African craton, Volta basin, Virtual Geomagnetic Pole, ...

  16. palaeomagnetism of neoproterozoic formations in the volta basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    9.1° S show a migration of the West African craton from medium to low latitude during the Neoproterozoic, in conformity with the ..... rocks from the Juiz de Fora. Complex, SE Brazil. Earth and Planetary. Sciences Letters 209, 131–147. Raposo, M.I., McReath, I., and D'Agrella-Filho, M.S.,. 2006. Magnetic fabrics, rock.

  17. Continental rift-setting and evolution of Neoproterozoic Sindreth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Neoproterozoic Sindreth Basin, NW India, and its surrounding area represent a half graben structure situated between the undeformed Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) in the west and a corridor of coeval Cryogenian ductile deformation, anatexis and granite intrusion in the east. The main lithologies observed in the basin ...

  18. Iron isotope biogeochemistry of Neoproterozoic marine shales (United States)

    Kunzmann, Marcus; Gibson, Timothy M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Hodgskiss, Malcolm S. W.; Bui, Thi Hao; Carozza, David A.; Sperling, Erik A.; Poirier, André; Cox, Grant M.; Wing, Boswell A.


    Iron isotopes have been widely applied to investigate the redox evolution of Earth's surface environments. However, it is still unclear whether iron cycling in the water column or during diagenesis represents the major control on the iron isotope composition of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Interpretation of isotopic data in terms of oceanic redox conditions is only possible if water column processes dominate the isotopic composition, whereas redox interpretations are less straightforward if diagenetic iron cycling controls the isotopic composition. In the latter scenario, iron isotope data is more directly related to microbial processes such as dissimilatory iron reduction. Here we present bulk rock iron isotope data from late Proterozoic marine shales from Svalbard, northwestern Canada, and Siberia, to better understand the controls on iron isotope fractionation in late Proterozoic marine environments. Bulk shales span a δ 56Fe range from -0.45 ‰ to +1.04 ‰ . Although δ 56Fe values show significant variation within individual stratigraphic units, their mean value is closer to that of bulk crust and hydrothermal iron in samples post-dating the ca. 717-660 Ma Sturtian glaciation compared to older samples. After correcting for the highly reactive iron content in our samples based on iron speciation data, more than 90% of the calculated δ 56Fe compositions of highly reactive iron falls in the range from ca. -0.8 ‰ to +3 ‰ . An isotope mass-balance model indicates that diagenetic iron cycling can only change the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron by seawater iron reservoir, control the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron. Considering a long-term decrease in the isotopic composition of the iron source to the dissolved seawater Fe(II) reservoir to be unlikely, we offer two possible explanations for the Neoproterozoic δ 56Fe trend. First, a decreasing supply of Fe(II) to the ferrous seawater iron reservoir could have caused the reservoir

  19. Is the Neoproterozoic oxygen burst a supercontinent legacy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina eMacouin


    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic (1000–542 Myr ago witnessed the dawn of Earth as we know it with modern-style plate tectonics, high levels of O2 in atmosphere and oceans and a thriving fauna. Yet, the processes leading to the fully oxygenation of the external envelopes, its exact timing and its link with the inner workings of the planet remain poorly understood. In some ways, it is a chicken and egg question: did the Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event (NOE cause life blooming, low-latitudes glaciations and perturbations in geochemical cycles or is it a consequence of these phenomena? Here, we suggest that the NOE may have been triggered by multi-million years oxic volcanic emissions along a protracted period at the end of the Neoproterozoic when continents were assembled in the Rodinia supercontinent. We report a very oxidized magma source at the upper mantle beneath a ring of subducting margins around Rodinia, and detail here the evidence at the margin of the Arabian shield. We investigate the 780 Ma Biotite and Pink granites and associated rocks of the Socotra Island with rock magnetic and petrographic methods. Magnetic susceptibility and isothermal remanent magnetization acquisitions show that, in these granites, both magnetite and hematite are present. Hematite subdivides magnetite grains into small grains. Magnetite and hematite are found to be primary, and formed at the early magmatic evolution of the granite at very high oxygen fugacity. Massive degassing of these oxidized magmas would reduce the sink for oxygen, and consequently contribute to its rise in the atmosphere with a net O2 flux of at least 2.25 x 107 Tmol. Our conceptual model provides a deep Earth link to the NOE and implies the oxygenation burst has occurred earlier than previously envisaged, paving the way for later changes in the outer envelopes of the planet epitomized on the extreme Neoproterozoic glaciations and the appearance of the first animals.

  20. Twin Peaks (United States)


    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  1. Isotope stratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic Togari group, Tasmania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calver, C.R.


    A carbon and strontium isotope study of the Togari Group, northwest Tasmania. provides significant new age constraints based on chemostratigraphic correlation with key Neoproterozoic sections on other continents. The Black River Dolomite is late Riphean (middle Cryogenian: ca 750-650 Ma) on δ 13 C, δ 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and stromatolite-biostratigraphic evidence. In the upper part of the Black River Dolomite, a diamictite unit (the Julius River Member) is associated with a negative δ 13 C excursion and may correlate with the Sturtian glaciation. The succeeding rift volcanics and clastics of the Kanunnah Subgroup, and the probably correlative Crimson Creek Formation of western Tasmania, are inferred to be late Cryogenian to early Neoproterozoic III in age (ca 650-580 Ma). The Smithton Dolomite is middle to late Neoproterozoic III (i.e. Ediacarian/Vendian: ca 580-545Ma) on δ 13 C and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr evidence. The rise in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr through the Smithton Dolomite (0.7079-0.7085) is consistent with previous work showing a monotonic rise in the ratio through the Vendian. Dolostones in the Black River Dolomite and lower Smithton Dolomite are syndepositional or early diagenetic and little altered in δ 13 C. In contrast, crystalline, isotopically altered massive dolostones comprise most of the upper two- thirds of the Smithton Dolomite, but minor interbedded limestones retain little-altered δ 13 C and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Asia

  2. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar (United States)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Horstwood, M.; Tucker, R.; Bauer, W.; Annells, R.; Howard, K. J.; Walsh, G.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.


    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1:100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of 14 U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the Bemarivo Belt is separated by a major ductile shear zone into northern and southern "terranes", each with different lithostratigraphy and ages. However, both formed as Neoproterozoic arc/marginal basin assemblages that were translated southwards over the north-south trending domains of "cratonic" Madagascar, during the main collisional phase of the East African Orogeny at ca. 540 Ma. The older, southern terrane consists of a sequence of high-grade paragneisses (Sahantaha Group), which were derived from a Palaeoproterozoic source and formed a marginal sequence to the Archaean cratons to the south. These rocks are intruded by an extensive suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Antsirabe Nord Suite. Four samples from this suite yielded U-Pb SHRIMP ages at ca. 750 Ma. The northern terrane consists of three groups of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks, including a possible Archaean sequence (Betsiaka Group: maximum depositional age approximately 2477 Ma) and two volcano-sedimentary sequences (high-grade Milanoa Group: maximum depositional age approximately 750 Ma; low grade Daraina Group: extrusive age = 720-740 Ma). These supracrustal rocks are intruded by another suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Manambato Suite, 4 samples of which gave U-Pb SHRIMP ages between 705 and 718 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline, arc-related nature of the plutonic rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Daraina and Milanoa groups also

  3. Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL


    On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition

  4. From WWII to Kingston, Ontario: The History of Queen's University School of Medicine, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. (United States)

    Chung, Karen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Davidson, John


    To describe the origin and development of the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Queen's University School of Medicine (Kingston, Ontario). Resarch ethics board approval and privacy agreements from the Kingston General Hospital (KGH, Kingston, Ontario) medical archives were obtained. Primary and secondary data sources were identified. A systematic examination of newspaper archives, research literature, KGH medical advisory committee meeting minutes, and testimonies from Dr Kenneth Wyllie and Dr John Davidson were obtained. In 1949, Dr Albert Ross Tilley arrived at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. There, Tilley initiated the Burn Unit at the KGH and began monthly teaching during the academic semester. Ken Wyllie (Meds '55), Lloyd Carlson (Meds '57) and John Emery (Meds '57) were the notable progeny of his early initiatives. In 1963, Kenneth Wyllie founded the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in Kingston, Ontario, having completed plastic surgery training in Toronto and Edinburgh with experiences in Stockholm (Sweden), Paris (France) and Baltimore (Maryland, USA). He was shortly joined by Pat Shoemaker (Meds '66). John Davidson (Meds '82) arrived in 1989, bringing an interest in microsurgery and critical inquiry to the division. Five notable surgeons, Cartotto (Meds '88), Watkins, Watters, Meathrel (Meds '03) and McKay, further enhanced the Division's clinical and academic mission. The collective activity of the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Queen's School of Medicine in its 66-year history has encouraged more than 40 others to pursue distinguished careers in the specialty throughout North America, including three past presidents of the Canadian Society of Plastic Surgeons.

  5. Profile of simultaneous poly-substance users of undergraduate students at one university, Kingston - Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Harrison


    Full Text Available Este estudio forma parte de una investigación multicentrica que involucra siete universidades en cinco países de América Latina y una isla caribeña (Jamaica. Estudio de corte transversal que examina el perfil de una muestra de estudiantes de pregrado del primer y segundo años del departamento de Ciencias de la Salud/Médicas de una universidad en Kingston, Jamaica. El tamaño de la muestra fue de 295 estudiantes. Nuestros resultados revelaron que este patrón de consumo de drogas se está produciendo en la universidad estudiada. Alcohol fue la droga mas reportada 27.5%, seguida por cannabis 6.1% y tabaco 4.7%. El reporte de poli-consumo simultaneo fue bajo. Nuestros hallazgos pueden contribuir a informar intervensiones a nivel universitario.

  6. The Kingston Allergy Birth Cohort: Exploring parentally reported respiratory outcomes through the lens of the exposome. (United States)

    North, Michelle L; Brook, Jeffrey R; Lee, Elizabeth Y; Omana, Vanessa; Daniel, Nadia M; Steacy, Lisa M; Evans, Greg J; Diamond, Miriam L; Ellis, Anne K


    The Kingston Allergy Birth Cohort (KABC) is a prenatally recruited cohort initiated to study the developmental origins of allergic disease. Kingston General Hospital was chosen for recruitment because it serves a population with notable diversity in environmental exposures relevant to the emerging concept of the exposome. To establish a profile of the KABC using the exposome framework and examine parentally reported respiratory symptoms to 2 years of age. Data on phase 1 of the cohort (n = 560 deliveries) were compiled, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine associations with respiratory symptoms. The KABC exhibits diversity within the 3 exposome domains of general external (socioeconomic status, rural or urban residence), specific external (cigarette smoke, breastfeeding, mold or dampness), and internal (respiratory health, gestational age), as well as significant associations between exposures from different domains. Significant associations emerged between parental reports of wheeze or cough without a cold and prenatal cigarette smoke exposure, mold or dampness in the home, and the use of air fresheners in the early-life home environment. Breastfeeding, older siblings, and increased gestational age were associated with decreased respiratory symptoms. The KABC is a unique cohort with diversity that can be leveraged for exposomics-based studies. This study found that all 3 domains of the exposome had effects on the respiratory health of KABC children. Ongoing studies using phase 1 of the KABC continue to explore the internal exposome through allergy skin testing and epigenetic analyses and the specific external domain through in-home environmental analyses, air pollution modeling, and ultimately potential convergences within and among domains. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Selenium isotope evidence for progressive oxidation of the Neoproterozoic biosphere (United States)

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Stüeken, Eva E.; Elliott, Tim; Poulton, Simon W.; Dehler, Carol M.; Canfield, Don E.; Catling, David C.


    Neoproterozoic (1,000–542 Myr ago) Earth experienced profound environmental change, including ‘snowball' glaciations, oxygenation and the appearance of animals. However, an integrated understanding of these events remains elusive, partly because proxies that track subtle oceanic or atmospheric redox trends are lacking. Here we utilize selenium (Se) isotopes as a tracer of Earth redox conditions. We find temporal trends towards lower δ82/76Se values in shales before and after all Neoproterozoic glaciations, which we interpret as incomplete reduction of Se oxyanions. Trends suggest that deep-ocean Se oxyanion concentrations increased because of progressive atmospheric and deep-ocean oxidation. Immediately after the Marinoan glaciation, higher δ82/76Se values superpose the general decline. This may indicate less oxic conditions with lower availability of oxyanions or increased bioproductivity along continental margins that captured heavy seawater δ82/76Se into buried organics. Overall, increased ocean oxidation and atmospheric O2 extended over at least 100 million years, setting the stage for early animal evolution. PMID:26679529

  8. Biomarkers of a Low-Latitude Neoproterozoic Glaciation (United States)

    Olcott, A. N.; Sessions, A. L.; Corsetti, F. A.; Kaufman, A. J.


    Neoproterozoic low-latitude glaciations are often considered times of great biologic limitation because of the hypothesized presence of thick, global sea ice. Alternatively, climate models have suggested that tropical oceans could have remained ice-free, or covered by only thin sea ice, allowing life to continue unimpeded throughout the glaciations. The analysis of organic remains from synglacial sediments provides an approach to address the debate. Here we describe molecular, isotopic, and petrographic analyses of organic rich strata (up to 3.0 percent TOC) deposited in southeastern Brazil during Neoproterozoic low-latitude glaciation ca. 700 Ma. These strata contain extractable biomarkers, including 2-α-methyl hopanes, 2,3,6-trimethylarylisoprenoids, C29-C31 hopanes, and C27-C29 steranes. The preserved biomarkers reflect the presence of a complex and productive ecosystem comprised of both aerobic and anaerobic phototrophs, heterotrophs, and eukaryotes. The biomarker data indicate euxinia extending into the photic zone, providing evidence that the oceans were strongly stratified. Significantly, the occurrence of photosynthetic cyanobacteria and green sulfur bacteria at this time indicates that sea-ice cover at this location was thin to nonexistent, and is incompatible with models for snowball Earth that envision kilometers of ice thickness.

  9. The Neoproterozoic Puga (Varanger) cap carbonate, Amazon Craton, Brazil (United States)

    Riccomini, C.; Nogueira, A. C.; Sial, A. N.; Moura, C. A.; Fairchild, T. R.


    Based on stratigraphic and isotopic data the basal carbonates of the Araras Group overlying diamictites of the Puga Formation at the southwest margin of the Amazon Craton are interpreted as a Neoproterozoic cap carbonate. Deposited below wavebase on a carbonate platform, this cap consists of two units separated by a transgressive erosional surface. The lower unit comprises moderately deep to shallow-water pinkish dolomudstone with stratiform fenestrate stromatolites, fenestrate planar lamination, ridge ("tepee-like structures") and tubiform structures. The upper unit includes deep-water bituminous lime mudstones with terrigenous grains, and subordinate shales. Alternating thin calcite crusts and lime mudstone laminae are commonly disrupted by calcite crystal fans (pseudomorphs after aragonite). Brecciated, faulted, and slumped limestone beds with multiple generations of cement indicate localized synsedimentary deformation. Negative excursions of δ13C and variations in 87Sr/86Sr are consistent with a Varanger age. However, unlike other cap carbonates, the basal contact with diamictites exhibits soft-sediment deformation, providing unequivocal sedimentological evidence of rapid dolostone precipitation after ice-melting. This fact confirms the existence of an abrupt change from icehouse to extreme greenhouse conditions, as proposed in the snowball earth hypothesis for Neoproterozoic glaciation. (Financial support: FAPESP grant 00/02903-8, CNPq and Pró-Reitoria de Pós-Graduação, USP).

  10. Neoproterozoic Stromatolites and Microphytolites of the Spitsbergen Archipelago (United States)

    Anisimov, Artem; Anisimova, Svetlana; Kosteva, Natalia


    The Svalbard archipelago is located in the extreme North-West of the Barents Sea. On the archipelago in the framework of large-scale exploration of the continental shelf exploration work carried out by employees of the Polar Marine Geological Expedition (PMGE). The authors were further explored and tested the Neoproterozoic sections of the Groups Veteranen, Akademikarbreen and Polarisbreen on the East and West banks of the Sorgfjorden (the Northern part of the Ny Friesland Peninsula) and in the moraine of the glacier Duner. The rocks carbonate-terrigenous Veteranen Group (upper Riphean) is set in the rocky outcrops on the Western and Eastern banks of Sorgfjorden and in ice-dressed rocks of the Bay. The Group consists of four Formations (bottom to top): Kortbreen, Kingbreen, Glasgowbreen and Oxfordbreen. The rocks carbonate-terrigenous Akademikarbreen Group (upper Riphean) have a lower areal distribution than the breed Veteranen Group in the project area is established only in the southern part of the Bay, in the valleys Kluftdalen, Rivnedalen and small-unnamed streams, as well as on the plateau Fleinfjellet and Vidarfjellet. The Groups consists of four formation (bottom to top): Grusdievbreen, Svanbergfjellet, Draken and Backlundtoppen. According to previous researchers, limestone in Kingbreen Formation (Veteranen Group) met with radial-rayed Microphytolites group Radiosus. And in light grey, cream, pink and red limestones of the Academikarbreen Group, in the Svanbergfjellet Formation defined columnar branching Stromatolites Inzeria djejimi Raab., Gymnosolen aff. ramsayi Steinm. Stromatolites of Conophyton miloradovichi Raab. in the dolomites of the overlying sediments Draken and Backlundtoppen Formations contain Vendian the bubbles Microphytolites Vesicularites bothrydioformis Krasnop. In carbonate rocks of the Akademikerbreen Group were confirmed by the finds of Neoproterozoic microbial entities identified by previous researchers, and identified new locations of

  11. The Neoproterozoic Tillite Group from Ella Ø, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Kasper K.; Houmark-Nielsen, Michael

    is ~1200 m. The Ulvesø Fm rests conformably on shales and stromatolithic calcareous rocks of suggested warm water origin, and the Storeelv Fm is conformably overlain by clastic rocks showing pseudomorphoses after halite in the uppermost unit. The two diamictitic units are separated by the ~250 m thick Area...... compositions of the stromatolithic carbonates of Bed Group 18 are significantly enriched compared to modern values with a mean of +7‰ V-PDB. The shift from calcareous rocks of Bed Group 18 to shaly and cherty sediments of Bed Group 19 is accompanied by a negative shift in d13C of more that 15‰, and average...... diamictitic units. The Canyon Fm overlying the Storeelv diamictite shows a gradual shift in d13C(carbonate) to values close to 0‰ as also found in the Cambrian rocks above. Comparison to published carbon isotope curves from other Neoproterozoic glacial events makes it tempting to correlate the marked negative...

  12. Towards a quantitative understanding of the late Neoproterozoic carbon cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Christian Jannik; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    The cycles of carbon and oxygen at the Earth surface are intimately linked, where the burial of organic carbon into sediments represents a source of oxygen to the surface environment. This coupling is typically quantified through the isotope records of organic and inorganic carbon. Yet, the late...... Neoproterozoic Eon, the time when animals first evolved, experienced wild isotope fluctuations which do not conform to our normal understanding of the carbon cycle and carbon-oxygen coupling. We interpret these fluctuations with a new carbon cycle model and demonstrate that all of the main features...... of the carbonate and organic carbon isotope record can be explained by the release of methane hydrates from an anoxic dissolved organic carbon-rich ocean into an atmosphere containing oxygen levels considerably less than today....

  13. Integrated Geochemical-Petrographic Insights on Neoproterozoic Ocean Oxygenation (United States)

    Hood, A.; Planavsky, N.; Wallace, M. W.; Wang, X.; Gueguen, B.


    Novel isotope systems have the potential to provide new insights into biogeochemical cycling in Earth's evolving oceans. However, much recent paleo-redox work has been done without extensive consideration of sample preservation or paleoenvironmental setting. Neoproterozoic reef complexes from South Australia provide a perfect setting to test geochemical redox proxies (e.g. uranium isotopes and trace metal chemistry) within a well-defined sedimentological and petrographic context. These reefs developed significant frameworks over ~1km of steep platform relief from the seafloor, and contain a variety of carbonate components including primary dolomite marine cements. Analysis of a variety of components within these reefs reveals significant variation in uranium isotope composition and trace metal chemistry between components, even within a single sample. Marine cements, which precipitated directly from seawater, have much lower contamination element concentrations (e.g. Al, Zr, Th) than depositional micrites, and appear to represent the best archive of ancient ocean conditions. These cements have high levels of Fe, Mn in shallow and deep reef facies (e.g. 2-3wt% Fe), but only Fe-oxide inclusions in peritidal settings. This distribution suggests ferruginous conditions under a surficial chemocline in this Neoproterozoic seawater. Uranium isotopes from pristine marine cements have relatively heavy values compared to modern seawater (median = -0.22 δ238U). These values are essentially unfractionated from riverine inputs, which we interpret as tracking extensive near quantitative low-T reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) by abundant soluble iron in seawater. Depositional components and late stage cements have a much lighter and more variable U isotope compositions (-0.71 to -0.08 δ238U). This work highlights the need for fundamental petrographic constraints on the preservation of depositional geochemical signatures in the future use and development of sedimentary redox proxies.

  14. Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL


    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits from the spill extended 4 miles upstream of the facility to Emory River mile 6 and downstream to Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}8.5 miles downstream of the confluence of the Emory River with the Clinch River, and {approx}4 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clinch River with the Tennessee River). A byproduct of coal combustion, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be harmful to biological systems. The ecological effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to come from elevated levels of certain metals in the ash, particularly selenium, on fish reproduction and fish early life stages (Lemly 1993; Besser and others 1996). The ovaries of adult female fish in a lake contaminated by coal ash were reported to have an increased frequency of atretic oocytes (dead or damaged immature eggs) and reductions in the overall numbers of developing oocytes (Sorensen 1988) associated with elevated body burdens of selenium. Larval fish exposed to selenium through maternal transfer of contaminants to developing eggs in either contaminated bodies of water (Lemly 1999) or in experimental laboratory exposures (Woock and others 1987, Jezierska and others 2009) have significantly increased incidences of developmental abnormalities. Contact of fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash in water and sediments may also pose an additional risk to the early life stages of exposed fish populations through direct uptake of metals and other ash constituents (Jezierska and others 2009). The establishment and maintenance of fish populations is intimately associated

  15. "Racial Preferences in a Small Urban Housing Market: A Spatial Econometric Analysis of Microneighborhoods in Kingston, New York"


    Sanjaya DeSilva; Anh Pham; Michael Smith


    This paper use spatial econometric models to test for racial preferences in a small urban housing market. Identifying racial preferences is difficult when unobserved neighborhood amenities vary systematically with racial composition. We adopt three strategies to redress this problem: (1) we focus on housing price differences across microneighborhoods in the small and relatively homogenous city of Kingston, New York; (2) we introduce GIS-based spatial amenity variables as controls in the hedon...

  16. Life, Writing, and Peace: Reading Maxine Hong Kingston's The Fifth Book of Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Hsing Shan


    Full Text Available

    Unlike her former award-winning and critically acclaimed works, Maxine Hong Kingston's The Fifth Book of Peace has received little attention. This is an unthinkable phenomenon for a writer who has been hailed as one of the most widely taught authors living in the United States. One of the main reasons is that critics and reviewers do not know how to cope with this complicated, heterogeneous, and "weird" text that defies easy categorization. Nor do they know how to respond to the ways the author urges her readers to squarely face collective American traumas and symptoms through writing (especially the Vietnam War. This paper attempts to approach this intriguing text from the perspective of life writing. Part I points out the undue neglect of this book, refutes some serious misunderstandings, and offers "life writing" as a critical approach. Part II places this book in the context of Kingston's career and life trajectory in order to show that "peace" has always been her major concern. Part III argues that, whereas the 1991 Berkeley-Oakland fire destroyed the manuscript of her "Fourth Book of Peace" along with her house, this "baptism of fire" and its accompanying sense of devastation generated a special empathy, enabling her to better understand those who suffer, especially Vietnam War veterans. Part IV deals with both the subjects of writing trauma and trauma narrative and indicates how Kingston combines her writing expertise with the Buddhist mindfulness expounded by the Vietnamese monk Thich Nhat Hanh to lead the Veterans Writing Workshop. Finally, Part V stresses how Kingston and her writing community, by combining life, writing, and peace, tell their own stories and create new lives both personally and collectively.

  17. Rare late Neoproterozoic detritus in SW Scandinavia as a response to distant tectonic processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Jiří


    Roč. 28, č. 6 (2016), s. 394-401 ISSN 0954-4879 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : zircon * tectonic processes * Neoproterozoic * orogenic processes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.214, year: 2016

  18. Rapid reassessment of the eutrophication status of Kingston Harbour, Jamaica using the zooplankton community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice A. Francis


    Full Text Available Previous extensive studies of zooplankton distribution in the eutrophic Kingston Harbour established that it was being continuously contaminated. We assessed the community in 2011, 17 years after a previous study and five years after the introduction of a tertiary waste water system. Sampling was conducted for four weeks at eight stations identical to those sampled in a previous study. We used horizontal surface tows with a 200µm net. A total of 73 zooplankton taxa were identified and copepods dominated with 20 species. Mean total abundances were high, ranging from a minimum of 2 383 animals m-3 in the southern region of Hunts Bay to 194 166 animals m-3at the Inner Harbour. Five zooplankton taxa (Acartia tonsa, Paracalanus spp., Temora turbinata, Penilia avirostris and Lucifer faxoni that were previously identified as indicators, were again important in the Harbour. The overall zooplankton abundances were similar and in some cases higher than the previous study. There was no significant improvement in the water quality since the introduction of the treatment system at Soapberry. This may be a result of unknown nutrient inputs or of nutrient remaining in the sediments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Khrisdiyanti


    Full Text Available Every generation brings their own voice, no matter how rigorous the elderly retain the cultural values of their ancestors. A novel written by Maxine Hong Kingston –a Chinese American descent- entitled The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood among Ghosts, portraits her struggle to get her own identity between her Chinese and her American identity. A descriptive library research was conducted to reveal the reasons that the Chinese American descents struggled to survive in between both lives. Interdisciplinary approaches are employed to analyze the data in order to obtain comprehensive analysis, among others: psychological, sociological, and literary approaches. Psychological approach is to expound the emotional perspectives of the character shifts. Sociological approach is applied to discuss the socialization process and its connection to the character shift. Likewise, literary approach is to uncover the structure of the work which was the result of Kingston‘s experience and reflection of the phenomena in her real life. The research concludes that the personality change of the Chinese American descents is due to their historical, social, economical, and educational experience. Furthermore, the descents tend to transform their traits closer to the white‘s, which have been their counterpart in the new land, than to their ancestries‘.

  20. Bioaccumulation Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL


    In December 2008, an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured, releasing over one billion gallons of coal fly ash into the Emory and Clinch Rivers. Coal fly ash may contain several contaminants of concern, but of these selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) have been highlighted because of their toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate in aquatic food chains. To assess the potential impact of the spilled fly ash on humans and the environment, a comprehensive biological and environmental monitoring program was established, for which resident aquatic organisms (among other sample media) are collected to determine contaminant exposure and evaluate the risk to humans and wildlife. Studies on bioaccumulation and fish health are major components of the TVA Biological Monitoring Program for the Kingston fly ash project. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure (to metals) and effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information regarding other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash, not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report summarizes the bioaccumulation results from the first two years of study after the fly ash spill, including

  1. Unraveling the tectonic evolution of a Neoproterozoic-Cambrian active margin in the Ribeira Orogen (Se Brazil): U-Pb and Lu-Hf provenance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Gabriel Lamounier de F. [Servico Geologico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (DRM-RJ), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Schmitt, Renata; Bongiolo, Everton M.; Mendes, Julio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Basei, Miguel S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)


    Full text: The Neoproterozoic-Ordovician Central Ribeira Orogen, in SE Brazil, presents two contrasting tectonic domains in its southern portion: (a) The Arc Domain constituted of Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic magmatic rocks and low P-high T metamorphic para (Sao Fidelis Group) - and ortho- derived units (in Oriental Terrane); and (b) The Basement Domain, constituted of a Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic medium P-high T metamorphic para (Palmital-Buzios Succession)- and ortho-derived units (in Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain). Our work focuses on paraderived rocks sequences from both domains. The provenance analysis using U-Pb and Lu-Hf in zircon grains is presented here as an effective tool to unravel the paleogeography and nature of the pre-collisional sedimentary basins. We performed 505 analyses (U-Pb) on detrital zircon grains and some metamorphic overgrowths from six paragneiss samples. Besides, 141 analyses (Lu-Hf) in six samples only on the detrital zircon grains domains. All samples present a main peak from Neoproterozoic sources (750-570 Ma) and the other minor peak in the Stenian/Tonian periods (1200-850Ma), this indicate an orogenic contribution for this basin. Scarce register from the Mesoproterozoic and two peaks in the Archean/Paleoproterozoic (2.6 and 1.9 Ga) are recognized as a contribution from an ancient continent. The Lu-Hf data reveals a juvenile source for the detrital zircon grains from Buzios Succession while Palmital and Sao Fidelis Group units show a main crustal signature for their detrital zircon population. Based on the U-Pb and Lu-Hf data presented here, plus petrological data, geological correlations, and compilation of data from literature, we propose a tectonic model for the origin of para-derived rocks from the eastern part of the Ribeira Orogen. Starting with an extensional environment of ca. 600 Ma in a back-arc basin (Buzios succession deposition) and continuing as an active margin between 570 and 550 Ma in the fore-arc and prism

  2. A Sulfate Aerosol Trigger for the Sturtian Neoproterozoic Snowball Event (United States)

    Wordsworth, R. D.; Macdonald, F. A.


    Despite the dominance of the carbon cycle in determining the evolution of Earth's climate in general, certain events defy easy explanation via atmospheric CO2 changes alone. Here we discuss the particular role that transient planetary albedo changes via sulfate aerosol formation can play in major climate transitions. Specifically, we propose that SO2 outgassing associated with the eruption of the Franklin Large Igneous Province (LIP) led to the first Neoproterozoic Snowball event, the Sturtian, 716 Ma. We summarize U/Pb zircon and baddeleyite dating indicating the synchronicity of the Franklin eruptions and the onset of the Sturtian, and paleomagnetic data indicating that the Franklin erupted close to the equator. We then discuss in detail the modeling we have performed of eruption rate, the plume height achieved during basaltic fissure volcanism, the chemistry and microphysics of sulfate aerosol formation, and the dependence of aerosol longwave and shortwave radiative effects on atmospheric loading, particle size and surface albedo. We discuss the critical importance of the latitude of eruption, the tropopause height, and ocean dynamics in determining the strength and sign of aerosol radiative forcing. We finish by comparing the Franklin event with other LIP emplacement events in Earth history and make suggestions for future modeling.

  3. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar (United States)

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.


    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  4. Multiproxy isotope constraints on ocean compositional changes across the late Neoproterozoic Ghaub glaciation, Otavi Group, Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodler, Alexandra; Frei, Robert; Gaucher, C.


    of the Otavi Group, Namibia, stretching over four stages from preglacial setting to retreat of the late Neoproterozoic Ghaub glaciation (∼635 Ma). The fluctuating but generally heavy δ53Cr signals indicate oxygenated shallow seawater prior to the glaciation (stage 1). Sustained high δ13Ccarb signatures...... the carbon cycle and oxygen availability (stage 2). Prior to the Ghaub diamictite, a sequence of 87Sr/86Sr in the range typical of late Neoproterozoic seawater occurs with high Sr concentrations, low Mn/Sr and low Mg/Ca. Enhanced detrital input after the Ghaub glaciation (stage 3) indicates elevated...... records typical late Neoproterozoic seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The carbonate δ53Cr signatures at the base of the postglacial sequence are characterized by values even below the range of bulk silicate Earth (BSE). We hypothesize that this is due to (i) redox cycling of Cr in seawater, e.g. by (partial...

  5. The effect of Kingston Harbour outflow on the zooplankton populations of Hellshire, south-east coast, Jamaica (United States)

    Lindo, Mona K.


    Zooplankton sampling was conducted at 16 stations located at the mouth of Kingston Harbour and throughout the Hellshire area from November 1985 to March 1987. Parameters examined included total biomass, total numbers and numbers of numerically important zooplankton species. Maximum values were recorded west of the Harbour mouth (station 1) and these gradually decreased with distance from the Harbour especially at the 'offshore' stations, producing a gradient effect in this area. Mean biomass and abundance for the period sampled ranged from 14 g m -3 and 16 313 individuals m -3 at the western side of the Harbour mouth to 0·4 g m -3 and 172 individuals m -3 at Wreck Reef. Stations within the bays of Hellshire occasionally had values similar to those recorded at the mouth of Kingston Harbour and here there was less evidence of a gradual decline. Considerable monthly fluctuation occurred in these parameters but there was no discernible seasonal pattern. Copepods dominated the population at most stations and the sergestid Lucifer faxoni also proved an important member at the western Harbour mouth station.

  6. The role of social factors in the use of licit drugs among university students from one university in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashalee Mitchell


    Full Text Available Investigación cuantitativa de tipo descriptiva-exploratoria, con diseño transversal que examinó el efecto moderador de ciertos factores socio-culturales en el consumo de drogas licitas entre estudiantes universitarios de una universidad en Kingston, Jamaica. La muestra non probabilistica fue conformada por 335 estudiantes de una universidad especifica de Kingston, Jamaica. Fue elaborado un cuestionario con cinco escalas ya validadas, que interrogaba sobre la influencia del grupo de pares, las relaciones familiares, el entretenimiento, la espiritualidad y el consumo de drogas. Se utilizó el programa SPSS versión 18 para el análisis estadística. Los datos indicaran que los respondientes con uno o mas anmigos que estaban involucrados con el uso de drogas eran 9.5 veces mas disponibles para fumar y dos veces mas para consumir alcole. Los respondientes que tinian baja espiritualidad eran dos veces mas proponientes para fumar y 1.3 veces mas proponientes de consumir alcole. Los datos indicaran haber asociacion significante entre los factores sociales y el consume de drogas licitas.

  7. Peak flow meter (image) (United States)

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  8. Participants' perceptions of a lifestyle approach to promoting physical activity: targeting deprived communities in Kingston-upon-Hull. (United States)

    Wormald, Helen; Waters, Heidi; Sleap, Mike; Ingle, Lee


    The health benefits of an active lifestyle have been extensively documented and generally accepted. In the UK, declining physical activity levels are a major contributing factor to a number of public health concerns such as obesity and coronary heart disease. Clearly, there is an urgent need to support people in developing sustainable active lifestyles. In 2003, a new lifestyle-based physical activity service called Active Lifestyles (AL) was set up in Kingston-upon-Hull to help local residents to become more active and develop healthier lifestyles. The service targeted the most deprived communities in the city. The aim of the study was to explore participants' perceptions of the operation and effectiveness of the AL service. Five focus groups were conducted in community centres and offices in the health promotion service in Kingston-upon-Hull. Sixteen white adult males (n = 5) and females (n = 11) participated in the study. Ages ranged from 15-73 years (mean age = 53 years). Data were analysed using a content analysis technique based on the 'framework' approach. Three broad themes emerged from the focus groups; the referral process; operational aspects of the AL service; and perceived benefits of the service. Overall, participants were extremely positive about the AL service. Many reported increased activity levels, modified eating habits, and enhanced awareness and education regarding healthier living. Most participants reported that local awareness of the AL service was low and greater promotion was required so more people could benefit. The success of the service was highly dependent upon the qualities and approach of the AL advisor. The service appears to have filled a gap in service provision since it offered support to the most sedentary, older, unfit and overweight individuals, many of whom live in the most deprived parts of Kingston-upon-Hull. Traditional exercise referral schemes that focus solely on facility-based exercise should be broadened to

  9. Continental flood basalt weathering as a trigger for Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth (United States)

    Cox, Grant M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Stevenson, Ross K.; Vokaty, Michelle; Poirier, André; Kunzmann, Marcus; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Denyszyn, Steven W.; Strauss, Justin V.; Macdonald, Francis A.


    Atmospheric CO2 levels and global climate are regulated on geological timescales by the silicate weathering feedback. However, this thermostat has failed multiple times in Earth's history, most spectacularly during the Cryogenian (c. 720-635 Ma) Snowball Earth episodes. The unique middle Neoproterozoic paleogeography of a rifting, low-latitude, supercontinent likely favored a globally cool climate due to the influence of the silicate weathering feedback and planetary albedo. Under these primed conditions, the emplacement and weathering of extensive continental flood basalt provinces may have provided the final trigger for runaway global glaciation. Weathering of continental flood basalts may have also contributed to the characteristically high carbon isotope ratios (δ13 C) of Neoproterozoic seawater due to their elevated P contents. In order to test these hypotheses, we have compiled new and previously published Neoproterozoic Nd isotope data from mudstones in northern Rodinia (North America, Australia, Svalbard, and South China) and Sr isotope data from carbonate rocks. The Nd isotope data are used to model the mafic detrital input into sedimentary basins in northern Rodinia. The results reveal a dominant contribution from continental flood basalt weathering during the ca. 130 m.y. preceding the onset of Cryogenian glaciation, followed by a precipitous decline afterwards. These data are mirrored by the Sr isotope record, which reflects the importance of chemical weathering of continental flood basalts on solute fluxes to the early-middle Neoproterozoic ocean, including a pulse of unradiogenic Sr input into the oceans just prior to the onset of Cyrogenian glaciation. Hence, our new data support the hypotheses that elevated rates of flood basalt weathering contributed to both the high average δ13 C of seawater in the Neoproterozoic and to the initiation of the first (Sturtian) Snowball Earth.

  10. Exploration of simultaneous polydrug use: risk and protective factors in undergraduate students in one university, Kingston - Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Mitchell


    Full Text Available El policonsumo simultáneo de sustancias psicoactivas en estudiantes de una universidad fue estudiado en Kingston, Jamaica. El estudio fue de diseño transversal, y utilizó la modalidad de encueta para la recolección de datos. Examinamos factores de riesgo y de protección asociados al policonsumo simultáneo en una muestra de 295 estudiantes de pregrado de los departamentos de la salud y de la ciencia médica de la universidad participante. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la estancia continuada con la familia, el apoyo familiar, y el bienestar de los estudiantes son factores de riesgo. Por el contrario, la facilidad del acceso de las drogas y el apoyo emocional se podrían considerar como factores protectores. Estos hallazgos pueden informar programas preventivos, aunque se requiere investigación adicional.

  11. Absence of impact of aerial malathion treatment on Aedes aegypti during a dengue outbreak in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Castle


    Full Text Available During an outbreak of dengue fever in Jamaica from October to December 1995, a study was carried out to determine the impact of aerial ultra-low volume malathion treatment on adult Aedes aegypti. This was done by monitoring oviposition rates of the vector in three urban communities in Kingston and by exposing caged mosquitoes both directly and indirectly to the aerial malathion treatment. The insecticide was delivered at a rate of 219 mL/ha between 7:10 a.m. and 8:45 a.m. The results of the study clearly showed that the insecticide application was ineffective in interfering with Aedes aegypti oviposition, and adult mosquitoes held in cages inside dwellings were largely unaffected. Consequently, this type of intervention seemed to have little significant impact in arresting or abating dengue transmission.

  12. Peak Experience Project (United States)

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica


    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  13. Isotopic evidence for two neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphic events in the Brazilia belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Piuzanna, Danielle; Moraes, Renato de; Gioia, Simone Maria C.L


    The Brasilia Belt is part of a Brasiliano/Pan African orogen developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons. The stabilization of the belt occurred after the last metamorphic event at ca. 620 Ma. There has been increasing geochronological evidence, however, for an older Neoproterozoic metamorphic event at ca. 780 Ma, observed mainly in high grade rocks of three large mafic-ultramafic complexes in the northern part of the belt. In this study we present: (i) new U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronological data, (ii) a review of the existing metamorphic ages in the Brasilia Belt, and (iii) a discussion on the tectonic model to explain the two Neoproterozoic metamorphic ages (au)

  14. Peak power ratio generator (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  15. Zircon Typology as Indicator of Provenance in Neoproterozoic Sandstones of the Voltaian Basin, Ghana


    Chris Anani; Masaaki Tateishi; Daniel Asiedu; David Atta-Petters; Johnson Manu


    An investigation to identify the suitability of zircon crystals as provenance indicators of the relatively mature sandstones of the Neoproterozoic strata in the Voltaian Basin was conducted. A total of 154 zircon grains were critically studied, all extracted from 14 sandstones samples; 7 from Lower Voltaian Kwahu-Morago Group and 7 from the Middle Voltaian Oti-Pendjari Group. Zircon typology analysis indicates anatectic origin with some contribution of a volcanic material for the Kwahu-Morago...

  16. Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change (United States)

    Murray, J. W.


    Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be

  17. Interlaboratory Comparison for Digestion Methods, Analytical Methods, and Holding Times for the Analysis of Trace Elements in Biological Samples for the Kingston Fly Ash Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rogers, William J [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Knoxville, TN (United States); Vitale, Rock [Environmental Standards, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Smith, John G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carriker, Neil [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Knoxville, TN (United States)


    In December 2008, an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant (KIF) ruptured, releasing over 1 billion gallons of coal ash into the Emory and Clinch Rivers. Coal ash may contain several contaminants of concern; of these, selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) have been highlighted in this work because of their toxicity and potential to bioaccumulate in aquatic food chains (Reash et al. 2006, Chapman et al. 2010). To assess the potential impact of the spilled coal ash on humans and the environment, a comprehensive monitoring program was established at the Kingston site, for which resident aquatic organisms (among other sample media) are collected to determine contaminant exposure and evaluate the risk to humans and wildlife.

  18. Organic matter in the Neoproterozoic cap carbonate from the Amazonian Craton, Brazil (United States)

    Sousa Júnior, Gustavo R.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Santos Neto, Eugênio V.; Moura, Candido A. V.; Araújo, Bruno Q.; Reis, Francisco de A. M.


    Bitumen found in Neoproterozoic carbonates from the southern Amazonian Craton, Brazil, represents a great challenge for its geochemical characterization (origin, thermal maturity and the degree of preservation) within a context of petroleum system. This organic material occurs in the basal Araras Group, considered as a Neoproterozoic cap carbonate, composed of dolostones (Mirassol d'Oeste Formation) overlaid by limestones and shales (Guia Formation). Geochemical analyses in samples of carbonate with bitumen from two open pits (Terconi and Tangará quarries) have shown low to very low total organic carbon content. Analyses of representative samples of Guia and Mirassol d'Oeste formations allowed us to obtain Gas chromatography (GC) traces and diagnostic biomarkers. n-C14 to n-C37 alkane distribution patterns in all samples suggests a major contribution of marine algae. Mid-chain monomethyl alkanes (C14sbnd C25) identified in both sets of samples were also reported in all mid to late Proterozoic oils and source rocks. However, there are significant differences among terpane distribution between the Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangará da Serra regions. The integration of organic geochemistry data and geological information suggests an indigenous origin for studied bitumen, primarily accumulated as hydrocarbon fluids migrated to carbonate rocks with higher porosity and permeability, and afterwards, altered to bitumen or migrabitumen. Although further investigations are required, this work provides a significant contribution to the knowledge about the remnant of this hypothetical Neoproterozoic petroleum system developed in the Southern Amazonian Craton.

  19. Lead isotope evolution across the Neoproterozoic boundary between craton and juvenile crust, Bayuda Desert, Sudan (United States)

    Evuk, David; Lucassen, Friedrich; Franz, Gerhard


    Metaigneous mafic and ultramafic rocks from the juvenile Neoproterozoic Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) and the Proterozoic, reworked Saharan Metacraton (SMC) have been analysed for major- and trace elements and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes. Most of the rocks are amphibolites metamorphosed at amphibolite facies conditions, some with relicts of a granulite facies stage. The other rocks are metapyroxenites, metagabbros, and some ultramafic rocks. Trace element compositions of the metabasaltic (dominantly tholeiitic) rocks resemble the patterns of island arcs and primitive lavas from continental arcs. Variable Sr and Nd isotope ratios indicate depleted mantle dominance for most of the samples. 207Pb/204Pb signatures distinguish between the influence of high 207Pb/204Pb old SMC crust and depleted mantle signatures of the juvenile ANS crust. The Pb isotope signatures for most metabasaltic rocks, metapyroxenites and metagabbros from SMC indicate an autochthonous formation. The interpretation of the new data together with published evidence from mafic xenoliths on SMC and ophiolite from ANS allows an extrapolation of mantle evolution in time. There are two lines of evolution in the regional mantle, one, which incorporates potential upper crust material during Neoproterozoic, and a second one with a depleted mantle signature since pre-Neoproterozoic that still is present in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden spreading centres.

  20. Hydrogeology and Simulation of Groundwater Flow in the Plymouth-Carver-Kingston-Duxbury Aquifer System, Southeastern Massachusetts (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Carlson, Carl S.; Walter, Donald A.; Other contributing authors: Bent, Gardner C.; Massey, Andrew J.


    The glacial sediments that underlie the Plymouth-Carver-Kingston-Duxbury area of southeastern Massachusetts compose an important aquifer system that is the primary source of water for a region undergoing rapid development. Population increases and land-use changes in this area has led to two primary environmental effects that relate directly to groundwater resources: (1) increases in pumping that can adversely affect environmentally sensitive groundwater-fed surface waters, such as ponds, streams, and wetlands; and (2) adverse effects of land use on the quality of water in the aquifer. In response to these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, began an investigation in 2005 to improve the understanding of the hydrogeology in the area and to assess the effects of changing pumping and recharge conditions on groundwater flow in the Plymouth-Carver-Kingston-Duxbury aquifer system. A numerical flow model was developed based on the USGS computer program MODFLOW-2000 to assist in the analysis of groundwater flow. Model simulations were used to determine water budgets, flow directions, and the sources of water to pumping wells, ponds, streams, and coastal areas. Model-calculated water budgets indicate that approximately 298 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water recharges the Plymouth-Carver-Kingston-Duxbury aquifer system. Most of this water (about 70 percent) moves through the aquifer, discharges to streams, and then reaches the coast as surface-water discharge. Of the remaining 30 percent of flow, about 25 percent of the water that enters the aquifer as recharge discharges directly to coastal areas and 5 percent discharges to pumping wells. Groundwater withdrawals are anticipated to increase from the current (2005) rate of about 14 Mgal/d to about 21 Mgal/d by 2030. Pumping from large-capacity production wells decreases water levels and increases the potential for effects on surface

  1. Relict zircon U-Pb age and O isotope evidence for reworking of Neoproterozoic crustal rocks in the origin of Triassic S-type granites in South China (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Yi-Xiang; Zhao, Zi-Fu; Xia, Xiao-Ping


    Granites derived from partial melting of sedimentary rocks are generally characterized by high δ18O values and abundant relict zircons. Such relict zircons are valuable in tracing the source rocks of granites and the history of crustal anatexis. Here we report in-situ U-Pb ages, O isotopes and trace elements in zircons from Triassic granites in the Zhuguangshan and Jiuzhou regions, which are located in the Nanling Range and the Darongshan area, respectively, in South China. Zircon U-Pb dating yields magma crystallization ages of 236 ± 2 Ma for the Zhuguangshan granites and 246 ± 2 Ma to 252 ± 3 Ma for the Jiuzhou granites. The Triassic syn-magmatic zircons are characterized by high δ18O values of 10.1-11.9‰ in Zhuguangshan and 8.5-13.5‰ in Jiuzhou. The relict zircons show a wide range of U-Pb ages from 315 to 2185 Ma in Zhuguangshan and from 304 to 3121 Ma in Jiuzhou. Nevertheless, a dominant age peak of 700-1000 Ma is prominent in both occurrences, demonstrating that their source rocks were dominated by detrital sediments weathered from Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks. Taking previous results for regional granites together, Neoproterozoic relict zircons show δ18O values in a small range from 5 to 8‰ for the Nanling granites but a large range from 5 to 11‰ for the Darongshan granites. In addition, relict zircons of Paleozoic U-Pb age occur in the two granitic plutons. They exhibit consistently high δ18O values similar to the Triassic syn-magmatic zircons in the host granites. These Paleozoic relict zircons are interpreted as the peritectic product during transient melting of the metasedimentary rocks in response to the intracontinental orogenesis in South China. Therefore, the relict zircons of Neoproterozoic age are directly inherited from the source rocks of S-type granites, and those of Paleozoic age record the transient melting of metasedimentary rocks before intensive melting for granitic magmatism in the Triassic.

  2. Assessing the phytoplankton and water quality of Kingston Harbour and Hellshire coast, Jamaica, after the implementation of a waste water treatment facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen A. Liu


    Full Text Available Deteriorating water quality of Kingston Harbour, due primarily to sewage discharge and its effect on nearby Hellshire Coast, has been an issue since the 1970s. The implementation of a new sewage treatment facility in 2007 to receive the harbour’s waste at Soapberry was expected to make a positive difference. Physico-chemical and biological parameters were used to assess water quality to determine the effect of the facility. Eleven stations used in earlier studies (1990 to 1998 were re-sampled to represent Kingston, Hunts Bay and North East Hellshire coastline over a four week sampling regime between May and June 2011. While temperature, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and pH remained unchanged between the 1990’s and 2011, BOD5, faecal coliform and nitrate concentrations indicated that the water quality had improved minimally in Kinsgton and Hellshire,and deteriorated significantly in Hunts. Phytoplankton biomass decreased in Kingston (from 3.84 mg m-3 in 1998 to 2.81 mg m-3 in 2011 and increased significantly in Hunts (from 14.69 mg m-3 in 1998 to 24.17 mg m-3 in 2011. Biomass along Hellshire was similar (2.15 mg m-3 in 1998; 2.45 mg m-3 in 2011. In 1998 the nanoplankton biomass (2.7 to 20μm dominated throughout the Harbour. In 2011 Hunts Bay was dominated by net-plankton (>20μm, indicative of eutrophic waters.

  3. Caregiver knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding childhood diarrhea and dehydration in Kingston, Jamaica Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los cuidadores hacia la diarrea infantil y la deshidratación en Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lela Rose Bachrach


    Full Text Available Objective. To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of caregivers in Kingston, Jamaica, regarding childhood diarrhea and dehydration in order to determine if limited caregiver knowledge about the prevention and treatment of diarrhea and dehydration puts children at increased risk of presenting at the hospital for these concerns. Methods. The study was an observational case-control study conducted between February 1997 and May 1997 at Bustamante Hospital for Children in Kingston. Convenience sampling was used and data were collected by face-to-face interviews with two groups of caregivers of children under 5 years of age. One group (n = 117 presented with children with acute gastroenteritis, and the other group (n = 98 presented with acute concerns unrelated to gastroenteritis. While 197 of the 215 caregivers interviewed were the mother of a child, there were also 9 guardians, 5 fathers, and 4 grandmothers in the sample. Results. The mean caregiver age, level of education, and socioeconomic status were similar for the two groups. The caregivers in the gastroenteritis group were more likely to present with younger children and to have less convenient access to running water or a refrigerator. Children of caregivers who had never heard of oral rehydration therapy were at increased risk of presenting with gastroenteritis and dehydration (odds ratio [OR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-11.7, as were children of caregivers with low knowledge scores about the prevention and treatment of diarrhea and dehydration (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.8. Another independent risk factor was a caregiver's poor sense of self-reliance in managing a child's diarrhea (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.9. Conclusions. These findings highlight a need to enhance educational efforts that will empower caregivers to protect their children from diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality.Objetivos. Estudiar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los cuidadores hacia la

  4. Peak regulation right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z. |; Ren, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhu, R.


    A peak regulation right concept and corresponding transaction mechanism for an electricity market was presented. The market was based on a power pool and independent system operator (ISO) model. Peak regulation right (PRR) was defined as a downward regulation capacity purchase option which allowed PRR owners to buy certain quantities of peak regulation capacity (PRC) at a specific price during a specified period from suppliers. The PRR owner also had the right to decide whether or not they would buy PRC from suppliers. It was the power pool's responsibility to provide competitive and fair peak regulation trading markets to participants. The introduction of PRR allowed for unit capacity regulation. The PRR and PRC were rated by the supplier, and transactions proceeded through a bidding process. PRR suppliers obtained profits by selling PRR and PRC, and obtained downward regulation fees regardless of whether purchases are made. It was concluded that the peak regulation mechanism reduced the total cost of the generating system and increased the social surplus. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  5. Survey of the potential environmental and health impacts in the immediate aftermath of the coal ash spill in Kingston, Tennessee. (United States)

    Ruhl, Laura; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Deonarine, Amrika; Bergin, Mike; Kravchenko, Julia


    An investigation of the potential environmental and health impacts in the immediate aftermath of one of the largest coal ash spills in U.S. history at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston coal-burning power plant has revealed three major findings. First the surface release of coal ash with high levels of toxic elements (As = 75 mg/kg; Hg = 150 microg/kg) and radioactivity (226Ra + 228Ra = 8 pCi/g) to the environment has the potential to generate resuspended ambient fine particles (risk to local communities. Second, leaching of contaminants from the coal ash caused contamination of surface waters in areas of restricted water exchange, but only trace levels were found in the downstream Emory and Clinch Rivers due to river dilution. Third, the accumulation of Hg- and As-rich coal ash in river sediments has the potential to have an impact on the ecological system in the downstream rivers by fish poisoning and methylmercury formation in anaerobic river sediments.

  6. Peak-interviewet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raalskov, Jesper; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    Peak-interviewet er en særlig effektiv metode til at gøre ubevidste menneskelige ressourcer bevidste. Fokuspersonen (den interviewede) interviewes om en selvvalgt, personlig succesoplevelse. Terapeuten/coachen (intervieweren) spørger ind til processen, som ledte hen til denne succes. Herved afdæk...

  7. Automated asteroseismic peak detections (United States)

    García Saravia Ortiz de Montellano, Andrés; Hekker, S.; Themeßl, N.


    Space observatories such as Kepler have provided data that can potentially revolutionize our understanding of stars. Through detailed asteroseismic analyses we are capable of determining fundamental stellar parameters and reveal the stellar internal structure with unprecedented accuracy. However, such detailed analyses, known as peak bagging, have so far been obtained for only a small percentage of the observed stars while most of the scientific potential of the available data remains unexplored. One of the major challenges in peak bagging is identifying how many solar-like oscillation modes are visible in a power density spectrum. Identification of oscillation modes is usually done by visual inspection that is time-consuming and has a degree of subjectivity. Here, we present a peak-detection algorithm especially suited for the detection of solar-like oscillations. It reliably characterizes the solar-like oscillations in a power density spectrum and estimates their parameters without human intervention. Furthermore, we provide a metric to characterize the false positive and false negative rates to provide further information about the reliability of a detected oscillation mode or the significance of a lack of detected oscillation modes. The algorithm presented here opens the possibility for detailed and automated peak bagging of the thousands of solar-like oscillators observed by Kepler.

  8. Organic carbon cycling as the keystone of Neoproterozoic climate evolution (Invited) (United States)

    Pierrehumbert, R.


    Snowball glaciations are the most charismatic feature of the Neoproterozoic, but the central problem of Neoproterozoic climate evolution is the operation of the carbon cycle, as evidenced in the return of extreme 13C fluctuations after nearly a billion years of quiescence. A key organizing principle for the Neoproterozoic is the existence of a massive hypothetical organic carbon pool in the ocean, which is oxidized by the end of the Neoproterozoic (as laid out by Fike, et al. 2006 ). The carbon cycle couples to climate through its influence on atmospheric greenhouse gas content -- notably CO2 and CH4; accumulation of atmospheric O2 feeds back on this through atmospheric and oceanic chemistry. Evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis unquestionably occurred long before the dawn of the Neoproterozoic, so the Neoproterozoic climate and carbon turmoil is a product of the organic carbon storage dynamics rather than gross biological innovation. In this talk I will discuss how certain key components of the physical and geochemical system operate, though a comprehensive model accounting for all crucial aspects of the geological record is still lacking. Conversion of CO2 to O2 by photosynthesis and carbon burial, converts a greenhouse gas to a non-greenhouse gas,cooling the climate. Conversely, oxidation of an organic carbon pool either through respiration or sulfate reduction, releases CO2 and acts as a warming influence,also leading to a negative carbonate 13C excursion, as probably happened during the Shuram. If the Marinoan excursion has a similar mechanism we face the question of how such an event could initiate a glaciation, whereas the much stronger Shuram excursion did not. (The Gaskiers glaciation came long after the Shuram , and was not a Snowball). I will discuss how the climate response depends on the time scale of the exchange, with emphasis on buffering due to the response of silicate weathering. Insofar as the organic carbon pool existed at all, the key question

  9. Testing the "Mudball Earth" Hypothesis: Are Neoproterozoic Glacial Deposits Capped with Supraglacial Dust? (United States)

    Goodman, J. C.; Alvim Lage, C.


    The Snowball Earth hypothesis has inspired several variants which may help to explain some of the great mysteries of the Neoproterozoic glaciations. One of these, the "Mudball Earth", proposes that as the Earth remained completely frozen for millions of years, a layer of dust accumulated on the ice surface. This dust layer would darken the planet, making it easier for the Earth to escape from the highly stable snowball climate state. This hypothesis is testable: after the ice melted at the end of a glacial era, this dust would sink to the bottom of the ocean, possibly forming a distinct clay, mud, or silt layer on the top of the glacial till deposits: this "clay drape" would then be covered by the cap carbonates that mark a return to warm climate. Sublimation and ice flow during the glacial episode should make this layer thicker at the equator and thinner or absent in the poles. Is this clay layer actually present in the rock record? Is it more prevalent at the paleoequator, as predicted? A clay drape has been noticed anecdotally, but no global survey has been done to date. We conducted a thorough literature review of all sites where Neoproterozoic glacial diamictites have been observed, identifying the type of rock that lies between the diamictite and the postglacial cap carbonate, when present, during both Sturtian and Marinoan glacial periods. Only a few publications identify a distinct clay/silt/mud layer that might represent weathered dust. These sites are not grouped by paleolatitude in any obvious way. With access only to published reports, we cannot determine whether such a layer is absent, went unreported, or was misinterpreted by us. With this work we hope to attract the attention of Neoproterozoic field geologists, inviting them to comment on the presence or absence of strata which could confirm or reject the "Mudball" hypothesis.

  10. The Mafic Lower Crust of Neoproterozoic age beneath Western Arabia: Implications for Understanding African Lower Crust (United States)

    Stern, R. J.; Mooney, W. D.


    We review evidence that the lower crust of Arabia - and by implication, that beneath much of Africa was formed at the same time as the upper crust, rather than being a product of Cenozoic magmatic underplating. Arabia is a recent orphan of Africa, separated by opening of the Red Sea ~20 Ma, so our understanding of its lower crust provides insights into that of Africa. Arabian Shield (exposed in W. Arabia) is mostly Neoproterozoic (880-540 Ma) reflecting a 300-million year process of continental crustal growth due to amalgamated juvenile magmatic arcs welded together by granitoid intrusions that make up as much as 50% of the Shield's surface. Seismic refraction studies of SW Arabia (Mooney et al., 1985) reveal two layers, each ~20 km thick, separated by a well-defined Conrad discontinuity. The upper crust has average Vp ~6.3 km/sec whereas the lower crust has average Vp ~7.0 km/sec, corresponding to a granitic upper crust and gabbroic lower crust. Neogene (Yemen to Syria. Many of these lavas contain xenoliths, providing a remarkable glimpse of the lower-crustal and upper-mantle lithosphere beneath W. Arabia. Lower crustal xenoliths brought up in 8 harrats in Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria are mostly 2-pyroxene granulites of igneous (gabbroic, anorthositic, and dioritic) origin. They contain plagioclase, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene, and a few contain garnet and rare amphibole and yield mineral-equilibrium temperatures of 700-900°C. Pyroxene-rich and plagioclase-rich suites have mean Al2O3 contents of 13% and 19%, respectively: otherwise the two groups have similar elemental compositions, with ~50% SiO2 and ~1% TiO2, with low K2O (time. Lower crust of Arabia clearly formed during Neoproterozoic time, about the same time as its upper crust complement; a similar origin for the lower crust beneath the broad expanses of Neoproterozoic crust in N and E Africa is likely. There is no evidence that any of the mafic lower crust of Arabia formed due to underplating by

  11. Age of Neoproterozoic bilatarian body and trace fossils, White Sea, Russia: implications for metazoan evolution. (United States)

    Martin, M W; Grazhdankin, D V; Bowring, S A; Evans, D A; Fedonkin, M A; Kirschvink, J L


    A uranium-lead zircon age for a volcanic ash interstratified with fossil-bearing, shallow marine siliciclastic rocks in the Zimnie Gory section of the White Sea region indicates that a diverse assemblage of body and trace fossils occurred before 555.3 +/- 0.3 million years ago. This age is a minimum for the oldest well-documented triploblastic bilaterian Kimberella. It also makes co-occurring trace fossils the oldest that are reliably dated. This determination of age implies that there is no simple relation between Ediacaran diversity and the carbon isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic seawater.

  12. [The incidence of emergence delirium and risk factors following sevoflurane use in pediatric patients for day case surgery, Kingston, Jamaica]. (United States)

    Gooden, Rachel; Tennant, Ingrid; James, Brian; Augier, Richard; Crawford-Sykes, Annette; Ehikhametalor, Kelvin; Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana; Harding-Goldson, Hyacinth


    Emergence delirium is a distressing complication of the use of sevoflurane for general anesthesia. This study sought to determine the incidence of emergence delirium and risk factors in patients at a specialist pediatric hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. This was a cross-sectional, observational study including pediatric patients aged 3-10 years, ASA I and II, undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane for elective day-case procedures. Data collected included patients' level of anxiety pre-operatively using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale, surgery performed, anesthetic duration and analgesics administered. Postoperatively, patients were assessed for emergence delirium, defined as agitation with non-purposeful movement, restlessness or thrashing; inconsolability and unresponsiveness to nursing and/or parental presence. The need for pharmacological treatment and post-operative complications related to emergence delirium episodes were also noted. 145 children were included, with emergence delirium occurring in 28 (19.3%). Emergence delirium episodes had a mean duration of 6.9±7.8min, required pharmacologic intervention in 19 (67.8%) children and were associated with a prolonged recovery time (49.4±11.9 versus 29.7±10.8min for non-agitated children; p<0.001). Factors positively associated with emergence delirium included younger age (p=0.01, OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-8.6) and moderate and severe anxiety prior to induction (p<0.001, OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.3-13.0). Complications of emergence delirium included intravenous line removal (n=1), and surgical site bleeding (n=3). Children of younger age with greater preoperative anxiety are at increased risk of developing emergence delirium following general anesthesia with sevoflurane. The overall incidence of emergence delirium was 19%. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. A case-control study of risk factors for playground injuries among children in Kingston and area (United States)

    Mowat, D.; Wang, F.; Pickett, W.; Brison, R.


    Objective—To determine the risk for injury associated with environmental hazards in public playgrounds. Setting—One hundred and seventeen playgrounds operated by municipalities or school boards in and around Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Methods—A regional surveillance database was used to identify children presenting to emergency departments who were injured on public playgrounds; each case was individually matched (by sex, age, and month of occurrence) with two controls—one non-playground injury control, and one child seen for non-injury emergency medical care. Exposure data were obtained from an audit of playgrounds conducted using Canadian and US safety guidelines. Exposure variables included the nature of playground hazards, number of hazards, frequency of play, and total family income. No difference in odds ratios (ORs) were found using the two sets of controls, which were therefore combined for subsequent analysis. Results—Multivariate analysis showed strong associations between injuries and the use of inappropriate surface materials under and around equipment (OR 21.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4 to 128.1), appropriate materials with insufficient depth (OR 18.2, 95% CI 3.3 to 99.9), and inadequate handrails or guardrails (OR 6.7, 95% CI 2.6 to 17.5). Conclusion—This study confirms the validity of guidelines for playground safety relating to the type and depth of surface materials and the provision of handrails and guardrails. Compliance with these guidelines is an important means of preventing injury in childhood. PMID:9595330

  14. Twin Peaks - 3D (United States)


    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  15. Detrital zircon geochronology of some neoproterozoic to triassic rocks in interior alaska (United States)

    Bradley, D.C.; McClelland, W.C.; Wooden, J.L.; Till, A.B.; Roeske, S.M.; Miller, M.L.; Karl, S.M.; Abbott, J.G.


    We report 777 U-Pb SHRIMP detrital zircon ages from thirteen sandstones and metasandstones in interior Alaska. About sixty grains per sample were analyzed; typically, half to three-fourths of these were concordant within ?? 10%. Farewell terrane. Two quartzites were collected from Ruby quadrangle and a third from Taylor Mountains quadrangle. All three are interpreted to represent a low stratigraphic level in the Nixon Fork platform succession; the samples from Ruby quadrangle are probably late Neoproterozoic, and the sample from Taylor Mountains quadrangle is probably Cambrian in age. The youngest detrital zircon in any of the three is 851 Ma. The two Ruby quadrangle samples area almost identical: one has a major age cluster at 1980-2087 and minor age clusters at 944-974 and 1366-1383 Ma; the other has a major age cluster at 1993-2095 Ma and minor age clusters at 912-946 and 1366-1395 Ma. The Taylor Mountains sample shows one dominant peak at 1914-2057 Ma. Notably absent are zircons in the range 1800-1900 Ma, which are typical of North American sources. The detrital zircon populations are consistent with paleontological evidence for a peri- Siberian position of the Farewell terrane during the early Paleozoic. Mystic subterrane of the Farewell terrane. Three graywackes from flysch of the Mystic subterrane, Talkeetna quadrangle, were sampled with the expectation that all three were Pennsylvanian. Asample from Pingston Creek is Triassic (as revealed by an interbedded ash dated at ca. 223 Ma) and is dominated by age clusters of 341-359 and 1804-1866 Ma, both consistent with a sediment source in the Yukon-Tanana terrane. Minor age clusters at 848-869 and 1992-2018 Ma could have been sourced in the older part of the Farewell terrane. Still other minor age clusters at 432-461, 620-657, 1509-1536, and 1627-1653 Ma are not readily linked to sources that are now nearby. Asample from Surprise Glacier is mid-Mississippian or younger. Adominant age cluster at 1855-1883 and a

  16. Timing and sources of pre-collisional Neoproterozoic sedimentation along the SW margin of the Congo Craton (Kaoko Belt, NWNamibia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konopásek, J.; Košler, J.; Sláma, Jiří; Janoušek, V.


    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2014), s. 386-401 ISSN 1342-937X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : detrital zircons * protolith ages * geochronology * Neoproterozoic Kaoko Belt * geochronology (Namibia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 8.235, year: 2014

  17. New paleomagnetic poles from Arctic Siberia support Indian Ocean option for the Neoproterozoic APWP of the Siberian craton. (United States)

    Pasenko, A.; Malyshev, S. V.


    Quantity and quality of paleomagnetic poles obtained so far for Neoproterozoic of Siberia are still insufficient even to outline the general trend of APWP of Siberia for this huge and very interesting time interval. Meanwhile, the solution of this problem is crucial for choice of polarity option for Siberian proterozoic paleomagnetic directions, for construction and testing of world paleotectonic and paleogeographic reconstructions. For example, whether or not the Siberian craton could be connected with Laurentia within the supercontinent Rodinia depends directly on paleomagnetic polarity option choice, which , in its turn, is determined by either we choose for neoproterozoic drift of Siberian paleomagnetic poles Pacific ocean trend [Smethurst et al., 1998] or Indian ocean [Pavlov et al., 2015] trend. To advance in solution of this problem we have carried out the paleomagnetic investigations of several sedimentary sections and sills of Arctic Siberia considered to be meso-neoproterozoic in age. In particular we have studied the terrigenous Udza and Unguohtah Formations and basic sills of the Udzha Uplift; the carbonate Khaipakh Formation of the Olenek Uplift; the carbonate Burovaya Formation of the Turukhansk Uplift; basic sills of the Kparaulakh Mountains.In this report we present the paleomagnetic poles obtained, discuss their bearing on construction of the adequate Siberian neoproterozoic APWP and show that our new data rather support the Indian ocean option.This research were supported by Grant from RF President #MK-739.2017.5

  18. The Neoproterozoic Drift History of Laurentia: a Critical Evaluation and new Palaeomagnetic Data from Northern and Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jørgen Løye

    Laurentia occupies a critical position in palaeogeographic models for the Neoproterozoic, forming the core of Rodinia Supercontinent. The breakup of Rodinia in the late Neoproterozic was marked by the dispersal of its various constituent continental fragments, concomitant with major episodes of g......: one which argues that Laurentia has drifted into high latitudes by c. 630Ma and then back to equatorial latitudes, and the other which argues that Laurentia essentially remained in low latitudes throughout. The choice of one or other model depends on the choice, interpretation, and age...... of the available poles. We present new palaeomagnetic data from the Neoproterozoic sucessions of northern and eastern Greenland that confirm that Laurentia drifted into high latitudes during the late Neoproterozoic. Detailed investigation of the uppermost Eleonore Bay Supergroup (Sturtian?), yields a stable...... margin at a latitude of ~17° at this time. Collectively these data agree with models that have Laurentia moving into high latitudes in the latest Neoproterozoic. The required plate velocities, although high, are in the range for Phanerozoic continents. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------...

  19. Sunset over Twin Peaks (United States)


    This image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) about one minute after sunset on Mars on Sol 21. The prominent hills dubbed 'Twin Peaks' form a dark silhouette at the horizon, while the setting sun casts a pink glow over the darkening sky. The image was taken as part of a twilight study which indicates how the brightness of the sky fades with time after sunset. Scientists found that the sky stays bright for up to two hours after sunset, indicating that Martian dust extends very high into the atmosphere.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  20. Impact assessment of dredging to remove coal fly ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil plant using fathead minnow elutriate exposures. (United States)

    Stanley, Jacob K; Kennedy, Alan J; Bednar, Anthony J; Chappell, Mark A; Seiter, Jennifer M; Averett, Daniel E; Steevens, Jeffery A


    On December 22, 2008, failure of an earthen containment structure resulted in the release of approximately 4.1 million m(3) of coal fly ash into the Emory River and the surrounding area from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant near Kingston, Tennessee, USA. The purpose of the present study was to assess the potential of dredging activities performed to remove the fly ash from the river to result in increased risk to pelagic fish, with special consideration of mobilization of metals. Elutriates were created using two sources of fly ash by bubbling with air over 10 d. This elutriate preparation method was designed to represent worst-case conditions for oxidation, metal release, and dissolution. Larval and juvenile Pimephales promelas underwent 10-d exposures to these elutriates. Larval end points included survival and biomass, and juvenile end points included survival, length, biomass, liver somatic index, and bioaccumulation. No significant toxicity was observed. Bioaccumulation of metals in juveniles was found to be primarily attributable to metals associated with particles in the gut. Results suggest little potential for toxicity to related fish species due to fly ash removal dredging activities given the extreme conditions represented by the elutriates in the present study. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  1. Petrogenesis of the Jiaoziding granitoids and associated basaltic porphyries: Implications for extensive early Neoproterozoic arc magmatism in western Yangtze Block (United States)

    Li, Jun-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Gu, Zhi-Dong


    Middle Neoproterozoic (ca 860-750 Ma) granitoids are widely distributed in the western margin of the Yangtze Block, China, yet their magma sources and tectonic settings are unclear. The geochronology and geochemistry of the granitoids and associated basaltic porphyries, which intruded the 970 Ma Tongmuliang arc volcanic rocks in the Jiaoziding area (east of Pingwu county), were investigated in this study. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Jiaoziding granitoids and basaltic porphyries were formed at 795 ± 6 Ma and 790 ± 20 Ma, respectively. The granitoids have high SiO2 (69.2-76.9 wt%), K2O (2.3-5.6 wt%), and Na2O (3.2-5.1 wt%) contents, and a low Al2O3 (12.4-14.5 wt%) content. The basaltic porphyries contain high concentrations of TiO2 ( 3 wt%) and high field strength elements, have steep rare earth element patterns, and are depleted in Nd and Hf isotopes. Batch partial-melting modelling indicates that the Jiaoziding granitoids could have been derived by 5% and 50-70% partial melting of Tongmuliang mafic rocks and quartz-keratophyres, respectively. Formation of the basaltic porphyries by melting of upwelling asthenospheric mantle would have been facilitated by extensive lithospheric delamination during the Neoproterozoic. This study established a link between mid-Neoproterozoic granitic magmatism and 970 Ma juvenile arc crust, indicating that extensive early Neoproterozoic juvenile arc crust, and partial melting of this crust in an extensional setting, favoured the formation of middle Neoproterozoic granitic rocks along the W-NW margin of the Yangtze Block.

  2. The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: petrological characteristics and tectonomagmatic evolution (United States)

    Gahlan, Hisham A.; Azer, Mokhles K.; Khalil, Ahmed E. S.


    The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, is one of the best preserved and least dismembered ophiolite successions in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. It contains a Penrose-type ophiolite sequence from mantle section below mafic crust upward to oceanic sedimentary cover overlying mafic volcanics, although the original magmatic (stratigraphic) contact between the mantle and crustal sections is disrupted by tectonism. The Abu Dahr ophiolite is metamorphosed under greenschist facies conditions, and low-temperature alteration is widespread. Petrography reveals that: (i) the mantle is homogenous, serpentinized, and dominated by harzburgite and less abundant dunite; (ii) the cumulate ultramafics are represented by wehrlite and pyroxenite; and (iii) the crustal section is represented by metagabbros, meta-anorthosites and metabasalts. The Abu Dahr serpentinized peridotites show high Mg# (0.92-0.93), with enrichment of Ni, Cr and Co, and depletion of Al2O3 and CaO, and nearly flat and unfractionated REE chondrite-normalized pattern. Major and trace element characteristics of the Abu Dahr metagabbro and metabasalt (crustal section) indicate a tholeiitic to calc-alkaline affinity. Units of the crustal section have low-Nb and Zr concentrations, low Dy/Yb and relatively elevated La/Yb ratios, high U/Yb and Th/Yb ratios, and LREE enriched chondrite-normalized pattern. All of the Abu Dahr ophiolite units have trace-element signatures characterized by enrichment of LILE over HFSE. Rare and trace element patterns indicate a genetic link between the Abu Dahr mantle, cumulate ultramafics, and crust. Chromian spinel has survived metamorphism and is used as a petrogenetic indicator in the Abu Dahr serpentinized peridotites. The spinel is homogeneous with a limited composition, and shows high-Cr# (>0.6) combined with low-TiO2 character (mostly <0.1 wt.%). The Abu Dahr ophiolite is interpreted as a fragment of depleted oceanic lithosphere that experienced high degrees

  3. Orogen styles in the East African Orogen: A review of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian tectonic evolution (United States)

    Fritz, H.; Abdelsalam, M.; Ali, K. A.; Bingen, B.; Collins, A. S.; Fowler, A. R.; Ghebreab, W.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Johnson, P. R.; Kusky, T. M.; Macey, P.; Muhongo, S.; Stern, R. J.; Viola, G.


    The East African Orogen, extending from southern Israel, Sinai and Jordan in the north to Mozambique and Madagascar in the south, is the world´s largest Neoproterozoic to Cambrian orogenic complex. It comprises a collage of individual oceanic domains and continental fragments between the Archean Sahara-Congo-Kalahari Cratons in the west and Neoproterozoic India in the east. Orogen consolidation was achieved during distinct phases of orogeny between ∼850 and 550 Ma. The northern part of the orogen, the Arabian-Nubian Shield, is predominantly juvenile Neoproterozoic crust that formed in and adjacent to the Mozambique Ocean. The ocean closed during a protracted period of island-arc and microcontinent accretion between ∼850 and 620 Ma. To the south of the Arabian Nubian Shield, the Eastern Granulite-Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex of southern Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique was an extended crust that formed adjacent to theMozambique Ocean and experienced a ∼650-620 Ma granulite-facies metamorphism. Completion of the nappe assembly around 620 Ma is defined as the East African Orogeny and was related to closure of the Mozambique Ocean. Oceans persisted after 620 Ma between East Antarctica, India, southern parts of the Congo-Tanzania-Bangweulu Cratons and the Zimbabwe-Kalahari Craton. They closed during the ∼600-500 Ma Kuungan or Malagasy Orogeny, a tectonothermal event that affected large portions of southern Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar and Antarctica. The East African and Kuungan Orogenies were followed by phases of post-orogenic extension. Early ∼600-550 Ma extension is recorded in the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the Eastern Granulite-Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex. Later ∼550-480 Ma extension affected Mozambique and southern Madagascar. Both extension phases, although diachronous,are interpreted as the result of lithospheric delamination. Along the strike of the East African Orogen, different geodynamic settings resulted in the evolution of

  4. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.

  5. Understanding and modelling Neo-proterozoic glaciations and their associated phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hir, Guillaume


    The objective of this research thesis is to provide a consistent image of extreme glaciations which occurred during the Neo-proterozoic era. By using climate and carbon cycle models (or model of bio-geochemical cycles), the author aims at answering various scientific questions raised by the Snowball Earth hypothesis. After a description of the main geological features which characterize the Proterozoic, scientific problems are presented. The author then reports the study of carbon cycle during glaciation in order to understand its operation. Based on this constraint, a consistent scenario of exit from glaciation is defined. The physical-chemical evolution of the ocean during and after a global glaciation is then quantified in order to assess its potential effects on the environment and on the Precambrian biosphere. The last part focuses on the post-glacial evolution to establish the delay for a return to equilibrium of climate after such an extreme event [fr

  6. Peak flow meter use - slideshow (United States)

    ... page: // Peak flow meter use - Series—Peak flow meter use - part one To use the sharing ... slide 7 out of 7 Overview A peak flow meter helps you check how well your asthma ...

  7. The neoproterozoic Goias magmatic arc, central Brazil: a review and new Sm-Nd isotopic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Gioia, Simone Maria Costa Lima [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:


    In this study we review the main characteristics and geochronological/isotopic data of metaigneous rocks of the juvenile Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc in central Brazil. Some new Sm-Nd isotopic data are also presented for both the southern (Arenopolis) and northern (Mara Rosa) sections of the arc. In the south, granitoids of the Choupana-Turvania area yielded a Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 863{+-} 97 Ma and e{sub Nd} (T) of +4.1 T{sub D}M model ages vary between 0.94 and 1.13 Ga. Metavolcanic rocks in the Pontalina region have a Sm-Nd whole rock isochron age of 762 {+-} 77 Ma and e{sub Nd} (T) of +2.9. T {sub DM} values are between 0.96 and 1.10 Ga. In the northern section of the Goias Arc, mylonitic gneisses of the Serra Azul ridge, an important N30E shear zone, were investigated and have a Sm-Nd isochron age of 3058 {+-} 120 Ma and initial e{sub Nd} value of ca.+ 2.1. This data suggests that the Serra Azul ridge might represent either a mylonitized fragment of the Archaen terranes exposed just to the south, or the sialic basement of the Araguaia Belt supracrustal, along the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. The geochronological data available so far indicate a long history of arc formation and amalgamation on the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent during the Neoproterozoic. The history of convergence of continental masses is partially coeval with the fragmentation of Rodinia, indicating that the western margin (present geographic reference) of that continent occupied a peripheral setting in the Rodinia super continent. (author)

  8. Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2002 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (26th, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, May 24-28, 2002) (United States)

    Simmt, Elaine, Ed.; Davis, Brent, Ed.


    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the Study…

  9. Petrology and SHRIMP zircon geochronology of granulites from Vesleknausen, Lützow-Holm Complex, East Antarctica: Neoarchean magmatism and Neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Tsunogae


    Full Text Available We report new petrological data and geochronological measurements of granulites from Vesleknausen in the highest-grade section of the Lützow-Holm Complex, part of the Gondwana-assembling collisional orogen in East Antarctica. The locality is dominated by felsic to intermediate orthogneiss (charnockite and minor biotite gneiss, mafic orthogneiss, and hornblende-pyroxene granulite, with deformed and undeformed dykes of metagranite and felsic pegmatite. Pseudosection analysis of charnockite in the system NCKFMASHTO, supported by geothermometry of mafic orthogneiss, was used to infer peak metamorphic temperatures of 750–850 °C, approximately 150 °C lower than those estimated for metasedimentary gneisses from Rundvågshetta, 6 km to the northeast. SHRIMP U-Pb analysis of zircons from feldspar-pyroxene gneiss, which corresponds to a partially molten patch around mafic orthogneiss, yielded a Concordia upper intercept ages of 2507.9 ± 7.4 Ma, corresponding to the time of formation of the magmatic protolith to the orthogneiss. Partial melting during peak metamorphism probably took place between 591 and 548 Ma, as recorded in rims overgrew around magmatic zircon. Our results suggest that Rundvågshetta-Vesleknausen-Strandnibba region in southwestern Lützow-Holm Bay, where orthogneisses are dominant, consists of a single crustal block, possibly formed by ca. 2.5 Ga arc magmatism. The Neoarchean magmatic terrane was tectonically mingled with other fragments (such as metasedimentary units in northern Lützow-Holm Bay by subduction/collision events during the assembly of Gondwana supercontinent, and subsequently underwent ∼850 °C granulite-facies metamorphosed during Neoproterozoic to Cambrian final collisional event.

  10. The Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (zero to four years of age) and screen time among children from Kingston, Ontario (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Tremblay, Mark S; Spence, John C; Timmons, Brian W; Janssen, Ian


    OBJECTIVES To assess the proportion of children meeting the new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (zero to four years of age) and to describe parental attitudes toward and barriers to reducing screen time. METHODS: Participants included 657 children zero to four years of age from the Kingston, Ontario, area. From May to September 2011, parents completed a questionnaire regarding their child’s screen time and their attitudes toward and barriers to reducing their child’s screen time. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 32% of children younger than two years of age engaged in no screen time and approximately 46% of children two to four years of age engaged in child did not engage in excessive screen time. Physicians and other health professionals should inform parents of these new guidelines and provide strategies to help their children meet targets. PMID:24381488

  11. Physical environments, policies and practices for physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour among preschoolers within child care centres in Melbourne, Australia and Kingston, Canada. (United States)

    Hinkley, T; Carson, V; Hesketh, K D


    Characteristics of preschool and child care centres have previously been shown to be associated with children's health behaviours such as physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. This paper investigates differences in physical environments, policies and practices between child care centres in Melbourne, Australia and Kingston, Canada which may be associated with such behaviours. Audits of child care centres were undertaken by trained research assistants for the Healthy Active Preschool and Primary Years (Melbourne, Australia; n = 136) study and the Healthy Living Habits in Pre-School Children (Kingston, Canada; n = 46) study. Twenty-one of the audit items (nine physical environment; 12 policies and practices) were assessed in both samples. Example items included outdoor play and shaded areas, availability of equipment, physical activity instruction for children and staff, opportunities to use electronic media and staff/child interaction during physical activity time. Analyses were completed using SAS version 9.2. Compared with Australian centres, a higher per cent of Canadian centres had a formal physical activity policy, reported children sat more frequently for 30 min or more and allowed children to watch television. A higher per cent of Australian centres provided an indoor area for physical activity, shade outdoors and physical activity education to staff. Children in Australian centres had access to more fixed play equipment and spent more time outdoors than in Canadian centres. These findings may help inform the development of best practice and policy guidelines to enhance opportunities for healthy levels of physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour within child care centres in both countries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Biological feedbacks as cause and demise of the Neoproterozoic icehouse: astrobiological prospects for faster evolution and importance of cold conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Janhunen

    Full Text Available Several severe glaciations occurred during the Neoproterozoic eon, and especially near its end in the Cryogenian period (630-850 Ma. While the glacial periods themselves were probably related to the continental positions being appropriate for glaciation, the general coldness of the Neoproterozoic and Cryogenian as a whole lacks specific explanation. The Cryogenian was immediately followed by the Ediacaran biota and Cambrian Metazoan, thus understanding the climate-biosphere interactions around the Cryogenian period is central to understanding the development of complex multicellular life in general. Here we present a feedback mechanism between growth of eukaryotic algal phytoplankton and climate which explains how the Earth system gradually entered the Cryogenian icehouse from the warm Mesoproterozoic greenhouse. The more abrupt termination of the Cryogenian is explained by the increase in gaseous carbon release caused by the more complex planktonic and benthic foodwebs and enhanced by a diversification of metazoan zooplankton and benthic animals. The increased ecosystem complexity caused a decrease in organic carbon burial rate, breaking the algal-climatic feedback loop of the earlier Neoproterozoic eon. Prior to the Neoproterozoic eon, eukaryotic evolution took place in a slow timescale regulated by interior cooling of the Earth and solar brightening. Evolution could have proceeded faster had these geophysical processes been faster. Thus, complex life could theoretically also be found around stars that are more massive than the Sun and have main sequence life shorter than 10 Ga. We also suggest that snow and glaciers are, in a statistical sense, important markers for conditions that may possibly promote the development of complex life on extrasolar planets.

  13. Scent of a supercontinent: Gondwana's ores as chemical tracers—tin, tungsten and the Neoproterozoic Laurentia-Gondwana connection (United States)

    De Wit, Maarten J.; Thiart, Christien; Doucouré, Moctar; Wilsher, Wendy

    The birth of Gondwana is inextricably linked to the break-up of the earlier Neoproterozoic supercontinent Rodinia. In detail, the Neoproterozoic reconstructions of Rodinia are unsolved and without them a detailed kinematic history of the birth of Gondwana cannot be constructed. This paper shows that Gondwana's ore deposits provide chemical "scents" that can be effectively used to trace the tectonic history of Gondwana; and the heterogenous distribution of Gondwana's ore deposits are used to evaluate Late Neoproterozoic reconstructions, which place Laurentia against West Gondwana along a common belt of Grenville age rocks. West Gondwana (including its Grenville-like rocks) is anomalously enriched in Sn and W relative to the rest of Gondwana. The Grenville Province of Laurentia and its immediate hinterland are devoid of Sn-W deposits and even occurrences of any significance. Therefore, Rodinia reconstructions which juxtapose East Laurentia against the west coast of South America result in juxtaposition of distinctly different metalliferous crustal blocks. These reconstructions may not be correct, and other models should be (re-)explored.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mints


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to represent the main features inherent to Grenville-Sveconorwegian Orogen (GSNO and to propose a model of tectonic and geodynamic evolution of this orogen based on the results of research concerning similar Precambrian tectonic units in the East European Craton. The studies of the conditions and settings related to origin and evolution of GSNO are of special interest, because it is located geographicaly and in a certain sense ideologically in the center of Rodinia, a supposed Neoproterozoic supercontinent. GSNO originated in the MezoNeoproterozoic in the inner region of the Lauroscandia continent. At present, the synformal tectonic structure of GSNO is divided into two portions: Grenville sector along the southeastern margin of the Canadian Shield, and Sveconorwegian sector in the southwestern Scandinavia. The integrity of Lauroscandia was twice disturbed in the MezoNeoproterozoic when oceanic structures resembling the Atlantic Ocean were formed. Later on, the continuity of the continent was restored with the involvement of oceanic lithosphere subduction and accretion and obduction of the island-arc and oceanic terranes. We distinguish two stages in the GSNO history: (1 ‘preparatory’ stage (from ~1.90 to ~1.16 Ga, and (2 formation of GSNO proper (from ~1.19 to ~0.90 Ga. The manifestations of granulite-facies metamorphism were repeatedly recorded before the Grenville Orogeny at 1.67–1.66, 1.47–1.45, 1.37–1.35, and 1.20–1.18 Ga. The Ottawan stage of the Grenville metamorphism proper is dated between 1.16 and 1.05–1.03 Ga. Metamorphism at the base of Allochthonous Belt corresponds to high-pressure granulite facies and, in a number of places, to hightemperature eclogite facies (800–900 °C at pressure in the range between 14 and 20 kbar. The age of metamorphism of rocks within Paraautochthonous Belt is 1.05–0.95 Ga; metamorphic grade increases from the greenschist facies near the Grenville front to

  15. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and whole-rock Nd-isotope constraints on sediment provenance in the Neoproterozoic Sergipano orogen, Brazil: From early passive margins to late foreland basins (United States)

    Oliveira, E. P.; McNaughton, N. J.; Windley, B. F.; Carvalho, M. J.; Nascimento, R. S.


    SHRIMP U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology and depleted-mantle Nd-model ages of clastic rocks were combined to understand the sediment provenance in the Neoproterozoic Sergipano Belt. The Sergipano is the main orogenic belt between the Borborema province and the São Francisco Craton, eastern South America; it is divisible into several lithostratigraphic domains from North to South: Canindé, Poço Redondo-Marancó, Macururé, Vaza Barris, and Estância. Nd model ages (TDM) and detrital zircon U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology indicate that the protoliths of clastic metasedimentary rocks from the Marancó and Macururé domains were mostly derived from eroded late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic rocks (1000-900 Ma), whereas detritus of similar rocks from the Canindé domain came from a younger source (ca. 700 Ma and 1000 Ma). Samples from the Vaza Barris domain show the greatest scatter of both TDM and zircon ages amongst all domains, but with important contributions from Proterozoic sources (690-1050 Ma and ca. 2100 Ma) and less from Archaean sources. The Estância domain samples have zircon population peaks at 570 Ma, 600 Ma, and 920-980 Ma, with a few older grains; one diamictite contains only ca. 2150 Ma zircon grains. Our preliminary results support a model in which sediments of the Marancó and Macururé domains were deposited on a continental margin of the ancient Borborema plate before its collision with the São Francisco Craton; the Canindé domain is likely to be an aborted Neoproterozoic rift assemblage within the southern part of the Borborema plate (Pernambuco-Alagoas massif). The basal units of the Vaza Barris and Estância domains have clast sources from the São Francisco Craton and are best interpreted as passive margin sediments. However, the uppermost units of the Estância and Vaza Barris domains come from foreland basins formed during collision of Borborema plate with the São Francisco Craton.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. The main thrust of this paper is peak shaving with a Stochastic hydro model. In peak sharing, the amount of hydro energy scheduled may be a minimum but it serves to replace less efficient thermal units. The sample system is die Kainji hydro plant and the thermal units of the National Electric. Power Authority.

  17. Low oxygen and argon in the Neoproterozoic atmosphere at 815 Ma (United States)

    Yeung, Laurence Y.


    The evolution of Earth's atmosphere on >106-yr timescales is tied to that of the deep Earth. Volcanic degassing, weathering, and burial of volatile elements regulates their abundance at the surface, setting a boundary condition for the biogeochemical cycles that modulate Earth's atmosphere and climate. The atmosphere expresses this interaction through its composition; however, direct measurements of the ancient atmosphere's composition more than a million years ago are notoriously difficult to obtain. Gases trapped in ancient minerals represent a potential archive of the ancient atmosphere, but their fidelity has not been thoroughly evaluated. Both trapping and preservation artifacts may be relevant. Here, I use a multi-element approach to reanalyze recently collected fluid-inclusion data from halites purportedly containing snapshots of the ancient atmosphere as old as 815 Ma. I argue that those samples were affected by the concomitant trapping of air dissolved in brines and contaminations associated with modern air. These artifacts lead to an apparent excess in O2 and Ar. The samples may also contain signals of mass-dependent fractionation and biogeochemical cycling within the fluid inclusions. After consideration of these artifacts, this new analysis suggests that the Tonian atmosphere was likely low in O2, containing ≤10% present atmospheric levels (PAL), not ∼50% PAL as the data would suggest at face value. Low concentrations of O2 are consistent with other geochemical constraints for this time period and further imply that the majority of Neoproterozoic atmospheric oxygenation occurred after 815 Ma. In addition, the analysis reveals a surprisingly low Tonian Ar inventory-≤60% PAL-which, if accurate, challenges our understanding of the solid Earth's degassing history. When placed in context with other empirical estimates of paleo-atmospheric Ar, the data imply a period of relatively slow atmospheric Ar accumulation in the Paleo- and Meso

  18. Microanalyzes of remarkable microfossils of the Late Mesoproterozoic-Early Neoproterozoic (United States)

    Cornet, Yohan; Beghin, Jérémie; Baludikay, Blaise; François, Camille; Storme, Jean-Yves; Compère, Philippe; Javaux, Emanuelle


    The Late Mesoproterozoic-Early Neoproterozoic is an important period to investigate the diversification of early eukaryotes [1]. Following the first appearance of red algae in the Late Mesoproterozoic, other (morphological or molecular) fossils of crown groups are recorded during the Early Neoproterozoic, including green algae, sponges, amoebozoa and possibly fungi. Other microfossils also includes unambiguous eukaryotes, including several distinctive forms for that time period, such as the acritarchs Cerebrosphaera buickii (˜820-720 Ma), Trachyhystrichosphaera aimika and T . botula (1100-720 Ma), and the multicellular eukaryotic problematicum taxon Jacutianema solubila (1100-?720 Ma). To further characterize the taxonomy of these microfossils and to test hypotheses about their possible relationships to crown groups, we combine analyzes of their morphology, wall ultrastructure and microchemistry, using optical microscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), as well as Raman and FTIR microspectroscopy respectively. Cerebrosphaera populations from the Svanbergfjellet formation, Spitsbergen, and from the Kanpa Formation, Officer Basin, Australia, include organic vesicles with dark and robust walls ornamented by cerebroid folds [2]. Our study shows the occurrence of complex tri- or bi-layered wall ultrastructures and a highly aromatic composition [3]. The genus Trachyhystrichosphaera includes various species characterized by the presence of a variable number of hollow heteromorphic processes [2]. Preliminary infrared microspectroscopy analyzes performed on two species, T. aimika and T. botula, from the 1.1 Ga Taoudeni Basin, Mauritania, and from the ˜1.1 - 0.8 Ga Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup, RDC, indicate a strong aliphatic and carbonyl composition of the wall biopolymer, with some differences linked to thermal maturity between the two locations. TEM is also performed to characterize the wall ultrastructure of these two species. Various morphotypes

  19. Twin and triple peaks papilledema. (United States)

    Mehta, Jodhbir S; Plant, Gordon T; Acheson, James F


    To describe 2 adult patients who presented with papilledema after band atrophy (i.e., twin and triple peaks papilledema). Retrospective small case series. Two outpatients. Observations made on 2 patients whose cases were reviewed in the neuro-ophthalmology clinic. The first patient had a pituitary tumor presenting with papilledema, causing a triple peaks clinical sign. Color photographs, optical coherence tomograms, and magnetic resonance images are shown. The second patient developed twin peaks papilledema due to a chiasmal glioma causing secondary raised intracranial pressure. Twin peaks papilledema is a rare clinical sign that may develop in adults as well as in children. The first report and optical coherence tomography features of triple peaks papilledema illustrate a new clinical sign.

  20. The Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic passive margin Lajeado Group and Apiaí Gabbro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.C. Campanha


    Full Text Available The Lajeado Group in the Ribeira Belt, southeastern Brazil, corresponds to an open-sea carbonate platform, comprised of seven overlapping siliciclastic and carbonatic formations, intruded in its upper portion by the Apiaí Gabbro. These rocks have a Neoproterozoic tectonometamorphic overprint related to arc magmatism and the Brasiliano collisional orogeny. Geochronological constraints are given by new U-Pb SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS data for Lajeado Group detrital zircons and for magmatic zircons from the Apiaí Gabbro. The youngest detrital zircons in the Lajeado Group are 1400–1200 Ma, and constrain its maximum age of deposition to be <1200 Ma, whereas the 877 ± 8 Ma age for magmatic zircons in the Apiaí Gabbro give the minimum age. Detritus source areas are mainly Paleoproterozoic (2200–1800 Ma with some Archean and Mesoproterozoic contribution (1500–1200 Ma, with distal or tectonic stable cratonic character. The Lajeado Group should be a Stenian–Tonian carbonate platform passive margin of a continent at this time, namely the Columbia/Nuna or the Rodinia. The Apiaí Gabbro displays similar age to other intrusive basic rocks in the Lajeado and Itaiacoca groups and represents tholeiitic MORB-like magmatism that we relate to the initial break-up of a Mesoproterozoic continent and the formation of the Brasiliano oceans.

  1. Origin and paleoenvironmental interpretation of aluminum phosphate-sulfate minerals in a Neoproterozoic Baltic paleosol (United States)

    Vircava, Ilze; Somelar, Peeter; Liivamägi, Sirle; Kirs, Juho; Kirsimäe, Kalle


    Aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) mineral solid-solutions occur as accessory phases in different sedimentary and hydrothermal deposits. Their composition is a sensitive environmental indicator recording changes in pH, temperature and chemical composition of the weathering, diagenetic or hydrothermal fluids. In this contribution we studied APS mineralization in a Neoproterozoic paleotropical paleosol developed on Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crystalline basement in the Baltic Basin. Small and disseminated APS minerals occur in high abundance (up to 4 wt.% of crystalline phases) in the weathering profile developed on gabbroic rocks rich in magmatic apatite. APS minerals belonging to a goyazite-florencite-svanbergite-woodhouseite solid-solution series occur in the uppermost part of the weathering profile and are replaced down-profile with secondary apatite. The change from APS minerals to secondary apatite precipitates reflects a paleo-pH gradient in the weathering profile from acidic (pH meters in the APS precipitation zone, to neutral or near neutral at 4-5 m-depth from the paleoweathered surface where secondary apatite occurs. Typically uniform < 5 μm-size APS crystallites suggest rapid precipitation in a highly supersaturated solution, but these crystals show a fine zonal structure whose nature and formation mechanism remain unclear.

  2. Measuring Your Peak Flow Rate (United States)

    ... your child so they can help monitor your child's asthma symptoms . Why Should I Measure My Flow Rate? ... help parents determine what might be triggering their child's asthma. How Do You Use a Peak Flow Meter? ...

  3. Ultrasonic Transducer Peak-to-Peak Optical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skarvada


    Full Text Available Possible optical setups for measurement of the peak-to-peak value of an ultrasonic transducer are described in this work. The Michelson interferometer with the calibrated nanopositioner in reference path and laser Doppler vibrometer were used for the basic measurement of vibration displacement. Langevin type of ultrasonic transducer is used for the purposes of Electro-Ultrasonic Nonlinear Spectroscopy (EUNS. Parameters of produced mechanical vibration have to been well known for EUNS. Moreover, a monitoring of mechanical vibration frequency shift with a mass load and sample-transducer coupling is important for EUNS measurement.

  4. Barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young men who have sex with men and transgender women in Kingston, Jamaica: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Brien, Natasha; Jones, Nicolette; Lee-Foon, Nakia; Levermore, Kandasi; Marshall, Annecka; Nyblade, Laura; Newman, Peter A


    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica have the highest HIV prevalence in the Caribbean. There is little information about HIV among transgender women in Jamaica, who are also overrepresented in the Caribbean epidemic. HIV-related stigma is a barrier to HIV testing among Jamaica's general population, yet little is known of MSM and transgender women's HIV testing experiences in Jamaica. We explored perceived barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young MSM and transgender women in Kingston, Jamaica. We implemented a community-based research project in collaboration with HIV and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) agencies in Kingston. We held two focus groups, one with young (aged 18-30 years) transgender women (n = 8) and one with young MSM (n = 10). We conducted 53 in-depth individual semi-structured interviews focused on HIV testing experiences with young MSM (n = 20), transgender women (n = 20), and community-based key informants (n = 13). We conducted thematic analysis to identify, analyze, and report themes. Participant narratives revealed social-ecological barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Barriers included healthcare provider mistreatment, confidentiality breaches, and HIV-related stigma: these spanned interpersonal, community and structural levels. Healthcare provider discrimination and judgment in HIV testing provision presented barriers to accessing HIV services (e.g. treatment), and resulted in participants hiding their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Confidentiality concerns included: clinic physical arrangements that segregated HIV testing from other health services, fear that healthcare providers would publicly disclose their status, and concerns at LGBT-friendly clinics that peers would discover they were getting tested. HIV-related stigma contributed to fear of testing HIV-positive; this intersected with the stigma of HIV as a "gay" disease. Participants also anticipated healthcare provider

  5. Ediacaran stromatolites and intertidal phosphorite of the Salitre Formation, Brazil: Phosphogenesis during the Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event (United States)

    Caird, R. A.; Pufahl, P. K.; Hiatt, E. E.; Abram, M. B.; Rocha, A. J. D.; Kyser, T. K.


    of hydrothermal veins range from - 4.7‰ to - 3.0‰ (mean = - 4.2‰) reflecting equilibration with temperatures > 80 °C. δ13C values are between - 7.0‰ and + 5.6‰ (mean = - 1.8‰,). Late lateritic weathering produced calcretes with δ18O values between - 3.3‰ and - 1.3‰, and δ13C values from - 9.2‰ to - 8.0‰ (mean values are - 1.8‰ and - 8.7‰, respectively). Petrographic analysis, generally low δ18O, and high δ13C values suggest hydrothermal dolomitization and remobilization of P led to secondary phosphate mineralization of intertidal stromatolite biostromes to produce economic phosphorite. Collectively, these results suggest that the benthic P-cycle in the Neoproterozoic was more complex than previously surmised and emphasize the multifaceted significance of microbial, paleoenvironmental, and diagenetic processes that allowed phosphorite to accumulate on the São Franciscan craton. Such information further elucidates attributes of the onset of Earth's second major phosphogenic episode, which is roughly coincident with the Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event (NOE) and the evolution of multicellular animals.

  6. Mineralizations of the Lavalleja Group (Uruguay), a Probable Neoproterozoic Volcano-sedimentary Sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Loureiro, J.; Basei, M.; Ramos, V.; Preciozzi, F.; Basei, M.


    The Lavalleja Group is located in the southern extreme of the Dom Feliciano Belt, being tentatively correlated with the Porongos and Brusque Groups of Brazil. The basement of the Lavalleja Group is probably represented by granitic gneissic rocks of the Campanero Unit with ages, in the southern portion, ranging from 1.75 to 2.1 Ga (U-Pb in zircon). The Lavalleja Group is characterized by narrow bands of meta sedimentary and meta volcanic rocks and it is separated in three formations, namely (from base to top): Zanja del Tigre, Fuente del Puma and Minas. Outcrops assigned to the Minas Formation have been recently correlated with the Arroyo del Soldado Group. Only the Fuente del Puma formation hosts base metals, Au and Ag occurrences. The Fuente del Puma formation is divided into three informal units: sedimentary, volcanic and hornblenditic gabbros. The sedimentary unit is characterized by an important amount of carbonates. Syn collisional to pos tectonic granitic bodies (Carapé Complex) intrudes the Lavalleja Group and the Campanero Unit. Several mineralizations are located in the Fuente del Puma Formation, those associated to Arrospide, Ramallo-Reus, Chape, Valencia, La Oriental, Apolonia, Redondo Hill, La China and La Paloma mines are the most important. In addition, many occurrences of Cu-Zn-Pb were recognized in the region. The Cu-Zn-Pb mineralization includes massive sulfides with pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-galena-pyrrothyte, arsenopyrite-hematite into small bodies with lenticular shape. The host rock shows frequently hydrothermal alteration. The geochemistry and the geological features of the mineralizations suggest Besshi Massive Sulphide Zn-Cu-Pb and SEDEX Zn-Pb as most probably genetic models for the deposits related to the Neoproterozoic orogeny. Early mineralizations are syngenetic and were formed on the sea floor, although the main mineralizations are related to remobilization during syn- to late-metamorphic events and thrusting

  7. Neoproterozoic extension in the greater dharwar craton: A reevaluation of the "betsimisaraka suture" in madagascar (United States)

    Tucker, R.D.; Roig, J.-Y.; Delor, C.; Amlin, Y.; Goncalves, P.; Rabarimanana, M.H.; Ralison, A.V.; Belcher, R.W.


    The Precambrian shield of Madagascar is reevaluated with recently compiled geological data and new U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) geochronology. Two Archean domains are recognized: the eastern Antongil-Masora domain and the central Antananarivo domain, the latter with distinctive belts of metamafic gneiss and schist (Tsaratanana Complex). In the eastern domain, the period of early crust formation is extended to the Paleo-Mesoarchean (3.32-3.15 Ga) and a supracrustal sequence (Fenerivo Group), deposited at 3.18 Ga and metamorphosed at 2.55 Ga, is identified. In the central domain, a Neoarchean period of high-grade metamorphism and anatexis that affected both felsic (Betsiboka Suite) and mafic gneisses (Tsaratanana Complex) is documented. We propose, therefore, that the Antananarivo domain was amalgamated within the Greater Dharwar Craton (India + Madagascar) by a Neoarchean accretion event (2.55-2.48 Ga), involving emplacement of juvenile igneous rocks, high-grade metamorphism, and the juxtaposition of disparate belts of mafic gneiss and schist (metagreenstones). The concept of the "Betsimisaraka suture" is dispelled and the zone is redefined as a domain of Neoproterozoic metasedimentary (Manampotsy Group) and metaigneous rocks (Itsindro-Imorona Suite) formed during a period of continental extension and intrusive igneous activity between 840 and 760 Ma. Younger orogenic convergence (560-520 Ma) resulted in east-directed overthrusting throughout south Madagascar and steepening with local inversion of the domain in central Madagascar. Along part of its length, the Manampotsy Group covers the boundary between the eastern and central Archean domains and is overprinted by the Angavo-Ifanadiana high-strain zone that served as a zone of crustal weakness throughout Cretaceous to Recent times.

  8. Late Neoproterozoic Nuqara Dokhan Volcanics, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geochemistery and petrogenesis (United States)

    Hassan, Tharwat; Asran, Asran; Amron, Taha; Natflos, Theo


    The Nuqara volcanic is one of the northernmost outcrops of the Arabian-Nubian Shield Dokhan volcanics. The origin and tectonic setting of the late Neoproterozoic Dokhan volcanics (ca. 610-560 Ma) in the Egyptian Eastern Desert is highly debated. The debate concerns the tectonic setting where they formed during transition between convergent to extensional regime or after the East- and the West-Gondwana collision (~600Ma). In order to solve this problem, lavas from Nuqara area were studied geologically and geochemically. Nuqara Dokhan volcanics comprises two main rock suites: (a) an intermediate volcanic suite, consisting of basaltic andesite, andesite and their associated pyroclastics rocks; and (b) a felsic volcanic suite composed of dacite, rhyolite and ignimbrites. The two suites display well-defined major and trace element trends and continuum in composition with wide ranges in SiO2 (52-75.73%), CaO (9.19-0.22%), MgO (5.29-0.05%), Sr (1367-7.4 ppm), Zr (688.5-172.7 ppm), Cr (207-0.4 ppm), and Ni (94.3-0.2 ppm). The Nuqara Dokhan volcanics are characterized by strong enrichment in LILE relative to HFSE and affiliated to the calc-alkaline subducted - related magmatism. Geochemical Modeling displays that the evolution of these rocks was governed by fractional crystallization of plagioclase, amphiboles, pyroxene, magnetite and apatite in the intermediate varieties and plagioclase, amphibole, magnetite, apatite and zircon in the felsic varieties. The obtained mineral chemistry of these volcanics reveals: (a) Plagioclase range in composition from An55 to An40 in basaltic andesite and from An39 to An24 in andesite. (b) Alkali feldspars have sanidine composition. (c) Clinopyroxenes have augite composition. The low Al2O3 contents (1.94-5.588 wt %) indicate that clinopyroxene crystallized at low - pressure conditions. (d) Amphiboles have magnesio- hornblende composition.

  9. Triple oxygen isotope evidence for elevated CO2 levels after a Neoproterozoic glaciation. (United States)

    Bao, Huiming; Lyons, J R; Zhou, Chuanming


    Understanding the composition of the atmosphere over geological time is critical to understanding the history of the Earth system, as the atmosphere is closely linked to the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Although much of the history of the lithosphere and hydrosphere is contained in rock and mineral records, corresponding information about the atmosphere is scarce and elusive owing to the lack of direct records. Geologists have used sedimentary minerals, fossils and geochemical models to place constraints on the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen or methane in the past. Here we show that the triple oxygen isotope composition of sulphate from ancient evaporites and barites shows variable negative oxygen-17 isotope anomalies over the past 750 million years. We propose that these anomalies track those of atmospheric oxygen and in turn reflect the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)) in the past through a photochemical reaction network linking stratospheric ozone to carbon dioxide and to oxygen. Our results suggest that P(CO2) was much higher in the early Cambrian than in younger eras, agreeing with previous modelling results. We also find that the (17)O isotope anomalies of barites from Marinoan (approximately 635 million years ago) cap carbonates display a distinct negative spike (around -0.70 per thousand), suggesting that by the time barite was precipitating in the immediate aftermath of a Neoproterozoic global glaciation, the P(CO2) was at its highest level in the past 750 million years. Our finding is consistent with the 'snowball Earth' hypothesis and/or a massive methane release after the Marinoan glaciation.

  10. Tibet- Himalayan Analogs of Pan-African Shear Zones : Implications for Neoproterozoic Tectonics (United States)

    Attoh, K.; Brown, L. D.


    Large-scale shear zones are distinct features of Tibet-Himalayan orogen and the Pan-African Trans-Saharan belt. Prominent examples in the Pan-African-belt extend for ~2500 km from the Sahara to the Gulf of Guinea and are characterized by right-slip movements. The NS shear zones, such as 4°50’-Kandi shear zone (KSZ) are complemented by NE-SW shear zones that preserve a record of sinistral movements and are represented by the Central Cameroon shear zone (CCSZ) in the eastern part of the Pan-African domain. The West African shear zones project into similar structures in the Borborema Province of northeast Brazil. In addition, the Pan-African belt preserves structures and rock assemblages that indicate subduction-collision tectonics We propose that structures of Tibet-Himalayan collisional orogen are instructive analogs of the Pan-African structures where: (i) the Pan-African front corresponds to the Main Himalayan thrust and it’s splays; (ii) the main Pan-African suture zone is analogous to the Indus-Tsangpo suture in the Tibet-Himalayan belt; (iii) the 4°50’-KSZ corresponds to Karakoram and it’s linkages with Jiali fault system and (iv) left-slip CCSZ and related shear zones are analogs of Altyn Tagh and Kumlun faults and their splays. This suggests the operation of escape-type tectonics in the Neoproterozoic belt of West-Africa and predicts the nature of the deep structures in the Cenozoic Tibet-Himalayan orogen.

  11. Age and geochemistry of Neoproterozoic granitoids in the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif, NE China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications (United States)

    Luan, Jin-Peng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Guo, Peng


    This study presents new zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical data for Neoproterozoic granitoids in the Songnen-Zhangguangcai Range Massif (SZRM) of NE China. This dataset provides insights into the Neoproterozoic tectonic setting of the SZRM and the links between this magmatism and the evolution of the Rodinia supercontinent. The zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Neoproterozoic magmatism within the SZRM can be subdivided into two stages: (1) a ∼917-911 Ma suite of syenogranites and monzogranites, and (2) an ∼841 Ma suite of granodiorites. The 917-911 Ma granitoids contain high concentrations of SiO2 (67.89-71.18 wt.%), K2O (4.24-6.91 wt.%), and Al2O3 (14.89-16.14 wt.%), and low concentrations of TFe2O3 (1.63-3.70 wt.%) and MgO (0.53-0.88 wt.%). They are enriched in the light rare earth elements (LREE) and the large ion lithophile elements (LILE), are depleted in the heavy REE (HREE) and the high field strength elements (HFSE; e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and have slightly positive Eu anomalies, indicating that they are geochemically similar to high-K adakitic rocks. They have zircon εHf (t) values and TDM2 ages from -4.4 to +1.5 and 1915 Ma to 1592 Ma, respectively, suggesting that they were derived from a primary magma generated by the partial melting of ancient thickened lower crustal material. In comparison, the 841 Ma granodiorites contain relatively low concentrations of Al2O3 (14.50-14.58 wt.%) and K2O (3.27-3.29 wt.%), relatively high concentrations of TFe2O3 (3.78-3.81 wt.%) and the HREE, have negative Eu anomalies, and have zircon εHf (t) values and TDM2 ages from -4.7 to +1.0 and 1875 to 1559 Ma, respectively. These granodiorites formed from a primary magma generated by the partial melting of ancient crustal material. The ∼917-911 Ma magmatism within the SZRM is inferred to have formed in an orogenic setting, whereas the ∼841 Ma magmatism formed in an anorogenic setting related to either a post-orogenic tectonic event or the onset of Neoproterozoic

  12. Signatures of Late Neoproterozoic Gondwana assembly and Maronian glaciation in Lesser Himalaya: a palaeogeographical and stratigraphical approach (United States)

    Umar, Muhammad; Betts, Peter; Saud Khan, Malik Muhammad; Amjad Sabir, Muhammad; Farooq, Muhammad; Zeb, Asif; Khan Jadoon, Umair; Ali, Shoaib


    Stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses of Late Neoproterozoic successions in Lesser Himalaya are combined herein with palaeogeographical considerations and comparisons with equivalent successions in India and South China. The succession starts with the Hazara Formation, which contains complete and incomplete Bouma sequences suggesting its deposition in deep marine turbidite settings. The overlying Tanawal Formation, rich in massive sandstone, shale and siltstone, was deposited in shallow marine conditions, as indicated by the presence of parallel lamination, large scale tabular, trough cross- and hummocky cross-stratifications. The Tanawal Formation facies shift laterally from proximal (south-southeast) to distal (north-northwest). The glaciogenic Tanaki Boulder Bed, overlying the Tanawal Formation, was deposited during the Maronian glaciation. It is equivalent to the Blaini Formation of India, and to the Sinian diamictites of South China. The Abbottabad Formation of Cambrian age overlies the Tanaki Boulder Bed, and is composed of dolomite, chert nodules and phosphate-rich packages; similar successions are documented in India and South China at the same stratigraphical interval. The similarities of the Neoproterozoic successions of Lesser Himalaya (both in Pakistan and India) and South China suggests their possible proximity during the break-up of Rodinia and the assembly of the Gondwana Supercontinent.

  13. Southern Brasilia Belt (SE Brazil): tectonic discontinuities, K-Ar data and evolution during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valeriano, Claudio Morrison de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Teixeira, Wilson [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Simoes, Luiz Sergio Amarante [UNESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Heilbron, Monica [Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)


    This paper focuses the tectonic evolution of the southern brasilia belt, with emphasis on the Furnas segment, along the 21 deg C S parallel. The uppermost structural unit (Passos Nappe - PN) comprises a highly deformed metasedimentary succession interpreted as a fragment of the Neoproterozoic passive margin of western Sao francisco craton. An inverted metamorphic gradient ranging from greensvhits to lower granulite facies of medium to high-pressure regime characterizes the PN as relict of a subduction zone. The External Domain display a complex imbrication of basement rocks (Archean Piumhi greenstones, a turbiditic gaywacke succession and a calc-alkaline granitoid suite) with undated siliciclast low-grade metasedimentary rocks. The Sao Francisco Craton (SFC) comprises pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks covered by anchimetamorphic Neoproterozoic carbonatic shallow marine platform deposits of the Bambui group. The Brasiliano thrust stacking generated a coarse clastic influx of molassic character on the foreland zone of Sao Francisco Craton, coeval with the exhumation of the External Domain thrust sheets. New K-Ar determinations on mineral separates are presented an interpreted among previous data. The SFC basement rocks display Paleo-to Meesoproterozoic cooling ages. The allochthonous units, in contrast, display K-Ar ages within the 560-675 Ma range. Brasiliano thrust stacking is therefore interpreted to have taken place onto a cold Sao Francisco craton foreland, in a thin-skinned style, as basement rocks were not heated enough to have their-K-ar systems reset during the allochthony. (author)

  14. Neurofeedback training for peak performance


    Marek Graczyk; Maria Pąchalska; Artur Ziółkowski; Grzegorz Mańko; Beata Łukaszewska; Kazimierz Kochanowicz; Andrzej Mirski; Iurii D. Kropotov


    [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneou...

  15. Twin Peaks (B/W) (United States)


    The Twin Peaks are modest-size hills to the southwest of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. They were discovered on the first panoramas taken by the IMP camera on the 4th of July, 1997, and subsequently identified in Viking Orbiter images taken over 20 years ago. The peaks are approximately 30-35 meters (-100 feet) tall. North Twin is approximately 860 meters (2800 feet) from the lander, and South Twin is about a kilometer away (3300 feet). The scene includes bouldery ridges and swales or 'hummocks' of flood debris that range from a few tens of meters away from the lander to the distance of the South Twin Peak. The large rock at the right edge of the scene is nicknamed 'Hippo'. This rock is about a meter (3 feet) across and 25 meters (80 feet) distant.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  16. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.


    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  17. Combined Carbon Isotope and C/N Ratios as Indicators of Source and Fate of Organic Matter in a Poorly Flushed, Tropical Estuary: Hunts Bay, Kingston Harbour, Jamaica (United States)

    Andrews, J. E.; Greenaway, A. M.; Dennis, P. F.


    Stable carbon isotopes and C/N ratios of particulate organic matter (POM) in suspended solids, surficial sediments and sediment cores were used to define the spatial and temporal variability of POM in a poorly flushed, urbanized, eutrophic tropical estuary (Hunts Bay, Kingston Harbour, Jamaica). C/N variation in the sediment surface POM is a function of initial suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) (or other POM) type and the alteration of C/N ratios in the water column or on the sediment surface. The δ 13C SPOM(-20 to -25‰) values suggest that this material is a mixture of: (1) in situphytoplankton organic matter; (2) terrestrial river-borne SPOM; (3) terrestrial river-borne bottom sediment POM; and (4) sewage. Downcore variation in organic carbon content, C/N and δ 13Cis attributed mainly to change in the supply rate and type of organic matter. In the NE of Hunts Bay, down core variation in sedimentology and geochemistry are consistent with a change from fully marine to freshwater runoff-dominated sedimentation with increasing organic matter input from sewage in recent times. Despite large overlaps in the C/N and δ 13C org' end-members ' pollutant POM, in this case sewage, was the only source which could account for the amount of POM deposited, the surface sediment C/N and δ 13C orgvalues and the trajectories of evolution in C/N and δ 13C orgvalues in cores. The data show that the combined δ 13C and C/N successfully identifies the source, fate and history of POM even in a poorly-mixed estuary.

  18. Spatial and temporal trends in contaminant concentrations in Hexagenia nymphs following a coal ash spill at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant. (United States)

    Smith, John G; Baker, Tyler F; Murphy, Cheryl A; Jett, R Trent


    A dike failure at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee, United States, in December 2008, released approximately 4.1 million m(3) of coal ash into the Emory River. From 2009 through 2012, samples of mayfly nymphs (Hexagenia bilineata) were collected each spring from sites in the Emory, Clinch, and Tennessee Rivers upstream and downstream of the spill. Samples were analyzed for 17 metals. Concentrations of metals were generally highest the first 2 miles downstream of the spill, and then decreased with increasing distance from the spill. Arsenic, B, Ba, Be, Mo, Sb, Se, Sr, and V appeared to have strong ash signatures, whereas Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb appeared to be associated with ash and other sources. However, the concentrations for most of these contaminants were modest and are unlikely to cause widespread negative ecological effects. Trends in Hg, Cd, and Zn suggested little (Hg) or no (Cd, Zn) association with ash. Temporal trends suggested that concentrations of ash-related contaminants began to subside after 2010, but because of the limited time period of that analysis (4 yr), further monitoring is needed to verify this trend. The present study provides important information on the magnitude of contaminant exposure to aquatic receptors from a major coal ash spill, as well as spatial and temporal trends for transport of the associated contaminants in a large open watershed. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  19. Neoproterozoic Rosetta Gabbro from northernmost Arabian-Nubian Shield, south Jordan: Geochemistry and petrogenesis (United States)

    Jarrar, Ghaleb H.; Stern, Robert J.; Theye, Thomas; Yaseen, Najel; Pease, Victoria; Miller, Nathan; Ibrahim, Khalil M.; Passchier, Cees W.; Whitehouse, Martin


    An Ediacaran mafic intrusion of south Jordan is a distinctive appinitic igneous rock with a possibly unique texture, characterized by spherical clots up to 40 mm in diameter composed of amphibole cores from which plagioclase euhedra radiate; we call it the Rosetta Gabbro. It is exposed as a small (ca. 750 m2) outcrop in the Neoproterozoic basement of south Jordan. A second outcrop of otherwise similar gabbro is located about 400 m to the north of the Rosetta Gabbro, but it lacks the distinctive texture. The Rosetta Gabbro could represent a magma pipe. It intrudes the Aqaba Complex ( 600 Ma) granitoids and metasediments of the Janub Metamorphic Complex (633-617 Ma). The gabbro is an Ol- to QZ tholeiite with the following chemical characteristics: SiO2 = 46.2-47.8 wt.%; Al2O3 = 16.4-17.7 wt.%, TiO2 = 1.70-2.82 wt.%, Na2O = 1.27-2.83 wt.%. K2O = 0.82-1.63 wt.%; Mg# 58-63; Σ REE = 70-117 ppm; La/Yb 6 to 8; and Eu/Eu* = 1.05-1.2. The investigated gabbro has the geochemical features of a continental flood tholeiitic basalt emplaced in a within-plate tectonic setting. Two varieties of amphiboles are found: 1) large, 3-5 mm, brown ferri-titanian-tschermakite (K0.09Na0.28)(Na0.20Ca1.80)(Mn0.04Fe3 +1.1Mg2.34Fe2 +0.90Ti0.29Al0.22)(Al1.85Si6.15)O22(OH)1.95 of the calcic amphibole group which is riddled with opaques; and 2) acicular yellowish-light green ferrian-magnesiohornblende (K0.04Na0.153)(Ca1.755Na0.245) (Fe3 +0.66Mn0.01Fe2 +1.01Mg3.03Ti0.06Al0.22)(Al1.03Si6.97)O22(OH)1.95. Scattered flakes of phlogopite also occur. Tabular radiating plagioclase (An64-79) are complexly twinned, with broad lamellae that show no zoning. Laser-ablation ICP-MS analyses of amphibole and plagioclase reveal considerable variation in trace element abundance, in spite of more subtle major element variations except for TiO2 in amphibole. The REE in the amphibole shows an order of magnitude variation with a concave-downward pattern and a positive Eu anomaly Eu/Eu* = 0.6-2, though far less

  20. High-pressure thermal aureoles around two Neoproterozoic synorogenic magmatic epidote-bearing granitoids, Northeastern Brazil (United States)

    Caby, Renaud; Sial, Alcides N.; Ferreira, Valderez P.


    Unusual high-pressure inner thermal aureoles are described from the Minador and Angico Torto epidote-bearing tonalitic plutons that emplaced into greenschist-facies metasedimentary rocks of the Neoproterozoic Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt, northeastern Brazil. The foliated pelitic hornfelses display the mineral assemblage garnet, kyanite, staurolite, muscovite, biotite, plagioclase ± quartz. Rare fibrolite is only found very close to the contacts. Hornfelses display steep mineral lineations and steeply-dipping foliations concordant with magmatic contacts. Leucocratic veinlets containing quartz, oligoclase, garnet, kyanite, staurolite, rutile and ilmenite suggest that limited melting conditions were reached very close to magmatic contacts ( T ⩾ 650 °C, P around 8 kbar). These high-pressure hornfelses form a few meters thick, rigid envelopes around the two plutons. Contrary to known examples of kyanite-bearing hornfelses that recorded high-temperature decompression, the nearly isobaric cooling down to ca. 450 °C is constrained by 3.20-3.30 Si contents of retrogressive phengites from both inner hornfelses and ductilely-deformed tonalite at the pluton margins. Isograds and bathograds are, therefore, apparently telescoped due to HP/LT shearing, possibly caused by subsequent differential vertical movements affecting these two solidified plutons. The unusual depth of emplacement of these syn-kinematic calc-alkaline plutons is explained by a tentative geodynamic model involving a pre-620 Ma-subduction setting. Resumen Las aureolas internas que rodean dos plutones tonalíticos emplazados dentro de rocas cajas en facies esquistos verdes del Cinturón-plegado Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro al noreste de Brasil, contienen hornfelses pelíticos foliados con granate, kyanita, estaurolita, muscovita, biotita, plagioclasa ± cuarzo. Fibrolita es rara ó es encontrada solamente cerca de las zonas de contacto. Los hornfelses desarrollaron foliaciones concordantes con buzamiento fuerte

  1. A connection between the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano (Brazil/Uruguay) and Gariep (Namibia/South Africa) orogenic belts – evidence from a reconnaissance provenance study •

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.; Frimmel, H.; Nutman, A.; Preciozzi, F.; Jacob, J.


    A provenance study of Neoproterozoic siliciclastic successions in the stratigraphically and tectonically lowermost and uppermost parts of the Pan-African Gariep Belt (Stinkfontein Subgroup and Oranjemund Group, respectively) in southwestern Africa, as well as in the Rocha Group of the Punta del Este Terrane (Dom Feliciano Belt) in Uruguay, revealed that the Oranjemund and Rocha Groups can be correlated and most likely formed in the same basin. Thus the Rocha Group is considered to represent the fill of the westernmost part of a re-activated Vendian Gariep Basin. The lower parts of the Oranjemund and Rocha Groups reflect erosion of mafic rocks, whereas the upper parts are derived from a predominantly felsic source area. Oceanic islands of within-plate geochemistry in the immediate vicinity were the most likely source of the mafic input into the lower part of the Oranjemund Group, with most of the other sediments derived from a passive continental margin, i.e. the western margin of the Kalahari Craton. Age spectra obtained by U-Pb SHRIMP analyses of detrital zircon grains from the Stinkfontein Subgroup (Port Nolloth Group), the Oranjemund Group and the Rocha Group are very similar, except for a lack of the youngest age group around 600 Ma in the Stinkfontein Subgroup. In all three units, zircon grains of 1000 – 1200 Ma dominate, with a further peak in the age distribution between 1700 and 2000 Ma. These ages compare well with the pre-Gariep basement geology in southwestern Africa, where the former age range corresponds to magmatic and high-grade metamorphic activity in the Mesoproterozoic Namaqua-Natal Belt and the latter to an extensive Palaeoproterozoic Andean-type volcanic arc (Richtersveld Terrane). Comparable ages are conspicuously absent in the basement of the Rio de la Plata Craton in South America. Derivation of the Rocha Group sediments from a similar source as the contemporaneous Oranjemund Group sediments is therefore suggested. The most likely source of

  2. Neoproterozoic rift basins and their control on the development of hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin, NW China (United States)

    Zhu, Guang-You; Ren, Rong; Chen, Fei-Ran; Li, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yong-Quan


    The Proterozoic is demonstrated to be an important period for global petroleum systems. Few exploration breakthroughs, however, have been obtained on the system in the Tarim Basin, NW China. Outcrop, drilling, and seismic data are integrated in this paper to focus on the Neoproterozoic rift basins and related hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin. The basin consists of Cryogenian to Ediacaran rifts showing a distribution of N-S differentiation. Compared to the Cryogenian basins, those of the Ediacaran are characterized by deposits in small thickness and wide distribution. Thus, the rifts have a typical dual structure, namely the Cryogenian rifting and Ediacaran depression phases that reveal distinct structural and sedimentary characteristics. The Cryogenian rifting basins are dominated by a series of grabens or half grabens, which have a wedge-shaped rapid filling structure. The basins evolved into Ediacaran depression when the rifting and magmatic activities diminished, and extensive overlapping sedimentation occurred. The distributions of the source rocks are controlled by the Neoproterozoic rifts as follows. The present outcrops lie mostly at the margins of the Cryogenian rifting basins where the rapid deposition dominates and the argillaceous rocks have low total organic carbon (TOC) contents; however, the source rocks with high TOC contents should develop in the center of the basins. The Ediacaran source rocks formed in deep water environment of the stable depressions evolving from the previous rifting basins, and are thus more widespread in the Tarim Basin. The confirmation of the Cryogenian to Ediacaran source rocks would open up a new field for the deep hydrocarbon exploration in the Tarim Basin.

  3. Neurofeedback training for peak performance. (United States)

    Graczyk, Marek; Pąchalska, Maria; Ziółkowski, Artur; Mańko, Grzegorz; Łukaszewska, Beata; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Mirski, Andrzej; Kropotov, Iurii D


    One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs). The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  4. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Graczyk


    Full Text Available [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs. [b]case study[/b]. The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. [b]conclusion[/b]. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  5. Facility Location with Double-peaked Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Li, Minming; Zhang, Jie


    We study the problem of locating a single facility on a real line based on the reports of self-interested agents, when agents have double-peaked preferences, with the peaks being on opposite sides of their locations. We observe that double-peaked preferences capture real-life scenarios and thus...... complement the well-studied notion of single-peaked preferences. We mainly focus on the case where peaks are equidistant from the agents’ locations and discuss how our results extend to more general settings. We show that most of the results for single-peaked preferences do not directly apply to this setting...

  6. Diachronism in the late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian arc-rift transition of North Gondwana: A comparison of Morocco and the Iberian Ossa-Morena Zone (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Bellido, Félix; Gasquet, Dominique; Pereira, M. Francisco; Quesada, Cecilio; Sánchez-García, Teresa


    In the northwestern border of the West African craton (North Gondwana), a transition from late Neoproterozoic subduction/collision to Cambrian rift processes was recorded in the Anti-Atlas (Morocco) and in the Ossa-Morena Zone (Iberia). Cambrian rifting affected both Pan-African and Cadomian basements in a stepwise and diachronous way. Subsequently, both areas evolved into a syn-rift margin episodically punctuated by uplift and tilting that precluded Furongian sedimentation. A comparison of sedimentary, volcanic and geodynamic evolution is made in the late Neoproterozoic (Pan-African and Cadomian) belts and Cambrian rifts trying to solve the apparent diachronous (SW-NE-trending) propagation of an early Palaeozoic rifting regime that finally led to the opening of the Rheic Ocean.

  7. Geochronology of Neoproterozoic Plutons and Sandstones in the Western Jiangnan Orogen: a Reappraisal of Amalgamation between Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks in South China (United States)

    Ma, X.; Yang, K.


    Widespread exposure of Meso-Neoproterozoic strata and abundant Neoproterozoic plutons occur along the Jiangnan orogenic belt, a tectonic suture between the composite Cathaysia and Yangtze Blocks in South China, with remarkable angular unconformities between the Xiajiang Group and the underlying Sibao. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of the basement sedimentary sequences (e.g. Xiajiang Group and Sibao Group) and the relevant granitic pluton (Motianling pluton) provides new information about the pre-Cambrian evolution of the southeastern Yangtze block margin along the western Jiangnan orogen. The depositional age of Sibao Group located in the Southeast Guizhou Province can be constrained at 825-835 Ma by the youngest detrital zircon ages and crystallization age of the intrusive Motianling granitic pluton. The maximum depositional age of the Xiajiang Group is estimated to be ca. 795 Ma. Four main age populations are evident in Sibao Group: 0.83-1.0 Ga, 1.3-1.5 Ga, 1.6-1.8 Ga and 2.2-2.6 Ga. The distinguished age populations in the Xiajiang Group are identical to those in the Sibao Group but lack in ranges of 1.3-1.5 Ga. Local abundant (China Block in the breakup the Rodinia, it is more reasonable to place Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks on the western margin rather than the center of Rodinia supercontinent during the late-Neoproterozoic time.

  8. Neoproterozoic granitoids and rhyolites of Wrangel Island: Geochemical affinity and geodynamic setting in the Eastern Arctic region (United States)

    Luchitskaya, Marina V.; Moiseev, Artem V.; Sokolov, Sergey D.; Tuchkova, Marianna I.; Sergeev, Sergey A.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Verzhbitsky, Vladimir E.; Malyshev, Nikolay A.


    New results from the study of zircon U-Pb ages by SIMS SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS, Nd isotopy and the geochemistry of granitic plutonism and felsic volcanism of Wrangel Island are considered. Granitic intrusions are confined to the Wrangel Complex in the Southern tectonic zone, cropping out in the core of a latitudinally extending anticlinorium and representing the metamorphic basement of the Eastern Arctic shelf. Felsic and basic volcanic rocks form a belt of scattered outcrops in the Central tectonic zone. The obtained U-Pb data form two Neoproterozoic age clusters in the Wrangel Complex at 680-720 and 590-600 Ma corresponding to the times of granitic plutonism and felsic volcanism, respectively. Granites that are 680-720 Ma old contain inherited zircons of Meso-, Palaeoproterozoic, and Neoarchaean ages, implying the existence of ancient rocks in the basement of Wrangel Island and their participation in partial melting during granite magma formation. The negative εNd(T) (- 2.97 to - 4.46) values obtained for granites suggest the contribution of a crustal component to their petrogenesis, and their model ages indicate possible Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic ages of crustal protoliths. The geochemical affinities of granites are similar to those of highly fractionated peraluminous I-type granites, and their association with clastic and volcanic rocks of felsic, intermediate, and basic compositions provides grounds for assuming their formation on an active continental margin. Similar formation settings above subduction zones are also proposed for Neoproterozoic (600-700 Ma) granites and orthogneisses of the Seward Peninsula (Amato et al., 2009, 2014). The close association of 590-600-Ma-old felsic volcanic rocks with geochemical affinities of A-type granites and coeval enriched basalts (Moiseev et al., 2015) makes them similar to a bimodal rift-related assemblage. The moderate positive εNd(T) (1.21; 1.1) values and Mesoproterozoic model T(DM) and T(DM-2) ages obtained for felsic

  9. Proceedings of the 2016 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes De La Rencontre Annuelle 2016 Du Groupe Canadien D'étude en Didactique Des Mathématiques (40th, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, June 3-7, 2016) (United States)

    Oesterle, Susan, Ed.; Allan, Darien, Ed.; Holm, Jennifer, Ed.


    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2016 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the Study…

  10. Late Paleoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic multi-rifting events in the North China Craton and their geological significance: A study advance and review (United States)

    Zhai, Mingguo; Hu, Bo; Zhao, Taiping; Peng, Peng; Meng, Qingren


    An important Paleoproterozoic mobile belt event took place in the North China Craton (NCC), termed the Hutuo Movement. This event has been interpreted to represent cratonic reworking characterized by rifting-subduction-collision processes. The NCC then evolved into a stable platform or para-platform tectonic setting in Earth's middle age period more than ~ 1.0 Ga. Thick Late Paleoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic sedimentary sequences were extensively deposited on the early metamorphic basement. The major sedimentary basins include the Xiong'er aulacogen system in the south-central NCC, the Yan-Liao aulacogen system in the north-central NCC, the Northern marginal rift system in the northwestern NCC and the Eastern marginal rift system in the eastern NCC. The following four stages of magmatic activity are recognized in the Late Paleoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic interval: (1) ~ 1800 to 1780 Ma Xiong'er igneous province (XIP), (2) ~ 1720 to 1620 Ma anorogenic magmatic association, (3) ~ 1350 to 1320 Ma diabase sill swarms, and (4) ~ 900 Ma mafic dyke swarms. These four magmatic events suggest that the NCC was situated in an intra-plate setting for a long time from ~ 1.8 Ga to ~ 0.7 Ga or even younger, and the magmatic events were associated with multi-stage rifting activities. We document that the NCC was in a long-term extensional tectonic setting during Late Paleoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic era. The main ore deposits in this period are magmatic type iron deposits related to anorthosite-gabbro bodies, REE-Nb-Fe and Pb-Zn-Cu-Fe deposits related to Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic rifts. Orogenic metal deposits are absent. There is no evidence indicating that the Grenville or other orogenic events affected the NCC. The reason for the absence of Grenvillian aged events in the NCC is probably because it was far from the edge of the Nuna supercontinent, if such a supercontinent did exist. There is another possibility that the Earth's middle age represented a particular tectonic

  11. Paleomagnetic Results of the 925 Ma Mafic Dykes From the North China Craton: Implications for the Neoproterozoic Paleogeography of Rodinia (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Peng, P.


    Precambrian mafic dyke swarms are useful geologic records for Neoproterozoic paleogeographic reconstruction. We present a paleomagnetic study of the 925 Ma Dashigou dyke swarm from 3 widely separated locations in the central and northern parts of the North China Craton, which are previously unsampled regions. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetizations were successful in isolating two magnetic components. The lower unblocking temperature component represents the recent Earth magnetic field. The higher unblocking temperature component is the characteristic remanent magnetization and yields positive baked contact test. Results from detailed rock magnetic measurements corroborate the demagnetization behavior and show that titanomagnetites are the main magnetic carrier in these rocks. There was no regional event that has reset the remanent magnetization of all the dyke sites, as indicated by the magnetization directions of both overlying and underlying strata. The similarity of the virtual paleomagnetic poles for the 3 sampled regions also argues that the characteristic remanent magnetizations are primary magnetization when the dykes were emplaced. The paleomagnetic poles from the Dashigou dyke swarm of the North China Craton are not similar to those of the identical aged Bahia dykes from the São Francisco Craton, Brazil, indicating that these mafic dykes may be not parts of a common regional magmatic event that affected North China Craton and NE Brazil at about 925 Ma.

  12. Fertility of late Archaean basement granite in the vicinity of U-mineralized Neoproterozoic Bhima basin, peninsular India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasan, R.


    Late Archaean granitoids constituting the basement for the Neoproterozoic Bhima Group are exposed along the southern margin of the Bhima basin in southern India. These are rich in accessory minerals such as sphene, allanite, apatite and zircon, which are the main carriers of uranium and thorium. In situ gamma-ray spectrometric analysis reveals that these granitoids have higher abundances of Th, U and K (Th range 10-43 ppm, mean 26 ppm; U range 3-21 ppm, mean 8 ppm; K range 1.2-5.2%, mean 4.0%) relative to granitoids occurring farther away from the basin. Thus, they belong to the class of fertile granitoids from the point of view of uranium mineralization. The granitoids have been mylnotized and hydrothermally altered in the Gugi-Ukkinal fault zone, which constitutes the zone of uranium mineralization discovered recently along the southern margin of the Bhima basin. Uranium apparently derived from hydrothermal leaching of basement granitoid rocks may have got deposited in the fault zone at the contact of carbonate rocks, which provided favourable geochemical environment (Eh-pH conditions) for uranium precipitation. (author)

  13. Volcanosedimentary Basins in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: Markers of Repeated Exhumation and Denudation in a Neoproterozoic Accretionary Orogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Pease


    Full Text Available The Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS includes Middle Cryogenian-Ediacaran (790–560 Ma sedimentary and volcanic terrestrial and shallow-marine successions unconformable on juvenile Cryogenian crust. The oldest were deposited after 780–760 Ma shearing and suturing in the central ANS. Middle Cryogenian basins are associated with ~700 Ma suturing in the northern ANS. Late Cryogenian basins overlapped with and followed 680–640 Ma Nabitah orogenesis in the eastern ANS. Ediacaran successions are found in pull-apart and other types of basins formed in a transpressive setting associated with E-W shortening, NW-trending shearing, and northerly extension during final amalgamation of the ANS. Erosion surfaces truncating metamorphosed arc rocks at the base of these successions are evidence of periodic exhumation and erosion of the evolving ANS crust. The basins are evidence of subsequent subsidence to the base level of alluvial systems or below sea level. Mountains were dissected by valley systems, yet relief was locally low enough to allow for seaways connected to the surrounding Mozambique Ocean. The volcanosedimentary basins of the ANS are excellently exposed and preserved, and form a world-class natural laboratory for testing concepts about crustal growth during the Neoproterozoic and for the acquisition of data to calibrate chemical and isotopic changes, at a time in geologic history that included some of the most important, rapid, and enigmatic changes to Earth’s environment and biota.

  14. Hypothesized link between Neoproterozoic greening of the land surface and the establishment of an oxygen-rich atmosphere (United States)

    Kump, Lee R.


    Considerable geological, geochemical, paleontological, and isotopic evidence exists to support the hypothesis that the atmospheric oxygen level rose from an Archean baseline of essentially zero to modern values in two steps roughly 2.3 billion and 0.8–0.6 billion years ago (Ga). The first step in oxygen content, the Great Oxidation Event, was likely a threshold response to diminishing reductant input from Earth’s interior. Here I provide an alternative to previous suggestions that the second step was the result of the establishment of the first terrestrial fungal–lichen ecosystems. The consumption of oxygen by aerobes respiring this new source of organic matter in soils would have necessitated an increase in the atmospheric oxygen content to compensate for the reduced delivery of oxygen to the weathering environment below the organic-rich upper soil layer. Support for this hypothesis comes from the observed spread toward more negative carbon isotope compositions in Neoproterozoic (1.0–0.542 Ga) and younger limestones altered under the influence of ground waters, and the positive correlation between the carbon isotope composition and oxygen content of modern ground waters in contact with limestones. Thus, the greening of the planet’s land surfaces forced the atmospheric oxygen level to a new, higher equilibrium state. PMID:25225378

  15. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier (United States)

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.


    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  16. The geomorphic structure of the runoff peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rigon


    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework to investigate the core dependence of peak flows on the geomorphic properties of river basins. Based on the theory of transport by travel times, and simple hydrodynamic characterization of floods, this new framework invokes the linearity and invariance of the hydrologic response to provide analytical and semi-analytical expressions for peak flow, time to peak, and area contributing to the peak runoff. These results are obtained for the case of constant-intensity hyetograph using the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves to estimate extreme flow values as a function of the rainfall return period. Results show that, with constant-intensity hyetographs, the time-to-peak is greater than rainfall duration and usually shorter than the basin concentration time. Moreover, the critical storm duration is shown to be independent of rainfall return period as well as the area contributing to the flow peak. The same results are found when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are accounted for. Further, it is shown that, when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are negligible, the basin area contributing to the peak discharge does not depend on the channel velocity, but is a geomorphic propriety of the basin. As an example this framework is applied to three watersheds. In particular, the runoff peak, the critical rainfall durations and the time to peak are calculated for all links within a network to assess how they increase with basin area.

  17. Zircon and cassiterite U-Pb ages, petrogeochemistry and metallogenesis of Sn deposits in the Sibao area, northern Guangxi: constraints on the neoproterozoic granitic magmatism and related Sn mineralization in the western Jiangnan Orogen, South China (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Zongqi; Yan, Zhen; Gong, Jianghua; Ma, Shouxian


    A number of Sn deposits associated with Neoproterozoic granites are located in the western Jiangnan Orogen of northern Guangxi. The distribution of Sn mineralization is controlled by faults occurring within and around the Neoproterozoic granites. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralization of these Sn deposits exhibit zoning from the granite to the wall rock. The laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages of the cassiterite and zircon from ore-bearing granite in the Menggongshan Sn deposit are 829 ± 19 Ma and 822 ± 4 Ma, respectively, indicating that the Sn mineralization and granites formed in the Neoproterozoic and can considered to be products of coeval magmatic and hydrothermal activities. The ore-bearing granite and Neoproterozoic granites in northern Guangxi are high-K, calc-alkaline, peraluminous, S-type granites that are depleted in Nb, Ti, Sr and Ba and highly enriched in Rb, U and Pb. All the granites show steep fractionated light rare earth element (LREE) and flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns, with strongly negative Eu anomalies. The ɛHf(t) values of the ore-bearing granite vary from - 9.0 to - 1.7, with an average value of - 4.1. Additionally, the ore-bearing granite exhibits low oxygen fugacity values. The magmatic source experienced partial melting during their evolution, and the source was dominated by recycled heterogeneous continental crustal materials. Our evidence confirms that the Neoproterozoic granites in northern Guangxi formed in a collisional tectonic setting. The collision between the Cathaysia and Yangtze blocks or between the Sibao arc (Jiangnan arc) and the Yangtze Block caused asthenospheric upwelling, leading to partial melting and recycling of the crust, forming the peraluminous S-type granites in the Neoproterozoic. The Sn mineralization has a close genetic relationship with the Neoproterozoic granite. The highly differentiated, peraluminous, B-enriched, crustally derived

  18. Wilson-cycle "kick-off": Constraining the influence of a Large Igneous Province during the Neoproterozoic evolution of the pre-Caledonian margin of Baltica (United States)

    Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Andersen, Torgeir B.; Tegner, Christian; Corfu, Fernando; Planke, Sverre


    The supercontinent Rodinia broke up in the late Neoproterozoic to form the oceans and margins separating paleocontinents such as Baltica, Avalonia and Laurentia, which in turn later collided to form the Caledonian - Appalachian mountain belts. Some of the geological products of the complex evolution from passive-margin- to break-up are presently found in nappe complexes within the Scandinavian Caledonides. As described by P-G. Andreasson and co-workers in several papers from the 1990's, the break-up was associated with emplacement of major dolerite dike-complexes of Ediacaran age (c. 600 Ma), probably constituting a pre-Caledonian Large Igneous Province (pCLIP). The dominantly dolerite-dike swarms intruded a thinned continental crust comprising both crystalline basement and marine sediments deposited in pre- to early syn-rift basins. During peak rifting a sheeted dike complex defining the ocean-continent transition (OCT) evolved. More than 100 Myr later, during early stages of plate convergence, distal parts of the margin and the OCT experienced high to ultra-high pressure metamorphism, before the remnants of the dike swarms and the OCT were finally thrusted onto Baltica as the Seve and Särv Nappe Complexes. This occurred during the Scandian phase of the Caledonian orogeny at c. 425 Ma. Parts of the ancient magma-rich rifted margin are now exposed in the Scandinavian Caledonides. The best-preserved parts provide a remarkable analogue to present day OCTs and adjacent areas that generally only is observable in seismic sections. In order to understand the dynamics of the continental break-up, we will investigate the exposed areas to better constrain the active mechanisms that eventually produced oceanic crust. Also, with an improved understanding of magma-rich segments, a better comprehension may be achieved for magma-poor segments, which in the present study area occur both to the south and north of the pCLIP-segment in central Scandinavia. This presentation reports

  19. Peak Shaving Considering Streamflow Uncertainties | Iwuagwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main thrust of this paper is peak shaving with a Stochastic hydro model. In peak sharing, the amount of hydro energy scheduled may be a minimum but it serves to replace less efficient thermal units. The sample system is die Kainji hydro plant and the thermal units of the National Electric Power Authority. The random ...

  20. The importance of XRD analysis in provenance and palaeoenvironmental studies of the Piedras de Afilar Formation, Neoproterozoic of Uruguay (United States)

    Pamoukaghlian, K.; Poiré, D. G.; Gaucher, C.; Uriz, N.; Cingolani, C.; Frigeiro, P.


    The Piedras de Afilar Formation crops out in the southeast part of Uruguay, forming part of the Tandilia Terrane (sensu Bossi et al. 2005). Pamoukaghlian et al. (2006) and Gaucher et al. (2008) have published δ13C, δ18O and U/Pb SHRIMP results, which indicate a Neoproterozoic age for this formation. The palaeoenvironment has been defined as a shallow marine platform based on the presence of interference ripples, hummocky and mega-hummocky cross-stratification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses help to better constrain the palaeoenvironment: the presence of chlorite/smectite found in black shales, suggest a reducing environment, and abundant illite indicates a cold to temperate climate. Provenance studies have been undertaken that utilise a combination of detailed palaeocurrent measurements, petrographic descriptions, XRD analyses, and geochemical isotopic analyses, including U/Pb SHRIMP determinations. Mineral compositional diagrams for sandstones suggest a stable cratonic provenance. Palaeocurrents are mainly from the NNE, indicating a provenance from the cratonic areas of the Tandilia Terrane. The illite crystal index indicates diagenetic to low-metamorphic conditions for the sequence; this is important to confirm that the identified minerals are authigenic. Clay minerals identified by XRD analysis of sandstones from the siliciclastic member are illite (80 - 90%), kaolinite (5 - 10%), and chlorite (5 - 10%). This is consistent with a provenance from the cratonic areas (quartz-feldspar dominated rock types). Isotopic analyses have been undertaken to provide better constraints on the tectonic setting. U/Pb SHRIMP ages for the youngest zircons are 990 Ma (Gaucher et al. 2008), and the basal granite (Granito de la Paz) is 2056 ± 11 Ma (Hartmann et al. 2001), suggesting a provenance from the Archaean basement for the Piedras de Afilar Formation, like its counterparts in the Rio de la Plata Craton. References Bossi, J., Piñeyro, D., Cingolani, C. (2005). El l

  1. Genesis and petrology of Late Neoproterozoic pegmatites and aplites associated with the Taba metamorphic complex in southern Sinai, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelfadil, K.M.; Asimow, P.D.; Azer, M.K.; Gahlan, H.A.


    We present new field, petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data from late Neoproterozoic pegmatites and aplites in southern Sinai, Egypt, at the northernmost limit of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The pegmatites cross-cut host rocks in the Taba Metamorphic Complex (TMC) with sharp contacts and are divided into massive and zoned pegmatites. Massive pegmatites are the most common and form veins, dykes and masses of variable dimensions; strikes range mainly from E-W through NW-SE to N-S. Mineralogically, the massive pegmatites are divided into K-feldspar-rich and albite-rich groups. Zoned pegmatites occur as lenses of variable dimensions, featuring a quartz core, an intermediate zone rich in K-feldspars and an outer finer-grained zone rich in albite. All compositions are highly evolved and display geochemical characteristics of post-collisional A-type granites: high SiO2, Na2O+K2O, FeO*/MgO, Ga/Al, Zr, Nb, Ga and Y alongside low CaO, MgO, Ba and Sr. They are rich in Rare Earth Elements (REE) and have extreme negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*= 0.03–0.09). A genetic linkage between the pegmatites, aplites and alkali granite is confirmed by their common mild alkaline affinity and many other geochemical characteristics. These pegmatites and aplites represent the last small fraction of liquid remaining after extensive crystallization of granitic magma, injected along the foliation and into fractures of the host metamorphic rocks. The extensional tectonic regime and shallow depth of emplacement are consistent with a post-collisional environment. (Author)

  2. Paleogeographic Evolution of the Late Neoproterozoic and Early Phanerozoic with New Paleomagnetic Constraints from West African Craton (United States)

    Robert, B.; Besse, J.; Blein, O.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Baudin, T.; Fernando, L.; Meslouh, S.; Belbadaoui, M.


    The paleogeographic evolution of the late Neoproterozoic and early Phanerozoic is dominated by the dispersion of Rodinia and the assembly of Gondwana. The timing of these two episodes is still highly debated, partly due to the low number of good quality paleomagnetic data. In order to better constrain the paleogeography for this epoch, we bring new paleomagnetic data on volcanic series from the West African Craton (WAC), which is a key block to understand the evolution of these two supercontinents. We have sampled well dated pyroclastic and lava flows from the groups of Ouarzazate (upper Ediacaran) and Taroudant (lower Cambrian) in the Anti-Atlas (Morocco). 500 samples from 105 sites were thermally demagnetized in laboratory. Our results highlight two major groups of directions, mainly carried by minerals of the titano-hematite family. Magnetite may also contribute sometimes to the magnetization. The first group displays a single polarity direction, with a shallow inclination and a south-east declination. This direction close to the expected direction derived from the Permo-Carboniferous segment of the Gondwana apparent polar wander path (APWP) is due to a remagnetization acquired during the Kiaman reversed polarity superchron (320-262Ma). The second group, observed in the Ouarzazate and Taroudant groups, consists of a dual polarity high inclination direction and may represent the characteristic magnetization. On the basis of geologic and paleomagnetic data from literature, we constructed an APWP for both WAC and Amazonia between 615 and 530Ma, assuming these two blocks were already accreted. We found a paleomagnetic solution in which Laurentia and WAC-Amazonia remained attached from ~615Ma up to the late Ediacaran, Laurentia remaining at low latitude during this period. Around ~550Ma, WAC-Amazonia separated from Laurentia and finally collided with the other Gondwanan blocks during the lower Cambrian, marking the final accretion of Gondwana.

  3. Giant submarine landslide grooves in the Neoproterozoic/Lower Cambrian Phe Formation, northwest Himalaya: Mechanisms of formation and palaeogeographic implications (United States)

    Draganits, E.; Schlaf, J.; Grasemann, B.; Argles, T.


    candidate for this northern source is the South China Block and an associated Neoproterozoic volcanic arc.

  4. Slab break-off triggered lithosphere - asthenosphere interaction at a convergent margin: The Neoproterozoic bimodal magmatism in NW India (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Pandit, Manoj K.; Zhao, Jun-Hong; Chen, Wei-Terry; Zheng, Jian-Ping


    The Neoproterozoic Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) is described as the largest felsic igneous province in India. The linearly distributed Sindreth and Punagarh basins located along eastern margin of this province represent the only site of bimodal volcanism and associated clastic sediments within the MIS. The in-situ zircon U-Pb dating by LA-ICPMS reveals that the Sindreth rhyolites were erupted at 769-762 Ma. Basaltic rocks from both the basins show distinct geochemical signatures that suggest an E-MORB source for Punagarh basalts (low Ti/V ratios of 40.9-28.2) and an OIB source (high Ti/V ratios of 285-47.6) for Sindreth basalts. In the absence of any evidence of notable crustal contamination, these features indicate heterogeneous mantle sources for them. The low (La/Yb)CN (9.34-2.10) and Sm/Yb (2.88-1.08) ratios of Punagarh basalts suggest a spinel facies, relatively shallow level mantle source as compared to a deeper source for Sindreth basalts, as suggested by high (La/Yb)CN (7.24-5.24) and Sm/Yb (2.79-2.13) ratios. Decompression melting of an upwelling sub-slab asthenosphere through slab window seems to be the most plausible mechanism to explain the geochemical characteristics. Besides, the associated felsic volcanics show A2-type granite signatures, such as high Y/Nb (5.97-1.55) and Yb/Ta (9.36-2.57) ratios, consistent with magma derived from continental crust that has been through a cycle of continent-continent collision or an island-arc setting. A localized extension within an overall convergent scenario is interpreted for Sindreth and Punagarh volcanics. This general convergent setting is consistent with the previously proposed Andean-type continental margin for NW Indian block, the Seychelles and Madagascar, all of which lay either at the periphery of Rodinia supercontinent or slightly off the Supercontinent.

  5. Thrusting and multiple folding in the Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement of Wadi Hodein area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Abdeen, M. M.; Sadek, M. F.; Greiling, R. O.


    Detailed field mapping and structural studies of the area around the mouth of Wadi Hodein, some 20 km west of Shalatein at the Red Sea coast in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt, revealed four phases of structural deformation (D1-D4) affecting the Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement rocks. D1 is related to arc-arc collision and is represented by ENE-WSW oriented megascopic upright open folds associated with low angle thrusts and mesoscopic tight, overturned and recumbent F1 folds. Kinematic indicators indicate thrusting towards the SSE. D2 is represented by NNW-SSE oriented megascopic and mesoscopic folds, which are tight, verge towards the WSW and display a left-stepping en echelon pattern. D3 includes major NNW-SSE trending sinistral shear zones that show subordinate reverse fault components and dip steeply towards the ENE. These sinistral shear zones are comparable with the Najd Fault System, as they display a similar sense of movement and relationships to earlier structures. Therefore, they are interpreted to be the continuation of the Najd Shear System in southern Egypt. D2 and D3 are related to accretion of east and west Gondwana. D4 is represented by E-W oriented dextral faults with left-stepping segments. The first three deformation events are in agreement with the general evolutionary model for the East African Orogen in the Arabian-Nubian Shield that begins with NNW-SSE shortening, followed by ENE-WSW compression and subsequent deformation by the NNW-SSE striking Najd Fault System. The E-W dextral faults may be the conjugate shear fractures to the D3 NNW-SSE oriented sinistral wrench faults or are related to a subsequent event, D4. NW-SE oriented gold-bearing quartz veins originated during D1 and were subsequently deformed by D2-D4 events.

  6. Automated Peak Picking and Peak Integration in Macromolecular NMR Spectra Using AUTOPSY (United States)

    Koradi, Reto; Billeter, Martin; Engeli, Max; Güntert, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt


    A new approach for automated peak picking of multidimensional protein NMR spectra with strong overlap is introduced, which makes use of the program AUTOPSY (automatedpeak picking for NMRspectroscopy). The main elements of this program are a novel function for local noise level calculation, the use of symmetry considerations, and the use of lineshapes extracted from well-separated peaks for resolving groups of strongly overlapping peaks. The algorithm generates peak lists with precise chemical shift and integral intensities, and a reliability measure for the recognition of each peak. The results of automated peak picking of NOESY spectra with AUTOPSY were tested in combination with the combined automated NOESY cross peak assignment and structure calculation routine NOAH implemented in the program DYANA. The quality of the resulting structures was found to be comparable with those from corresponding data obtained with manual peak picking.

  7. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yichen


    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  8. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-Peak Ground Acceleration is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard Program...

  9. Helping System Engineers Bridge the Peaks (United States)

    Rungta, Neha; Tkachuk, Oksana; Person, Suzette; Biatek, Jason; Whalen, Michael W.; Castle, Joseph; Castle, JosephGundy-Burlet, Karen


    In our experience at NASA, system engineers generally follow the Twin Peaks approach when developing safety-critical systems. However, iterations between the peaks require considerable manual, and in some cases duplicate, effort. A significant part of the manual effort stems from the fact that requirements are written in English natural language rather than a formal notation. In this work, we propose an approach that enables system engineers to leverage formal requirements and automated test generation to streamline iterations, effectively "bridging the peaks". The key to the approach is a formal language notation that a) system engineers are comfortable with, b) is supported by a family of automated V&V tools, and c) is semantically rich enough to describe the requirements of interest. We believe the combination of formalizing requirements and providing tool support to automate the iterations will lead to a more efficient Twin Peaks implementation at NASA.

  10. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Cheng


    Full Text Available Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  11. How to use your peak flow meter (United States)

    ... attack . This can tell you how bad your asthma attack is and if your medicine is working. Any ... Make peak flow a habit! Signs of an asthma attack Stay away from asthma triggers Review Date 2/ ...

  12. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-peak ground acceleration is a 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard Program...

  13. Peak-Seeking Control for Trim Optimization (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovators have developed a peak-seeking algorithm that can reduce drag and improve performance and fuel efficiency by optimizing aircraft trim in real time. The...

  14. Improved peak shape fitting in alpha spectra




    Peak overlap is a recurrent issue ina lpha-particle spectrometry, not only in routine analyses but also in the high-resolution spectra from which reference values for alpha emission probabilities are derived. In this work, improved peak shape formulae are presented for the deconvolution of alpha-particle spectra. They have been implemented as fit functions in a spreadsheet application and optimum fit parameters were searched with built-in optimisation routines. Deconvolution results are shown...

  15. Instream flow needs below peaking hydroelectric projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhous, R.T.


    This paper reports on a method developed to assist in the determination of instream flow needs below hydroelectric projects operated in a peaking mode. Peaking hydroelectric projects significantly change streamflow over a short period of time; consequently, any instream flow methodology must consider the dual flows associated with peaking projects. The dual flows are the lowest flow and the maximum generation flow of a peaking cycle. The methodology is based on elements of the Physical Habitat Simulation System of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and uses habitat, rather than fish numbers or biomas, as at basic response variable. All aquatic animals are subject to the rapid changes in streamflow which cause rapid swings in habitat quality. Some aquatic organisms are relatively fixed in location in the stream while others can move when flows change. The habitat available from a project operated in peaking mode is considered to be the minimum habitat occurring during a cycle of habitat change. The methodology takes in to consideration that some aquatic animals can move and others cannot move during a peaking cycle

  16. Predicting Peak Flows following Forest Fires (United States)

    Elliot, William J.; Miller, Mary Ellen; Dobre, Mariana


    Following forest fires, peak flows in perennial and ephemeral streams often increase by a factor of 10 or more. This increase in peak flow rate may overwhelm existing downstream structures, such as road culverts, causing serious damage to road fills at stream crossings. In order to predict peak flow rates following wildfires, we have applied two different tools. One is based on the U.S.D.A Natural Resource Conservation Service Curve Number Method (CN), and the other is by applying the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) to the watershed. In our presentation, we will describe the science behind the two methods, and present the main variables for each model. We will then provide an example of a comparison of the two methods to a fire-prone watershed upstream of the City of Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, where a fire spread model was applied for current fuel loads, and for likely fuel loads following a fuel reduction treatment. When applying the curve number method, determining the time to peak flow can be problematic for low severity fires because the runoff flow paths are both surface and through shallow lateral flow. The WEPP watershed version incorporates shallow lateral flow into stream channels. However, the version of the WEPP model that was used for this study did not have channel routing capabilities, but rather relied on regression relationships to estimate peak flows from individual hillslope polygon peak runoff rates. We found that the two methods gave similar results if applied correctly, with the WEPP predictions somewhat greater than the CN predictions. Later releases of the WEPP model have incorporated alternative methods for routing peak flows that need to be evaluated.

  17. Ti-Zr placer mineralization in Neoproterozoic (Uppe r Riphean rocks of Kildin Formation and in contemporary beach sands of Sredny and Rybachy Peninsulas, Kola Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chickiryov I. V.


    Full Text Available Concentration mechanisms of titanium-zirconium placer mineralizat ion in Neoproterozoic terrigenous rocks of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation, Kildin Group, and in contempo rary beach deposits from Sredny Peninsula and Motka Cape from Rybachy Peninsula (Kola region have been considered i n the paper. It has been shown that the rocks of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation are facially variable. The shallow littoral facies are confined to the western and central parts of Sredny Peninsula, the deeper sublitt oral facies are confined to the eastern part of Sredny Peninsula and to Motka Cape of Rybachy Peninsula. It has b een established that lenses and beds with titanium-zirconium placer mineralization occur solely in littoral facies. The ore minerals in aleurite-psamite of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation are represented by leucoxene, rutile and zircon, and in contemporary beach deposits – by ilmenite, rutile and minor zircon. Paleogeograp hic reconstruction indicates that almost all deposits of Neoproterozoic (Upper Riphean Kildin Group were accumulated in shallow (littoral and sublittoral environment during dominant humid climate and intense weat hering of source area. Thus, not only deposits of Zemlepakhtinskaya Formation, but also the whole succession of Kildin Group can be regarded perspective for placers' accumulation. The low grade of heavy minerals (mainly Ti an d Zr minerals in contemporary beach deposits from Sredny Peninsula and Motka Cape from Rybachy Peninsu la is related to weak weathering of the Baltic Shield during Quaternary and to accumulation of coarse debris in littoral zone, preventing the differentiation of sand by wave action.

  18. Genesis of Neoproterozoic granitoid magmatism in the Eastern Aracuai Fold Belt, eastern Brazil: field, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celino, Joil Jose; Botelho, Nilson Francisquini; Pimentel, Marcio Martins


    The Neoproterozoic granitoid magmatism of the Aracuai Fold Belt (AFB) is an important element for the discussion of the evolution of this belt and its relationships with the African counterpart, the West Congo Belt. In the eastern part of the AFB, four different granitoid suites were recognized. The Nanuque Suite (NQS) comprises syn-tectonic peraluminous cordierite-bearing monzogranites. The Sao Paulinho Suite (SPS) consists of Th-rich peraluminous two mica or biotite-only granitoids. Calc-alkalic granitoids with magmatic epidote were grouped into the Itagimirim Suite (ITS) and post-tectonic charnockitic rocks were grouped into the Salomao Suite (SLS). Sm-Nd mineral isochron and Rb- isochron yielded ages of yielded ages of respectively 761 Ma and 714 Ma for the Nanuque and Sao Paulino suites. The general Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics of the granitoid suites and some country rocks indicate that the parental magmas were mostly the product of melting of the Paraiba do Sul metasediments. The chronological and genetic evolution the Neoproterozoic plutonism can be envisaged in a model of est-dipping subduction zone, followed by a continental collision between the Brasiliano/Pan-African (Brazil) and Congo (Africa cratons and final episodes of uplift and collapse. (author)

  19. A normalised seawater strontium isotope curve. Possible implications for Neoproterozoic-Cambrian weathering rates and the further oxygenation of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.


    The strontium isotope composition of seawater is strongly influenced on geological time scales by changes in the rates of continental weathering relative to ocean crust alteration. However, the potential of the seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve to trace globally integrated chemical weathering rates has not been fully realised because ocean 87 Sr/ 86 Sr is also influenced by the isotopic evolution of Sr sources to the ocean. A preliminary attempt is made here to normalise the seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve to plausible trends in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of the three major Sr sources: carbonate dissolution, silicate weathering and submarine hydrothermal exchange. The normalised curve highlights the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic transition as a period of exceptionally high continental influence, indicating that this interval was characterised by a transient increase in global weathering rates and/or by the weathering of unusually radiogenic crustal rocks. Close correlation between the normalised 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve, a published seawater δ 34 S curve and atmospheric pCO 2 models is used here to argue that elevated chemical weathering rates were a major contributing factor to the steep rise in seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr from 650 Ma to 500 Ma. Elevated weathering rates during the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian interval led to increased nutrient availability, organic burial and to the further oxygenation of Earth's surface environment. Use of normalised seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curves will, it is hoped, help to improve future geochemical models of Earth System dynamics. (orig.)

  20. Intraplate earthquake swarm in Belo Jardim, NE Brazil: reactivation of a major Neoproterozoic shear zone (Pernambuco Lineament) (United States)

    Lopes, Afonso E. V.; Assumpção, Marcelo; do Nascimento, Aderson F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Mendes; Menezes, Eduardo A. S.; Barbosa, José Roberto


    Intraplate earthquakes in stable continental areas have been explained basically by reactivation of pre-existing zones of weakness, stress concentration, or both. Zones of weakness are usually identified as sites of the last major orogeny, provinces of recent alkaline intrusions, or stretched crust in ancient rifts. However, it is difficult to identify specific zones of weakness and intraplate fault zones are not always easily correlated with known geological features. Although Northeastern Brazil is one of the most seismically active areas in the country (magnitudes 5 roughly every 5 yr), with hypocentral depths shallower than ~10 km and seismic zones as long as 30-40 km, no clear relationship with the known surface geology can be usually established with confidence, and a clear identification of zones of weakness has not yet been possible. Here we present the first clear case of seismic activity occurring as reactivation of an old structure in Brazil: the Pernambuco Lineament, a major Neoproterozoic shear zone. The 2004 earthquake swarm of Belo Jardim (magnitudes up to 3.1) and the recurrent activities in the nearby towns of São Caetano and Caruaru (magnitudes up to 4.0 and 3.8), show that the Pernambuco Lineament is a weak zone. A local seismic network showed that the Belo Jardim swarm of 2004 November occurred by normal faulting on a North dipping, E-W oriented fault plane in close agreement with the E-W trending structures within the Pernambuco Lineament. The Belo Jardim activity was concentrated in a 1.5 km (E-W) by 2 km (downdip) fault area, and average depth of 4.5 km. The nearby Caruaru activity occurs as both strike-slip and normal faulting, also consistent with local structures of the Pernambuco Lineament. The focal mechanisms of Belo Jardim, Caruaru and S. Caetano, indicate E-W compressional and N-S extensional principal stresses. The NS extension of this stress field is larger than that predicted by numerical models such as those of Coblentz

  1. Syn- and Post-Accretionary Structures in the Neoproterozoic Central Allaqi-Heiani Suture Zone, Southeastern Egypt (United States)

    Abdeen, M. M.; Abdelghaffar, A. A.


    The Allaqi-Heiani suture (AHS) is the western part of the main Allaqi-Heiani-Gerf-Onib-Sol Hamed-Yanbu suture and represents one of the Neoproterozoic, arc-arc sutures in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). It separates the ca. 750 Ma South Eastern Desert terrane in the north from the ca. 830-720 Ma Gabgaba terrane in the south. The AHS is a deformed belt of ophiolitic rocks, syn-tectonic granitoids and metasediments. The central AHS zone is divided into three structural domains. The western domain (Ι) is characterized by NNE low thrusts and SSW-vergent folds. The central domain (ΙΙ) includes upright tight to isoclinal NNW-SSE oriented folds and transpressional faults. The eastern domain (ΙΙΙ) shows NNW-SSE oriented open folds. Structural analysis indicates that the area has a poly-phase deformation history involving at least two events. Event D1 was an N-S to NNE-SSW regional shortening generating the SSW-verging folds and the NNE dipping thrusts. Event D2 was an ENE-WSW shortening producing NNW-SSE oriented folds in the central and eastern parts of the study area and reactivating older thrusts with oblique-slip reverse fault movement. The tectonic evolution of the area involves two episodes of collision: an early collision between the South Eastern Desert terrane and the Gabgaba terrane along the AHS after the consumption of a basin floored by oceanic crust above a north-dipping subduction zone; and a later collision between East- and West-Gondwanas at ca. 750-650 Ma, leading to the closure of the Mozambique Ocean. This collision deformed the AHS along N-S trending shortening zones and produced NW-SE and NE-SW oriented sinistral and dextral transpressional faults, respectively. The early collision episode is related to the terrane accretion during the early Pan-African orogen, while the later phase is related to a late Pan-African or Najd orogen.

  2. Analysis of fuel end-temperature peaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Jiang, Q.; Lai, L.; Shams, M. [CANDU Energy Inc., Fuel Engineering Dept., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)


    During normal operation and refuelling of CANDU® fuel, fuel temperatures near bundle ends will increase due to a phenomenon called end flux peaking. Similar phenomenon would also be expected to occur during a postulated large break LOCA event. The end flux peaking in a CANDU fuel element is due to the fact that neutron flux is higher near a bundle end, in contact with a neighbouring bundle or close to heavy water coolant, than in the bundle mid-plane, because of less absorption of thermal neutrons by Zircaloy or heavy water than by the UO{sub 2} material. This paper describes Candu Energy experience in analysing behaviour of bundle due to end flux peaking using fuel codes FEAT, ELESTRES and ELOCA. (author)

  3. Transition from island-arc to passive setting on the continental margin of Gondwana: U-Pb zircon dating of Neoproterozoic metaconglomerates from the SE margin of the Teplá-Barrandian Unit, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Jiří; Dunkley, D. J.; Kachlík, V.; Kusiak, M. A.


    Roč. 461, 1-4 (2008), s. 44-59 ISSN 0040-1951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Teplá–Barrandian Unit * Neoproterozoic * Armorican Terrane Assemblage * Gondwana * zircon dating Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2008

  4. Norfolk Schools Talked to Astronaut Tim Peake (United States)

    Grant, Stephanie


    Tim Peake's mission to the International Space Station captured the imagination of the UK and this article describes a live radio link with him, to help him to reach out to pupils across the country and inspire them in STEM subjects. It describes the project, from bidding for the opportunity to host it, to the planning and realisation of the…

  5. Generalized Eck peak in inhomogeneous Josephson junctions (United States)

    Fistul, Mikhail V.; Giuliani, Gabriele F.


    In inhomogeneous Josephson junctions the Eck peak characterizing the current-voltage characteristics is predicted to be replaced by a rather different yet prominent feature whose location and shape strongly depend on the strength of the applied magnetic field and the spatial correlations of the associated distorted Abrikosov flux lattice.

  6. Prediction of peak overlap in NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefke, Frederik; Schmucki, Roland; Güntert, Peter


    Peak overlap is one of the major factors complicating the analysis of biomolecular NMR spectra. We present a general method for predicting the extent of peak overlap in multidimensional NMR spectra and its validation using both, experimental data sets and Monte Carlo simulation. The method is based on knowledge of the magnetization transfer pathways of the NMR experiments and chemical shift statistics from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Assuming a normal distribution with characteristic mean value and standard deviation for the chemical shift of each observable atom, an analytic expression was derived for the expected overlap probability of the cross peaks. The analytical approach was verified to agree with the average peak overlap in a large number of individual peak lists simulated using the same chemical shift statistics. The method was applied to eight proteins, including an intrinsically disordered one, for which the prediction results could be compared with the actual overlap based on the experimentally measured chemical shifts. The extent of overlap predicted using only statistical chemical shift information was in good agreement with the overlap that was observed when the measured shifts were used in the virtual spectrum, except for the intrinsically disordered protein. Since the spectral complexity of a protein NMR spectrum is a crucial factor for protein structure determination, analytical overlap prediction can be used to identify potentially difficult proteins before conducting NMR experiments. Overlap predictions can be tailored to particular classes of proteins by preparing statistics from corresponding protein databases. The method is also suitable for optimizing recording parameters and labeling schemes for NMR experiments and improving the reliability of automated spectra analysis and protein structure determination.

  7. The strata and palaeo-geomorphology framework at the end of neoproterozoic and development mode of source rocks at the beginning of Cambrian in Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang


    Full Text Available Referred to the new recognition from petroleum exploration of the Sinian to Cambrian in South China, it could be considered that the distribution of the early Cambrian source rocks was controlled by the palaeo-geomorphology at the end of Neoproterozoic in the Tarim Basin. Based on the zircon U-Pb dating of pyroclastic rock samples from the clastic rock stratum under the bottom of Cambrian carbonate rocks, the stratigraphic correlation of the Sinian to Cambrian was conducted to build the palaeo-geomorphology framework at the end of Neoproterozoic in Tarim Basin. Lastly, according to the development mode of source rocks at the beginning of Cambrian, the distribution of source rocks was predicted initially through the division of seismic facies. The youngest zircon concordia age of pyroclastic rocks from the bottom of well Tong 1 is 707±8Ma. It was revealed by the strata framework of the Sinian to Cambrian, the palaeo-geomorphology at the end of Neoproterozoic in Tarim Basin was characterized by an uplift highland in Bachu-Tazhong area, the south north high-low, and the west is higher than the east. The distribution of source rocks in the bottom of the Cambrian on the palaeo-platform and slopes was coincident with the Upper Sinian dolomite basically. But the contemporaneous sediment happened to be absent or changed in sedimentary facies on the uplift and its edges. From the seismic facies of the strata under the bottom of Cambrian, it could be concluded that source rocks in the type of the Xishanbraque Group (∈1xs was limited in the Manjiaer Depression, while the source rocks in the type of the Yuertusi Group (∈1y are widely distributed in south of Tabei Uplift, east Awat Depression, and even the Maigt Slope. However, among the west Awat Depression and western Tanguzibasi Depression, and the middle area of the Bachu-Tazhong Uplifts, the contemporaneous source rocks may have changed into sedimentary facies of tidal flat and lagoon, instead of

  8. Provenance and tectonic setting of siliciclastic rocks associated with the Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF: Implications for the Precambrian crustal evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Wang, He; Wang, Min


    The Late Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF is associated with siliciclastic rocks in the Tianshuihai terrane of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt (WKO), NW China. The sedimentary rocks have various weathering indices (e.g., CIA = 57-87, PIA = 61-96 and Th/U = 4.85-12.45), indicative of varying degrees of weathering in the source area. The rocks have trace element ratios, such as Th/Sc = 0.60-1.21 and Co/Th = 0.29-1.67, and light rare earth element (LREE) enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns, suggesting that they were mainly sourced from intermediate and felsic rocks. Available U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from these rocks reveal that the detrital sources may have been igneous and metamorphic rocks from the WKO and the Tarim Block. Our study suggests that the Dahongliutan BIF and hosting siliciclastic rocks may have deposited in a setting transitional from a passive to active continental margin, probably related to the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian seafloor spreading and subduction of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. U-Pb dating of 163 detrital zircons defines five major age populations at 2561-2329 Ma, 2076-1644 Ma, 1164-899 Ma, 869-722 Ma and 696-593 Ma. These age groups broadly correspond to the major stages of supercontinent assembly and breakup events widely accepted for Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Some zircons have TDM2 model ages of 3.9-1.8 Ga and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting that the Archean to Paleoproterozoic (as old as Eoarchean) crustal materials were episodically reworked and incorporated into the late magmatic process in the WKO. Some Neoproterozoic zircons have TDM2 model ages of 1.47-1.07 Ga and 1.81-1.53 Ga and positive εHf(t) values, indicating juvenile crustal growth during the Mesoproterozoic. Our new results, combined with published data, imply that both the Tianshuihai terrane in the WKO and the Tarim Block share the same Precambrian tectonic evolution history.

  9. Neoproterozoic diamictite-bearing sedimentary rocks in the northern Yili Block and their constraints on the Precambrian evolution of microcontinents in the Western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    He, Jingwen; Zhu, Wenbin; Zheng, Bihai; Wu, Hailin; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Yuanzhi


    The origin and tectonic setting of Precambrian sequences in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) have been debated due to a lack of high resolution geochronological data. Answering this question is essential for the understanding of the tectonic framework and Precambrian evolution of the blocks within the CAOB. Here we reported LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon U-Pb ages and in-situ Hf isotopic data for Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover in the northern Yili Block, an important component of the CAOB, in order to provide information on possible provenance and regional tectonic evolution. A total of 271 concordant U-Pb zircon ages from Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover in the northern Yili Block define three major age populations of 1900-1400 Ma, 1300-1150 Ma and 700-580 Ma, which are quite different from cratons and microcontinents involved in the CAOB. Although it is not completely consistent with the local basement ages, an autochthonous provenance interpretation is more suitable. Some zircon grains show significant old Hf model ages (TDMC; 3.9-2.4 Ga) and reveal continental crust as old as Paleoarchean probably existed. Continuous Mesoproterozoic zircon age populations exhibit large variations in the εHf(t) ratios, suggesting the long-time involvement of both reworked ancient crust and juvenile material. Similar Mesoproterozoic evolution pattern is identified in many continental terranes involved in the CAOB that surround the Tarim Craton. Based on our analysis and published research, we postulate that the northern Yili Block, together with Chinese Central Tianshan, Kyrgyz North Tianshan and some other microcontinents surrounding the Tarim Craton, once constituted the continental margin of the Tarim Craton in the Mesoproterozoic, formed by long-lived accretionary processes. Most of the late Neoproterozoic zircons exhibit significant positive εHf(t) ratios, suggesting the addition of juvenile crust. It is consistent with the tectonic event related to the East Africa

  10. Effect of gear ratio on peak power and time to peak power in BMX cyclists. (United States)

    Rylands, Lee P; Roberts, Simon J; Hurst, Howard T


    The aim of this study was to ascertain if gear ratio selection would have an effect on peak power and time to peak power production in elite Bicycle Motocross (BMX) cyclists. Eight male elite BMX riders volunteered for the study. Each rider performed three, 10-s maximal sprints on an Olympic standard indoor BMX track. The riders' bicycles were fitted with a portable SRM power meter. Each rider performed the three sprints using gear ratios of 41/16, 43/16 and 45/16 tooth. The results from the 41/16 and 45/16 gear ratios were compared to the current standard 43/16 gear ratio. Statistically, significant differences were found between the gear ratios for peak power (F(2,14) = 6.448; p = .010) and peak torque (F(2,14) = 4.777; p = .026), but no significant difference was found for time to peak power (F(2,14) = 0.200; p = .821). When comparing gear ratios, the results showed a 45/16 gear ratio elicited the highest peak power,1658 ± 221 W, compared to 1436 ± 129 W and 1380 ± 56 W, for the 43/16 and 41/16 ratios, respectively. The time to peak power showed a 41/16 tooth gear ratio attained peak power in -0.01 s and a 45/16 in 0.22 s compared to the 43/16. The findings of this study suggest that gear ratio choice has a significant effect on peak power production, though time to peak power output is not significantly affected. Therefore, selecting a higher gear ratio results in riders attaining higher power outputs without reducing their start time.

  11. Improved peak shape fitting in alpha spectra. (United States)

    Pommé, S; Caro Marroyo, B


    Peak overlap is a recurrent issue in alpha-particle spectrometry, not only in routine analyses but also in the high-resolution spectra from which reference values for alpha emission probabilities are derived. In this work, improved peak shape formulae are presented for the deconvolution of alpha-particle spectra. They have been implemented as fit functions in a spreadsheet application and optimum fit parameters were searched with built-in optimisation routines. Deconvolution results are shown for a few challenging spectra with high statistical precision. The algorithm outperforms the best available routines for high-resolution spectrometry, which may facilitate a more reliable determination of alpha emission probabilities in the future. It is also applicable to alpha spectra with inferior energy resolution. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.


    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  13. First diffraction peak in alkali metaphosphate glasses (United States)

    Beaufils, S.; Bionducci, M.; Ecolivet, C.; Marchand, R.; Le Sauze, A.


    The structure factor of the alkali metaphosphate glasses LiPO 3 and Na 0.5Li 0.5PO 3 has been measured at 300 K for both systems and up to 800 K for the latter. The first diffraction peak of alkali metaphosphate glasses merges at lower Q (around 1.1 Å -1) than in other covalent glasses, with the highest intensity for Li-containing glasses. These points are discussed following the hypothesis of voids ordering in the structure and contrasts effects due to the negative neutron Li scattering length. The intensity of the prepeak is significantly growing with temperature, in case of Na 0.5Li 0.5PO 3, in contrast to the other peaks of the structure factor. This point is discussed in relation with literature data from flow birefringence indicating structural changes in these glassy systems.

  14. Reducing Peak Power in Automated Weapon Laying (United States)


    LAYING Joshua Stapp Matthew Tomik February 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...PEAK POWER IN AUTOMATED WEAPON LAYING 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORS Joshua Stapp and...aiming a weapon is referred to as gun laying . This report describes a method to calculate motion profiles that reach a given lay within the least

  15. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O.; Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E.


    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E T miss > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m g or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  16. Ten Reasons to Take Peak Oil Seriously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Brecha


    Full Text Available Forty years ago, the results of modeling, as presented in The Limits to Growth, reinvigorated a discussion about exponentially growing consumption of natural resources, ranging from metals to fossil fuels to atmospheric capacity, and how such consumption could not continue far into the future. Fifteen years earlier, M. King Hubbert had made the projection that petroleum production in the continental United States would likely reach a maximum around 1970, followed by a world production maximum a few decades later. The debate about “peak oil”, as it has come to be called, is accompanied by some of the same vociferous denials, myths and ideological polemicizing that have surrounded later representations of The Limits to Growth. In this review, we present several lines of evidence as to why arguments for a near-term peak in world conventional oil production should be taken seriously—both in the sense that there is strong evidence for peak oil and in the sense that being societally unprepared for declining oil production will have serious consequences.

  17. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O. [Universitat de Valencia, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain); Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain); Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E. [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain)


    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E{sub T}{sup miss} > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m{sub g} or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  18. Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Jebel Saghro and Bou Azzer - El Graara inliers, eastern and central Anti-Atlas, Morocco (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Harrison, Richard W.; Burton, William C.; Quick, James E.; Benziane, Foudad; Yazidi, Abdelaziz; Saadane, Abderrahim


    New mapping, geochemistry, and 17 U–Pb SHRIMP zircon ages from rocks of the Sirwa, Bou Azzer–El Graara, and Jebel Saghro inliers constrain the Neoproterozoic evolution of the eastern Anti-Atlas during Pan-African orogenesis. In the Sirwa inlier, Tonian quartzite from the pre Pan-African passive margin deposits of the Mimount Formation contains detrital zircon derived entirely from the West African Craton (WAC), with most grains yielding Eburnean Paleoproterozoic ages of about 2050 Ma. Cryogenian Pan-African orogenic activity (PA1) from about 760 to 660 Ma included northward-dipping subduction to produce a volcanic arc, followed by ophiolite obduction onto the WAC. In the Bou Azzer–El Graara inlier, calc-alkaline granodiorite and quartz diorite, dated at 650–646 Ma, are syn- to post-tectonic with respect to the second period of Pan-African orogenesis (PA2), arc-continent accretion, and related greenschist facies metamorphism. Slab break-off and lithospheric delimination may have provided the source for the supra-subduction calc-alkaline plutons. At about 646 Ma, quartz diorite intruded the Tiddiline formation placing an upper limit on molassic deposition. Widespread Ediacaran high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic plutonism and volcanism during the final stage of Pan-African orogenesis (PA3) occurred in a setting related to either modification of the margin of the WAC or formation of a continental volcanic arc above a short-lived southward-dipping subduction zone. In the Saghro inlier, eight plutonic rocks yield ages ranging from about 588 to 556 Ma. Sampled plutonic rocks previously considered to be Cryogenian yielded Ediacaran ages. Peraluminous rhyolitic volcanic rocks in the lower part of the Ouarzazate Supergroup, including ash-flow tuffs of the Oued Dar’a caldera, yield ages between about 574 and 571 Ma. The Oued Dar’a caldera developed in a pull-apart graben produced by a left-step in a northeast-trending, left-lateral strike-slip fault zone, and

  19. Chinese emissions peak: Not when, but how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Colombier, Michel; Wang, Xin; Sartor, Oliver; Waisman, Henri


    It seems highly likely that China will overachieve its 2020 and 2030 targets, and peak its emissions before 2030 and possibly at a lower level than often assumed. This paper argues that the debate on the timing of the peak is misplaced: what matters is not when by why. For the peak to be seen as a harbinger of deep transformation, it needs to be based on significant macro-economic reform and restructuring, with attendant improvement in energy intensity. The Chinese economic model has been extraordinarily investment and resource intensive, and has driven the growth in GHG emissions. That model is no longer economically or environmentally sustainable. Therefore Chinese policy-makers are faced with a trade-off between slower short-term growth and economic reform, versus supporting short-term growth but slowing economic reform. The outcome will be crucial for the transition to a low-carbon economy. Overall, the 13. FYP (2016-2020) gives the impression of a cautious reflection of the new normal paradigm on the economic front, and a somewhat conservative translation of this shift into the energy and climate targets. Nonetheless, the 13. FYP targets set China well on the way to overachieving its 2020 pledge undertaken at COP15 in Copenhagen, and to potentially overachieving its INDC. It thus seems likely that China will achieve its emissions peak before 2030. However, the crucial question is not when China peaks, but whether the underlying transformation of the Chinese economy and energy system lays the basis for deep decarbonization thereafter. Thorough assessments of the implications of the 'new normal' for Chinese emissions and energy system trajectories, taking into account the link with the Chinese macro-economy, are needed. Scenarios provide a useful framework and should focus on a number of short-term uncertainties. Most energy system and emissions scenarios published today assume a continuity of trends between 2010-2015 and 2015-2020, which is at odds

  20. The 131-134 Ma A-type granites from northern Zhejiang Province, South China: Implications for partial melting of the Neoproterozoic lower crust (United States)

    Hu, Qinghai; Yu, Kaizhang; Liu, Yongsheng; Hu, Zhaochu; Zong, Keqing


    different parent rocks. These granites have two-stage Nd model (TDM2(Nd)) ages of 1099 Ma-838 Ma, and zircons from these granites and the Neoproterozoic basement in the Gan-Hang Belt plot on the same evolutionary trend in the εHf(t)-age diagram. It is interesting to note that the collection of literature data shows a positive correlation between SiO2 and εNd(t) for the late Mesozoic A-granites in the Gan-Hang Belt, and the Neoproterozoic A-granites in the Gan-Hang Belt cluster in two groups of the high-SiO2-εNd(t) group and low-εNd(t) group. The positive correlation of SiO2-εNd(t) demonstrated by the late Mesozoic A-granites can be well explained by a high-degree of melting of mixtures between the two groups of Neoproterozoic A-granites. We thus suggest that the late Mesozoic A-type granites in the Gan-Hang Belt could have been derived from the rejuvenated Neoproterozoic rocks rather than directly from the Mesoproterozoic metamorphic basement as a result of subduction.

  1. Adakite-gabbro-anorthosite magmatism at the final (576-546 Ma) development stage of the Neoproterozoic active margin in the south-west of the Siberian craton (United States)

    Vernikovskaya, A. E.; Vernikovsky, V. A.; Matushkin, N. Yu.; Kadilnikov, P. I.; Romanova, I. V.; Larionov, A. N.


    In the late Neoproterozoic a prolonged active continental margin mode dominated the southwestern margin of the Siberian craton. Based on results of geological, petrological-geochemical, U-Th-Pb and Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr isotope investigations, for the first time we established that on the final evolution stage of this margin 576-546 Ma, intrusions of adakites and gabbro-anorthosites of the Zimoveyniy massif were emplaced in the South Yenisei Ridge. These new data indicate genetic relationships of the studied adakites and host NEB-metabasites. The formation of adakites could have been due to a crustal or a mantle-crustal source in a setting of transform sliding of lithospheric plates after the subduction stopped.

  2. New Sm/Nd and U/Pb geochronological constraints of the Archean to neoproterozoic evolution of the Amparo basement complex of the Central Ribeira Belt, Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, A.H.; Hackspacher, P.C.; Ebbert, H.D; Dantas, E.L; Costa, A.C.D. da


    The Amparo Basement Complex is a distinctive collage of migmatitic tronjhemitetonalite- granodiorite (TTG) orthogneisses that represents the older basement exposures within the Central Ribeira Belt, a Late Neoproterozoic (ca. 600 Ma) collisional belt in southeastern Brazil. These basement gneisses are overlain by Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic supracrustal sequences, and intruded by Neoproterozoic collisional granitoids. Pioneering Rb/Sr, Pb/Pb and K/Ar geochronological studies of the Amparo Complex, e.g. (Wernick et al., 1981; Wernick and Oliveira, 1986; Arthur, 1988; Tassinari, 1988; Campos Neto, 1991) provided some initial insights into the antiquity and geologic evolution of the complex, but little about the crustal evolution of the constituent gneisses. Furthermore, the susceptibility of these systems to partial isotopic resetting, left some doubt about the timing and true number of geologic events recorded by these polydeformed rocks. Recent Sm/Nd whole rock (Dantas et al., 2000) and new U/Pb single crystal zircon and monazite data obtained from the Amparo Complex, however, now furnish information on the crustal growth history of the basement and provide precise age constraints on the timing of events related to the geologic evolution of the complex. Based on these new data, it appears that the oldest rocks within the complex are polymigmatized tronjhemitic gneisses located near the town of Amparo. The oldest phase of this migmatite yields a U/Pb zircon age of 3,024 +/- 9 Ma. Sm/Nd data from this locale yields a Nd T(DM) model age of 3.28 Ga suggesting that the genesis of this crustal unit involved some input from yet older crust. Data from banded tonalitic gneisses collected ca. 50 km south of Amparo indicate that subsequent Archean crustal growth around the older core occurred around 2.77 Ga (U/Pb zircon age of 2,772 +/- 26 Ma. A Nd T(DM) model age of 3.02 Ga obtained from these tonalites also indicate enrichment from older crustal sources during their

  3. The role of post-collisional strike-slip tectonics in the geological evolution of the late Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Guaratubinha Basin, southern Brazil (United States)

    Barão, Leonardo M.; Trzaskos, Barbara; Vesely, Fernando F.; de Castro, Luís Gustavo; Ferreira, Francisco J. F.; Vasconcellos, Eleonora M. G.; Barbosa, Tiago C.


    The Guaratubinha Basin is a late Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary basin included in the transitional-stage basins of the South American Platform. The aim of this study is to investigate its tectonic evolution through a detailed structural analysis based on remote sensing and field data. The structural and aerogeophysics data indicate that at least three major deformational events affected the basin. Event E1 caused the activation of the two main basin-bounding fault zones, the Guaratubinha Master Fault and the Guaricana Shear Zone. These structures, oriented N20-45E, are associated with well-defined right-lateral to oblique vertical faults, conjugate normal faults and vertical flow structures. Progressive transtensional deformation along the two main fault systems was the main mechanism for basin formation and the deposition of thick coarse-grained deposits close to basin-borders. The continuous opening of the basin provided intense intermediate and acid magmatism as well as deposition of volcaniclastic sediments. Event E2 characterizes generalized compression, recorded as minor thrust faults with tectonic transport toward the northwest and left-lateral activation of the NNE-SSW Palmital Shear Zone. Event E3 is related to the Mesozoic tectonism associated with the South Atlantic opening, which generated diabase dykes and predominantly right-lateral strike-slip faults oriented N10-50W. Its rhomboidal geometry with long axis parallel to major Precambrian shear zones, the main presence of high-angle, strike-slip or oblique faults, the asymmetric distribution of geological units and field evidence for concomitant Neoproterozoic magmatism and strike-slip movements are consistent with pull-apart basins reported in the literature.

  4. Petrogenesis of Bir Madi Gabbro-Diorite and Tonalite-Granodiorite Intrusions in Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Implications for Tectono-Magmatic Processes at the Neoproterozoic Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. OBEID


    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic rocks of the Bir Madi area, south eastern desert, comprise a Metagabbro-Diorite Complex (GDC and a Tonalite-Granodiorite Suite (TGrS. The GDC has a weak tonalitic to strong calc-alkaline character and is made up of olivine gabbro, hornblende gabbro, diorite and monzodiorite. The olivine gabbro is characterized by abun-dance of augite and labradorite with pseudomorphic serpentine. The hornblende gabbro is mainly composed of horn-blende, labradorite, andesine and minor amounts of quartz with or without augite. The diorite consists essentially of andesine, hornblende, biotite and quartz. The GDC is compositionally broad, with a wide range of SiO2 (46-57 % and pronounced enrichment in the LILE (Ba and Sr relative to the HFSE (Nb, Y and Zr. The GDC rocks exhibit petrological and geochemical characteristics of arc-related mafic magmas, derived possibly from partial melting of a mantle wedge above an early Pan-African subduction zone of the Neoproterozoic Shield. The tonalite and granodiorite have a calc-alkaline affinity and show the geochemical signatures of I-type granitoids. The TGrS contains amphibolite enclaves and foliated gabbroic xenoliths. Based on the field evidence and geochemical data, the GDC and TGrS are not related to a single magma type through fractional crystallization. The presence of microgranular amphibolite enclaves in the tonalitic rocks suggest against their generation by partial melting of a mantle-derived basaltic source. The tonalitic magma originated from partial melting of an amphibolitic lower crust by anatexis process at a volcanic arc regime during construction of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Fractional crystallization of K-feldspar and biotite gave more developed granodiorite variety from the tonalitic magma. The gabbroic xenoliths are similar in the chemical composition to the investigated metagabbros. They are incompletely digested segments from the adjacent metagabbro rocks incorporated into the

  5. Detrital zircon analysis of Mesoproterozoic and neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of northcentral idaho: Implications for development of the Belt-Purcell basin (United States)

    Lewis, R.S.; Vervoort, J.D.; Burmester, R.F.; Oswald, P.J.


    The authors analyzed detrital zircon grains from 10 metasedimentary rock samples of the Priest River complex and three other amphibolite-facies metamorphic sequences in north-central Idaho to test the previous assignment of these rocks to the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell Supergroup. Zircon grains from two samples of the Prichard Formation (lower Belt) and one sample of Cambrian quartzite were also analyzed as controls with known depositional ages. U-Pb zircon analysis by laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry reveals that 6 of the 10 samples contain multiple age populations between 1900 and 1400 Ma and a scatter of older ages, similar to results reported from the Belt- Purcell Supergroup to the north and east. Results from the Priest River metamorphic complex confirm previous correlations with the Prichard Formation. Samples from the Golden and Elk City sequences have significant numbers of 1500-1380 Ma grains, which indicates that they do not predate the Belt. Rather, they are probably from a relatively young, southwestern part of the Belt Supergroup (Lemhi subbasin). Non-North American (1610-1490 Ma) grains are rare in these rocks. Three samples of quartzite from the Syringa metamorphic sequence northwest of the Idaho batholith contain zircon grains younger than the Belt Supergroup and support a Neoproterozoic age. A single Cambrian sample has abundant 1780 Ma grains and none younger than ~1750 Ma. These results indicate that the likely protoliths of many high-grade metamorphic rocks in northern Idaho were strata of the Belt-Purcell Supergroup or overlying rocks of the Neoproterozoic Windermere Supergroup and not basement rocks.

  6. U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Paleoproterozoic Tagragra de Tata inlier and its Neoproterozoic cover, western Anti-Atlas, Morocco (United States)

    Walsh, G.J.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Benziane, F.; Yazidi, A.; Armstrong, T.R.


    New U-Pb zircon data obtained by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) from the Tagragra de Tata inlier in the western Anti-Atlas, Morocco establish Paleoproterozoic ages for the basement schists, granites, and metadolerites, and a Neoproterozoic age for an ignimbrite of the Ouarzazate Series in the cover sequence. The age of interbedded felsic metatuff in the metasedimentary and metavolcanic sequence of the basement schists is 2072 ?? 8 Ma. This date represents: (1) the first reliable age from the metasedimentary and metavolcanic sequence; (2) the oldest reliable age for the basement of the Anti-Atlas; (3) the first date on the timing of deposition of the sediments on the northern edge of the Paleoproterozoic West African craton; (4) a lower age limit on deformation during the Eburnean orogeny; and (5) the first date obtained from the non-granitic Paleoproterozoic basement of Morocco. Ages of 2046 ?? 7 Ma (Targant granite) and 2041 ?? 6 Ma (Oudad granite) support earlier interpretations of a Paleoproterozoic Eburnean igneous event in the Anti-Atlas. The granites post-date the Eburnean D1 deformation event in the Paleoproterozoic schist sequence, and place a ???2046 Ma limit on short-lived Eburnean deformation in the area. Cross-cutting metadolerite is 2040 ?? 6 Ma; this is the first date from a metadolerite in the western Anti-Atlas. All of the dolerites in the area post-date emplacement of the two granites and the new age constrains the onset of late- or post-Eburnean extension. Ignimbrite of the Ouarzazate Series, immediately above the Paleoproterozoic basement is 565 ?? 7 Ma. This Neoproterozoic age agrees with ages of similar volcanic rocks elsewhere from the Ouarzazate Series. The date also agrees with the ages of associated hypabyssal intrusions, and marks the second and final stage of Pan-African orogenic activity in the western Anti-Atlas. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Practical load management - Peak shaving using photovoltaics; Peak Shaving mit der Fotovoltaik. Praktisches Lastmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, W.


    This article takes a look at how photovoltaic (PV) power generation can be used in a practical way to meet peak demands for electricity. Advice is provided on how photovoltaics can provide peak load 'shaving' through the correlation between its production and the peak loads encountered during the day. The situation regarding feed-in tariffs in Italy is discussed, as are further examples of installations in Germany and Austria. Further, an initiative of the American Southern California Edison utility is discussed which foresees the installation of large PV plant on the roofs of commercial premises to provide local generation of peak energy and thus relieve demands on their power transportation network.

  8. New View of Twin Peaks Region (United States)


    This image taken on Sol 74 ( September 17) from the Sojourner rover's right front camera shows areas of the Pathfinder landing site never before seen. The shadow of the rover and its antenna is visible in the foreground. On the horizon at right are the Twin Peaks, about 1 kilometer away.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  9. Recent considerations of the GSI positron peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soff, G.; Reinhardt, J.; Reus, J. de; Ionescu, D.; Schramm, S.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.


    In this report we examine various attempts to explain the GSI positron peaks. After the presentation of recent experimental data we briefly sketch theoretical investigations concerning the new particle hypothesis. The failure of standard models employing a linear coupling led to more exotic scenarios for particle production. One exciting recent idea is outlined. After that we treat the possible formation of a resonance in ordinary Bhabha scattering which could represent a time-reversed channel to the observations in heavy-ion collisions. Finally we discuss the poly-positronium model and a purely atomic physics model to interprete the GSI positron events. (orig./HSI)

  10. Engineering training-success at Comanche Peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, M.G.; Preston, W.D.; McMahon, J.F.


    The engineering training program at Comanche Peak steam electric station (CPSES) has received favorable industry recognition. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations has recommended the CPSES program as a source of information for plants trying to build their own successful programs and has featured the program in an article in the spring 1993 issue of The Nuclear Professional. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission described the program as superior in a preoperational review and assessment team inspection report and in the most recent systematic assessment of licensee performance. This industry recognition is an important measure of the program's success

  11. Electromechanical Peak Devices of Distributed Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Konstantinova


    Full Text Available The power world crises (1973, 1979 have demonstrated that mankind entered the expensive energy epoch. More and more attitude is given to power saving problem by including renewable power sources in energy balance of the countries. The paper analyzes a power system inBelarusand a typical chart of the active load is cited in the paper. Equalization of load chart is considered as one of measures directed on provision of higher operational efficiency of power system and power saving.  This purpose can be obtained while including electromechanical peak devices of the distributed generation in the energy balance.

  12. Particle creation by peak electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, S.P. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Department of General and Experimental Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, CP 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The particle creation by the so-called peak electric field is considered. The latter field is a combination of two exponential parts, one exponentially increasing and another exponentially decreasing. We find exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the field under consideration with appropriate asymptotic conditions and calculate all the characteristics of particle creation effect, in particular, differential mean numbers of created particle, total number of created particles, and the probability for a vacuum to remain a vacuum. Characteristic asymptotic regimes are discussed in detail and a comparison with the pure asymptotically decaying field is considered. (orig.)

  13. Probable Values of Current Solar Cycle Peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Silbergleit


    Full Text Available An analysis of multiple linear regression method applied to solar cycles 4 to 23 using lagged values of smoothed monthly mean sunspot numbers as independent variables is presented. According to that, the amplitude of current solar cycle 24 is estimated providing a quantitative prediction result. Our adjustment shows that the current cycle would have a sunspot peak less than the biggest one observed during the cycle 19 giving an additional support to the declination in solar activity which is currently happening.

  14. PeakVizor: Visual Analytics of Peaks in Video Clickstreams from Massive Open Online Courses. (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Chen, Yuanzhe; Liu, Dongyu; Shi, Conglei; Wu, Yingcai; Qu, Huamin


    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) aim to facilitate open-access and massive-participation education. These courses have attracted millions of learners recently. At present, most MOOC platforms record the web log data of learner interactions with course videos. Such large amounts of multivariate data pose a new challenge in terms of analyzing online learning behaviors. Previous studies have mainly focused on the aggregate behaviors of learners from a summative view; however, few attempts have been made to conduct a detailed analysis of such behaviors. To determine complex learning patterns in MOOC video interactions, this paper introduces a comprehensive visualization system called PeakVizor. This system enables course instructors and education experts to analyze the "peaks" or the video segments that generate numerous clickstreams. The system features three views at different levels: the overview with glyphs to display valuable statistics regarding the peaks detected; the flow view to present spatio-temporal information regarding the peaks; and the correlation view to show the correlation between different learner groups and the peaks. Case studies and interviews conducted with domain experts have demonstrated the usefulness and effectiveness of PeakVizor, and new findings about learning behaviors in MOOC platforms have been reported.

  15. Outreach Plans for Storm Peak Laboratory (United States)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.


    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation 10,500 ft. SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. We plan to create a unique summer undergraduate education experiences for students of diversity at Storm Peak Laboratory. As stressed by the College Pathways to Science Education Standards [Siebert and McIntosh, 2001], to support changes in K-12 science education transformations must first be made at the college level, including inquiry-oriented opportunities to engage in meaningful research. These workshops will be designed to allow students to experience the excitement of science, increasing their likelihood of pursing careers within the fields of scientific education or research.

  16. Peak heart rates at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit


    We have measured maximal heart rate during a graded maximal bicycle exercise test to exhaustion in five healthy climbers before and during an expedition to Mt. Everest. Maximal heart rates at sea level were 186 (177-204) beats/min(-1) at sea level and 170 (169-182) beats/min(-1) with acute hypoxia....... After 1, 4 and 6 weeks of acclimatization to 5400 m, maximal heart rates were 155 (135-182), 158 (144-182), and 155 (140-183) beats/min(-1), respectively. Heart rates of two of the climbers were measured during their attempt to reach the summit of Mt. Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen....... The peak heart rates at 8,750 m for the two climbers were 142 and 144 beats/min(-1), which were similar to their maximal heart rates during exhaustive bicycle exercise at 5,400 m, the values being 144 and 148 beats/min(-1), respectively. The peak heart rates at 8,750 m are in agreement with other field...

  17. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Ishi


    Purpose: To monitor the local power peaking coefficients obtained by the method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Method: A plurality of representative values for the local power distribution determined by the nuclear constant calculation for one fuel assembly are memorized regarding each of the burn-up degree and the void coefficient on every positions and fuel types in fuel rod assemblies. While on the other hand, the representative values for the local power distribution as described above are compensated by a compensation coefficient considering the effect of adjacent segments and a control rod compensation coefficient considering the effect due to the control rod insertion relative to the just-mentioned compensation coefficient. Then, the maximum value among them is selected to determine the local power peaking coefficient at each of the times and each of the segments, which is monitored. According to this system, the calculation and the working required for the fitting work depending on the combination of fuel types are no more required at all to facilitate the maintenance as well. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Peak capacity and peak capacity per unit time in capillary and microchip zone electrophoresis. (United States)

    Foley, Joe P; Blackney, Donna M; Ennis, Erin J


    The origins of the peak capacity concept are described and the important contributions to the development of that concept in chromatography and electrophoresis are reviewed. Whereas numerous quantitative expressions have been reported for one- and two-dimensional separations, most are focused on chromatographic separations and few, if any, quantitative unbiased expressions have been developed for capillary or microchip zone electrophoresis. Making the common assumption that longitudinal diffusion is the predominant source of zone broadening in capillary electrophoresis, analytical expressions for the peak capacity are derived, first in terms of migration time, diffusion coefficient, migration distance, and desired resolution, and then in terms of the remaining underlying fundamental parameters (electric field, electroosmotic and electrophoretic mobilities) that determine the migration time. The latter expressions clearly illustrate the direct square root dependence of peak capacity on electric field and migration distance and the inverse square root dependence on solute diffusion coefficient. Conditions that result in a high peak capacity will result in a low peak capacity per unit time and vice-versa. For a given symmetrical range of relative electrophoretic mobilities for co- and counter-electroosmotic species (cations and anions), the peak capacity increases with the square root of the electric field even as the temporal window narrows considerably, resulting in a significant reduction in analysis time. Over a broad relative electrophoretic mobility interval [-0.9, 0.9], an approximately two-fold greater amount of peak capacity can be generated for counter-electroosmotic species although it takes about five-fold longer to do so, consistent with the well-known bias in migration time and resolving power for co- and counter-electroosmotic species. The optimum lower bound of the relative electrophoretic mobility interval [μ r,Z , μ r,A ] that provides the maximum

  19. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III


    The expected peak wind speed of the day is an important forecast element in the 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts. The forecasts are used for ground and space launch operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45 WS also issues wind advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect wind gusts to meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated peak wind speeds are challenging to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October - April. In Phase I of this task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool to help the 45 WS forecast non-convective winds at KSC/CCAFS for the 24-hour period of 0800 to 0800 local time. The tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI displayed the forecast of peak wind speed, 5-minute average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, timing of the peak wind and probability the peak speed would meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. For the current task (Phase II ), the 45 WS requested additional observations be used for the creation of the forecast equations by expanding the period of record (POR). Additional parameters were evaluated as predictors, including wind speeds between 500 ft and 3000 ft, static stability classification, Bulk Richardson Number, mixing depth, vertical wind shear, temperature inversion strength and depth and wind direction. Using a verification data set, the AMU compared the performance of the Phase I and II prediction methods. Just as in Phase I, the tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel GUI. The 45 WS requested the tool also be available in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS). The AMU first expanded the POR by two years by adding tower observations, surface observations and CCAFS (XMR) soundings for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The POR was expanded

  20. Peak Electric Load Relief in Northern Manhattan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegaard D. Link


    Full Text Available The aphorism “Think globally, act locally,” attributed to René Dubos, reflects the vision that the solution to global environmental problems must begin with efforts within our communities. PlaNYC 2030, the New York City sustainability plan, is the starting point for this study. Results include (a a case study based on the City College of New York (CCNY energy audit, in which we model the impacts of green roofs on campus energy demand and (b a case study of energy use at the neighborhood scale. We find that reducing the urban heat island effect can reduce building cooling requirements, peak electricity loads stress on the local electricity grid and improve urban livability.

  1. Twin Peaks in 360-degree panorama (United States)


    The prominent hills dubbed 'Twin Peaks' approximately 1-2 kilometers away were imaged by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) as part of a 360-degree color panorama, taken over sols 8, 9 and 10. A lander petal and deflated airbag are at the bottom of the image.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  2. Tim Peake and Britain's road to space

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik


    This book puts the reader in the flight suit of Britain’s first male astronaut, Tim Peake. It chronicles his life, along with the Principia mission and the down-to-the-last-bolt descriptions of life aboard the ISS, by way of the hurdles placed by the British government and the rigors of training at Russia’s Star City military base. In addition, this book discusses the learning curves required in astronaut and mission training and the complexity of the technologies required to launch an astronaut and keep them alive for months on end. This book underscores the fact that technology and training, unlike space, do not exist in a vacuum; complex technical systems, like the ISS, interact with the variables of human personality, and the cultural background of the astronauts. .

  3. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  4. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters. (United States)

    Takara, Glaucia Nency; Ruas, Gualberto; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Luciana Kawakami; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Mauricio


    To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05), Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph meters were 428 (263-688 L/min), 450 (350-800 L/min), 420 (310-720 L/min), 380 (300-735 L/min), 400 (310-685 L/min) and 415 (335-610 L/min), respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone(R) (p<0.001) and Galemed (p<0.01) meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  5. Peak expiratory flow rate and Pulse Pressure values during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the peak expiratory flow rate and pulse pressure during the luteal and menstruation phases of the menstrual cycle. The peak expiratory flow rate and pulse pressure were measured using the Wright's Peak Flow Meter and Mercury Sphygmomanometer respectively. The peak expiratory flow rate and ...

  6. Signification des ferruginisations des formations néoprotérozoïques du Nord-Burkina Faso (Afrique de l'Ouest)Meaning of ironstones in the sedimentary Neoproterozoic formations of the northern Burkina Faso (western Africa) (United States)

    Blot, Alain


    There are many small ferruginous outcrops of different facies, often breccia-like, in the Neoproterozoic sedimentary formations in northern Burkina. These outcrops are made up of goethite and quartz, and are often along with high grades of various elements. It could be a question of gossans. Their large distribution in this part of the Taoudéni Basin offers it prospects as a province geochemically rich in Cu, Pb, Zn, Mo, As, Cd, Co... This basin would be a geochemical bin for ancient formations, which would have been evacuated before the Neoproterozoic. The ironstones would be the mark of further concentrations. To cite this article: A. Blot, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 909-915.

  7. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Lauridsen, Felicia Kathrine Bratt


    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak......-valley-peak (PVP) pattern. However, different features of PVP patterns and their robustness in predicting active regulatory elements have never been systematically analyzed. Here, we present PARE, a novel computational method that systematically analyzes the H3K4me1 or H3K4me3 PVP patterns to predict NFRs. We show...

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the TechCity East Campus Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Site in Kingston, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geiger, Jesse W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Healey, Victoria [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the TechCity East Campus site in Kingston, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  9. Neoproterozoic fragmentation of the Scottish Sector of Laurentia - an ancient analogue for the Iberian and UK/Irish ocean-continent transition zones (United States)

    Leslie, G.; Krabbendam, M.


    The Neoproterozoic Dalradian Supergroup of Scotland and Ireland is intensively deformed and metamorphosed by mid-Ordovician arc-accretion (c. 460 Ma) during the Caledonian Orogeny. Emplacement of an extensive suite of Siluro-Devonian Caledonian granitoids further complicates reading the sedimentary record. Nevertheless we can determine a history of stretching and break-up affecting the Neoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia and leading to creation of the Iapetus Ocean. Three key intervals of late-Neoproterozoic sediment accumulation are recognised - new geological mapping, isotopic datasets (Sr, O and C, U/Pb zircon, Sm/Nd WR), and sequence stratigraphical approaches are refining constraints on the lithostratigraphical architecture and basin evolution of the Dalradian Supergroup. Thick siliciclastic deposits accumulated (pre-800 Ma?) during an early stretching phase (distributed high angle faulting) that led to crustal thinning (low angle shearing). Three major limestone - pelite - quartzite depositional cycles succeeded these earlier siliciclastic deposits, recording episodic subsidence in an intracratonic but largely marine environment; the second cycle overlaps the late Precambrian (Cryogenian) glaciation and concludes with the distinctive Marinoan tillite succession (c. 635Ma). The last of the three cycles is terminated, in some parts of the Dalradian, by deposition of serpentinitic muds and conglomerates and volcaniclastic sediments; pods and lenses of both massive and serpentinised ultramafic rock also interrupt the sedimentary record at this level (thus possibly indicating mantle exhumation). In other areas, a major part of the ‘type' Dalradian succession is absent and we now recognise a major overstep unconformity at this level. From this level onwards across the Dalradian, rapid foundering of the margin, and the transition from rift- to drift-dominated processes, resulted in an overstepping accumulation of laterally and vertically variable

  10. OccuPeak: ChIP-Seq peak calling based on internal background modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bouke A.; van Duijvenboden, Karel; van den Boogaard, Malou; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Barnett, Phil; Ruijter, Jan M.


    ChIP-seq has become a major tool for the genome-wide identification of transcription factor binding or histone modification sites. Most peak-calling algorithms require input control datasets to model the occurrence of background reads to account for local sequencing and GC bias. However, the

  11. Can You Hear That Peak? Utilization of Auditory and Visual Feedback at Peak Limb Velocity (United States)

    Loria, Tristan; de Grosbois, John; Tremblay, Luc


    Purpose: At rest, the central nervous system combines and integrates multisensory cues to yield an optimal percept. When engaging in action, the relative weighing of sensory modalities has been shown to be altered. Because the timing of peak velocity is the critical moment in some goal-directed movements (e.g., overarm throwing), the current study…

  12. Lander petal & Twin Peaks - 3D (United States)


    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes. A lander petal, airbag, and the rear ramp are at the lower area of the image.The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  13. North Twin Peak in super resolution (United States)


    This pair of images shows the result of taking a sequence of 25 identical exposures from the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) of the northern Twin Peak, with small camera motions, and processing them with the Super-Resolution algorithm developed at NASA's Ames Research Center.The upper image is a representative input image, scaled up by a factor of five, with the pixel edges smoothed out for a fair comparison. The lower image allows significantly finer detail to be resolved.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.The super-resolution research was conducted by Peter Cheeseman, Bob Kanefsky, Robin Hanson, and John Stutz of NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA. More information on this technology is available on the Ames Super Resolution home page at group/super-res/

  14. Prediction of iodine activity peak during refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Z.; Vajda, N.


    The increase of fission product activities in the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant indicates the existence of defects in some fuel rods. The power change leads to the cooling down of the fuel and results in the fragmentation of the UO 2 pellets, which facilitates the release of fission products from the intergranular regions. Furthermore the injection of boric acid after shutdown will increase the primary activity, due to the solution of deposited fission products from the surface of the core components. The calculation of these phenomena usually is based on the evaluation of activity measurements and power plant data. The estimation of iodine spiking peak during reactor transients is based on correlation with operating parameters, such as reactor power and primary pressure. The approach used in the present method was applied for CANDU reactors. The VVER-440 specific correlations were determined using the activity measurements of the Paks NPP and the data provided by the Russian fuel supplier. The present method is used for the evaluation of the iodine isotopes, as well as the noble gases. A numerical model has been developed for iodine spiking simulation and has been validated against several shutdown transients, measured at Paks NPP. (R.P.)

  15. Human behavioral complexity peaks at age 25 (United States)

    Brugger, Peter


    Random Item Generation tasks (RIG) are commonly used to assess high cognitive abilities such as inhibition or sustained attention. They also draw upon our approximate sense of complexity. A detrimental effect of aging on pseudo-random productions has been demonstrated for some tasks, but little is as yet known about the developmental curve of cognitive complexity over the lifespan. We investigate the complexity trajectory across the lifespan of human responses to five common RIG tasks, using a large sample (n = 3429). Our main finding is that the developmental curve of the estimated algorithmic complexity of responses is similar to what may be expected of a measure of higher cognitive abilities, with a performance peak around 25 and a decline starting around 60, suggesting that RIG tasks yield good estimates of such cognitive abilities. Our study illustrates that very short strings of, i.e., 10 items, are sufficient to have their complexity reliably estimated and to allow the documentation of an age-dependent decline in the approximate sense of complexity. PMID:28406953

  16. Human behavioral complexity peaks at age 25.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gauvrit


    Full Text Available Random Item Generation tasks (RIG are commonly used to assess high cognitive abilities such as inhibition or sustained attention. They also draw upon our approximate sense of complexity. A detrimental effect of aging on pseudo-random productions has been demonstrated for some tasks, but little is as yet known about the developmental curve of cognitive complexity over the lifespan. We investigate the complexity trajectory across the lifespan of human responses to five common RIG tasks, using a large sample (n = 3429. Our main finding is that the developmental curve of the estimated algorithmic complexity of responses is similar to what may be expected of a measure of higher cognitive abilities, with a performance peak around 25 and a decline starting around 60, suggesting that RIG tasks yield good estimates of such cognitive abilities. Our study illustrates that very short strings of, i.e., 10 items, are sufficient to have their complexity reliably estimated and to allow the documentation of an age-dependent decline in the approximate sense of complexity.

  17. Fast clustering using adaptive density peak detection. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Yifan


    Common limitations of clustering methods include the slow algorithm convergence, the instability of the pre-specification on a number of intrinsic parameters, and the lack of robustness to outliers. A recent clustering approach proposed a fast search algorithm of cluster centers based on their local densities. However, the selection of the key intrinsic parameters in the algorithm was not systematically investigated. It is relatively difficult to estimate the "optimal" parameters since the original definition of the local density in the algorithm is based on a truncated counting measure. In this paper, we propose a clustering procedure with adaptive density peak detection, where the local density is estimated through the nonparametric multivariate kernel estimation. The model parameter is then able to be calculated from the equations with statistical theoretical justification. We also develop an automatic cluster centroid selection method through maximizing an average silhouette index. The advantage and flexibility of the proposed method are demonstrated through simulation studies and the analysis of a few benchmark gene expression data sets. The method only needs to perform in one single step without any iteration and thus is fast and has a great potential to apply on big data analysis. A user-friendly R package ADPclust is developed for public use.

  18. Structural controls on Neoproterozoic mineralization in the South Eastern Desert, Egypt: an integrated field, Landsat TM, and SIR-C/X SAR approach (United States)

    Kusky, Timothy M.; Ramadan, Talaat M.


    The Arabian-Nubian Shield represents a complex amalgam of arcs and microcontinents assembled during Neoproterozoic closure of the Mozambique Ocean. The 750-720 Ma Allaqi suture is an arc/arc collision zone, formed when the Gerf terrane in the north overrode the circa 830-720 Ma Gabgaba terrane in the south, prior to closure of the Mozambique Ocean. Neoproterozoic rocks include ophiolitic ultramafic-mafic rocks, metasediments, intermediate metavolcanic rocks, intrusive gabbro-diorite rocks, granodiorites, biotite granites, and leucocratic granites. High-pressure/low-temperature metamorphism has been documented in rocks of the suture zone. Mineral deposits include nickel-copper-platinum and podiform chromite in ultramafic rocks, marble, gold-bearing quartz-veins in D 2 and D 3 shear zones, and radioactive mineralization associated with late leucocratic granitic rocks. Integrated field mapping and remote sensing techniques are used to distinguish and map the relationships between rock units, structures, and alteration zones associated with mineral deposits along the Allaqi suture of Egypt's SE Desert. Landsat TM images processed using a band ratioing technique show different rock types remarkably well, and are able to distinguish between alteration zones associated with ultramafic rocks (listwaenites) and those associated with leucocratic granitic rocks (greisenization, silicification and albitization). Black and white L-band SIR-C/X SAR images outline foliations, faults and folds that control mineralization at several deposits in the area, whereas color composite multiband Chh-Lhh-Lhv SIR-C/X SAR images reveal some elliptical granitic bodies that host radioactive mineralization. E-trending, tight to isoclinal, gently dipping folds, thrust faults and subvertical shear zones related to the Allaqi suture are overprinted by N-oriented structures related to the Wadi Ungate shear zone, formed during collision of east and west Gondwana during closure of the Mozambique Ocean

  19. Repeated granitoid intrusions during the Neoproterozoic along the western boundary of the Saharan metacraton, Eastern Hoggar, Tuareg shield, Algeria: An AMS and U-Pb zircon age study (United States)

    Henry, B.; Liégeois, J. P.; Nouar, O.; Derder, M. E. M.; Bayou, B.; Bruguier, O.; Ouabadi, A.; Belhai, D.; Amenna, M.; Hemmi, A.; Ayache, M.


    The N-S oriented Raghane shear zone (8°30') delineates the western boundary of the Saharan metacraton and is, with the 4°50' shear zone, the most important shear zone in the Tuareg shield. It can be followed on 1000 km in the basement from southern Aïr, Niger to NE Hoggar, Algeria. Large subhorizontal movements have occurred during the Pan-African orogeny and several groups of granitoids intruded during the Neoproterozoic. We report U-Pb zircon datings (laser ICP-MS) showing that three magmatic suites of granitoids emplaced close to the Raghane shear zone at c. 790 Ma, c. 590 and c. 550 Ma. A comprehensive and detailed (158 sites, more than 1000 cores) magnetic fabric study was performed on 8 plutons belonging to the three magmatic suites and distributed on 200 km along the Raghane shear zone. The main minerals in all the target plutons do not show visible preferential magmatic orientation except in narrow shear zones. The AMS study shows that all plutons have a magnetic lineation and foliation compatible with the deformed zones that are zones deformed lately in post-solidus conditions. These structures are related to the nearby mega-shear zones, the Raghane shear zone for most of them. The old c. 793 Ma Touffok granite preserved locally its original structures. The magnetic structures of the c. 593 Ma Ohergehem pluton, intruded in the Aouzegueur terrane, are related to thrust structures generated by the Raghane shear zone while it is not the case of the contemporaneous plutons in the Assodé-Issalane terrane whose structures are only related to the subvertical shear zones. Finally, the c. 550 Ma granite group has magnetic structure related to the N-S oriented Raghane shear zone and its associated NNE-SSW structures when close to them, but NW-SE oriented when further. These NW-SE oriented structures appear to be characteristic of the late Neoproterozoic evolution of the Saharan metacraton and are in relation to the convergence with the Murzuq craton. This

  20. Research Opportunities at Storm Peak Laboratory (United States)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.


    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation of 3210 m MSL (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. The ridge-top location produces almost daily transition from free tropospheric to boundary layer air which occurs near midday in both summer and winter seasons. Long-term observations at SPL document the role of orographically induced mixing and convection on vertical pollutant transport and dispersion. During winter, SPL is above cloud base 25% of the time, providing a unique capability for studying aerosol-cloud interactions (Borys and Wetzel, 1997). A comprehensive set of continuous aerosol measurements was initiated at SPL in 2002. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a cold room for precipitation and cloud rime ice sample handling and ice crystal microphotography, a 150 m2 roof deck area for outside sampling equipment, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. The laboratory is currently well equipped for aerosol and cloud measurements. Particles are sampled from an insulated, 15 cm diameter manifold within approximately 1 m of its horizontal entry point through an outside wall. The 4 m high vertical section outside the building is capped with an inverted can to exclude large particles.

  1. Deeply concealed half-graben at the SW margin of the East European Craton (SE Poland — Evidence for Neoproterozoic rifting prior to the break-up of Rodinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Krzywiec


    Full Text Available Baltica was one of continents formed as a result of Rodinia break-up 850–550 Ma. It was separated from Amazonia(? by the Tornquist Ocean, the opening of which was preceded by Neoproterozoic extension in a network of continental rifts. Some of these rifts were subsequently aborted whereas the Tornquist Rift gave rise to splitting of Rodinia and formation of the Tornquist Ocean. The results of 1-D subsidence analysis at the fossil passive margin of Baltica provided insight in the timing and kinematics of continental rifting that led to break-up of Rodinia. Rifting was associated with Neoproterozoic syn-rift subsidence accompanied by deposition of continental coarse-grained sediments and emplacement of continental basalts. Transition from a syn-rift to post-rift phase in the latest Ediacaran to earliest early Cambrian was concomitant with deposition of continental conglomerates and arkoses, laterally passing into mudstones. An extensional scenario of the break-up of Rodinia along the Tornquist Rift is based on the character of tectonic subsidence curves, evolution of syn-rift and post-rift depocenters in time, as well as geochemistry and geochronology of the syn-rift volcanics. It is additionally reinforced by the high-quality deep seismic reflection data from SE Poland, located above the SW edge of the East European Craton. The seismic data allowed for identification of a deeply buried (11–18 km, well-preserved extensional half-graben, developed in the Palaeoproterozoic crystalline basement and filled with a Neoproterozoic syn-rift volcano-sedimentary succession. The results of depth-to-basement study based on integration of seismic and gravity data show the distribution of local NE–SW elongated Neoproterozoic depocenters within the SW slope of the East European Craton. Furthermore, they document the rapid south-eastwards thickness increase of the Neoproterozoic succession towards the NW–SE oriented craton margin. This provides evidence

  2. Choquet and Shilov Boundaries, Peak Sets, and Peak Points for Real Banach Function Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Alimohammadi


    Full Text Available Let be a compact Hausdorff space and let be a topological involution on . In 1988, Kulkarni and Arundhathi studied Choquet and Shilov boundaries for real uniform function algebras on . Then in 2000, Kulkarni and Limaye studied the concept of boundaries and Choquet sets for uniformly closed real subspaces and subalgebras of or . In 1971, Dales obtained some properties of peak sets and p-sets for complex Banach function algebras on . Later in 1990, Arundhathi presented some results on peak sets for real uniform function algebras on . In this paper, while we present a brief account of the work of others, we extend some of their results, either to real subspaces of or to real Banach function algebras on .

  3. The kinematic evolution of the Serra Central Salient, Eastern Brazil: A Neoproterozoic progressive arc in northern Espinhaço fold-thrust belt (United States)

    Bersan, Samuel Moreira; Danderfer, André; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Costa, Alice Fernanda de Oliveira


    Convex-to-the-foreland map-view curves are common features in fold-thrust belts around cratonic areas. These features are easily identifiable in belts composed of supracrustal rocks but have been rarely described in rocks from relatively deeper crustal levels where plastic deformation mechanisms stand out. Several local salients have been described in Neoproterozoic marginal fold-thrust belts around the São Francisco craton. In the northern part of the Espinhaço fold-thrust belt, which borders the eastern portion of the São Francisco craton, both Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement rocks and Proterozoic cover rocks are involved in the so-called Serra Central salient. A combination of conventional structural analysis and microstructural and paleostress studies were conducted to characterize the kinematic and the overall architecture and processes involved in the generation of this salient. The results allowed us to determine that the deformation along the Serra Central salient occur under low-grade metamorphic conditions and was related to a gently oblique convergence with westward mass transport that developed in a confined flow, controlled by two transverse bounding shear zones. We propose that the Serra Central salient nucleates as a basin-controlled primary arc that evolves to a progressive arc with secondary vertical axis rotation. This secondary rotation, well-illustrated by the presence of two almost orthogonal families of folds, was dominantly controlled by buttress effect exert by a basement high located in the foreland of the Serra Central salient.

  4. Rb-Sr and K-Ar isotopic evidence for neoproterozoic (Pan-African) granulite metamorphism from the basement of Mumbai offshore basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, S.S.; Vijan, A.R.; Singh, M.P.; Misra, K.N.; Prabhu, B.N.


    Precambrian basement from well HBM-1 in the Heera oil field of Mumbai offshore basin has been dated by Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. Five granulitic basement samples from three conventional drill cores have yielded Rb-Sr isochron age of 502±25 Ma with an initial Sr ratio of 0.70855±0.00013. This age has been interpreted as the time of granulite facies metamorphism of the basement rocks in the region. Two whole rock samples from the basement of this well have yielded mutually concordant K-Ar ages of 505±16 Ma and 507±17 Ma. The K-Ar ages are significantly similar to Rb-Sr age obtained from this well, suggesting complete isotopic reequilibration around 500 Ma ago. The time of secondary thermal heating around 500 Ma ago in the basement of Heera field coincides with the widespread neoproterozoic (Pan-African) thermo-tectonic event extending from the Arabian Peninsula and eastern Africa covering Madagascar, southern India. Sri Lanka and East Antarctica. This study widens the limit of the Pan-African zone, which hitherto was thought to be confined to the western part (presently southern part) of the Indian subcontinent, towards further east. (author)

  5. Pre-vegetation fluvial floodplains and channel-belts in the Late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Santa Bárbara group (Southern Brazil) (United States)

    Marconato, André; de Almeida, Renato Paes; Turra, Bruno Boito; Fragoso-Cesar, Antônio Romalino dos Santos


    One key element to the understanding of the dynamics of pre-vegetation fluvial systems is the reconstruction of processes operating on their floodplains given that, in modern systems, channel banks and floodplains are the environments most affected by plant colonization. Notwithstanding, few pre-vegetation floodplains have been described, and major questions regarding their most basic characteristics are still unresolved. In order to address these questions, detailed analysis of coeval channel-belt, fluvial floodplain and alluvial-fan deposits from the Santa Bárbara Group (Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian, southern Brazil) was performed. While floodplain facies resemble ephemeral stream deposits, being coarser-grained than modern floodplains and marked by the stacking of flood event cycles, channel-belt deposits show composite bars, which do not present conclusive evidence for high water discharge variation. The floodplain deposits show particular features common to other pre-vegetation fluvial systems, such as better preserved small-scale structures, lack of bioturbation, and abundance of cross-laminated sandstones, while other features differ from previous depositional models, namely abundant mudcracks and evidence of soil formation. The lateral variation of depositional systems recorded in the Santa Bárbara Group shows contrasting signatures of water discharge variation in sand-dominated coeval environments, and offers an example of the relation between different alluvial environments before the evolution of land plants.

  6. Neoproterozoic Evolution and Najd‒Related Transpressive Shear Deformations Along Nugrus Shear Zone, South Eastern Desert, Egypt (Implications from Field‒Structural Data and AMS‒Technique) (United States)

    Hagag, W.; Moustafa, R.; Hamimi, Z.


    The tectonometamorphic evolution of Nugrus Shear Zone (NSZ) in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt was reevaluated through an integrated study including field-structural work and magnetofabric analysis using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) technique, complemented by detailed microstructural investigation. Several lines of evidence indicate that the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust within this high strain zone suffered an impressive tectonic event of left-lateral transpressional regime, transposed the majority of the earlier formed structures into a NNW to NW-directed wrench corridor depicts the northwestern extension of the Najd Shear System (NSS) along the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The core of the southern Hafafit dome underwent a high metamorphic event ( M 1) developed during the end of the main collisional orogeny in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). The subsequent M 2 metamorphic event was retrogressive and depicts the tectonic evolution and exhumation of the Nugrus-Hafafit area including the Hafafit gneissic domes, during the origination of the left-lateral transpressive wrench corridor of the NSS. The early tectonic fabric within the NSZ and associated highly deformed rocks was successfully detected by the integration of AMS-technique and microstructural observations. Such fabric grain was checked through a field-structural work. The outcomes of the present contribution advocate a complex tectonic evolution with successive and overlapped deformation events for the NSZ.

  7. Gammaspectrometry identification covering Neoproterozoic supracrustal sequences in the Serido Belt , northeastern Brazil; Identificacao gamaespectrometrica de placeres rutilo-monaziticos neoproterozoicos no sul da Faixa Serido, nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sebastiao Milton P. da, E-mail:, E-mail: [Laboratorio de Geoprocessamento, Departamento de Geografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Crosta, Alvaro P., E-mail: [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco J.F., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada- LPGA, Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Beurlen, Hartmut, E-mail: [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Adalene M., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Geofisica Aplicada, Instituto de Geociencias da Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Silva, Marcelo R.R. da, E-mail: [Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    Aerial gamma-ray survey data covering Neoproterozoic supracrustal sequences in the Serido Belt were processed and analyzed together with ground gamma-ray data, air photos and geological data for lithogeophysical characterization and mapping of granitic rocks, related pegmatites fields and lithological units of Serido Group. Interpretation was based on individual and ternary images of the three radio-elements and the eU/eTh and eTh/K ratios, and allowed the discovery of thorium anomalies associated with coarse-grained metarenites and metaconglomerates facies intercalated with quartzites of the Equador Formation. High contents of iron oxides, ilmenite, monazite, rutile, titanite and zircon were identified by ore microscopy of polished sections in the metaconglomerate's matrix. Semiquantitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses in minerals of two samples revealed up to 79.4% of Th0{sub 2} and 87.7% of REE in monazites; up to 99.2% of Ti0{sub 2} in ilmenite and rutile and up to 1.81 % of HfO{sub 2} in zircon. Gamma-ray anomalies due to thorium were also identified in association with sediments of Cenozoic age in the region. (author)

  8. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Carlos A.


    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources.

  9. Improving EEG signal peak detection using feature weight learning ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asrul Adam

    Neural network with random weights (NNRW); feature weight learning (FWL); electroencephalogram (EEG); peak detection algorithm; pattern recognition; particle swarm optimization (PSO). 1. Introduction. The utilization of peak detection algorithms has emerged as a useful tool in several physiological signal applications,.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A peak tracking method based on a simulated feed-forward neural network with back-propagation is presented. The network uses the normalized UV spectra and peak areas measured in one chromatogram for peak recognition. It suffices to train the network with only one set of spectra recorded in one

  11. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, H.; Takken, T.; Groot, J.F. de; Reneman, M.; Peters, R.; Vanhees, L.


    Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report

  12. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, Harriet; Takken, Tim; de Groot, Janke; Reneman, Michiel; Peters, Roelof; Vanhees, Luc


    Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report

  13. Determination of the upper limit of a peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.


    This paper reports the procedure to extract an upper limit of a peak area in a multichannel spectrum. This procedure takes into account the finite shape of the peak and the uncertanties in the background and in the expected position of the peak. (author) [pt

  14. Automatic Peak Selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-Based Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed


    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into p-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at © 2013

  15. Particle in cell simulation of peaking switch for breakdown evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umbarkar, Sachin B.; Bindu, S.; Mangalvedekar, H.A.; Saxena, A.; Singh, N.M., E-mail: [Department of Electric Engineering, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai (India); Sharma, Archana; Saroj, P.C.; Mittal, K.C. [Accelerator Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)


    Marx generator connected to peaking capacitor and peaking switch can generate Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radiation. A new peaking switch is designed for converting the existing nanosecond Marx generator to a UWB source. The paper explains the particle in cell (PIC) simulation for this peaking switch, using MAGIC 3D software. This peaking switch electrode is made up of copper tungsten material and is fixed inside the hermitically sealed derlin material. The switch can withstand a gas pressure up to 13.5 kg/cm{sup 2}. The lower electrode of the switch is connected to the last stage of the Marx generator. Initially Marx generator (without peaking stage) in air; gives the output pulse with peak amplitude of 113.75 kV and pulse rise time of 25 ns. Thus, we design a new peaking switch to improve the rise time of output pulse and to pressurize this peaking switch separately (i.e. Marx and peaking switch is at different pressure). The PIC simulation gives the particle charge density, current density, E counter plot, emitted electron current, and particle energy along the axis of gap between electrodes. The charge injection and electric field dependence on ionic dissociation phenomenon are briefly analyzed using this simulation. The model is simulated with different gases (N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Air) under different pressure (2 kg/cm{sup 2}, 5 kg/cm{sup 2}, 10 kg/cm{sup 2}). (author)

  16. QRS peak detection for heart rate monitoring on Android smartphone (United States)

    Pambudi Utomo, Trio; Nuryani, Nuryani; Darmanto


    In this study, Android smartphone is used for heart rate monitoring and displaying electrocardiogram (ECG) graph. Heart rate determination is based on QRS peak detection. Two methods are studied to detect the QRS complex peak; they are Peak Threshold and Peak Filter. The acquisition of ECG data is utilized by AD8232 module from Analog Devices, three electrodes, and Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3. To record the ECG data from a patient, three electrodes are attached to particular body’s surface of a patient. Patient’s heart activity which is recorded by AD8232 module is decoded by Arduino UNO R3 into analog data. Then, the analog data is converted into a voltage value (mV) and is processed to get the QRS complex peak. Heart rate value is calculated by Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3 uses the QRS complex peak. Voltage, heart rate, and the QRS complex peak are sent to Android smartphone by Bluetooth HC-05. ECG data is displayed as the graph by Android smartphone. To evaluate the performance of QRS complex peak detection method, three parameters are used; they are positive predictive, accuracy and sensitivity. Positive predictive, accuracy, and sensitivity of Peak Threshold method is 92.39%, 70.30%, 74.62% and for Peak Filter method are 98.38%, 82.47%, 83.61%, respectively.

  17. Gamma-Ray Peak Integration: Accuracy and Precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard M. Lindstrom


    The accuracy of singlet gamma-ray peak areas obtained by a peak analysis program is immaterial. If the same algorithm is used for sample measurement as for calibration and if the peak shapes are similar, then biases in the integration method cancel. Reproducibility is the only important issue. Even the uncertainty of the areas computed by the program is trivial because the true standard uncertainty can be experimentally assessed by repeated measurements of the same source. Reproducible peak integration was important in a recent standard reference material certification task. The primary tool used for spectrum analysis was SUM, a National Institute of Standards and Technology interactive program to sum peaks and subtract a linear background, using the same channels to integrate all 20 spectra. For comparison, this work examines other peak integration programs. Unlike some published comparisons of peak performance in which synthetic spectra were used, this experiment used spectra collected for a real (though exacting) analytical project, analyzed by conventional software used in routine ways. Because both components of the 559- to 564-keV doublet are from 76 As, they were integrated together with SUM. The other programs, however, deconvoluted the peaks. A sensitive test of the fitting algorithm is the ratio of reported peak areas. In almost all the cases, this ratio was much more variable than expected from the reported uncertainties reported by the program. Other comparisons to be reported indicate that peak integration is still an imperfect tool in the analysis of gamma-ray spectra

  18. Reference Values for Peak Exercise Cardiac Output in Healthy Individuals. (United States)

    Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Vignati, Carlo; Gentile, Piero; Boiti, Costanza; Farina, Stefania; Salvioni, Elisabetta; Mapelli, Massimo; Magrì, Damiano; Paolillo, Stefania; Corrieri, Nicoletta; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Cattadori, Gaia


    Cardiac output (Q˙) is a key parameter in the assessment of cardiac function, its measurement being crucial for the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic evaluation of all heart diseases. Until recently, Q˙ determination at peak exercise has been possible through invasive methods, so that normal values were obtained in studies based on small populations. Nowadays, peak Q˙ can be measured noninvasively by means of the inert gas rebreathing (IGR) technique. The present study was undertaken to provide reference values for peak Q˙ in the normal general population and to obtain a formula able to estimate peak exercise Q˙ from measured peak oxygen uptake (V˙o 2 ). We studied 500 normal subjects (age, 44.9 ± 1.5 years; range, 18-77 years; 260 men, 240 women) who underwent a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test with peak Q˙ measurement by IGR. In the overall study sample, peak Q˙ was 13.2 ± 3.5 L/min (men, 15.3 ± 3.3 L/min; women, 11.0 ± 2.0 L/min; P exercise was (4.4 × peak V˙o 2 ) + 4.3 in the overall study cohort, (4.3 × peak V˙o 2 ) + 4.5 in men, and (4.9 × peak V˙o 2 ) + 3.6 in women. The simultaneous measurement of Q˙ and V˙o 2 at peak exercise in a large sample of healthy subjects provided an equation to predict peak Q˙ from peak V˙o 2 values. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Geochemistry, geochronology, and Sr-Nd isotopes of the Late Neoproterozoic Wadi Kid volcano-sedimentary rocks, Southern Sinai, Egypt: Implications for tectonic setting and crustal evolution (United States)

    Moghazi, Abdel-Kader M.; Ali, Kamal A.; Wilde, Simon A.; Zhou, Qin; Andersen, Tom; Andresen, Arild; Abu El-Enen, Mahrous M.; Stern, Robert J.


    The Kid Group is one of the few exposures of Neoproterozoic metavolcano-sedimentary rocks in the basement of southern Sinai in the northernmost Arabian-Nubian Shield. It is divided into the mostly metamorphosed volcaniclastic Melhaq and siliciclastic Um Zariq formations in the north and the mostly volcanic Heib and Tarr formations in the south. The Heib, Tarr, and Melhaq formations reflect an intense episode of igneous activity and immature clastic deposition associated with core-complex formation during Ediacaran time, but Um Zariq metasediments are relicts of an older (Cryogenian) sedimentary sequence. The latter yielded detrital zircons with concordant ages as young as 647 ± 12 Ma, which may indicate that the protolith of Um Zariq schist was deposited after ~ 647 Ma but 19 concordant zircons gave a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 813 ± 6 Ma, which may represent the maximum depositional age of this unit. In contrast, a cluster of 11 concordant detrital zircons from the Melhaq Formation yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 615 ± 6 Ma. Zircons from Heib Formation rhyolite clast define a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 609 ± 5 Ma, which is taken to approximate the age of Heib and Tarr formation volcanism. Intrusive syenogranite sample from Wadi Kid yields a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 604 ± 5 Ma. These constraints indicate that shallow-dipping mylonites formed between 615 ± 6 Ma and 604 ± 5 Ma. Geochemical data for volcanic samples from the Melhaq and Heib formations and the granites show continuous major and trace element variations corresponding to those expected from fractional crystallization. The rocks are enriched in large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements, with negative Nb anomalies. These reflect magmas generated by melting of subduction-modified lithospheric mantle, an inference that is further supported by ɛNd(t) = + 2.1 to + 5.5. This mantle source obtained its trace element characteristics by interaction with fluids and melts

  20. The metamorphic basement of the southern Sierra de Aconquija, Eastern Sierras Pampeanas: Provenance and tectonic setting of a Neoproterozoic back-arc basin (United States)

    Cisterna, Clara Eugenia; Altenberger, Uwe; Mon, Ricardo; Günter, Christina; Gutiérrez, Antonio


    The Eastern Sierras Pampeanas are mainly composed of Neoproterozoic-early Palaeozoic metamorphic complexes whose protoliths were sedimentary sequences deposited along the western margin of Gondwana. South of the Sierra de Aconquija, Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, a voluminous metamorphic complex crops out. It is mainly composed of schists, gneisses, marbles, calk-silicate schists, thin layers of amphibolites intercalated with the marbles and granitic veins. The new data correlate the Sierra de Aconquija with others metamorphic units that crop out to the south, at the middle portion of the Sierra de Ancasti. Bulk rock composition reflects originally shales, iron rich shales, wackes, minor litharenites and impure limestones as its protoliths. Moreover, comparisons with the northern Sierra de Aconquija and from La Majada (Sierra de Ancasti) show similar composition. Amphibolites have a basaltic precursor, like those from the La Majada (Sierra de Ancasti) ones. The analyzed metamorphic sequence reflects low to moderate weathering conditions in the sediments source environment and their chemical composition would be mainly controlled by the tectonic setting of the sedimentary basin rather than by the secondary sorting and reworking of older deposits. The sediments composition reveal relatively low maturity, nevertheless the Fe - shale and the litharenite show a tendency of minor maturity among them. The source is related to an acid one for the litharenite protolith and a more basic to intermediate for the other rocks, suggesting a main derivation from intermediate to felsic orogen. The source of the Fe-shales may be related to and admixture of the sediments with basic components. Overall the composition point to an upper continental crust as the dominant sediment source for most of the metasedimentary rocks. The protolith of the amphibolites have basic precursors, related to an evolving back-arc basin. The chemical data in combination with the specific sediment association

  1. Replacement of benthic communities in two Neoproterozoic-Cambrian subtropical-to-temperate rift basins, High Atlas and Anti-Atlas, Morocco (United States)

    Clausen, Sébastien; Álvaro, J. Javier; Zamora, Samuel


    The ‘Cambrian explosion’ is often introduced as a major shift in benthic marine communities with a coeval decline of microbial consortia related to the diversification of metazoans and development of bioturbation (‘Agronomic Revolution’). Successive community replacements have been reported along with ecosystem diversification and increase in guild complexity from Neoproterozoic to Cambrian times. This process is recorded worldwide but with regional diachroneities, some of them directly controlled by the geodynamic conditions of sedimentary basins. The southern High Atlas and Anti-Atlas of Morocco record development of two rifts, Tonian (?) - early Cryogenian and latest Ediacarian-Cambrian in age, separated by the onset of the Pan-African Orogeny. This tectonically controlled, regional geodynamic change played a primary control on pattern and timing of benthic ecosystem replacements. Benthic communities include microbial consortia, archaeocyathan-thromboid reefal complexes, chancelloriid-echinoderm-sponge meadows, and deeper offshore echinoderm-dominated communities. Microbial consortia appeared in deeper parts of the Tonian (?) - early Cryogenian fluvio-deltaic progradational rift sequences, lacustrine environments of the Ediacaran Volcanic Atlasic Chain (Ouarzazate Supergroup) and the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary interval, characterized by the peritidal-dominated Tifnout Member (Adoudou Formation). They persisted and were largely significant until Cambrian Age 3, as previous restricted marine conditions precluded the immigration of shelly metazoans in the relatively shallow epeiric parts of the Cambrian Atlas Rift. Successive Cambrian benthic communities were replaced as a result of distinct hydrodynamic and substrate conditions, which allow identification of biotic (e.g., antagonistic relationships between microbial consortia and echinoderms, and taphonomic feedback patterns in chancelloriid-echinoderm-sponge meadows) and abiotic (e.g., rifting

  2. Sedimentary environment and tectonic deformations of the Neoproterozoic Iron formation at the Wadi El-Dabbah greenstone sequence, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Suzuki, T.; Ikehara, M.; Horie, K.; Takehara, M.; Abd-Elmonem, H.; Dawoud, A. D. M.; El-Hasan, M. M.


    El-Dabbah area Central Eastern Desert of the Nubia Shield preserved Neoproterozoic lower green schist faces volcaniclastics greenstone sequence and covered strike-slip deformation related subaerial sedimentary sequence (Hammamat Group). The volcaniclastics greenstone sequence (El-Dabbah Formation) preserved several iron beds bearing well stratified sequence. Four tectonic deformation identified as this area; thrust deformation (D1), strike-slip deformation with transtension normal fault and strong left-lateral shear (D2), subaerial pull apart sediments basin formed strike-slip deformations (D3), and extensional deformation after the Hammamat Group sedimentation (D4). New age data from intrusions identified about 638 Ma white granite and about 660 Ma quartz porphyry. Based on the detail mapping, we reconstruct more than 5000m thick volcano sedimentary succession. At least, 10 iron rich sections were identified within 3500m thick volcano-sedimentary sequence. There are 14 iron formation sequence identified in this greenstone sequence. Each Iron sequences are bedded with greenish-black shales within massive volcaniclastics and lava flow. Iron formation is formed mostly fine grain magnetite deposited within volcanic mudstone and siltstone with gradual distribution. Timing of this iron sediment is identified within Sturtian glaciation (730-700Ma). However, there is no geological direct support evidence in the Snowball earth event at this greenstone sequence. The volcanic activities at this ocean already produced many Fe2+ to ocean water. Repeated iron precipitation occur during volcanic activity interphase period which produced oxidation of iron and produce oxyhydroxide with mud-silt sediment at bottom of ocean.

  3. Effect of cardiac function on aortic peak time and peak enhancement during coronary CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Shuji; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Chishaki, Akiko; Okafuji, Takashi; Matsuo, Yoshio; Kamitani, Takeshi; Setoguchi, Taro; Honda, Hiroshi


    Purpose: To examine the manner in which cardiac function affects the magnitude and timing of aortic contrast enhancement during coronary CT angiography (CTA). Materials and methods: Twenty-nine patients (21 men, 8 women; mean age, 64.4 ± 13.4 years; mean weight, 59.4 ± 10.3 kg) underwent measurement of cardiac output within 2 weeks of coronary CTA. The cardiac output of each patient was measured by the thermodilution technique and the cardiac index was calculated from the body surface area. During coronary CTA, attenuation of the descending aorta was measured at the workstation every 3 s. The aortic peak time (APT) and aortic peak enhancement (APE) of each patient were calculated. Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the cardiac output or cardiac index and APT or APE. Furthermore, the relationship between patient factors or parameters on test bolus injection and APT or APE was also evaluated. Results: The range of cardiac output, cardiac index, APT, and APE was 1.55-10.46 L/min (mean: 4.77 ± 2.13), 1.11-5.30 L/(min-m 2 ) (mean: 3.28 ± 1.08), 25-51 s (mean: 38.3 ± 7.5), and 273.1-598.1 HU (mean: 390.4 ± 72.1), respectively. With an increase in the cardiac index, both APT (r = -0.698, p < 0.0001) and APE (r = -0.573, p = 0.0009) decreased. There were significant correlations between the patient body weight and APT and APE with the test bolus injection, and with APT and APE during coronary CTA. Conclusion: The APT and APE during coronary CTA are closely related to cardiac function.

  4. Composition, age, and origin of the ~620 Ma Humr Akarim and Humrat Mukbid A-type granites: no evidence for pre-Neoproterozoic basement in the Eastern Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Ali, Kamal A.; Moghazi, Abdel-Kader M.; Maurice, Ayman E.; Omar, Sayed A.; Wang, Qiang; Wilde, Simon A.; Moussa, Ewais M.; Manton, William I.; Stern, Robert J.


    The Humr Akarim and Humrat Mukbid plutons, in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt, are late Neoproterozoic post-collisional alkaline A-type granites. Humr Akarim and Humrat Mukbid plutonic rocks consist of subsolvus alkali granites and a subordinate roof facies of albite granite, which hosts greisen and Sn-Mo-mineralized quartz veins; textural and field evidence strongly suggest the presence of late magmatic F-rich fluids. The granites are Si-alkali rich, Mg-Ca-Ti poor with high Rb/Sr (20-123), and low K/Rb (27-65). They are enriched in high field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr, Y, U, Th) and heavy rare earth elements (La n /Yb n = 0.27-0.95) and exhibit significant tetrad effects in REE patterns. These geochemical attributes indicate that granite trace element distribution was controlled by crystal fractionation as well as interaction with fluorine-rich magmatic fluids. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating indicates an age of ~630-620 Ma but with abundant evidence that zircons were affected by late corrosive fluids (e.g., discordance, high common Pb). ɛNd at 620 Ma ranges from +3.4 to +6.8 (mean = +5.0) for Humr Akarim granitic rocks and from +4.8 to +7.5 (mean = +5.8) for Humrat Mukbid granitic rocks. Some slightly older zircons (~740 Ma, 703 Ma) may have been inherited from older granites in the region. Our U-Pb zircon data and Nd isotope results indicate a juvenile magma source of Neoproterozoic age like that responsible for forming most other ANS crust and refute previous conclusions that pre-Neoproterozoic continental crust was involved in the generation of the studied granites.

  5. Evaluation of peak power prediction equations in male basketball players. (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Lyons, Mark; Nevill, Alan M


    This study compared peak power estimated using 4 commonly used regression equations with actual peak power derived from force platform data in a group of adolescent basketball players. Twenty-five elite junior male basketball players (age, 16.5 +/- 0.5 years; mass, 74.2 +/- 11.8 kg; height, 181.8 +/- 8.1 cm) volunteered to participate in the study. Actual peak power was determined using a countermovement vertical jump on a force platform. Estimated peak power was determined using countermovement jump height and body mass. All 4 prediction equations were significantly related to actual peak power (all p jump prediction equations, 12% for the Canavan and Vescovi equation, and 6% for the Sayers countermovement jump equation. In all cases peak power was underestimated.

  6. Group Elevator Peak Scheduling Based on Robust Optimization Model


    ZHANG, J.; ZONG, Q.


    Scheduling of Elevator Group Control System (EGCS) is a typical combinatorial optimization problem. Uncertain group scheduling under peak traffic flows has become a research focus and difficulty recently. RO (Robust Optimization) method is a novel and effective way to deal with uncertain scheduling problem. In this paper, a peak scheduling method based on RO model for multi-elevator system is proposed. The method is immune to the uncertainty of peak traffic flows, optimal scheduling is re...

  7. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy of the Ediacaran Jaíba Formation, Upper Bambuí Group, Brazil: Insights into Paleogeography and Sedimentary Environments after a Neoproterozoic Glaciation. (United States)

    Caxito, F.; Uhlein, G. J.; Sial, A. N.; Uhlein, A.


    The Neoproterozoic Era was a time of extreme climatic variation as recorded in sedimentary rocks of this age across the globe, leading to a number of controversial hypotheses (e.g. the Snowball Earth glaciations). In eastern Brazil, the Bambuí Gr. is a thick carbonatic-siliciclastic unit that covers the São Francisco Craton and preserves remnants of a Neoproterozoic glaciation and their respective cap carbonate (1). Recent findings of Cloudina in the Januária region (2) suggest that at least part of the sequence might be upper Ediacaran or even Cambrian. Here we present the first carbon-oxygen isotope data for the Jaíba Fm., a ca. 50 m thick carbonate unit that occurs in the topmost portion of the Bambuí Gr. in this same region. The Jaíba Fm. post-dates the cap carbonate sequence and the fossil-bearing layers, and thus was probably deposited in the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. Three stratigraphic columns were analyzed, and yielded similar ratios. Values of δ13CVPDB are between 0.8 and 3.4 ‰, while δ18OVPDB values are mostly around -8 ‰. These values contrasts with the negative δ13C values found for the base of the Bambuí Gr., followed by highly positive δ13C (up to +14‰) on its middle portion. The unusually high δ13C values are commonly interpreted as evidence for deposition on a restricted basin, such as in a foreland setting. The return to values which are close to the PDB standard in the uppermost Bambuí Gr. might thus indicate a change in the paleogeography and tectonic environment of the basin, suggesting an open, ventilated environment along with a recovery of the biological and hydrological cycle after a Late Neoproterozoic glaciation. Ongoing detailed sedimentological, geochemical and isotopic work might help to further clarify these issues and to provide new clues for unraveling Late Neoproterozoic paleoclimate, paleogeography and ocean chemistry. We thank FAPEMIG (Brazil) for finnacial support through grants n. APQ-00914-14 and PPM

  8. Deeply concealed half-graben at the SW margin of the East European Craton (SE Poland) — Evidence for Neoproterozoic rifting prior to the break-up of Rodinia


    P. Krzywiec; P. Poprawa; M. Mikołajczak; S. Mazur; M. Malinowski


    Baltica was one of continents formed as a result of Rodinia break-up 850–550 Ma. It was separated from Amazonia(?) by the Tornquist Ocean, the opening of which was preceded by Neoproterozoic extension in a network of continental rifts. Some of these rifts were subsequently aborted whereas the Tornquist Rift gave rise to splitting of Rodinia and formation of the Tornquist Ocean. The results of 1-D subsidence analysis at the fossil passive margin of Baltica provided insight in the timing and ki...

  9. Relationship between Precambrian North Korean Peninsula and the North China Craton: Evidence from LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from Neoproterozoic tillites of North Korea and Southern North China Craton (United States)

    Hu, B.; Zhai, M.; Peng, P.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, J.; Jia, X.; Zhang, H.; Lei, W.; Zhuang, G.


    Relationship between Precambrian Korean Peninsula and the North China Craton (NCC) is focus of attention. There are Neoproterozoic tillites in Phyongnam Basin, Nangrim massif, North Korea (NK) and Southern NCC. Nangrim massif was regarded as a part of the NCC according to similar Precambrian basements between Nangrim massif and Longgang massif in the Northeast NCC. But the comparation of Neoproterozoic rocks is lacked between NK and NCC. Detrital zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 2 pebbly phyllite samples of Pirangdong Series in Phyongnam Basin and 2 argillaceous cemented mix-conglomeate samples of Luoquan Series in Southern NCC was analyzed in this research. Detrital zircon ages of pebbly phyllites of Pirangdong Series distribute mainly at 1.85 Ga, 1.8 Ga, 1.6 Ga, 1.4 Ga and 1.2 Ga. A small number of them are at 3.2 Ga, 2.6 - 2.5 Ga, 2.3 Ga, 2.1 Ga and 900 - 860 Ma. Detrital zircon ages of mix-conglomeates of Luoquan Series mainly focus on 2.5 Ga, 2.2 Ga, 2.0 Ga, 1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga. Minor of them distribute at 1.12 Ga. The similar age distribution of Pirangdong and Luoquan Series of 2.6 - 2.5 Ga, 2.1 - 2.0 Ga, 1.85 - 1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga corresponds to Precambrian significant tectonic- magmatic- thermal events of the NCC, which indicates that the Precambrian basement rocks of the NCC are main provenances of both Pirangdong and Luoquan Series. This also confirm that the Phyongnam Basin is a part of Neoproterozoic sedimentary covers of the NCC. It is worth to mention that 1.2 - 1.0 Ga and 900 - 850 Ma magmatic rocks in the NCC are seldom reported which relate to the assemblage and breakup of Rodinia Supercontinent. whereas they crop out widely in the South China Craton (SCC) and was always regarded as a mark distingusing the two craton. 1.2 - 1.0 Ga and 900 - 850 Ma zircon ages preserved in sedimentary rocks not only in North Korea and Southern NCC but also in Northeast NCC and East NCC provide data to compare Neoproterozoic strata between NCC and SCC and important clues to

  10. Geotectonic significance of Neoproterozoic amphibolites from the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt: A possible dismembered sub-ophiolitic metamorphic sole (United States)

    Farahat, E. S.


    Supra-subduction zone ophiolites in the Egyptian Central Eastern Desert (CED) occur as clusters in its northern (NCEDO) and southern (SCEDO) parts, displaying abundant island arc-boninitic and MORB/island-arc geochemical affinities, respectively. An amphibolite belt, including the investigated massive to slightly foliated Wadi Um Gheig (WUG) amphibolites, is exposed in the southeast most of the NCEDO thrusting over the El Sibai gneissic association and intruded by late- to post-orogenic granitoids and gabbros. The WUG rocks are metamorphosed under epidote amphibolite to common amphibolite facies. The amphiboles are calcic and represented by actinolitic hornblende to magnesio-hornblende in the epidote amphibolites and magnesio- to ferro-hornblende in the amphibolites. Plagioclase composition varies from pure albite (An3-8) in the epidote amphibolites to andesine and labradorite (An36-65) in the amphibolites. The estimated P-T conditions are in favor of their metamorphism under epidote amphibolite (c. 550-600 °C and 2-3 ± 1.5 kbar) and amphibolite (c. 618-720 °C and 3-6 ± 1.5 kbar) facies. The peak metamorphic conditions point to a burial depth of c.15-20 km. Geochemically, the WUG amphibolites show basaltic to andesitic compositions of tholeiitic affinity. They display LILE-enriched MORB-normalized patterns with negative Nb anomalies characteristic of the subduction-related rocks. However, their chondrite-normalized rare-earth element (REE) patterns vary from LREE-depleted (LaN/YbN = 0.29 to 0.49) to LREE-enriched (LaN/YbN = 2.97 to 3.74). Few samples show major and trace element contents typical of boninitic rocks, including U-shaped REE pattern. On the standard tectonic discrimination diagrams the WUG amphibolites plot mostly in the island-arc fields with some samples of MORB and boninitic affinities. Greenschist facies metamorphosed NCEDO obviously share these geochemical characteristics, implying formation in the same tectonic environment, i.e. forearc basin

  11. Nonlinear preprocessing method for detecting peaks from gas chromatograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hyeyoung


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of locating valid peaks from data corrupted by noise frequently arises while analyzing experimental data. In various biological and chemical data analysis tasks, peak detection thus constitutes a critical preprocessing step that greatly affects downstream analysis and eventual quality of experiments. Many existing techniques require the users to adjust parameters by trial and error, which is error-prone, time-consuming and often leads to incorrect analysis results. Worse, conventional approaches tend to report an excessive number of false alarms by finding fictitious peaks generated by mere noise. Results We have designed a novel peak detection method that can significantly reduce parameter sensitivity, yet providing excellent peak detection performance and negligible false alarm rates from gas chromatographic data. The key feature of our new algorithm is the successive use of peak enhancement algorithms that are deliberately designed for a gradual improvement of peak detection quality. We tested our approach with real gas chromatograms as well as intentionally contaminated spectra that contain Gaussian or speckle-type noise. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve near perfect peak detection performance while maintaining very small false alarm probabilities in case of gas chromatograms. Given the fact that biological signals appear in the form of peaks in various experimental data and that the propose method can easily be extended to such data, our approach will be a useful and robust tool that can help researchers highlight valid signals in their noisy measurements.

  12. Evaluation of peak-fitting software for gamma spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Moralles, Mauricio


    In all applications of gamma-ray spectroscopy, one of the most important and delicate parts of the data analysis is the fitting of the gamma-ray spectra, where information as the number of counts, the position of the centroid and the width, for instance, are associated with each peak of each spectrum. There's a huge choice of computer programs that perform this type of analysis, and the most commonly used in routine work are the ones that automatically locate and fit the peaks; this fit can be made in several different ways - the most common ways are to fit a Gaussian function to each peak or simply to integrate the area under the peak, but some software go far beyond and include several small corrections to the simple Gaussian peak function, in order to compensate for secondary effects. In this work several gamma-ray spectroscopy software are compared in the task of finding and fitting the gamma-ray peaks in spectra taken with standard sources of 137 Cs, 60 Co, 133 Ba and 152 Eu. The results show that all of the automatic software can be properly used in the task of finding and fitting peaks, with the exception of GammaVision; also, it was possible to verify that the automatic peak-fitting software did perform as well as - and sometimes even better than - a manual peak-fitting software. (author)

  13. Determination of kinetic energy release from metastable peak widths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Allan Christian; Sølling, Theis Ivan


    The kinetic energy that is released upon bond rupture is often represented as T1/2. A value that is derived from the FWHM of a fragment peak by the use of two different conversion formulas. The choice of formula depends on whether the peak is recorded by scanning a magnetic sector or an electrost......The kinetic energy that is released upon bond rupture is often represented as T1/2. A value that is derived from the FWHM of a fragment peak by the use of two different conversion formulas. The choice of formula depends on whether the peak is recorded by scanning a magnetic sector...

  14. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Wittink


    Full Text Available Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report normative absolute and relative VO2peak values of a sample of law enforcement officers in the Netherlands. Material and Methods: The peak rate of oxygen consumption (ml×kg–1×min–1 was measured using a maximal incremental bicycle test in 1530 subjects, including 1068 male and 461 female police officers. Validity of the prediction equations for groups was assessed by comparing predicted VO2peak with measured VO2peak using paired t-tests. For individual differences limits of agreement (LoA were calculated. Equations were considered valid for individuals when the difference between measured and predicted VO2peak did not exceed ±1 metabolic equivalent (MET in 95% of individuals. Results: None of the equations met the validity criterion of 95% of individuals having ±1 MET difference or less than the measured value. Limits of agreement (LoAs were large in all predictions. At the individual level, none of the equations were valid predictors of VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1. Normative values for Dutch law enforcement officers were presented. Conclusions: Substantial differences between measured and predicted VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1 were found. Most tested equations were invalid predictors of VO2peak at group level and all were invalid at individual levels.

  15. Cadence, peak vertical acceleration, and peak loading rate during ambulatory activities: implications for activity prescription for bone health. (United States)

    Rowlands, Alex V; Schuna, John M; Stiles, Victoria H; Tudor-Locke, Catrine


    Previous research has reported peak vertical acceleration and peak loading rate thresholds beneficial to bone mineral density (BMD). Such thresholds are difficult to translate into meaningful recommendations for physical activity. Cadence (steps/min) is a more readily interpretable measure of ambulatory activity. To examine relationships between cadence, peak vertical acceleration and peak loading rate during ambulation and identify the cadence associated with previously reported bone-beneficial thresholds for peak vertical acceleration (4.9 g) and peak loading rate (43 BW/s). Ten participants completed 8 trials each of: slow walking, brisk walking, slow running, and fast running. Acceleration data were captured using a GT3×+ accelerometer worn at the hip. Peak loading rate was collected via a force plate. Strong relationships were identified between cadence and peak vertical acceleration (r = .96, P acceleration and 43 BW/s peak loading rate thresholds, respectively. Cadences ≥ 2.0 to 2.6 steps/s equate to acceleration and loading rate thresholds related to bone health. Further research is needed to investigate whether the frequency of daily occurrences of this cadence is associated with BMD.

  16. Peak effect in surface resistance at microwave frequencies in Dy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the measurements at both frequencies the induced microwave current was always less than the critical current of the films. The reason for observation of this peak effect in these films has been explained in our earlier publication [5]. Comparing figures 1 and 2, it is observed that the peaks in sample S1 are broader and.

  17. Psychological Preparation for Peak Performance in Sports Competition (United States)

    Ohuruogu, Ben; Jonathan, Ugwuanyi I.; Ikechukwu, Ugwu Jude


    This paper attempts to make an overview of various techniques, sport psychologist adopt in psychological preparation of athletes for peak performance. To attain peak performance in sports competitions, coaches and athletes should not base their prospect on physical training on sport skills alone rather should integrate both the mental and physical…

  18. Online junction temperature measurement using peak gate current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco


    A new method for junction temperature measurement of MOS-gated power semiconductor switches is presented. The measurement method involves detecting the peak voltage over the external gate resistor of an IGBT or MOSFET during turn-on. This voltage is directly proportional to the peak gate current...

  19. Flood Peak Estimation Using Rainfall Run off Models | Matondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design of hydraulic structures such as road culverts, road bridges and dam spillways requires the determination of the design food peak. Two approaches are available in the determination of the design flood peak and these are: flood frequency analysis and rainfall runoff models. Flood frequency analysis requires a ...

  20. Probabilistic Analysis of Peak Daily Rainfall for Prediction purposes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The obtained peak daily rainfall values were subjected to Gumbel, Log-Gumbel, Normal, Log-Normal, Pearson and Log-Pearson probability distributions. Mathematical equation for probability distribution functions were established for each town and used to predict peak rainfall. The predicted values were subjected to ...

  1. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate In Cigarette Smokers | Ukoli | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare lung function between smokers and non-smokers using Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Methods: This study examines the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of three hundred and forty cigarette smokers, age and sex-matched with PEFR of equal number of non-smokers. Results: The mean PEFR of ...

  2. Diffraction peaks in x-ray spectroscopy: Friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, R.G.; Goehner, R.P.


    Diffraction peaks can occur as unidentifiable peaks in the energy spectrum of an x-ray spectrometric analysis. Recently, there has been increased interest in oriented polycrystalline films and epitaxial films on single crystal substrates for electronic applications. Since these materials diffract x-rays more efficiently than randomly oriented polycrystalline materials, diffraction peaks are being observed more frequently in x-ray fluorescent spectra. In addition, micro x-ray spectrometric analysis utilizes a small, intense, collimated x-ray beam that can yield well defined diffraction peaks. In some cases these diffraction peaks can occur at the same position as elemental peaks. These diffraction peaks, although a possible problem in qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis, can give very useful information about the crystallographic structure and orientation of the material being analyzed. The observed diffraction peaks are dependent on the geometry of the x-ray spectrometer, the degree of collimation and the distribution of wavelengths (energies) originating from the x-ray tube and striking the sample

  3. Quality Assurance in the Determination of Overlapping Peak Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.H.; Heydorn, K.


    The ability of different computer programs to yield accurate peak areas in statistical control in the case of partially overlapping photopeaks has been tested by the Analysis of Precision. A modified Covell method, two commercially available peak-fitting programs from Nuclear Data and Ortec, and ...

  4. Limitations of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of a mother with severe pre-eclampsia at 32 weeks' gestation and non-immune fetal hydrops without obvious cause. Since the. MCA peak systolic velocity (PSV) was ... Limitations of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity .... [7] found MCA PSV of value in 9 women with chronic abruption, but in 5.

  5. Single-peak solitary wave solutions for the variant Boussinesq ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ∈ H1 loc(R). (iii) Similar to the proof of the above (ii),we omit it here. This completes the proof. 3. Smooth and cusped single-peak solitary wave solutions. Theorem 2.4 gives a classification for all single-peak solitary wave solutions for eq. (2.4).

  6. Identification of peaks in multidimensional coincidence {gamma}-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhac, Miroslav E-mail:; Kliman, Jan; Matousek, Vladislav; Veselsky, Martin; Turzo, Ivan


    In the paper a new algorithm to find peaks in two, three and multidimensional spectra, measured in large multidetector {gamma}-ray arrays, is derived. Given the dimension m, the algorithm is selective to m-fold coincidence peaks. It is insensitive to intersections of lower-fold coincidences, hereinafter called ridges.

  7. quasi hyperrigidity and weak peak points for non-commutative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The concepts of peak point and Choquet boundary play an important role in several areas of classical ... theory studied extensively with the concept of Korovkin (hyperrigid sets) sets. The idea of peak points was .... An operator system S in a C∗-algebra A is a self-adjoint linear subspace of A containing the iden- tity of A ...

  8. Determination of gaussian peaks in gamma spectra by iterative regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.J.R.


    The parameters of the peaks in gamma-ray spectra are determined by a simple iterative regression method. For each peak, the parameters are associated with a gaussian curve (3 parameters) located above a linear continuum (2 parameters). This method may produces the complete result of the calculation of statistical uncertainties and an accuracy higher than others methods. (author) [pt

  9. Daily Nigerian peak load forecasting using artificial neural network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A daily peak load forecasting technique that uses artificial neural network with seasonal indices is presented in this paper. A neural network of relatively smaller size than the main prediction network is used to predict the daily peak load for a period of one year over which the actual daily load data are available using one ...

  10. Mazama and Glacier Peak Volcanic Ash Layers: Relative Ages. (United States)

    Fryxell, R


    Physiographic and stratigraphic evidence supports the regional correlation of two volcanic ash layers with extinct Mount Mazama at Crater Lake, Oregon, and Glacier Peak in the northern Cascade Range of Washington. A radiocarbon age of 12,000 +/- 310 years confirms geological evidence that ash derived from the Glacier Peak eruption is substantially older than ash from the Mazama eruption of 6600 years ago.

  11. Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The IEA's Smart Grids Technology Roadmap identified five global trends that could be effectively addressed by deploying smart grids. These are: increasing peak load (the maximum power that the grid delivers during peak hours), rising electricity consumption, electrification of transport, deployment of variable generation technologies (e.g. wind and solar PV) and ageing infrastructure. Along with this roadmap, a new working paper -- Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050 -- develops a methodology to estimate the evolution of peak load until 2050. It also analyses the impact of smart grid technologies in reducing peak load for four key regions; OECD North America, OECD Europe, OECD Pacific and China. This working paper is a first IEA effort in an evolving modelling process of smart grids that is considering demand response in residential and commercial sectors as well as the integration of electric vehicles.

  12. Reliability of peak treadmill exercise tests in mild Alzheimer disease. (United States)

    Anderson, Heather S; Kluding, Patricia M; Gajewski, Byron J; Donnelly, Joseph E; Burns, Jeffrey M


    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of treadmill peak exercise testing in people with very mild-to-mild Alzheimer disease (AD). Sixteen subjects with very mild-to-mild AD performed graded peak treadmill exercise tests twice within a 14-day period. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were continuously monitored. Peak values were analyzed for absolute level of agreement. Fourteen participants (87.5%) completed testing. Reliability was excellent with total peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) (ml/kg/min) highly correlated across the two tests (r = 0.94, p exercise testing on a treadmill is reliable in the early stages of AD.

  13. Diffraction peak shift in MgO small crystallites (United States)

    Gielen, P.


    A linear relationship is found between peak position and peak width for the X-ray diffraction peaks of MgO very small crystallites. The sign of the peak shift is explained. The peak shape is asymmetrical, the more asymmetrical the broader it is. The second Heisenberg's uncertainty relation is reinterpreted. L'auteur trouve une relation linéaire entre la position des pics et la largeur des pics de diffraction des rayons X pour de très petites cristallites de MgO. Il explique le signe du déplacement des pics. La forme des pics est asymétrique, d'autant plus asymétrique qu'ils sont plus larges. La seconde relation d'incertitude de Heisenberg est réinterprétée.

  14. Peak broadening in paper chromatography and related techniques : III. Peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligny, C.L. de; Remijnse, A.G.


    The mechanism of peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder was investigated by comparing the peak widths obtained in chromatography with those caused only by diffusion in the cellulose powder, for a set of amino acids of widely differing RF values and six kinds of cellulose

  15. New aeromagnetic data of eastern Dronning Maud Land: implications for the spatial extent of a major Early Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal province (United States)

    Ruppel, A. S.; Jacobs, J.; Eagles, G.; Läufer, A.; Jokat, W.


    A long-standing collaboration between Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) and the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) aims to investigate the sub-ice crustal architecture and tectonic evolution of East Antarctica. Its main emphasis is on Dronning Maud Land (DML). During the austral summers 2014 and 2015, ca. 40.000 line kilometre of new magnetic, gravity and ice-penetrating radar data were collected with 10 km line spacing. Here, we report on magnetic anomaly data to the east and south of Sør Rondane (eastern DML), analysed with several filtering techniques. These data are integrated with exposure information from Sør Rondane, the Belgica Mts., and the Yamato Mts.. The study area covers the eastern part of a major, recently revealed Early Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal block, the Tonian Oceanic Arc Super Terrane (TOAST). The western extent of the TOAST is well defined by the Forster Magnetic Anomaly and characterized by a province of subdued SE-striking parallel positive magnetic anomalies in the mostly ice-covered region of south-eastern DML (the SE DML province). Geological investigations showed that this area can be correlated with exposures in Sør Rondane and scattered nunataks west of it. U-Pb ages of ca. 1000-900 Ma, are documented from zircons of gabbro-trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (GTTG) suites in both areas. Further, geochemical analyses prove a juvenile character of the GTTGs, which are interpreted as oceanic arc complexes. Glacial drift from southern Sør Rondane points to an inland continuation of the TOAST, so far of unknown dimensions. The new magnetic data constrain the southern and eastern minimum extent of the TOAST, which we think has a minimum area of 450.000 km2. The spatial extent of this major juvenile crustal province has major significance for the tectonic reconstruction of East Antarctica and its involvement in Rodinia since it is suggested having evolved

  16. Neoproterozoic A-type granitoids of the central and southern Appalachians: Intraplate magmatism associated with episodic rifting of the Rodinian supercontinent (United States)

    Tollo, R.P.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Bartholomew, M.J.; Rankin, D.W.


    Emplacement of compositionally distinctive granitic plutons accompanied two pulses (765-680 and 620-550Ma) of crustal extension that affected the Rodinian craton at the present location of the central Appalachians during the Neoproterozoic. The dominantly metaluminous plutons display mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of A-type granites including high FeO t/MgO ratios, high abundances of Nb, Zr, Y, Ta, and REE (except Eu), and low concentrations of Sc, Ba, Sr, and Eu. These dike-like, sheet complexes occur throughout the Blue Ridge province of Virginia and North Carolina, and were emplaced at shallow levels in continental crust during active extension, forming locally multiple-intrusive plutons elongated perpendicular to the axis of extension. New U-Pb zircon ages obtained from the Polly Wright Cove (706??4Ma) and Suck Mountain (680??4Ma) plutons indicate that metaluminous magmas continued to be replenished near the end of the first pulse of rifting. The Suck Mountain body is presently the youngest known igneous body associated with earlier rifting. U-Pb zircon ages for the Pound Ridge Granite Gneiss (562??5Ma) and Yonkers Gneiss (563??2Ma) in the Manhattan prong of southeastern New York constitute the first evidence of plutonic felsic activity associated with the later period of rifting in the U.S. Appalachians, and suggest that similar melt-generation processes were operative during both intervals of crustal extension. Fractionation processes involving primary minerals were responsible for much of the compositional variation within individual plutons. Compositions of mapped lithologic units in a subset of plutons studied in detail define overlapping data arrays, indicating that, throughout the province, similar petrologic processes operated locally on magmas that became successively more chemically evolved. Limited variation in source-sensitive Y/Nb and Yb/Ta ratios is consistent with results of melting experiments and indicates that metaluminous

  17. Neoproterozoic Oxygenation of Earth Surface Environments Reflected in the Late Evolution of the O2-Dependent Vitamin B12 Biosynthesis Pathway (United States)

    Saito, M. A.; Bertrand, E. M.; Anbar, A.


    There are multiple lines of evidence for a significant rise of O2 in the Earth's atmosphere ~2.4 Ga. A second oxygenation event in the Neoproterozoic is not as well constrained. These changes in environmental redox affected the abundances of bioessential elements. Trace elements such as Co, Fe, and Ni were likely favored in the early evolution of metalloenzymes, prior to the first oxidation event. Consistent with this expectation, vitamin B12 is a Co-containing biomolecule whose biosynthesis is thought to have evolved prior to the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis and the first rise in O2. However, biochemical characterization of the many enzymes involved in B12 biosynthesis has revealed two distinct pathways: an O2-independent pathway and an O2-dependant pathway. The major difference between these pathways involves the timing of the insertion of Co. We examined the amino acid sequences of enzymes in the B12 biosynthesis pathway from a set of 100 phylogenetically diverse microbial genomes, focusing on enzymes exclusive to each pathway as well as enzymes shared by both. Molecular clock and phylogenetic analyses were performed on alignments of the sequences obtained from these study genomes. This approach focused on functional genes rather than the phylogeny of microbes in an attempt to understand the evolution of the pathway itself, rather than its presence in individual phylogenetic groups. Clear differences in age are apparent between representatives of each pathway. The O2-independent pathway and enzymes shared in both pathways show the most ancient last common ancestors. In contrast, the enzymes associated exclusively with the O2-dependent pathway diverged from a common ancestor less than a billion years ago. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these enzymes were recruited from other biochemical pathways. From these results it seems likely that the evolution of the O2-dependent pathway occurred long after the initial evolution of the B12 biosynthesis. This

  18. Neoproterozoic anorogenic magmatism in the Southern Bahia Alkaline Province of NE Brazil: U-Pb and Pb-Pb ages of the blue sodalite syenites (United States)

    Rosa, Maria de Lourdes da Silva; Conceição, Herbet; Macambira, Moacir José Buenano; Galarza, Marco Antonio; Cunha, Mônica Pringsheim; Menezes, Rita Cunha Leal; Marinho, Moacyr Moura; Filho, Basílio Elesbão da Cruz; Rios, Débora Correia


    Blue sodalite syenite is a rare rock, and the Southern Bahia Alkaline Province (SBAP) is the only place in Brazil where economic deposits are found. This province forms part of the Archaean to Paleoproterozoic São Francisco craton, and contains a few batholiths, a large number of stocks and hundreds of dykes. Its southern part lies close to the tectonic contact between the craton and the Neoproterozoic Araçuaí mobile melt. Blue sodalite-bearing syenites are found in almost all the igneous bodies of the SBAP as dykes or pegmatitic masses hosted by nepheline syenite. Economically viable quantities for the production of dimension stones are found only in the Floresta Azul alkaline complex, the Itaju do Colônia and Rio Pardo stocks and the Itarantim batholith.U-Pb ages obtained for titanite from Itaju do Colônia (732 ± 8 Ma) and Rio Pardo (714 ± 8) and Pb-Pb evaporation ages of zircon from Floresta Azul (696 ± 3 Ma) and Itarantim (722 ± 5 Ma). The geochronology of the SBAP shows that the anorogenic alkaline magmatism persisted for at least 58 Ma, demonstrating an extensional tectonic environment in the southern part of the São Francisco craton at this time. The data show that the rift phase which preceded the formation of the Araçuaí orogen was active until at least 700 Ma. The reported ages are similar to those found for the nepheline syenite host bodies, which supports the conclusions of the previous petrologic study demonstrating that blue sodalite is formed during the crystallization of these bodies. Two different processes are involved. In the magmatic process, sodalite occurs as disseminated and interstitial crystals among alkali feldspar crystals, and is associated with calcite and cancrinite formed by destabilization of nepheline. In the metasomatic process, discontinuous bands of sodalite are in sharp contact with nepheline syenite pegmatite, and its crystal aggregates often contain relict textures of nepheline and albite been replaced by sodalite.

  19. Late Neoproterozoic layered mafic intrusion of arc-affinity in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: A case study from the Shahira layered mafic intrusion, southern Sinai, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azer, M.K.; Obeid, M.A.; Gahalan, H.A.


    The Shahira Layered Mafic Intrusion (SLMI), which belongs to the late Neoproterozoic plutonic rocks of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, is the largest layered mafic intrusion in southern Sinai. Field relations indicate that it is younger than the surrounding metamorphic rocks and older than the post-orogenic granites. Based on variation in mineral paragenesis and chemical composition, the SLMI is distinguished into pyroxene-hornblende gabbro, hornblende gabbro and diorite lithologies. The outer zone of the mafic intrusion is characterized by fine-grained rocks (chilled margin gabbroic facies), with typical subophitic and/or microgranular textures. Different rock units from the mafic intrusion show gradational boundaries in between. They show some indications of low grade metamorphism, where primary minerals are transformed into secondary ones. Geochemically, the Shahira layered mafic intrusion is characterized by enrichment in LILE relative to HFSE (e.g. Nb, P, Zr, Ti, Y), and LREE relative to HREE [(La/Lu)n= 4.75–8.58], with subalkaline characters. It has geochemical characteristics of pre-collisional arc-type environment. The geochemical signature of the investigated gabbros indicates partial melting of mantle wedge in a volcanic-arc setting, being followed by fractional crystallization and crustal contamination. Fractional crystallization processes played a vital role during emplacement of the Shahira intrusion and evolution of its mafic and intermediate rock units. The initial magma was evolved through crystallization of hornblende which was caused by slight increasing of H2O in the magma after crystallization of liquidus olivine, pyroxene and Ca-rich plagioclase. The gabbroic rocks crystallized at pressures between 4.5 and 6.9kbar (~15–20km depth). Whereas, the diorites yielded the lowest crystallization pressure between 1.0 to 4.4Kbar (<10km depth). Temperature was estimated by several geothermometers, which yielded crystallization temperatures ranging from 835

  20. Timing of maturation of a Neoproterozoic oceanic arc during Pan-African Orogeny: the Asmlil complex (Anti-Atlas, South Morocco) (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Antoine; Berger, Julien; Baele, Jean-Marc; Bruguier, Olivier; Diot, Hervé; Ennih, Nasser; Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Watlet, Arnaud; Vandycke, Sara


    Many intra-oceanic paleo-arcs are exposed in the Pan-African belt surrounding the West African Craton. In the Moroccan Anti-Atlas, remnants of Intra-Oceanic Subduction Zone (IOSZ) are preserved in few erosional windows moulded along the Anti-Atlas Major fault. These complexes highlight a Neoproterozoic paleo-suture made of 760 My back-arc ophiolites thrusted to the south onto a dismembered band of oceanic arc relics. The Asmlil arc complex, located in the southern part of the Bou Azzer inlier, is made of (i) 755 to 745 My- intermediate banded gneiss interpreted as metavolcanic products of a juvenile oceanic arc. This latter has been intruded by (ii) medium-grained hornblende-gabbro and dioritic magmas, in turn intruded by (iii) medium- to coarse grained hornblenditic-granodioritic decametric intrusions under sub-magmatic HT conditions. Hornblende-gabbros are made of garnet + amphibole/cpx relics + epidote + rutile paragenesis. Calculated pseudosections yielded P ~ 11-12 kbar for T ranging between 600 and 720°C for garnet growth. Measured Zr-in-rutile thermometer gave slightly higher temperature ranging between 710-790°C. On the field, garnet-rich leucocratic veinlets suggest that moderate partial melting of the mafic rock or localized dehydration reactions took place under garnet-granulite conditions (>800°C for hydrated chemical system). New geochronological data on garnet-bearing leucogabbros constrain their emplacement at 700 ±7 My (U-Pb zircon with low Th/U volcanic to subvolcanic massifs. Second event occurred around 700 My and results from mafic products intruding previous arc. A last event also dated at 660-650 My in the Sirwa window marks the emplacement of hot hornblenditic arc-magmas into older arc massifs during the tectonic extrusion of the arc section. This late event is also related to intense melt production at different level of the arc contributing to differentiation of the whole arc complex. We thus interpreted the Asmlil complex as the final

  1. W-Au skarns in the Neo-Proterozoic Seridó Mobile Belt, Borborema Province in northeastern Brazil: an overview with emphasis on the Bonfim deposit (United States)

    Souza Neto, João Adauto; Legrand, Jean Michel; Volfinger, Marcel; Pascal, Marie-Lola; Sonnet, Philippe


    The Seridó Mobile Belt (SMB) is located in the Borborema Province in northeastern Brazil and consists of a gneiss basement (Archean to Paleo-Proterozoic), a metasedimentary sequence (marble, quartzites, and schists), and the Brasiliano igneous suite (both of Neo-Proterozoic age). In this region, skarns occur within marble and at the marble-schist contact in the metasedimentary sequence. Most of the skarn deposits have been discovered in the early 1940s, and since then, they have been exploited for tungsten and locally gold. Recently, the discovery of gold in the Bonfim tungsten skarn has resulted in a better understanding of the skarn mineralization in this region. The main characteristics of the SMB skarns are that they are dominantly oxidized tungsten skarns, with the exception of the Itajubatiba and Bonfim gold-bearing skarns, which are reduced based on pyrrhotite as the dominant sulfide, garnet with high almandine and spessartine component, and elevated gold contents. In the Bonfim deposit, pressure estimates indicate that the skarns formed at 10- to 15-km depth. The mineralized skarns present the prograde stage with almandine, diopside, anorthite, and actinolite-magnesio-hornblende, and titanite, apatite, allanite, zircon, and monazite as accessory minerals. The retrograde stage is characterized by alkali feldspar, clinozoisite-zoisite-sericite, calcite, and quartz. Scheelite occurs in four ore-shoots distributed within the marble and at the marble-schist contact. The main ore body is 5-120 cm wide and contains an average of 4.8-wt.% WO3, which occurs in the basal marble-schist contact. Fold hinges appear to control the location of high-grade scheelite. The late-stage gold mineralization contains bismite (Bi2O3), fluorine-bearing bismite, native bismuth, bismuthinite (Bi2S3), and joseite [Bi4(Te,S)3], and also chlorite, epidote, prehnite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. This gold-bismuth-tellurium mineralization exhibits a typical late character and occurs as a

  2. Paleoenvironments, δ13C and δ18O signatures in the Neoproterozoic carbonates of the Comba Basin, Republic of Congo: Implications for regional correlations and Marinoan event (United States)

    Préat, Alain; Delpomdor, Franck; Ackouala Mfere, Anna Perla; Callec, Yannick


    The Ediacaran Schisto-Calcaire Group is a ∼1300 m-thick succession belonging to the West Congo Supergroup in Central Africa. In the Comba Basin, it consists of three carbonate-dominated units defined as formations (SCI to SCIII) that are unconformably overlain by clastic deposits (Mpioka Group) interpreted as a molassic formation associated with the Panafrican Orogen. The underlying Upper Tillite and Cap Carbonate (SCIa) units, considered as markers of the Snowball Earth event were studied in three sections. We investigated the carbonates of the Schisto-Calcaire Group by defining new microfacies (MF1-MF7) and we performed C and O isotopic analyses in order to constraint the depositional and diagenetic events directly after the Marinoan interval. Stratigraphic variations of the stable isotopes are important in the series with lighter δ18O values (>1.5‰) than those of the Neoproterozoic ocean in the SCIc unit. According to regional stratigraphy a temperature effect can be dismissed and a freshwater surface layer is the origin of such negative δ18O values in this unit. The negative δ13C anomaly (-3.5‰ on average) of the Cap Carbonate is similarly to the δ18O values (-6.4‰ on average) in the range of the marine domain during postglacial sea level rise. The sample suite as a whole (SCII and SCIII formations) displays heavier δ18O and δ13C than those of the lower part (SCI unit) of the Schisto-Calcaire Group. The comparison with the Lower Congo (Democratic Republic of Congo) and Nyanga (Gabon) basins shows that the meteoric flushing in SCIc unit of the Schisto-Calcaire Group was regional and not local, and could be derived from a climatic evolution. Although an overall overprint is present, our isotopic relationships argue against overall diagenetic resetting of primary compositions and suggest that with careful examination combined with detailed petrographic analysis general depositional and diagenetic controls can be discerned in oxygen and carbon

  3. Zircon U-Pb Geochronology, Hf Isotopic Composition and Geological Implications of the Neoproterozoic Huashan Group in the Jingshan Area, Northern Yangtze Block, China (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Yang, K.


    In the northern Yangtze Block, a clear angular unconformity between the Mesoproterozoic sequences (e.g. Dagushi Group) and the overlying Neoproterozoic strata (e.g. Huashan Group) marks the the Jinning orogeny. A combined study of Lu-Hf isotopes and U-Pb ages for detrital zircons from Huashan Group can provide information on the crustal evolution of sedimentary provenances and the timing of the Jinning orogeny. Detrital zircons from Huashan Group have two major U-Pb age populations of about 2.0Ga, 2.65Ga, and three subordinate age groups of about 0.82Ga, 2.5Ga, 2.9Ga with minor >3.0Ga ages. The youngest five analyses yield a weighted average age of 816±9Ma, which is consistent with that of interlayered basalt (824±9Ma, Deng et al., 2013) and roughly defines the minimum depositional age of Huashan Group. Detrital zircons of Huashan Group mostly have two stage Hf isotope model ages (TDM2) between 3.0 to 3.3Ga, indicating that the northern Yangtze Block experienced significant continental crustal growth during the Paleo- to Meso-archean. Similar U-Pb ages of detrital zircons have been obtained from Precambrian sedimentary rocks in the northern Yangtze Block from previous studies (Liu et al., 2008; Guo et al., 2014 and references therein). Recently, ca. 2.65Ga A-type granites had been reported from the Kongling and Huji area, which likely record the thermally stable lithosphere (Chen et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2015). In combination with this study, it documents the widespread 2.6-2.7Ga magmatic rocks in the northern Yangtze Block. Zhao et al. (2013) demonstrated both the ca. 850Ma tonalite and trondhjemite of the Huangling igneous complex were formed in a continental arc setting. This suggests the Miaowan-Huashan oceanic basin proposed by Bader et al. (2013) has not been closed at ca. 850Ma. This evidence, together with the depositional age of the Huashan Group, indicates the Jinning orogeny took place at 850-820 Ma. [1] Bader et al., 2013 Tectonics [2] Deng et al

  4. Extensional collapse in the Neoproterozoic Araçuaí orogen, eastern Brazil: a setting for reactivation of asymmetric crenulation cleavage (United States)

    Marshak, Stephen; Alkmim, Fernando F.; Whittington, Alan; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio Carlos


    The Araçuaí orogen of eastern Brazil is one of many Brasiliano/Pan African orogens formed during the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana. Its western edge, bordering the São Francisco craton, is the Serra do Espinhaço fold-thrust belt, in which top-up-to-the-west (reverse-sense) faults, west-verging folds (F 1), and east-dipping spaced to phyllitic cleavage (S 1) developed. We have found that the kinematics of deformation changes markedly at the hinterland margin of this fold-thrust belt. Here, beneath a plateau known as the Chapada Acauã, metadiamictite and fine-grained pelitic schist comprise an east-dipping belt that contains an assemblage of structures indicative of top-down-to-the-east (normal-sense) shear. This assemblage includes a cascade of F 2 folds that refold F 1 folds and verge down the dip of the belt's enveloping surfaces, vertical tension gashes, and top-down-to-the-east rotated clasts. Based on the presence of these structures, we propose that the plateau exposes a regional-scale normal-sense shear zone, here called the Chapada Acauã shear zone (CASZ). Because F 2 folds refold F 1 folds, normal-sense shear in the CASZ occurred subsequent to initial west-verging thrusting. Considering this timing of motion in the CASZ, we suggest that the zone accommodated displacement of the internal zone of the Araçuaí orogen down, relative to its foreland fold-thrust belt, and thus played a role in extensional collapse of the orogen. The CASZ trends parallel to preserved thrusts to the west, and thus may represent an inverted thrust fault. Notably, throughout the CASZ, S 1 schistosity has been overprinted by a pervasive, west-dipping asymmetric crenulation cleavage (S 2). The sigmoid shape of S 1 surfaces in S 2 microlithons require that slip on each S 2 surface was top-down-to-the-west. S 2 cleavage is axial-planar to the down-dip verging F 2 folds. Based on its geometry, we suggest that S 2 cleavage initiated either as an antithetic extensional

  5. Dual Peak Cholera transmission in South Asia: A Hydroclimatological Explanation (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A.; Islam, S.


    Cholera has reemerged as a global killer with the world witnessing an unprecedented rise in cholera infection and transmission since the 1990s. Cholera outbreaks across most affected areas show infection patterns with a single annual peak. However, cholera incidences in the Bengal Delta region, the native homeland of cholera, show bi-annual peaks. The mechanisms behind this unique seasonal dual peak phenomenon in cholera dynamics, especially the role of climatic and hydrologic variables, are not fully understood. We disaggregate regional streamflow and sea surface temperature data into seasonal components, and analyze their correlation with the two seasonal peaks in Bangladesh cholera incidence records. Low flow in the Brahmaputra and the Ganges during spring is associated with inward plankton transport from the ocean and the first cholera outbreaks of the year. Peak streamflow of these rivers, on the other hand, create a different cholera transmission environment; peak flood volumes and extent of flood-affected areas during monsoon are responsible for widespread water contamination and subsequent cholera outbreaks. Our preliminary results demonstrate that the seasonality and dual peaks of cholera transmission in this region may be explained by two distinctly different hydroclimatological drivers. We will quantify the roles of these processes and explain the nature of these drivers.

  6. Modeled future peak streamflows in four coastal Maine rivers (United States)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Dudley, Robert W.


    To safely and economically design bridges and culverts, it is necessary to compute the magnitude of peak streamflows that have specified annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs). Annual precipitation and air temperature in the northeastern United States are, in general, projected to increase during the 21st century. It is therefore important for engineers and resource managers to understand how peak flows may change in the future. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT), presents modeled changes in peak flows at four basins in coastal Maine on the basis of projected changes in air temperature and precipitation. To estimate future peak streamflows at the four basins in this study, historical values for climate (temperature and precipitation) in the basins were adjusted by different amounts and input to a hydrologic model of each study basin. To encompass the projected changes in climate in coastal Maine by the end of the 21st century, air temperatures were adjusted by four different amounts, from -3.6 degrees Fahrenheit (ºF) (-2 degrees Celsius (ºC)) to +10.8 ºF (+6 ºC) of observed temperatures. Precipitation was adjusted by three different percentage values from -15 percent to +30 percent of observed precipitation. The resulting 20 combinations of temperature and precipitation changes (includes the no-change scenarios) were input to Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) watershed models, and annual daily maximum peak flows were calculated for each combination. Modeled peak flows from the adjusted changes in temperature and precipitation were compared to unadjusted (historical) modeled peak flows. Annual daily maximum peak flows increase or decrease, depending on whether temperature or precipitation is adjusted; increases in air temperature (with no change in precipitation) lead to decreases in peak flows, whereas increases in precipitation (with no change in temperature) lead to increases in peak flows. As

  7. System dynamics model of Hubbert Peak for China's oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zaipu; Li Mingyu


    American geophysicist M. King Hubbert in 1956 first introduced a logistic equation to estimate the peak and lifetime production for oil of USA. Since then, a fierce debate ensued on the so-called Hubbert Peak, including also its methodology. This paper proposes to use the generic STELLA model to simulate Hubbert Peak, particularly for the Chinese oil production. This model is demonstrated as being robust. We used three scenarios to estimate the Chinese oil peak: according to scenario 1 of this model, the Hubbert Peak for China's crude oil production appears to be in 2019 with a value of 199.5 million tonnes, which is about 1.1 times the 2005 output. Before the peak comes, Chinese oil output will grow by about 1-2% annually, after the peak, however, the output will fall. By 2040, the annual production of Chinese crude oil would be equivalent to the level of 1990. During the coming 20 years, the crude oil demand of China will probably grow at the rate of 2-3% annually, and the gap between domestic supply and total demand may be more than half of this demand

  8. Two density peaks in low magnetic field helicon plasma (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Zhao, G.; Liu, Z. W.; Ouyang, J. T.; Chen, Q.


    In this paper, we report two density peaks in argon helicon plasma under an axial magnetic field from 0 G to 250 G with Boswell-type antenna driven by radio frequency (RF) power of 13.56 MHz. The first peak locates at 40-55 G and the second one at 110-165 G, as the RF power is sustainably increased from 100 W to 250 W at Ar pressure of 0.35 Pa. The absorbed power of two peaks shows a linear relationship with the magnetic field. End views of the discharge taken by intensified charge coupled device reveal that, when the first peak appeared, the discharge luminance moves to the edge of the tube as the magnetic field increases. For the second peak, the strong discharge area is centered at the two antenna legs after the magnetic field reaches a threshold value. Comparing with the simulation, we suggest that the efficient power absorption of two peaks at which the efficient power absorption mainly appears in the near-antenna region is due to the mode conversion in bounded non-uniform helicon plasma. The two low-field peaks are caused, to some extent, by the excitation of Trivelpiece-Gould wave through non-resonance conversion.

  9. Generation of sub-nanosecond pulses using peaking capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Palati


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the analysis, simulation and design of a peaking circuit comprising of a peaking capacitor, spark gap and load circuit. The peaking circuit is used along with a 200 kV, 20 J Marx generator for generation of sub-nanosecond pulses. A high pressure chamber to accommodate the peaking circuit was designed and fabricated and tested upto a pressure of 70 kg/cm2. Total estimated values of the capacitance and inductance of the peaking circuit are 10 pF and 72 nH respectively. At full charging voltage, the peaking capacitor gets charged to a peak voltage of 394.6 kV in 15 ns. The output switch is closed at this instant. From Analysis & Simulation, the output current & rise time (with a matched load of 85 Ω are 2.53 kA and 0.62 ns.

  10. Pressure dependence of the Boson peak in poly(butadiene)

    CERN Document Server

    Frick, B


    Variation of pressure and temperature in inelastic neutron scattering experiments allows us to separate density and thermal energy contributions. We summarise briefly the influence of pressure and temperature on the dynamic scattering law of the polymer glass former poly(butadiene) far below the glass transition. We also show the advantage of using a liquid-niobium pressure cell in such studies. The effect of pressure on the boson peak is to shift the peak towards higher energies and to reduce the low-frequency modes more strongly below the boson-peak maximum than above. A decrease in the Debye-Waller factor with increasing pressure is observed. (orig.)

  11. Determination of proper peaking time for Ultra-LEGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karabidak, S.M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Department of Engineering Physics, Guemueshane University, 29100 Guemueshane (Turkey); Kaya, S. [Department of Engineering Physics, Guemueshane University, 29100 Guemueshane (Turkey); Cevik, U. [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Celik, A. [Department of Physics, Giresun University, 28049 Giresun (Turkey)


    Reducing count losses and pile-up pulse effects in quantitative and qualitative analysis is necessary for accuracy of analysis. Therefore, the proper peaking time for particular detector systems is important. The characteristic X-rays emitted from pure some elements were detected by using an Ultra-LEGe detector connecting a Tennelec TC 244 spectroscopy amplifier at different peaking time modes. Overall pulse widths were determined by an HM 203-7 oscilloscope connecting amplifier. The proper peaking time for Ultra-LEGe is determined as 3.84 {mu}s.

  12. OECD : Euroopa peaks laenuraha odava hoidma / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-


    USA majanduse kiire toibumine võib varsti tuua laenuintresside tõusu, Euroopa Keskpank peaks vähemalt aasta lõpuni ootama ja laskma kasvul juurduda. Diagramm: OECD tõstis majanduskasvu prognoosi. Maksukoormus

  13. Reducing Electricity Demand Peaks by Scheduling Home Appliances Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk


    . On the contrary, the low priority devices have to pause their operation, when the algorithm dictates it, and resume it in the future. This can become beneficial for both energy companies and users. The electricity suppliers companies will be capable of regulating power generation during demand peaks periods....... Moreover, users can be granted lower electricity bill rates for accepting delaying the operation of some of their appliances. In order to analyze this scenario, teletraffic engineering theory, which is used in evaluating the performance of telecommunication networks, is used. A reversible fair scheduling......Nowadays there is a tendency to consume electricity during the same period of the day leading to demand peaks. Regular energy consumption habits lead to demand peaks at specific temporal intervals, because users consume power at the same time. In order to avoid demand peaks, users’ appliances...

  14. Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak frequency and lightning parameters ... In recent summers, some natural lightning optical spectra and audible thunder signals were observed. ... School of Mathematics, Physics and Software Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730 070, China.

  15. Effects of equipment and technique on peak flow measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Driscoll B Ronan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different lung function equipment and different respiratory manoeuvres may produce different Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF results. Although the PEF is the most common lung function test, there have been few studies of these effects and no previous study has evaluated both factors in a single group of patients. Methods We studied 36 subjects (PEF range 80–570 l/min. All patients recorded PEF measurements using a short rapid expiration following maximal inspiration (PEF technique or a forced maximal expiration to residual volume (FVC technique. Measurements were made using a Wright's peak flow meter, a turbine spirometer and a Fleisch pneumotachograph spirometer. Results The mean PEF was 8.7% higher when the PEF technique was used (compared with FVC technique, p Conclusion Peak flow measurements are affected by the instruction given and by the device and Peak Flow scale used. Patient management decisions should not be based on PEF measurement made on different instruments.

  16. Potential of solar cooling systems for peak demand reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A A [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Neymark, J [Neymark (Joel), Golden, CO (United States)


    We investigated the technical feasibility of solar cooling for peak demand reduction using a building energy simulation program (DOE2.1D). The system studied was an absorption cooling system with a thermal coefficient of performance of 0.8 driven by a solar collector system with an efficiency of 50% with no thermal storage. The analysis for three different climates showed that, on the day with peak cooling load, about 17% of the peak load could be met satisfactorily with the solar-assisted cooling system without any thermal storage. A performance availability analysis indicated that the solar cooling system should be designed for lower amounts of available solar resources that coincide with the hours during which peak demand reduction is required. The analysis indicated that in dry climates, direct-normal concentrating collectors work well for solar cooling; however, in humid climates, collectors that absorb diffuse radiation work better.

  17. The simple method of determination peaks areas in multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loska, L.; Ptasinski, J.


    Semiconductor germanium detectors used in γ-spectrometry give spectra with well-separated peaks. However, in some cases, energies of γ-lines are too near, to produce resolved and undisturbed peaks. Then, there is a necessity to perform a mathematical separation. The method proposed here is based on the assumption, that areas of peaks composing the analysed multiplet are proportional to their heights. The method can be applied for any number of interfering peaks, providing, that the function of the background under the multiplet is accurately determined. The results of testing calculations performed on a simulated spectrum are given. The method works successfully in a computer program used for neutron activation analysis data processing. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  18. Desert Peak East Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemach, Ezra [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Drakos, Peter [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Spielman, Paul [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Akerley, John [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States)


    This manuscript is a draft to replaced with a final version at a later date TBD. A summary of activities pertaining to the Desert Peak EGS project including the planning and resulting stimulation activities.

  19. Measurement of two-peak structure in fusion reaction history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Peng Xiaoshi; Liu Shenye; Liu Yonggang; Xu Tao; Chen Ming; Mei Yu; Kang Dongguo; Gu Jianfa


    The relationship of the roughness degree of ablation shell and the two peaks of fusion reaction rate was analyzed. We developed a system for fusion reaction history measurement with high temporal resolution, and applied this system to the SG-Ⅲ prototype for measuring fusion reaction rate. Fusion reaction rate history was measured for the first time with deuterium-tritium filled targets under neutron yields of about 10 10 . We anatomized possible influence factors during fusion reaction rate's measuring. The two peaks of reaction rate can be obtained from the simulation results, and have been confirmed with the experimental results. It is found that neutrons in our experiment are generated by the first peak which is called the shock peak. The simulation and experimental results can provide strong technical support for the research on fusion reaction rate in inertial confinement fusion. (authors)

  20. FHWA operations support : port peak pricing program evaluation (United States)


    This report evaluates the applicability, Federal policy implications, and possible public and private sector roles related to peak pricing strategies at ports and intermodal facilities in the U.S. A number of ports and intermodal terminals are consid...

  1. Brian Eno Hollandi Festivali peakülaliseks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Inglise helilooja, videokunstnik ja muusikaprodutsent Brian Eno on 5.-26. juunini Amsterdamis toimuva avangardse Hollandi Festivali peakülaline, kelle videoinstallatsioon seatakse üles Stedelijki Muuseumis. Festivali programmist

  2. Advancements of ultra-high peak power laser diode arrays (United States)

    Crawford, D.; Thiagarajan, P.; Goings, J.; Caliva, B.; Smith, S.; Walker, R.


    Enhancements of laser diode epitaxy in conjunction with process and packaging improvements have led to the availability of 1cm bars capable of over 500W peak power at near-infrared wavelengths (770nm to 1100nm). Advances in cooler design allow for multi-bar stacks with bar-to-bar pitches as low as 350μm and a scalable package architecture enabled a single diode assembly with total peak powers of over 1MegaWatt of peak power. With the addition of micro-optics, overall array brightness greater than 10kW/cm2 was achieved. Performance metrics of barbased diode lasers specifically engineered for high peak power and high brightness at wavelengths and pulse conditions commonly used to pump a variety of fiber and solid-state materials are presented.

  3. Peak globalization. Climate change, oil depletion and global trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Fred


    The global trade in goods depends upon reliable, inexpensive transportation of freight along complex and long-distance supply chains. Global warming and peak oil undermine globalization by their effects on both transportation costs and the reliable movement of freight. Countering the current geographic pattern of comparative advantage with higher transportation costs, climate change and peak oil will thus result in peak globalization, after which the volume of exports will decline as measured by ton-miles of freight. Policies designed to mitigate climate change and peak oil are very unlikely to change this result due to their late implementation, contradictory effects and insufficient magnitude. The implication is that supply chains will become shorter for most products and that production of goods will be located closer to where they are consumed. (author)

  4. Peak globalization. Climate change, oil depletion and global trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Fred [Department of Economics, Drew University, Madison, NJ 07940 (United States)


    The global trade in goods depends upon reliable, inexpensive transportation of freight along complex and long-distance supply chains. Global warming and peak oil undermine globalization by their effects on both transportation costs and the reliable movement of freight. Countering the current geographic pattern of comparative advantage with higher transportation costs, climate change and peak oil will thus result in peak globalization, after which the volume of exports will decline as measured by ton-miles of freight. Policies designed to mitigate climate change and peak oil are very unlikely to change this result due to their late implementation, contradictory effects and insufficient magnitude. The implication is that supply chains will become shorter for most products and that production of goods will be located closer to where they are consumed. (author)

  5. Households' hourly electricity consumption and peak demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Baldini, Mattia; Hansen, Lars Gårn


    The electrification of residential energy demand for heating and transportation is expected to increase peak load and require additional generation and transmission capacities. Electrification also provides an opportunity to increase demand response. With a focus on household electricity......, for an individual household, the consumption of each of these technologies roughly doubles the household's consumption and considerably increases their potential for flexibility. Thus, in order to introduce incentives for demand flexibility, while considering reducing peak consumption, policy makers should...... consumption, we analyse the contribution of appliances and new services, such as individual heat pumps and electric vehicles, to peak consumption and the need for demand response incentives to reduce the peak.Initially, the paper presents a new model that represents the hourly electricity consumption profile...

  6. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Jay Peak, VT Quadrangle (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG99-1 Compilation bedrock geologic map of the Jay Peak quadrangle, Compiled by B. Doolan, 1999: VGS Open-File Report VG99-1, 1 plate, scale...

  7. Periodic transmission peak splitting in one dimensional disordered photonic structures (United States)

    Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco


    In the present paper we present ways to modulate the periodic transmission peaks arising in disordered one dimensional photonic structures with hundreds of layers. Disordered structures in which the optical length nd (n is the refractive index and d the layer thickness) is the same for each layer show regular peaks in their transmission spectra. A proper variation of the optical length of the layers leads to a splitting of the transmission peaks. Notably, the variation of the occurrence of high and low refractive index layers, gives a tool to tune also the width of the peaks. These results are of highest interest for optical application, such as light filtering, where the manifold of parameters allows a precise design of the spectral transmission ranges.

  8. 1.55 Micron High Peak Power Fiber Amplifier Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, we propose to demonstrate and build a 1.55 micron single frequency high energy and high peak power fiber amplifier by developing an innovative...

  9. Hubbert's Oil Peak Revisited by a Simulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Sutter, A.; Denis, T.; Leonard, C.


    As conventional oil reserves are declining, the debate on the oil production peak has become a burning issue. An increasing number of papers refer to Hubbert's peak oil theory to forecast the date of the production peak, both at regional and world levels. However, in our views, this theory lacks micro-economic foundations. Notably, it does not assume that exploration and production decisions in the oil industry depend on market prices. In an attempt to overcome these shortcomings, we have built an adaptative model, accounting for the behavior of one agent, standing for the competitive exploration-production industry, subjected to incomplete but improving information on the remaining reserves. Our work yields challenging results on the reasons for an Hubbert type peak oil, lying mainly 'above the ground', both at regional and world levels, and on the shape of the production and marginal cost trajectories. (authors)

  10. Energy loss minimization through peak shaving using energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaiju Kalkhambkar


    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal placement methodology of energy storage to improve energy loss minimization through peak shaving in the presence of renewable distributed generation. Storage sizing is modelled by considering the load profile and desired peak shaving. This storage is suitably divided into multiple storage units and optimally allocated at multiple sites with suitable charge discharge strategy. Thus the peak shaving for maximum loss reduction is explored here. Renewable distributed generation (RDG is modelled based on the seasonal variations of renewable resources e.g., solar or wind and these RDGs are placed at suitable locations. A high-performance Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO algorithm is applied to the proposed methodology. The results are compared with the well-known genetic algorithm. The proposed methodology is illustrated by various case studies on a 34-bus test system. Significant loss minimization is obtained by optimal location of multiple energy storage units through peak shaving.

  11. Trust and the Welfare State: The Twin Peaks Curve


    Yann Algan; Pierre Cahuc; Marc Sangnier


    We show the existence of a twin peaks relation between trust and the size of the welfare state that stems from two opposing forces. Uncivic people support large welfare states because they expect to benefit from them without bearing their costs. But civic individuals support generous benefits and high taxes only when they are surrounded by trustworthy individuals. We provide empirical evidence for these behaviors and this twin peaks relation in the OECD countries.

  12. Converter for Measurement of non-sinusoidal current peak value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butvin, P.; Nielsen, Otto V; Brauer, Peter


    A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current.......A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current....

  13. Mineral Resources: Reserves, Peak Production and the Future


    Lawrence D. Meinert; Gilpin R. Robinson; Nedal T. Nassar


    The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798), but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using ...

  14. Improvements to science operations at Kitt Peak National Observatory (United States)

    Bohannan, Bruce


    In recent years Kitt Peak National Observatory has undertaken a number of innovative projects to optimize science operations with the suite of telescopes we operate on Kitt Peak, Arizona. Changing scientific requirements and expectations of our users, evolving technology and declining budgets have motivated the changes. The operations improvements have included telescope performance enhancements--with the focus on the Mayall 4-m--modes of observing and scheduling, telescope control and observing systems, planning and communication, and data archiving.

  15. Peak effect at microwave frequencies in swift heavy ion irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vortex dynamics at microwave frequencies in YBa2Cu3O7- (YBCO) films have been studied. We observe a peak in the microwave (4.88 and 9.55 GHz) surface resistance in some films in magnetic fields up to 0.8 T. This is associated with the `peak-effect' phenomenon and reflects the order–disorder transformation of ...

  16. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, R.L. (SAIC); Bezdek, Roger (MISI); Wendling, Robert (MISI)


    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  17. Dual peak cholera transmission in Bengal Delta: A hydroclimatological explanation (United States)

    Akanda, Ali Shafqat; Jutla, Antarpreet Singh; Islam, Shafiqul


    Cholera has reemerged as a global killer with the world witnessing an unprecedented rise in cholera infection and transmission since the 1990s. Cholera outbreaks across most affected areas show infection patterns with a single annual peak. However, cholera incidences in the Bengal Delta region, the native homeland of cholera, show bi-annual peaks. The mechanisms behind this unique seasonal dual peak phenomenon in cholera dynamics, especially the role of climatic and hydrologic variables, are not fully understood. Here, we show that low flow in the Brahmaputra and the Ganges during spring is associated with the first outbreaks of cholera in Bangladesh; elevated spring cholera outbreaks are seen in low discharge years. Peak streamflow of these rivers, on the other hand, create a different cholera transmission environment; peak flood volumes and extent of flood-affected areas during monsoon are responsible for autumn cholera outbreaks. Our results demonstrate how regional hydroclimatology may explain the seasonality and dual peaks of cholera incidence in the Bengal Delta region. A quantitative understanding of the relationships among the hydroclimatological drivers and seasonal cholera outbreaks will help early cholera detection and prevention efforts.

  18. Predicting durations of online collective actions based on Peaks' heights (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Nie, Shizhao; Wang, Zheng; Jing, Ziwei; Yang, Jianwu; Qi, Zhongxiang; Pujia, Wangmo


    Capturing the whole process of collective actions, the peak model contains four stages, including Prepare, Outbreak, Peak, and Vanish. Based on the peak model, one of the key variables, factors and parameters are further investigated in this paper, which is the rate between peaks and spans. Although the durations or spans and peaks' heights are highly diversified, it seems that the ratio between them is quite stable. If the rate's regularity is discovered, we can predict how long the collective action lasts and when it ends based on the peak's height. In this work, we combined mathematical simulations and empirical big data of 148 cases to explore the regularity of ratio's distribution. It is indicated by results of simulations that the rate has some regularities of distribution, which is not normal distribution. The big data has been collected from the 148 online collective actions and the whole processes of participation are recorded. The outcomes of empirical big data indicate that the rate seems to be closer to being log-normally distributed. This rule holds true for both the total cases and subgroups of 148 online collective actions. The Q-Q plot is applied to check the normal distribution of the rate's logarithm, and the rate's logarithm does follow the normal distribution.

  19. Geologic map of the Providence Mountains in parts of the Fountain Peak and adjacent 7.5' quadrangles, San Bernardino County, California (United States)

    Stone, Paul; Miller, David M.; Stevens, Calvin H.; Rosario, Jose J.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Wan, Elmira; Priest, Susan S.; Valin, Zenon C.


    IntroductionThe Providence Mountains are in the eastern Mojave Desert about 60 km southeast of Baker, San Bernardino County, California. This range, which is noted for its prominent cliffs of Paleozoic limestone, is part of a northeast-trending belt of mountainous terrain more than 100 km long that also includes the Granite Mountains, Mid Hills, and New York Mountains. Providence Mountains State Recreation Area encompasses part of the range, the remainder of which is within Mojave National Preserve, a large parcel of land administered by the National Park Service. Access to the Providence Mountains is by secondary roads leading south and north from Interstate Highways 15 and 40, respectively, which bound the main part of Mojave National Preserve.The geologic map presented here includes most of Providence Mountains State Recreation Area and land that surrounds it on the north, west, and south. This area covers most of the Fountain Peak 7.5′ quadrangle and small adjacent parts of the Hayden quadrangle to the north, the Columbia Mountain quadrangle to the northeast, and the Colton Well quadrangle to the east. The map area includes representative outcrops of most of the major geologic elements of the Providence Mountains, including gneissic Paleoproterozoic basement rocks, a thick overlying sequence of Neoproterozoic to Triassic sedimentary rocks, Jurassic rhyolite that intrudes and overlies the sedimentary rocks, Jurassic plutons and associated dikes, Miocene volcanic rocks, and a variety of Quaternary surficial deposits derived from local bedrock units. The purpose of the project was to map the area in detail, with primary emphasis on the pre-Quaternary units, to provide an improved stratigraphic, structural, and geochronologic framework for use in land management applications and scientific research.

  20. Automatic fitting of Gaussian peaks using abductive machine learning (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, R. E.


    Analytical techniques have been used for many years for fitting Gaussian peaks in nuclear spectroscopy. However, the complexity of the approach warrants looking for machine-learning alternatives where intensive computations are required only once (during training), while actual analysis on individual spectra is greatly simplified and quickened. This should allow the use of simple portable systems for fast and automated analysis of large numbers of spectra, particularly in situations where accuracy may be traded for speed and simplicity. This paper proposes the use of abductive networks machine learning for this purpose. The Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIM) tool was used to build models for analyzing both single and double Gaussian peaks in the presence of noise depicting statistical uncertainties in collected spectra. AIM networks were synthesized by training on 1000 representative simulated spectra and evaluated on 500 new spectra. A classifier network determines the multiplicity of single/double peaks with an accuracy of 5.8%. With statistical uncertainties corresponding to a peak count of 100, average percentage absolute errors for the height, position, and width of single peaks are 4.9, 2.9, and 4.2%, respectively. For double peaks, these average errors are within 7.0, 3.1, and 5.9%, respectively. Models have been developed which account for the effect of a linear background on a single peak. Performance is compared with a neural network application and with an analytical curve-fitting routine, and the new technique is applied to actual data of an alpha spectrum.

  1. Peak Operation of Cascaded Hydropower Plants Serving Multiple Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjian Shen


    Full Text Available The bulk hydropower transmission via trans-provincial and trans-regional power networks in China provides great operational flexibility to dispatch power resources between multiple power grids. This is very beneficial to alleviate the tremendous peak load pressure of most provincial power grids. This study places the focus on peak operations of cascaded hydropower plants serving multiple provinces under a regional connected AC/DC network. The objective is to respond to peak loads of multiple provincial power grids simultaneously. A two-stage search method is developed for this problem. In the first stage, a load reconstruction strategy is proposed to combine multiple load curves of power grids into a total load curve. The purpose is to deal with different load features in load magnitudes, peaks and valleys. A mutative-scale optimization method is then used to determine the generation schedules of hydropower plants. In the second stage, an exterior point search method is established to allocate the generation among multiple receiving power grids. This method produces an initial solution using the load shedding algorithm, and further improves it by iteratively coordinating the generation among different power grids. The proposed method was implemented to the operations of cascaded hydropower plants on Xin-Fu River and another on Hongshui River. The optimization results in two cases satisfied the peak demands of receiving provincial power grids. Moreover, the maximum load difference between peak and valley decreased 12.67% and 11.32% in Shanghai Power Grid (SHPG and Zhejiang Power Grid (ZJPG, exceeding by 4.85% and 6.72% those of the current operational method, respectively. The advantage of the proposed method in alleviating peak-shaving pressure is demonstrated.

  2. The duration of pubertal growth peak among three skeletal classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Jeelani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Pubertal growth peak is closely associated with a rapid increase in mandibular length and offers a wide range of therapeutic modifiability. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the mean ages of onset and duration of pubertal growth peak among three skeletal classes. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using lateral cephalograms of 230 subjects with growth potential (110 males, 120 females. Subjects were categorized into three classes (Class I = 81, Class II = 82, Class III = 67, according to the sagittal relationship established between the maxilla and the mandible. The cervical vertebral maturation stage was recorded by means of Baccetti's method. The mean ages at CS3 and CS4 and the CS3-CS4 age interval were compared between boys and girls and among three skeletal classes. Results: Pubertal growth peak occurred on average four months earlier in girls than boys (p = 0.050. The average duration of pubertal growth peak was 11 months in Class I, seven months in Class II and 17 months in Class III subjects. Interclass differences were highly significant (Cohen's d > 0.08. However, no significant difference was found in the timing of pubertal growth peak onset among three skeletal classes (p = 0.126 in boys, p = 0.262 in girls. Conclusions: Girls enter pubertal growth peak on average four months earlier than boys. Moreover, the duration of pubertal growth peak is on average four months shorter in Class II and six months longer in Class III subjects as compared to Class I subjects.

  3. Superoxide dismutase levels and peak expiratory flow in asthmatic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Kurniasih


    Full Text Available Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory process which involve variety of cells such as inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and cytokines. The inflammatory process would be exacerbated in the presence of oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD is the first important enzyme to protect the respiratory tract against oxidative stress. The decreased of SOD has a correlation with increased of airway obstruction and bronchospasm. Objective To assess for a correlation between superoxide dismutase (SOD levels and peak expiratory flow, as well as to determine the impact of SOD levels for predicting asthma attacks. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study at Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, between February and April 2011 involving asthmatic children aged 5-18 years. Subjects’ serum SOD levels and peak expiratory flow were measured at the same time point. We then performed a prospective study following up on the same subjects to find out if they had a recurrent asthma attack within one month of the tests. We also reassessed their peak expiratory flow one month after blood specimens were obtained. Results Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. There was no significant correlation between SOD level and peak expiratory flow [r=0.289; 95%CI -0.025 to 0.47; P=0.074]. However, older age was significantly associated with higher peak expiratory flow (=0.5; 95%CI 3.10 to 11.57; P=0.01. Lower levels of SOD increased the risk of asthma attacks in a month following the initial measurements (RR=5.5; 95%CI 1.6 to 18.9; P=0.009. Conclusion Superoxide dismutase (SOD level is not significantly associated with peak expiratory flow. However, we find a relationship between older age and higher peak expiratory flow and a relationship between lower SOD levels and risk of asthma attacks within one month following the tests.

  4. Managing peak loads in energy grids: Comparative economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, A.; Zeigarnik, Yu.; Buzoverov, E.; Sheindlin, A.


    One of the key issues in modern energy technology is managing the imbalance between the generated power and the load, particularly during times of peak demand. The increasing use of renewable energy sources makes this problem even more acute. Various existing technologies, including stationary battery energy storage systems (BESS), can be employed to provide additional power during peak demand times. In the future, integration of on-board batteries of the growing fleet of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) into the grid can provide power during peak demand hours (vehicle-to-grid, or V2G technology). This work provides cost estimates of managing peak energy demands using traditional technologies, such as maneuverable power plants, conventional hydroelectric, pumped storage plants and peaker generators, as well as BESS and V2G technologies. The derived estimates provide both per kWh and kW year of energy supplied to the grid. The analysis demonstrates that the use of battery storage is economically justified for short peak demand periods of <1 h. For longer durations, the most suitable technology remains the use of maneuverable steam gas power plants, gas turbine,reciprocating gas engine peaker generators, conventional hydroelectric, pumped storage plants. - Highlights: • Cost of managing peak energy demand employing different technologies are estimated. • Traditional technologies, stationary battery storage and V2G are compared. • Battery storage is economically justified for peak demand periods of <1 h. • V2G appears to have better efficiency than stationary battery storage in low voltage power grids.

  5. Automatic fitting of Gaussian peaks using abductive machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, R.E.


    Analytical techniques have been used for many years for fitting Gaussian peaks in nuclear spectroscopy. However, the complexity of the approach warrants looking for machine-learning alternatives where intensive computations are required only once (during training), while actual analysis on individual spectra is greatly simplified and quickened. This should allow the use of simple portable systems for fast and automated analysis of large numbers of spectra, particularly in situations where accuracy may be traded for speed and simplicity. This paper proposes the use of abductive networks machine learning for this purpose. The Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIM) tool was used to build models for analyzing both single and double Gaussian peaks in the presence of noise depicting statistical uncertainties in collected spectra. AIM networks were synthesized by training on 1,000 representative simulated spectra and evaluated on 500 new spectra. A classifier network determines the multiplicity of single/double peaks with an accuracy of 98%. With statistical uncertainties corresponding to a peak count of 100, average percentage absolute errors for the height, position, and width of single peaks are 4.9, 2.9, and 4.2%, respectively. For double peaks, these average errors are within 7.0, 3.1, and 5.9%, respectively. Models have been developed which account for the effect of a linear background on a single peak. Performance is compared with a neural network application and with an analytical curve-fitting routine, and the new technique is applied to actual data of an alpha spectrum

  6. flowPeaks: a fast unsupervised clustering for flow cytometry data via K-means and density peak finding. (United States)

    Ge, Yongchao; Sealfon, Stuart C


    For flow cytometry data, there are two common approaches to the unsupervised clustering problem: one is based on the finite mixture model and the other on spatial exploration of the histograms. The former is computationally slow and has difficulty to identify clusters of irregular shapes. The latter approach cannot be applied directly to high-dimensional data as the computational time and memory become unmanageable and the estimated histogram is unreliable. An algorithm without these two problems would be very useful. In this article, we combine ideas from the finite mixture model and histogram spatial exploration. This new algorithm, which we call flowPeaks, can be applied directly to high-dimensional data and identify irregular shape clusters. The algorithm first uses K-means algorithm with a large K to partition the cell population into many small clusters. These partitioned data allow the generation of a smoothed density function using the finite mixture model. All local peaks are exhaustively searched by exploring the density function and the cells are clustered by the associated local peak. The algorithm flowPeaks is automatic, fast and reliable and robust to cluster shape and outliers. This algorithm has been applied to flow cytometry data and it has been compared with state of the art algorithms, including Misty Mountain, FLOCK, flowMeans, flowMerge and FLAME. The R package flowPeaks is available at Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Analysis of Peak-to-Peak Current Ripple Amplitude in Seven-Phase PWM Voltage Source Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Grandi


    Full Text Available Multiphase systems are nowadays considered for various industrial applications. Numerous pulse width modulation (PWM schemes for multiphase voltage source inverters with sinusoidal outputs have been developed, but no detailed analysis of the impact of these modulation schemes on the output peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude has been reported. Determination of current ripple in multiphase PWM voltage source inverters is important for both design and control purposes. This paper gives the complete analysis of the peak-to-peak current ripple distribution over a fundamental period for multiphase inverters, with particular reference to seven-phase VSIs. In particular, peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude is analytically determined as a function of the modulation index, and a simplified expression to get its maximum value is carried out. Although reference is made to the centered symmetrical PWM, being the most simple and effective solution to maximize the DC bus utilization, leading to a nearly-optimal modulation to minimize the RMS of the current ripple, the analysis can be readily extended to either discontinuous or asymmetrical modulations, both carrier-based and space vector PWM. A similar approach can be usefully applied to any phase number. The analytical developments for all different sub-cases are verified by numerical simulations.

  8. An online peak extraction algorithm for ion mobility spectrometry data. (United States)

    Kopczynski, Dominik; Rahmann, Sven


    Ion mobility (IM) spectrometry (IMS), coupled with multi-capillary columns (MCCs), has been gaining importance for biotechnological and medical applications because of its ability to detect and quantify volatile organic compounds (VOC) at low concentrations in the air or in exhaled breath at ambient pressure and temperature. Ongoing miniaturization of spectrometers creates the need for reliable data analysis on-the-fly in small embedded low-power devices. We present the first fully automated online peak extraction method for MCC/IMS measurements consisting of several thousand individual spectra. Each individual spectrum is processed as it arrives, removing the need to store the measurement before starting the analysis, as is currently the state of the art. Thus the analysis device can be an inexpensive low-power system such as the Raspberry Pi. The key idea is to extract one-dimensional peak models (with four parameters) from each spectrum and then merge these into peak chains and finally two-dimensional peak models. We describe the different algorithmic steps in detail and evaluate the online method against state-of-the-art peak extraction methods.

  9. Rotational and peak torque stiffness of rugby shoes. (United States)

    Ballal, Moez S; Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Montrasio, Umberto Alfieri; Molloy, Andy; La Barbera, Luigi; Villa, Tomaso; Banfi, Giuseppe


    Sports people always strive to avoid injury. Sports shoe designs in many sports have been shown to affect traction and injury rates. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the differing stiffness and torque in rugby boots that are designed for the same effect. Five different types of rugby shoes commonly worn by scrum forwards were laboratory tested for rotational stiffness and peak torque on a natural playing surface generating force patterns that would be consistent with a rugby scrum. The overall internal rotation peak torque was 57.75±6.26 Nm while that of external rotation was 56.55±4.36 Nm. The Peak internal and external rotational stiffness were 0.696±0.1 and 0.708±0.06 Nm/deg respectively. Our results, when compared to rotational stiffness and peak torques of football shoes published in the literature, show that shoes worn by rugby players exert higher rotational and peak torque stiffness compared to football shoes when tested on the same natural surfaces. There was significant difference between the tested rugby shoes brands. In our opinion, to maximize potential performance and lower the potential of non-contact injury, care should be taken in choosing boots with stiffness appropriate to the players main playing role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy Saving by Chopping off Peak Demand Using Day Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Maitra


    Full Text Available An artificial intelligent technique has been implemented in this research using real time datas to calculate how much energy can be chopped from peak load demand. The results are based on real time data that are taken from power delivering centers. These datas do reflect the present condition of power and a solution to those critical conditions during the peak period. These are done in such a way such that helps in judicious scheduling of load. The time based load scheduling has been done so as to understand the basic criteria for solving power crisis during morning peak and early evening peak. The sunray availability and percentage of load that will use day light saving (DLS technique has been taken into account in this work. The results shows that about 0.5% to 1% of load can be shedded off from the peak load period which otherwise is reduction of power. Thus it otherwise also means that an equivalent amount of energy is saved which amounts to a large saving of national money. This result is obtained on monthly and even daily basis. Thus this paper justifies DLS gives a new renewable technique to save energy.

  11. Lightning peak current estimation using a system identification approach (United States)

    Wern, T. L. T.; Mukerjee, R. N.


    A system identification-based lightning peak current estimation algorithm using upper-air radiosonde observations is developed. The preceding convective and precipitative process leading to thunder cloud formation followed by the cloud electrification and the leader processes together with return stroke and the discharge process, is identified by considering it as a deterministic dynamic system, whose undisturbed and unmeasurable output signal the lightning peak current, is contaminated with a stochastic disturbance. The model parameters determined thus, are used to predict the likely temporal lightning return stroke peak current magnitudes. Two alternative parametric estimation models namely Autoregressive with Exogeneous Input (ARX) and Autoregressive with Moving-Average Exogeneous Input (ARMAX) are used to estimate model parameters of the pilot study area and predict the likely lightning return stroke peak current in each case. The relative performances of the models are compared to determine the best model for application in 12-hour and 24-hour ahead predictions. For a short-term (12 hour) prediction, ARMAX2921 giving a best fit of 78.8429% turns out to be the most suitable model. For a longer (24 hour) prediction, the ARX291, giving a best fit of 75.0181% emerges to be the suitable model. These preliminary results indicate that lightning peak current may be estimated to a good performance using upper-air radiosonde observations.

  12. Group Elevator Peak Scheduling Based on Robust Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG, J.


    Full Text Available Scheduling of Elevator Group Control System (EGCS is a typical combinatorial optimization problem. Uncertain group scheduling under peak traffic flows has become a research focus and difficulty recently. RO (Robust Optimization method is a novel and effective way to deal with uncertain scheduling problem. In this paper, a peak scheduling method based on RO model for multi-elevator system is proposed. The method is immune to the uncertainty of peak traffic flows, optimal scheduling is realized without getting exact numbers of each calling floor's waiting passengers. Specifically, energy-saving oriented multi-objective scheduling price is proposed, RO uncertain peak scheduling model is built to minimize the price. Because RO uncertain model could not be solved directly, RO uncertain model is transformed to RO certain model by elevator scheduling robust counterparts. Because solution space of elevator scheduling is enormous, to solve RO certain model in short time, ant colony solving algorithm for elevator scheduling is proposed. Based on the algorithm, optimal scheduling solutions are found quickly, and group elevators are scheduled according to the solutions. Simulation results show the method could improve scheduling performances effectively in peak pattern. Group elevators' efficient operation is realized by the RO scheduling method.

  13. Geology of the Mount Rogers area, revisited: Evidence of Neoproterozoic continental rifting, glaciation, and the opening and closing of the Iapetus ocean, Blue Ridge, VA–NC–TN (United States)

    Merschat, Arthur J.; Southworth, C. Scott; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; McAleer, Ryan J.; Merschat, Arthur J.


    Recent field and geochronological studies in eight 7.5-minute quadrangles near Mount Rogers in Virginia, North Carolina and Tennessee recognize important stratigraphic and structural relationships for the Neoproterozoic Mount Rogers and Konnarock formations, the northeast end of the Mountain City window, the separation of Mesoproterozoic rocks of the Blue Ridge into three age groups, and timing and emplacement of the Blue Ridge thrust sheet. The study area includes folded and faulted Paleozoic strata of the Valley and Ridge to metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Blue Ridge. In the Valley and Ridge, Cambrian to Middle Ordovician carbonate and clastic rocks are exposed in a syncline on the Pulaski thrust sheet; these rocks are overridden by the Blue Ridge thrust sheet. The northeast end of the Mountain City window is interpreted as a simple window; the Stone Mountain fault is folded and continues as the Iron Mountain fault on the NW-side of the window. The Stone Mountain fault does not exist to the NE near the Razor Ridge volcanic center. Instead a continuous section of Proterozoic gneisses, Mount Rogers Formation, Konnarock Formation and Chilhowee Group is now recognized. Rhyolites of the Mount Rogers Formation range from 760–749Ma, with detrital zircon age populations from associated volcaniclastic rocks indicating magmatism and rifting began by ~780 Ma. Rhyolite blocks in the Konnarock Formation and a change from rift-related clastic rocks of the Mount Rogers Formation transitioning to maroon laminites and laminites with dropstones, suggest that the Konnarock Formation may be as old as ~749 Ma. Mesoproterozoic crystalline rocks of the Blue Ridge, previously referred to as the Cranberry Gneiss, are separated based on field relationships and SHRIMP U–Pb geochronology: (1) pre-Grenvillian crust,1.33 Ga; (2) 1190–1140 Ma granitoids; and (3) 1075–1030 Ma granitoids. Multiple greenschist-facies high-strain zones, including the 2–11 km wide Fries high

  14. C- and Sr-isotope stratigraphy of the São Caetano complex, Northeastern Brazil: a contribution to the study of the Meso-Neoproterozoic seawater geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Silva


    Full Text Available C-isotope and 87Sr/86Sr values for five carbonate successions from the São Caetano Complex, northeastern Brazil, were used to constrain their depositional age and to determine large variations in the C- and Sr-isotopic composition of seawater under the framework of global tectonic events. Three C-isotope stages were identified from base to top in a composed chemostratigraphic section: (1 stage in which delta13C values vary from +2 to +3.7‰ PDB and average 3‰ PDB, (2 stage with delta13C values displaying stronger oscillations (from -2‰ to +‰ PDB, and (3 stage with an isotopic plateau with values around +3.7‰ PDB. Constant 87Sr/86Sr values (~ 0.70600 characterize C-isotope stage 1, whereas slightly fluctuating values (from 0.70600 to 0.70700 characterize C-isotope stage 2. Finally, 87Sr/86Sr values averaging 0.70600 characterize C-isotope stage 3. The C- and Sr- chemostratigraphic pathways permit to state: (a the C- and Sr-isotope secular curves registered primary fluctuations of the isotope composition of seawater during late Mesoproterozoic- early Neoproterozoic transition in the Borborema Province, and (b onset of the Cariris Velhos/Greenville cycle, widespread oceanic rifting, continental magmatic arc formation and onset of the agglutination of Rodinia supercontinent, mostly controlled the C- and Sr-isotope composition of seawater during the C-isotope stages 1, 2 and 3.Valores de isótopos de C e 87Sr/86Sr de cinco seqüências de carbonatos do Complexo São Caetano, nordeste do Brasil; foram usados para estimar a sua idade de deposição e relacionar variações da composição isotópica na água do mar com eventos tectônicos globais. Três estágios de variação de isótopos de carbono foram identificados de base para o topo numa seção quimioestratigráfica composta: (1 estágio em que delta13C varia de +2 a +3.7‰PDB (media 3‰PDB, (2 estágio no qual delta13C varia consideravelmente (de -2 a +3‰PDB e (3 est

  15. A Multimethod analysis of the Phenomenon of Peak-Oil


    Kerschner, Christian


    El concepto de Peak-Oil (el cénit del petróleo) es complejo y a menudo malentendido. Después de aclarar que el Peak-Oil es tanto un problema de estocs como de flujos, se ofrecen los conceptos de calidad y cantidad del recurso para facilitar la comprensión de la multitud de temas que influyen en el momento del cénit del petróleo y sus posibles impactos. Una revisión de la literatura y las últimas evidencias sugieren que hay un alto riesgo de que el Peak-Oil ocurra antes de 2020, dejando poco t...

  16. Maximizing utilization of sport halls during peak hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård; Forsberg, Peter

    the number of participants 7.5 persons higher pr. activity compared to club activities. This implies that clubs during peak hours could include more participants. Another possibility to increase utilization is if the management of sport facilities forced sport clubs and other organisers to adapt......BACKGROUNDDuring peak hours (4.30pm-8pm) demand for timeslots in sport halls in Denmark are high and there are few timeslots available. Further, focus on how public resources are spent most efficient is increasing (Iversen, 2013). This makes it interesting to analyse how utilization could...... be increased during peak hours. DATA AND METHODOLOGYData is collected by observation of activities during two weeks on for example whether halls are used or not; the amount of playing field used; and number of participants (Iversen, 2012). Data on 1.331 activities in 36 sport halls across 4 municipalities have...

  17. Shocked materials from the Dutch Peak diamictite, Utah (United States)

    Hoerz, F.; Bunch, T. E.; Oberbeck, V. R.


    Evidence of shock metamorphism in the Dutch Peak diamictite in the Sheeprock Mountains, Utah, is reported. The Dutch Peak diamictite is of Proterozoic age and is a minor part of the Dutch Peak formation. A shocked sample, specimen A250, was collected during a brief visit of the Harker Canyon area of the Sheeprock Mountains. This sample consists of equant, anhedral grains of quartz, K-feldspar, and plagioclase. The crystallographic orientation of 244 lamellae systems in 106 grains was measured. It is presently difficult to evaluate the significance of this single specimen. Without additional and substantial field work, and petrographic characterization of this formation, a number of scenarios for the presence of a shocked clast and the emplacement of the entire formation remain viable.

  18. The Peak Pairs algorithm for strain mapping from HRTEM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, Pedro L. [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)], E-mail:; Kret, Slawomir [Institute of Physics, PAS, AL. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Sanchez, Ana M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Laval, Jean-Yves [Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, UPR5 CNRS-ESPCI, Paris (France); Yanez, Andres; Pizarro, Joaquin; Guerrero, Elisa [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Ben, Teresa; Molina, Sergio I. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)


    Strain mapping is defined as a numerical image-processing technique that measures the local shifts of image details around a crystal defect with respect to the ideal, defect-free, positions in the bulk. Algorithms to map elastic strains from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images may be classified into two categories: those based on the detection of peaks of intensity in real space and the Geometric Phase approach, calculated in Fourier space. In this paper, we discuss both categories and propose an alternative real space algorithm (Peak Pairs) based on the detection of pairs of intensity maxima in an affine transformed space dependent on the reference area. In spite of the fact that it is a real space approach, the Peak Pairs algorithm exhibits good behaviour at heavily distorted defect cores, e.g. interfaces and dislocations. Quantitative results are reported from experiments to determine local strain in different types of semiconductor heterostructures.

  19. An internal friction peak caused by hydrogen in maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Makoto; Asano, Shigeru


    Internal friction in hydrogen-charged iron and steel has so far been studied by a large number of investigators. For pure iron, a well-defined peak of internal friction has been observed under the cold-worked and hydrogen-charged conditions. This is called the hydrogen cold-work peak, or the Snoek-Koester relaxation, which originates from the hydrogen-dislocation interaction. In the present study, a high-strength maraging steel (Fe-18Ni-9Co-5Mo) was chosen as another high-alloy steel which is known to be very susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. The purpose of this paper is to show a new internal friction peak caused by hydrogen in the maraging steel and to compare it with those found in stainless steels which have so far been studied as typical engineering high-alloy materials

  20. Gnevyshev peaks in solar radio emissions at different frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Kane


    Full Text Available Sunspots have a major 11-year cycle, but the years near the sunspot maximum show two or more peaks called GP (Gnevyshev Peaks. In this communication, it was examined whether these peaks in sunspots are reflected in other parameters such as Lyman-α (the chromospheric emission 121.6 nm, radio emissions 242–15 400 MHz emanating from altitude levels 2000–12 000 km, the low latitude (+45° to −45° solar open magnetic flux and the coronal green line emission (Fe XIV, 530.3 nm. In the different solar cycles 20–23, the similarity extended at least upto the level of 609 MHz, but in cycle 22, the highest level was of 242 MHz. The extension to the higher level in cycle 22 does not seem to be related to the cycle strength Rz(max, or to the cycle length.

  1. COPAR: A ChIP-Seq Optimal Peak Analyzer. (United States)

    Tang, Binhua; Wang, Xihan; Jin, Victor X


    Sequencing data quality and peak alignment efficiency of ChIP-sequencing profiles are directly related to the reliability and reproducibility of NGS experiments. Till now, there is no tool specifically designed for optimal peak alignment estimation and quality-related genomic feature extraction for ChIP-sequencing profiles. We developed open-sourced COPAR, a user-friendly package, to statistically investigate, quantify, and visualize the optimal peak alignment and inherent genomic features using ChIP-seq data from NGS experiments. It provides a versatile perspective for biologists to perform quality-check for high-throughput experiments and optimize their experiment design. The package COPAR can process mapped ChIP-seq read file in BED format and output statistically sound results for multiple high-throughput experiments. Together with three public ChIP-seq data sets verified with the developed package, we have deposited COPAR on GitHub under a GNU GPL license.

  2. National energy peak leveling program (NEPLP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This multisectioned three-Volume report is responsive to the requirements of Contract E (04-3)-1152 to provide a detailed methodology, to include management, technology, and socio-economic aspects, of a voluntary community program of computer-assisted peak load leveling and energy conservation in commercial community facilities. The demonstration project established proof-of-concept in reducing the kW-demand peak by the unofficial goal of 10%, with concurrent kWh savings. This section of volume III contains appendixes of information on load shedding determination, analysis, socio-economic study, contractual cross references, and definitions.

  3. High-Average, High-Peak Current Injector Design

    CERN Document Server

    Biedron, S G; Virgo, M


    There is increasing interest in high-average-power (>100 kW), um-range FELs. These machines require high peak current (~1 kA), modest transverse emittance, and beam energies of ~100 MeV. High average currents (~1 A) place additional constraints on the design of the injector. We present a design for an injector intended to produce the required peak currents at the injector, eliminating the need for magnetic compression within the linac. This reduces the potential for beam quality degradation due to CSR and space charge effects within magnetic chicanes.

  4. Simple Formula Relating Frequencies of Twin-peak Quasiperiodic Oscillations (United States)

    Torok, Gabriel


    Twin-peak quasiperiodic oscillations are observed in several low-mass X-ray binary systems containing neutron stars. Timing analysis of X-ray fluxes of more than dozen of such systems reveals remarkable correlations between frequencies of two characteristic peaks present in the power density spectra. Several attempts to model these correlations with simple geodesic orbital models or phenomenological relations have failed in the past. We find and explore a surprisingly simple analytic formula that well reproduces individual correlations for a large group of sources. We also discuss possible theoretical interpretation of this formula.

  5. Universal parametric correlations of conductance peaks in quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Attias, H.


    We compute the parametric correlation function of the conductance peaks in chaotic and weakly disordered quantum dots in the Coulomb blockade regime and demonstrate its universality upon an appropriate scaling of the parameter. For a symmetric dot we show that this correlation function is affected by breaking time-reversal symmetry but is independent of the details of the channels in the external leads. We derive a new scaling which depends on the eigenfunctions alone and can be extracted directly from the conductance peak heights. Our results are in excellent agreement with model simulations of a disordered quantum dot. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Identification and separation of DNA mixtures using peak area information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, R.G.; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Mortera, J.

    We show how probabilistic expert systems can be used to analyse forensic identification problems involving DNA mixture traces using quantitative peak area information. Peak area is modelled with conditional Gaussian distributions. The expert system can be used for scertaining whether individuals......, whose profiles have been measured, have contributed to the mixture, but also to predict DNA profiles of unknown contributors by separating the mixture into its individual components. The potential of our methodology is illustrated on case data examples and compared with alternative approaces...

  7. Quasispecies evolution on a fitness landscape with a fluctuating peak


    Nilsson, Martin; Snoad, Nigel


    A quasispecies evolving on a fitness landscape with a single peak of fluctuating height is studied. In the approximation that back mutations can be ignored, the rate equations can be solved analytically. It is shown that the error threshold on this class of dynamic landscapes is defined by the time average of the selection pressure. In the case of a periodically fluctuating fitness peak we also study the phase-shift and response amplitude of the previously documented low-pass filter effect. T...

  8. Peak heart rate decreases with increasing severity of acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Van Hall, Gerrit


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degree to which peak heart rate is reduced during exhaustive exercise in acute hypoxia. Five sea-level lowlanders performed maximal exercise at normobaric normoxia and at three different levels of hypobaric hypoxia (barometric pressures of 518......, 459, and 404 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber and while breathing 9% O(2) in N(2). These conditions were equivalent to altitudes of 3300, 4300, 5300, and 6300 m above sea level, respectively. At 4300 m, maximal exercise was also repeated after 4 and 8 h. Peak heart rate (HR) decreased from 191 (182...

  9. National energy peak leveling program (NEPLP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This three-volume report is responsive to the requirements of contract E (04-3)-1152 to provide a detailed methodology, to include management, technology, and socio-economic aspects, of a voluntary community program for computer-assisted peak load leveling and energy conservation in commercial community facilities. The demonstration project established proof-of-concept in reducing the kW-demand peak by the unofficial goal of 10%, with concurrent kWh savings. The report consists of the following three volumes: Volume I: management overview; Volume II: methodology and technology; and Volume III; appendices.

  10. Peak Oil and the Everyday Complexity of Human Progress Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Pruit


    Full Text Available The “big” story of human progress has polarizing tendencies featuring the binary options of progress or decline. I consider human progress narratives in the context of everyday life. Analysis of the “little” stories from two narrative environments focusing on peak oil offers a more complex picture of the meaning and contours of the narrative. I consider the impact of differential blog site commitments to peak oil perspectives and identify five narrative types culled from two narrative dimensions. I argue that the lived experience complicates human progress narratives, which is no longer an either/or proposition.

  11. Genetic and Dyanmic Analysis of Murine Peak Bone Density (United States)


    years of age (1-3). As bone density decreases with age, the risk of osteoporotic fractures increases, especially when the density falls below the...fracture threshold. This relationship suggests that the risk of osteoporotic fracture can be defined in terms of two characteristics - the peak bone...two inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H), with highly significant differences in peak BMD in vertebrae (12%), tibia (20%), and

  12. National energy peak leveling program (NEPLP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This three-volume report is responsive to the requirements of Contract E (04-3)-1152 to provide a detailed methodology, to include management, technology, and socio-economic aspects, of a voluntary community program of computer-assisted peak load leveling and energy conservation in commercial community facilities. The demonstration project established proof-of-concept in reducing the kW-demand peak by the unofficial goal of 10%, with concurrent kWh savings. This section of the three volume report is a final report appendix with information on the financial management of load leveling, audit procedures, and building operating profiles.

  13. Peak metamorphic temperatures from cation diffusion zoning in garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik; Mezger, Klaus


    is robust and provides a reliable means of estimating peak temperatures for different types of high-grade metamorphic rock. The tool could be of particular advantage in rocks where critical assemblages for conventional thermometry do not occur or have been replaced during retrogression.......) to develop a tool that uses the diffusion zoning of these cations in garnet to constrain peak temperature conditions for garnet-bearing rocks. The thermometric approach was externally tested by applying it to garnet crystals from various metamorphic terranes worldwide and comparing the results to published...

  14. Middle Neoproterozoic (ca. 705-716 Ma) arc to rift transitional magmatism in the northern margin of the Yangtze Block: Constraints from geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes (United States)

    Wang, Ruirui; Xu, Zhiqin; Santosh, M.; Xu, Xianbing; Deng, Qi; Fu, Xuehai


    The South Qinling Belt in Central China is an important window to investigate the Neoproterozoic tectono-magmatic processes along the northern margin of the Yangtze Block. Here we present whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology and Lu-Hf isotopes of a suite of Middle Neoproterozoic intrusion from the Wudang Uplift in South Qinling. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages reveal that these rocks were formed at ca. 705-716 Ma. Geochemical features indicate that the felsic magmatic rocks are I-type granitoids, belong to calcic- to calc-alkaline series, and display marked negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies. Moreover, the enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), combined with depletion of heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) support that these rocks have affinity to typical arc magmatic rocks formed in Andean-type active continental margins. The REE patterns are highly to moderately fractionated, with (La/Yb)N = 5.13-8.10 in meta-granites, and 2.32-2.35 in granodiorite. The granitoids have a wide range of zircon εHf(t) values (-29.91 to 14.76) and zircon Hf two-stage model ages (696-3482 Ma). We suggest that the ca. 705-716 Ma granitoids were sourced from different degrees of magma mixing between partial melting of the overlying mantle wedge triggered by hydrous fluids released from subducted materials and crustal melting. The hybrid magmas were emplaced in the shallow crust accompanied by assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC). Both isotopic and geochemical data suggest that the ca. 705-716 Ma felsic magmatic rocks were formed along a continental arc. These rocks as well as the contemporary A-type granite may mark a transitional tectonic regime from continental arc to rifting, probably related to slab rollback during the oceanic subduction beneath the northern margin of Yangtze Block.

  15. Gold and uranium metallogenesis in the framework of Neo-proterozoic crust growth and differentiation: example of the Mayo-Kebbi Massif (Chad) in the Central Africa Orogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbaguedje, Diondoh


    The Mayo Kebbi massif located in southwestern Chad between the Congo craton in the South, the West African craton in the west and the Sahara meta-craton to the east exposes a segment of Neo-proterozoic juvenile crust accreted in the Central African orogenic belt during the Pan African orogeny. It consists of two greenstone belts (Zalbi and Goueygoudoum) separated by the May Kebbi calc-alkaline batholith complexes and intruded by calc-alkaline high-K granitic plutons. The whole is covered by Phanerozoic sedimentary formations. The greenstone belts contain sulphide zones hosted mainly by meta-plutonic rocks (granodiorites) and meta-basalts and meta-volcaniclastics. The mineralization comprises pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, pentlandite silver, pentlandite cobaltiferous, sphalerite, cobaltite. These sulphides are disseminated, aggregated in form of layers or are filling veins and cracks. The greenstones also contain quartz veins with calcite and chlorite comprising a mineralization made of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and gold. Gold is present both as native crystals and as electrum. The high-K calc-alkaline Zabili granitic pluton hosts uranium mineralization related to a superposition of: (1) ductile deformation and metasomatic alteration implying the interaction between magmatic minerals with a Na-rich fluid, of potential magmatic origin, coeval to the main deposition of uranium oxides, followed by (2) brittle deformation and deposition of secondary hydrated uranium silicates involving a Na-Ca-rich fluid. We propose that these uranium mineralizations represent the extreme expression of crustal differentiation as a result of Pan-African reworking of a Neo-proterozoic juvenile crustal segment. (author) [fr

  16. flowPeaks: a fast unsupervised clustering for flow cytometry data via K-means and density peak finding (United States)

    Ge, Yongchao; Sealfon, Stuart C.


    Motivation: For flow cytometry data, there are two common approaches to the unsupervised clustering problem: one is based on the finite mixture model and the other on spatial exploration of the histograms. The former is computationally slow and has difficulty to identify clusters of irregular shapes. The latter approach cannot be applied directly to high-dimensional data as the computational time and memory become unmanageable and the estimated histogram is unreliable. An algorithm without these two problems would be very useful. Results: In this article, we combine ideas from the finite mixture model and histogram spatial exploration. This new algorithm, which we call flowPeaks, can be applied directly to high-dimensional data and identify irregular shape clusters. The algorithm first uses K-means algorithm with a large K to partition the cell population into many small clusters. These partitioned data allow the generation of a smoothed density function using the finite mixture model. All local peaks are exhaustively searched by exploring the density function and the cells are clustered by the associated local peak. The algorithm flowPeaks is automatic, fast and reliable and robust to cluster shape and outliers. This algorithm has been applied to flow cytometry data and it has been compared with state of the art algorithms, including Misty Mountain, FLOCK, flowMeans, flowMerge and FLAME. Availability: The R package flowPeaks is available at Contact: Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online PMID:22595209

  17. Variant formula for predicting peak expiratory flow rate in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observed Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), Predicted and Variant PEFR values in 123 females at their reproductive ages, living in Kura local government area of Kano State, Nigeria and its environs were obtained. The prediction and variant formulae used were; PEFR= 0.36AGE – 0.47WT + 391.67 and K = mean CC x ...

  18. Characteristics of peaks of inhalation exposure to organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.; Burstyn, I.; Pater, N. de; Kromhout, H.


    Objectives: To determine which exposure metrics are sufficient to characterize 'peak' inhalation exposure to organic solvents (OS) during spraying operations. Methods: Personal exposure measurements (n = 27; duration 5-159 min) were collected during application of paints, primers, resins and glues

  19. A new sample of faint Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum radio sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, IAG; Schilizzi, RT; de Bruyn, AG; Miley, GK; Rengelink, RB; Rottgering, HJ

    The Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) has been used to select a sample of Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio sources at flux densities one to two orders of magnitude lower than bright GPS sources investigated in earlier studies. Sources with inverted spectra at frequencies above 325 MHz have


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 1, 2014 ... Proportions reported are based on the entire sample of patients. Sixty five percent of the patients had peak flow read- ings below the acceptable lower limit of normal (LLN) for their age and height (Table 2). The mean (SD) of predicted post bronchodilator (post BD) PEF, FEV1,. FVC and FEV1/FVC were ...

  1. East ad Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Peak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chromatographic peak purity. This is attributed to the capacity of the linear photodiode arrays to collect spectro-chromatographic data in the absorbance (A), wavelength (A) and time (t) matrix. Such instruments have in-built routine software that is easy to apply during post collection data manipulations. Examples of such.

  2. Scheduling Non-Preemptible Jobs to Minimize Peak Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Yaw


    Full Text Available This paper examines an important problem in smart grid energy scheduling; peaks in power demand are proportionally more expensive to generate and provision for. The issue is exacerbated in local microgrids that do not benefit from the aggregate smoothing experienced by large grids. Demand-side scheduling can reduce these peaks by taking advantage of the fact that there is often flexibility in job start times. We focus attention on the case where the jobs are non-preemptible, meaning once started, they run to completion. The associated optimization problem is called the peak demand minimization problem, and has been previously shown to be NP-hard. Our results include an optimal fixed-parameter tractable algorithm, a polynomial-time approximation algorithm, as well as an effective heuristic that can also be used in an online setting of the problem. Simulation results show that these methods can reduce peak demand by up to 50% versus on-demand scheduling for household power jobs.

  3. Infrared Peak Splitting from Phonon Localization in Solid Hydrogen. (United States)

    Magdău, Ioan B; Ackland, Graeme J


    We show that the isotope effect leads to a completely different spectroscopic signal in hydrogen-deuterium mixtures, compared to pure elements that have the same crystal structure. This is particularly true for molecular vibrations, which are the main source of information about the structure of high-pressure hydrogen. Mass disorder breaks translational symmetry, meaning that vibrations are localized almost to single molecules, and are not zone-center phonons. In mixtures, each observable infrared (IR) peak corresponds to a collection of many such molecular vibrations, which have a distribution of frequencies depending on local environment. Furthermore discrete groups of environments cause the peaks to split. We illustrate this issue by considering the IR spectrum of the high-pressure phase III structure of hydrogen, recently interpreted as showing novel phases in isotopic mixtures. We calculate the IR spectrum of hydrogen-deuterium mixtures in the C2/c and Cmca-12 structures, showing that isotopic disorder gives rise to mode localization of the high-frequency vibrons. The local coordination of the molecules leads to discrete IR peaks. The spread of frequencies is strongly enhanced with pressure, such that more peaks become resolvable at higher pressures, in agreement with the recent measurements.

  4. Measurement of peak temperature along an optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.J.


    A multimode silica-clad optical fiber with a liquid silicone core was used as a distributed-line peak-temperature sensor over a temperature range from ambient to 190 0 C. The maximum error was 2 0 C and was essentially independent of the length or position of the hot zone

  5. Biomechanical aspects of peak performance in human swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toussaint, H.M.; Truijens, M.J.


    Peak performances in sport require the full deployment of all the powers an athlete possesses. How factors such as mechanical power output, technique and drag, each individually, but also in concert, determine swimming performance is the subject of this enquiry. This overview of swimming

  6. Pikes Peak conceptual shuttle study : visitation trends and scenario planning (United States)


    This study for the U.S. Forest Service provides a preliminary analysis and set of recommendations to support the agency's work moving forward to implement a shuttle system at Colorados popular Pikes Peak in Pike and San Isabel National Forests. Th...

  7. Blue Ice Tephra II - Brimstone Peak, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is the result of a study of volcanic ash and rock fragment (tephra) layers in exposed blue ice areas on Brimstone Peak (75.888S 158.55E) in East...

  8. Peak effect at microwave frequencies in swift heavy ion irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    few tens of Hz to a few MHz, probing the dynamics of the FLL revealed no frequency dependence of the peak position of the PE which is suggestive of a true thermodynamic phase transition. Studies of the vortex dynamics carried out at microwave and radio fre- quencies in low Tc and high Tc superconductors, do not report ...

  9. Focal F0 peak shape and sentence mode in Swedish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert; Buanzur, Tuarik C.; Niebuhr, Oliver


    Shape characteristics of rising-falling accentual F0 peaks of Stockholm Swedish Accent I words in narrow focus are studied in a corpus of 287 read sentences. The corpus includes statements and three types of polar questions. Results reveal a clear effect of sentence mode on the shape of the accen...

  10. High precision 16K, 16 channel peak sensing CAMAC ADC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Mamta; Subramaniam, E.T


    A high density, peak sensing, analog to digital converter (ADC) double width module with CAMAC back plane has been developed for nuclear physics experiments with a large number of detectors. This module has sixteen independent channels in plug-in daughter card mother board mode

  11. Standardization of I-125. Sum-Peak Coincidence Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.


    I-125 is a nuclide which presents difficulties for standardization. The sum-peak method is one of the procedures used to standardize this radionuclide. Initially NaI (Tl)detectors and then the semiconductor detectors with higher resolution have been used.This paper describes the different methods based on the sum-peak procedure and the different expressions used to calculate the activity are deduced. We describe a general procedure for obtaining all of the above equations and many more. We analyze the influence of uncertainties in the used parameters in the uncertainty of the activity. We give a complete example of the transmission of uncertainty and the effects of correlations in the uncertainty of the activity of the sample. High-resolution spectra show an unresolved doublet of 62.0 keV and 62.8 keV. The paper presents two approaches to solve this problem. One is based on the calculation of area ratio and the sum of peak areas obtained from atomic and nuclear data, in the other we modify the equations so that the sum of the peak areas doublet, rather than its components, is present. (Author) 19 refs.

  12. Standardization of I-125. Sum-Peak Coincidence Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.


    I-125 is a nuclide which presents difficulties for standardization. The sum-peak method is one of the procedures used to standardize this radionuclide. Initially NaI (Tl)detectors and then the semiconductor detectors with higher resolution have been used.This paper describes the different methods based on the sum-peak procedure and the different expressions used to calculate the activity are deduced. We describe a general procedure for obtaining all of the above equations and many more. We analyze the influence of uncertainties in the used parameters in the uncertainty of the activity. We give a complete example of the transmission of uncertainty and the effects of correlations in the uncertainty of the activity of the sample. High-resolution spectra show an unresolved doublet of 62.0 keV and 62.8 keV. The paper presents two approaches to solve this problem. One is based on the calculation of area ratio and the sum of peak areas obtained from atomic and nuclear data, in the other we modify the equations so that the sum of the peak areas doublet, rather than its components, is present. (Author) 19 refs.

  13. Robust peak-shaving for a neighborhood with electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Hurink, Johann L.


    Demand Side Management (DSM) is a popular approach for grid-aware peak-shaving. The most commonly used DSM methods either have no look ahead feature and risk deploying flexibility too early, or they plan ahead using predictions, which are in general not very reliable. To counter this, a DSM approach

  14. Do leading indicators lead peaks more than troughs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Paap (Richard); R. Segers (René); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)


    textabstractWe develop a formal statistical approach to investigate the possibility that leading indicator variables have different lead times at business cycle peaks and troughs. For this purpose, we propose a novel Markov switching vector autoregressive model, where economic growth and leading

  15. quasi hyperrigidity and weak peak points for non-commutative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    sentation. Several examples are provided to illustrate these notions. 1. Introduction. The concepts of peak point and Choquet boundary play an important role in several areas of classical (commutative) analysis. To be more precise the idea was to identify optimal subsets of a compact Hausdorff space X such that each and.

  16. Anatomy of simultaneous flood peaks at a lowland confluence (United States)

    Hoitink, T.; Geertsema, T.; Teuling, R.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Torfs, P. J.; Weerts, A.


    Lowlands are vulnerable to flooding due to their mild topography in often densely populated areas with high social and economic value. Moreover, multiple physical processes coincide in lowland areas, such as those involved in river-sea interactions and in merging of rivers. Simultaneous occurrence of such processes can result in amplifying or attenuating effects on water levels. Our aim is to understand the mechanisms behind simultaneous occurrence of discharge waves in a river and its lowland tributaries, taking the confluence of the Meuse river with the joining tributaries of the Dommel and Aa as an example. Especially since the January 1995 flood at this confluence is the result of the simultaneous occurrence of discharge peaks in the main stream and the tributaries. Here, we introduce a new way of analyzing lowland discharge and water level dynamics, by tracing individual flood waves based on dynamic time warping. The analysis shows that the exact timing of the arrival of discharge peaks is little relevant, because of the long duration of a discharge wave compared to the time lags between peaks. The discharge waves last on average 9 days, whereas the typical lag time between discharge peaks in the main river and the tributaries is 3 days. Flood water levels are insensitive to the ongoing measures of water retention in the tributary catchment despite the backwaters that can rise up to 1.5 m over a distance of 4 km from the confluence.

  17. predicted peak expiratory flow in human and the clinical implication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    values using formula developed by (Gregg, 1973) at 50th percentile for age, height and weight obtained from our study (Salisu ... Keywords: Peak expiratory flow, Asthma, Practice guidelines, reference values. INTRODUCTION. The National ... that the personal best PEF may be estimated after a. 2-to-3-week period in which ...

  18. Peak expiratory flow rate and respiratory symptoms following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of 350 rural women aged (20-70 years) in Edo State, Nigeria who actively used wood as a source of fuel for cooking was measured. The height, chest circumference, weight and blood pressure of the women were also measured. Respiratory symptoms of cough with sputum production, ...

  19. Simple area determination of strongly overlapping ion mobility peaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovcová, L.; Hermannová, M.; Pauk, V.; Šimek, M.; Havlíček, Vladimír; Lemr, Karel


    Roč. 981, AUG 15 (2017), s. 71-79 ISSN 0003-2670 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1305 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ion mobility-mass spectrometry * Fitting of mobility peaks * Analysis of isomers Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  20. Analysis of multibeam-hydrosweep echo peaks for seabed characterisation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Schenke, H.W.; Kodagali, V.N.; Hagen, R.

    , in general, Gaussian in nature except in the case of the Kainan Maru seamount summit (area D). The outer beams of the Enderby abyssal plain (area C) echo-peak PDF statistics reveal the highest possible large-scale feature dominance. Interestingly, Extremal...

  1. Rare terrestrial orchids on Mbeya Peak, Southern Tanzania | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disa walteri, Satyrium aberrans, S. comptum and S. johnsonii are rare terrestrial orchids that co-occur and flower around the same time in southern Tanzania. We found the first three of these species on Mbeya Peak in March 2005, about 45 years after they were last recorded by botanists and present the first illustration of D.

  2. Statistical agglomeration: peak summarization for direct infusion lipidomics. (United States)

    Smith, Rob; Anthonymuthu, Tamil S; Ventura, Dan; Prince, John T


    Quantification of lipids is a primary goal in lipidomics. In direct infusion/injection (or shotgun) lipidomics, accurate downstream identification and quantitation requires accurate summarization of repetitive peak measurements. Imprecise peak summarization multiplies downstream error by propagating into species identification and intensity estimation. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis of direct infusion peak summarization in the literature. We present two novel peak summarization algorithms for direct infusion samples and compare them with an off-machine ad hoc summarization algorithm as well as with the propriety Xcalibur algorithm. Our statistical agglomeration algorithm reduces peakwise error by 38% mass/charge (m/z) and 44% (intensity) compared with the ad hoc method over three datasets. Pointwise error is reduced by 23% (m/z). Compared with Xcalibur, our statistical agglomeration algorithm produces 68% less m/z error and 51% less intensity error on average on two comparable datasets. The source code for Statistical Agglomeration and the datasets used are freely available for non-commercial purposes at Modified Bin Aggolmeration is freely available in MSpire, an open source mass spectrometry package at

  3. Bragg peak and relative biological efficiency of different ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček st., Miloš; Judas, Libor; Kundrát, Pavel


    Roč. 64, Suppl. 1 (2002), S309-S309 ISSN 0167-8140 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK4055109 Keywords : Bragg peak * relative biological efficisncy * radiological mechanism Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2002

  4. Factors influencing peak expiratory flow in teenage boys | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) is a useful measure of pulmonary health status and is frequently utilised in asthm, management. Reduction in PEF is usually indicative of OIlS( of asthma symptoms. However, use can be made of PEF values only if normal values are known. The definition of normal range is always ...

  5. Analytical construction of peaked solutions for the nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results demonstrate the existence of peaked pulses propagating through a pair plasma. The algebraic decay rate of the pulses are determined analytically, as well. The method discussed here can be applied to approximate solutions to similar nonlinear partial differential equations of nonlinear Schrödinger type.

  6. Energy and Public Health: The Challenge of Peak Petroleum


    Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Vindigni, Stephen


    Petroleum is a unique and essential energy source, used as the principal fuel for transportation, in producing many chemicals, and for numerous other purposes. Global petroleum production is expected to reach a maximum in the near future and to decline thereafter, a phenomenon known as “peak petroleum.”

  7. Daily peak electricity load forecasting in South Africa using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) modelling approach towards daily peak electricity load forecasting in South Africa is presented in this paper for the period 2000 to 2009. MARS is a non-parametric multivariate regression method which is used in high-dimensional problems with complex model structures, ...

  8. Effect of Gymnema inodorum on postprandial peak plasma glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gymnema inodorum (GI), a vegetable widely used in a Northern Thai food, is known for not only its health nourishing effect, but also its hypoglycemic effect. But no scientific evidence on the hypoglycemic effect of GI has ever been reported in human. In this study, the effect of GI consumption on peak plasma glucose ...

  9. Daily peak electricity load forecasting in South Africa using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transmission substations, scheduling of startup times of peak stations, load flow analysis and power system security ... blackout. This NESO definition excludes the demand from people, companies, etc. who are willing (or unwilling) and able (or unable) to pay for electricity, but currently do not have access to electrical power.

  10. Radio spectra of Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum radio sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deVries, WH; Barthel, PD; ODea, CP

    A well defined sample of 72 Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum radio sources is compiled, having turnover frequencies in the range of 0.5 - 10 GHz. Using this sample, the canonical GPS radio spectrum is constructed, which is found to have a constant shape, independent of AGN type, redshift or radio

  11. Algorithm for systematic peak extraction from atomic pair distribution functions. (United States)

    Granlund, L; Billinge, S J L; Duxbury, P M


    The study presents an algorithm, ParSCAPE, for model-independent extraction of peak positions and intensities from atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs). It provides a statistically motivated method for determining parsimony of extracted peak models using the information-theoretic Akaike information criterion (AIC) applied to plausible models generated within an iterative framework of clustering and chi-square fitting. All parameters the algorithm uses are in principle known or estimable from experiment, though careful judgment must be applied when estimating the PDF baseline of nanostructured materials. ParSCAPE has been implemented in the Python program SrMise. Algorithm performance is examined on synchrotron X-ray PDFs of 16 bulk crystals and two nanoparticles using AIC-based multimodeling techniques, and particularly the impact of experimental uncertainties on extracted models. It is quite resistant to misidentification of spurious peaks coming from noise and termination effects, even in the absence of a constraining structural model. Structure solution from automatically extracted peaks using the Liga algorithm is demonstrated for 14 crystals and for C60. Special attention is given to the information content of the PDF, theory and practice of the AIC, as well as the algorithm's limitations.

  12. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Petroleum Depot Workers and Petrol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) values in litres per minute were determined in petrol depot loaders, petrol station attendants and in control subjects. The PEFR values were 315 ± 94, 386 + 91 and 529 + 94 litres/min. in depot workers, petrol attendants and control subjects respectively. The value in the control subjects ...

  13. Monsoon onset over Kerala and pre monsoon rainfall peak

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.

    degrees E, from 1st March to 31 May for the years 1979 to 2001. The monsoon onset dates over Kerala, as declared by India Meteorological Department has been used in the present study. For each year, the midday of the pentad with the rainfall peak...

  14. Size-independent peak shift between normal and upconversion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 12, 2014 ... In this article, we report size-dependent measurement of the shift in peak of upconversion photoluminescence spectra compared to that of normal photoluminescence using a 800 nm femtosecond laser and its second harmonic. It has been shown that the upconversion photoluminescence is always ...

  15. Optical spectroscopy of faint gigahertz peaked-spectrum sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, IAG; Schilizzi, RT; Miley, GK; de Bruyn, AG; Rottgering, HJA


    We present spectroscopic observations of a sample of faint gigahertz peaked-spectrum (GPS) radio sources drawn from the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS), Redshifts have been determined for 19 (40 per cent) of the objects. The optical spectra of the GPS sources identified with low-redshift

  16. On the asymptotic behavior of flood peak distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gaume


    Full Text Available This paper presents some analytical results and numerical illustrations on the asymptotic properties of flood peak distributions obtained through derived flood frequency approaches. It confirms and extends the results of previous works: i.e. the shape of the flood peak distributions are asymptotically controlled by the rainfall statistical properties, given limited and reasonable assumptions concerning the rainfall-runoff process. This result is partial so far: the impact of the rainfall spatial heterogeneity has not been studied for instance. From a practical point of view, it provides a general framework for analysis of the outcomes of previous works based on derived flood frequency approaches and leads to some proposals for the estimation of very large return-period flood quantiles. This paper, focussed on asymptotic distribution properties, does not propose any new approach for the extrapolation of flood frequency distribution to estimate intermediate return period flood quantiles. Nevertheless, the large distance between frequent flood peak values and the asymptotic values as well as the simulations conducted in this paper help quantifying the ill condition of the problem of flood frequency distribution extrapolation: it illustrates how large the range of possibilities for the shapes of flood peak distributions is.

  17. T(peak)T(end) interval in long QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, Jørgen Kim; Haarmark, Christian; Vedel-Larsen, Esben


    BACKGROUND: The T(peak)T(end) (T(p)T(e)) interval is believed to reflect the transmural dispersion of repolarization. Accordingly, it should be a risk factor in long QT syndrome (LQTS). The aim of the study was to determine the effect of genotype on T(p)T(e) interval and test whether it was related...

  18. Size-independent peak shift between normal and upconversion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 12, 2014 ... Abstract. In this article, we report size-dependent measurement of the shift in peak of upcon- version photoluminescence spectra compared to that of normal photoluminescence using a 800 nm femtosecond laser and its second harmonic. It has been shown that the upconversion photolumi- nescence is ...

  19. variant formula for predicting peak expiratory flow rate in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The graph illustrates close association of variant formula with the observed values of PEFR obtained from the study. Variant formula may be useful in clinical setting to assess people with respiratory disorders especially asthma. Key words: Variant formula, Peak expiratory flow rate, Pregnancy, Kura local government area.

  20. Changes in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate, Blood Pressure and Pulse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the effect of different concentrations of coffee on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), blood pressure and pulse rate in an attempt to determine some physiological effects of coffee intake. 18 apparently healthy adult males, age range 20 to 30 years, were recruited for the study over a three day period. Varying ...

  1. Automatic Locking of Laser Frequency to an Absorption Peak (United States)

    Koch, Grady J.


    An electronic system adjusts the frequency of a tunable laser, eventually locking the frequency to a peak in the optical absorption spectrum of a gas (or of a Fabry-Perot cavity that has an absorption peak like that of a gas). This system was developed to enable precise locking of the frequency of a laser used in differential absorption LIDAR measurements of trace atmospheric gases. This system also has great commercial potential as a prototype of means for precise control of frequencies of lasers in future dense wavelength-division-multiplexing optical communications systems. The operation of this system is completely automatic: Unlike in the operation of some prior laser-frequency-locking systems, there is ordinarily no need for a human operator to adjust the frequency manually to an initial value close enough to the peak to enable automatic locking to take over. Instead, this system also automatically performs the initial adjustment. The system (see Figure 1) is based on a concept of (1) initially modulating the laser frequency to sweep it through a spectral range that includes the desired absorption peak, (2) determining the derivative of the absorption peak with respect to the laser frequency for use as an error signal, (3) identifying the desired frequency [at the very top (which is also the middle) of the peak] as the frequency where the derivative goes to zero, and (4) thereafter keeping the frequency within a locking range and adjusting the frequency as needed to keep the derivative (the error signal) as close as possible to zero. More specifically, the system utilizes the fact that in addition to a zero crossing at the top of the absorption peak, the error signal also closely approximates a straight line in the vicinity of the zero crossing (see Figure 2). This vicinity is the locking range because the linearity of the error signal in this range makes it useful as a source of feedback for a proportional + integral + derivative control scheme that

  2. Peak Dose Assessment for Proposed DOE-PPPO Authorized Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, Delis [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program


    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct a peak dose assessment in support of the Authorized Limits Request for Solid Waste Disposal at Landfill C-746-U at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE-PPPO 2011a). The peak doses were calculated based on the DOE-PPPO Proposed Single Radionuclides Soil Guidelines and the DOE-PPPO Proposed Authorized Limits (AL) Volumetric Concentrations available in DOE-PPPO 2011a. This work is provided as an appendix to the Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky (ORISE 2012). The receptors evaluated in ORISE 2012 were selected by the DOE-PPPO for the additional peak dose evaluations. These receptors included a Landfill Worker, Trespasser, Resident Farmer (onsite), Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and an Offsite Resident Farmer. The RESRAD (Version 6.5) and RESRAD-OFFSITE (Version 2.5) computer codes were used for the peak dose assessments. Deterministic peak dose assessments were performed for all the receptors and a probabilistic dose assessment was performed only for the Offsite Resident Farmer at the request of the DOE-PPPO. In a deterministic analysis, a single input value results in a single output value. In other words, a deterministic analysis uses single parameter values for every variable in the code. By contrast, a probabilistic approach assigns parameter ranges to certain variables, and the code randomly selects the values for each variable from the parameter range each time it calculates the dose (NRC 2006). The receptor scenarios, computer codes and parameter input files were previously used in ORISE 2012. A few modifications were made to the parameter input files as appropriate for this effort. Some of these changes

  3. Peak Dose Assessment for Proposed DOE-PPPO Authorized Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Delis


    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct a peak dose assessment in support of the Authorized Limits Request for Solid Waste Disposal at Landfill C-746-U at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE-PPPO 2011a). The peak doses were calculated based on the DOE-PPPO Proposed Single Radionuclides Soil Guidelines and the DOE-PPPO Proposed Authorized Limits (AL) Volumetric Concentrations available in DOE-PPPO 2011a. This work is provided as an appendix to the Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky (ORISE 2012). The receptors evaluated in ORISE 2012 were selected by the DOE-PPPO for the additional peak dose evaluations. These receptors included a Landfill Worker, Trespasser, Resident Farmer (onsite), Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and an Offsite Resident Farmer. The RESRAD (Version 6.5) and RESRAD-OFFSITE (Version 2.5) computer codes were used for the peak dose assessments. Deterministic peak dose assessments were performed for all the receptors and a probabilistic dose assessment was performed only for the Offsite Resident Farmer at the request of the DOE-PPPO. In a deterministic analysis, a single input value results in a single output value. In other words, a deterministic analysis uses single parameter values for every variable in the code. By contrast, a probabilistic approach assigns parameter ranges to certain variables, and the code randomly selects the values for each variable from the parameter range each time it calculates the dose (NRC 2006). The receptor scenarios, computer codes and parameter input files were previously used in ORISE 2012. A few modifications were made to the parameter input files as appropriate for this effort. Some of these changes

  4. Peak Running Intensity of International Rugby: Implications for Training Prescription. (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Pryor, John F; Stewart, Andrew M; Dascombe, Ben J; Duthie, Grant M


    To quantify the duration and position-specific peak running intensities of international rugby union for the prescription and monitoring of specific training methodologies. Global positioning systems (GPS) were used to assess the activity profile of 67 elite-level rugby union players from 2 nations across 33 international matches. A moving-average approach was used to identify the peak relative distance (m/min), average acceleration/deceleration (AveAcc; m/s 2 ), and average metabolic power (P met ) for a range of durations (1-10 min). Differences between positions and durations were described using a magnitude-based network. Peak running intensity increased as the length of the moving average decreased. There were likely small to moderate increases in relative distance and AveAcc for outside backs, halfbacks, and loose forwards compared with the tight 5 group across all moving-average durations (effect size [ES] = 0.27-1.00). P met demands were at least likely greater for outside backs and halfbacks than for the tight 5 (ES = 0.86-0.99). Halfbacks demonstrated the greatest relative distance and P met outputs but were similar to outside backs and loose forwards in AveAcc demands. The current study has presented a framework to describe the peak running intensities achieved during international rugby competition by position, which are considerably higher than previously reported whole-period averages. These data provide further knowledge of the peak activity profiles of international rugby competition, and this information can be used to assist coaches and practitioners in adequately preparing athletes for the most demanding periods of play.

  5. Peak-locking reduction for particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, Dirk; Wieneke, Bernhard; Neal, Douglas R


    A parametric study of the factors contributing to peak-locking, a known bias error source in particle image velocimetry (PIV), is conducted using synthetic data that are processed with a state-of-the-art PIV algorithm. The investigated parameters include: particle image diameter, image interpolation techniques, the effect of asymmetric versus symmetric window deformation, number of passes and the interrogation window size. Some of these parameters are found to have a profound effect on the magnitude of the peak-locking error. The effects for specific PIV cameras are also studied experimentally using a precision turntable to generate a known rotating velocity field. Image time series recorded using this experiment show a linear range of pixel and sub-pixel shifts ranging from 0 to  ±4 pixels. Deviations in the constant vorticity field (ω z ) reveal how peak-locking can be affected systematically both by varying parameters of the detection system such as the focal distance and f -number, and also by varying the settings of the PIV analysis. A new a priori technique for reducing the bias errors associated with peak-locking in PIV is introduced using an optical diffuser to avoid undersampled particle images during the recording of the raw images. This technique is evaluated against other a priori approaches using experimental data and is shown to perform favorably. Finally, a new a posteriori anti peak-locking filter (APLF) is developed and investigated, which shows promising results for both synthetic data and real measurements for very small particle image sizes. (paper)

  6. 75 FR 38478 - Orders Finding That the Mid-C Financial Peak Daily Contract and Mid-C Financial Off-Peak Daily... (United States)


    ... requested comment on the Mid-C Financial Peak (``MDC'') contract and Mid-C Financial Off-Peak (``OMC... the Mid-C Financial Peak (``MDC'') contract and Mid-C Financial Off-Peak (``OMC'') contract. The MDC and OMC contracts will be addressed in a separate Federal Register release. \\10\\ The Commission's Part...

  7. Revisiting the Correlations of Peak Luminosity with Spectral Lag and Peak Energy of the Observed Gamma-ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-A Jo


    Full Text Available An analysis of light curves and spectra of observed gamma-ray bursts in gamma-ray ranges is frequently demanded because the prompt emission contains immediate details regarding the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs. We have revisited the relationship between the collimation-corrected peak luminosity and the spectral lag, investigating the lag-luminosity relationships in great detail by focusing on spectral lags resulting from all possible combinations of channels. Firstly, we compiled the opening angle data and demonstrated that the distribution of opening angles of 205 long GRBs is represented by a double Gaussian function having maxima at ~ 0.1 and ~ 0.3 radians. We confirmed that the peak luminosity and the spectral lag are anti-correlated, both in the observer frame and in the source frame. We found that, in agreement with our previous conclusion, the correlation coefficient improves significantly in the source frame. It should be noted that spectral lags involving channel 2 (25-50 keV yield high correlation coefficients, where Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT has four energy channels (channel 1: 15-25 keV, channel 2: 25-50 keV, channel 3: 50-100 keV, channel 4: 100-200 keV. We also found that peak luminosity is positively correlated with peak energy.

  8. Ionoacoustic characterization of the proton Bragg peak with submillimeter accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W., E-mail:; Reinhardt, S.; Lehrack, S.; Edlich, A.; Thirolf, P. G.; Parodi, K. [Department for Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, Garching 85748 (Germany); Kellnberger, S.; Omar, M.; Ntziachristos, V. [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Technische Universität München and Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, Neuherberg 85764 (Germany); Moser, M.; Dollinger, G. [Institute for Applied Physics and Measurement Technology, Universität der Bundeswehr, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, Neubiberg 85577 (Germany)


    Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams in tissue (ionoacoustics). Aim of this work was to study experimentally the achievable position resolution of ionoacoustics under idealized conditions using high frequency ultrasonic transducers and a specifically selected probing beam. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity and length. The acoustic signal of single proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based ultrasound detectors (3.5 and 10 MHz central frequencies). The proton dose distribution in water was calculated by Geant4 and used as input for simulation of the generated acoustic wave by the matlab toolbox k-WAVE. Results: In measurements from this study, a clear signal of the Bragg peak was observed for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Bragg peak position measurements were reproducible within ±30 μm and agreed with Geant4 simulations to better than 100 μm. The ionoacoustic signal pattern allowed for a detailed analysis of the Bragg peak and could be well reproduced by k-WAVE simulations. Conclusions: The authors have studied the ionoacoustic signal of the Bragg peak in experiments using a 20 MeV proton beam with its correspondingly localized energy deposition, demonstrating submillimeter position resolution and providing a deep insight in the correlation between the acoustic signal and Bragg peak shape. These results, together with earlier experiments and new simulations (including the results in this study) at higher energies, suggest ionoacoustics as a technique for range verification in particle therapy at locations, where the tumor can be localized by ultrasound

  9. Asthma-like peak flow variability in various lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal peak flow variability are considered characteristic of asthma patients. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD show poor reversibility. But reversibility and variability in other pulmonary diseases manifesting with airflow obstruction in not known. Therefore, we assessed reversibility and peak flow variability in patients with various lung diseases to recognize the pattern. Materials and Methods : Seventy consecutive patients with a diagnosis of lung diseases manifesting with airflow obstruction were recruited in the study. These included 23 patients with asthma, 11 patients with bronchiectasis, 16 patients with post-tubercular lung disease (PTLD, and 20 patients with COPD. Ten healthy matched control subjects were also selected to pair with asthmatic patients. Bronchodilator reversibility test was done initially and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR was measured for a duration of 1 week by patients themselves on a chart that was given to them. The mean amplitude percentage of these records were analyzed. Results : The mean values of peak flow variability were 14.73% ± 6.1% in asthmatic patients, 11.98% ± 7.5% in patients with bronchiectasis, and 10.54% ± 5.3% in PTLD. The difference in the mean values of peak flow variability between asthma and bronchiectasis, that is, 14.73 (6.1 vs 11.98 (7.5 was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Forced expiratory volume one second (FEV 1 reversibility values were 14.77% ± 26.93%, 11.24% ± 20.43%, 10.85% ± 13.02%, 16.83% ± 22.84%, and 5.47% ± 4.99% in asthma, COPD, PTLD, bronchiectasis, and healthy subjects, respectively. Conclusion: Both reversibility and diurnal peak flow variability were higher in patients with various lung diseases compared with normal healthy subjects. Although these are characteristic of asthma, some cases of bronchiectasis and PTLD patients may also manifest asthma-like PEFR variability

  10. Hurricane Mitch: Peak Discharge for Selected River Reachesin Honduras (United States)

    Smith, Mark E.; Phillips, Jeffrey V.; Spahr, Norman E.


    Hurricane Mitch began as a tropical depression in the Caribbean Sea on 22 October 1998. By 26 October, Mitch had strengthened to a Category 5 storm as defined by the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale (National Climate Data Center, 1999a), and on 27 October was threatening the northern coast of Honduras (fig. 1). After making landfall 2 days later (29 October), the storm drifted south and west across Honduras, wreaking destruction throughout the country before reaching the Guatemalan border on 31 October. According to the National Climate Data Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Climate Data Center, 1999b), Hurricane Mitch ranks among the five strongest storms on record in the Atlantic Basin in terms of its sustained winds, barometric pressure, and duration. Hurricane Mitch also was one of the worst Atlantic storms in terms of loss of life and property. The regionwide death toll was estimated to be more than 9,000; thousands of people were reported missing. Economic losses in the region were more than $7.5 billion (U.S. Agency for International Development, 1999). Honduras suffered the most widespread devastation during the storm. More than 5,000 deaths, and economic losses of more than $4 billion, were reported by the Government of Honduras. Honduran officials estimated that Hurricane Mitch destroyed 50 years of economic development. In addition to the human and economic losses, intense flooding and landslides scarred the Honduran landscape - hydrologic and geomorphologic processes throughout the country likely will be affected for many years. As part of the U.S. Government's response to the disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted post-flood measurements of peak discharge at 16 river sites throughout Honduras (fig. 2). Such measurements, termed 'indirect' measurements, are used to determine peak flows when direct measurements (using current meters or dye studies, for example) cannot be made. Indirect measurements of

  11. Determination of the diagnostic x-ray tube practical peak voltage (PPV) from average or average peak voltage measurements. (United States)

    Hourdakis, C J


    The practical peak voltage (PPV) has been adopted as the reference measuring quantity for the x-ray tube voltage. However, the majority of commercial kV-meter models measure the average peak, Ū(P), the average, Ū, the effective, U(eff) or the maximum peak, U(P) tube voltage. This work proposed a method for determination of the PPV from measurements with a kV-meter that measures the average Ū or the average peak, Ū(p) voltage. The kV-meter reading can be converted to the PPV by applying appropriate calibration coefficients and conversion factors. The average peak k(PPV,kVp) and the average k(PPV,Uav) conversion factors were calculated from virtual voltage waveforms for conventional diagnostic radiology (50-150 kV) and mammography (22-35 kV) tube voltages and for voltage ripples from 0% to 100%. Regression equation and coefficients provide the appropriate conversion factors at any given tube voltage and ripple. The influence of voltage waveform irregularities, like 'spikes' and pulse amplitude variations, on the conversion factors was investigated and discussed. The proposed method and the conversion factors were tested using six commercial kV-meters at several x-ray units. The deviations between the reference and the calculated-according to the proposed method-PPV values were less than 2%. Practical aspects on the voltage ripple measurement were addressed and discussed. The proposed method provides a rigorous base to determine the PPV with kV-meters from Ū(p) and Ū measurement. Users can benefit, since all kV-meters, irrespective of their measuring quantity, can be used to determine the PPV, complying with the IEC standard requirements.

  12. Can double-peaked lines indicate merging effects in AGNs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović L.Č.


    Full Text Available The influence of merging effects in the central part of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN on the emission spectral line shapes are discussed. We present a model of close binary Broad Line Region. The numerical experiments show that the merging effects can explain double peaked lines. The merging effects may also be present in the center of AGNs, although they emit slightly asymmetric as well as symmetric and relatively stable (in profile shape spectral lines. Depending on the black hole masses and their orbit elements such model may explain some of the line profile shapes observed in AGNs. This work shows that if one is looking for the merging effects in the central region as well as in the wide field structure of AGNs, he should first pay attention to objects which have double peaked lines.

  13. Kinematic evidence for downdip movement on the Mormon Peak detachment (United States)

    Walker, Christopher D.; Anders, Mark H.; Christie-Blick, Nicholas


    The Mormon Peak detachment is considered to be one of the best examples of a rooted upper crustal detachment fault that propagated through the brittle crust at a low angle. The hanging wall of the detachment today consists of a number of isolated blocks that have been interpreted as remnants of a once-contiguous extensional allochthon. Here we present the results of a new study of directional indicators from the basal surfaces beneath these blocks. These measurements do not agree with the long-standing interpretation of a S75°W movement direction for the detachment hanging wall. Instead, the most recent movement on each section of the detachment took place approximately parallel to the present downdip direction. We conclude that the Mormon Peak detachment is best explained as the basal surfaces to a series of rootless gravity slides.

  14. How does economic theory explain the Hubbert peak oil model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynes, F.; Okullo, S.; Hofkes, M.


    The aim of this paper is to provide an economic foundation for bell shaped oil extraction trajectories, consistent with Hubbert's peak oil model. There are several reasons why it is important to get insight into the economic foundations of peak oil. As production decisions are expected to depend on economic factors, a better comprehension of the economic foundations of oil extraction behaviour is fundamental to predict production and price over the coming years. The investigation made in this paper helps us to get a better understanding of the different mechanisms that may be at work in the case of OPEC and non-OPEC producers. We show that profitability is the main driver behind production plans. Changes in profitability due to divergent trajectories between costs and oil price may give rise to a Hubbert production curve. For this result we do not need to introduce a demand or an exploration effect as is generally assumed in the literature.

  15. Estimating peak flow characteristics at ungaged sites by ridge regression (United States)

    Tasker, Gary D.


    A regression simulation model, is combined with a multisite streamflow generator to simulate a regional regression of 50-year peak discharge against a set of basin characteristics. Monte Carlo experiments are used to compare the unbiased ordinary lease squares parameter estimator with Hoerl and Kennard's (1970a) ridge estimator in which the biasing parameter is that proposed by Hoerl, Kennard, and Baldwin (1975). The simulation results indicate a substantial improvement in parameter estimation using ridge regression when the correlation between basin characteristics is more than about 0.90. In addition, results indicate a strong potential for improving the mean square error of prediction of a peak-flow characteristic versus basin characteristics regression model when the basin characteristics are approximately colinear. The simulation covers a range of regression parameters, streamflow statistics, and basin characteristics commonly found in regional regression studies.

  16. Double peak effect in microdosimetric proportional counters and its interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, B.; Olko, P.; Booz, J.


    In calibration measurements with low energy X-rays, a double peak effect appears in low pressure proportional counters with a helix, when used for simulation of tissue equivalent diameters considerably larger than 2 μm. An interpretation of this phenomenon is discussed, based upon electron capture and electric field perturbation at the counter helix. A description of the physical processes is presented showing that the double peak effect is a problem in the case of helix counters (called also Rossi counters) for all simulated diameters. Conclusions are drawn on systematic errors introduced by the counter helix into microdosimetric spectra and anti y D of photons and neutrons. The authors recommend to use cylindrical counters with optimized geometrical and electronic parameters rather than the spherical counters with a helix discussed. (orig.)

  17. In vivo dissolution measurement with indium-111 summation peak ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, M.; Woodward, M.A.; Brouwer, K.R.


    Dissolution of [ 111 In]labeled tablets was measured in vivo in a totally noninvasive manner by using a modification of the perturbed angular correlation technique known as the summation peak ratio method. This method, which requires the incorporation of only 10-12 microCi into the dosage form, provided reliable dissolution data after oral administration of [ 111 In]lactose tablets. These results were supported by in vitro experiments which demonstrated that the dissolution rate as measured by the summation peak ratio method was in close agreement with the dissolution rate of salicylic acid in a [ 111 In]salicylic acid tablet. The method has the advantages of using only one detector, thereby avoiding the need for complex coincidence counting systems, requiring less radioactivity, and being potentially applicable to a gamma camera imaging system

  18. The need for standardisation of peak flow charts


    Reddel, H; Vincent, S; Civitico, J


    Peak expiratory flow (PEF) monitoring is recommended in asthma guidelines as a tool for assessing severity, monitoring response to treatment, detecting exacerbations, identifying triggers, and providing objective justification for treatment to the patient, but some clinicians have expressed concerns about its relevance in the management of asthma. We have identified a sevenfold variation in the scale of existing PEF charts, with resulting wide variation in the appearance of the same PEF date ...

  19. Degradation of the Bragg peak due to inhomogeneities. (United States)

    Urie, M; Goitein, M; Holley, W R; Chen, G T


    The rapid fall-off of dose at the end of range of heavy charged particle beams has the potential in therapeutic applications of sparing critical structures just distal to the target volume. Here we explored the effects of highly inhomogeneous regions on this desirable depth-dose characteristic. The proton depth-dose distribution behind a lucite-air interface parallel to the beam was bimodal, indicating the presence of two groups of protons with different residual ranges, creating a step-like depth-dose distribution at the end of range. The residual ranges became more spread out as the interface was angled at 3 degrees, and still more at 6 degrees, to the direction of the beam. A second experiment showed little significant effect on the distal depth-dose of protons having passed through a mosaic of teflon and lucite. Anatomic studies demonstrated significant effects of complex fine inhomogeneities on the end of range characteristics. Monoenergetic protons passing through the petrous ridges and mastoid air cells in the base of skull showed a dramatic degradation of the distal Bragg peak. In beams with spread out Bragg peaks passing through regions of the base of skull, the distal fall-off from 90 to 20% dose was increased from its nominal 6 to well over 32 mm. Heavy ions showed a corresponding degradation in their ends of range. In the worst case in the base of skull region, a monoenergetic neon beam showed a broadening of the full width at half maximum of the Bragg peak to over 15 mm (compared with 4 mm in a homogeneous unit density medium). A similar effect was found with carbon ions in the abdomen, where the full width at half maximum of the Bragg peak (nominally 5.5 mm) was found to be greater than 25 mm behind gas-soft-tissue interfaces. We address the implications of these data for dose computation with heavy charged particles.

  20. Twin-Peak QPOs from Oscillating Torus with Cusp (United States)

    Sramkova, Eva


    We propose a model of HF twin-peak quasi-periodic oscillations assuming an oscillating torus with cusp that changes location of its centre around radii very close to innermost stable circular orbit. The observed variability is assigned to global modes of accreted fluid motion that may give rise to strong modulation of both the accretion disc radiation and the accretion rate. We illustrate that predictions of the model well match observational data for a dozen of sources.

  1. Peak-counts blood flow model-errors and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullani, N.A.; Marani, S.K.; Ekas, R.D.; Gould, K.L.


    The peak-counts model has several advantages, but its use may be limited due to the condition that the venous egress may not be negligible at the time of peak-counts. Consequently, blood flow measurements by the peak-counts model will depend on the bolus size, bolus duration, and the minimum transit time of the bolus through the region of interest. The effect of bolus size on the measurement of extraction fraction and blood flow was evaluated by injecting 1 to 30ml of rubidium chloride in the femoral vein of a dog and measuring the myocardial activity with a beta probe over the heart. Regional blood flow measurements were not found to vary with bolus sizes up to 30ml. The effect of bolus duration was studied by injecting a 10cc bolus of tracer at different speeds in the femoral vein of a dog. All intravenous injections undergo a broadening of the bolus duration due to the transit time of the tracer through the lungs and the heart. This transit time was found to range from 4-6 second FWHM and dominates the duration of the bolus to the myocardium for up to 3 second injections. A computer simulation has been carried out in which the different parameters of delay time, extraction fraction, and bolus duration can be changed to assess the errors in the peak-counts model. The results of the simulations show that the error will be greatest for short transit time delays and for low extraction fractions

  2. Peak earthquake response of structures under multi-component excitations (United States)

    Song, Jianwei; Liang, Zach; Chu, Yi-Lun; Lee, George C.


    Accurate estimation of the peak seismic responses of structures is important in earthquake resistant design. The internal force distributions and the seismic responses of structures are quite complex, since ground motions are multi-directional. One key issue is the uncertainty of the incident angle between the directions of ground motion and the reference axes of the structure. Different assumed seismic incidences can result in different peak values within the scope of design spectrum analysis for a given structure and earthquake ground motion record combination. Using time history analysis to determine the maximum structural responses excited by a given earthquake record requires repetitive calculations to determine the critical incident angle. This paper presents a transformation approach for relatively accurate and rapid determination of the maximum peak responses of a linear structure subjected to three-dimensional excitations within all possible seismic incident angles. The responses can be deformations, internal forces, strains and so on. An irregular building structure model is established using SAP2000 program. Several typical earthquake records and an artificial white noise are applied to the structure model to illustrate the variation of the maximum structural responses for different incident angles. Numerical results show that for many structural parameters, the variation can be greater than 100%. This method can be directly applied to time history analysis of structures using existing computer software to determine the peak responses without carrying out the analyses for all possible incident angles. It can also be used to verify and/or modify aseismic designs by using response spectrum analysis.

  3. Peak effect at microwave frequencies in swift heavy ion irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    few tens of Hz to a few MHz, probing the dynamics of the FLL revealed no frequency dependence of the peak position of the PE .... 19, 217 (1969). [5] A I Larkin and Y N Ovchinnikov, J. Low Temp. Phys. 34, 409 (1979). [6] J I Gittleman and B Rosenblum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 734 (1966). [7] A R Bhangale et al, Phys. Rev. B63 ...

  4. Implications of "peak oil" for atmospheric CO2 and climate


    Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James E.


    Unconstrained CO2 emission from fossil fuel burning has been the dominant cause of observed anthropogenic global warming. The amounts of "proven" and potential fossil fuel reserves are uncertain and debated. Regardless of the true values, society has flexibility in the degree to which it chooses to exploit these reserves, especially unconventional fossil fuels and those located in extreme or pristine environments. If conventional oil production peaks within the next few decades, it may have a...

  5. General Merrill A. McPeak Leadership and Organizational Change (United States)


    GENERAL MERRILL A. MCPEAK LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE BY MAJOR THOMAS A. BUSSIERE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE...Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle General Merrill A. McPeak Leadership and Organizational Change Contract Number Grant Number Program Element...General McPeak�s leadership. The sections of each case focus on the particular issues associated with organizational change and leadership. The

  6. Single-peak solitary wave solutions for the variant Boussinesq ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhang and Chen [6] obtained new types of cusped solitons of a partial differential equation by setting the partial differential equation under inhomogeneous .... (ii) For g = 0. If ψ(0) = 0, by eq. (2.8) we know ψ (0) exists. According to the definition of peak point, we have ψ (0) = 0. However, by eq. (2.8) we must have ψ(0) = A, ...

  7. Automatic acquisition and shape analysis of metastable peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maendli, H.; Robbiani, R.; Kuster, Th.; Seibl, J.


    A method for automatic acquisition and evaluation of metastable peaks due to transitions in the first field-free region of a double focussing mass spectrometer is presented. The data are acquired by computer-controlled repetitive scanning of the accelerating voltage and concomitant accumulation, the evaluation made by a mathematical derivatization of the resulting curve. Examples for application of the method are given. (Auth.)

  8. Peak signal-to-noise ratio revisited: Is simple beautiful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; You, Junyong


    Heavy criticism has been directed against using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) as a full reference quality metric for digitally processed images and video, since many studies have shown a weak correlation between subjective quality scores and the respective PSNR values. In this paper, we show...... quality models known from the literature. Therefore, the use of PSNR may be justified for comparative quality assessment with fixed content....

  9. Implementing peak load reduction algorithms for household electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlamini, Ndumiso G.; Cromieres, Fabien


    Considering household appliance automation for reduction of household peak power demand, this study explored aspects of the interaction between household automation technology and human behaviour. Given a programmable household appliance switching system, and user-reported appliance use times, we simulated the load reduction effectiveness of three types of algorithms, which were applied at both the single household level and across all 30 households. All three algorithms effected significant load reductions, while the least-to-highest potential user inconvenience ranking was: coordinating the timing of frequent intermittent loads (algorithm 2); moving period-of-day time-flexible loads to off-peak times (algorithm 1); and applying short-term time delays to avoid high peaks (algorithm 3) (least accommodating). Peak reduction was facilitated by load interruptibility, time of use flexibility and the willingness of users to forgo impulsive appliance use. We conclude that a general factor determining the ability to shift the load due to a particular appliance is the time-buffering between the service delivered and the power demand of an appliance. Time-buffering can be ‘technologically inherent’, due to human habits, or realised by managing user expectations. There are implications for the design of appliances and home automation systems. - Highlights: ► We explored the interaction between appliance automation and human behaviour. ► There is potential for considerable load shifting of household appliances. ► Load shifting for load reduction is eased with increased time buffering. ► Design, human habits and user expectations all influence time buffering. ► Certain automation and appliance design features can facilitate load shifting.

  10. Cranial Indicators Identified for Peak Incidence of Otitis Media. (United States)

    Pagano, Anthony S; Wang, Eugene; Yuan, Derek; Fischer, Daniel; Bluestone, Charles; Marquez, Samuel; Laitman, Jeffrey


    Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common pediatric conditions worldwide. Peak age of occurrence for AOM has been identified within the first postnatal year and it remains frequent until approximately six postnatal years. Morphological differences between adults and infants in the cartilaginous Eustachian tube (CET) and associated structures may be responsible for development of this disease yet few have investigated normal growth trajectories. We tested hypotheses on coincidence of skeletal growth changes and known ages of peak AOM occurrence. Growth was divided into five dental eruption stages ranging from edentulous neonates (Stage 1) to adults with erupted third maxillary molars (Stage 5). A total of 32 three-dimensional landmarks were used and Generalized Procrustes Analysis was performed. Next, we performed principal components analysis and calculated univariate measures. It was found that growth change in Stage 1 was the most rapid and comprised the largest amount of overall growth in upper respiratory tract proportions (where time is represented by the natural logarithmic transformation of centroid size). The analysis of univariate measures showed that Stage 1 humans did indeed possess the relatively shortest and most horizontally oriented CET's with the greatest amount of growth change occurring at the transition to Stage 2 (eruption of deciduous dentition at five postnatal months, commencing peak AOM incidence) and ceasing by Stage 3 (approximately six postnatal years). Skeletal indicators appear related to peak ages of AOM incidence and may contribute to understanding of a nearly ubiquitous human disease. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1721-1740, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Remote Sensing and Modeling of Cyclone Monica near Peak Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Durden


    Full Text Available Cyclone Monica was an intense Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone of 2006. Although no in situ measurements of Monica’s inner core were made, microwave, infrared, and visible satellite instruments observed Monica before and during peak intensity through landfall on Australia’s northern coast. The author analyzes remote sensing measurements in detail to investigate Monica’s intensity. While Dvorak analysis of its imagery argues that it was of extreme intensity, infrared and microwave soundings indicate a somewhat lower intensity, especially as it neared landfall. The author also describes several numerical model runs that were made to investigate the maximum possible intensity for the observed environmental conditions; these simulations also suggest a lower intensity than estimates from Dvorak analysis alone. Based on the evidence from the various measurements and modeling, the estimated range for the minimum sea level pressure at peak intensity is 900 to 920 hPa. The estimated range for the one-minute averaged maximum wind speed at peak intensity is 72 to 82 m/s. These maxima were likely reached about 24 hours prior to landfall, with some weakening occurring afterward.

  12. Magnetospheric Multiscale Observations of Electron Scale Magnetic Peak (United States)

    Yao, S. T.; Shi, Q. Q.; Guo, R. L.; Yao, Z. H.; Tian, A. M.; Degeling, A. W.; Sun, W. J.; Liu, J.; Wang, X. G.; Zong, Q. G.; Zhang, H.; Pu, Z. Y.; Wang, L. H.; Fu, S. Y.; Xiao, C. J.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; Feng, Y. Y.; Xiao, T.; Bai, S. C.; Shen, X. C.; Zhao, L. L.; Liu, H.


    The sudden enhancements of magnetic strength, named magnetic peaks (MPs), are often observed in the magnetosheath of magnetized planets. They are usually identified as flux ropes (FRs) or magnetic mirror mode structures. Previous studies of MPs are mostly on the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) scale. In this study, an electron scale MP is reported in the Earth magnetosheath. We present a typical case with a scale of 7 electron gyroradii and a duration of 0.18 s. A strong magnetic disturbance and associated electrical current are detected. Electron vortex is found perpendicular to the magnetic field line and is self-consist with the peak. We use multipoint spacecraft techniques to determine the propagation velocity of the MP structure and find that the magnetic peak does propagate relative to the plasma (ion) flow. This is very different from the magnetic mirror mode that does not propagate relative to the plasma flow. Furthermore, we developed an efficient method that can effectively distinguish "magnetic bottle like" and "FRs like" structures. The MP presented in this study is identified as magnetic bottle like type. The mechanism to generate the electron scale magnetic bottle like structure is still unclear, suggesting that new theory needs to be developed to understand such small-scale phenomena.

  13. Mineral Resources: Reserves, Peak Production and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence D. Meinert


    Full Text Available The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798, but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using copper as an example, identified resources are twice as large as the amount projected to be needed through 2050. Estimates of yet-to-be discovered copper resources are up to 40-times more than currently-identified resources, amounts that could last for many centuries. Thus, forecasts of imminent peak production due to resource exhaustion in the next 20–30 years are not valid. Short-term supply problems may arise, however, and supply-chain disruptions are possible at any time due to natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or political complications. Needed to resolve these problems are education and exploration technology development, access to prospective terrain, better recycling and better accounting of externalities associated with production (pollution, loss of ecosystem services and water and energy use.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Hai; Djorgovski, S. G.; Myers, Adam D.; Yan Lin


    As a natural consequence of galaxy mergers, binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) should be commonplace. Nevertheless, observational confirmations are rare, especially for binaries with separations less than 10 kpc. Such a system may show two sets of narrow emission lines in a single spectrum owing to the orbital motion of the binary. We have obtained high-resolution near-infrared images of 50 double-peaked [O III]λ5007 AGNs with the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics system. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey sample is compiled from the literature and consists of 17 type-1 AGNs between 0.18 BH -σ * relation because of overestimated stellar velocity dispersions, illustrating the importance of removing mergers from the samples defining the M BH -σ * relations. Finally, we find that the emission-line properties are indistinguishable for spatially resolved and unresolved sources, emphasizing that scenarios involving a single AGN can produce the same double-peaked line profiles and they account for at least 70% of the double-peaked [O III] AGNs.

  15. Mineral resources: Reserves, peak production and the future (United States)

    Meinert, Lawrence D.; Robinson, Gilpin; Nassar, Nedal


    The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798), but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using copper as an example, identified resources are twice as large as the amount projected to be needed through 2050. Estimates of yet-to-be discovered copper resources are up to 40-times more than currently-identified resources, amounts that could last for many centuries. Thus, forecasts of imminent peak production due to resource exhaustion in the next 20–30 years are not valid. Short-term supply problems may arise, however, and supply-chain disruptions are possible at any time due to natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes) or political complications. Needed to resolve these problems are education and exploration technology development, access to prospective terrain, better recycling and better accounting of externalities associated with production (pollution, loss of ecosystem services and water and energy use).

  16. Predictors of the peak width for networks with exponential links (United States)

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.


    We investigate optimal predictors of the peak (S) and distance to peak (T) of the width function of drainage networks under the assumption that the networks are topologically random with independent and exponentially distributed link lengths. Analytical results are derived using the fact that, under these assumptions, the width function is a homogeneous Markov birth-death process. In particular, exact expressions are derived for the asymptotic conditional expectations of S and T given network magnitude N and given mainstream length H. In addition, a simulation study is performed to examine various predictors of S and T, including N, H, and basin morphometric properties; non-asymptotic conditional expectations and variances are estimated. The best single predictor of S is N, of T is H, and of the scaled peak (S divided by the area under the width function) is H. Finally, expressions tested on a set of drainage basins from the state of Wyoming perform reasonably well in predicting S and T despite probable violations of the original assumptions. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Peak reduction for commercial buildings using energy storage (United States)

    Chua, K. H.; Lim, Y. S.; Morris, S.


    Battery-based energy storage has emerged as a cost-effective solution for peak reduction due to the decrement of battery’s price. In this study, a battery-based energy storage system is developed and implemented to achieve an optimal peak reduction for commercial customers with the limited energy capacity of the energy storage. The energy storage system is formed by three bi-directional power converter rated at 5 kVA and a battery bank with capacity of 64 kWh. Three control algorithms, namely fixed-threshold, adaptive-threshold, and fuzzy-based control algorithms have been developed and implemented into the energy storage system in a campus building. The control algorithms are evaluated and compared under different load conditions. The overall experimental results show that the fuzzy-based controller is the most effective algorithm among the three controllers in peak reduction. The fuzzy-based control algorithm is capable of incorporating a priori qualitative knowledge and expertise about the load characteristic of the buildings as well as the useable energy without over-discharging the batteries.

  18. The bias of weighted dark matter halos from peak theory

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, Licia; Simpson, Fergus; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Heavens, Alan; Matarrese, Sabino


    We give an analytical form for the weighted correlation function of peaks in a Gaussian random field. In a cosmological context, this approach strictly describes the formation bias and is the main result here. Nevertheless, we show its validity and applicability to the evolved cosmological density field and halo field, using Gaussian random field realisations and dark matter N-body numerical simulations. Using this result from peak theory we compute the bias of peaks (and dark matter halos) and show that it reproduces results from the simulations at the ${\\mathcal O}(10\\%)$ level. Our analytical formula for the bias predicts a scale-dependent bias with two characteristics: a broad band shape which, however, is most affected by the choice of weighting scheme and evolution bias, and a more robust, narrow feature localised at the BAO scale, an effect that is confirmed in simulations. This scale-dependent bias smooths the BAO feature but, conveniently, does not move it. We provide a simple analytic formula to des...

  19. 36Cl bomb peak: comparison of modeled and measured data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eichler


    Full Text Available The extensive nuclear bomb testing of the fifties and sixties and the final tests in the seventies caused a strong 36Cl peak that has been observed in ice cores world-wide. The measured 36Cl deposition fluxes in eight ice cores (Dye3, Fiescherhorn, Grenzgletscher, Guliya, Huascarán, North GRIP, Inylchek (Tien Shan and Berkner Island were compared with an ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model simulation (1952–1972. We find a good agreement between the measured and the modeled 36Cl fluxes assuming that the bomb test produced global 36Cl input was ~80 kg. The model simulation indicates that the fallout of the bomb test produced 36Cl is largest in the subtropics and mid-latitudes due to the strong stratosphere-troposphere exchange. In Greenland the 36Cl bomb signal is quite large due to the relatively high precipitation rate. In Antarctica the 36Cl bomb peak is small but is visible even in the driest areas. The model suggests that the large bomb tests in the Northern Hemisphere are visible around the globe but the later (end of sixties and early seventies smaller tests in the Southern Hemisphere are much less visible in the Northern Hemisphere. The question of how rapidly and to what extent the bomb produced 36Cl is mixed between the hemispheres depends on the season of the bomb test. The model results give an estimate of the amplitude of the bomb peak around the globe.

  20. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency. (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A


    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  1. A new record peak luminosity for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Two weeks of dedicated machine development paid off last weekend when the LHC ran for physics with three nominal intensity (∼1011 protons) bunches in each beam.   This brought a new record peak luminosity of around 8×1029 cm-2 s-1, and allowed the LHC to double the integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments since 30 March from 16 to 32 inverse nanobarns over the weekend. After a few more fills in this configuration, the number of bunches will be raised to six per beam, which will in turn allow the peak luminosity to break the 1030 cm-2 s-1 barrier for the first time, well on the way to achieving the 2010 objective of 1032 cm-2 s-1. This peak luminosity goal requires 800 nominal bunches per beam squeezed to a beta of 3.5 metres. The plan for 2011 is to run the LHC in this configuration over about 10 months, thus achieving the objective of recording one inverse femtobarn of data in total. The machine development period also allowed the TOTEM detectors to be set up with 45...

  2. High peak power tubes and gate effect Klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbelot, N.; Bres, M.; Faillon, G.; Buzzi, J.M.


    The conventional microwave tubes such as TWTs, Magnetrons, Klystrons... deliver the very high peak powers which are required by radar transmitters but more especially by many particle accelerators. In the range of a few hundred MHz to about 10 GHz, some dozen of MWs per unit are currently obtained and commercially available, according to the frequency and the pulse lengths. But peak power requirements are ever increasing, especially for the expected new linear particle acceleratores, where several hundred MWs per tube would be necessary. Also some special military transmitters begin to request GW pulses, with short pulse lengths - of course - but at nonnegligible repetition rates. Therefore several laboratories and microwave vacuum tube manufacturers have engaged - for several years - studies and development in the field of very high peak microwave power (HPM) toward two main directions: extended operation and extrapolation of the conventional tubes and devices; development of new concepts, among which the most promising are likely the high-current relativistic klystrons - that are also referred to as gate effect klystrons

  3. Noise distribution of a peak track and hold circuit (United States)

    Seller, Paul; Hardie, Alec L.; Morrissey, Quentin


    Noise in linear electronic circuits is well characterised in terms of power spectral density in the frequency domain and the Normal probability density function in the time domain. For instance a charge preamplifier followed by a simple time independent pulse shaping circuit produces an output with a predictable, easily calculated Normal density function. By the Ergodic Principle this is true if the signal is sampled randomly in time or the experiment is run many times and measured at a fixed time after the circuit is released from reset. Apart from well defined cases, the time of the sample after release of reset does not affect the density function. If this signal is then passed through a peak track-and-hold circuit the situation is very different. The probability density function of the sampled signal is no longer Normal and the function changes with the time of the sample after release of reset. This density function can be classified by the Gumbel probability density function which characterises the Extreme Value Distribution of a defined number of Normally distributed values. The number of peaks in the signal is an important factor in the analysis. This issue is analysed theoretically and compared with a time domain noise simulation programme. This is then related to a real electronic circuit used for low-noise X-ray measurements and shows how the low-energy resolution of this system is significantly degraded when using a peak track-and-hold.

  4. Climate change and peak demand for electricity: Evaluating policies for reducing peak demand under different climate change scenarios (United States)

    Anthony, Abigail Walker

    This research focuses on the relative advantages and disadvantages of using price-based and quantity-based controls for electricity markets. It also presents a detailed analysis of one specific approach to quantity based controls: the SmartAC program implemented in Stockton, California. Finally, the research forecasts electricity demand under various climate scenarios, and estimates potential cost savings that could result from a direct quantity control program over the next 50 years in each scenario. The traditional approach to dealing with the problem of peak demand for electricity is to invest in a large stock of excess capital that is rarely used, thereby greatly increasing production costs. Because this approach has proved so expensive, there has been a focus on identifying alternative approaches for dealing with peak demand problems. This research focuses on two approaches: price based approaches, such as real time pricing, and quantity based approaches, whereby the utility directly controls at least some elements of electricity used by consumers. This research suggests that well-designed policies for reducing peak demand might include both price and quantity controls. In theory, sufficiently high peak prices occurring during periods of peak demand and/or low supply can cause the quantity of electricity demanded to decline until demand is in balance with system capacity, potentially reducing the total amount of generation capacity needed to meet demand and helping meet electricity demand at the lowest cost. However, consumers need to be well informed about real-time prices for the pricing strategy to work as well as theory suggests. While this might be an appropriate assumption for large industrial and commercial users who have potentially large economic incentives, there is not yet enough research on whether households will fully understand and respond to real-time prices. Thus, while real-time pricing can be an effective tool for addressing the peak load

  5. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng


    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers

  6. A comparison of peak expiratory flow measured from forced vital capacity and peak flow meter manoeuvres in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Dipti


    Full Text Available Background: Spirometry measures the mechanical function of lungs, chest wall and respiratory muscles by assessing the total volume of air exhaled from total lung capacity to residual volume. Spirometry and peak flow measurements have usually been carried out on separate equipments using different expiratory maneuvers. Aims: The present study was carried out to determine whether there is a significant difference between peak expiratory flow (PEF derived from a short sharp exhalation (PEF maneuver and that derived from a full forced vital capacity (FVC maneuver in healthy volunteers. Settings: A medical college and tertiary level hospital. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out during the period from January 2006 to July 2006. The study included 80 healthy volunteers with no coexisting illnesses, who were in the 15-45 years age group and belonging to either sex. They were asked to perform two sets of PEF and FVC maneuvers using the same turbine spirometer; the order was randomly Statistical Analysis: The difference between PEF obtained from a peak flow maneuver (PEFPF and that obtained from a forced vital capacity maneuver (PEFVC in healthy volunteers was analyzed separately for males and females, as well as for both groups combined, and statistical significance of its correlations with study data parameters was Results: The difference between PEF obtained from a peak flow maneuver (PEFPF and that obtained from a forced vital capacity maneuver (PEFVC was statistically significant ( P < 0.001 in males and in females separately and also for both groups combined. PEFPF (517.25 ± 83.22 liters/min was significantly greater than PEFVC (511.09 ± 83.54 liters/min, as found on combined group mean analysis. However, the difference was small (6.16 + 7.09 liters/min. Conclusions: FVC maneuver can be used over spirometers to detect the PEF; and on follow-up subsequently, the same maneuver should be used to derive PEF

  7. Electrons' energy in GRB afterglows implied by radio peaks (United States)

    Beniamini, Paz; van der Horst, Alexander J.


    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows have been observed across the electromagnetic spectrum, and physical parameters of GRB jets and their surroundings have been derived using broad-band modelling. While well-sampled light curves across the broad-band spectrum are necessary to constrain all the physical parameters, some can be strongly constrained by the right combination of just a few observables, almost independently of the other unknowns. We present a method involving the peaks of radio light curves to constrain the fraction of shock energy that resides in electrons, εe. This parameter is an important ingredient for understanding the microphysics of relativistic shocks. Based on a sample of 36 radio afterglows, we find εe has a narrow distribution centred around 0.13-0.15. Our method is suggested as a diagnostic tool for determining εe, and to help constrain the broad-band modelling of GRB afterglows. Some earlier measurements of the spreads in parameter values for εe, the kinetic energy of the shock and the density of the circumburst medium, based on broad-band modelling across the entire spectrum, are at odds with our analysis of radio peaks. This could be due to different modelling methods and assumptions, and possibly missing ingredients in past and current modelling efforts. Furthermore, we show that observations at ≳10 GHz performed 0.3-30 d after the GRB trigger are best suited for pinpointing the synchrotron peak frequency, and, consequently, εe. At the same time, observations at lower radio frequencies can pin down the synchrotron self-absorption frequency and help constrain the other physical parameters of GRB afterglows.

  8. Risk factors of low peak bone mass in Indonesian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Sugianto


    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis occurred in 64% of Indonesian women aged 60-64 years. The risk of osteoporosis can be reduced by achieving optimal peak bone mass in ages 25-32 years. However, 33.4% women had low peak bone mass (LPBM. Objective: We aimed to develop a tool to identify women at risk of developing LPBM in order to ameliorate this situation. Some risk/protective factors were explored in a case-control study. Method: We recruited 25 cases, those with LPBM (T-score <1 according to peripheral bone densitometry and 25 controls from Cengkareng District, West Jakarta. They were assessed using questionnaires to explore their historical intake of calcium, tea/coffee, and weight-bearing activity. We also measured BMI and body composition. Parameters among case and control groups were analyzed using independent T-test or Mann-Whitney, and odds ratio in relation to peak bone mass was also computed. Results: Between cases and controls, there were no differences observed in BMI, body composition, weight-bearing activity, and historical tea/coffee consumption. Calcium intake from sources other than milk and its derivatives were also found not to differ. Historical calcium index (HCI, measuring weekly calcium intake since childhood, was found lower in cases (median=160 vs 965; p=0.001. HCI cut-off analysis found that the values of 300 and 1000 yielded good specificity (80% and sensitivity (92% for LPBM. OR analysis identified those with HCI <1000 (OR=0.61; 95% CI: 2.05−54.95 as at moderate risk of developing LPBM, and HCI ≤ 300 as at higher risk. Conclusion: We concluded that, as low HCI was the risk factor for developing LPBM, calculation of HCI should be done to earlier identify women at risk, thus prompting earlier nutrition and lifestyle intervention to prevent the occurrence of LPBM and future osteoporosis.

  9. Effective precipitation duration for runoff peaks based on catchment modelling (United States)

    Sikorska, A. E.; Viviroli, D.; Seibert, J.


    Despite precipitation intensities may greatly vary during one flood event, detailed information about these intensities may not be required to accurately simulate floods with a hydrological model which rather reacts to cumulative precipitation sums. This raises two questions: to which extent is it important to preserve sub-daily precipitation intensities and how long does it effectively rain from the hydrological point of view? Both questions might seem straightforward to answer with a direct analysis of past precipitation events but require some arbitrary choices regarding the length of a precipitation event. To avoid these arbitrary decisions, here we present an alternative approach to characterize the effective length of precipitation event which is based on runoff simulations with respect to large floods. More precisely, we quantify the fraction of a day over which the daily precipitation has to be distributed to faithfully reproduce the large annual and seasonal floods which were generated by the hourly precipitation rate time series. New precipitation time series were generated by first aggregating the hourly observed data into daily totals and then evenly distributing them over sub-daily periods (n hours). These simulated time series were used as input to a hydrological bucket-type model and the resulting runoff flood peaks were compared to those obtained when using the original precipitation time series. We define then the effective daily precipitation duration as the number of hours n, for which the largest peaks are simulated best. For nine mesoscale Swiss catchments this effective daily precipitation duration was about half a day, which indicates that detailed information on precipitation intensities is not necessarily required to accurately estimate peaks of the largest annual and seasonal floods. These findings support the use of simple disaggregation approaches to make usage of past daily precipitation observations or daily precipitation simulations

  10. Quantitative Characterization of Chicxulub Impact Basin Peak Ring Materials (United States)

    King, B.; Nixon, C.; Kofman, R.; Schmitt, D. R.


    The exceptionally low seismic wave speeds determined by tomographic image models of the upper portions of the peak ring of the Chicxulub Impact Structure were largely confirmed by sonic and seismic borehole measurements from the IODP/ICDP Expedition 364 scientific drilling campaign. These low wave speeds result from the extensive damage to the peak ring rocks that, based on the results of numerical modelling, were likely displaced 20 km outwards and 10 km upwards after being subject to initial shock pressures as high as 60 GPa. Here, we describe a series of detailed petrophysical and wave speed measurements on select `granite' and `impact melt' cores from the borehole in order to better understand the nature of this damage To date, two granite and two impact melt samples have been studied. X-ray CT scans (30 mm voxel) reveal extensive micro-fracturing between and within the mineral grains in the granites (Fig. 1a) while highlighting the existence of relatively large, 1000 mm3, occluded pores (Fig. 1b). The porosities, as determined using a Hg-injection porosimeter, were also remarkably high with values of indicating the existence of pervasive microcracking. Even at the highest confining pressure of 200 MPa available to us, the observed VP is 4.5 km/s, a value much below the 6.0 km/s expected for the same nonporous rock. These observations suggest that the low wave speeds and densities within the peak ring differ based on whether the material is the original displaced granite or the intruded impact melt. Samples and data provided by IODP. Samples can be requested at after 19 October 2017. Expedition 364 was funded by ECORD, IODP and ICDP with contributions and logistical support from the Yucatan State Government and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).

  11. An analytical method for predicting postwildfire peak discharges (United States)

    Moody, John A.


    An analytical method presented here that predicts postwildfire peak discharge was developed from analysis of paired rainfall and runoff measurements collected from selected burned basins. Data were collected from 19 mountainous basins burned by eight wildfires in different hydroclimatic regimes in the western United States (California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and South Dakota). Most of the data were collected for the year of the wildfire and for 3 to 4 years after the wildfire. These data provide some estimate of the changes with time of postwildfire peak discharges, which are known to be transient but have received little documentation. The only required inputs for the analytical method are the burned area and a quantitative measure of soil burn severity (change in the normalized burn ratio), which is derived from Landsat reflectance data and is available from either the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service or the U.S. Geological Survey. The method predicts the postwildfire peak discharge per unit burned area for the year of a wildfire, the first year after a wildfire, and the second year after a wildfire. It can be used at three levels of information depending on the data available to the user; each subsequent level requires either more data or more processing of the data. Level 1 requires only the burned area. Level 2 requires the burned area and the basin average value of the change in the normalized burn ratio. Level 3 requires the burned area and the calculation of the hydraulic functional connectivity, which is a variable that incorporates the sequence of soil burn severity along hillslope flow paths within the burned basin. Measurements indicate that the unit peak discharge response increases abruptly when the 30-minute maximum rainfall intensity is greater than about 5 millimeters per hour (0.2 inches per hour). This threshold may relate to a change in runoff generation from saturated-excess to infiltration-excess overland flow. The

  12. Peaked and Smooth Solitons for K*(4,1 Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongan Xie


    Full Text Available This paper is contributed to explore all possible single peak solutions for the K*(4,1 equation ut=uxu2+2α(uuxxx+2uxuxx. Our procedure shows that the K*(4,1 equation either has peakon, cuspon, and smooth soliton solutions when sitting on a nonzero constant pedestal limξ→±∞u=A≠0 or possesses compacton solutions only when limξ→±∞u=A=0. We present a new smooth soliton solution in an explicit form. Mathematical analysis and numeric graphs are provided for those soliton solutions of the K*(4,1 equation.

  13. Estimate capital for operational risk using peak over threshold method (United States)

    Saputri, Azizah Anugrahwati; Noviyanti, Lienda; Soleh, Achmad Zanbar


    Operational risk is inherent in bank activities. To cover this risk a bank reserves a fund called as capital. Often a bank uses Basic Indicator approach (BIA), Standardized Approach (SA), or Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) for estimating the capital amount. BIA and SA are less-objective in comparison to AMA, since BIA and SA use non-actual loss data while AMA use the actual one. In this research, we define the capital as an OpVaR (i.e. the worst loss at a given confidence level) which will be estimated by Peak Over Threshold Method.

  14. Transverse Polarization for Energy Calibration at the Z peak

    CERN Document Server

    Koratzinos, M


    In this paper we deal with aspects of transverse polarization for the purpose of energy calibration of proposed circular colliders like the FCC-ee and the CEPC. The main issues of such a measurement will be discussed. The possibility of using this method to accurately determine the energy at the WW threshold as well as the Z peak will be addressed. The use of wigglers for reducing long polarization times will be discussed and a possible strategy will be presented for minimising the energy uncertainty error in these large machines.

  15. Sleepwalking into a problem. Peak oil conference in Cork, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppelaar, R.


    At the sixth annual conference of the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas (ASPO), which was held in Cork, Ireland, September 17-18, 2007, experts from all over the world gathered to discuss energy trends and the implications this has on the world's future. It appears that the world needs to develop policies for oil conservation and implement renewable energy strategies. The following two questions were discussed: (1) is the oil situation really that dire?; and (2) if so, how can the challenge of diminishing oil supply be met.

  16. Sleepwalking into a problem. Peak oil conference in Cork, Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppelaar, R.


    At the sixth annual conference of the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas (ASPO), which was held in Cork, Ireland, September 17-18, 2007, experts from all over the world gathered to discuss energy trends and the implications this has on the world's future. It appears that the world needs to develop policies for oil conservation and implement renewable energy strategies. The following two questions were discussed: (1) is the oil situation really that dire?; and (2) if so, how can the challenge of diminishing oil supply be met

  17. Reservoir Routing on Double-Peak Design Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gioia


    Full Text Available This work investigates the routing effect provided by an artificial reservoir to a double-peak flood of a given return period. The present paper introduces a dimensionless form of the reservoir balance equation that describes the hydrologic-hydraulic processes that may occur and allows for the evaluation of the reservoir routing coefficient (RC. Exploiting this equation, an extensive sensitivity analysis based on the use of two simple parametric indices that depend on the storage capacity (SC of the reservoir, the discharge capacity (DC of the spillway (with fixed-crest and the hydrologic behavior of the basin was performed.

  18. Observations of High Peak Current 'lull' Lightning Flashes (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Edens, H. E.; Stock, M.


    A new and peculiar type of negative cloud-to-ground (-CG) lightning flash has been found from LMA observations of storms. Called a 'lull' flash, the discharge begins with a short duration (~5-10 ms), stepped leader and high peak current return stroke, followed by a brief period of inactivity. After a few tens to a few hundreds of milliseconds, the discharge reignites in the same location as a normal -CG. VHF observations show a complete lack of activity during the lull. The flashes were first identified from LMA observations during a 2008 lightning study in West Virginia (Krehbiel, 2012 ILDC), but are seen in other normally electrified storms. They are characterized by large negative peak currents (-50 to -150 kA) in NLDN data. Here we report detailed LMA, interferometer, and fast antenna observations of lull flashes obtained at Langmuir Laboratory in 2013. A series of six lull CGs occurred over an 11 min time interval in a small storm on August 5. Analysis of the observations shows the breakdown immediately produced a stepped leader that went straight to ground. The durations from initial breakdown to the return stroke (RS) was 2-15 ms, corresponding to leader speeds of 4×105 to 3×106 m/s. Peak currents of the RSs were -32 to -188 kA. The lulls began 10-29 ms after the RSs, and lasted 40-100 ms before the discharge reignited. By contrast, the durations, speeds and peak current values of the reignited first strokes were those of normal -CGs, namely, 9 to 105 ms, -11.5kA to 55.8kA, and 0.6×105 to 6.7×105 m/s. Further analysis indicates the lull flashes occurred when the storm had substantial negative charge but little lower positive charge, allowing the initial stroke to go straight to ground at a high speed. The energetic stroke somehow quenches the discharge a short time afterward while much negative charge remains, which leads to reignition and the second part of the discharge. Exactly how and why this happens remains an open question.

  19. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and Nd signatures of supracrustal sequences and orthogneisses constrain the Neoproterozoic evolution of the Pernambuco-Alagoas domain, southern part of Borborema Province, NE Brazil (United States)

    Da Silva Filho, A. F.; Guimarães, I. P.; Van Schmus, W. R.; Armstrong, R. A.; Rangel da Silva, J. M.; Osako, L. S.; Cocentino, L. M.


    The Borborema Province is the western part of a major Brasiliano belt that extends from Brazil through NW Africa in pre-drift reconstructions. This province resulted from convergence and collision among the West African, Congo-São Francisco, and Amazonian cratons about 600 Ma. This study focuses on the Pernambuco-Alagoas (PEAL) domain, which is a complex of magmatic, migmatitic, and metamorphic rocks, located in the southern part of the Borborema Province. U-Pb geochronology and Sm-Nd data for metasedimentary sequences (Rio Una, Inhapi) of the PEAL domain and a sample from a sequence of the Transversal Zone domain suggest that their deposition occurred during a Cryogenian extensional event, within the interval 850-631 Ma (or slightly younger). This extensional event occurred in the PEAL, Transversal Zone, and Sergipano domains before the onset of the Brasiliano collision and was followed by syn- and post-collisional magmatism. The Rio Una sequence and the sequence from Transversal Zone domain were deposited over a Rhyacian (ca. 2.0-2.2) basement having a juvenile Palaeoproterozoic Nd signature, whereas the Inhapi sequence was deposited over an Early Neoproterozoic (Tonian) basement. The deposition of the studied sequences is coeval with metasedimentary sequences to the north and south in other domains of the Borborema Province. However, differences in Nd isotopic signatures between the sequences from PEAL, Transversal Zone, and Sergipano domains suggest that they were formed in distinct basins. Metasedimentary sequences from the PEAL domain have Meso- and Palaeoproterozoic T DM model ages. These data suggest that the orogens where the metasedimentary sequences are located have a strong ensialic component. T DM model ages of ca. 1.0 Ga and ɛNd (0.6 Ga) values around zero recorded in granites from the southern part of the PEAL, suggesting that juvenile material was accreted to the southern part of the PEAL domain crust during the Tonian. The migmatites from the

  20. Paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental evolution of the Neoproterozoic basal sedimentary cover on the Río de La Plata Craton, Argentina: Insights from the δ13C chemostratigraphy (United States)

    Gómez-Peral, Lucía E.; Sial, Alcides N.; Arrouy, M. Julia; Richiano, Sebastián; Ferreira, Valderez P.; Kaufman, Alan J.; Poiré, Daniel G.


    The Sierras Bayas Group of the Tandilia System constitutes the Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover of the Río de La Plata Craton in Argentina that accumulated amid the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent and subsequent assembly of Gondwanaland. Evidence for glaciation in the Villa Mónica Formation (VMF) at the base of the succession comes in the form of iron-rich laminated sediments containing dropstones composed predominantly of basement crystalline rocks and quartzites that, are sequentially overlain by a phosphatic mudstone and a 40 m thick stromatolitic dolomite. Subtidal facies preserve columnar forms similar to post-glacial tubestone stromatolites seen in the Neoproterozoic records. These morphologies suggest rapid growth associated with elevated seawater alkalinity and high rates of carbonate accumulation records. The VMF dolomites in our four studied sections near Olavarría-Sierras Bayas area reveal a pronounced negative-to-positive δ13C up section that is similarly to these cap carbonates and others worldwide. Our sedimentological and geochemical study of the VMF sections reveal consistent carbon and oxygen isotope trends that may be useful for detailed intra-basinal correlations. Samples of the VMF fabric-retentive dolomite preserve an unusually narrow range of non-radiogenic strontium isotopic compositions (0.7068 to 0.7070) that are consistent with Cryogenian limestone facies in the potential Namibian and Brazilian equivalents. Exceptional preservation of 87Sr/86Sr compositions suggest the possibility of primary dolomite precipitation in post-glacial seawater, and furthermore that REE patterns and distributions may yield similar insights to redox conditions in the depositional basin. In particular, the VMF dolomites reveal depleted LREE abundances, a negative Ce anomaly, positive La and Gd anomalies, and low Y/Ho values. As a whole, these observations suggest oxidizing post-glacial seawater conditions associated with significant freshwater inputs

  1. Identification of Cr-magnetite in Neoproterozoic serpentinites resulting of Cr-Spinel alteration in a past hydrothermal system: Aït Ahmane ultramafic unit (Bou Azzer ophiolite, Anti Atlas, Morocco) (United States)

    Hodel, Florent; Macouin, Mélina; Carlut, Julie; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Berger, Julien; Trindade, Ricardo; Ennih, Nasser; Rousse, Sonia


    If magnetite is a common serpentinization product, centimetric, massive and almost pure magnetite veins are rarely observed in serpentinites. Unique examples of these, in the Aït Ahmane ultramafic unit (Bou Azzer Neoproterozoic ophiolite, Anti-Atlas, Morocco), offer the opportunity to assess the hydrothermal processes that prevailed at the end of the Precambrian. Pseudomorphic lizardite/chrysotile texture of unaltered serpentinites suggests an oceanic-like first serpentinization stage, under static and low temperature conditions (T characterized by relatively small sized magnetite grains, mainly pseudo-single domain magnetites. Hysteresis parameters and first order reversal curves (FORC) diagram denote a magnetic grains size that increases with the alteration. This well-marked tendency is also reveals by a shift of the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) components toward lower coercivities for altered serpentinites. This grain size increase is associated with the emergence of a new magnetic phase with the hydrothermal alteration, the Cr-magnetite, evidenced by thermomagnetic measurements with Tc around 540 °C. This ultimate Cr-spinel alteration product is associated with another Cr-spinel alteration mineral, the ferritchromite, also identifiable on thermomagnetic curves by a rapid increase of the magnetite susceptibility at 130 °C due to its transformation during heating. Thermomagnetic curves allow us to propose a proxy, the CrM/M ratio providing a quantification of the Cr-magnetite contribution to the magnetic susceptibility, relatively to the pure magnetite one. This CrM/M ratio increases drastically with the hydrothermal alteration of serpentinites and Cr-spinels, attesting of a change of the magnetic mineralogy. Combined with petrography, mineral and bulk chemistry, these magnetic data allow us to propose that a Cl-rich acidic hydrothermal event, involving temperatures below 350 °C, appears to have been responsible of an intense magnetite leaching in

  2. Using Energy Peaks to Measure New Particle Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin


    We discussed in arXiv:1209.0772 that the laboratory frame distribution of the energy of a massless particle from a two-body decay at a hadron collider has a peak whose location is identical to the value of this daughter's (fixed) energy in the rest frame of the corresponding mother particle. For that result to hold we assumed that the mother is unpolarized and has a generic boost distribution in the laboratory frame. In this work we discuss how this observation can be applied for determination of masses of new particles, without requiring a full reconstruction of their decay chains or information about the rest of the event. We focus on a two-step cascade decay of a massive particle that has one invisible particle in the final state: C -> Bb -> Aab, where C, B and A are new particles of which A is invisible and a, b are visible particles. Combining the measurements of the peaks of energy distributions of a and b with that of the edge in their invariant mass distribution, we demonstrate that it is in principle...

  3. Evaluation of peak-to-total ratio for germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tamaki; Oi, Yoshihiro; Taki, Mitsumasa; Kawasaki, Katsuya; Yoshida, Makoto


    An equation for the peak-to-total ratio, P, of a germanium detector is proposed in the following form. P=ε p /ε t +a(V/A)+b(V/A) 2 /2 where ε p /ε t is the ratio of the photoelectric to the total detection efficiency for a germanium detector, V/A is the volume-to-surface ratio of the detector, and the parameters of a and b are experimentally given as a function of incident photon energy. The first term in the right side of the equation expresses the fractional single photoelectric-to-total interaction between photons and the detector. The second and third terms correspond to the multiple interactions. The peak-to-total ratios for the germanium detector with a sensitive volume up to 200 cm 3 were calculated by the equation. They coincide with the experimental values to within an uncertainty of several percent in the energy region 0.3-3 MeV

  4. Effective climate-energy solutions, escape routes and peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den


    Many well-intended climate-energy strategies are ineffective in the absence of serious environmental regulation. This holds, among others, for direct support of clean energy, voluntary energy conservation, technical standards on a limited set of products, unilateral stringent carbon pricing, and awaiting peak oil as a climate strategy. All of these suffer from “escape routes” that indirectly increase CO 2 emissions and thus make the original strategy ineffective. On the other hand, environmental regulation alone may lead to a myopia-bias, stimulating early dominance of cost-effective technologies and a focus on incremental innovations associated with such technologies rather than on radical innovations. Although adopting a partial viewpoint keeps the analysis simple, we urgently need a more inclusive systems perspective on climate solutions. This will allow the formulation of an effective climate policy package that addresses the various escape routes. - Highlights: ► Many well-intended climate-energy strategies are ineffective because of escape routes. ► In this context the relationship between peak oil and climate policy receives attention. ► Environmental regulation alone creates myopia-bias, the resolution of which requires technology-specific policies. ► To formulate an effective climate policy package an inclusive systems perspective is needed.

  5. Power Peaking Effect of OTTO Fuel Scheme Pebble Bed Reactor (United States)

    Setiadipura, T.; Suwoto; Zuhair; Bakhri, S.; Sunaryo, G. R.


    Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) type of Hight Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a very interesting nuclear reactor design to fulfill the growing electricity and heat demand with a superior passive safety features. Effort to introduce the PBR design to the market can be strengthen by simplifying its system with the Once-through-then-out (OTTO) cycle PBR in which the pebble fuel only pass the core once. Important challenge in the OTTO fuel scheme is the power peaking effect which limit the maximum nominal power or burnup of the design. Parametric survey is perform in this study to investigate the contribution of different design parameters to power peaking effect of OTTO cycle PBR. PEBBED code is utilized in this study to perform the equilibrium PBR core analysis for different design parameter and fuel scheme. The parameters include its core diameter, height-per-diameter (H/D), power density, and core nominal power. Results of this study show that diameter and H/D effectsare stronger compare to the power density and nominal core power. Results of this study might become an importance guidance for design optimization of OTTO fuel scheme PBR.

  6. Gas inventory charges and peak-load reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, T.P.; Hackett, S.C.


    The natural gas industry has historically been organized through a vertical sequence of long-term contracts, the first between wellhead producer and pipeline, and the second between pipeline and local distribution company (LDC). These long-term contracts contained provisions, variously called take-or-pay (TOP) clauses or minimum bills, that required buyers to pay for a minimum level of supply in all later time periods, regardless of the buyers' actual demand requirements. As a result, the pipeline's purchase obligation was typically offset by the distributor's purchase obligation, so that the pipeline essentially passed the minimum purchase requirement directly from producer to distributor. The authors focus on the role GICs (Gas Inventory Charges) can play in the provision of peak-load reliability, and the effects of GICs and their treatment by regulators on pipeline system design. In particular, they compare the various options available to local distribution companies (LDCs) for providing peak-load reliability, emphasizing the alternative downstream storage. They find that the ratemaking decisions of state regulators may distort LDC choices between different gas supply options, inducing what may be an inefficient demand for new storage facilities. GICs, when competitively prices, offer state regulators a means of circumventing these distortions

  7. Peaking for optimal performance: Research limitations and future directions. (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Mujika, Iñigo; Reilly, Thomas


    A key element of the physical preparation of athletes is the taper period in the weeks immediately preceding competition. Existing research has defined the taper, identified various forms used in contemporary sport, and examined the prescription of training volume, load, intensity, duration, and type (progressive or step). Current limitations include: the lack of studies on team, combative, racquet, and precision (target) sports; the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials; the narrow focus on a single competition (single peak) compared with multiple peaking for weekly, multi-day or multiple events; and limited understanding of the physiological, neuromuscular, and biomechanical basis of the taper. Future research should address these limitations, together with the influence of prior training on optimal tapering strategies, and the interactions between the taper and long-haul travel, heat, and altitude. Practitioners seek information on how to prescribe tapers from season to season during an athlete's career, or a team's progression through a domestic league season, or multi-year Olympic or World Cup cycle. Practical guidelines for planning effective tapers for the Vancouver 2010 and London 2012 Olympics will evolve from both experimental investigations and modelling of successful tapers currently employed in a wide range of sports.

  8. Steam generator deposit control program assessment at Comanche Peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.; Fellers, B.; Orbon, S.


    Comanche Peak has employed a variety of methods to assess the effectiveness of the deposit control program. These include typical methods such as an extensive visual inspection program and detailed corrosion product analysis and trending. In addition, a recently pioneered technique, low frequency eddy current profile analysis (LFEC) has been utilized. LFEC provides a visual mapping of the magnetite deposit profile of the steam generator. Analysis of the LFEC results not only provides general area deposition rates, but can also provide local deposition patterns, which is indicative of steam generator performance. Other techniques utilized include trending of steam pressure, steam generator hideout-return, and flow assisted corrosion (FAC) results. The sum of this information provides a comprehensive assessment of the deposit control program effectiveness and the condition of the steam generator. It also provides important diagnostic and predictive information relative to steam generator life management and mitigative strategies, such as special cleaning procedures. This paper discusses the techniques employed by Comanche Peak Chemistry to monitor the effectiveness of the deposit control program and describes how this information is used in strategic planning. (authors)

  9. Acetaminophen overdose associated with double serum concentration peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Papazoglu


    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic–antipyretic medication in the United States. Acetaminophen overdose, a frequent cause of drug toxicity, has been recognized as the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis. N-Acetylcysteine is the recommended antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Despite evidence on the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of hepatic injury, controversy persists about the optimal duration of the therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 65-year-old male with acetaminophen overdose and opioid co-ingestion who developed a second peak in acetaminophen serum levels after completing the recommended 21-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine protocol and when the standard criteria for monitoring drug levels was achieved. Prolongation of N-acetylcysteine infusion beyond the standard protocol, despite a significant gap in treatment, was critical for successful avoidance of hepatotoxicity. Delay in acetaminophen absorption may be associated with a second peak in serum concentration following an initial declining trend, especially in cases of concomitant ingestion of opioids. In patients with acetaminophen toxicity who co-ingest other medications that may potentially delay gastric emptying or in those with risk factors for delayed absorption of acetaminophen, we recommend close monitoring of aminotransferase enzyme levels, as well as trending acetaminophen concentrations until undetectable before discontinuing the antidote therapy.

  10. Changes in Peak Flow Value during Immunotherapy Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saporta, D.


    Nasal allergies are prevalent affecting a large percentage of the population. Not only the upper respiratory tract but the whole body is involved. Allergies produce morbidity (and even occasional mortality) as they can lead to asthma development, and increased number of accidents. Immunotherapy results can be evaluated by following symptom scores, medication use, and objective measurements. Using a Peak Flow Meter (Pf) to evaluate immunotherapy results, it became evident that patients with and without asthma exhibited an improvement in the Peak Flow (PF) value, suggesting that lower airway involvement in allergic patients could be more prevalent than assumed. A consecutive chart review was performed including patients of any age with nasal allergies (with or without asthma) treated with immunotherapy for at least 6 months that had at least 2 complete evaluations. When immunotherapy was successful, most patients exhibited an increase in the PF value regardless of asthma status. A very significant finding was that most allergy sufferers may have lower airway inflammation. The use of the PF value to assess immunotherapy results and the potential failure to diagnose asthma in allergy sufferers are discussed. A better diagnosis of lower airway inflammation could be substantial in the management of these patients pulmonary function

  11. GRB physics and cosmology with peak energy-intensity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, Disha, E-mail: [University of Ferrara, Via Saragat-1, Block C, Ferrara 44122 (Italy); University of Nice, 28 Avenue Valrose, Nice 06103 (France); IRAP Erasmus PhD Program, European Union and INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); Amati, Lorenzo, E-mail: [INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); ICRANet, Piazzale Aldo Moro-5, Rome 00185 (Italy)


    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are immensely energetic explosions radiating up to 10{sup 54} erg of energy isotropically (E{sub iso}) and they are observed within a wide range of redshift (from ∼ 0.01 up to ∼ 9). Such enormous power and high redshift point at these phenomena being highly favorable to investigate the history and evolution of our universe. The major obstacle in their application as cosmological study-tools is to find a way to standardize the GRBs, for instance similar to SNe Ia. With respect to this goal, the correlation between spectral peak energy (E{sub p,i}) and the “intensity” is a positively useful and investigated criterion. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that, through the E{sub p,i} – E{sub iso} correlation, the current data set of GRBs can already contribute to the independent evidence of the matter density Ω{sub M} being ∼ 0.3 for a flat universe scenario. We try to inspect and compare the correlations of E{sub p,i} with different intensity indicators (e.g., radiated energy, average and peak luminosity, bolometric vs. monochromatic quantities, etc.) both in terms of intrinsic dispersion and precise estimation of Ω{sub M}. The outcome of such studies are further analyzed in verifying the reliability of the correlations for both GRB physics and their standardization for cosmology.

  12. Simultaneous EEG and EMG biofeedback for peak performance in musicians. (United States)

    Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Georgiev, Dejan


    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of alpha neurofeedback and EMG biofeedback protocols for improvement of musical performance in violinists. The sample consisted of 12 music students (10 violinists and 2 viola players) from the Faculty of Music, Skopje (3 males, mean age of 20 +/- 0 and 9 females, mean age = 20.89 +/- 2.98). Six of them had a low alpha peak frequency (APF) ( 10 Hz). The sample was randomized in two groups. The students from the experimental group participated in 20 sessions of biofeedback (alpha/EMG), combined with music practice, while the students from the control group did only music practice. Average absolute power, interhemispheric coherence in the alpha band, alpha peak frequency (APF), individual alpha band width (IABW), amount of alpha suppression (AAS) and surface forehead integrated EMG power (IEMG), as well as a score on musical performance and inventories measuring anxiety, were assessed. Alpha-EEG/EMG-biofeedback was associated with a significant increase in average alpha power, APF and IABW in all the participants and with decreases in IEMG only in high-APF musicians. The biofeedback training success was positively correlated with the alpha power, IcoH, APF, IABW and baseline level of APF and IABW. Alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback is capable of increasing voluntary self-regulation and the quality of musical performance. The efficiency of biofeedback training depends on the baseline EEG alpha activity status, in particular the APF.

  13. Emission scenarios in the face of fossil-fuel peaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecha, Robert J.


    Emissions scenarios used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. We propose in this paper that it is useful to look at a qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, to gain a sense of carbon emission bounds. Here we look at what may be considered a lower bound for 21st century emissions given two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the trends assumed by 'peak oil' adherents, and second, that no climate mitigation policies are put in place to limit emissions. If resources, and more importantly, extraction rates, of fossil fuels are more limited than posited in full energy-system models, a supply-driven emissions scenario results; however, we show that even in this 'peak fossil-fuel' limit, carbon emissions are high enough to surpass 550 ppm or 2 C climate protection guardrails. Some indicators are presented that the scenario presented here should not be disregarded, and comparisons are made to the outputs of emission scenarios used for the IPCC reports. (author)

  14. Old Metal-rich Globular Cluster Populations: Peak Color and Peak Metallicity Trends with Mass of Host Spheroids


    Kravtsov, Valery V.


    We address the problem of the factors contributing to a peak color trend of old metal-rich globular cluster (MRGC) populations with mass of their hosts, early-type galaxies and spheroidal subsystems of spiral ones (spheroids). The color-mass trend is often converted to a metallicity-mass trend under the assumption that age effects are small or negligible. While direct estimates of the ages of MRGC populations neither can rule out nor reliably support the populations' age trend, key data on ti...

  15. Technical Potential for Peak Load Management Programs in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.


    Restructuring is attempting to bring the economic efficiency of competitive markets to the electric power industry. To at least some extent it is succeeding. New generation is being built in most areas of the country reversing the decades-long trend of declining reserve margins. Competition among generators is typically robust, holding down wholesale energy prices. Generators have shown that they are very responsive to price signals in both the short and long term. But a market that is responsive only on the supply side is only half a market. Demand response (elasticity) is necessary to gain the full economic advantages that restructuring can offer. Electricity is a form of energy that is difficult to store economically in large quantities. However, loads often have some ability to (1) conveniently store thermal energy and (2) defer electricity consumption. These inherent storage and control capabilities can be exploited to help reduce peak electric system consumption. In some cases they can also be used to provide system reliability reserves. Fortunately too, technology is helping. Advances in communications and control technologies are making it possible for loads ranging from residential through commercial and industrial to respond to economic signals. When we buy bananas, we don't simply take a dozen and wait a month to find out what the price was. We always ask about the price before we decide how many bananas we want. Technology is beginning to allow at least some customers to think about their electricity consumption the same way they think about most of their other purchases. And power system operators and regulators are beginning to understand that customers need to remain in control of their own destinies. Many customers (residential through industrial) are willing to respond to price signals. Most customers are not able to commit to specific responses months or years in advance. Electricity is a fluid market commodity with a volatile value to both

  16. Peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim-Abrahan, M.A.B.; Guanzon, M.L.V.V.; Balderas, J.A.J.; Villaruel, C.M.; Santos, F.


    To determine the peak bone mass density among residents of Metro Manila using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).The design used is cross-sectional study. The study include 23 females and 22 males, with 3 to 4 subjects for each age range of 5. The methods used was bone mass density measurements on the lumbar spine and the femur using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DPXI lunar) were taken. The values were also age-matched and matched with that of a young adult based on programmed Caucasian norm provided by Lunar Co. The values were then scattered against age for each sex. Ten (10) cc of blood was also extracted from the patients, with 5 cc of blood separated for future studies. Patients were also interviewed as to their lifestyle, diet, use of contraceptive pill or hormonal replacement treatment, using a Filipino version of the revised questionnaire on the WHO Study on osteoporosis. The mean bone mass density at the L21.4 level for females was 1.12±0.11 g/cm 2 and 0,91±0.11 g/cm 2 at the femur. The highest BMD in both the lumbar spine femoral neck measurements among females was achieved between the ages 30-35 years of age with the lowest BMD occurring between 15-20 yrs. old and incidentally in 2 subjects with ages between 40-44. There seems to be little bone loss among beyond the age 35, unlike in the females. Bone mass density among a sample Metro Manila residents was determined using DEXA and the measurements on the lumbar spine and femoral neck. These were age-matched with that of young adult based on Caucasian norm provided by the Lunar Co. Peak bone mass density in the L2L4 level among the females is reached between the ages 30-35 years old, after which there is progressive bone loss with values in the 45-50 years old approximating the values in the 15-19 years old age range. A similar pattern is seen in the measurements taken at the femoral neck. Among males, the peak BMD is reached during the 30-35 years old, but there seems to be no rapid decline or rapid bone

  17. Peak-locking error reduction by birefringent optical diffusers (United States)

    Kislaya, Ankur; Sciacchitano, Andrea


    The use of optical diffusers for the reduction of peak-locking errors in particle image velocimetry is investigated. The working principle of the optical diffusers is based on the concept of birefringence, where the incoming rays are subject to different deflections depending on the light direction and polarization. The performances of the diffusers are assessed via wind tunnel measurements in uniform flow and wall-bounded turbulence. Comparison with best-practice image defocusing is also conducted. It is found that the optical diffusers yield an increase of the particle image diameter up to 10 µm in the sensor plane. Comparison with reference measurements showed a reduction of both random and systematic errors by a factor of 3, even at low imaging signal-to-noise ratio.

  18. Hvordan gør musikken i Twin Peaks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansa Lønstrup


    Full Text Available Det er almindelig erkendt, at musikken spiller en afgørende rolle for den totale oplevelse af film og TV. Men det glemmes ofte igen, især i fortolk- ninger, der focuserer på handlingen og ser bort fra musikken og måske også den visuelle formidling. Tendensen til at "glemme" musikken i fortolkningen skyldes især, at den er svær at beskrive og svær at analysere. Ansa Lønstrups analyse af musikkens rolle i TV-serien Twin Peaks er en eksemplarisk gennem- gang af hvorledes musikken skaber betydning. Den er samtidig et bidrag til forståelsen af netop denne serie, der bl.a. udmærker sig ved, at den næppe kan begribes uden at musikken bliver en del af oplevelse og tolk- ning.

  19. Sensitivity of peak dynamic responses to input factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.


    We examine the sensitivity of calculated peak dynamic responses, such as acceleration and moment, to input parameters such as frequency and damping. These responses have been calculated for the Zion Unit 1 plant, using the SSMRP computer code SMACS, as part of the seismic probabilistic risk assessment performed by the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). We use linear regression analysis (LRA) to develop a simple model of the SMACS calculations. The sensitivities of the responses are the coefficients from the LRA. The LRA provides an approximate but simple overview of the complex response behavior. Heavy equipment such as the pressurizer and the steam generators has a large influence on the response of attached piping. Piping damping is sometimes important to the piping response, but in those cases piping frequency is usually more important. Variability in the inputs introduces correlations among the affected responses. The soil damping, through the local site effect, strongly affects all the plant responses

  20. Mean and peak wind load reduction on heliostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterka, J.A.; Tan, L.; Bienkiewcz, B.; Cermak, J.E.


    This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated both mean and peak forces, and moments. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved. In addition, a preliminary review of wind loads on parabolic dish collectors was conducted, resulting in a recommended research program for these type collectors. 42 refs., 38 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Feature Classification of NSO/Kitt Peak Magnetograms (United States)

    Malanushenko, O.; Jones, H. P.; Pap, J. M.; Turmon, M.


    We present new segmentations of daily NASA/NSO Spectromagnetograph (SPM) multidimensional magnetograms obtained at the NSO/Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope from 1992-2003. Full-disk images are divided into areas of quiet Sun, network, active regions, and sunspots using a three-dimensional adaptation of a statistical image classification method developed by Turmon, Pap, and Mukhtar (ApJ 568:396-407, 2002). Probability distributions for each feature class are derived from a training set of images independently segmented using thresholds in magnetic flux and continuum intensity. We summarize our analysis procedures and compare segmentations derived from class-conditional probabilities computed with Gaussian mixture models and histogram interpolation. We also compare our segmentations with features identified by other methods and with solar irradiance variation.

  2. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø International Energy Conference 2009 took place 14 – 16 September 2009. The conference focused on: • Future global energy development options Scenario and policy issues • Measures to achieve CO2 emission peak in 2015 – 2020 and subsequent decline • Renewable energy supply technologies...... such as bioenergy, wind and solar • Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies • Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells and hydrogen technologies • Providing renewable energy for the transport sector • Systems aspects for the various regions throughout...... the world • End-use technologies, efficiency improvements in supply and end use • Energy savings The proceedings are prepared from papers presented at the conference and received with corrections, if any, until the final deadline on 3 August 2009....

  3. Europe and the Peak Oil, an emergency situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, B.


    The author shows why, in the coming years, severe oil supply difficulties will emerge in countries like France and the majority of European countries which do not possess significant oil resources on their land. He also highlights the risks for the European Union if no action is undertaken in front of this perspective. He discusses the British example as the United Kingdom has been the first country to use fossil fuels in an industrial way, and also possessed important quantities of oil and natural gas in the Northern Sea. He discusses the various data concerning the Peak Oil, and outlines the rapid decrease of available oil quantities on the international market. He highlights the difficult situation which will soon face Europe, and that measures must me implemented in emergency

  4. Modeling the peak of emergence in systems: Design and katachi. (United States)

    Cardier, Beth; Goranson, H T; Casas, Niccolo; Lundberg, Patric; Erioli, Alessio; Takaki, Ryuji; Nagy, Dénes; Ciavarra, Richard; Sanford, Larry D


    It is difficult to model emergence in biological systems using reductionist paradigms. A requirement for computational modeling is that individual entities can be recorded parametrically and related logically, but their transformation into whole systems cannot be captured this way. The problem stems from an inability to formally represent the implicit influences that inform emergent organization, such as context, shifts in causal agency or scale, and self-reference. This lack hampers biological systems modeling and its computational counterpart, indicating a need for new fundamental abstraction frameworks that support system-level characteristics. We develop an approach that formally captures these characteristics, focusing on the way they come together to enable transformation at the 'peak' of the emergent process. An example from virology is presented, in which two seemingly antagonistic systems - the herpes cold sore virus and its host - are capable of altering their basic biological objectives to achieve a new equilibrium. The usual barriers to modeling this process are overcome by incorporating mechanisms from practices centered on its emergent peak: design and katachi. In the Japanese science of form, katachi refers to the emergence of intrinsic structure from real situations, where an optimal balance between implicit influences is achieved. Design indicates how such optimization is guided by principles of flow. These practices leverage qualities of situated abstraction, which we understand through the intuitive method of physicist Kôdi Husimi. Early results indicate that this approach can capture the functional transformations of biological emergence, whilst being reasonably computable. Due to its geometric foundations and narrative-based extension to logic, the method will also generate speculative predictions. This research forms the foundations of a new biomedical modeling platform, which is discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Logistic curves, extraction costs and effective peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecha, Robert J.


    Debates about the possibility of a near-term maximum in world oil production have become increasingly prominent over the past decade, with the focus often being on the quantification of geologically available and technologically recoverable amounts of oil in the ground. Economically, the important parameter is not a physical limit to resources in the ground, but whether market price signals and costs of extraction will indicate the efficiency of extracting conventional or nonconventional resources as opposed to making substitutions over time for other fuels and technologies. We present a hybrid approach to the peak-oil question with two models in which the use of logistic curves for cumulative production are supplemented with data on projected extraction costs and historical rates of capacity increase. While not denying the presence of large quantities of oil in the ground, even with foresight, rates of production of new nonconventional resources are unlikely to be sufficient to make up for declines in availability of conventional oil. Furthermore we show how the logistic-curve approach helps to naturally explain high oil prices even when there are significant quantities of low-cost oil yet to be extracted. - Highlights: ► Extraction cost information together with logistic curves to model oil extraction. ► Two models of extraction sequence for different oil resources. ► Importance of time-delay and extraction rate limits for new resources. ► Model results qualitatively reproduce observed extraction cost dynamics. ► Confirmation of “effective” peak oil, even though resources are in ground.

  6. Space geodetic techniques for global modeling of ionospheric peak parameters (United States)

    Alizadeh, M. Mahdi; Schuh, Harald; Schmidt, Michael

    The rapid development of new technological systems for navigation, telecommunication, and space missions which transmit signals through the Earth’s upper atmosphere - the ionosphere - makes the necessity of precise, reliable and near real-time models of the ionospheric parameters more crucial. In the last decades space geodetic techniques have turned into a capable tool for measuring ionospheric parameters in terms of Total Electron Content (TEC) or the electron density. Among these systems, the current space geodetic techniques, such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites, satellite altimetry missions, and others have found several applications in a broad range of commercial and scientific fields. This paper aims at the development of a three-dimensional integrated model of the ionosphere, by using various space geodetic techniques and applying a combination procedure for computation of the global model of electron density. In order to model ionosphere in 3D, electron density is represented as a function of maximum electron density (NmF2), and its corresponding height (hmF2). NmF2 and hmF2 are then modeled in longitude, latitude, and height using two sets of spherical harmonic expansions with degree and order 15. To perform the estimation, GNSS input data are simulated in such a way that the true position of the satellites are detected and used, but the STEC values are obtained through a simulation procedure, using the IGS VTEC maps. After simulating the input data, the a priori values required for the estimation procedure are calculated using the IRI-2012 model and also by applying the ray-tracing technique. The estimated results are compared with F2-peak parameters derived from the IRI model to assess the least-square estimation procedure and moreover, to validate the developed maps, the results are compared with the raw F2-peak parameters derived from the Formosat-3/Cosmic data.

  7. U-Pb (LA-ICPMS) zircon ages and Nd isotopes for granitoids of the Tamboril-Santa Quiteria Complex, Ceara Central Domain: implication for neoproterozoic syncollisional magmatism in north Borborema Province, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Felipe Grandjean da; Araujo, Carlos Eduardo Ganade de; Vasconcelos, Antonio Maurilio, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Amaral, Wagner da Silva, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia; Rodrigues, Joseneusa Brilhante, E-mail: [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)


    The Tamboril-Santa Quiteria Complex (TSQC) is one of the largest Neoproterozoic plutonic manifestations in the north Borborema Province (NE Brazil). It represents an anatectic/igneous association characterized by a number of magmatic pulses that occurred in the 650-610 Ma interval. In this paper, we present U-Pb (LA-MC-ICP-MS) zircon ages and Nd isotopes for quartz monzonite and quartz diorites of the southern part of TSQC. The quartz monzonite belong to a hybrid granitoid association, including monzonite, syenites and quartz syenites, all with abundant mafic magmatic enclaves. A quartz monzonite sample yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 634 {+-} 10 Ma and a TDM age of 2.69 Ga. The quartz diorites are much more homogeneous in composition and yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 618 {+-} 23 Ma and a TDM age of 2.19 Ga. The presence of coeval mantle-derived magmatism and diatexites (crustal anatexis) post-dating high-pressure metamorphism (ca. 650 Ma), and together with high-temperature metamorphism (ca. 630-610 Ma), suggests that this large magmatic manifestation evolved in a collisional setting, probably related to slab break off during the Western Gondwana amalgamation. (author)

  8. Prediction of Peaks in Wolf Numbers in Cycle 24 according to Actual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Previous investigations by Makarovet al.have shown a relation between the peaks in the number of polar faculae and the peaks in the. Wolf number. In cycles 20 and 22 the delay between peaks in polar faculae and Wolf number was 6.1 ± 0.1 year, north and south taken separately, as their peaks do not coincide.

  9. Amorphous chalcogenides as random octahedrally bonded solids: I. Implications for the first sharp diffraction peak, photodarkening, and Boson peak (United States)

    Lukyanov, Alexey; Lubchenko, Vassiliy


    We develop a computationally efficient algorithm for generating high-quality structures for amorphous materials exhibiting distorted octahedral coordination. The computationally costly step of equilibrating the simulated melt is relegated to a much more efficient procedure, viz., generation of a random close-packed structure, which is subsequently used to generate parent structures for octahedrally bonded amorphous solids. The sites of the so-obtained lattice are populated by atoms and vacancies according to the desired stoichiometry while allowing one to control the number of homo-nuclear and hetero-nuclear bonds and, hence, effects of the mixing entropy. The resulting parent structure is geometrically optimized using quantum-chemical force fields; by varying the extent of geometric optimization of the parent structure, one can partially control the degree of octahedrality in local coordination and the strength of secondary bonding. The present methodology is applied to the archetypal chalcogenide alloys AsxSe1-x. We find that local coordination in these alloys interpolates between octahedral and tetrahedral bonding but in a non-obvious way; it exhibits bonding motifs that are not characteristic of either extreme. We consistently recover the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) in our structures and argue that the corresponding mid-range order stems from the charge density wave formed by regions housing covalent and weak, secondary interactions. The number of secondary interactions is determined by a delicate interplay between octahedrality and tetrahedrality in the covalent bonding; many of these interactions are homonuclear. The present results are consistent with the experimentally observed dependence of the FSDP on arsenic content, pressure, and temperature and its correlation with photodarkening and the Boson peak. They also suggest that the position of the FSDP can be used to infer the effective particle size relevant for the configurational equilibration in

  10. Decreased peak expiratory flow in pediatric passive smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yanti


    Full Text Available Background Indonesia ranks fifth among countries with the highest aggregate levels of tobacco consumption in the world. Infants and children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke have increased rates of asthma, respiratory and ear infections, as well as reduced lung function. The effects of tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in children have been reported to be dependent on the source of smoke and the length and dose of exposure. Lung function may also be affected by a child’s gender and asthma status. Objective To compare peak expiratory flow (PEF in pediatric passive smokers to that of children not exposed to second hand smoke, and to define factors that may affect PEF in passive smokers. Methods In August 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional study at an elementary school in the Langkat district. Subjects were aged 6 to 12 years, and divided into two groups: passive smokers and those not exposed to secondhand smoke. Subjects’ PEFs were measured with a Mini-Wright peak flow meter. Measurements were performed in triplicate with the highest value recorded as the PEF. Demographic data including age, sex, weight, height, family income, parental education levels and occupations were obtained through questionnaires. Results Of the 170 participants, 100 were passive smokers and 70 were not exposed to secondhand smoke. Age distribution, weight and height were similar in both groups. We observed a significant difference in PEFs between the group of passive smokers and the group not exposed to secondhand smoke, 211.3 L/minute (SD 61.08 and 242.7 L/minute (SD 77.09, respectively (P < 0.005. The number of years of exposure to smoke (P = 0.079 and the number of cigarettes smoked daily in the household (P = 0.098 did not significantly influence PEF. Conclusion The PEF in pediatric passive smokers was significantly lower than that of children not exposed to secondhand smoke. PEF in passive smokers was not influenced by the number of years of smoke

  11. Damage detection using sideband peak count in spectral correlation domain (United States)

    Liu, Peipei; Sohn, Hoon


    Nonlinear ultrasonic techniques have been proven to be more sensitive to the presence of an early-stage damage than linear techniques. Among various nonlinear techniques, laser nonlinear wave modulation spectroscopy (LNWMS) utilizes a pulse laser to exert a broadband input and a damage on the target structure exhibits nonlinear wave modulation among various input frequency components. A sideband peak count (SPC) technique in the spectral frequency domain was proposed to estimate the damage-induced nonlinearity. In this study, the SPC operation is conducted in the spectral correlation domain so that noise has less influence on damage detection performance and a higher sensitivity to damage can be achieved. In addition, through spatial comparison of SPC over an inspection area, damage can be detected without relying on the baseline data obtained from a pristine condition. The performance of the proposed technique is validated using a numerical simulation performed on an aluminum plate with a simulated crack, and experiments performed on an aluminum plate with a fatigue crack and a carbon fiber reinforced polymer plate with delamination.

  12. Textural Poaching Twin Peaks: The Audrey Horne Sweater Girl GIFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gillan


    Full Text Available This article aims to widen the lens of analysis of participatory culture inspired by long-arc serials like Twin Peaks. It considers GIF creation as a form of textural poaching, a new reception practice involving skimming off and repurposing top-of-the-mind content: the most arresting elements of costuming, set design, and dialogue. This behavior has become more popular as more series rely on textural storytelling and are filled with moments of excess that feel separate from the story. After an introduction to GIFs and GIF creation, it contrasts the impression of the character and series conveyed by Audrey Horne GIFs and the actual dynamics in the “Audrey’s Dance” scene. It establishes that Audrey’s look is most visually aligned with the Sweater Girl type, but as an allusive characterization it creates excess and calls attention to itself. Part of the “cool pop” reputation of the series may stem from the wider circulation of iconic moments of excess especially given that the GIFs detach the images from the series’ uneven storytelling and its challenging surrealist sensibility.

  13. Sensitivity of peak dynamic responses to input factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.


    The authors examine the sensitivity of calculated peak dynamic responses, such as acceleration and moment, to input parameters such as frequency and damping. These responses have been calculated for the Zion Unit 1 plant, using the SSMRP computer code SMACS, as part of the seismic probabilistic risk assessment performed by the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP), supported by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. They use linear regression analysis (LRA) to develop a simple model of the SMACS calculations. The sensitivities of the responses are the coefficients from the LRA. The LRA provides an approximate but simple overview of the complex response behavior. Heavy equipment such as the pressurizer and the steam generators has a large influence on the response of attached piping. Piping damping is sometimes important to the piping response, but in those cases piping frequency is usually more important. Variability in the inputs introduces correlations among the affected responses. The soil damping, through the local site effect, strongly affects all the plant responses

  14. Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing ofelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen


    This paper investigates how critical-peak pricing (CPP)affects households with different usage and income levels, with the goalof informing policy makers who are considering the implementation of CPPtariffs in the residential sector. Using a subset of data from theCalifornia Statewide Pricing Pilot of 2003-2004, average load changeduring summer events, annual percent bill change, and post-experimentsatisfaction ratings are calculated across six customer segments,categorized by historical usage and income levels. Findings show thathigh-use customers respond significantly more in kW reduction than dolow-use customers, while low-use customers save significantly more inpercentage reduction of annual electricity bills than do high-usecustomers results that challenge the strategy of targeting only high-usecustomers for CPP tariffs. Across income levels, average load and billchanges were statistically indistinguishable, as were satisfaction ratesresults that are compatible with a strategy of full-scale implementationof CPP rates in the residential sector. Finally, the high-use customersearning less than $50,000 annually were the most likely of the groups tosee bill increases about 5 percent saw bill increases of 10 percent ormore suggesting that any residential CPP implementation might considertargeting this customer group for increased energy efficiencyefforts.

  15. Gigahertz-peaked Spectra Pulsars and Thermal Absorption Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijak, J.; Basu, R.; Lewandowski, W.; Rożko, K. [Janusz Gil Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, ul. Z. Szafrana 2, PL-65-516 Zielona Góra (Poland); Dembska, M., E-mail: [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7 D-28359 Bremen (Germany)


    We present the results of our radio interferometric observations of pulsars at 325 and 610 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. We used the imaging method to estimate the flux densities of several pulsars at these radio frequencies. The analysis of the shapes of the pulsar spectra allowed us to identify five new gigahertz-peaked spectra (GPS) pulsars. Using the hypothesis that the spectral turnovers are caused by thermal free–free absorption in the interstellar medium, we modeled the spectra of all known objects of this kind. Using the model, we were able to put some observational constraints on the physical parameters of the absorbing matter, which allows us to distinguish between the possible sources of absorption. We also discuss the possible effects of the existence of GPS pulsars on future search surveys, showing that the optimal frequency range for finding such objects would be from a few GHz (for regular GPS sources) to possibly 10 GHz for pulsars and radio magnetars exhibiting very strong absorption.

  16. Peak Bone Mineral Density Of Bangladeshi Men And Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilruba Akhter Banu


    Full Text Available Abstract Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become weak and brittle. It affects 55 of Americans aged 50 or above of which about 80 are women. Millions of fractures occur annually. An effective way of preventing osteoporosis is to maximize the attainment of peak bone mineral density pBMD. Thus the knowledge of average pBMD that prevails in a nation is very important. Not much study appears to have been done on the subject in Bangladesh. 170 Bangladeshi patients and volunteers were studied at nuclear medicine centers of Comilla and Rajshahi. Bone mineral densities BMD at different sites of the skeleton were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer DXA. Graphs of Age versus BMD were plotted. Data was fitted with the help of polynomials. The best fit was obtained with polynomials of degree 4 in each case. By using bootstrapping method a large number of samples were generated and pBMD was obtained from each of the samples. Mean value of the pBMD was then calculated. pBMD values of the male patients were found to be slightly greater than those of the females. During puberty gender differences become more expressed. After the age of 50 females lose bones more rapidly and quantitatively than males. Bangladeshis seem to belong to the group of nations having low pBMDs.

  17. Eck peak in underdamped discrete superconducting vortex flow devices (United States)

    van der Zant, H. S. J.; Orlando, T. P.


    We have measured vortex motion in a long one-dimensional array of small underdamped niobium tunnel junctions which are coupled in parallel by superconducting wires. In the current-voltage characteristic, a resonant step occurs similar to the Eck peak in long continuous junctions. Due to the discrete nature of our samples, the voltage of this resonant step follows a sinusoidal dependence on the magnetic field rather than the linear dependence found in long continuous junctions. With a control current applied parallel to the array of junctions, the device can be operated as a vortex-flow transistor or as a tunable vortex-flow oscillator. Compared to long continuous junctions, the performance of discrete transistors is better with regard to the threshold currrent and transresistance, but worse with regard to the output resistance. Discrete oscillators have the advantage over their continuous counterparts in that the output impedance is of the order of 10 ohms. Numerical simulations indicate power levels around 0.5 micro Watts and frequencies above 500 GHz.

  18. Quantifying the cepstral peak prominence, a measure of dysphonia. (United States)

    Heman-Ackah, Yolanda D; Sataloff, Robert T; Laureyns, Griet; Lurie, Deborah; Michael, Deirdre D; Heuer, Reinhardt; Rubin, Adam; Eller, Robert; Chandran, Swapna; Abaza, Mona; Lyons, Karen; Divi, Venu; Lott, Joanna; Johnson, Jennifer; Hillenbrand, James


    The purpose of this study is to establish normative values for the smoothed cepstral peak prominence (CPPS) and its sensitivity and specificity as a measure of dysphonia. Prospective cohort study. Voice samples of running speech were obtained from 835 patients and 50 volunteers. Eight laryngologists and four speech-language pathologists performed perceptual ratings of the voice samples on the degree of dysphonia/normality using an analog scale. The mean of their perceptual ratings was used as the gold standard for the detection of the presence or absence of dysphonia. CPPS was measured using the CPPS algorithm of Hillenbrand, and the cut-off value for positivity that has the highest sensitivity and specificity for discriminating between normal and severely dysphonia voices was determined based on ROC-curve analysis. The cut-off value for normal for CPPS was set at 4.0 or higher, which gave a sensitivity of 92.4%, a specificity of 79%, a positive predictive value of 82.5%, and a negative predictive value of 90.8%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.937 (P dysphonia, with the normal value of CPPS (Hillenbrand algorithm) of a running speech sample being defined as a value of 4.0 or higher. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  19. Gigahertz-peaked spectra pulsars in Pulsar Wind Nebulae (United States)

    Basu, R.; RoŻko, K.; Kijak, J.; Lewandowski, W.


    We have carried out a detailed study of the spectral nature of six pulsars surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). The pulsar flux density was estimated using the interferometric imaging technique of the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at three frequencies 325, 610, and 1280 MHz. The spectra showed a turnover around gigahertz frequency in four out of six pulsars. It has been suggested that the gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) in pulsars arises due to thermal absorption of the pulsar emission in surrounding medium like PWNe, H II regions, supernova remnants, etc. The relatively high incidence of GPS behaviour in pulsars surrounded by PWNe imparts further credence to this view. The pulsar J1747-2958 associated with the well-known Mouse nebula was also observed in our sample and exhibited GPS behaviour. The pulsar was detected as a point source in the high-resolution images. However, the pulsed emission was not seen in the phased-array mode. It is possible that the pulsed emission was affected by extreme scattering causing considerable smearing of the emission at low radio frequencies. The GPS spectra were modelled using the thermal free-free absorption and the estimated absorber properties were largely consistent with PWNe. The spatial resolution of the images made it unlikely that the point source associated with J1747-2958 was the compact head of the PWNe, but the synchrotron self-absorption seen in such sources was a better fit to the estimated spectral shape.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, D. [KIPAC, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kratochvil, J. M. [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Dawson, W., E-mail: [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)


    The statistics of shear peaks have been shown to provide valuable cosmological information beyond the power spectrum, and will be an important constraint of models of cosmology in forthcoming astronomical surveys. Surveys include masked areas due to bright stars, bad pixels etc., which must be accounted for in producing constraints on cosmology from shear maps. We advocate a forward-modeling approach, where the impacts of masking and other survey artifacts are accounted for in the theoretical prediction of cosmological parameters, rather than correcting survey data to remove them. We use masks based on the Deep Lens Survey, and explore the impact of up to 37% of the survey area being masked on LSST and DES-scale surveys. By reconstructing maps of aperture mass the masking effect is smoothed out, resulting in up to 14% smaller statistical uncertainties compared to simply reducing the survey area by the masked area. We show that, even in the presence of large survey masks, the bias in cosmological parameter estimation produced in the forward-modeling process is ≈1%, dominated by bias caused by limited simulation volume. We also explore how this potential bias scales with survey area and evaluate how much small survey areas are impacted by the differences in cosmological structure in the data and simulated volumes, due to cosmic variance.