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Sample records for neonatal parathion exposure

  1. Prenatal buprenorphine exposure and neonatal neurobehavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Martha L; McConnell, Krystle; Spencer, Nancy; Montoya, Lina; Tuten, Michelle; Jansson, Lauren M

    2017-12-07

    Assessments of effects of prenatal opioid exposure on the neonate have consisted principally of evaluations of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) to determine the need for pharmacotherapy. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of gestational maternal buprenorphine maintenance on newborn neurobehavioral functioning. Maternal substance use history and psychosocial demographics that can contribute to the neurobehavioral functioning of the infant were explored. Infants were assessed using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) to measure their neurologic and behavioral functioning and signs of stress/abstinence on days 3, 14 and 30 of life. Participants were 41 pregnant buprenorphine-maintained women and their infants. Maternal buprenorphine dose at delivery was negatively correlated with infant quality of movement and self-regulation, and positively correlated with the central nervous system parameters of stress/abstinence at day 3 of life. As maternal buprenorphine dose increased, the mean morphine dose that the infant required for NAS treatment significantly increased. No differences were found when comparing the NNNS domain scores between infants who required pharmacotherapy for NAS versus those who did not at day 3 of life. Buprenorphine exposure during pregnancy can alter neonatal neurobehavioral and physiological responses to stimuli. A systematic evaluation of the newborn's functional domains above NAS assessment alone is crucial to address the challenges created by neurobehavioral dysregulation associated with substance exposure, improve caregiver/infant interaction and developmental trajectory. Comprehensive pre/postnatal treatment of buprenorphine-maintained mothers can lead to healthier outcomes for the dyad. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Adverse consequences of neonatal antibiotic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics have not only saved lives and improved outcomes, but they also influence the evolving microbiome. This review summarizes reports on neonatal infections and variation in antibiotic utilization, discusses the emergence of resistant organisms, and presents data from human neonates and animal models demonstrating the impact of antibiotics on the microbiome, and how microbiome alterations impact health. The importance of antibiotic stewardship is also discussed. Infections increase neonatal morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the clinical presentation of infections can be subtle, prompting clinicians to empirically start antibiotics when infection is a possibility. Antibiotic-resistant infections are a growing problem. Cohort studies have identified extensive center variations in antibiotic usage and associations between antibiotic exposures and outcomes. Studies of antibiotic-induced microbiome alterations and downstream effects on the developing immune system have increased our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the associations between antibiotics and adverse outcomes. The emergence of resistant microorganisms and recent evidence linking antibiotic practice variations with health outcomes has led to the initiation of antibiotic stewardship programs. The review encourages practitioners to assess local antibiotic use with regard to local microbiology, and to adopt steps to reduce infections and use antibiotics wisely.

  3. Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls

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    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Hill, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain AChE activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. After dosing, birds were released and the nests were observed for 2 1/2 days from a blind on the nesting island. The activities of the birds at each marked nest were recorded at 10-minute intervals. Results indicated that on the day of treatment there was no difference (P greater than 0.05, Chi-square test) in the proportion of time spent on the nest between treated and control birds. However, birds dosed with 6 mg/kg parathion spent significantly less time incubating on days 2 and 3 than did birds receiving only corn oil. By noon on the third day, sharing of nest duties between pair members in the treated group had approached normal, indicating recovery from parathion intoxication. These findings suggest that sublethal exposure of nesting birds to an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, such as parathion, may result in decreased nest attentiveness, thereby making the clutch more susceptible to predation or egg failure. Behavioral changes caused by sublethal OP exposure could be especially detrimental in avian species where only one pair member incubates or where both members are exposed in species sharing nest duties.

  4. Fetal and neonatal responses following maternal exposure to mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, Ahmed Y.; Abdulqawi, K.; Mustafa, Randa M.; El-Azm, Tark M. Abo; Al-Inany, H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to study fetal and neonatal heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (COP), following acute maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by mobile phones. The present study was carried out at Benha University Hospital and El-Shorouq Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from October 2003 to March 2004, Ninety women with uncomplicated pregnancies aged 18-33 years and 30 full term healthy newborn infants were included. The pregnant mothers were exposed to EMF emitted by mobile telephones while on telephone dialing mode for 10 minutes during pregnancy and after birth. The main outcome was measurements of fetal and neonatal HR and COP. A statistical significant increase in fetal and neonatal HR and statistical significant decrease in stroke volume and COP before and after use of mobile phone were noted. All these changes are attenuated with increase in gestational age. Exposures of pregnant women to mobile phones significantly increase fetal and neonatal HR and significantly decreased the COP. (author)

  5. Neonatal outcome following exposure to organophosphorous pesticides

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    Đorđević M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the neonatal outcome in mothers and children exposed to organophosphorous pesticides (OP. We found that 22.4% pregnant women were exposed to organophosphorous pesticides. OP pesticide concentration was higher in breast milk, newborn sera than maternal sera. Newborn parameters such as birth weight, birth length, head circumference, Apgar score and presence of meconium, as well as gestational age of delivery, showed no significant difference between the two groups. However, postpartum weight loss, hospitalization duration, levels of newborn bilirubin and glycaemia differed significantly between the two groups. Morbidity and presence of CNS disorders were six times and more than twelve times higher, respectively, in the OP-exposed than in the OP pesticide non-exposed group.

  6. Controversy: neonatal exposure to plasticizers in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Victoria M; Nailon, Regina E; McCauley, Linda A

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a review of extant literature that informs our current understanding of the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure on neonates. Phthalates such as DEHP add flexibility to plastics. DEHP is a major component in the manufacturing of polyvinyl chloride devices commonly used in the healthcare setting. Premature and critically ill neonates and infants in the NICU are exposed to DEHP and may be at an increased risk for adverse health outcomes as a result. DEHP has been shown to be a developmental and endocrine disrupting toxicant and is a major component in polyvinyl chloride plastics, which are commonly found in medical equipment used in the NICU. Potential toxicities to infants in the NICU are a concern because infants' small body size and compromised physical condition necessitate a multitude of medical interventions, each increasing exposure levels. Expanding nurses' knowledge regarding DEHP research is important for implementing a precautionary approach to reduce DEHP exposure among NICU patients.

  7. Acute responses of American kestrels to methyl parathion and fenvalerate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o, methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10 h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?.C) and cold (-5?.C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (LD50=3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits=2.29-4.l4 mg/kg, producing overt intoxication (abnormal posture, ataxia, paresis), dose-dependent inhibition (26-67%) of brain acetylcholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Transient but pronounced hypothermia was associated with plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% (2 h after intubation), although this response was highly variable (plasma ChE inhibition vs. A cloacal temperature, r=-0.60). Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication (irregular head movement) and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, but did not alter cloacal temperature, plasma activities of CK, U-HBDH, and LDK, or concentrations of corticosterone, glucose, triiodothyronine, and uric acid. Cold exposure intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. It would thus appear that the organophosphorus insecticide methyl parathion poses far greater hazard than the pyrethroid fenvalerate to raptorial birds.

  8. Risk assessment in relation to neonatal metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, A; Palminger Hallén, I; Sundberg, J; Petersson Grawé, K

    1998-01-01

    Rapid changes in organ development and function occur during the neonatal period. During this period the central nervous system is in a rapid growth rate and highly vulnerable to toxic effects of, e.g., lead and methylmercury. Furthermore, the kinetics of many metals is age-specific, with a higher gastrointestinal absorption, less effective renal excretion as well as a less effective blood-brain barrier in newborns compared to adults. Due to their low body weight and high food consumption per kg of body weight, the tissue levels of contaminants can reach higher levels in newborns than in adults. Generally, there is a low transfer of toxic metals through milk when maternal exposure levels are low. However, knowledge is limited about the lactational transport of metals and the potential effects of metals in the mammary gland on milk secretion and composition. There are some data from rodents on the lactational transfer and the uptake in the neonate of inorganic mercury, methylmercury, lead and cadmium. Metal levels in human breast milk and blood samples from different exposure situations can give information on the correlation between blood and milk levels. If such a relationship exists, milk levels can be used as an indicator of both maternal and neonatal exposure. Better understanding of the neonatal exposure, including kinetics in the lactating mother and in the newborn, and effects of toxic metals in different age groups is needed for the risk assessment. Interactions with nutritional factors and the great beneficial value of breast-feeding should also be considered.

  9. Exposure assessment of neonates in israel to x-ray radiation during hospitalization at neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, H.

    2005-03-01

    Nowadays nearly 10% of all births in western countries are premature. In the last decade, there has been an increase of 45% in the number of neonates that were born in Israel. At the same time, the survival of neonates, especially those with very low birth weight, VLBW, (less than 1,500 gr), has increased dramatically. Diagnostic radiology plays an important role in the assessment and treatment of neonates requiring intensive care. During their prolonged and complex hospitalization, these infants are exposed to multiple radiographic examinations involving X-ray radiation. The extent of the examinations that the infant undergoes depends on its birth weight, gestational age and its medical problems, where most of the treatment effort is focused especially on VLBW neonates. Most of the diagnostic X-ray examinations taken during the hospitalization of neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) consist of imaging of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems, namely, the chest and abdomen. The imaging process is done using mobile X-ray units located at the NICUs. Due to their long hospitalization periods and complex medical condition, all neonates, and neonates with VLBW in particular, are exposed to a much higher level of diagnostic radiation, compared to normal newborns. The goal of this research was to assess the extent of the exposure of neonates in Israel to X-ray radiation during their hospitalization at the neonatal intensive care unit. Five NICUs, located at different geographical zones in Israel and treating 20% of all newborns in Israel every year, participated in this research. The research was conducted in three phases: Phase I: Collection of information on radiographic techniques and exposure parameters (e.g. kV, mAs, focus to skin distance (FSD), examination borders). 499 X-ray examinations (from 157 neonates) were evaluated for necessary and unnecessary exposure of the neonate's organs to X-ray radiation during these examinations. Phase II

  10. Enzyme induction in neonates after fetal exposure to antiepileptic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rating, D.; Jaeger-Roman, E.; Nau, H.; Kuhnz, W.; Helge, H.

    1983-01-01

    The 13 C-AP breath test is shown to be a convenient, noninvasive method to monitor velocity and capacity of P450-dependent AP N-demethylation in infancy and childhood. According to 13 C-AP breath tests, neonates have a very low capacity to eliminate 13 CO 2 , which is only 15 to 21% of the activity in adults. During the first year of life AP N-demethylation increases to reach its maximum at about 2 years; afterwards a slight decrease occurs. In 25 neonates exposed prenatally to different antiepileptic drugs 13 C-AP breath test was efficiently used to prove that cytochrome AP N-demethylation was considerably stimulated. After primidone/phenobarbitone, especially in combination with phenytoin, 13 C elimination reaches and even surpasses the range for older children. Valproate exposure during fetal life is not consistently followed by a significant increase in AP N-demethylation. The enzyme induction demonstrated by 13 C-AP breath test was often accompanied by accelerated metabolic clearance and shortened half-life times of transplacentally acquired antiepileptic drugs. There was good agreement between 13 C-AP breath tests and pharmacokinetic data for primidone/phenobarbitone but not for phenytoin. In contrast, in the case of phenytoin exposure during pregnancy the pharmacokinetic parameters and the 13 C breath test data will transport very different informations about enzyme induction in these neonates

  11. Enzyme induction in neonates after fetal exposure to antiepileptic drugs

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    Rating, D.; Jaeger-Roman, E.; Nau, H.; Kuhnz, W.; Helge, H.

    1983-01-01

    The /sup 13/C-AP breath test is shown to be a convenient, noninvasive method to monitor velocity and capacity of P450-dependent AP N-demethylation in infancy and childhood. According to /sup 13/C-AP breath tests, neonates have a very low capacity to eliminate /sup 13/CO/sub 2/, which is only 15 to 21% of the activity in adults. During the first year of life AP N-demethylation increases to reach its maximum at about 2 years; afterwards a slight decrease occurs. In 25 neonates exposed prenatally to different antiepileptic drugs /sup 13/C-AP breath test was efficiently used to prove that cytochrome AP N-demethylation was considerably stimulated. After primidone/phenobarbitone, especially in combination with phenytoin, /sup 13/C elimination reaches and even surpasses the range for older children. Valproate exposure during fetal life is not consistently followed by a significant increase in AP N-demethylation. The enzyme induction demonstrated by /sup 13/C-AP breath test was often accompanied by accelerated metabolic clearance and shortened half-life times of transplacentally acquired antiepileptic drugs. There was good agreement between /sup 13/C-AP breath tests and pharmacokinetic data for primidone/phenobarbitone but not for phenytoin. In contrast, in the case of phenytoin exposure during pregnancy the pharmacokinetic parameters and the /sup 13/C breath test data will transport very different informations about enzyme induction in these neonates.

  12. Parathion poisoning of Mississippi kites in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    1994-01-01

    Parathion(phosphorothioic acid O, O-diethyl O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, used on a variety of crops and occasionally for mosquito control, and is highly toxic to birds (Smith 1987). Intentional poisoning with parathion is reported to have killed more than 8000 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in two separate instances (Stone et al. 1984). Use of parathion on wheat fields has resulted in the mortality of about 1600 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and other waterfowl in one instance (White et al. 1982) and about 200 Canada geese in another (Flickinger et al. 1991). More than 200 laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) died near cotton fields treated with parathion (White et al. 1979). Secondary poisoning of raptors resulting from the consumption of prey exposed to parathion, has been reported experimentally and in the field. Stone et al. (1984) found two dead red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and an American kestrel (Falco sparverius) that had fed on blackbirds killed by parathion. One of four American kestrels died after being fed cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) that had been exposed to 10ppm parathion for 96 hr (Fleming et al. 1982). The Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippensis) is highly insectivorous (Brown and Amadon 1968) and is thus subject to secondary poisoning resulting from consumption of insects exposed to pesticides. I report here an instance of secondary parathion poisoning in wild Mississippi kites.

  13. Neonatal outcomes following exposure in utero to fallout from Chernobyl.

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    Hatch, Maureen; Little, Mark P; Brenner, Alina V; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Tereshchenko, Valery; Chaikovska, Ludmyla; Pasteur, Igor; Likhtarov, Ilya; Bouville, Andre; Shpak, Victor; Bolshova, Olena; Zamotayeva, Galyna; Grantz, Katherine; Sun, Liping; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Albert, Paul; Tronko, Mykola

    2017-12-01

    Iodine 131 (I-131), the principal component of nuclear fallout from the Chernobyl accident, concentrates in the thyroid gland and may pose risks to fetal development. To evaluate this, neonatal outcomes following the accident in April of 1986 were investigated in a cohort of 2582 in utero-exposed individuals from northern Ukraine for whom estimates of fetal thyroid I-131 dose were available. We carried out a retrospective review of cohort members' prenatal, delivery and newborn records. The relationships of dose with neonatal anthropometrics and gestational length were modeled via linear regression with adjustment for potentially confounding variables. We found similar, statistically significant dose-dependent reductions in both head circumference (-1.0 cm/Gy, P = 0.005) and chest circumference (-0.9 cm/Gy, P = 0.023), as well as a similar but non-significant reduction in neonatal length (-0.6 cm/Gy, P = 0.169). Gestational length was significantly increased with increasing fetal dose (0.5 wks/Gy, P = 0.007). There was no significant (P > 0.1) effect of fetal dose on birth weight. The observed associations of radioiodine exposure with decreased head and chest circumference are consistent with those observed in the Japanese in utero-exposed atomic bomb survivors.

  14. Neonatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs disrupts striatal synaptic development.

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    Forcelli, Patrick A; Janssen, Megan J; Vicini, Stefano; Gale, Karen

    2012-09-01

    Drug exposure during critical periods of brain development may adversely affect nervous system function, posing a challenge for treating infants. This is of particular concern for treating neonatal seizures, as early life exposure to drugs such as phenobarbital is associated with adverse neurological outcomes in patients and induction of neuronal apoptosis in animal models. The functional significance of the preclinical neurotoxicity has been questioned due to the absence of evidence for functional impairment associated with drug-induced developmental apoptosis. We used patch-clamp recordings to examine functional synaptic maturation in striatal medium spiny neurons from neonatal rats exposed to antiepileptic drugs with proapoptotic action (phenobarbital, phenytoin, lamotrigine) and without proapoptotic action (levetiracetam). Phenobarbital-exposed rats were also assessed for reversal learning at weaning. Recordings from control animals revealed increased inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connectivity between postnatal day (P)10 and P18. This maturation was absent in rats exposed at P7 to a single dose of phenobarbital, phenytoin, or lamotrigine. Additionally, phenobarbital exposure impaired striatal-mediated behavior on P25. Neuroprotective pretreatment with melatonin, which prevents drug-induced neurodevelopmental apoptosis, prevented the drug-induced disruption in maturation. Levetiracetam was found not to disrupt synaptic development. Our results provide the first evidence that exposure to antiepileptic drugs during a sensitive postnatal period impairs physiological maturation of synapses in neurons that survive the initial drug insult. These findings suggest a mechanism by which early life exposure to antiepileptic drugs can impact cognitive and behavioral outcomes, underscoring the need to identify therapies that control seizures without compromising synaptic maturation. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  15. Obstetric and Neonatal Outcomes After Antipsychotic Medication Exposure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Catherine G.; Blackwell, Katherine A.; Bartley, Christine; Hay, Madeleine; Yonkers, Kimberly A.; Bloch, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Antipsychotic medications are used by increasing numbers of women of reproductive age. The safety of these medications during pregnancy has not been well-described. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes associated with exposure to antipsychotics during pregnancy. Data Sources PubMed, Reprotox, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to identify potential studies for inclusion. Methods of Study Selection Case-control or cohort studies estimating adverse birth outcomes associated with antipsychotic exposure during pregnancy were included. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were used for dichotomous outcomes and weighted mean differences (WMD) were used for infant birth weight and gestational age. Thirteen cohort studies, including 6,289 antipsychotic-exposed and 1,618,039 unexposed pregnancies were included. Tabulation, Integration, and Results Antipsychotic exposure was associated with an increased risk of major malformations (Absolute Risk Difference = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00 – 0.05, p=0.04, Z = 2.06), heart defects (Absolute Risk Difference =0.01, 95% CI 0.00 – 0.01, pantipsychotic medications. Antipsychotic exposure was not associated with risk of large for gestational age births, stillbirth, and spontaneous abortion. Although antipsychotic exposure during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes, this association does not necessarily imply causation. This analysis was limited by the small number of included studies and limited adjustment in studies for possible confounders. Conclusion Women requiring antipsychotic treatment during pregnancy appear at higher risk of adverse birth outcomes, regardless of causation, and may benefit from close monitoring and minimization of other potential risk factors during pregnancy. PMID:25932852

  16. Neonatal exposure to fecal antigens reduces intestinal inflammation.

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    Sydora, Beate C; McFarlane, Sarah M; Doyle, Jason S G; Fedorak, Richard N

    2011-04-01

    A role for bacterial antigens in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been established in enhanced humoral and cellular immune response to ubiquitous antigens of the enteric flora. However, we have recently shown that bacterial antigens in the absence of live bacteria cannot initiate an intestinal inflammation in IBD-prone interleukin (IL)-10 gene-deficient mice. The objective was to investigate whether neonatal exposure to antigens of their own endogenous flora can tolerize mice to bacterial antigens. IL-10 gene-deficient neonates were injected intraperitoneally within 72 hours of birth with a sterile solution of bacterial lysates prepared from fecal material of either conventionally raised mice (contains bacterial antigens) or axenic mice (lacks bacterial antigens). The onset of intestinal inflammation was monitored as the appearance of occult blood in the stool in weekly hemoccult analysis. Mice were sacrificed between age 15 and 19 weeks and tested for histopathologic injury, intestinal inflammation, and systemic response to bacterial antigens. In mice neonatally exposed to bacterial antigens the onset of intestinal inflammation was delayed and the incidence of histopathologic injury at age 18 weeks was reduced. In addition, mice injected with lysates from conventionally raised mice exhibited decreased release of proinflammatory cytokines (interferon gamma [IFN-γ] and IL-17) in intestinal tissue and demonstrated reduced bacteria-stimulated systemic responses when compared to mice injected with lysates derived from bacteria-free, axenic mice. Neonatal intraperitoneal injection of antigens from the commensal flora causes long-lasting changes in systemic and mucosal immune responses resulting in delayed onset of intestinal inflammation and injury in IBD-prone IL-10 gene-deficient mice. Copyright © 2010 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  17. Early Life Triclocarban Exposure During Lactation Affects Neonate Rat Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah C. M.; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A.; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A.; Lasley, Bill L.; Zhao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  18. Selenium protects neonates against neurotoxicity from prenatal exposure to manganese.

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    Xin Yang

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn exposure can affect brain development. Whether Selenium (Se can protect neonates against neurotoxicity from Mn exposure remains unclear. We investigated this issue in 933 mother-newborn pairs in Shanghai, China, from 2008 through 2009. Umbilical cord serum concentrations of Mn and Se were measured and Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA tests were conducted. The scores <37 were defined as the low NBNA. The median concentrations of cord serum Mn and Se were 4.0 µg/L and 63.1 µg/L, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, the interaction between Se and Mn was observed. Cord blood Mn levels had different effects on NBNA scores stratified by different cord blood Se levels. With Seexposure group with a low Se level [Mn ≥ P75 (9.1 µg/L and Seexposure group with a high Se level [Mn ≥ P75 (9.1 µg/L and Se ≥ P50 (63.1 µg/L] (38.0 ± 1.6 & 39.5 ± 0.9, p<0.001. Mn/Se ratio and NBNA scores were moderately correlated (r =  -0.41, p<0.001. Our findings suggest that Se has a protective effect on neonates' brain development against neurotoxicity from prenatal exposure to Mn. Se supplementation should be considered during pregnancy, especially in areas with low natural Se.

  19. Radiofrequency exposure in the Neonatal Medium Care Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvente, I.; Vázquez-Pérez, A.; Fernández, M.F.; Núñez, M.I.; Múñoz-Hoyos, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize electromagnetic fields of radiofrequency (RF-EMF) levels generated in a Neonatal Medium Care Unit and to analyze RF-EMF levels inside unit’s incubators. Spot and long-term measurements were made with a dosimeter. The spot measurement mean was 1.51±0.48 V/m. Higher values were found in the proximity to the window and to the incubator evaluated. Mean field strength for the entire period of 17 h was 0.81 (±0.07) V/m and the maximum value was 1.58 V/m for long-term RF-EMF measurements in the incubator. Values found during the night period were higher than those found during the day period. It is important to consider RF-EMF exposure levels in neonatal care units, due to some evidence of adverse health effects found in children and adults. Characterization of RF-EMF exposure may be important to further investigate the mechanisms and underlying effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on infant health. A prudent avoidance strategy should be adopted because newborns are at a vulnerable stage of development and the actual impact of EMF on premature infants is unknown. - Highlights: • The increasing use of RF-EMF suggests an urgent need for more research in this field. • Health consequences of RF-EMF exposure on infants are not well known. • Description of RF-EMF exposure is vital in further study mechanisms on infant health. • Considering newborns vulnerability, it is wise to adopt a prudent avoidance strategy.

  20. 77 FR 42768 - Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: An ONDCP Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence...

  1. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco de Salles, João; Matos Lopes, Renato; de Salles, Cristiane M. C.; Cassano, Vicente P. F.; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Cunha Bastos, Vera L. F.; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  2. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco de Salles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon.

  3. Metabolomic Analysis of the Secretome of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Following Methyl Parathion and Methyl Paraoxon Exposure, Phase 1: Initial Nontargeted LC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    paraoxon (MPO) exposure. These studies, however, have been based on either human epidemiological studies, in vivo animal studies, or in vitro...medium and high is colored green, at medium only is colored yellow, and at the lowest dose only is magenta. The organophosphorus (OP...metabolism directly intersects with aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and poisoning from paraoxon will lead to a disruption in these processes and

  4. Neonatal procedural pain exposure predicts lower cortisol and behavioral reactivity in preterm infants in the NICU

    OpenAIRE

    Grunau, Ruth E.; Holsti, Liisa; Haley, David W.; Oberlander, Tim; Weinberg, Joanne; Solimano, Alfonso; Whitfield, Michael F.; Fitzgerald, Colleen; Yu, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    Data from animal models indicate that neonatal stress or pain can permanently alter subsequent behavioral and/or physiological reactivity to stressors. However, cumulative effects of pain related to acute procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on later stress and/or pain reactivity has received limited attention. The objective of this study is to examine relationships between prior neonatal pain exposure (number of skin breaking procedures), and subsequent stress and pain react...

  5. Effects on parathion on the ecology of a eutrophic aquatic ecosystem: limnocorral experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasith, A.; Perry, A.S.; Mozel, Y.; Albright, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Repetitive exposure of a eutrophic fish pond ecosystem, enclosed in limnocorrals, to 30 ppb parathion resulted in elimination of the potentially dominant zooplankton species, Moina micrura. Consequently, the populations of the rotifers Brachionus and Asplanchna markedly increased. Changes in the zooplankton composition and abundance were followed by increased fluctuations in phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton photosynthesis, plankton respiration and community metabolism. Similar responses to parathion treatment were observed in previous studies under fish pond conditions. In the presence of fish the effect of parathion on the ecosystem was generally less pronounced and not uniform. The collapse of the zooplankton community and the rapid changes in limnological conditions in the control (untreated) limnocorrals severely limited the duration of the experiment. The results suggest that under eutrophic conditions, small enclosures may be useful for evaluation of the effect of toxicants on the ecosystem only in short term experiments with short lived chemicals. (author)

  6. Sildenafil exposure in neonates with pulmonary hypertension after administration via a nasogastric tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahsman, Maurice J.; Witjes, Bregje C.; Wildschut, Enno D.; Sluiter, Ilona; Vulto, Arnold G.; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A.

    2010-01-01

    To describe the pharmacokinetics and exposure of oral sildenafil (SIL) in neonates (2-5 kg) with pulmonary hypertension (PH). We included 11 neonates (body weight 2-5 kg, postnatal age 2-121 days) who received SIL and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment for PH. SIL capsules were

  7. Brain ultrasonography findings in neonates with exposure to cocaine during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huis, M.; van Kempen, A.A.M.W.; Peelen, M.; Timmers, M.; Boer, K.; Smit, B.J.; van Rijn, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cocaine exposure during pregnancy has been reported to have detrimental effects on the fetus. OBJECTIVE: To describe the findings on cranial ultrasonography (CUS) as part of a neonatal screening programme for exposed neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a semiprospective

  8. Brain ultrasonography findings in neonates with exposure to cocaine during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Huis (Marijn); A.A.M.W. van Kempen (Anne); M. Peelen (Myrthe); M. Timmers (Maaike); K. Boer (Kees); B. Smit (Bep); R.R. van Rijn (Rick)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cocaine exposure during pregnancy has been reported to have detrimental effects on the fetus. Objective: To describe the findings on cranial ultrasonography (CUS) as part of a neonatal screening programme for exposed neonates. Materials and methods: The study was a

  9. Influence of vegetation in mitigation of methyl parathion runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.T.; Bennett, E.R.; Cooper, C.M.; Smith, S.; Farris, J.L.; Drouillard, K.G.; Schulz, R.

    2006-01-01

    A pesticide runoff event was simulated on two 10 m x 50 m constructed wetlands (one non-vegetated, one vegetated) to evaluate the fate of methyl parathion (MeP) (Penncap-M[reg]). Water, sediment, and plant samples were collected at five sites downstream of the inflow for 120 d. Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at each wetland outflow to determine exiting pesticide load. MeP was detected in water at all locations of the non-vegetated wetland (50 m), 30 min post-exposure. MeP was detected 20 m from the vegetated wetland inflow 30 min post-exposure, while after 10 d it was detected only at 10 m. MeP was measured only in SPMDs deployed in non-vegetated wetland cells, suggesting detectable levels were not present near the vegetated wetland outflow. Furthermore, mass balance calculations indicated vegetated wetlands were more effective in reducing aqueous loadings of MeP introduced into the wetland systems. This demonstrates the importance of vegetation as sorption sites for pesticides in constructed wetlands. - Vegetated wetlands are three times more effective at mitigating methyl parathion runoff than are non-vegetated wetlands

  10. Infectious disease exposures and outbreaks at a South African neonatal unit with review of neonatal outbreak epidemiology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dramowski, A; Aucamp, M; Bekker, A; Mehtar, S

    2017-04-01

    Hospitalized neonates are vulnerable to infection, with pathogen exposures occurring in utero, intrapartum, and postnatally. African neonatal units are at high risk of outbreaks owing to overcrowding, understaffing, and shared equipment. Neonatal outbreaks attended by the paediatric infectious diseases and infection prevention (IP) teams at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town (May 1, 2008 to April 30, 2016) are described, pathogens, outbreak size, mortality, source, and outbreak control measures. Neonatal outbreaks reported from Africa (January 1, 1996 to January 1, 2016) were reviewed to contextualize the authors' experience within the published literature from the region. Thirteen outbreaks affecting 148 babies (11 deaths; 7% mortality) over an 8-year period were documented, with pathogens including rotavirus, influenza virus, measles virus, and multidrug-resistant bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci). Although the infection source was seldom identified, most outbreaks were associated with breaches in IP practices. Stringent transmission-based precautions, staff/parent education, and changes to clinical practices contained the outbreaks. From the African neonatal literature, 20 outbreaks affecting 524 babies (177 deaths; 34% mortality) were identified; 50% of outbreaks were caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Outbreaks in hospitalized African neonates are frequent but under-reported, with high mortality and a predominance of Gram-negative bacteria. Breaches in IP practice are commonly implicated, with the outbreak source confirmed in less than 50% of cases. Programmes to improve IP practice and address antimicrobial resistance in African neonatal units are urgently required. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional connectivity disruption in neonates with prenatal marijuana exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eGrewen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, however findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2-6 weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or SSRI; -MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug free controls. Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula – cerebellum, right caudate – cerebellum, right caudate – right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate – cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypoconnectivity in all clusters compared with -MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and -MJ groups demonstrated hyperconnectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypoconnectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits.

  12. Quality assurance: using the exposure index and the deviation index to monitor radiation exposure for portable chest radiographs in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Mervyn D. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Apgar, Bruce K. [Agfa HealthCare Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)

  13. The hazard of chromium exposure to neonates in Guiyu of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yan; Xu Xijin; Liu Junxiao; Wu Kusheng; Gu Chengwu; Shao Guo; Chen Songjian; Chen Gangjian [Central Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Huo Xia [Central Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China)], E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn

    2008-09-15

    Guiyu is one of the most heavily chromium-polluted areas in China due to the presence of numerous electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites in the region. In this study, we investigate the effect of umbilical cord blood chromium levels (UCBCLs) on neonates from Guiyu and discuss chromium-induced DNA damage of cord blood lymphocyte. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from neonates of Guiyu (in 2006, n = 100; in 2007, n = 100) and the neighboring town of Chaonan (in 2006, n = 52; in 2007, n = 50) that is associated with the fishery. UCBCLs of the neonates were determined by graphite atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Comet experiment was used to examine lymphocyte DNA damage. Questionnaires to gauge chromium exposure were administered to the mothers of the neonates. The mean UCBCLs of neonates in the Guiyu group in 2006 and 2007 were 303.38 {mu}g/L and 99.90 {mu}g/L with median 93.89 {mu}g/L and 70.60 {mu}g/L, respectively. We observed significant differences between the results in UCBCLs of neonates in Guiyu and the control group (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference of UCBCLs in neonates between 2006 and 2007 in Guiyu (P > 0.05). Higher levels of chromium in neonates were found to correlate with their mothers' exposure to e-waste recycling. There were significant differences in terms of DNA damage between the Guiyu group and the control group (P < 0.05). There was a correlation between DNA damage and the UCBCLs of neonates (P < 0.05). There is conclusive evidence that high UCBCLs in neonates exists in e-waste recycling areas in Guiyu and that e-waste recycling activity poses serious environmental problems. Chromium pollution is threatening the health of neonates around the recycling sites.

  14. Chemodynamics of Methyl Parathion and Ethyl Parathion: Adsorption Models for Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshabah Tabassum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue.

  15. Chemodynamics of Methyl Parathion and Ethyl Parathion: Adsorption Models for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Uzaira; Balkhair, Khaled S.; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude) than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd) and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue. PMID:24689059

  16. Chemodynamics of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion: adsorption models for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Noshabah; Rafique, Uzaira; Balkhair, Khaled S; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude) than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd) and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue.

  17. Neonatal procedural pain exposure predicts lower cortisol and behavioral reactivity in preterm infants in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Ruth E; Holsti, Liisa; Haley, David W; Oberlander, Tim; Weinberg, Joanne; Solimano, Alfonso; Whitfield, Michael F; Fitzgerald, Colleen; Yu, Wayne

    2005-02-01

    Data from animal models indicate that neonatal stress or pain can permanently alter subsequent behavioral and/or physiological reactivity to stressors. However, cumulative effects of pain related to acute procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on later stress and/or pain reactivity has received limited attention. The objective of this study is to examine relationships between prior neonatal pain exposure (number of skin breaking procedures), and subsequent stress and pain reactivity in preterm infants in the NICU. Eighty-seven preterm infants were studied at 32 (+/-1 week) postconceptional age (PCA). Infants who received analgesia or sedation in the 72 h prior to each study, or any postnatal dexamethasone, were excluded. Outcomes were infant responses to two different stressors studied on separate days in a repeated measures randomized crossover design: (1) plasma cortisol to stress of a fixed series of nursing procedures; (2) behavioral (Neonatal Facial Coding System; NFCS) and cardiac reactivity to pain of blood collection. Among infants born neonatal procedural pain exposure was related to lower cortisol response to stress and to lower facial (but not autonomic) reactivity to pain, at 32 weeks PCA, independent of early illness severity and morphine exposure since birth. Repeated neonatal procedural pain exposure among neurodevelopmentally immature preterm infants was associated with down-regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which was not counteracted with morphine. Differential effects of early pain on development of behavioral, physiologic and hormonal systems warrant further investigation.

  18. Biochemical Tolerance During Low Dose Propylene Glycol Exposure in Neonates: A Formulation-Controlled Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Kulo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Propylene glycol (PG is a frequently co-administered solvent in formulations administered to neonates, but reports on its (intolerance are limited. We aimed to report on renal, metabolic and hepatic tolerance before, during and following intravenous (iv PG-paracetamol exposure and compared these data with similar datasets reported in literature on neonates exposed to PG without paracetamol or paracetamol without PG.Methods: Renal (diuresis, creatinemia, sodium, metabolic (Base Excess, Anion Gap, lactate, bicarbonate and hepatic (liver enzymes, bilirubinemia indicators before, during and following iv paracetamol-PG exposure in neonates as included in the PARANEO (paracetamol in neonates study (intra-individual trends, ANOVA were collected and analysed.Comparison with observations collected in cases exposed to either iv phenobarbital-PG or iv paracetamol-mannitol (inter-individual comparison, Mann Whitney-U test were made. Results: PG exposure (median 34.1 mg/kg/24 h did not affect postnatal renal, metabolic and hepatic adaptations in 60 cases exposed to paracetamol-PG. These indicators were similar when compared to 29 cases exposed to phenobarbital- PG or 172 cases exposed to paracetamol-mannitol.Major conclusion: Based on observations in 89 neonates, low dose PG exposure was tolerated well. Studies on PG pharmacokinetics and its covariates are needed to estimate the upper level of PG tolerance in neonates.

  19. Development of neonate phantom for estimating medical exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akahane, K.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T. [Oita Univ. of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita (Japan); Mitarai, T.; Ono, K.; Hada, M.; Ninomiya, H.; Kato, Y. [Oita Prefectural Hospital, Oita (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    The distribution and volume ratio of radiation sensitive organs such as red bone marrow are different between neonates and adults. In addition, the body sizes of neonates in NICU are smaller than normal neonates. Consequently, it is important to estimate a neonatal dose for X-ray examinations in NICU. However, there are few reports on quantitative estimates of measured or mathematically calculated doses for neonatal X-ray examinations. In order to estimate their dose, we made a physical neonatal phantom and estimated its dose using both measurement and calculation methods. In determining the phantom geometry, the body sizes were measured for neonates of NICU in Oita prefectural hospital. As body parameters, weights, heights and trunk sizes were obtained. The weight of phantom was determined to be 2000 g based on these data. The height of the phantom is 43.5 cm, and the trunk width is determined to be 9.5 cm. The whole shape was expressed with rectangular solids without bone region to avoid the difficulties on phantom construction and calculations. The height and other body size parameters were calculated as a function of body weight, which were determined as regression lines on these data. The weights of lungs were calculated using NIRS-M-115, and the positions were determined according to anatomical geometry. The components of the phantom were soft tissue and lung, and tough water and tough lung phantoms were selected as materials of the phantom. For the purpose of the dose measurement, the phantom was located in the incubator of NICU, and exposed under 4 kinds of the conditions of ordinary X-ray examination, which were for chest, combined abdomen-chest, abdomen and head radiographs using a portable X-ray machine. A film-badge was put on the center of exposed area for each examination, and measured entrance surface dose of the phantom. The glass dosimeters were also used. The measured doses of chest, combined abdomen-chest and abdomen were 0.1-0.12 mSv. The Monte

  20. Development of neonate phantom for estimating medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, K.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T.; Mitarai, T.; Ono, K.; Hada, M.; Ninomiya, H.; Kato, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution and volume ratio of radiation sensitive organs such as red bone marrow are different between neonates and adults. In addition, the body sizes of neonates in NICU are smaller than normal neonates. Consequently, it is important to estimate a neonatal dose for X-ray examinations in NICU. However, there are few reports on quantitative estimates of measured or mathematically calculated doses for neonatal X-ray examinations. In order to estimate their dose, we made a physical neonatal phantom and estimated its dose using both measurement and calculation methods. In determining the phantom geometry, the body sizes were measured for neonates of NICU in Oita prefectural hospital. As body parameters, weights, heights and trunk sizes were obtained. The weight of phantom was determined to be 2000 g based on these data. The height of the phantom is 43.5 cm, and the trunk width is determined to be 9.5 cm. The whole shape was expressed with rectangular solids without bone region to avoid the difficulties on phantom construction and calculations. The height and other body size parameters were calculated as a function of body weight, which were determined as regression lines on these data. The weights of lungs were calculated using NIRS-M-115, and the positions were determined according to anatomical geometry. The components of the phantom were soft tissue and lung, and tough water and tough lung phantoms were selected as materials of the phantom. For the purpose of the dose measurement, the phantom was located in the incubator of NICU, and exposed under 4 kinds of the conditions of ordinary X-ray examination, which were for chest, combined abdomen-chest, abdomen and head radiographs using a portable X-ray machine. A film-badge was put on the center of exposed area for each examination, and measured entrance surface dose of the phantom. The glass dosimeters were also used. The measured doses of chest, combined abdomen-chest and abdomen were 0.1-0.12 mSv. The Monte

  1. Ibuprofen exposure in early neonatal life does not affect renal function in young adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Anke; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Levtchenko, Elena; Simons, Sinno Hp; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Heuvel, Lambertus P van den; Jacobs, Lotte; Staessen, Jan A; Allegaert, Karel

    2018-03-01

    Ibuprofen exposure results in acute transient renal dysfunction in preterm neonates, but we are unaware of data on long-term renal safety. In a previously studied cohort of extreme low birth weight (ELBW, ibuprofen. In this post hoc analysis, we linked markers of renal function in young adolescence in ELBW cases with their perinatal (prenatal maternal, setting at birth, treatment modalities including drug prescription during neonatal stay, neonatal creatinine values, postdischarge growth) characteristics, including but not limited to ibuprofen exposure during neonatal stay. Ibuprofen exposure was not associated with significant differences in renal length or eGFR cysC . Moreover, we were unable to identify any other risk factor (perinatal characteristics, postnatal creatinine trends, postdischarge growth) on renal outcome in this cohort. Neonatal exposure to ibuprofen did not affect renal function. Larger studies are needed to explore the confounders of variability in renal function in former ELBW cases. This matters since ELBW relates to risk for hypertension, cardiovascular events and renal disease in later life and identification of risk factors holds the promise of secondary prevention. NCT02147457. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Radiation exposure reduction by use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, M W; Mak, H K; Lachman, R S

    1987-05-01

    A study was performed to determine whether the use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal intensive care nursery would reduce radiation exposure to patients. The radiation dose to the neonates was measured by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. In addition, the attenuation of the Kevlar cassettes and the sensitivity of the film-screen combination were compared with the previously used system. The greatest radiation reduction using a mobile X-ray unit was 27%; based on sensitivity measurements, the theoretical reduction averaged 38%. The reduction in radiation exposure resulted from reduced attenuation by the Kevlar cassette.

  3. Neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure alters the metabolic profile of uterine epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yin

    2012-11-01

    Developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES causes reproductive tract malformations, affects fertility and increases the risk of clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and cervix in humans. Previous studies on a well-established mouse DES model demonstrated that it recapitulates many features of the human syndrome, yet the underlying molecular mechanism is far from clear. Using the neonatal DES mouse model, the present study uses global transcript profiling to systematically explore early gene expression changes in individual epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of the neonatal uterus. Over 900 genes show differential expression upon DES treatment in either one or both tissue layers. Interestingly, multiple components of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ-mediated adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, including PPARγ itself, are targets of DES in the neonatal uterus. Transmission electron microscopy and Oil-Red O staining further demonstrate a dramatic increase in lipid deposition in uterine epithelial cells upon DES exposure. Neonatal DES exposure also perturbs glucose homeostasis in the uterine epithelium. Some of these neonatal DES-induced metabolic changes appear to last into adulthood, suggesting a permanent effect of DES on energy metabolism in uterine epithelial cells. This study extends the list of biological processes that can be regulated by estrogen or DES, and provides a novel perspective for endocrine disruptor-induced reproductive abnormalities.

  4. Effect of methyl parathion on the muscle and brain acetylcholinesterase activity of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Luciana Cristina de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Farming of the freshwater fish is emerging in Brazil and many species from the wild are promising. The teleost matrinxã (Brycon cephalus holds several characteristics such as fast growth rate, high commercial value and adaptability to artificial raring conditions, which make it a promising species for commerce. The use of pesticides in aquatic environment is frequent in Brazil, and methyl parathion is very common in aquaculture. We have determined the enzymatic activity of acetyl cholinesterase in white muscle and brain of matrinxã exposed to 2ppm of environmental methyl parathion for 24 hours. There was 64% and 69% of acetyl cholinesterase inhibition in muscle and brain respectively. These activities were not recovered after 8 days from exposure to this pesticide. It can be concluded that acetyl cholinesterase from those tissues was inhibited by small amounts of methyl parathion, and the main effect was observed in the brain.

  5. Comparison of meconium and neonatal hair analysis for detection of gestational exposure to drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Oz, B; Klein, J; Karaskov, T; Koren, G

    2003-03-01

    Meconium and hair are two biological markers of in utero exposure to illicit drugs. To compare the sensitivity of the two tests for different drugs. Motherisk laboratory which tests in utero drug exposure in Toronto. Cocaine, benzoylecgonine, opiates, cannabis, benzodiazepines, methadone, and barbiturates were measured in pairs of hair and meconium samples from the same neonates. Meconium was marginally more sensitive than neonatal hair for detection of cocaine and cannabis, possibly because it may detect second trimester exposure whereas hair grows only during the third trimester of pregnancy. There was a significant correlation between hair and meconium concentrations of cocaine, cannabis, and opiates. In cases of clinical suspicion and a negative neonatal urine test, both meconium and hair are effective biological markers of in utero illicit drug exposure. Meconium may be more sensitive, but neonatal hair is available for three months whereas meconium is available for only one or two days. In contrast, the use of meconium, being a discarded material, is more acceptable to some parents than hair testing, which entails cutting scalp hair from the newborn.

  6. Neonatal Neurobehavioral and Neuroanatomic Correlates of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: Problems of Dose and Confounding

    OpenAIRE

    FRANK, DEBORAH A.; AUGUSTYN, MARILYN; ZUCKERMAN, BARRY S.

    1998-01-01

    Complex methodologic challenges face researchers studying the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant outcome. These include unavoidable imprecision in ascertaining the gestational timing and dose of cocaine to which the fetus was exposed and difficulties in identifying and quantifying the confounding, mediating, and moderating variables. Review of research on neonatal behavioral and cranial ultrasound findings following in utero cocaine exposure is used to illustrate these issues. We ...

  7. Neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate results in dysmorphology of orofacial lower motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Lindsey; Kupelian, Chloe; Laroia, Swati; Esper, Jeffrey; Kulesza, Randy Joseph

    2017-06-14

    Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is stored and released by both neurons and astrocytes. Despite the important role of glutamate as a neurotransmitter, high levels of extracellular glutamate can result in excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a naturally occurring sodium salt of glutamic acid that is used as a flavor enhancer in many processed foods. Neonatal exposure to MSG has been shown to result in neurodegeneration in several forebrain regions, characterized by neuronal loss and neuroendocrine abnormalities. However, the brainstem effects of neonatal monosodium glutamate exposure have not been investigated. It is therefore hypothesized that MSG exposure during the early postnatal period would impact brainstem lower motor neurons involved in feeding behavior. The effect of neonatal MSG exposure on brainstem lower motor neurons was investigated by exposing rat pups to either 4mg/g MSG or saline from postnatal day (P) 4 through 10. On P28, brains were preserved by vascular perfusion with fixative, frozen sectioned and stained for Nïssl substance. The number, size and shape of brainstem motor neurons were compared between MSG and saline-exposed animals. MSG exposure had no impact on the total number of neurons in the nuclei examined. However, MSG exposure was associated with a significant increase in the number of round somata in both the trigeminal and facial nuclei. Furthermore, MSG exposure resulted in significantly smaller neurons in all motor nuclei examined. These results suggest that neonatal exposure to MSG impacts the development of brainstem lower motor neurons which may impact feeding and swallowing behaviors in young animals.

  8. Neonates' responses to repeated exposure to a still face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Emese; Pilling, Karen; Watt, Rachel; Pal, Attila; Orvos, Hajnalka

    2017-01-01

    The main aims of the study were to examine whether human neonates' responses to communication disturbance modelled by the still-face paradigm were stable and whether their responses were affected by their previous experience with the still-face paradigm. The still face procedure, as a laboratory model of interpersonal stress, was administered repeatedly, twice, to 84 neonates (0 to 4 day olds), with a delay of an average of 1.25 day. Frame-by-frame analysis of the frequency and duration of gaze, distressed face, crying, sleeping and sucking behaviours showed that the procedure was stressful to them both times, that is, the still face effect was stable after repeated administration and newborns consistently responded to such nonverbal violation of communication. They averted their gaze, showed distress and cried more during the still-face phase in both the first and the second administration. They also showed a carry-over effect in that they continued to avert their gaze and displayed increased distress and crying in the first reunion period, but their gaze behaviour changed with experience, in the second administration. While in the first administration the babies continued averting their gaze even after the stressful still-face phase was over, this carry-over effect disappeared in the second administration, and the babies significantly increased their gaze following the still-face phase. After excluding explanations of fatigue, habituation and random effects, a self-other regulatory model is discussed as a possible explanation for this pattern.

  9. Neonatal head and torso vibration exposure during inter-hospital transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, Laurence; Yeo, Mildrid; McNally, Donal; Crowe, John; Henry, Caroline; Hill, Sarah; Mansfield, Neil; Leslie, Andrew; Sharkey, Don

    2017-01-01

    Inter-hospital transport of premature infants is increasingly common, given the centralisation of neonatal intensive care. However, it is known to be associated with anomalously increased morbidity, most notably brain injury, and with increased mortality from multifactorial causes. Surprisingly, there have been relatively few previous studies investigating the levels of mechanical shock and vibration hazard present during this vehicular transport pathway. Using a custom inertial datalogger, and analysis software, we quantify vibration and linear head acceleration. Mounting multiple inertial sensing units on the forehead and torso of neonatal patients and a preterm manikin, and on the chassis of transport incubators over the duration of inter-site transfers, we find that the resonant frequency of the mattress and harness system currently used to secure neonates inside incubators is ~9Hz. This couples to vehicle chassis vibration, increasing vibration exposure to the neonate. The vibration exposure per journey (A(8) using the ISO 2631 standard) was at least 20% of the action point value of current European Union regulations over all 12 neonatal transports studied, reaching 70% in two cases. Direct injury risk from linear head acceleration (HIC15) was negligible. Although the overall hazard was similar, vibration isolation differed substantially between sponge and air mattresses, with a manikin. Using a Global Positioning System datalogger alongside inertial sensors, vibration increased with vehicle speed only above 60 km/h. These preliminary findings suggest there is scope to engineer better systems for transferring sick infants, thus potentially improving their outcomes. PMID:28056712

  10. Antenatal exposure to antidepressants is associated with altered brain development in very preterm-born neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrebarac, Samantha K; Duerden, Emma G; Chau, Vann; Grunau, Ruth E; Synnes, Anne; Oberlander, Tim F; Miller, Steven P

    2017-02-07

    Antenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is associated with an enhanced risk of preterm birth. Very preterm-born neonates (brain development. To examine whether antenatal-SSRI exposure was associated with adverse neonatal brain microstructural and metabolic development using diffusion tensor and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Of 177 neonates enrolled, 14 (8%) were antenatally exposed to SSRIs. Neonates were scanned twice (median week 32; interquartile range [IQR]: 30.4-33.6) and again at term-equivalent age (40.1, IQR: 38.6-42.1). Using a region-of-interest approach, N-acetylaspartate to choline ratios (NAA/Cho), lactate to choline ratios, white and gray matter fractional anisotropy (FA), mean, axial, radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD) values were extracted from white and gray matter subcortical regions. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 18 months, corrected age. SSRI-exposed neonates exhibited increased FA and decreased MD, AD and RD values in the superior white matter (pbrain development requires further attention. Future research is directed at determining the mechanism of this relationship and the contribution of maternal mood. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 40 CFR 180.122 - Parathion; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parathion; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.122 Parathion; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  12. The effect of exposure to hypergravity on pregnant rat dams, pregnancy outcome and early neonatal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, B.; Nguon, K.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that hypergravity exposure affects food intake and mass gain during pregnancy. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that changes in maternal body mass in hypergravity-exposed pregnant rat dams affect pregnancy outcome and early offspring development. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the changes observed at 1.5G will be magnified at higher gravity and by exposure during critical developmental periods. To test this hypothesis, we compared maternal body mass gain, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between Sprague Dawley rat dams exposed to graded (1.5 1.75G) chronic hypergravity (HG) or rotation (rotational control, RC) on a 24-ft centrifuge for 22.5 h starting on gestational day (G) 10 with dams housed under identical conditions but not exposed to hypergravity (SC). We also compared maternal body mass, food consumption, birth outcome and early offspring development between rat dams exposed to 1.65G during different stages of pregnancy and nursing. Exposure to hypergravity resulted in transient loss in body mass and prolonged decrease in food consumption in HG dams, but the changes observed at 1.5G were not magnified at 1.65G or 1.75G. On the other hand RC dams gained more mass and consumed more food than SC dams. Exposure to hypergravity also affected pregnancy outcome as evidenced by decreased litter size, lowered neonatal mass at birth, and higher neonatal mortality; pregnancy outcome was not affected in RC dams. Neonatal changes evidenced by impaired righting response observed at 1.5G was magnified at higher gravity and was dependent on the period of hypergravity exposure. On the other hand, righting response was improved in RC neonates. Hypergravity exposure during early postpartum affected the food consumption of nursing mothers and affected early survival of their offspring. The changes observed in dams and neonates appear to be due to hypergravity exposure since animals exposed to the rotation

  13. Metabolomic responses to sublethal contaminant exposure in neonate and adult Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nicole D; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2017-04-01

    The use of consumer products and pharmaceuticals that act as contaminants entering waterways through runoff and wastewater effluents alters aquatic ecosystem health. Traditional toxicological endpoints may underestimate the toxicity of contaminants, as lethal concentrations are often orders of magnitude higher than those found within freshwater ecosystems. While newer techniques examine the metabolic responses of sublethal contaminant exposure, there has been no direct comparison with ontogeny in Daphnia. It was hypothesized that Daphnia magna would have distinct metabolic changes after 3 different sublethal contaminant exposures, because of differences in the toxic mode of action and ontogeny. To test this hypothesis, the proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomic profiles were measured in D. magna aged day 0 and 18 after exposure to 28% of the lethal concentration of 50% of organisms tested (LC50) of atrazine, propranolol, and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) for 48 h. Principal component analysis revealed significant separation of contaminants from the control daphnids in both neonates and adults exposed to propranolol and PFOS. In contrast, atrazine exposure caused separation from the controls in only the adult D. magna. Minimal ontogenetic changes in the targeted metabolites were seen after exposure to propranolol. For both atrazine and PFOS exposures ontogeny exhibited unique changes in the targeted metabolites. These results indicate that, depending on the contaminant studied, neonates and adults respond uniquely to sublethal contaminant exposure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:938-946. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. Functional connectivity disruption in neonates with prenatal marijuana exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Karen eGrewen; Andrew eSalzwedel; Andrew eSalzwedel; Wei eGao; Wei eGao

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, however findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged post...

  15. Effects of pre- and neonatal exposure to bisphenol A on murine brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tando, So; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Jun; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Fushiki, Shinji

    2007-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), known as an environmental endocrine disrupter, is widely used in industry and dentistry. We investigated the effects of fetal and neonatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on the brain development of mice. The density of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in substantia nigra was significantly decreased in BPA-exposed female mice (3 microg/g powder food), but not in the male mice, as compared with that of the control mice. The densities of calbindin D-28 K-, calretinin- and parvalbumin-IR neurons in the cerebral cortex were not different between BPA-exposed and the control mice. The present study indicates that chronic exposure of BPA during prenatal and neonatal periods causes a decrease of TH-positive neurons in substantia nigra only in female mice brain.

  16. Developmental Exposure to Methamphetamine: A Neonatal Model in the Rata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-DA-Silva, J; Silva, M C; Tavares, M A

    1998-05-01

    Taking into account that methamphetamine (MA) is a popular recreational drug among young adult women, i.e., in gestational age, the present model aims to assess the effects of its exposure during development. In this experimental model, MA effects are assessed in the rat during the first month of life, regarding both general growth parameters, and gross morphological effects in the retina as part of the evaluation of sensory systems. Experimental animals were obtained from 60-day-old nulliparous females. Litters were culled to 8 pups (4 males and 4 females, whenever possible), individually marked and weighed every two days. Experimental groups received 10 mg (+)methamphetamine hydrochloride kg body weight/day, subcutaneously, twice daily, from postnatal day (PND) 1 to the day before sacrifice; control groups received isovolumetric doses of saline, in the same protocol. Pups were weaned on PND 21. Groups were sacrificed on PND 5, 7 and 30. Animals exposed to MA presented increased percentage of retinal hemorrhages (18, 7 and 11% on PND 5, 7 and 30, respectively) compared to control groups (2% on PND 7, 0% on PND 5 and 30). On PND 30, the mean body weight of males exposed to MA was 75% of the mean weight of male controls, whereas for females, mean body weights were 70% of those of female controls. These findings support the view that developmental parameters in the rat are deleteriously affected by early exposure to MA.

  17. Neonatal body proportionality and body composition after in utero exposure to cocaine and marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D A; Bauchner, H; Parker, S; Huber, A M; Kyei-Aboagye, K; Cabral, H; Zuckerman, B

    1990-10-01

    The relationship of maternal use of marijuana and cocaine during pregnancy to measures of neonatal body proportionality and body composition was assessed in a multiethnic sample of 1082 newborn infants. Maternal use of marijuana and cocaine during pregnancy was ascertained by self-report and by an enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique for screening of urine samples obtained prenatally and again post partum. After each substance was analytically controlled for use of the other and for other potentially confounding variables, detection of marijuana metabolites in maternal urine was associated (p less than 0.05) with depressed mean arm muscle circumference and nonfat area of the arm but not with any measure of neonatal fatness. In contrast, detection of cocaine in maternal urine was associated (p less than 0.05) with decrements of subscapular fat folds and of the fat and nonfat areas of the arm. Although both substances were associated with depressed birth weight, there was no decrement of neonatal ponderal index or of the arm circumference/head circumference ratio in association with exposure to either substance. We conclude that both marijuana exposure and cocaine exposure during pregnancy are associated with symmetric intrauterine growth retardation, but that deficits are in differing compartments of intrauterine growth. These findings suggest that marijuana may retard fetal growth through maternal-fetal hypoxia, whereas cocaine may alter nutrient transfer to the fetus and fetal metabolism.

  18. Auditory hindbrain atrophy and anomalous calcium binding protein expression after neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Lindsey; Blackburn, Kaitlyn; Kulesza, Randy J

    2017-03-06

    Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and is stored and released by both neurons and astrocytes. Despite the important role of glutamate as a neurotransmitter, elevated extracellular glutamate can result in excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a naturally occurring sodium salt of glutamic acid that is used as a flavor enhancer in many processed foods. Previous studies have shown that MSG administration during the early postnatal period results in neurodegenerative changes in several forebrain regions, characterized by neuronal loss and neuroendocrine abnormalities. Systemic delivery of MSG during the neonatal period and induction of glutamate neurotoxicity in the cochlea have both been shown to result in fewer neurons in the spiral ganglion. We hypothesized that an MSG-induced loss of neurons in the spiral ganglion would have a significant impact on the number of neurons in the cochlear nuclei and superior olivary complex (SOC). Indeed, we found that exposure to MSG from postnatal days 4 through 10 resulted in significantly fewer neurons in the cochlear nuclei and SOC and significant dysmorphology in surviving neurons. Moreover, we found that neonatal MSG exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of both calretinin and calbindin. These results suggest that neonatal exposure to MSG interferes with early development of the auditory brainstem and impacts expression of calcium binding proteins, both of which may lead to diminished auditory function. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Noise exposure is increased with neonatal helmet CPAP in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, D; Camiletti, L; Doglioni, N; Cavallin, F; Udilano, A; Zanardo, V

    2011-01-01

    in adults, noninvasive ventilation via a helmet is associated with significantly greater noise than nasal and facial masks. We hypothesized that noise exposure could be increased with neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP (nCPAP). Our primary objective was to compare the noise intensity produced by a neonatal helmet CPAP and a conventional nCPAP system. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the gas flow rate and the presence of the humidifier and the filter on noise levels during neonatal helmet CPAP treatment. in this bench study, noise intensity was measured in the following settings: helmet CPAP, nCPAP, incubator and the neonatal intensive care unit. In helmet CPAP, noise measurements were performed at different gas flow rates (8, 10 and 12 l/min), while in nCPAP, the flow rate was 8 l/min. For both CPAP systems, the level of pressure was maintained constant at 5 cmH(2) O. during neonatal helmet CPAP, the median (interquartile range) noise levels were significantly higher than those during nCPAP: 70.0 dB (69.9-70.4) vs. 62.7 dB (62.5-63.0); PCPAP, the noise intensities changed with increasing flow rate and with the presence of a humidifier or a filter. noise intensities generated by the neonatal helmet CPAP were significantly higher than those registered while using a conventional nCPAP system. In the helmet, the noise intensity depends on the gas flow rate, and the presence of a humidifier and a filter in the system. 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  20. Effects of methimazole and propylthiouracil exposure during pregnancy on the risk of neonatal congenital malformations: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rongjing; Lin, Hepu; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Xiuying

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to different antithyroid drugs during pregnancy on the incidence of neonatal congenital malformations. Methods A meta-analysis was performed to compare the incidence of neonatal congenital malformations after exposure to different antithyroid drugs during pregnancy. Twelve studies that met the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL databases were searched from inception until January 2017. Study designs included case–control studies, prospective cohort studies, and retrospective cohort studies. Results Twelve studies involving 8028 participants with exposure to different antithyroid drugs during pregnancy were included in this study; however, only 10 studies involving 5059 participants involved exposure to different antithyroid drugs exactly during pregnancy. Our results indicated that exposure to methimazole (MMI)/carbimazole (CMZ) only during pregnancy significantly increased the risk of neonatal congenital malformations compared to no antithyroid drug exposure (OR 1.88; 95%CI 1.33 to 2.65; P = 0.0004). No differences were observed between propylthiouracil (PTU) exposure and no antithyroid drug exposure only during pregnancy (OR 0.81; 95%CI 0.58 to 1.15; P = 0.24). Exposure to MMI/CMZ only during pregnancy significantly increased the risk of neonatal congenital malformations compared to that associated with exposure to PTU (OR 1.90; 95%CI 1.30 to 2.78; P = 0.001). Conclusion For pregnant women with hyperthyroidism, exposure to MMI/CMZ significantly increased the incidence of neonatal congenital malformations compared to exposure to PTU and no antithyroid drug exposure; however, no differences were observed between PTU exposure and no antithyroid drug exposure. PMID:28671971

  1. Neonatal thyroid function in Seveso 25 years after maternal exposure to dioxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Baccarelli

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hypothyroidism has been associated in animal models with maternal exposure to several environmental contaminants; however, evidence for such an association in humans is inconsistent. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a persistent and widespread toxic environmental contaminant, is associated with modified neonatal thyroid function in a large, highly exposed population in Seveso, Italy.Between 1994 and 2005, in individuals exposed to TCDD after the 1976 Seveso accident we conducted: (i a residence-based population study on 1,014 children born to the 1,772 women of reproductive age in the most contaminated zones (A, very high contamination; B, high contamination, and 1,772 age-matched women from the surrounding noncontaminated area (reference; (ii a biomarker study on 51 mother-child pairs for whom recent maternal plasma dioxin measurements were available. Neonatal blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (b-TSH was measured on all children. We performed crude and multivariate analyses adjusting for gender, birth weight, birth order, maternal age, hospital, and type of delivery. Mean neonatal b-TSH was 0.98 microU/ml (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.08 in the reference area (n = 533, 1.35 microU/ml (95% CI 1.22-1.49 in zone B (n = 425, and 1.66 microU/ml (95% CI 1.19-2.31 in zone A (n = 56 (p 5 microU/ml was 2.8% in the reference area, 4.9% in zone B, and 16.1% in zone A (p < 0.001. Neonatal b-TSH was correlated with current maternal plasma TCDD (n = 51, beta = 0.47, p < 0.001 and plasma toxic equivalents of coplanar dioxin-like compounds (n = 51, beta = 0.45, p = 0.005.Our data indicate that environmental contaminants such as dioxins have a long-lasting capability to modify neonatal thyroid function after the initial exposure.

  2. Maternal Music Exposure during Pregnancy Influences Neonatal Behaviour: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the effect of antenatal music exposure to primigravida healthy mothers on the behaviour of their term appropriate-for-date newborns assessed using Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS. Methods. This was a single-centre, randomized, open-label controlled trial. Primigravida mothers aged 19–29 years, free of chronic medical diseases or significant deafness, with singleton pregnancy, with a gestation of 20 weeks or less, were randomized to listen to a pre-recorded music cassette for approximately 1 hour/day in addition to standard antenatal care (intervention arm or standard care only (control arm. Perinatal factors with adverse effect on neonatal behaviour were deemed as protocol violations. Outcome measure included scores on 7 clusters of BNBAS. Primary analysis was per protocol. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01278329. Results. One hundred and twenty-six newborns in the music group and 134 in the control group were subjected to BNBAS assessment. The infants of mothers exposed to music during pregnancy performed significantly better on 5 of the 7 BNBAS clusters. The maximal beneficial effect was seen with respect to orientation (ES 1.13, 95% CI 0.82–1.44, <0.0001 and habituation (ES 1.05, 95% CI 0.53–1.57, =0.0001. Conclusion. Prenatal music exposure to mother significantly and favourably influences neonatal behaviour.

  3. Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and neurobehavioral development of neonates: a birth cohort study in Shenyang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large amount of organophosphate pesticides (OPs are used in agriculture in China every year, contributing to exposure of OPs through dietary consumption among the general population. However, the level of exposure to OPs in China is still uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the exposure to OPs on the neonatal neurodevelopment during pregnancy in Shenyang, China. METHODS: 249 pregnant women enrolled in the Central Hospital Affiliated to Shenyang Medical College from February 2011 to August 2012. A cohort of the mothers and their neonates participated in the study and information on each subject was obtained by questionnaire. Dialkyl phosphate (DAP metabolites were detected in the urine of mothers during pregnancy to evaluate the exposure level to OPs. Neonate neurobehavioral developmental levels were assessed according to the standards of the Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA. Multiple linear regressions were utilized to analyze the association between pregnancy exposure to OPs and neonatal neurobehavioral development. RESULTS: The geometric means (GM of urinary metabolites for dimethyl phosphate (DMP, dimethyl thiophosphate (DMTP, diethyl phosphate (DEP, and diethyl thiophosphate (DETP in pregnant women were 18.03, 8.53, 7.14, and 5.64 µg/L, respectively. Results from multiple linear regressions showed that prenatal OP exposure was one of the most important factors affecting NBNA scores. Prenatal total DAP concentrations were inversely associated with scores on the NBNA scales.?Additionally, a 10-fold increase in DAP concentrations was associated with a decrease of 1.78 regarding the Summary NBNA (95% CI, -2.12 to -1.45. And there was an estimated 2.11-point difference in summary NBNA scores between neonates in the highest quintile of prenatal OP exposure and the lowest quintile group. CONCLUSION: The high exposure of pregnant women to OPs in Shenyang, China was the predominant risk factor for

  4. Degradation of Parathion by Microorganisms from Cranberry Bogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorder, G.W.; Lichtenstein, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    Full text: Oxygen concentration and different carbon sources drastically altered parathion degradation in culture media inoculated with microorganisms from Wisconsin cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) growing soils. These microorganisms also grew in basal salts media utilizing parathion as a sole carbon source. 14 CO 2 was produced only from phenyl-labelled parathion while 14 C-(ethyl)-parathion derived radiocarbon remained in the stale media of the soil-free cultures. Addition of 0.05% glucose to basal salts medium inhibited 14 C-(phenyl)-parathion degradation while the addition of 0.05% yeast extract to basal salts medium also inhibited microbiological degradation of the insecticide to 14 CO 2 , but to a lesser extent. Aminoparathion and aminoparaoxon were formed only in basal salts medium with 0.05% yeast extract. Aerobic cultures produced more 14 CO 2 from 14 C-(phenyl)-parathion and less aminoparathion than anaerobic cultures. Aminoparathion was more abundant in cultures with inocula obtained from the 18- to 23-cm layer than with culture inocula obtained from the 0- to 5-cm soil layer under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. (author)

  5. Neonatal bee venom exposure induces sensory modality-specific enhancement of nociceptive response in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Chen, Huisheng; Tang, Jiaguang; Chen, Jun

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that inflammatory pain at the neonatal stage can produce long-term structural and functional changes in nociceptive pathways, resulting in altered pain perception in adulthood. However, the exact pattern of altered nociceptive response and associated neurochemical changes in the spinal cord in this process is unclear. In this study, we used an experimental paradigm in which each rat first received intraplantar bee venom (BV) or saline injection on postnatal day 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, or 28. This was followed 2 months later by a second intraplantar bee venom injection in the same rats to examine the difference in nociceptive responses. We found that neonatal inflammatory pain induced by the first BV injection significantly reduced baseline paw withdrawal mechanical threshold, but not baseline paw withdrawal thermal latency, when rats were examined 2 months from the first BV injection. Neonatal inflammatory pain also exacerbated mechanical, but not thermal, hyperalgesia in response to the second BV injection in these same rats. Rats exposed to neonatal inflammation also showed up-regulation of spinal NGF, TrkA receptor, BDNF, TrkB receptor, IL-1β, and COX-2 expression following the second BV injection, especially with prior BV exposure on postnatal day 21 or 28. These results indicate that neonatal inflammation produces sensory modality-specific changes in nociceptive behavior and alters neurochemistry in the spinal cord of adult rats. These results also suggest that a prior history of inflammatory pain during the developmental period might have an impact on clinical pain in highly susceptible adult patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Aluminum Exposure in Neonatal Patients Using the Least Contaminated Parenteral Nutrition Solution Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Robert L.; Pieroni, Kevin P.; Gaskari, Shabnam; Dixon, Tessa; Kerner, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a contaminant in all parenteral nutrition (PN) solution component products. Manufacturers currently label these products with the maximum Al content at the time of expiry. We recently published data to establish the actual measured concentration of Al in PN solution products prior to being compounded in the clinical setting [1]. The investigation assessed quantitative Al content of all available products used in the formulation of PN solutions. The objective of this study was to assess the Al exposure in neonatal patients using the least contaminated PN solutions and determine if it is possible to meet the FDA “safe limit” of less than 5 μg/kg/day of Al. The measured concentrations from our previous study were analyzed and the least contaminated products were identified. These concentrations were entered into our PN software and the least possible Al exposure was determined. A significant decrease (41%–44%) in the Al exposure in neonatal patients can be achieved using the least contaminated products, but the FDA “safe limit” of less than 5 μg/kg/day of Al was not met. However, minimizing the Al exposure may decrease the likelihood of developing Al toxicity from PN. PMID:23201834

  7. Neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate induces morphological alterations in suprachiasmatic nucleus of adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César; Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Rojas, Patricia; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Oscar; Rojas, Carolina; Arteaga-Silva, Marcela

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate (MSG) induces circadian disorders in several physiological and behavioural processes regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of neonatal exposure to MSG on locomotor activity, and on morphology, cellular density and expression of proteins, as evaluated by optical density (OD), of vasopressin (VP)-, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive cells in the SCN. Male Wistar rats were used: the MSG group was subcutaneously treated from 3 to 10 days of age with 3.5 mg/g/day. Locomotor activity was evaluated at 90 days of age using 'open-field' test, and the brains were processed for immunohistochemical studies. MSG exposure induced a significant decrease in locomotor activity. VP- and VIP-immunoreactive neuronal densities showed a significant decrease, while the somatic OD showed an increase. Major axes and somatic area were significantly increased in VIP neurons. The cellular and optical densities of GFAP-immunoreactive sections of SCN were significantly increased. These results demonstrated that newborn exposure to MSG induced morphological alterations in SCN cells, an alteration that could be the basis for behavioural disorders observed in the animals. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  8. Neonatal ethanol exposure from ethanol-based hand sanitisers in isolettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shizuka; Sapkota, Amir; Wood, Rebecca; Bearer, Cynthia; Kapoor, Shiv

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study is to measure the ethanol vapours in the isolette after use of hands cleaned with ethanol-based hand sanitiser (EBHS). Two squirts (1.5 mL) of hand sanitiser were rubbed on hands for 10 or 20 s before inserting the hands in the isolette for 5 min. Ethanol vapours were measured in the isolette with photoionisation detector and alcohol breathalyser for 30 min. Peak ethanol concentration in the isolette was considerably higher with a 10 s hand rub (381±192 ppm) compared with a 20 s hand rub (99±50 ppm), and dissipated to ≤5 ppm within 30 min. Under routine care, EBHS use by care providers exposes neonates in isolettes to 3.7-7.3 or 1.4-2.8 mg/kg ethanol per day with 10 or 20 s hand rubs, respectively. The expected blood level from average single exposure is 0.036 mg/dL with 10 s hand rub and may increase further with multiple exposures in a short period. Preterm neonates in the isolette are at risk of inadvertent exposure to ethanol. The expected blood alcohol level from this exposure is small and below 1 mg/dL level recommended by European Medicines Agency to limit the ethanol exposure in children. The unintended ethanol exposure can be avoided by rubbing hands for at least 20 s after applying EBHS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. A Single Neonatal Exposure to BMAA in a Rat Model Produces Neuropathology Consistent with Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Louise Scott

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although cyanobacterial β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, Parkinson’s Disease (PD and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, no BMAA animal model has reproduced all the neuropathology typically associated with these neurodegenerative diseases. We present here a neonatal BMAA model that causes β-amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles of hyper-phosphorylated tau, TDP-43 inclusions, Lewy bodies, microbleeds and microgliosis as well as severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus, striatum, substantia nigra pars compacta, and ventral horn of the spinal cord in rats following a single BMAA exposure. We also report here that BMAA exposure on particularly PND3, but also PND4 and 5, the critical period of neurogenesis in the rodent brain, is substantially more toxic than exposure to BMAA on G14, PND6, 7 and 10 which suggests that BMAA could potentially interfere with neonatal neurogenesis in rats. The observed selective toxicity of BMAA during neurogenesis and, in particular, the observed pattern of neuronal loss observed in BMAA-exposed rats suggest that BMAA elicits its effect by altering dopamine and/or serotonin signaling in rats.

  10. Neonatal neurobehavioral organization after exposure to maternal epidural analgesia in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Aleeca F; White-Traut, Rosemary; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    To explore relationships between maternal epidural analgesia and two measures of neurobehavioral organization in infants at the initial feeding 1 hour after birth. Prospective comparative design. Inner-city community hospital, Chicago, Illinois. Convenience sample of 52 low-risk, mainly Black and Latino, mother/infant dyads. Mothers self-selected to labor with epidural or no labor pain medication. Neonatal neurobehavioral organization was measured in term infants at the initial feeding 1 hour after birth. A nutritive sucking apparatus generated data on total number of sucks and sucking pressure. Video recordings of infants (before and after the initial feeding) were coded for behavioral states, with analysis on frequency of alertness. Total number of sucks and sucking pressure were not related to epidural exposure, although an epidural drug dosage effect on total number of sucks was evident when gender was a factor. Unmedicated girls demonstrated more sucks than girls in the high-dosage epidural group (p=.027). Overall, girls exhibited stronger sucking pressure than boys (p=.042). Frequency of alertness was not related to epidural exposure, although longer labor was related to greater alertness (p=.003), and Latino infants were more alert than Black infants (p=.002). Results suggest attenuated neonatal nutritive sucking organization in girls after exposure to high maternal epidural dosages. In comparison to boys, girls may have enhanced neurobehavioral organization at birth. Race/ethnicity and alertness may have spurious associations in which hidden factors drive the relationship.

  11. Neonatal exposure to pneumococcal phosphorylcholine modulates the development of house dust mite allergy during adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Preeyam S; Kearney, John F

    2015-06-15

    Currently, ∼20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE Abs in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. In this study, we use Ab-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM Abs in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Infectious disease exposures and outbreaks at a South African neonatal unit with review of neonatal outbreak epidemiology in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dramowski

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Outbreaks in hospitalized African neonates are frequent but under-reported, with high mortality and a predominance of Gram-negative bacteria. Breaches in IP practice are commonly implicated, with the outbreak source confirmed in less than 50% of cases. Programmes to improve IP practice and address antimicrobial resistance in African neonatal units are urgently required.

  13. Neonatal exposure to a glyphosate based herbicide alters the development of the rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Schimpf, Marlise; Milesi, María M; Ingaramo, Paola I; Luque, Enrique H; Varayoud, Jorgelina

    2017-02-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are extensively used to control weeds on both cropland and non-cropland areas. No reports are available regarding the effects of GBHs exposure on uterine development. We evaluated if neonatal exposure to a GBH affects uterine morphology, proliferation and expression of proteins that regulate uterine organogenetic differentiation in rats. Female Wistar pups received saline solution (control, C) or a commercial formulation of glyphosate (GBH, 2mg/kg) by sc injection every 48h from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND7. Rats were sacrificed on PND8 (neonatal period) and PND21 (prepubertal period) to evaluate acute and short-term effects, respectively. The uterine morphology was evaluated in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. The epithelial and stromal immunophenotypes were established by assessing the expression of luminal epithelial protein (cytokeratin 8; CK8), basal epithelial proteins (p63 and pan cytokeratin CK1, 5, 10 and 14); and vimentin by immunohistochemistry (IHC). To investigate changes on proteins that regulate uterine organogenetic differentiation we evaluated the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), Hoxa10 and Wnt7a by IHC. The GBH-exposed uteri showed morphological changes, characterized by an increase in the incidence of luminal epithelial hyperplasia (LEH) and an increase in the stromal and myometrial thickness. The epithelial cells showed a positive immunostaining for CK8, while the stromal cells for vimentin. GBH treatment increased cell proliferation in the luminal and stromal compartment on PND8, without changes on PND21. GBH treatment also altered the expression of proteins involved in uterine organogenetic differentiation. PR and Hoxa10 were deregulated both immediately and two weeks after the exposure. ERα was induced in the stromal compartment on PND8, and was downregulated in the luminal epithelial cells of gyphosate-exposed animals on PND21. GBH treatment also increased

  14. Neonatal exposure to xenoestrogens impairs the ovarian response to gonadotropin treatment in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Oscar E; Varayoud, Jorgelina; Rodríguez, Horacio A; Santamaría, Clarisa G; Bosquiazzo, Verónica L; Osti, Mario; Belmonte, Norberto M; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

    2015-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) are xenoestrogens, which have been associated with altered effects on reproduction. We hypothesized that neonatal xenoestrogen exposure affects the ovarian functionality in lambs. Thus, we evaluated the ovarian response to exogenous ovine FSH (oFSH) administered from postnatal day 30 (PND30) to PND32 in female lambs previously exposed to low doses of DES or BPA (BPA50: 50 μg/kg per day, BPA0.5: 0.5 μg/kg per day) from PND1 to PND14. We determined: i) follicular growth, ii) circulating levels of 17β-estradiol (E2), iii) steroid receptors (estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta, and androgen receptor (AR)) and atresia, and iv) mRNA expression levels of the ovarian bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) system (BMP6, BMP15, BMPR1B, and GDF9) and FSH receptor (FSHR). Lambs neonatally exposed to DES or BPA showed an impaired ovarian response to oFSH with a lower number of follicles ≥2 mm in diameter together with a lower number of atretic follicles and no increase in E2 serum levels in response to oFSH treatment. In addition, AR induction by oFSH was disrupted in granulosa and theca cells of lambs exposed to DES or BPA. An increase in GDF9 mRNA expression levels was observed in oFSH-primed lambs previously treated with DES or BPA50. In contrast, a decrease in BMPR1B was observed in BPA0.5-postnatally exposed lambs. The modifications in AR, GDF9, and BMPR1B may be associated with the altered ovarian function due to neonatal xenoestrogen exposure in response to an exogenous gonadotropin stimulus. These alterations may be the pathophysiological basis of subfertility syndrome in adulthood. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  15. Microglia modulate brainstem serotonergic expression following neonatal sustained hypoxia exposure: implications for sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, P M; Mayer, C A; Litvin, D G

    2016-06-01

    Neonatal sustained hypoxia exposure modifies brainstem microglia and serotonin expression. The altered brainstem neurochemistry is associated with impaired ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia and mortality. The deleterious effects of sustained hypoxia exposure can be prevented by an inhibitor of activated microglia. These observations demonstrate a potential cause of the brainstem serotonin abnormalities thought to be involved in sudden infant death syndrome. We showed previously that the end of the second postnatal week (days P11-15) represents a period of development during which the respiratory neural control system exhibits a heightened vulnerability to sustained hypoxia (SH, 11% O2 , 5 days) exposure. In the current study, we investigated whether the vulnerability to SH during the same developmental time period is associated with changes in brainstem serotonin (5-HT) expression and whether it can be prevented by the microglia inhibitor minocycline. Using whole-body plethysmography, SH attenuated the acute (5 min) hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and caused a high incidence of mortality compared to normoxia rats. SH also increased microglia cell numbers and decreased 5-HT immunoreactivity in the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV). The attenuated HVR, mortality, and changes in nTS and DMNV immunoreactivity was prevented by minocycline (25 mg kg(-1) /2 days during SH). These data demonstrate that the 5-HT abnormalities in distinct respiratory neural control regions can be initiated by prolonged hypoxia exposure and may be modulated by microglia activity. These observations share several commonalities with the risk factors thought to underlie the aetiology of sudden infant death syndrome, including: (1) a vulnerable neonate; (2) a critical period of development; (3) evidence of hypoxia; (4) brainstem gliosis (particularly the nTS and DMNV); and (5) 5-HT abnormalities. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of

  16. Expression of aquaporin 9 in rat liver and efferent ducts of the male reproductive system after neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellejus, Anja; Jensen, Henrik E; Loft, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQP) have important solute transport functions in many tissues including the epididymal efferent ducts (ED) and in the liver. We investigated the effect of neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on AQP9 expressions in the ED and in the liver of rats. DES was administered from day...... to the epithelial cells of the ED. In conclusion, neonatal DES exposure appears to upregulate AQP9 channels in the ED in male rats, whereas a downregulation in the hepatic expression was observed, particularly in the periacinous area....

  17. The degradation of [14C] parathion in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.M. de; Lord, K.A.; Bromilow, R.H.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Loss of [ 14 C] parathion from two Brazilian soils was studied by measuring the parathion which could be extracted by a mixture of hexane and propanol and the 14 CO 2 evolved. Recovery of unchanged parathion decreased faster in the soil richer in organic matter (soil 1) from which more radiocarbon was evolved as CO 2 than from the soil poorerin organic matter (soil 2). Evolution of CO 2 from soil 1 decreased rapidly when the soil dried out but little effect of moisture content was observed in soil 2. Radiocarbon remaining in the soils was assayed by combustion after 234 days and the total recovered in soil 1 was 95.6% and, in soil 2,78.7%, sufficient to give almost complete recovery from both soils. (Author) [pt

  18. Exposure to moderate air pollution during late pregnancy and cord blood cytokine secretion in healthy neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Latzin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ambient air pollution can alter cytokine concentrations as shown in vitro and following short-term exposure to high air pollution levels in vivo. Exposure to pollution during late pregnancy has been shown to affect fetal lymphocytic immunophenotypes. However, effects of prenatal exposure to moderate levels of air pollutants on cytokine regulation in cord blood of healthy infants are unknown. METHODS: In a birth cohort of 265 healthy term-born neonates, we assessed maternal exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less (PM₁₀, as well as to indoor air pollution during the last trimester, specifically the last 21, 14, 7, 3 and 1 days of pregnancy. As a proxy for traffic-related air pollution, we determined the distance of mothers' homes to major roads. We measured cytokine and chemokine levels (MCP-1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ß, TNF-α and GM-CSF in cord blood serum using LUMINEX technology. Their association with pollution levels was assessed using regression analysis, adjusted for possible confounders. RESULTS: Mean (95%-CI PM₁₀ exposure for the last 7 days of pregnancy was 18.3 (10.3-38.4 µg/m³. PM₁₀ exposure during the last 3 days of pregnancy was significantly associated with reduced IL-10 and during the last 3 months of pregnancy with increased IL-1ß levels in cord blood after adjustment for relevant confounders. Maternal smoking was associated with reduced IL-6 levels. For the other cytokines no association was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that even naturally occurring prenatal exposure to moderate amounts of indoor and outdoor air pollution may lead to changes in cord blood cytokine levels in a population based cohort.

  19. Persistent deficits in heart rate response habituation following neonatal binge ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasch, Katherine C; Hunt, Pamela S

    2009-09-01

    We have previously shown that the rate of habituation of the heart rate orienting response to a novel odor in rats is negatively affected by neonatal ethanol exposure. Thus far, however, only young rats (16 days of age) have been tested. Given the persistence of attention and memory problems evident in humans exposed to ethanol in utero, the purpose of this experiment was to examine the longer-term consequences of ethanol exposure on response habituation. Ethanol (5.25 g/kg/d) was administered intragastrically to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats on postnatal days (PD) 4 to 9, and controls were given sham intubations. Animals were tested for heart rate orienting and response habituation to a novel olfactory stimulus (amyl acetate) on PD 16, 23, or 30. Animals tested on PD 16 or 23 showed normal heart rate deceleration to the novel odor, a measure of the orienting response. However, ethanol-treated subjects showed impaired response habituation compared with sham controls. While controls exhibited complete habituation within 4 to 5 trials, ethanol-treated animals continued to respond throughout the testing session, with little decrement in heart rate response magnitude across 10 stimulus presentations. A different pattern of responding was observed in animals tested during adolescence (PD 30). Control animals failed to show the typical heart rate decrease indicative of orienting, and instead showed a tendency toward tachycardia. In contrast, ethanol-treated animals tested on PD 30 showed orienting bradycardia that persisted for several trials. These data suggest that there are relatively long-term consequences of neonatal ethanol exposure on nonassociative memory. This impairment in habituation may be relevant to the distractibility and poor focused attention that is pervasive among humans diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  20. Neonatal exposure to sucralose does not alter biochemical markers of neuronal development or adult behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viberg, Henrik; Fredriksson, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Sucralose, a high-intensity sweetener, has been approved as a general-purpose sweetener in all food since the late 1990s. Due to its good taste and physiochemical profile, its use has increased and sucralose is considered a way of managing health and an option to improve the quality of life in the diabetic population. Recently high concentrations of sucralose have been found in the environment. Other environmental pollutants have been shown to induce neurotoxic effects when administered during a period of rapid brain growth and development. This period of rapid brain growth and development is postnatal in mice and rats, spanning the first 3-4 wk of life, reaching its peak around postnatal day 10, whereas in humans, brain growth and development is perinatal. The proteins calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, growth-associated protein-43, synaptophysin, and tau play important roles during brain growth and development. In the present study, mice were orally exposed to 5-125 mg of sucralose per kilogram of body weight per day during postnatal days 8-12. Twenty-four hours after last exposure, brains were analyzed for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, growth-associated protein-43, synaptophysin, and tau, and at the age of 2 mo the animals were tested for spontaneous behavior. The protein analysis showed no alterations in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, growth-associated protein-43, synaptophysin, or tau. Furthermore, there were no disturbances in adult behavior or habituation after neonatal sucralose exposure. The present study shows that repeated neonatal exposure to the artificial sweetener sucralose does not result in neurotoxicity, which supports that sucralose seems to be a safe alternative for people who want or need to reduce or substitute glucose in their diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Congenital tuberculosis and management of exposure in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaru-Soen, G; Savyon, M; Sadot, E; Schechner, V; Sivan, Y; Schwartz, D; Tarabeia, J; Amitai, Z; Yoabov, I; Carmeli, Y

    2014-09-01

    This report describes the management and outcome of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and paediatric ICU (PICU) exposure to a 26-day-old premature infant with congenital tuberculosis (TB). The infant's mother underwent chest X-ray (CXR) and sputum culture. Contacts of the infant were identified. Tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) were performed on 97 infants and children, 156 NICU and PICU visitors and 115 health care workers. The mother's sputum culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. No TST conversion occurred in the exposed NICU infants. All neonates received prophylactic isoniazid (INH). One exposed child in the PICU had TST conversion with normal CXR and completed 9 months of INH without developing active disease; 22 (14%) PICU and NICU visitors and 3 NICU personnel had TST conversion without evidence of disease. The sequence of events described here demonstrates the difficulty in diagnosis and management of TB in this age group. Transmission of TB in NICU and PICUs is unusual but can occur, and calls for a systematic approach to investigation of the exposed infants, family members and health care providers.

  2. Neonatal Morphine Exposure in Very Preterm Infants – Cerebral Development and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhorn, Rachel; McPherson, Chris; Anderson, Peter J; Neil, Jeffrey; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of morphine exposure in very preterm infants with cerebral volumes and neurodevelopmental outcome from birth through middle childhood. Study design Observational study of very preterm infants in the Victorian Infant Brain Study cohort. 230 infants born neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Royal Women’s Hospital. 57 (25%) infants received morphine analgesia during their NICU stay at the attending physician’s discretion. Primary outcomes were regional brain volumes at term and 7 years; neurobehavioral performance at term; and cognitive, motor, emotional, behavioral, communication, and executive function scores at age 2 and 7 years. Linear regressions were used to compare outcomes between participants who did and did not receive morphine. Results At term, preterm infants who received morphine had similar rates of grey matter injury to no-morphine infants, but a trend towards smaller cortical volumes in the orbitofrontal (pleft=0.002, pright=0.01) and subgenual (pleft=0.01) regions. At seven years, cortical volumes did not differ between groups. At 2 years, morphine-exposed children were more likely to show behavioral dysregulation (p=0.007) than no-morphine children, but at seven years no detrimental impacts of morphine on neurobehavioral outcome were observed. Conclusions Low-dose morphine analgesia received during neonatal intensive care was associated with early alterations in cerebral structure and short-term neurobehavioral problems that did not persist into childhood. PMID:25919729

  3. Prenatal exposure to a maternal LP diet decreases BDNF expression in the brains of the neonatal offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal low protein (LP) diets during gestation cause learning and mernmy impai1ment as well as cognitive deficits in the neonatal and adult offsp1ing. The cellular and molecular mechanism that mediate the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to a maternal LP diet on cognitive function is egreg...

  4. Neurobehavioral effects of concurrent exposure to cesium-137 and paraquat during neonatal development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Luis; Bellés, Montserrat; Llovet, Maria Isabel; Domingo, Jose L; Linares, Victoria

    2015-03-02

    As a result of nuclear power plants accidents such as Chernobyl or Fukushima, some people were exposed to external and internal ionizing radiation (IR). Human brain is highly sensitive to IR during fetal and postnatal period when the molecular processes are not completely finished. Various studies have shown that exposure to low doses of IR causes a higher incidence of cognitive impairment. On the other hand, in industrialized countries, people are daily exposed to a number of toxicant pollutants. Exposure to environmental chemicals, such as paraquat (PQ), may potentiate the toxic effects induced by radiation on brain development. In this study, we evaluated the cognitive effects of concomitant exposure to low doses of internal radiation ((137)Cs) and PQ during neonatal brain development. At the postnatal day 10 (PND10), two groups of mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to (137)Cs (4000 and 8000 Bq/kg) and/or PQ (7 mg/kg). To investigate the spontaneous behavior, learning, memory capacities and anxiety, behavioral tests were conducted in the offspring at two months of age. The results showed that cognitive functions were not significantly affected when (137)Cs or PQ were administered alone. However, alterations in the working memory and anxiety were detected in mice exposed to (137)Cs combined with PQ. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Neurobehavioral effects of concurrent exposure to cesium-137 and paraquat during neonatal development in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia, Luis; Bellés, Montserrat; Llovet, Maria Isabel; Domingo, Jose L.; Linares, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    As a result of nuclear power plants accidents such as Chernobyl or Fukushima, some people were exposed to external and internal ionizing radiation (IR). Human brain is highly sensitive to IR during fetal and postnatal period when the molecular processes are not completely finished. Various studies have shown that exposure to low doses of IR causes a higher incidence of cognitive impairment. On the other hand, in industrialized countries, people are daily exposed to a number of toxicant pollutants. Exposure to environmental chemicals, such as paraquat (PQ), may potentiate the toxic effects induced by radiation on brain development. In this study, we evaluated the cognitive effects of concomitant exposure to low doses of internal radiation ( 137 Cs) and PQ during neonatal brain development. At the postnatal day 10 (PND10), two groups of mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 137 Cs (4000 and 8000 Bq/kg) and/or PQ (7 mg/kg). To investigate the spontaneous behavior, learning, memory capacities and anxiety, behavioral tests were conducted in the offspring at two months of age. The results showed that cognitive functions were not significantly affected when 137 Cs or PQ were administered alone. However, alterations in the working memory and anxiety were detected in mice exposed to 137 Cs combined with PQ

  6. Impact of neonatal NOS-1 inhibitor exposure on neurobehavioural measures and prefrontal-temporolimbic integration in the rat nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, Alexander M; Kohlhaas, Kathy L; Nelson, Christopher L; Hoque, Kristina E; Leilabadi, Solmaz N; Folk, Jessica; Wolf, Marina E; West, Anthony R

    2014-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous neurotransmitter that plays a significant role in the establishment and refinement of functional neural circuits. Genetic and post-mortem studies have suggested that neuronal NO synthase (NOS-1) activity may be compromised in frontal and temporal lobes, and related structures, in schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to determine if there is a link between neonatal disruptions in NO signalling and disturbances in the development and function of prefrontal-temporolimbic circuits. Neonatal rats were injected on postnatal days PD3-5 with the selective NOS-1 inhibitor Nω-propyl-L-arginine (NPA) and tested in adulthood (≥PD60) or as juveniles (PD30). Adult rats treated with NPA as neonates exhibited increased amphetamine-induced locomotion compared to animals receiving vehicle as neonates, whereas this was not observed in juvenile rats treated with NPA as neonates. Adult rats exposed to NPA as neonates also exhibited deficits in social interaction and short-term recognition memory, as well as reduced brain weight, compared to vehicle-treated controls. Finally, neonatal NPA exposure increased the responsiveness of nucleus accumbens neurons to prefrontal cortical input and disrupted the modulation of cortico-accumbens circuits by hippocampal afferents that is normally observed in adult animals. These results show for the first time that neonatal inhibition of NOS-1 during a critical neurodevelopmental period leads to aberrant behaviours that manifest in adulthood, as well as electrophysiological abnormalities in prefrontal-temporolimbic circuits. Greater understanding of the role of NOS-1 in the development of these circuits will shed light on how developmental insults translate to pathophysiology associated with schizophrenia.

  7. Protective effects of vitamins C and E against hepatotoxicity induced by methyl parathion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Kalender, Yusuf

    2011-10-01

    Male rats were given vitamins C+E, methyl parathion, or both daily via gavage for seven weeks. Body weight was decreased while liver weight increased significantly at the end of fourth and seventh weeks in the methyl parathion- and methyl parathion plus vitamin-treated groups. Serum total protein, albumin, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-cholesterol) levels decreased, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total cholesterol levels increased significantly in the methyl parathion- and the methyl parathion plus vitamin-treated rats. There was a statistically significant difference for all biochemical parameters when the methyl parathion plus vitamin-treated group was compared with methyl parathion-treated group. In electron microscopic investigation, cytopathological alterations were observed in hepatocytes of the methyl parathion- and the methyl parathion plus vitamin-treated rats. As a result, methyl parathion-induced hepatotoxicity is reduced by vitamins C+E, but vitamins C+E did not provide complete protection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neonatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Attenuates Nicotine-stimulated GABA release in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Griffith, William H.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to nicotine has been linked to long-lasting changes in synaptic transmission which may contribute to behavioral abnormalities seen in offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy. Here, we examined the long-lasting effects of developmental nicotine exposure on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and on acute nicotine-induced glutamate and GABA release in the adult hippocampus, a structure important in cognitive and emotional behaviors. We utilized a chronic neonatal nicotine treatment model to administer nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) to rat pups from postnatal day (P) 1–7, a period that falls developmentally into the third human trimester. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, we measured excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents in neonatally control- and nicotine-treated young adult males. Neonatal nicotine exposure significantly increased AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous and evoked excitatory signaling, with no change in glutamate release probability in adults. Conversely, there was no increase in spontaneous GABAergic neurotransmission in nicotine-males. Chronic neonatal nicotine treatment had no effect on acute nicotine-stimulated glutamate release in adults, but acute nicotine-stimulated GABA release was significantly attenuated. Thus, neonatal nicotine exposure results in a persistent net increase in excitation and a concurrent loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated regulation of presynaptic GABA but not glutamate release, which would exacerbate excitation following endogenous or exogenous nAChR activation. Our data underscore an important role for nAChRs in hippocampal excitatory synapse development, and suggest selective long-term changes at specific presynaptic nAChRs which together could explain some of the behavioral abnormalities associated with maternal smoking. PMID:24950455

  9. Impact of Early Versus Late Diuretic Exposure on Metabolic Bone Disease and Growth in Premature Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Lucas E; O'Mara, Keliana L

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there are differences in the incidence of metabolic bone disease (MBD) between preterm neonates first exposed to diuretics prior to 2 weeks of life versus those exposed after 2 weeks. This study was a retrospective analysis of premature neonates born at a tertiary care center between 2011 and 2015 who received either furosemide or chlorothiazide. The primary outcome was incidence of MBD. Secondary outcomes included growth, electrolyte disturbances, oxygen requirement, and length of stay. A total of 147 patients were included. Early initiation (n = 90) and late initiation (n = 57) arms were balanced with respect to birth weight and gestational age. There was no difference in incidence of MBD in the early group (76%) versus the late group (65%; p = 0.164). Stratification by cumulative dose showed incidence of 85% in patients receiving ≥8 mg/kg of furosemide, compared with 68% and 64% of those in the <4 mg/kg and 4 to 7.9 mg/kg strata, respectively (p = 0.06). The early group experienced greater reductions in length-for-age growth during diuretic therapy (-70% versus -40%; p = 0.009). Electrolyte abnormalities were more prevalent in the early group. Although there was no difference in duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of supplemental oxygen requirement was reduced in the late group (75 versus 89 days; p = 0.003). Timing of diuretic initiation did not affect incidence of MBD. Increased cumulative furosemide exposure may be associated with higher incidence. Patients first exposed to diuretics within 2 weeks of life are at higher risk for electrolyte abnormalities and reduced growth velocity.

  10. MALDI imaging delineates hippocampal glycosphingolipid changes associated with neurotoxin induced proteopathy following neonatal BMAA exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Oskar; Michno, Wojciech; Ransome, Yusuf; Hanrieder, Jörg

    2017-07-01

    The environmental toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been proposed to contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously shown that neonatal exposure to BMAA results in dose-dependent cognitive impairments, proteomic alterations and progressive neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of adult rats. A high BMAA dose (460mg/kg) also induced intracellular fibril formation, increased protein ubiquitination and enrichment of proteins important for lipid transport and metabolism. The aim of this study was therefore to elucidate the role of neuronal lipids in BMAA-induced neurodegeneration. By using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS), we characterized the spatial lipid profile in the hippocampus of six month-old rats that were treated neonatally (postnatal days 9-10) with 460mg/kg BMAA. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed long-term changes in distinct ganglioside species (GM, GD, GT) in the dentate gyrus. These changes could be a consequence of direct effects on ganglioside biosynthesis through the b-series (GM3-GD3-GD2-GD1b-GT1b) and may be linked to astrogliosis. Complementary immunohistochemistry experiments towards GFAP and S100β further verified the role of increased astrocyte activity in BMAA-induced brain damage. This highlights the potential of imaging MS for probing chemical changes associated with neuropathological mechanisms in situ. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental programming of eNOS uncoupling and enhanced vascular oxidative stress in adult rats after transient neonatal oxygen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzydorczyk, Catherine; Comte, Blandine; Huyard, Fanny; Cloutier, Anik; Germain, Nathalie; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Nuyt, Anne Monique

    2013-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that neonatal hyperoxic stress leads to high blood pressure, impaired endothelium-mediated vasodilatation, and increased vascular production of superoxide anion by NAD(P)H oxidase in adulthood. However, it is unknown whether changes in nitric oxide (NO) production and/or bioinactivation prevail and whether NO synthase (NOS) is also a source of superoxide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adult animals exposed to neonatal hyperoxic stress have impaired vascular NO production associated with NOS uncoupling participating to vascular superoxide production and vascular dysfunction. In adult male rats exposed to 80% oxygen from day 3 to 10 of life (H, n = 6) versus room air controls (CTRL, n = 6), vascular (aorta) NO production is decreased at baseline (CTRL: 21 ± 1 vs. H: 16 ± 2 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate fluorescence intensity arbitrary units; P blood pressure after a brief neonatal oxygen exposure.

  12. Assessment of arsenic in colostrum and cord serum and risk exposure to neonates from an island population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenye; Tang, Mengling; Zhu, Siyu; Naranmandura, Hua; Liu, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) has been proven to be highly toxic to humans, but limited attention has focused on exposure levels and potential risks to mother-neonate pairs of coastal populations. This study was conducted by examining the As concentration in colostrum and umbilical cord serum collected from 106 mother-neonate pairs living on Shengsi Island, facing the Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou Bay in China. Average concentrations of total As in colostrum and cord serum were 18.51 ± 7.00 and 19.83 ± 10.50 μg L -1 . One-way ANOVA analysis showed delivered ages and source of drinking water played significant roles in influencing the maternal exposure patterns. Correlation analysis indicated a significantly positive association between As concentrations in colostrum and cord serum. Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for other confounders clarified the dose-response relationship with a coefficient value of 0.23 and a 95 % confidence interval of (0.006, 0.492); p < 0.05. The calculated daily intake of total As for neonates through breastfeeding was in the range from 0.413 to 3.65 μg kg -1 body weight, and colostrum As, especially the most toxic species, inorganic arsenic (iAs), would pose a risk to neonates.

  13. Vitamin K3 (menadione) redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and inhibits parathion intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R.; Baker, Angela A.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Parathion, a widely used organophosphate insecticide, is considered a high priority chemical threat. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a cytotoxic metabolite. As an effective inhibitor of cholinesterases, paraoxon causes the accumulation of acetylcholine in synapses and overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, leading to characteristic signs of organophosphate poisoning. Inhibition of parathion metabolism to paraoxon represents a potential approach to counter parathion toxicity. Herein, we demonstrate that menadione (methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K3) is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of parathion. Menadione is active in redox cycling, a reaction mediated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase that preferentially uses electrons from NADPH at the expense of their supply to the P450s. Using human recombinant CYP 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and human liver microsomes, menadione was found to inhibit the formation of paraoxon from parathion. Administration of menadione bisulfite (40 mg/kg, ip) to rats also reduced parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity, as well as parathion-induced tremors and the progression of other signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning. These data suggest that redox cycling compounds, such as menadione, have the potential to effectively mitigate the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides including parathion which require cytochrome P450-mediated activation. - Highlights: • Menadione redox cycles with cytochrome P450 reductase and generates reactive oxygen species. • Redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated parathion metabolism. • Short term administration of menadione inhibits parathion toxicity by inhibiting paraoxon formation.

  14. Comparative effects of parathion and chlorpyrifos on extracellular endocannabinoid levels in rat hippocampus: Influence on cholinergic toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing [Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States); Parsons, Loren [Committee on Neurobiology of Affective Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Pope, Carey, E-mail: carey.pope@okstate.edu [Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Parathion (PS) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) that elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Endocannabinoids (eCBs, N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA; 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2AG) can modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. We proposed that differential inhibition of eCB-degrading enzymes (fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH, and monoacylglycerol lipase, MAGL) by PS and CPF leads to differences in extracellular eCB levels and toxicity. Microdialysis cannulae were implanted into hippocampus of adult male rats followed by treatment with vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml/kg, sc), PS (27 mg/kg) or CPF (280 mg/kg) 6–7 days later. Signs of toxicity, AChE, FAAH and MAGL inhibition, and extracellular levels of AEA and 2AG were measured 2 and 4 days later. Signs were noted in PS-treated rats but not in controls or CPF-treated rats. Cholinesterase inhibition was extensive in hippocampus with PS (89–90%) and CPF (78–83%) exposure. FAAH activity was also markedly reduced (88–91%) by both OPs at both time-points. MAGL was inhibited by both OPs but to a lesser degree (35–50%). Increases in extracellular AEA levels were noted after either PS (about 2-fold) or CPF (about 3-fold) while lesser treatment-related 2-AG changes were noted. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 (3 mg/kg, ip) had no influence on functional signs after CPF but markedly decreased toxicity in PS-treated rats. The results suggest that extracellular eCBs levels can be markedly elevated by both PS and CPF. CB1-mediated signaling appears to play a role in the acute toxicity of PS but the role of eCBs in CPF toxicity remains unclear. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos and parathion both extensively inhibited hippocampal cholinesterase. • Functional signs were only noted with parathion. • Chlorpyrifos and parathion increased hippocampal extracellular anandamide levels. • 2-Arachidonoylglycerol levels were

  15. Effects of neonatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide on female rat reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingaramo, Paola I; Varayoud, Jorgelina; Milesi, María M; Schimpf, Marlise Guerrero; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigated whether neonatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) alters the reproductive performance and the molecular mechanisms involved in the decidualization process in adult rats. Newborn female rats received vehicle or 2 mg/kg/day of a GBH on postnatal days (PND) 1, 3, 5 and 7. On PND90, the rats were mated to evaluate (i) the reproductive performance on gestational day (GD) 19 and (ii) the ovarian steroid levels, uterine morphology, endometrial cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle regulators, and endocrine pathways that regulate uterine decidualization (steroid receptors/COUP-TFII/Bmp2/Hoxa10) at the implantation sites (IS) on GD9. The GBH-exposed group showed a significant increase in the number of resorption sites on GD19, associated with an altered decidualization response. In fact, on GD9, the GBH-treated rats showed morphological changes at the IS, associated with a decreased expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, a downregulation of COUP-TFII (Nr2f2) and Bmp2 mRNA and an increased expression of HOXA10 and the proliferation marker Ki67(Mki67) at the IS. We concluded that alterations in endometrial decidualization might be the mechanism of GBH-induced post-implantation embryo loss. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  16. Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collison Kate S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous System regulating energy expenditure and conservation. MSG has been shown to promote a neuroendocrine dysfunction when large quantities are administered to mammals during the neonatal period. ASP is a low-calorie dipeptide sweetener found in a wide variety of diet beverages and foods. However, recent reports suggest that ASP may promote weight gain and hyperglycemia in a zebrafish nutritional model. Methods We investigated the effects of ASP, MSG or a combination of both on glucose and insulin homeostasis, weight change and adiposity, in C57BL/6 J mice chronically exposed to these food additives commencing in-utero, compared to an additive-free diet. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and variables in glucose and insulin homeostasis. Results ASP alone (50 mg/Kgbw/day caused an increase in fasting blood glucose of 1.6-fold, together with reduced insulin sensitivity during an Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT P  Conclusions Aspartame exposure may promote hyperglycemia and insulin intolerance. MSG may interact with aspartame to further impair glucose homeostasis. This is the first study to ascertain the hyperglycemic effects of chronic exposure to a combination of these commonly consumed food additives; however these observations are limited to a C57BL/6 J mouse model. Caution should be applied in extrapolating these findings to other species.

  17. Internalizing behaviours in school-age children born very preterm are predicted by neonatal pain and morphine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, M; Synnes, A R; Vinall, J; Grunau, R E

    2014-07-01

    Greater neonatal pain is associated with higher internalizing behaviours in very preterm infants at 18 months corrected age, but it is unknown whether this relationship persists to school age. Moreover, it is unclear whether morphine ameliorates or exacerbates the potential influence of neonatal pain/stress on internalizing behaviours. We examined whether neonatal pain-related stress is associated with internalizing behaviours at age 7 years in children born very preterm, and whether morphine affects this relationship. One hundred one children born very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation) were seen at mean age 7.7 years. A parent completed the Parenting Stress Index and Child Behavior Checklist questionnaires. Neonatal pain-related stress (the number of skin-breaking procedures adjusted for clinical factors associated with prematurity) was examined in relation to internalizing behaviour, separately in subjects mechanically ventilated and exposed to both pain and morphine (n = 57) and those never mechanically ventilated, exposed to pain but not morphine (n = 44). In the non-ventilated group, higher skin-breaking procedures (p = 0.037) and parenting stress (p = 0.004) were related to greater internalizing behaviours. In the ventilated group, greater morphine exposure (p = 0.004) was associated with higher child internalizing scores. In very preterm children who undergo mechanical ventilation, judicious use of morphine is important, since morphine may mitigate the negative effects of neonatal pain on nociception but adversely affect internalizing behaviours at school age. Management of procedural pain needs to be addressed in very preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit, to prevent long-term effects on child behaviour. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  18. Fungal bio-degradation of 14C-parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, G. A.; Abo-El Seoud, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    1 4 'C-parathion (670 Bq) was applied to mineral salt medium (MSM) to examine and evaluate its biodegradation by some fungi. The studied isolates were Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporim and trichoderma viride. The inoculated media were incubated at 30 o C for periods of 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Ta each interval, mycelia were separated from nutrient solution and extracted for its radioactivity. However, non extractable compounds were liberated by combustion. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were carried out for the radioactive compound in mycelia l extracts and residues as well as the fungal culture filtrate. Balance sheet for total recovered radioactive compounds was concluded 1 4 'C-parathion metabolism was expressed as original compound, polar metabolite, non polar metabolites and non extractable residues and then degradation rate was calculated. araesults indicated that there was continuous penetration for the radioactivity into mycelia tissues and the maximum, accumulation was recorded by Fusarium Oxysporium. The fungi under investigation showed considerable variations regarding their capacity to degrade the radioactive pesticide. Trichoderma viride exhibited the maximum capability to catabolism the the 1 4C -parathion as it exerted the maximum degradation rate. Fusarium and Alternate alter nata showed less degradation rates for the 1 4C - pesticide under investigation. (Author)

  19. Impact of parathion exposure on some biochemical parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nagat Aly

    2014-09-16

    Sep 16, 2014 ... controlling the unwanted insects and disease vectors in agriculture. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate ... ful tools for risk assessment of chemical compounds that are exposed in the environment.12 .... as a meaningful index of cellular activity and forms a useful toxicological tool and is considered ...

  20. Effects of the organophosphorus pesticide Folisuper 600 (methyl parathion on the heart function of bullfrog tadpoles, Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the heart function of bullfrog tadpoles (25 Gosner stage is affected by their acute exposure (48 h to a sub-lethal concentration (10 µg.L–1 of the active principle of the organophosphorus pesticide Folisuper 600R (methyl parathion - MP. Our results demonstrated that MP causes not only a reduction in tadpoles’ cardiac ventricular mass, resulting in a marked reduction in their cardiac twitch force, but also impairs their swimming performance, irrespective of increasing their heart rate. Together, these findings indicate that low and realistic concentration of MP have a negative impact on tadpoles’ performance, jeopardizing their survival.

  1. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene exposure on the ATPase activity and calcium concentration in the hippocampus of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Chen, Chengzhi; Cheng, Shuqun; Cao, Xianqing; Tu, Baijie

    2017-03-30

    To investigate whether postnatal benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) exposure caused the impairments on the process of neurodevelopment and the alteration in the calcium medium in the neonatal rats. Eighty neonatal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (untreated control group, vehicle group, 0.02 mg/kg, 0.2 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg B(a)P-exposed group). Rats were treated with B(a)P by the intragastric administration from postnatal day (PND) 4 to 25. Morris water maze (MWM) was employed to observe the spatial memory of rats. The activity of calcium adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+-ATPase), sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+-K+-ATPase) and calcium-magnesium adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase) in the hippocampus were detected by commercial kits. Fura-2 pentakis(acetoxymethyl) (Fura-2/AM) probe and reactive oxygen species (ROS) reagent kit were used for measuring the concentration of Ca2+ and ROS in the hippocampus synapse, respectively. Rats exposed to B(a)P resulted in the deficits in the spatial memory manifested by the increased escape latency and decreased number of crossing platform and time spent in target quadrant in comparison with the control groups. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure caused the significant decrease in the ATPase activity in the hippocampus and caused Ca2+ overload in the synaptic, besides, the ROS concentration increased significantly which may further induce neurobehavioral impairment of the neonatal rats. Our findings suggest that postnatal B(a)P exposure may cause the neurobehavioral impairments in the neonatal rats, which were mediated by the decreased ATPase activity and elevated Ca2+ concentration. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(2):203-211. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. The effects of a single memantine treatment on behavioral alterations associated with binge alcohol exposure in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Spinetta, Michael J; Thomas, Jennifer D; Riley, Edward P

    2011-01-01

    The third trimester in human fetal development represents a critical time of brain maturation referred to as the "brain growth spurt". This period occurs in rats postnatally, and exposure to ethanol during this time can increase the risk of impairments on a variety of cognitive and motor tasks. It has been proposed that one potential mechanism for the teratogenic effects of ethanol is NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity during periods of ethanol withdrawal. In neonatal rats, antagonism of NMDA receptors during ethanol withdrawal, with drugs such as MK-801 and eliprodil, has been shown to mitigate some of the behavioral deficits induced by developmental ethanol exposure. The current study examined whether memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and a drug used clinically in Alzheimer's patients, would attenuate impairments associated with binge ethanol exposure in neonatal rats. On postnatal day 6, rats were exposed to 6 g/kg ethanol via intubation with controls receiving an isocaloric maltose dextrin solution. Twenty-one hours following the ethanol binge, rats received intraperitoneal injections of memantine at 0, 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg. Ethanol's teratogenic effects were assessed using multiple behavioral tasks: open field activity, parallel bars and spatial discrimination reversal learning. Ethanol-treated rats were overactive in the open field and were impaired on both reversal learning and motor performance. Administration of 15 or 20 mg/kg memantine during withdrawal significantly attenuated ethanol's adverse effects on motor coordination, but did not significantly alter activity levels or improve the spatial learning deficits associated with neonatal alcohol exposure. These results indicate that a single memantine administration during ethanol withdrawal can mitigate motor impairments but not spatial learning impairments or overactivity observed following a binge ethanol exposure during development in the rat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanisms by which neonatal testosterone exposure mediates sex differences in impulsivity in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Daniel W; Darling, Jeffrey S; Daniel, Jill M

    2013-11-01

    Neonatal testosterone, either acting directly or through its conversion to estradiol, can exert organizational effects on the brain and behavior. The goal of the current study was to examine sex differences and determine the role of neonatal testosterone on prefrontal cortex-dependent impulsive choice behavior in prepubertal rats. Male and female prepubertal rats were tested on the delay-based impulsive choice task. Impulsive choice was defined as choosing an immediate small food reward over a delayed large reward. In a first experiment to examine sex differences, males made significantly more impulsive choices than did females. In a second experiment to examine the organizational effects of testosterone, females treated with neonatal testosterone made significantly more impulsive choices than did control females and their performance was indistinguishable from that of control males. In a third experiment to determine if the effect of testosterone on performance is due to the actions of androgens or estrogens through its conversion to estradiol, males treated neonatally with the aromatase inhibitor formestane, which blocks the conversion of testosterone to estradiol, females treated neonatally with the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone, and females treated neonatally with estradiol made significantly more impulsive choices than did control females and their performance was indistinguishable from that of control males. Results indicate that male pubertal rats display increased impulsive choice behavior as compared to females, that this sex difference results from organizing actions of testosterone during the neonatal period, and that this effect can result from both androgenic and estrogenic actions. © 2013.

  4. Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in Wistar rats causes progressive pancreatic mitochondrial damage and beta cell dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Bruin

    Full Text Available Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is currently recommended as a safe smoking cessation aid for pregnant women. However, fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in rats causes mitochondrial-mediated beta cell apoptosis at weaning, and adult-onset dysglycemia, which we hypothesize is related to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Therefore in this study we examined the effect of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine on pancreatic mitochondrial structure and function during postnatal development. Female Wistar rats were given saline (vehicle control or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/d via subcutaneous injection for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. At 3-4, 15 and 26 weeks of age, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and pancreas tissue was collected for electron microscopy, enzyme activity assays and islet isolation. Following nicotine exposure mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed beginning at 3 weeks and worsened with advancing age. Importantly the appearance of these structural defects in nicotine-exposed animals preceded the onset of glucose intolerance. Nicotine exposure also resulted in significantly reduced pancreatic respiratory chain enzyme activity, degranulation of beta cells, elevated islet oxidative stress and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to saline controls at 26 weeks of age. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal nicotine use during pregnancy results in postnatal mitochondrial dysfunction that may explain, in part, the dysglycemia observed in the offspring from this animal model. These results clearly indicate that further investigation into the safety of NRT use during pregnancy is warranted.

  5. Does concurrent in utero exposure to buprenorphine and antidepressant medications influence the course of neonatal abstinence syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Alane B; O'Brien, Liam; Alto, William A; Wong, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether concurrent in utero exposure to buprenorphine and antidepressants impacts the course of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in infants. A retrospective cohort study of 148 infants who were exposed to buprenorphine during pregnancy. Univariate and bivariate analyses were used to examine associations between concurrent maternal use of buprenorphine and antidepressants as compared to maternal use of buprenorphine alone. The time to onset of NAS resolution was significantly longer in infants exposed to both buprenorphine and antidepressants during pregnancy when compared to those exposed to buprenorphine alone (129.8 h versus 70.2 h, p = 0.042). Women who are prescribed both antidepressants and buprenorphine during pregnancy should be counseled about the possibility of a prolonged course of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

  6. Safe excipient exposure in neonates and small children - protocol for the SEEN project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Kristine Svinning; Hertel, Steen Axel; Lundstrøm, Kaare Engell

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The pharmacokinetics of excipients in neonates differs from that of older children. In a recent pan--European survey, two thirds of neonates received at least one potentially harmful excipient, such as ethanol and benzoates. The content of sweeteners varied by route of administration...... (more common by enteral than parenteral route), and regional differences were revealed. The survey did not identify if the content of excipients was more pronounced in medications prescribed for specific medical diseases, e.g. more common in cardiovascular conditions than lung diseases. Furthermore......, the quantitative amount of e.g. ethanol in the multi-medicated neonate has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to quantify the total amount of excipients administered to poly-medicated neonatal and paediatric patients during hospitalisation; and to investigate if any particular medical diseases...

  7. Electrochemical Sensor for Determination of Parathion Based on Electropolymerization Poly(Safranine Film Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyuan Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathion has been determined with voltammetric technique based on a novel sensor fabricated by electropolymerization of safranine on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE. The electrochemical behavior of poly(safranine film electrode and its electrocatalytic activity toward parathion were studied in detail by cyclic voltammetry (CV and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV. All experimental parameters were optimized, and LSV was proposed for its determination. In optimal working conditions, the reduction current of parathion at this poly(safranine-modified electrode exhibited a good linear relationship with parathion concentration in the range of 3.43×10−8 to 3.43×10−5 mol L−1. The detection limit was 1.0×10−8 mol L−1. The high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor were demonstrated by its practical application for the determination of trace amounts of parathion in fruit samples.

  8. Effects of noise exposure on neonatal auditory brainstem response thresholds in pregnant guinea pigs at different gestational periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Chihiro; Nario, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Tadashi; Shimokura, Ryota; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Noise exposure during pregnancy has been reported to cause fetal hearing impairment. However, little is known about the effects of noise exposure during various gestational stages on postnatal hearing. In the present study, we investigated the effects of noise exposure on auditory brainstem response (ABR) at the early, mid-, and late gestational periods in newborn guinea pigs. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to 4-kHz pure tone at a 120-dB sound pressure level for 4 h. We divided the animals into four groups as follows: the control, early gestational exposure, mid-gestational exposure, and late gestational exposure groups. ABR thresholds and latencies in newborns were recorded using 1-, 2-, and 4-kHz tone burst on postnatal days 1, 7, 14, and 28. Changes in ABR thresholds and latencies were measured between the 4 × 4 and 4 × 3 factorial groups mentioned above (gestational periods × postnatal days, gestational periods × frequencies). The thresholds were low in the order of control group guinea pigs. This is the first study to show that noise exposure during the early, mid-, and late gestational periods significantly elevated ABR thresholds in neonatal guinea pigs. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. A longitudinal study on the effects of maternal smoking and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal neurobehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija Val, Victoria; Escribano Subías, Joaquín; Canals Sans, Josefa

    2012-06-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one of the most modifiable causes of morbidity and mortality for both pregnant women and their fetuses. The long-term effects of prenatal exposure to smoke on child behavior and development have been the subject of more extensive research than have the short-term effects. Therefore, the aim of this work is to examine the effects of smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal behavior, including in our study a group of mothers exposed to secondhand smoke. The behavior of 282 healthy full-term newborns was assessed using the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) at 48-72 h of life. Sixty-two mothers smoked during pregnancy (no mother smoked more than 15 cig/day) and 17 were exposed to secondhand smoke. After adjusting for socio-demographic and obstetric factors, both newborns whose mothers smoked and those whose mothers were exposed to secondhand smoke showed significantly lower scores in the habituation cluster than non-smoking mothers. Exposure to secondhand smoke was also related to lower motor system cluster scores as well as some supplementary items and the newborns of smoking mothers showed significantly lower scores in the state regulation cluster and in some items of the state organization cluster than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. We conclude that active and passive smoking during pregnancy affects several aspects of neurobehavioral development, regardless of socio-demographic, obstetric and pediatric factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Social competitiveness and plasticity of neuroendocrine function in old age: influence of neonatal novelty exposure and maternal care reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G Akers

    Full Text Available Early experience is known to have a profound impact on brain and behavioral function later in life. Relatively few studies, however, have examined whether the effects of early experience remain detectable in the aging animal. Here, we examined the effects of neonatal novelty exposure, an early stimulation procedure, on late senescent rats' ability to win in social competition. During the first 3 weeks of life, half of each litter received daily 3-min exposures to a novel environment while the other half stayed in the home cage. At 24 months of age, pairs of rats competed against each other for exclusive access to chocolate rewards. We found that novelty-exposed rats won more rewards than home-staying rats, indicating that early experience exerts a life-long effect on this aspect of social dominance. Furthermore, novelty-exposed but not home-staying rats exhibited habituation of corticosterone release across repeated days of social competition testing, suggesting that early experience permanently enhances plasticity of the stress response system. Finally, we report a surprising finding that across individual rat families, greater effects of neonatal novelty exposure on stress response plasticity were found among families whose dams provided more reliable, instead of a greater total quantity of, maternal care.

  11. Social competitiveness and plasticity of neuroendocrine function in old age: influence of neonatal novelty exposure and maternal care reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Katherine G; Yang, Zhen; DelVecchio, Dominic P; Reeb, Bethany C; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce S; Tang, Akaysha C

    2008-06-30

    Early experience is known to have a profound impact on brain and behavioral function later in life. Relatively few studies, however, have examined whether the effects of early experience remain detectable in the aging animal. Here, we examined the effects of neonatal novelty exposure, an early stimulation procedure, on late senescent rats' ability to win in social competition. During the first 3 weeks of life, half of each litter received daily 3-min exposures to a novel environment while the other half stayed in the home cage. At 24 months of age, pairs of rats competed against each other for exclusive access to chocolate rewards. We found that novelty-exposed rats won more rewards than home-staying rats, indicating that early experience exerts a life-long effect on this aspect of social dominance. Furthermore, novelty-exposed but not home-staying rats exhibited habituation of corticosterone release across repeated days of social competition testing, suggesting that early experience permanently enhances plasticity of the stress response system. Finally, we report a surprising finding that across individual rat families, greater effects of neonatal novelty exposure on stress response plasticity were found among families whose dams provided more reliable, instead of a greater total quantity of, maternal care.

  12. Dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide enhances neonatal immune responses in chickens during natural exposure to Eimeria spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Gerardo M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control and eradication of intestinal infections caused by protozoa are important biomedical challenges worldwide. Prophylactic control of coccidiosis has been achieved with the use of anticoccidial drugs; however, the increase in anticoccidial resistance has raised concerns about the need for new alternatives for the control of coccidial infections. In fact, new strategies are needed to induce potent protective immune responses in neonatal individuals. Methods The effects of a dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (yeast cell wall; YCW on the local, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and intestinal replication of coccidia were evaluated in a neonatal animal model during natural exposure to Eimeria spp. A total of 840 one-day-old chicks were distributed among four dietary regimens: A Control diet (no YCW plus anticoccidial vaccine; B Control diet plus coccidiostat; C YCW diet plus anticoccidial vaccination; and D YCW diet plus coccidiostat. Weight gain, feed consumption and immunological parameters were examined within the first seven weeks of life. Results Dietary supplementation of 0.05% of YCW increased local mucosal IgA secretions, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and reduced parasite excretion in feces. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of yeast cell wall in neonatal animals can enhance the immune response against coccidial infections. The present study reveals the potential of YCW as adjuvant for modulating mucosal immune responses.

  13. Neonatal exposure to leptin augments diet-induced obesity in leptin-deficient Ob/Ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Shigeo; Itoh, Hiroaki; Sagawa, Norimasa; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Nakao, Kazuwa; Kawamura, Makoto; Mogami, Haruta; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Shingo

    2008-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence has revealed that undernutrition in utero is closely associated with obesity and related detrimental metabolic sequelae in adulthood. Recently, using a wild-type (wt) mouse model in which offspring were exposed to intrauterine undernutrition (UN offspring), we reported that the premature leptin surge during neonatal growth promotes lifelong changes in energy regulating circuitry in the hypothalamus, thus playing an important role in the development of pronounced obesity on a high-fat diet (HFD) in adulthood. Here, we further evaluate the essential involvement of leptin in the developmental origins of obesity using leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. We assessed the progression of obesity on an HFD in adult leptin-deficient ob/ob male mice that were exposed to intrauterine undernutrition by maternal food restriction (ob/ob UN offspring) or to leptin treatment during the neonatal period; this treatment is comparable to the premature leptin surge observed in the wt-UN offspring. On an HFD, the body weight of the male ob/ob UN offspring paralleled that of the ob/ob offspring exposed to normal intrauterine nutrition (ob/ob NN offspring). In contrast, early exposure to leptin in the ob/ob NN offspring during early neonatal growth reproduced the development of pronounced obesity on an HFD in adulthood. The presence of leptin and associated energy regulation are indispensable in the acceleration of obesity on an HFD caused by undernutrition in utero. The premature leptin surge plays an essential role in the developmental origins of obesity as a programming signal during the early neonatal period.

  14. Stability of aged bound residues of methyl parathion in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helling, C.S.; Gerstl, Z.; Kloskowski, R.

    1986-01-01

    Mineralization of bound 14 C-methyl parathion (MP) was demonstrated, indirectly by 14 CO 2 loss exceeding that which could derive from extractable MP residues, and directly by incubation of extracted soil. Amendment of the soil with sludge and with low to moderate rates of five soil fumigants and sterilants greatly enhanced 14 CO 2 loss; a high rate of HgCl 2 reduced mineralization. Asparagine and glucose amendments (incubated 78 days) caused a 10% increase in 14 CO 2 loss; 14 C-asparagine and 14 C-glucose were degraded, yielding 25% and 38% bound residue, respectively. When glucose, sludge or HgCl 2 was added to aged MP residues (after 145 days incubation), the amendments did not accelerate mineralization during a subsequent 33-day incubation period. Radioactivity after 178 days was 9% extractable, 58% in fulvic acid, 17% in humic acid and 16% in humin, in control soil and in amended soil. Methyl parathion degraded during high-temperature distillation, which technique also failed to yield identifiable volatile 14 C products (except 14 CO 2 ) from bound MP. However, extraction with supercritical methanol solubilized 38% of residual 14 C; parent MP was identified at a level of 0.6 μg per gram soil. (author)

  15. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed. • Neonatal lead

  16. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn

    2014-02-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed.

  17. Risk factors for poor neonatal adaptation after exposure to antidepressants in utero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieviet, N.; Hoppenbrouwers, C.J.C.; Dolman, K.M.; Berkhof, J.; Wennink, H.; Honig, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Infants exposed to antidepressants in utero are at risk of developing poor neonatal adaptation (PNA). This study identified risk factors for PNA. Methods In this cohort study, data on mothers and infants admitted to the maternity ward of a general hospital between 2007 and 2012 were analysed.

  18. Exposure to brominated flame retardant PBDE-99 affects cytoskeletal protein expression in the neonatal mouse cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Henrik; Kultima, Kim; Scholz, Birger

    2008-01-01

    in the adult. The mechanisms underlying the late effects of early exposure are not clear. To gain insight into the initial neurodevelopmental damage inflicted by PBDE-99, we investigated the short-term effects of PBDE-99 on protein expression in the developing cerebral cortex of neonatal mice......, and the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of PBDE-99 in primary cultures of fetal rat cortical cells. We used two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to analyze protein samples isolated from the cortex of NMRI mice 24h after exposure to a single oral dose of 12 mg/kg PBDE-99 on post-natal day 10...... activity. These results indicate that the permanent neurological damage induced by PBDE-99 during the brain growth spurt involve detrimental effects on cytoskeletal regulation and neuronal maturation in the developing cerebral cortex....

  19. Glycogen metabolism in brain and neurons - astrocytes metabolic cooperation can be altered by pre- and neonatal lead (Pb) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Falkowska, Anna; Gutowska, Izabela; Gąssowska, Magdalena; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Agnieszka; Tarnowski, Maciej; Chibowska, Karina; Goschorska, Marta; Lubkowska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2017-09-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental neurotoxin which particularly affects the developing brain but the molecular mechanism of its neurotoxicity still needs clarification. The aim of this paper was to examine whether pre- and neonatal exposure to Pb (concentration of Pb in rat offspring blood below the "threshold level") may affect the brain's energy metabolism in neurons and astrocytes via the amount of available glycogen. We investigated the glycogen concentration in the brain, as well as the expression of the key enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism in brain: glycogen synthase 1 (Gys1), glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM, an isoform active in astrocytes; and PYGB, an isoform active in neurons) and phosphorylase kinase β (PHKB). Moreover, the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) was evaluated to analyze whether Pb poisoning during the early phase of life may affect the neuron-astrocytes' metabolic cooperation. This work shows for the first time that exposure to Pb in early life can impair brain energy metabolism by reducing the amount of glycogen and decreasing the rate of its metabolism. This reduction in brain glycogen level was accompanied by a decrease in Gys1 expression. We noted a reduction in the immunoreactivity and the gene expression of both PYGB and PYGM isoform, as well as an increase in the expression of PHKB in Pb-treated rats. Moreover, exposure to Pb induced decrease in connexin 43 immunoexpression in all the brain structures analyzed, both in astrocytes as well as in neurons. Our data suggests that exposure to Pb in the pre- and neonatal periods results in a decrease in the level of brain glycogen and a reduction in the rate of its metabolism, thereby reducing glucose availability, which as a further consequence may lead to the impairment of brain energy metabolism and the metabolic cooperation between neurons and astrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal hair and neonatal meconium to assess gestational consumption and prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse and psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Laura; Almeida, Laura; Sabra, Sally; Muniesa, Marta; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Gomez-Roig, Maria Dolores

    2018-04-05

    In the last two decades, the consumption of drugs of abuse among women of childbearing age has experienced a significant increase and results from analyses of surveys concerning maternal intake of psychoactive prescription drugs during pregnancy indicate that the rates of intake are increasing each year. Analyses of biological matrices such as maternal hair and neonatal meconium have recently been used for assessment of gestational consumption and consequent prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in high-risk groups of women METHODS: Maternal hair and neonatal meconium were analyzed by validated chromatographic mass spectrometric methodologies to disclose gestational use of drugs of abuse and psychoactive prescription drugs and consequent prenatal exposure in a cohort of 513 mother-newborn dyads at the Sant Joan de Déu Barcelona Hospital, Spain, during 2012- 2013. A total of 3.9% the women reported drugs of abuse or prescription psychoactive drug consumption at any time during pregnancy. The prevalence of gestational consumption and consequent prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse (e.g. cannabis, cocaine and MDMA) was 1.2% in maternal hair and 0.4% in meconium; that of psychoactive prescription drugs (e.g. venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, clomipramine) was 1.7% in maternal hair and 1.2% in meconium. The prevalence of drugs of abuse and prescription psychoactive drug consumption was lower in our specific cohort of Spanish pregnant women than in other cohorts such as those from U.S. or Denmark. Analysis of materno-fetal matrices provides a viable alternative to study prenatal exposure to these substances and develop specific social and health intervention recommendations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Environmental pollutants parathion, paraquat and bisphenol A show distinct effects towards nuclear receptors-mediated induction of xenobiotics-metabolizing cytochromes P450 in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzal, Radim; Zenata, Ondrej; Doricakova, Aneta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2015-10-01

    Environmental pollutants parathion, bisphenol A and paraquat were not systematically studied towards the effects on the expression of phase I xenobiotics-metabolizing cytochromes P450 (CYPs). We monitored their effects on the expression of selected CYPs in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Moreover, we investigated their effects on the receptors regulating these CYPs, particularly arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) by gene reporter assays. We found that parathion and bisphenol A are the activators of AhR. Moreover, they are the inducers of CYP1A1 mRNA in hepatoma cells HepG2 as well as in human hepatocytes by AhR-dependent mechanism via formation of AhR-DNA-binding complex, as revealed by gel shift assay. All three compounds possessed anti-glucocorticoid action as revealed by GR-dependent gene reporter assay and a decline in tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene expression in human hepatocytes. Moreover, parathion and bisphenol A are the activators of PXR and inducers of CYP3A4 mRNA and protein in the primary cultures of human hepatocytes. In conclusion, the studied compounds displayed distinct activities towards nuclear receptors involved in many biological processes and these findings may help us to better understand their adverse actions in pathological states followed after their exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High t-PA release by neonate brain microvascular endothelial cells under glutamate exposure affects neuronal fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Vincent Jean; Lecointre, Maryline; Laudenbach, Vincent; Ali, Carine; Macrez, Richard; Jullienne, Amandine; Berezowski, Vincent; Carmeliet, Peter; Vivien, Denis; Marret, Stéphane; Gonzalez, Bruno José; Leroux, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Glutamate excitotoxicity is a consolidated hypothesis in neonatal brain injuries and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) participates in the processes through proteolytic and receptor mediated effects. In brain microvascular endothelial cell (nBMEC) cultures from neonates, t-PA content and release upon glutamate are higher than in adult (aBMECs) cultures. Owing to the variety of t-PA substrates and receptor targets, the study was aimed at determining the putative roles of endothelial t-PA in the neonatal brain parenchyma under glutamate challenge. Basal t-PA release was 4.4 fold higher in nBMECs vs aBMECs and glutamate was 20 fold more potent to allow Evans blue vascular permeability in neonate microvessels indicating that, under noxious glutamate (50 μM) exposure, high amounts of endothelial t-PA stores may be mobilized and may access the nervous parenchyma. Culture media from nBMECS or aBMECs challenged by excitotoxic glutamate were applied to neuron cultures at DIV 11. While media from adult cells did not evoke more LDH release in neuronal cultures that under glutamate alone, media from nBMECs enhanced 2.2 fold LDH release. This effect was not observed with media from t-PA(-/-) nBMECs and was inhibited by hr-PAI-1. In Cortical slices from 10 day-old mice, hrt-PA associated with glutamate evoked neuronal necrosis in deeper (more mature) layers, an effect reversed by NMDA receptor GluN1 amino-terminal domain antibody capable of inhibiting t-PA potentiation of the receptor. In superficial layers (less mature), hrt-PA alone inhibited apoptosis, an effect reversed by the EGF receptor antagonist AG1478. Applied to immature neurons in culture (DIV5), media from nBMEC rescued 85.1% of neurons from cell death induced by serum deprivation. In cortical slices, the anti-apoptotic effect of t-PA fitted with age dependent localization of less mature neurons. These data suggest that in the immature brain, propensity of vessels to release high amounts of t-PA may not only

  3. Maternal low-level lead exposure reduces the expression of PSA-NCAM and the activity of sialyltransferase in the hippocampi of neonatal rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiansheng; Fu, Hongjun; Ren, Tieling; Wang, Shuyu; Zhou, Wei; Song, Hong; Han, Yifan; Dong, Shengzhang

    2008-07-01

    Highly polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is transiently expressed specifically in newly generated cells, and is important for cell migration and neurite outgrowth. Developmental lead (Pb) exposure has been considered to affect the expression of PSA-NCAM, which contributes to the neurotoxicity of Pb exposure. However, the effect of maternal low-level Pb exposure on the expression of PSA-NCAM in neonatal rat pups has not been reported. In the present study, female Wistar rats were exposed to vehicle or different dosages of lead chloride (0.5-4mM PbCl2) 2 weeks before and during pregnancy. This exposure protocol resulted in neonatal rat pups blood Pb levels up to 12.12+/-0.38 microg/dl, and hippocampal Pb levels up to 9.22+/-0.81 microg/g at postnatal day 1 (PND 1). Immunohistochemistry analysis and Western blot analysis revealed that the expressions of PSA-NCAM and NCAM in the hippocampi of neonatal rat pups at PND 1 were significantly reduced by the maternal low-level Pb exposures. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of NCAM and polysialyltransferases (STX and PST), measured by the fluorescent real-time quantitative RT-PCR, dosage-dependently and significantly decreased by 13.26-37.62%, 25.17-59.67%, and 10.78-47.81%, respectively. In addition, the sialyltransferase activity in neonatal rat pups was significantly reduced by 6.23-32.50% in the presence of the low-level Pb exposure, too. Taken together, these results suggest that maternal low-level Pb exposure reduces the expression of PSA-NCAM, NCAM, and the activity of sialyltransferase in the hippocampi of neonatal rat pups, which might contribute to the learning and memory impairments in the developmental pups following maternal low-level Pb exposure.

  4. Safe excipient exposure in neonates and small children - protocol for the SEEN project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Kristine Svinning; Hertel, Steen Axel; Lundstrøm, Kaare Engell

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The pharmacokinetics of excipients in neonates differs from that of older children. In a recent pan--European survey, two thirds of neonates received at least one potentially harmful excipient, such as ethanol and benzoates. The content of sweeteners varied by route of administration...... are treated with potentially harmful excipients. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study based on chart-audit on multi-medicated patients ≤ 5 years of age treated at the Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Preparations with ethanol, propylene glycol, benzyl alcohol, parabens, acesulfame p, aspartame, glycerol...... (more common by enteral than parenteral route), and regional differences were revealed. The survey did not identify if the content of excipients was more pronounced in medications prescribed for specific medical diseases, e.g. more common in cardiovascular conditions than lung diseases. Furthermore...

  5. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    1. To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr.2. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period.3. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  6. Radiotracer technique for studying the fate of methyl parathion in desert locust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.K.; Sethi, G.R.; Bhatia, Parvathy

    1988-01-01

    The present study, using 14 C-labelled methyl parathion was intended for standardising the procedure of analysis of the insecticide and its metabolites in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal. (author). 5 refs

  7. Dynamics of penetration of 14C-labelled parathion in desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.K.; Bhatia, Parvathy; Sethi, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Studies on the rate of disappearance of 14 C ring labelled parathion, after topical application on the mesosternum of desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal, indicated that penetration of the toxicant was linear and followed first order kinetics. The first order constant (k) for parathion on desert locust was 18.42x10 -2 per hr and half-life (Tsub(0.5)) was about 226 min. (author). 26 refs ., 1 fig

  8. Enhancing offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA regulation via systematic neonatal novelty exposure: the influence of maternal HPA function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Dinces

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the rat, repeated brief exposures to novelty early in life can induce long-lasting enhancements in adult cognitive, social, emotional, and neuroendocrine function. Family-to-family variations in these intervention effects on adult offspring are predicted by the mother’s ability to mount a rapid corticosterone (CORT response to the onset of an acute stressor. Here, in Long-Evans rats, we investigated whether neonatal and adulthood novelty exposure, each individually and in combination, can enhance offspring HPA regulation. Using a 2x2 within-litter design, one half of each litter were exposed to a relatively novel non-home environment for 3-min (Neo_Novel daily during infancy (PND1-21 and the other half of the litter remained in the home cage (Neo_Home; we further exposed half of these two groups to early adulthood (PND54-63 novelty exposure in an open field and the remaining siblings stayed in their home cages. Two aspects of HPA regulation were assessed: the ability to maintain a low level of resting CORT (CORTB and the ability to mount a large rapid CORT response (CORTE to the onset of an acute stressor. Assessment of adult offspring’s ability to regulate HPA regulation began at 370 days of age. We further investigated whether the novelty exposure effects on offspring HPA regulation are sensitive to the context of maternal HPA regulation by assessing maternal HPA regulation similarly beginning 7 days after her pups were weaned. We found that at the population level, rats receiving neonatal, but not early adulthood exposure or both, showed a greater rapid CORTE than their home-staying siblings. At the individual family level, these novelty effects are positively associated with maternal CORTE. These results suggest that early experience of novelty can enhance the offspring’s ability to mount a rapid response to environmental challenge and the success of such early life intervention is critically dependent upon the context of maternal

  9. Interactions Between Agricultural Chemicals and the Soil Microflora and Their Effects on 14C-Parathion Metabolism in Cranberry Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, I.G.; Lichtenstein, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    Full text: The fate of 14 C-parathion in a loam and ''cranberry soil'' was investigated utilizing a closed system to enable monitoring of 14 CO 2 evolution, and to obtain a total 14 C balance. Soils were treated with 14 C-parathion at rates equivalent to about 3 ppm and incubated at 23 ± 2°C. After 3 weeks of soil incubation differences in the persistence of 14 C-parathion were evident: 76% of applied radiocarbon remained as unchanged parathion in loam soil compared with only 4% in a cranberry soil; conversely, 14 C-degradation products amounted to 26% and 91% of applied radiocarbon, respectively. Interactions were found to occur between fungicides and the biodegradation of 14 C-(ring)-parathion in cranberry soil. Captafol (Difolatan® inhibited the metabolism of 14 C-parathion. The inhibition was a linear function of the applied captafol concentration with a no effect concentration of 1 ppm. On the other hand, 100 ppm of Manzate®(maneb) or Benlate® (benomyl) altered the pathway of 14 C-parathion degradation in favour of bound 14 C-residues. In soil-free medium inoculated with cranberry soil microorganisms 14 C-(ring)- parathion was degraded within 4 days principally to volatile 14 C-compounds (presumably 14 CO 2 ). On the -contrary, no degradation of 14 C-parathion occurred in an inoculated medium that also contained a 100-ppm benomyl suspension, apparently benomyl inhibited the hydrolysis/oxidation of 14 C-parathion. Soil amendments of 100 ppm nitrogen (N) as (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , or to a lesser extent KNO 3 , inhibited the metabolism of 14 C-( ring)-parathion to 14 CO 2 . In summary, some agricultural chemicals have an effect on parathiondegrading microorganisms resulting in an increase in bound 14 C-residues and an increased persistence of toxic parathion residues

  10. The plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate induces genomic changes in rat mammary gland after neonatal/prepubertal exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamartiniere Coral A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phthalate esters like n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP are widely used plasticizers. BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of neonatal/prepubertal exposure (post-natal days 2–20 to BBP on maturation parameters and on the morphology, proliferative index and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages of development (21, 35, 50 and 100 days. Results Here we show that exposure to BBP increased the uterine weight/body weight ratio at 21 days and decreased the body weight at time of vaginal opening. BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages. Moreover, BBP had an effect on the genomic profile of the mammary gland mainly at the end of the exposure (21 days, becoming less prominent thereafter. By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals. Conclusion These results suggest that BBP has an effect in the gene expression profile of the mammary gland.

  11. Effect of oral antigen and antibody exposure at birth on subsequent immune status. A study in neonatal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverson, Karin; Corfield, Gaynor; Jones, Philip H; Kenny, Martin; Fowler, Jenny; Bailey, Mick; Stokes, Christopher R; Miller, Bevis G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of early low-level exposure to either antigen or antibody alone on subsequent immune responses in entirely immunologically naïve animals. This is impossible in species with a permeable placenta such as rodents or humans, where both antigen and antibody can be transferred in utero. It is, however, possible in pigs, due to the impermeable placenta of the sow. Thus, neonatal piglets were used for this study. Newborn piglets were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) at dosages similar to those used in rodents to sensitise, as well as to serum containing anti-OVA antibodies. Both single low doses of OVA (10 and 1,000 mg per animal) induced classical oral tolerance following a systemic challenge: both doses reduced specific systemic IgG responses and tertiary in vitro recall proliferative responses by splenocytes and especially by mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells. Additionally, dietary challenge had phenotypic effects on helper T cells in MLN, which could be reversed by OVA at birth. In contrast, giving antibody as serum collected from hyperimmune or orally tolerant pigs had no functional effects. Overall, our data support the hypothesis that contrary to previous work in rodents, very early exposure of neonatal pigs to a single small dose of antigen can reduce subsequent immune responses. This may have implications for human health. However, although these data point to a reducing/regulatory effect of low doses of antigen in very young animals, they cannot be extrapolated directly to allergy. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Impact of Low Dose Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on the Neonatal Rat Hypothalamic and Hippocampal Transcriptome: A CLARITY-BPA Consortium Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arambula, Sheryl E.; Belcher, Scott M.; Planchart, Antonio; Turner, Stephen D.; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting, high volume production chemical found in a variety of products. Evidence of prenatal exposure has raised concerns that developmental BPA may disrupt sex-specific brain organization and, consequently, induce lasting changes on neurophysiology and behavior. We and others have shown that exposure to BPA at doses below the no-observed-adverse-effect level can disrupt the sex-specific expression of estrogen-responsive genes in the neonatal rat brain in...

  13. Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young [Basic Herbal Medicine Research Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 483 Expo-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Sang [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun-young [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hwa-Young [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung-Youl, E-mail: youl10@hanmail.net [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 μg OVA with 200 μg aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue.

  14. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Guzmán, B; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, M; Marchetti, F; Hernández-Ochoa, I; Solís-Heredia, M J; Quintanilla-Vega, B

    2009-07-15

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl-parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm, possibly via oxidative damage. This study investigated the stages of spermatogenesis susceptible to be targeted by Me-Pa exposure that impact on spermatozoa function and their ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. Spermatozoa were examined for DNA damage by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (%DFI), lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production, sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 fluorochrome, and fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Alterations on DNA integrity (%DFI and NT-positive cells) in spermatozoa collected at 7 and 28 dpt, and decreases in sperm quality and induced-AR were observed; reduced MMP and LPO were observed at 7 dpt only. Negative correlations between LPO and sperm alterations were found. Altered sperm functional parameters evaluated either in vitro or in vivo were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism of the detrimental effects of Me-Pa exposure in male germ cells.

  15. Degradation and Byproduct Formation of Parathion in Aqueous Solutions by UV and UV/H2O2 Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Changlong; Linden, Karl G.

    2008-01-01

    The photodegradation of parathion, a US EPA Contaminant Candidate List pesticide, in aqueous solutions by UV and UV/H2O2 processes in batch reactors was evaluated. Direct photolysis of parathion both by LP (low pressure) and MP (medium pressure) lamps at pH 7 were very slow with quantum yields of 6.67 ± 0.33 ×10−4 and 6.00 ± 1.06 ×10−4 mol E−1, respectively. Hydrogen peroxide enhanced the photodegradation of parathion through the reaction between UV generated hydroxyl radical and parathion wi...

  16. Association of Neurodevelopmental Outcomes and Neonatal Morbidities of Extremely Premature Infants With Differential Exposure to Antenatal Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Sanjay; Natarajan, Girija; Shankaran, Seetha; Pappas, Athina; Stoll, Barbara J; Carlo, Waldemar A; Saha, Shampa; Das, Abhik; Laptook, Abbot R; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2016-12-01

    Many premature infants are born without exposure to antenatal steroids (ANS) or with incomplete courses. This study evaluates the dose-dependent effect of ANS on rates of neonatal morbidities and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely premature infants. To compare rates of neonatal morbidities and 18- to 22-month neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely premature infants exposed to no ANS or partial or complete courses of ANS. In this observational cohort study, participants were extremely premature infants (birth weight range, 401-1000 g; gestational age, 22-27 weeks) who were born at participating centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network between January 2006 and December 2011. Data were analyzed between October 2013 and May 2016. Rates of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as the presence of any of the following: moderate to severe cerebral palsy, a cognitive score less than 85 on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III, blindness, or deafness. There were 848 infants in the no ANS group, 1581 in the partial ANS group, and 3692 in the complete ANS group; the mean (SD) birth weights were 725 (169), 760 (173), and 753 (170) g, respectively, and the mean (SD) gestational ages were 24.5 (1.4), 24.9 (2), and 25.1 (1.1) weeks. Of 6121 eligible infants, 4284 (70.0%) survived to 18- to 22-month follow-up, and data were available for 3892 of 4284 infants (90.8%). Among the no, partial, and complete ANS groups, there were significant differences in the rates of mortality (43.1%, 29.6%, and 25.2%, respectively), severe intracranial hemorrhage among survivors (23.3%, 19.1%, and 11.7%), death or necrotizing enterocolitis (48.1%, 37.1%, and 32.5%), and death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (74.9%, 68.9%, and 65.5%). Additionally, death or neurodevelopmental impairment occurred in 68.1%, 54.4%, and 48.1% of

  17. Sex-specific effects of neonatal exposures to low levels of cadmium through maternal milk on development and immune functions of juvenile and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillet, Stephane; Rooney, Andrew A.; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Cyr, Daniel G.; Fournier, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental contaminant. Although immunotoxic effects have been associated with Cd exposure, the inconsistency of experimental results underlines the need of an experimental approach more closely related to environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of exposing neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats to environmentally relevant doses of Cd through maternal milk. Dams received 10 parts per billion (ppb) or 5 parts per million (ppm) Cd chloride (CdCl 2 ) in drinking water from parturition until the weaning of the pups. Half of the offspring was sampled at weaning time. The remaining juvenile rats received water without addition of Cd until adulthood. Cd accumulation in kidneys of juvenile rats fed from dams exposed to Cd indicated the transfer of the metal from mother to pups through maternal milk. This neonatal exposure resulted in decreased body, kidney and spleen weights of just weaned females but not of males. This effect was more pronounced in the less exposed females fed from dams exposed to 10 ppb Cd, which also displayed lower hepatic metallothionein-1 (MT-1) mRNA levels. The effect of Cd exposure on body and organ weights did not persist to adulthood. In contrast, we observed gender-specific effects of neonatal Cd exposure on the cytotoxic activity of splenic NK-cells of both juvenile and adult rats. Cd also strongly inhibited the proliferative response of Con A-stimulated thymocytes in both male and female adult rats 5 weeks after the cessation of Cd exposure. These immunotoxic effects were observed at doses much lower than those reported to produce similar effects when exposure occurred during adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal exposures to environmentally relevant levels of Cd through maternal milk represent a critical hazard liable to lead to both transitory and persistent immunotoxic effects

  18. Exposure to Enriched Environment Decreases Neurobehavioral Deficits Induced by Neonatal Glutamate Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment is a popular strategy to enhance motor and cognitive performance and to counteract the effects of various harmful stimuli. The protective effects of enriched environment have been shown in traumatic, ischemic and toxic nervous system lesions. Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a commonly used taste enhancer causing excitotoxic effects when given in newborn animals. We have previously demonstrated that MSG leads to a delay in neurobehavioral development, as shown by the delayed appearance of neurological reflexes and maturation of motor coordination. In the present study we aimed at investigating whether environmental enrichment is able to decrease the neurobehavioral delay caused by neonatal MSG treatment. Newborn pups were treated with MSG subcutaneously on postnatal days 1, 5 and 9. For environmental enrichment, we placed rats in larger cages, supplemented with different toys that were altered daily. Normal control and enriched control rats received saline treatment only. Physical parameters such as weight, day of eye opening, incisor eruption and ear unfolding were recorded. Animals were observed for appearance of reflexes such as negative geotaxis, righting reflexes, fore- and hindlimb grasp, fore- and hindlimb placing, sensory reflexes and gait. In cases of negative geotaxis, surface righting and gait, the time to perform the reflex was also recorded daily. For examining motor coordination, we performed grid walking, footfault, rope suspension, rota-rod, inclined board and walk initiation tests. We found that enriched environment alone did not lead to marked alterations in the course of development. On the other hand, MSG treatment caused a slight delay in reflex development and a pronounced delay in weight gain and motor coordination maturation. This delay in most signs and tests could be reversed by enriched environment: MSG-treated pups kept under enriched conditions showed no weight retardation, no reflex delay in

  19. Exposure of neonatal mice to Sevoflurane may induce male germ cell apoptosis in testicular tissue after puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nezhad Sistani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: common use of sevoflurane in congenital defects during repeated surgeries may have detrimental effects on spermatogenesis after puberty. Objective: This study investigated sevoflurane effects on spermatogenesis process in male mature mice after exposure in prepubertal time. Materials and Methods: 24 neonatal NMRI male mice were randomly classified in three groups. Experimental 1 and 2 groups (exposure to 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC and 2 MAC sevoflurane, respectively in 2 lit/min oxygen (O2 for 7 days (30 min, daily and control. All groups were sacrificed after 2 months. Histological assessment, immunohistochemistry and apoptosis process was done. Bax and Bcl2 expression was evaluated in the testicular tissue by real time Poly Chain Reaction. Results: Our results showed that the integrity of testicular tissue was preserved in both experimental groups. Count of spermatogonial cells had significant decrease in group 2 compared to others. The rate of apoptosis in spermatogonial cells was 15±3% and 9±2% in the group 2 and 1, respectively. Also, Bax/Bcl2 ratio was 0.2615, 1.0070 and 9.3657 in control, experimental group 1 and 2, respectively. This result was significant (p≤0.002 between groups 2 with other groups. Conclusion: Continuous exposure of 2 MAC sevoflurane in 2 lit/min O2 simultaneous during prepubertal may create more testicular tissue damage in terms of cellular and molecular function compared to continuous exposure to lower level of sevoflurane by increase in ratio of Bax/Bcl2 and apoptosis in germ cells after puberty.

  20. Degradation of the insecticide ethyl parathion in different environmental matrices by gamma radiation from Cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, Luiz Carlos

    1995-01-01

    This work studies the use of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 to induce parathion degradation in different matrices, as well as, quantified GC-NPD and identified by GC-MS, the radiolysis resulting products. Results show that the insecticide was completely degraded in aqueous solution after treatment with 1.0 kGy dosis in a dosis rate of 3.12 kGy h -1 . In methanol, parathion was completely degraded only with 30 kGy at 3.12 kGy h -1 . The metabolites detected after radiolysis were the same formed by biological degradation, i.e, p-nitrophenol, p-aminophenol, paraoxon and aminoparathion. The gamma radiation also degraded paraoxon which is the most toxic metabolite of parathion. It was verified that, not only the total radiation, but also the dosis rate supplied to the aqueous solution had a significant effect on the insecticide degradation, and the formation of metabolites occurred in a selective way respecting the dosis and dosis rate. Otherwise, the gamma radiation did almost not degraded the parathion adsorbed in solid matrices as rice, moist and dry soil, even using dosis of 5,30 and 50 kGy, respectively. The parathion yield and the dosis of gamma radiation needed for 50% reduction of the insecticide initial concentration in aqueous solution were also calculated and presented. Thus, it was verified that irradiation of parathion besides to be an important instrument for environmental decontamination of this pesticide in aqueous matrix, it allows the production of parathion metabolites for ecotoxicological studies. (author)

  1. Neonatal Cord Blood Oxylipins and Exposure to Particulate Matter in the Early-Life Environment: An ENVIRONAGE Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Dries S.; Gouveia, Sandra; Madhloum, Narjes; Janssen, Bram G.; Plusquin, Michelle; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Lefebvre, Wouter; Forsberg, Bertil; Nording, Malin; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: As part of the lipidome, oxylipins are bioactive lipid compounds originating from oxidation of different fatty acids. Oxylipins could provide a new target in the developmental origins model or the ability of early life exposure to change biology. Objectives: We studied the association between in utero PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter oxylipin profiles in newborns. Methods: Thirty-seven oxylipins reflecting the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (5-LOX and 12/15-LOX), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathways were assayed in 197 cord blood plasma samples from the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort. Principal component (PC) analysis and multiple regression models were used to estimate associations of in utero PM2.5 exposure with oxylipin pathways and individual metabolites. Results: A principal component representing the 5-LOX pathway (6 metabolites) was significantly positively associated with PM2.5 exposure during the entire (multiple testing–adjusted q-value = 0.05) and second trimester of pregnancy (q = 0.05). A principal component representing the 12/15-LOX pathway (11 metabolites) was positively associated with PM2.5 exposure during the second trimester of pregnancy (q = 0.05). PM2.5 was not significantly associated with the COX pathway during any time period. There was a positive but nonsignificant association between second-trimester PM2.5 and the CYP pathway (q = 0.16). Conclusion: In utero exposure to particulate matter, particularly during the second trimester, was associated with differences in the cord blood levels of metabolites derived from the lipoxygenase pathways. These differences may indicate an effect of air pollution during in utero life on the inflammatory state of the newborn at birth. Oxylipins may be important mediators between early life exposures and health outcomes later in life. Citation: Martens DS, Gouveia S, Madhloum N, Janssen BG, Plusquin M, Vanpoucke C, Lefebvre W, Forsberg B, Nording M, Nawrot TS. 2017. Neonatal

  2. Learning and memory effects of neonatal methamphetamine exposure in rats: Role of reactive oxygen species and age at assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Sarah A; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V

    2017-11-01

    In utero methamphetamine (MA) exposure leads to a range of adverse effects, such as decreased attention, reduced working-memory capability, behavioral dysregulation, and spatial memory impairments in exposed children. In the current experiment, preweaning Sprague-Dawley rats-as a model of third trimester human exposure-were administered the spin trapping agent, N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone (PBN), daily prior to MA. Rats were given 0 (SAL) or 40 mg/kg PBN prior to each MA dose (10 mg/kg, 4× per day) from postnatal day (P) 6-15. Littermates underwent Cincinnati water maze, Morris water maze, and radial water maze assessment beginning on P30 (males) or P60 (females). Males were also tested for conditioned contextual and cued freezing, while females were trained in passive avoidance. Findings show that, regardless of age/sex, neonatal MA induced deficits in all tests, except passive avoidance. PBN did not ameliorate these effects, but had a few minor effects. Taken together, MA induced learning deficits emerge early and persist, but the mechanism remains unknown. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Short-term exposure and long-term consequences of neonatal exposure to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and ibuprofen in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Gaëtan; Nyberg, Fred; Gordh, Torsten; Fredriksson, Anders; Viberg, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    Both Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and ibuprofen have analgesic properties by interacting with the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) and the cyclooxygenase (COX) systems, respectively. Evaluation of these analgesics is important not only clinically, since they are commonly used during pregnancy and lactation, but also to compare them with acetaminophen, with a known interaction with both CB1R and the COX systems. Short-term exposure of neonatal rodents to acetaminophen during the first weeks of postnatal life, which is comparable with a period from the third trimester of pregnancy to the first years of postnatal life in humans, induces long-term behavioral disturbances. This period, called the brain growth spurt (BGS) and is characterized by series of rapid and fundamental changes and increased vulnerability, peaks around postnatal day (PND) 10 in mice. We therefore exposed male NMRI mice to either THC or ibuprofen on PND 10. At 2 months of age, the mice were subjected to a spontaneous behavior test, consisting of a 60min recording of the variables locomotion, rearing and total activity. Mice exposed to THC, but not ibuprofen, exhibited altered adult spontaneous behavior and habituation capability in a dose-dependent manner. This highlights the potency of THC as a developmental neurotoxicant, since a single neonatal dose of THC was enough to affect adult cognitive function. The lack of effect from ibuprofen also indicates that the previously seen developmental neurotoxicity of acetaminophen is non-COX-mediated. These results might be of importance in future research as well as in the ongoing risk/benefit assessment of THC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Prenatal exposure to methyldopa leading to hypertensive crisis and cardiac failure in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jennifer A; Tang, William; Rivero, Niurka; Bar-Cohen, Yaniv

    2014-05-01

    A 2-week-old infant with normal intracardiac anatomy presented to the emergency department in a hypertensive crisis with acute cardiac failure. Despite extensive evaluation, no underlying disease was found. The patient's hypertension and cardiac dysfunction resolved after 1 week of supportive care in the PICU, and she was discharged within 2 weeks of presentation. The patient's history revealed transplacental exposure to the α-adrenergic agonist methyldopa for 10 weeks before delivery. Her age at presentation and the self-limited nature of cardiac sequelae with complete resolution of cardiac dysfunction suggest withdrawal effects from this exposure. Whereas the rebound hypertensive effects of α-adrenergic agonists are well established in the adult population, this report shows an unusual adverse outcome of in utero exposure to methyldopa. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. The impact of architectural design upon the environmental sound and light exposure of neonates who require intensive care: an evaluation of the Boekelheide Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, D C; Akram Khan, M; Munson, D P; Reid, E J; Helseth, C C; Buggy, J

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the differences in environmental sound, illumination and physiological parameters in the Boekelheide Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (BNICU), which was designed to comply with current recommendations and standards, as compared with a conventional neonatal intensive care unit (CNICU). Prospectively designed observational study. Median sound levels in the unoccupied BNICU (37.6 dBA) were lower than the CNICU (42.1 dBA, P<0.001). Median levels of minimum (6.4 vs 48.4 lux, P<0.05) and maximum illumination (357 vs 402 lux, P<0.05) were lower in the BNICU. A group of six neonates delivered at 32 weeks gestation showed significantly less periodic breathing (14 vs 21%) and awake time (17.6 vs 29.3%) in the BNICU as compared to the CNICU. Light and sound were both significantly reduced in the BNICU. Care in the BNICU was associated with improved physiological parameters.

  6. Pulmonary exposure to particles during pregnancy causes increased neonatal asthma susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedulov, Alexey V; Leme, Adriana; Yang, Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    Maternal immune responses can promote allergy development in offspring, as shown in a model of increased susceptibility to asthma in babies of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and -challenged mother mice. We investigated whether inflammatory responses to air pollution particles (diesel exhaust particles...... exposure to both "inert" TiO(2) and DEP caused increased asthma susceptibility in offspring. We conclude that (1) pregnancy enhances lung inflammatory responses to otherwise relatively innocuous inert particles; and (2) exposures of nonallergic pregnant females to inert or toxic environmental air particles...

  7. Effects of neonatal thymic exposure to high doses of X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, G.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1979-01-01

    The thymic region of neonatal Swiss mice was exposed to doses varying from 1000 R to 2000 R of X-irradiation. The animals did not show any signs of wasting syndrome up to 6 months after irradiation. At this time hyperplasia of the thymus with an associated lymphocytosis was evident in irradiated animals. Antibody production to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was not affected. However, at 12 months post-irradiation the animals showed signs of wasting disease with a progressive increase in their numbers at 18 and 24 months of age. The percentage incidence of animals with wasting disease was dose dependent. At this stage in the majority of the animals with the disease the thymus showed varying degrees of atrophy along with splenomegaly. There were no significant differences in the number of lymphocytes but the number of granulocytes showed a substantial increase. This was more evident in animals exposed to 2000 R to the thymic region. Though one observed a lowered ability to form antibodies to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with advancing age, the thymic irradiation did not affect the immune response to BSA even in animals manifesting wasting disease. An interesting observation has been the development of a severe loss of muscle power and tone in the hind limbs in a large majority of animals. (author)

  8. Bone conduction noise exposure via ventilators in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemizadeh Gol, Mohammad Abraham; Black, Angela; Sidman, James

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate that neonatal ventilators can expose patients to high noise levels through bone conduction (BC) as well as air conduction (AC). Observational study. Three ventilators and various settings on a positive airway pressure machine (continuous, high bilevel, and low bilevel pressure) were tested. A sound level meter was used to measure the noise levels at a set distance from the ventilator to represent AC, on the ventilator circuit to represent BC at the alveolus, and within the ventilator circuit. The BC sound levels (74.1, 81.1, 86, 89.2 dBC) were significantly higher than the AC sound levels (72.8, 72.9, 70, 71.7 dBC) for the jet ventilator, continuous positive airway pressure setting, low bilevel setting, and high bilevel setting, respectively (P ventilator circuit ranged from 94.9 to 113.2 dBC depending on the machine/setting and was significantly louder than both AC or BC for all machines/settings (P ventilator dependent noise levels present on and within ventilation circuitry that could be presented to the infant via BC. NA © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Effect of pesticide applications on soil microbial activity and on 14C-methyl parathion dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Terezinha Bonanho

    2000-01-01

    Some crops, as cotton, need different pesticide application to control pests and diseases. These compounds reach soil and may affect the soil microbial activity. As the microorganisms play important role on the nutrient cycling, changes in their activities may affect the soil fertility. The influence of several pesticides on soil microbial activity of the 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth of the soil profile, and the 14 C-methyl parathion dissipation was studied under influence of other pesticide applications. The influence of pesticides on the microorganisms was followed in an experimental area of the Instituto Biologico, that was divided in two subareas, both under cotton crop. Columns of PVC was buried in both subareas and a solution of 14 C-methyl parathion diluted in the technical compound was applied on the soil surface of each column. One subarea received all the recommended pesticides for the cotton crop besides the 14 C-methyl parathion. The other subarea received only 14 C-methyl parathion solution on the columns soil surface. The soil microbial activity of both subareas was estimated by measurements of dehydrogenase, arylsulfatase and arginine deaminase enzymes. Further, the availability of total nitrogen in the soil was also measured. The dissipation of 14 C-methyl parathion was studied by radiocarbon recovery in soil extracts and combustion of extracted soil and quantification by radiometric techniques. (author)

  10. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both Pnickel (β=0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-05-03

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

  12. Mere odor exposure learning in the rat neonate immediately after birth and one day later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stacie S.; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Rat pups are more resistant to retroactive associative interference 3 hrs after birth than 24 hours later (Cheslock, Sanders, & Spear, 2004). The present experiments tested the effect of age, retention interval and dam presence during the retention interval on odor-induced motor activity subsequent to mere odor exposure. Rats were exposed to an hour of odor immediately after birth or approximately one day later and tested after a given retention interval (3 hrs or 27 hrs [Exp 1]; 0, 30, 75, or 180 min [Exp. 2]). They spent the retention interval either in the presence or absence of a foster dam (Exp. 1 and 3). After the retention interval, pups were tested in a four-minute activity test including a two-minute baseline period and two minutes of odor exposure. Overall activity was scored during tape-playback. Odor-exposed pups were more active than non-exposed pups during reexposure to the odor during testing, but this was true only for P0 pups. In contrast, P1 pups without prior odor exposure were active during testing and behaviorally quieted in the presence of the odor they were previously exposed to. Though one day apart, newborn rats just hours old lack many of the experiences that a one day old has had including nursing, huddling, and being groomed. These experiences are associated with, among other stimuli, a barrage of olfactory cues (e.g., colostrum, saliva, dander, feces, and urine). P0 and P1 pups also differ in their proximity from the birthing experience and associated neurochemical changes. The age-related pattern of responding to odors based on previous odor exposure was discussed in relation to these and other possibilities. PMID:20411590

  13. Calcium uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum in the presence of organophosphorus insecticide methyl-parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasiak, J.

    1995-01-01

    Using an isotope labelling technique it has been shown that an organophosphorus insecticide methyl parathion (0,0-diethyl 0-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothionate) depressed calcium uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum isolated from rabbit hind leg muscle. The effect was significant for insecticide concentrations of 50 and 100 μM and was dose-dependent. The insecticide exerted a more pronounced effect on calcium uptake in the presence of ATP in the reticulum environment than in the absence of ATP. The inhibitory action of methyl parathion on Ca 2+ accumulation by sarcoplasmic reticulum can cause a rise in myoplasmic free Ca 2+ , the essential prerequisite for contracture activation. Because methyl parathion, as well as other organophosphorus insecticides, is primarily neurotoxic, evidence of non-specific effect could be important for assessing its environmental safety. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs

  14. Analytical and toxicological studies of decomposition of insecticide parathion after gamma-irradiation and ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanowska-Czajka, Anna; Torun, Murat; Kciuk, Gabriel; Wachowicz, Mariusz; Ozbay, Dilek Solpan; Guven, Olgun; Bobrowski, Krzysztof; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The decomposition of the widely used organophosphorus pesticide parathion was carried out in aqueous solutions by the use of gamma-irradiation from a 60Co source or ozonation by means of an ozone generator, and by combined processes of ozonation and radiolysis. Factors affecting the parathion decomposition as well formation and decomposition of the main by-products, including irradiation dose, length of ozonation time, and presence of common scavengers, were investigated. The most efficient was found to be the gamma-irradiation process combined with a short ozonation period; about 1 kGy irradiation dose was sufficient to decompose the pesticide in 15 mg/L solutions. Chemical studies of the decomposition of parathion were accompanied by monitoring of toxicity changes of irradiated solutions with the Microtox test.

  15. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  16. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D' Souza, Antony Sylvan [Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas [Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Guruprasad, E-mail: guru.kalthur@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  17. Methyl Parathion Masks Withdrawal from Physical Dependence on Morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin W. Rockhold

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The cholinergic system has been proposed to participate in the development of dependence on opioids. The present study examined effects of dermal pretreatment with methyl parathion (MP, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on the development of physical dependence on morphine. Opioid dependence was induced by continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. infusion of morphine (26 nmol/μl/h for 3 days in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Each rat received two doses of MP, 12.5 mg/kg, dermally, initially, 3 days prior to initiation of i.c.v. morphine infusion and again on the first day of infusion. Withdrawal was precipitated after 3 days of infusion by administering an opioid antagonist, naloxone (48 nmol/5 μl, i.c.v.. Twelve of 23 MP-treated rats exhibited signs of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor intoxication (mild tremors and showed reduced spontaneous locomotor activity (tested by an open field test, prior to naloxone. The brain cholinesterase activity in these 12 rats was 13% of levels in control rats. Eleven rats that did not show toxic signs, exhibited cholinesterase activities that were 20% of control (not significant versus toxic group. The group that showed signs of MP intoxication exhibited a significantly lower incidence of opioid withdrawal jumping, rearing and wet dog shakes compared with the non-toxic group. No differences between quantal withdrawal signs (ptosis, penis-licking, and vocalization were noted between the two groups. The results suggest that toxic inhibition of acetylcholinesterase non-specifically reduces locomotor activity and may obscure certain behavioral signs of withdrawal from opioid dependence. This indicates that caution should be used in interpreting a direct involvement of acetylcholinesterase inhibition in preventing opioid dependence.

  18. Renal damage induced by the pesticide methyl parathion in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Delgado, Victor Hugo; Martínez-Saldaña, María Consolación; Rodríguez-Vázquez, María Luisa; Reyes-Romero, Miguel Arturo; Reyes-Sánchez, José Luis; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Little information is apparently available regarding the nephrotoxic effects induced by pesticides. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of low doses of methyl parathion (MP) on the structure and function of the kidney of male Wistar rats. A corn oil (vehicle) was administered to control rats, whereas treated rats received MP at 0.56 mg/kg orally (1/25 of LD 50 ), every third day, for 8 weeks. At the end of each week following MP exposure, creatinine and glucose levels were measured in plasma, while glucose, inorganic phosphate, total proteins, albumin, and activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) were determined in urine. Kidney histological study was also performed. Compared with control rats, MP significantly increased plasma glucose and creatinine levels accompanied by decreased urinary flow rate and elevated urinary excretion rates of glucose, phosphate, and albumin. Further, the activity of GGT in urine was increased significantly. The proximal cells exhibited cytoplasmic vacuolization, positive periodic acid Schiff inclusions, and brush border edge loss after 2 or 4 weeks following MP treatment. Finally, renal cortex samples were obtained at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of MP treatment, and the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were measured. The mRNA expression levels of BAX and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were also determined (RT-PCR). MP significantly decreased renal GSH levels, increased GPx activity, as well as downregulated the mRNA expression of TNF-α and BAX. Densitometry analysis showed a significant reduction in TNF-α and BAX mRNA expression levels at 2 and 4 weeks following MP treatment. Low doses of MP produced structural and functional damage to the proximal tubules of male rat kidney.

  19. Long-Lasting Impact of Neonatal Exposure to Total Body Gamma Radiation on Secondary Lymphoid Organ Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Moreno, Javier; de la Luz Garcia-Hernandez, Maria; Ramos-Payan, Rosalio; Biear, Jamie; Hernady, Eric; Sangster, Mark Y; Randall, Troy D; Johnston, Carl J; Finkelstein, Jacob N; Williams, Jacqueline P

    2015-10-01

    population, and used the induction of adaptive immunity against influenza virus as a functional end point. We demonstrated that, in adult animals irradiated as neonates, high endothelial venule (HEV) expansion, generation of follicular helper T cells (TFH) and formation of splenic germinal centers (GC) were rapidly and, more importantly, persistently impaired in SLO, suggesting that the early-life exposure to sublethal radiation had long-lasting effects on the induction of humoral immunity. Although the neonatal TBI did not affect the overall outcome from influenza infection in the adults at the earlier time points assessed, we believe that they nonetheless contribute significantly to the increased mortality observed at subsequent late time points. Furthermore, we speculate that the detrimental and persistent impact on the induction of CD4 T- and B-cell responses in the mediastinal lymph nodes will decrease the animals' ability to respond to other aerial pathogens. Since many of these pathogens are normally cleared by antibodies, our findings provide an explanation for the susceptibility of survivors of childhood HCT to life-threatening respiratory tract infections. These findings have implications regarding the need for increased monitoring in pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant patients, since they indicate that there are ongoing and cumulative defects in SLO, which, importantly, develop during the immediate and early postirradiation period when patients may appear immunologically competent. The identification of changes in immune-related signals may offer bioindicators of progressive dysfunction, and of potential mechanisms that could be targeted so as to reduce the risk of infection from extracellular pathogens. Furthermore, these results support the potential susceptibility of the pediatric population to infection after sublethal irradiation in the context of a nuclear or radiological event.

  20. Neonatal exposure of rats to antidepressants affects behavioral reactions to novelty and social interactions in a manner analogous to autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Porcel, Federico; Green, Donald; Khatri, Nidhi; Harris, Sharonda Swilley; May, Warren L; Lin, Rick C S; Paul, Ian A

    2011-10-01

    We have demonstrated that neonatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has lasting effects on behavior and serotonergic neurons in Long Evans rats. Hyperserotoninemia and altered sensory processing are reported in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). We hypothesized that early life exposure to SSRIs alters sensory processing, disrupts responses to novelty, and impairs social interactions in a manner similar to that observed in ASD. Male and female Long-Evans rat pups were administered citalopram, buproprion, fluoxetine, or saline from postnatal day (P) 8-21. Rats were tested for response to a novel tone before weaning (P25). Later, rats were tested 2× for response to a novel object (P39), and to a novel conspecific (P78, P101). In addition, rats were assessed for juvenile play behaviors (P32-P34) and later, we assessed sexual response to an estrus female in male rats (P153-184). Antidepressant exposure increased freezing after tone, diminished novel object exploration, and reduced conspecific interaction up to 3× compared to saline exposed rats. Juvenile play was profoundly reduced in antidepressant-exposed males when compared to saline exposed groups. Exposure to the SSRIs, but not bupropion disrupted male sexual behaviors. Moreover, specific male responses to female proceptive behaviors were disrupted in SSRI, but not bupropion exposed rats. We conclude that neonatal exposure to antidepressants in rats results in sensory and social abnormalities that parallel many of those reported in ASD. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Dose-related gene expression changes in forebrain following acute, low-level chlorpyrifos exposure in neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Anamika; Liu Jing; Ayoubi, Patricia; Pope, Carey

    2010-01-01

    /synaptic transmission and transcription/translation. Nine genes were differentially affected in all four CPF dosing groups. We conclude that the most robust, consistent changes in differential gene expression in neonatal forebrain across a range of acute CPF dosages occurred at an exposure level associated with the classical marker of OP toxicity, AChE inhibition. Disruption of multiple cellular pathways, in particular cell adhesion, may contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity potential of this pesticide.

  2. Evaluation of the relationship between opioid exposure in extremely low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocek, Melissa; Wilcox, Roger; Crank, Christopher; Patra, Kousiki

    2016-01-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants are exposed to many painful procedures while in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), such as catheter insertion and endotracheal intubation. Exposure of ELBW infants to repetitive pain and stress in the NICU can lead to cardiovascular instability and may alter neuronal and synaptic organization. Opioid analgesics are administered to reduce pain, stress and to potentially reduce poor neurologic outcomes. They may also be utilized as sedation for mechanically ventilated ELBW infants. There is limited data in regards to neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants exposed to opioids, and available studies have conflicting results. To examine the relationship between cumulative opioid dose in ELBW infants in the NICU and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 20 months corrected age (CA). 100 ELBW infants who had complete neurodevelopmental assessments at 20 months CA were categorized by cumulative opioid exposure during the NICU stay (high vs. low/no opioid). Outcome measures included cognitive, motor and language scores from the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (BSITD-III). Multiple regression analyses adjusted for the impact of social and neonatal risk factors on outcome. There were 60 patients with high and 40 with low/no opioid exposure. Infants in the high dose group had a higher number of median ventilator days (53.5 vs. 45.6 days, p=0.046) and a higher incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (5% vs. 21.7%, p=0.022). There were no significant differences in BSITD-III scores between the two opiate groups. In multivariate analysis cumulative opioid dose was associated with lower cognitive scores on the BSITD-III even after adjusting for social and neonatal risk factors (β=-0.247, p=0.012). Cumulative opioid dose is associated with worse cognitive scores at 20 months CA even after adjusting for social and neonatal risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of TLR4 in olfactory-based spatial learning activity of neonatal mice after developmental exposure to diesel exhaust origin secondary organic aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nway, Nay Chi; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro; Mar, Ohn; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollutants has been reported to have various adverse health impacts. Ambient particulate matter comprises primary particles released directly via engine exhaust and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from oxidative reactions of the ultrafine particle fraction of diesel exhaust (DE). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is well known to initiate the inflammatory cascade in the central nervous system. However, whether and how DE and DE-SOA exposure influences TLR4 signaling in the immature brain remains unclear. We attempted to evaluate the roles of TLR-4, inflammatory mediators and microglial markers in the impaired spatial learning ability of neonatal mice exposed to DE and DE-SOAs. Pregnant C3H/HeN (TLR4-intact) and C3H/HeJ (TLR4- mutated) mice were exposed to clean air, DE or DE-SOA from gestational day 14 to postnatal day (PND) 10 (5h/day for 5days) in exposure chambers. PND11 neonatal mice were examined for their performance in the olfactory-based spatial learning test. After the spatial learning test, the hippocampi of the mice were removed and real-time RT-PCR analysis was performed to examine the neurological and immunological markers. Both male and female C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ neonatal mice exposed to DE and DE-SOAs showed poor performance in the test phase of spatial learning as compared to the mice exposed to clean air. However, this spatial learning deficit was prominent in C3H/HeJ neonatal mice. In the neonatal C3H/HeN male mice exposed to DE and DE-SOAs, the mRNA expression levels of the NMDA receptor subunits (NR1, NR2B), proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclooxygenase-2, oxidative stress marker, heme oxygenase-1, and microglial marker, Iba1, in the hippocampus were significantly increased, but these changes were not observed in female mice. Our findings indicate that activation of the neuroimmune system and TLR4 signaling may possibly be involved in environmental pollutant-induced spatial learning impairment

  4. Degradation and Byproduct Formation of Parathion in Aqueous Solutions by UV and UV/H2O2 Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changlong; Linden, Karl G.

    2013-01-01

    The photodegradation of parathion, a US EPA Contaminant Candidate List pesticide, in aqueous solutions by UV and UV/H2O2 processes in batch reactors was evaluated. Direct photolysis of parathion both by LP (low pressure) and MP (medium pressure) lamps at pH 7 were very slow with quantum yields of 6.67 ± 0.33 ×10−4 and 6.00 ± 1.06 ×10−4 mol E−1, respectively. Hydrogen peroxide enhanced the photodegradation of parathion through the reaction between UV generated hydroxyl radical and parathion with a second-order reaction rate constant of 9.70 ± 0.45×109 M−1 s−1. However, addition of hydrogen peroxide did not result in a linear increase in the degradation rate. An optimum molar ratio between hydrogen peroxide and parathion was determined to be between 300 – 400. Photodegradation of parathion yielded several organic byproducts, of which the paraoxon, 4-nitrophenol, O,O,O-triethyl thiophosphate and O,O diethyl-methyl thiophosphate were quantified and their occurrence during UV/H2O2 processes were discussed. NO2−, PO43−, NO3− and SO42− were the major anionic byproducts of parathion photodegradation and their recover ratio were also discussed. A photodegradation mechanism scheme suggesting three simultaneous pathways was proposed in the study. PMID:18834610

  5. Iqmik--a form of smokeless tobacco used by pregnant Alaska natives: nicotine exposure in their neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Renner, Caroline C; Patten, Christi A; Ebbert, Jon O; Offord, Kenneth P; Schroeder, Darrell R; Enoch, Carrie C; Gill, Leigh; Angstman, Sarah E; Moyer, Thomas P

    2005-04-01

    To determine the concentration of nicotine and cotinine in maternal blood and neonatal cord blood among pregnant Alaska Native women and to assess the neonates for neurobehavioral effects. In a nonrandomized, clinical observational pilot trial, 60 pregnant Alaska Native women were enrolled for assessment of Iqmik (a mixture of leaf tobacco and ash) and other tobacco use during pregnancy and at delivery. Neonatal cord blood, nicotine and cotinine concentrations were obtained, and neonatal neurobehavioral effects were assessed using the Lipsitz scale. At delivery, there were 22 subjects who reported using only Iqmik, and 10 who used other tobacco products. Subjects who reported using only Iqmik prior to delivery had higher concentrations of cotinine (167+/-116 vs. 81+/-100) in maternal blood (rank sum test, p=0.036) and higher concentrations of nicotine (8.4+/-7.3 vs. 4.4+/-5.1, p=0.048) and cotinine (153+/-115 vs. 70+/-95, p=0.048) in cord blood compared to subjects who reported using other tobacco products. Neurobehavioral signs as assessed by the Lipsitz score were increased in neonates born to mothers using only Iqmik (3.7+/-1.8, p=0.011), or to mothers using other tobacco products (3.4+/-1.4, p=0.034) compared to neonates born to women who reported no tobacco use (1.8+/-1.4). Mothers who use Iqmik and their neonates have higher cotinine concentrations compared to mothers who use cigarettes and/or other forms of tobacco. Neurobehavioral signs occur in neonates born to women who use Iqmik but also in neonates born to mothers who use other forms of tobacco during pregnancy.

  6. Neonatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE 153) disrupts spontaneous behaviour, impairs learning and memory, and decreases hippocampal cholinergic receptors in adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viberg, Henrik; Fredriksson, Anders; Eriksson, Per

    2003-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE 153) disrupts spontaneous behaviour, impairs learning and memory, and decreases hippocampal cholinergic receptors in adult mice. Flame retardants are used to suppress or inhibit combustion processes in an effort to reduce the risk of fire. One class of flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are present and increasing in the environment and in human milk. The present study shows that neonatal exposure to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE (PBDE 153), a PBDE persistent both in environment and in human milk, can induce developmental neurotoxic effects, such as changes in spontaneous behaviour (hyperactivity), impairments in learning and memory, and reduced amounts of nicotinic receptors, effects that get worse with age. Neonatal NMRI male mice were orally exposed on day 10 to 0.45, 0.9, or 9.0 mg of PBDE 153/kg of body weight. Spontaneous behaviour (locomotion, rearing, and total activity) was observed in 2-, 4-, and 6-month-old mice, Morris water maze at an age of 6 months. The behaviour tests showed that the effects were dose-response and time-response related. Animals showing defects in learning and memory also showed significantly reduced amounts of nicotinic receptors in hippocampus, using α-bungarotoxin binding assay. The observed developmental neurotoxic effects seen for PBDE 153 are similar to those seen for PBDE 99 and for certain PCBs. Furthermore, PBDEs appear to as potent as the PCBs

  7. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) for degradation of nerve agent simulant parathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parathion, a simulant of nerve agent VX, has been studied for degradation on Fe3+, Fe2+ and zerovalent iron supported on chitosan. Chitosan, a naturally occurring biopolymer derivative of chitin, is a very good adsorbent for many chemicals including metals. Chitosan is used as supporting biopolymer ...

  8. Involvement of glial cells in the neurotoxicity of parathion and chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurich, M.-G.; Honegger, P.; Schilter, B.; Costa, L.G.; Monnet-Tschudi, F.

    2004-01-01

    An in vitro model, the aggregating brain cell culture of fetal rat telencephalon, has been used to investigate the influence of glial cells on the neurotoxicity of two organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), chlorpyrifos and parathion. Mixed-cell aggregate cultures were treated continuously for 10 days between DIV 5 and 15. Parathion induced astrogliosis at concentration at which MAP-2 immunostaining, found here to be more sensitive than neuron-specific enzyme activities, was not affected. In contrast, chlorpyrifos induced a comparatively weak gliotic reaction, and only at concentrations at which neurons were already affected. After similar treatments, increased neurotoxicity of parathion and chlorpyrifos was found in aggregate cultures deprived of glial cells. These results suggest that glial cells provide neuroprotection against OPs toxicity. To address the question of the difference in toxicity between parathion and chlorpyrifos, the toxic effects of their leaving groups, p-nitrophenol and trichloropyridinol, were studied in mixed-cell aggregates. General cytotoxicity was more pronounced for trichloropyridinol and both compounds had similar toxic effects on neuron-specific enzyme activities. In contrast, trichloropyridinol induced a much stronger decrease in glutamine synthetase activity, the enzymatic marker of astrocytes. Trichloropyridinol may exert a toxic effect on astrocytes, compromising their neuroprotective function, thus exacerbating the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos. This is in line with the suggestion that glial cells may contribute to OPs neurotoxicity, and with the view that OPs may exert their neurotoxic effects through different mechanisms

  9. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide parathion methyl on nanostructured titania-iron mixed oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henych, Jiří; Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Janoš, P.; Kuráň, P.; Šťastný, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 344, JUL (2015), s. 9-16 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Titania-iron oxides * Homogeneous hydrolysis * Degradation of organophosphates * Parathion methyl Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.150, year: 2015

  10. Exposure to prescription opioid analgesics in utero and risk of neonatal abstinence syndrome: population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rishi J; Huybrechts, Krista F; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Mogun, Helen; Patorno, Elisabetta; Kaltenbach, Karol; Kerzner, Leslie S; Bateman, Brian T

    2015-05-14

    To provide absolute and relative risk estimates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) based on duration and timing of prescription opioid use during pregnancy in the presence or absence of additional NAS risk factors of history of opioid misuse or dependence, misuse of other substances, non-opioid psychotropic drug use, and smoking. Observational cohort study. Medicaid data from 46 US states. Pregnant women filling at least one prescription for an opioid analgesic at any time during pregnancy for whom opioid exposure characteristics including duration of therapy: short term (opioid prescriptions, corresponding to an absolute risk of 5.9 per 1000 deliveries (95% confidence interval 5.6 to 6.2). Long term opioid use during pregnancy resulted in higher absolute risk of NAS per 1000 deliveries in the presence of additional risk factors of known opioid misuse (220.2 (200.8 to 241.0)), alcohol or other drug misuse (30.8 (26.1 to 36.0)), exposure to other psychotropic medications (13.1 (10.6 to 16.1)), and smoking (6.6 (4.3 to 9.6)) than in the absence of any of these risk factors (4.2 (3.3 to 5.4)). The corresponding risk estimates for short term use were 192.0 (175.8 to 209.3), 7.0 (6.0 to 8.2), 2.0 (1.5 to 2.6), 1.5 (1.0 to 2.0), and 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8) per 1000 deliveries, respectively. In propensity score matched analyses, long term prescription opioid use compared with short term use and late use compared with early use in pregnancy demonstrated greater risk of NAS (risk ratios 2.05 (95% confidence interval 1.81 to 2.33) and 1.24 (1.12 to 1.38), respectively). Use of prescription opioids during pregnancy is associated with a low absolute risk of NAS in the absence of additional risk factors. Long term use compared with short term use and late use compared with early use of prescription opioids are associated with increased NAS risk independent of additional risk factors. © Desai et al 2015.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Methyl Parathion-degrading Bacteria Based on Microbial Sensor Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GENG Fang-fang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methyl parathion (MP, a kind of typical organophosphates pesticides (OPs, is widely used as agricultural insecticides. However, due to their neurotoxic effects on humans, the elimination of OPs has become increasingly important. Microbial sensors are consisted of biological components and transducers. Owing to their attractive advantages including low cost, easy of miniaturization and excellent selectivity, they have been widely used for environmental analysis. In this paper, four novel bacterial strains capable of utilizing methyl parathion as the sole carbon source were isolated from pesticide contaminated soils. These four isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis, and their capability of degrading methyl parathion were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. The highest degrading efficiency strain was selected for further study of degrading mechanism. The results indicated that degradation rate of these four strains were all over 78% after incubation at 30 ℃, pH 7.0 for 7 d with the original concentration of methyl parathion 50 mg·L-1. The highest degradation rate was up to 100%. 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain MP-6 was affiliated into the genus klebsiella. The LC-MS results indicated that methyl parathion was hydrolyzed to dimethyl thiophosphoric acid and p-nitrophenol by MP-6. A little of p-nitrophenol molecules could be further metabolized to 4-nitrocatechol and 1, 2, 4-benzenetrio. The results indicated that based on detecting the potential signal of intermediate product p-nitrophenol, the strain MP-6 could be used to construct microbial sensors for determination of organophosphorus pesticides in environment.

  12. Pretreatment with minocycline restores neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and subgranular zone of the hippocampus after ketamine exposure in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Giri, P K; Lei, Shan; Zheng, Juan; Li, Weisong; Wang, Ning; Chen, Xinlin; Lu, Haixia; Zuo, Zhiyi; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Pengbo

    2017-06-03

    Ketamine is commonly used for anesthesia in pediatric patients. Recent studies indicated that ketamine exposure in the developing brain can induce neuroapoptosis and disturb normal neurogenesis, which will result in long-lasting cognitive impairment. Minocycline exerts neuroprotection against a wide range of toxic insults in neurodegenerative disease models. In the present study, we investigated whether the disturbed neurogenesis and behavioral deficits after ketamine neonatal exposure could be alleviated by minocycline. Postnatal day (PND)7 Sprague-Dawley rat pups randomly received either normal saline, ketamine, or minocycline 30min prior to ketamine administration, respectively. The rats were decapitated at PND14 for the detection of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus by immunostaining. The protein expression of p-Akt, p-GSK-3β in the SVZ and SGZ at 12h after anesthesia, PND10 and PND14 were assessed by western blotting analysis. At PND 42-47, spatial learning and memory abilities were measured by the Morris water maze in all groups. Our data showed that ketamine exposure in neonatal rats resulted in neurogenetic damage and persistent cognitive deficits, and that pretreatment with minocycline eliminated the brain development damage and improved the behavioral function in adult rats. Moreover, the protection of minocycline is associated with the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exposure of neonatal rats to anti-androgens induces penile mal-developments and infertility comparable to those induced by oestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, L; Avery, L; Braden, T D; Williams, C S; Okumu, L A; Williams, J W; Goyal, H O

    2012-06-01

    We previously reported that oestrogen exposure in neonatal rats induced permanent infertility and malformed penis characterized by fat accumulation, which replaced most of the smooth muscle cells and cavernous spaces in the body of the penis, structures essential for erection. The objective of this study was to determine if reduced androgen production/action in the neonatal period, in the absence of exogenous oestrogen exposure, induces penile deformities similar to those caused by oestrogen. Male rats were treated from postnatal days 1-6 with GnRH antagonist antide (A, 10 mg/kg) or androgen receptor (AR) antagonist flutamide (F, 50 mg/kg) or F + A, with or without AR agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT, 20 mg/kg). For comparison, pups received diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.1 mg/kg), with or without DHT. Tissues were collected at ages 7 and 12 days and at adulthood. Flutamide alone decreased penile length and weight significantly (p penis and were infertile. In addition, reductions in penile length and weight were higher than in rats treated with F or A alone. DHT co-administration mitigated penile deformities in the DES group, but did not in the F + A group. Testicular testosterone was reduced by 70-95% at 7 or 12 days of age in all treated groups, except in the F group, which had threefold higher testosterone than controls. Collectively, data unequivocally show that reduced androgen production/action in the neonatal period, in the absence of oestrogen exposure, induces permanent infertility and malformed penis similar to that caused by oestrogen. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  14. The influence of the organophosphorus insecticides acephate and parathion upon the heterotrophic bacteria of two freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, L.J.; Geen, G.H.; Gasith, A.; Mozel, Y.; Perry, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of acephate and parathion on the heterotrophic bacteria of freshwater ecosystems was studied in a dystrophic west coast Canadian lake and in an eutrophic Israeli fish pond. The limnocorrals were treated with 1-25 ppm of acephate and 30-40 ppb of parathion respectively. Bacterial populations, glucose heterotrophic activities and bacterial and algal productivities were studied using 3 H and 14 C radioisotopes. It is concluded that the two ecosystems are not extensively affected by the pesticide concentrations used

  15. Does pharmacotherapy for preterm labor sensitize the developing brain to environmental neurotoxicants? Cellular and synaptic effects of sequential exposure to terbutaline and chlorpyrifos in neonatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, Melissa C.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Qiao, Dan; Tate, Charlotte A.; Cousins, Mandy M.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2004-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that environmental toxicants target specific human subpopulations. In the current study, we examined the effects of prior developmental exposure to a β 2 -adrenoceptor agonist used to arrest preterm labor, terbutaline, on the subsequent effects of exposure to the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF). Neonatal rats were given terbutaline on postnatal day (PN) 2-5, followed by CPF on PN11-14. Although neither treatment affected growth or viability, each elicited alterations in indices of brain cell differentiation and cholinergic innervation in the immediate posttreatment period (PN15), persisting into adulthood (PN60). Biomarkers of brain cell number (DNA concentration and content), cell size (protein/DNA ratio) and neuritic projections (membrane/total protein) were affected by either agent alone, with patterns consistent with neuronal and neuritic damage accompanied by reactive gliosis. The combined exposure augmented these effects by both additive and synergistic mechanisms. Similarly, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a constitutive marker for cholinergic nerve terminals, was affected only by combined exposure to both terbutaline and CPF. Indices of cholinergic synaptic activity [hemicholinium-3 and m 2 -muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding] showed impairment after exposure to either terbutaline or CPF but the effects were more severe when the treatments were combined. These findings suggest that terbutaline, like CPF, is a developmental neurotoxicant, and that its use in the therapy of preterm labor may create a subpopulation that is sensitized to the adverse neural effects of a subsequent exposure to organophosphate insecticides

  16. Prenatal to early postnatal nicotine exposure impairs central chemoreception and modifies breathing pattern in mouse neonates: a probable link to sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenín, Jaime; Otárola, Marcelo; Bravo, Eduardo; Coddou, Claudio; Cerpa, Verónica; Reyes-Parada, Miguel; Llona, Isabel; von Bernhardi, Rommy

    2008-12-17

    Nicotine is a neuroteratogen and is the likely link between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Osmotic minipumps were implanted in 5-7 d CF1 pregnant mice to deliver nicotine bitartrate (60 mg Kg(-1) day(-1)) or saline (control) solutions for up to 28 d. Prenatal to early postnatal nicotine exposure did not modify the number of newborns per litter or their postnatal growth; however, nicotine-exposed neonates hypoventilated and had reduced responses to hypercarbia (inhalation of air enriched with 10% CO(2) for 20 min) and hypoxia (inhalation of 100% N(2) for 20 s) at postnatal days 0-3 (P0-P3). In contrast, at postnatal day 8, nicotine-exposed neonates were indistinguishable from controls. Isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparations obtained from P0 to P3 nicotine-exposed neonates showed fictive respiration with respiratory cycles longer and more irregular than those of controls, as indicated by high short- and long-term variability in Poincaré plots. In addition, their responses to acidification were reduced, indicating compromise of central chemoreception. Furthermore, the cholinergic contribution to central chemosensory responses switched from muscarinic receptor to nicotinic receptor-based mechanisms. No significant astrogliosis was detectable in the ventral respiratory group of neurons with glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry. These results indicate that nicotine exposure affects the respiratory rhythm pattern generator and causes a decline in central chemoreception during early postnatal life. Consequently, breathing would become highly vulnerable, failing to respond to chemosensory demands. Such impairment could be related to the ventilatory abnormalities observed in SIDS.

  17. Safety of in utero and neonatal antiretroviral exposure: cognitive and academic outcomes in HIV-exposed, uninfected children 5-13 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozyce, Molly L; Huo, Yanling; Williams, Paige L; Kapetanovic, Suad; Hazra, Rohan; Nichols, Sharon; Hunter, Scott; Smith, Renee; Seage, George R; Sirois, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    Long-term effects of in utero and neonatal antiretroviral (ARV) exposure on cognitive and academic development in HIV-exposed, uninfected school-age children are unknown. HIV-exposed, uninfected children, ages 5-13 years, in Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study Surveillance Monitoring for Antiretroviral Treatment Toxicities, a US-based multisite cohort study, completed age-appropriate Wechsler intelligence and academic scales (WPPSI-III, WASI, WIAT-II-A). Associations between cognitive and academic outcomes and in utero ARV exposure by regimen, class and individual ARVs were evaluated, adjusting for potential confounders. Children completing WPPSI-IIIs (n = 350) were 49% male, 74% Black, 25% Hispanic; WASI (n = 337) and WIAT-II-A (n = 415) cohorts were similar. The percentage exposed to combination ARV (cARV) was 84% (WPPSI-III), 64% (WASI) and 67% (WIAT-II-A). Among ARV-exposed children, there were no significant associations between any ARV regimen or class and any cognitive or academic outcome. In addition, in both unadjusted models and after adjustment for caregiver IQ, sociodemographic factors and maternal health and substance use during pregnancy, no individual ARV drug was associated with significantly lower cognitive or academic scores. Factors typically associated with lower cognitive and academic scores in the general population, such as prematurity, small for gestational age, maternal alcohol use and lower maternal cognitive status, were also associated with lower scores in this study. Overall, the safety of prenatal and neonatal ARV use was supported.

  18. Effects of exercise and environmental complexity on deficits in trace and contextual fear conditioning produced by neonatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, W B; St Cyr, S A; Jablonski, S A; Hunt, P S; Klintsova, A Y; Stanton, M E

    2013-07-01

    In rodents, voluntary exercise and environmental complexity increases hippocampal neurogenesis and reverses spatial learning and long-term potentiation deficits in animals prenatally exposed to alcohol. The present experiment extended these findings to neonatal alcohol exposure and to delay, trace, and contextual fear conditioning. Rats were administered either 5.25 g/kg/day alcohol via gastric intubation or received sham-intubations (SI) between Postnatal Day (PD) 4 and 9 followed by either free access to a running wheel on PD 30-41 and housing in a complex environment on PD 42-72 (wheel-running plus environmental complexity; WREC) or conventional social housing (SHSH) from PD 30 to 72. Adult rats (PD 80 ± 5) received 5 trials/day of a 10-s flashing-light conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with .8 mA footshock either immediately (delay conditioning) or after a 10-s trace interval (trace conditioning) for 2 days. Neonatal alcohol exposure impaired context and trace conditioning, but not short-delay conditioning. The WREC intervention did not reverse these deficits, despite increasing context-related freezing in ethanol-exposed and SI animals. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Improving the capacity of biodegradation of two pesticides (methyl parathion, methomyl) by irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdoura, Meriem

    2013-01-01

    Radio-resistant strains isolated from mining sites in Khouribgua, have been identified following a morphological, biochemical and molecular level. The scope of the study is biodegradability of the two pesticides namely methyl parathion and methomyl through these identified strains .The objective of this research is to improve the biodegradability potential of pesticides by identified strains via ionizing radiation Gamma known for its mutagenic potential.

  20. Pneumonitis and lethal pulmonary fibrosis (Hamman-Rich syndrome) due to Parathione (E605) poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, W.; Fasske, E.; Forschungsinstitut Borstel

    1986-01-01

    A patient with chronic Parathione (E 605) poisoning was observed over a period of 55 days. During that time he developed progressive changes, which were identical to those of progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The rapid development of an alveolitis, followed by a lethal pulmonary fibrosis, differed in no way, macroscopically nor microscopically, from the lung changes in paraquat poisoning (paraquat lung). The radiologic course has been correlated with the clinical and post mortem findings. (orig.) [de

  1. Prenatal exposure to vanilla or alcohol induces crawling after these odors in the neonate rat: The role of mu and kappa opioid receptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Aranda-Fernández, P Ezequiel; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    Rat fetuses can perceive chemosensory stimuli derived from their mother's diet, and they may learn about those stimuli. In previous studies we have observed that prenatal exposure to alcohol during the last days of gestation increases the acceptance and liking of an alcohol flavor in infant and adolescent rats. While these results were not found after prenatal exposure to vanilla, cineole or anise, suggesting that the pharmacological properties of alcohol, mediated by the opioid system, underlie the effects observed with this drug. Considering that other studies report enhanced acceptance of non-alcohol flavors experienced prenatally when subjects were tested before infancy, we explore the possibility of observing similar results if testing 1-day old rats exposed prenatally to vanilla. Using an "odor-induced crawling" testing procedure, it was observed that neonates exposed prenatally to vanilla or alcohol crawl for a longer distance towards the experienced odor than to other odors or than control pups. Blocking mu, but not kappa opioid receptors, reduced the attraction of vanilla odor to neonates exposed to vanilla in utero, while the response to alcohol in pups exposed prenatally to this drug was affected by both antagonists. Results confirm that exposure to a non-alcohol odor enhances postnatal responses to it, observable soon after birth, while also suggesting that the mu opioid receptor system plays an important role in generating this effect. The results also imply that with alcohol exposure, the prenatal opioid system is wholly involved, which could explain the longer retention of the enhanced attraction to alcohol following prenatal experience with the drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Brief ethanol exposure and stress-related factors disorganize neonatal breathing plasticity during the brain growth spurt period in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchione, A F; Anunziata, F; Haymal, B O; Abate, P; Molina, J C

    2018-04-01

    The effects of early ethanol exposure upon neonatal respiratory plasticity have received progressive attention given a multifactorial perspective related with sudden infant death syndrome or hypoxia-associated syndromes. The present preclinical study was performed in 3-9-day-old pups, a stage in development characterized by a brain growth spurt that partially overlaps with the 3rd human gestational trimester. Breathing frequencies and apneas were examined in pups receiving vehicle or a relatively moderate ethanol dose (2.0 g/kg) utilizing a whole body plethysmograph. The experimental design also considered possible associations between drug administration stress and exteroceptive cues (plethysmographic context or an artificial odor). Ethanol exposure progressively exerted a detrimental effect upon breathing frequencies. A test conducted at PD9 when pups were under the state of sobriety confirmed ethanol's detrimental effects upon respiratory plasticity (breathing depression). Pre-exposure to the drug also resulted in a highly disorganized respiratory response following a hypoxic event, i.e., heightened apneic episodes. Associative processes involving drug administration procedures and placement in the plethysmographic context also affected respiratory plasticity. Pups that experienced intragastric administrations in close temporal contiguity with such a context showed diminished hyperventilation during hypoxia. In a 2nd test conducted at PD9 while pups were intoxicated and undergoing hypoxia, an attenuated hyperventilatory response was observed. In this test, there were also indications that prior ethanol exposure depressed breathing frequencies during hypoxia and a recovery normoxia phase. As a whole, the results demonstrated that brief ethanol experience and stress-related factors significantly disorganize respiratory patterns as well as arousal responses linked to hypoxia in neonatal rats.

  3. Methyl parathion and fenvalerate toxicity in American kestrels: Acute physiological responses and effects of cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o. methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10-h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?C) and cold (-5?C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (estimated median lethal dose of 3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits of 2.29 -4.14 mg/kg), producing dose-dependent inhibition of brain and plasma cholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Brain and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% was associated with transient but pronounced hypothermia 2 h after intubation, although the magnitude of this response was yariable. Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Cold intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. Thus, it would appear that organophosphorus insecticides pose far greater hazard than pyrethroids to raptorial birds.

  4. Photolytic degradation of methyl-parathion and fenitrothion in ice and water: Implications for cold environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jan [Lancaster Environment Centre, Centre for Chemicals Management, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Kurkova, Romana; Klanova, Jana [RECETOX, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klan, Petr, E-mail: klan@sci.muni.c [Dept of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5/A8, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Halsall, Crispin J., E-mail: c.halsall@lancaster.ac.u [Lancaster Environment Centre, Centre for Chemicals Management, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Here we investigate the photodegradation of structurally similar organophosphorus pesticides; methyl-parathion and fenitrothion in water (20 deg. C) and ice (-15 deg. C) under environmentally-relevant conditions with the aim of comparing these laboratory findings to limited field observations. Both compounds were found to be photolyzed more efficiently in ice than in aqueous solutions, with quantum yields of degradation being higher in ice than in water (fenitrothion > methyl-parathion). This rather surprising observation was attributed to the concentration effect caused by freezing the aqueous solutions. The major phototransformation products included the corresponding oxons (methyl-paraoxon and fenitroxon) and the nitrophenols (3-methyl-nitrophenol and nitrophenol) in both irradiated water and ice samples. The presence of oxons in ice following irradiation, demonstrates an additional formation mechanism of these toxicologically relevant compounds in cold environments, although further photodegradation of oxons in ice indicates that photochemistry of OPs might be an environmentally important sink in cold environments. - Photodegradation of methyl-parathion and fenitrothion in water and ice under environmentally-relevant conditions is described.

  5. Biodegradation of lindane, methyl parathion and carbofuran by various enriched bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, K Rama; Philip, Ligy

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane), methyl parathion (O-dimethylO-(4-nitro-phenyl) phosphorothioate) and carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate) degradation potential of different enriched bacterial cultures were evaluated under various environmental conditions. Enriched cultures behaved differently with different pesticides. Degradation was more in a facultative anaerobic condition as compared to that in aerobic condition. A specific pesticide enriched culture showed maximum degradation of that pesticide irrespective of pesticides and environmental conditions. Lindane and endosulfan enriched cultures behaved almost similarly. Degradation of lindane by lindane enriched cultures was 75 +/- 3% in aerobic co-metabolic process whereas 78 +/- 5% of lindane degradation occurred in anaerobic co-metabolic process. Degradation of methyl parathion by methyl parathion enriched culture was 87 +/- 1% in facultative anaerobic condition. In almost all the cases, many intermediate metabolites were observed. However, many of these metabolites disappeared after 4-6 weeks of incubation. Mixed pesticide-enriched culture degraded all the three pesticides more effectively as compared to specific pesticide- enriched cultures. It can be inferred from the results that a bacterial consortium enriched with a mixture of all the possible pesticides that are present in the site seems to be a better option for the effective bioremediation of multi-pesticide contaminated site.

  6. Graphene quantum dot modified screen printed immunosensor for the determination of parathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jyotsana; Bhardwaj, Neha; Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K; Tuteja, Satish K; Vinayak, Priya; Paul, A K; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash

    2017-04-15

    The widespread use of pesticides has immense effect on increased crop productions. However, they are also responsible for posing detrimental health hazards and/or for contaminating the environment with chemical residues. A routine and an on-field detection of pesticide residues in different food, water, and soil samples has become a need of the hour for which biosensors can offer a viable alternative. The present work reports a functionalized graphene quantum dot (GQD) based screen printed electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of parathion. The application of GQDs has permitted the realization of a sensitive, robust, and reproducible sensor unlike those carried out earlier for the similar purposes. This immunosensor exhibited a dynamic linear response for parathion within the range of 0.01-10 6  ng/L with a very low detection limit of 46 pg/L. According to the analysis of potential interferences, the proposed sensor was specifically detecting parathion even in the presence of its metabolite, paraoxon. The investigations of the proposed sensing approach with respect to stability, response reproducibility, and regeneration have fully supported its potential practical applicability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Degradation of 14C-parathion 'in vitro' by microorganisms isolated from a gley humic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.M. de; Ruegg, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    It was determined 'in vitro' the degradation of Parathion by a bacterium and a fungus isolated from a sample of Gley Humic soil previously treated with repeated applications of the insecticide. In a qualitative colorimetric assay hydrolisis of parathion to p-nitrophenol just the bacterium gave a positive answer. In quantitative assays of 14 C-parathion degradation in culture media containing both microorganisms, organic solvents extractions resulted in organic and aqueous phases, which were analysed by liquid scintillation counting and thin-layer chromatography. In a mineral salts medium plus buffer, the bacterium and the fungus behaved differently from the control, because part of the 14 C-insecticide was metabolized to, at least, one metabolite and besides, the microorganisms presented smaller percentages of total recovery. The largest percentage of the radio carbon recovery from the extracts of the medium containing the fungus plus extract of yeast, was obtained from the aqueous phase and the existence of other metabolite was demonstrated by chromatograms of the organic phase. (Author) [pt

  8. The expression of HoxB5 and SPC in neonatal rat lung after exposure to fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Razieh; Taghipour, Zahra; Karimi, Akbar; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Taghavi, Mohammad Mohsen; Shariati, Mahdi; Shabanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari Naveh, Hamid Reza; Bidaki, Reza; Aminzadeh, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 10% of pregnant women suffer from pregnancy-associated depression. Fluoxetine, as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is being employed as a therapy for depressive disorders. The present study aimed to determine the effects of fluoxetine on neonatal lung development. Thirty pregnant Wistar rats (weighing 200-250 g) were treated daily with 7 mg/kg fluoxetine from gestation day 0 to gestation day 21, via gavage. The control group received a similar volume of distilled water only. Following delivery, the newborns and their lungs were immediately weighed in both of the groups. The right lung was fixed for histological assessments while the left lung was used for evaluation of the expression of SPC and HoxB5 by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Results have indicated that even though the body weight and the number of neonatal rats in both groups were the same, the lung weight of neonates exposed to fluoxetine was significantly different compared to the control group ( P effects of antidepressant drugs during pregnancy is deserved.

  9. Altered formalin-induced pain and Fos induction in the periaqueductal grey of preadolescent rats following neonatal LPS exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihssane Zouikr

    Full Text Available Animal and human studies have demonstrated that early pain experiences can produce alterations in the nociceptive systems later in life including increased sensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. However, less is known about the impact of neonatal immune challenge on future responses to noxious stimuli and the reactivity of neural substrates involved in analgesia. Here we demonstrate that rats exposed to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg IP, Salmonella enteritidis during postnatal day (PND 3 and 5 displayed enhanced formalin-induced flinching but not licking following formalin injection at PND 22. This LPS-induced hyperalgesia was accompanied by distinct recruitment of supra-spinal regions involved in analgesia as indicated by significantly attenuated Fos-protein induction in the rostral dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG as well as rostral and caudal axes of the ventrolateral PAG (VLPAG. Formalin injections were associated with increased Fos-protein labelling in lateral habenula (LHb as compared to medial habenula (MHb, however the intensity of this labelling did not differ as a result of neonatal immune challenge. These data highlight the importance of neonatal immune priming in programming inflammatory pain sensitivity later in development and highlight the PAG as a possible mediator of this process.

  10. Altered Formalin-Induced Pain and Fos Induction in the Periaqueductal Grey of Preadolescent Rats following Neonatal LPS Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouikr, Ihssane; James, Morgan H.; Campbell, Erin J.; Clifton, Vicki L.; Beagley, Kenneth W.; Dayas, Christopher V.; Hodgson, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Animal and human studies have demonstrated that early pain experiences can produce alterations in the nociceptive systems later in life including increased sensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. However, less is known about the impact of neonatal immune challenge on future responses to noxious stimuli and the reactivity of neural substrates involved in analgesia. Here we demonstrate that rats exposed to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg IP, Salmonella enteritidis) during postnatal day (PND) 3 and 5 displayed enhanced formalin-induced flinching but not licking following formalin injection at PND 22. This LPS-induced hyperalgesia was accompanied by distinct recruitment of supra-spinal regions involved in analgesia as indicated by significantly attenuated Fos-protein induction in the rostral dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG) as well as rostral and caudal axes of the ventrolateral PAG (VLPAG). Formalin injections were associated with increased Fos-protein labelling in lateral habenula (LHb) as compared to medial habenula (MHb), however the intensity of this labelling did not differ as a result of neonatal immune challenge. These data highlight the importance of neonatal immune priming in programming inflammatory pain sensitivity later in development and highlight the PAG as a possible mediator of this process. PMID:24878577

  11. Effects of neonatal exposure to the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A, aluminum diethylphosphinate or zinc stannate on long-term potentiation and synaptic protein levels in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hester S; Koolen, Lucas A E; Dingemans, Milou M L; Viberg, Henrik; Lee, Iwa; Leonards, Pim E G; Ramakers, Geert M J; Westerink, Remco H S

    2015-12-01

    Brominated flame retardants such as tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) may exert (developmental) neurotoxic effects. However, data on (neuro)toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs) are scarce. Recent in vitro studies indicated a high neurotoxic potential for some HFFRs, e.g., zinc stannate (ZS), whereas the neurotoxic potential of other HFFRs, such as aluminum diethylphosphinate (Alpi), appears low. However, the in vivo (neuro)toxicity of these compounds is largely unknown. We therefore investigated effects of neonatal exposure to TBBPA, Alpi or ZS on synaptic plasticity in mouse hippocampus. Male C57bl/6 mice received a single oral dose of 211 µmol/kg bw TBBPA, Alpi or ZS on postnatal day (PND) 10. On PND 17-19, effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity were investigated using ex vivo extracellular field recordings. Additionally, we measured levels of postsynaptic proteins involved in long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as flame retardant concentrations in brain, muscle and liver tissues. All three flame retardants induced minor, but insignificant, effects on LTP. Additionally, TBBPA induced a minor decrease in post-tetanic potentiation. Despite these minor effects, expression of selected synaptic proteins involved in LTP was not affected. The flame retardants could not be measured in significant amounts in the brains, suggesting low bioavailability and/or rapid elimination/metabolism. We therefore conclude that a single neonatal exposure on PND 10 to TBBPA, Alpi or ZS does affect neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity only to a small extent in mice. Additional data, in particular on persistence, bioaccumulation and (in vivo) toxicity, following prolonged (developmental) exposure are required for further (human) risk assessment.

  12. Abbreviated exposure to hypoxia is sufficient to induce CNS dysmyelination, modulate spinal motor neuron composition, and impair motor development in neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O Watzlawik

    Full Text Available Neonatal white matter injury (nWMI is an increasingly common cause of cerebral palsy that results predominantly from hypoxic injury to progenitor cells including those of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Existing mouse models of nWMI utilize prolonged periods of hypoxia during the neonatal period, require complex cross-fostering and exhibit poor growth and high mortality rates. Abnormal CNS myelin composition serves as the major explanation for persistent neuro-motor deficits. Here we developed a simplified model of nWMI with low mortality rates and improved growth without cross-fostering. Neonatal mice are exposed to low oxygen from postnatal day (P 3 to P7, which roughly corresponds to the period of human brain development between gestational weeks 32 and 36. CNS hypomyelination is detectable for 2-3 weeks post injury and strongly correlates with levels of body and brain weight loss. Immediately following hypoxia treatment, cell death was evident in multiple brain regions, most notably in superficial and deep cortical layers as well as the subventricular zone progenitor compartment. PDGFαR, Nkx2.2, and Olig2 positive oligodendrocyte progenitor cell were significantly reduced until postnatal day 27. In addition to CNS dysmyelination we identified a novel pathological marker for adult hypoxic animals that strongly correlates with life-long neuro-motor deficits. Mice reared under hypoxia reveal an abnormal spinal neuron composition with increased small and medium diameter axons and decreased large diameter axons in thoracic lateral and anterior funiculi. Differences were particularly pronounced in white matter motor tracts left and right of the anterior median fissure. Our findings suggest that 4 days of exposure to hypoxia are sufficient to induce experimental nWMI in CD1 mice, thus providing a model to test new therapeutics. Pathological hallmarks of this model include early cell death, decreased OPCs and hypomyelination in early postnatal life

  13. Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Neonatal Sex Hormone Exposure: Effects on Dopamine Content and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the long-term changes produced by neonatal sex hormone administration on the functioning of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day 1 and were assigned to the following experimental groups: TP (testosterone propionate of 1.0 mg/50 μL; DHT (dihydrotestosterone of 1.0 mg/50 μL; EV (estradiol valerate of 0.1 mg/50 μL; and control (sesame oil of 50 μL. At postnatal day 60, neurochemical studies were performed to determine dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Molecular (mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and cellular (tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity studies were also performed. We found increased dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area of TP and EV rats, in addition to increased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. However, neonatal exposure to DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, did not affect midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Correspondingly, compared to control rats, levels of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein were significantly increased in TP and EV rats but not in DHT rats, as determined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results suggest an estrogenic mechanism involving increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression, either by direct estrogenic action or by aromatization of testosterone to estradiol in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area.

  14. Diethylstilbestrol Exposure in Neonatal Mice Induces Changes in the Adulthood in the Immune Response to Taenia crassiceps without Modifications of Parasite Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Nava-Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial growth has increased the exposition to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC’s, which are exogenous agents with agonist or antagonist action of endogenous steroid hormones that may affect the course of parasite infections. We wanted to determine if the exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES, an estrogen agonist, to both male and female mice affected the immune response and their susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. In all infected groups, females showed higher parasite loads than males, and neonatal DES administration did not modify this pattern. In the spleen, noninfected mice showed sex-related differences in the percentage of the CD8+ subpopulation, but DES decreased the percentage of CD3+, CD19+, and CD8+ subpopulations in infected mice. In the mesenteric lymphatic node (MNL, DES showed a dimorphic effect in the percentage of CD19+ cells. Regarding estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α expression, DES treatment induced a reduction in the expression of this receptor in both noninfected female and male mice in the spleen, which was decreased only in males in CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in MNL cell subpopulations. Our study is the first one to demonstrate that DES neonatal treatment in male and female mice affects the immune cell percentage, without effect on the susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis.

  15. Dose-dependent effects of morphine exposure on mRNA and microRNA (miR expression in hippocampus of stressed neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M McAdams

    Full Text Available Morphine is used to sedate critically ill infants to treat painful or stressful conditions associated with intensive care. Whether neonatal morphine exposure affects microRNA (miR expression and thereby alters mRNA regulation is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that repeated morphine treatment in stress-exposed neonatal mice alters hippocampal mRNA and miR expression. C57BL/6 male mice were treated from postnatal day (P 5 to P9 with morphine sulfate at 2 or 5 mg/kg ip twice daily and then exposed to stress consisting of hypoxia (100% N2 1 min and 100% O2 5 min followed by 2h maternal separation. Control mice were untreated and dam-reared. mRNA and miR expression profiling was performed on hippocampal tissues at P9. Overall, 2 and 5 mg/kg morphine treatment altered expression of a total of 150 transcripts (>1.5 fold change, P<0.05 from which 100 unique mRNAs were recognized (21 genes were up- and 79 genes were down-regulated, and 5 mg/kg morphine affected 63 mRNAs exclusively. The most upregulated mRNAs were fidgetin, arginine vasopressin, and resistin-like alpha, and the most down-regulated were defensin beta 11, aquaporin 1, calmodulin-like 4, chloride intracellular channel 6, and claudin 2. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis revealed that morphine treatment affected pathways related to cell cycle, membrane function, signaling, metabolism, cell death, transcriptional regulation, and immune response. Morphine decreased expression of miR-204-5p, miR-455-3p, miR-448-5p, and miR-574-3p. Nine morphine-responsive mRNAs that are involved in neurodevelopment, neurotransmission, and inflammation are predicted targets of the aforementioned differentially expressed miRs. These data establish that morphine produces dose-dependent changes in both hippocampal mRNA and miR expression in stressed neonatal mice. If permanent, morphine-mediated neuroepigenetic effects may affect long-term hippocampal function, and this provides a mechanism for the neonatal morphine

  16. Rehabilitation training using complex motor learning rescues deficits in eyeblink classical conditioning in female rats induced by binge-like neonatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer L; Klintsova, Anna Y; Greenough, William T; Goodlett, Charles R

    2013-09-01

    Effective treatments for the behavioral and cognitive deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are lacking, and translational approaches using animal models can help develop rational interventions. One such model, binge-like alcohol exposure in neonatal rats during the period of brain development comparable with that of the human third trimester, causes structural and functional damage to the cerebellum and disrupts cerebellar-dependent eyeblink classical conditioning. The eyeblink conditioning deficits first demonstrated in this rat model predicted the similar deficits subsequently demonstrated in children with FASD. The current study extends this translational approach by testing the hypothesis that rehabilitation training involving 20 days of training on traversal of an obstacle course (complex motor learning) would ameliorate the deficits on classical conditioning of eyeblink responses produced by the neonatal alcohol exposure. We have previously shown that this training stimulates cerebellar synaptic plasticity and improves alcohol-induced deficits on motor coordination tasks. The current studies found that rehabilitation training significantly attenuated alcohol-induced deficits in acquisition of eyeblink conditioning in females but not in males. These results are consistent with normalization of cerebellar-dependent learning, at least in alcohol-exposed females. These findings extend previous studies in this model suggesting that rehabilitation of adolescents with FASD using training with complex motor learning tasks could be effective in ameliorating functional impairments associated with cerebellar damage. Eyeblink classical conditioning deficits are now well documented in children with FASD and could serve as an evaluation measure to continue to develop therapeutic interventions such as complex motor learning. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Impact of Low Dose Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on the Neonatal Rat Hypothalamic and Hippocampal Transcriptome: A CLARITY-BPA Consortium Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambula, Sheryl E; Belcher, Scott M; Planchart, Antonio; Turner, Stephen D; Patisaul, Heather B

    2016-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting, high volume production chemical found in a variety of products. Evidence of prenatal exposure has raised concerns that developmental BPA may disrupt sex-specific brain organization and, consequently, induce lasting changes on neurophysiology and behavior. We and others have shown that exposure to BPA at doses below the no-observed-adverse-effect level can disrupt the sex-specific expression of estrogen-responsive genes in the neonatal rat brain including estrogen receptors (ERs). The present studies, conducted as part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights of BPA Toxicity program, expanded this work by examining the hippocampal and hypothalamic transcriptome on postnatal day 1 with the hypothesis that genes sensitive to estrogen and/or sexually dimorphic in expression would be altered by prenatal BPA exposure. NCTR Sprague-Dawley dams were gavaged from gestational day 6 until parturition with BPA (0-, 2.5-, 25-, 250-, 2500-, or 25 000-μg/kg body weight [bw]/d). Ethinyl estradiol was used as a reference estrogen (0.05- or 0.5-μg/kg bw/d). Postnatal day 1 brains were microdissected and gene expression was assessed with RNA-sequencing (0-, 2.5-, and 2500-μg/kg bw BPA groups only) and/or quantitative real-time PCR (all exposure groups). BPA-related transcriptional changes were mainly confined to the hypothalamus. Consistent with prior observations, BPA induced sex-specific effects on hypothalamic ERα and ERβ (Esr1 and Esr2) expression and hippocampal and hypothalamic oxytocin (Oxt) expression. These data demonstrate prenatal BPA exposure, even at doses below the current no-observed-adverse-effect level, can alter gene expression in the developing brain.

  18. Determination of parathion in biological fluids by means of direct solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, E; Barroso, M; Margalho, C; Cruz, A; Vieira, D N; López-Rivadulla, M

    2006-11-01

    A new and simple procedure for the determination of parathion in human whole blood and urine using direct immersion (DI) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is presented. This technique was developed using only 100 microL of sample, and ethion was used as internal standard (IS). A 65-microm Carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB) SPME fibre was selected for sampling, and the main parameters affecting the SPME process such as extraction temperature, adsorption and desorption time, salt addition, agitation and pH effect were optimized to enhance the sensitivity of the method. This optimization was also performed to allow the qualitative determination of parathion's main metabolite, paraoxon, in blood. The limits of detection and quantitation for parathion were 3 and 10 ng/mL for urine and 25 and 50 ng/mL for blood, respectively. For paraoxon, the limit of detection was 50 ng/mL in blood. The method showed linearity between the LOQ and 50 microg/mL for both matrices, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9954 to 0.9999. Precision and accuracy were in conformity with the criteria normally accepted in bioanalytical method validation. The mean absolute recoveries were 35.1% for urine and 6.7% for blood. Other parameters such as dilution of sample and stability were also validated. Its simplicity and the fact that only 100 microL of sample is required to accomplish the analysis make this method useful in forensic toxicology laboratories to determine this compound in intoxications, and it can be considered an alternative to other methods normally used for the determination of this compound in biological media.

  19. Development of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for parathion residue in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Wen-Jun; Liu, Yi-Hua; Wang, Chun-Mei; Liang, Xiao; Zhu, Guo-Nian

    2009-10-01

    A heterologous direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for parathion residue determination is described based on a monoclonal antibody and a new competitor. The effects of several physicochemical factors, such as methanol concentration, ionic strength, pH value, and sample matrix, on the performance of the ELISA were optimized for the sake of obtaining a satisfactory assay sensitivity. Results showed that when the assay medium was in the optimized condition (phosphate buffer solution [PBS] containing 10% [v/v] methanol and 0.2 mol/L NaCl at a pH value of 5.0), the sensitivity (estimated as the IC(50) value) and the limit of detection (LOD, estimated as the IC(10) value) were 1.19 and 0.08 ng/ml, respectively. The precision investigation indicated that the intraassay precision values all were below 10% and that the interassay precision values ranged from 4.89 to 19.12%. In addition, the developed ELISA showed a good linear correlation (r(2)=0.9962) to gas chromatography within the analyte's concentration range of 0.1 to 16 ng/ml. When applied to the fortified samples (parathion adding level: 5-15 microg/kg), the developed ELISA presented mean recoveries of 127.46, 122.52, 91.92, 124.01, 129.72, 99.37, and 87.17% for tomato, cucumber, banana, apple, orange, pear, and sugarcane, respectively. Results indicated that the established ELISA is a potential tool for parathion residue determination.

  20. The expression of HoxB5 and SPC in neonatal rat lung at exposure to fluoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghizadeh R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Razieh Taghizadeh,1 Zahra Taghipour,2 Akbar Karimi,1 Ali Shamsizadeh,3 Mohammad Mohsen Taghavi,2 Mahdi Shariati,2 Ahmad Shabanizadeh,2 Hamid Reza Jafari Naveh,2 Reza Bidaki,4 Fariba Aminzadeh51Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Isfahan, Iran; 2Department of Anatomy, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran; 3Department of Physiology, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran; 4Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; 5Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, IranObjective: Approximately 10% of pregnant women suffer from pregnancy-associated depression. Fluoxetine, as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is being employed as a therapy for depressive disorders. The present study aimed to determine the effects of fluoxetine on neonatal lung development.Methods: Thirty pregnant Wistar rats (weighing 200–250 g were treated daily with 7 mg/kg fluoxetine from gestation day 0 to gestation day 21, via gavage. The control group received a similar volume of distilled water only. Following delivery, the newborns and their lungs were immediately weighed in both of the groups. The right lung was fixed for histological assessments while the left lung was used for evaluation of the expression of SPC and HoxB5 by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method.Results: Results have indicated that even though the body weight and the number of neonatal rats in both groups were the same, the lung weight of neonates exposed to fluoxetine was significantly different compared to the control group (P<0.05. Expression of both genes was increased, nonetheless, only elevation of HoxB5 was significant (P<0.05. Histological studies demonstrated that lung tissue in the fluoxetine treatment group morphologically appears to be similar to the pseudoglandular phase, whereas the control group lungs experienced more development.Conclusion: According to the upregulated expression of HoxB5 concerning

  1. Neonatal sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 week and before 3 months of age. Causes Neonatal sepsis can be caused by bacteria such as Escherichia ... and Tests Lab tests can help diagnose neonatal sepsis and identify the cause of the infection. Blood tests may include: Blood ...

  2. Determination of parathion in biological fluids by means of direct Solid Phase Microextraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, Eugenia; Barroso, Mário; Margalho, C.; Cruz, Angelines; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; López-Rivadulla, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    A new and simple procedure for the determination of parathion in human whole blood and urine using direct immersion (DI) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is presented. This technique was developed using only 100 ìL of sample, and ethion was used as internal standard (IS). A 65-ìm Carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB) SPME fibre was selected for sampling, and the main parameters affecting the SPME process such as extraction ...

  3. Endothelin-1-Rho kinase interactions impair lung structure and cause pulmonary hypertension after bleomycin exposure in neonatal rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gien, Jason; Tseng, Nancy; Seedorf, Gregory; Kuhn, Katherine; Abman, Steven H

    2016-12-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the chronic lung disease associated with premature birth, characterized by impaired vascular and alveolar growth. In neonatal rats bleomycin decreases lung growth and causes pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is poorly responsive to nitric oxide. In the developing lung, through Rho kinase (ROCK) activation, ET-1 impairs endothelial cell function; however, whether ET-1-ROCK interactions contribute to impaired vascular and alveolar growth in experimental BPD is unknown. Neonatal rats were treated daily with intraperitoneal bleomycin with and without selective ET A (BQ123/BQ610) and ET B (BQ788) receptor blockers, nonselective ET receptor blocker (ETRB) (bosentan), or fasudil (ROCK inhibitor). At day 14, lungs were harvested for morphometrics, and measurements of Fulton's index (RV/LV+S), medial wall thickness (MWT), and vessel density. Lung ET-1 protein and ROCK activity (phospho-MYPT-1:total MYPT-1 ratio) were also measured by Western blot analysis. Bleomycin increased lung ET-1 protein expression by 65%, RV/LV+S by 60%, mean linear intercept (MLI) by 212%, and MWT by 140% and decreased radial alveolar count (RAC) and vessel density by 40 and 44%, respectively (P < 0.01 for each comparison). After bleomycin treatment, fasudil and bosentan partially restored RAC and vessel density and decreased MLI, RV/LV+S, and MWT to normal values. Bleomycin increased ROCK activity by 120%, which was restored to normal values by bosentan but not selective ETRB. We conclude that ET-1-ROCK interactions contribute to decreased alveolar and vascular growth and PH in experimental BPD. We speculate that nonselective ETRB and ROCK inhibitors may be effective in the treatment of infants with BPD and PH. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Developmental exposure to terbutaline alters cell signaling in mature rat brain regions and augments the effects of subsequent neonatal exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Armando; Seidler, Frederic J.; Aldridge, Justin E.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to apparently unrelated neurotoxicants can nevertheless converge on common neurodevelopmental events. We examined the long-term effects of developmental exposure of rats to terbutaline, a β-adrenoceptor agonist used to arrest preterm labor, and the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) separately and together. Treatments mimicked the appropriate neurodevelopmental stages for human exposures: terbutaline on postnatal days (PN) 2-5 and CPF on PN11-14, with assessments conducted on PN45. Although neither treatment affected growth or viability, each elicited alterations in CNS cell signaling mediated by adenylyl cyclase (AC), a transduction pathway shared by numerous neuronal and hormonal signals. Terbutaline altered signaling in the brainstem and cerebellum, with gender differences particularly notable in the cerebellum (enhanced AC in males, suppressed in females). By itself, CPF exposure elicited deficits in AC signaling in the midbrain, brainstem, and striatum. However, sequential exposure to terbutaline followed by CPF produced larger alterations and involved a wider spectrum of brain regions than were obtained with either agent alone. In the cerebral cortex, adverse effects of the combined treatment intensified between PN45 and PN60, suggesting that exposures alter the long-term program for development of synaptic communication, leading to alterations in AC signaling that emerge even after adolescence. These findings indicate that terbutaline, like CPF, is a developmental neurotoxicant, and reinforce the idea that its use in preterm labor may create a subpopulation that is sensitized to long-term CNS effects of organophosphorus insecticides

  5. Neonatal expression of amh, sox9 and sf-1 mRNA in Caiman latirostris and effects of in ovo exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durando, Milena; Cocito, Laura; Rodríguez, Horacio A; Varayoud, Jorgelina; Ramos, Jorge G; Luque, Enrique H; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica

    2013-09-15

    Caiman latirostris is a reptilian species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Male-to-female sex reversal can be achieved after in ovo estrogen/xenoestrogen exposure. This is known as hormone-dependent sex determination (HSD). The amh, sox9 and sf-1 genes are involved in sex determination, sex differentiation, and steroidogenesis. The aims of this study were: (a) to establish the expression patterns of amh, sox9 and sf-1 mRNA in the gonad-adrenal-mesonephros (GAM) complexes of neonatal TSD-male and TSD-female caimans, (b) to compare the expression of these genes between TSD-females and HSD-females (born from E2-exposed eggs incubated at the male-producing temperature) and (c) to evaluate whether in ovo exposure to a low dose of E2 or bisphenol A (BPA) or to a high dose of endosulfan (END) modifies amh, sox9 or sf-1 mRNA expressions in neonatal males. The mRNA expressions of amh, sox9 and sf-1 in GAM complexes from TSD-males and TSD-females and from HSD-females were quantitatively compared by RT-PCR. A sexually dimorphic pattern of amh and sox9 mRNA expression was found, with a higher expression in TSD-males than in TSD-females. sf-1 mRNA did not differ between TSD-males and TSD-females. HSD-females exhibited a higher expression of sox9 than TSD-females. In males, increased mRNA expression of sex-determining genes was observed after in ovo exposure to END. E2 decreased sox9 but increased sf-1 mRNA expression. Changes induced by BPA were evident although not significant. These results provide new insights into the potential mechanisms that lead to the gonadal histo-functional alterations observed in caimans exposed to contaminated environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonatal Persistent Exposure to 6-Propyl-2-thiouracil, a Thyroid-Disrupting Chemical, Differentially Modulates Expression of Hepatic Catalase and C/EBP-β in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Suresh Kumar; Dandapat, Jagneshwar; Sahoo, Sunil Kumar; Roy, Anita; Chainy, Gagan B N

    2016-02-01

    Persistent exposure of rats to 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) from birth resulted in decreases in plasma thyroid hormone (TH) levels and hepatic expression of catalase and CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBP-β). Catalase promoter region (-185 to +52) that contains binding sites for C/EBP-β showed an augmentation in the methylation level along with a change in methylation pattern of CpG islands in response to PTU treatment. PTU withdrawal on 30 days of birth restored TH levels and C/EBP-β to control rats in adulthood. Although catalase expression was restored to some extent in adult rats in response to PTU withdrawal, a permanent change in its promoter CpG methylation pattern was recorded. The results suggest that downregulation of adult hepatic catalase gene in response to persistent neonatal PTU exposure may not solely be attributed to thyroid-disrupting properties of PTU. It is possible that besides thyroid-disrupting behavior, PTU may impair expression of hepatic catalase by altering methylation pattern of its promoter. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Influence of agronomic amendments on the fate of bound methyl parathion residues in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstl, Z.; Helling, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    The fate of [ring- 14 C] methyl parathion in a silt loam soil was monitored during a 49-day incubation period. At this point, 54% of the initial 14 C remained in the soil; of this, 13% was extractable with MeOH and 87% was bound residue. Soils were then treated with inorganic and organic amendments and incubated an additional 70 days. Release of methyl parathion bound residues could not be demonstrated, but mineralization of both bound and extractable 14 C to 14 CO 2 was seen. Slow, continuous production of CO 2 , all at comparable rates, occurred with the controls and with amendments H 2 SO 4 , (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , NH 4 OH, chitin, oat seedlings, and oat straw. Glucose and asparagine caused high rates of 14 CO 2 production. HgCl 2 gave very high initial rates of 14 CO 2 loss; the rate declined to that of the control only after 9-10 weeks. The lime treatment exceeded the controls after 1 week, declining only slightly with time. The effects of sewage sludge and dairy manure were similar to the controls except that: (a) sludge caused a very high initial loss of 14 CO 2 , and (b) both treatments gave an unaccountable loss of 14 C, perhaps as 14 CH 4 from anaerobic conditions. By 70 days, levels of extractable 14 C and bound 14 C had both declined twice as rapidly in certain amended soils as in unamended controls. (author)

  8. No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cohen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918-1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual mortality rates did not differ systematically for flu cohorts relative to surrounding cohorts. We calculate at most a 20-day reduction in life expectancy for flu cohorts; likely values are much smaller. Estimates of influenza incidence during the pandemic suggest that exposure was high enough for this to be a robust negative result.

  9. Exposure of neonatal male rats to estrogen induces abnormal morphology of the penis and loss of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, H O; Braden, T D; Williams, C S; Dalvi, P; Williams, J W; Srivastava, K K

    2004-01-01

    The research objectives are to determine whether estrogen-induced infertility is associated with abnormal morphology of the penis and if morphological alterations can be reversed by testosterone (T). Male pups received diethylstilbestrol (DES) on alternate days from postnatal days 2 to 12. They received T or empty implants at 180 days, were tested for fertility at 188 days, and terminated at 200 days. While 5/7 control males sired pups, only 1/6 did in the DES group, and 0/8 in the DES plus T group. In addition to reductions in penile length and weight, the novel structural change induced by DES, and not reversed by T, was a replacement of cavernous spaces by fat cells in the penis body. Hence, T substitution for 8 days at adulthood did not reverse infertility in rats treated neonatally with DES and provided evidence that infertility probably resulted from absence of cavernous spaces and/or accumulation of fat cells in the penis body.

  10. Aluminum exposure and toxicity in neonates: a practical guide to halt aluminum overload in the prenatal and perinatal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanni, Daniela; Ambu, Rossano; Gerosa, Clara; Nemolato, Sonia; Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Van Eyken, Peter; Fanos, Vassilios; Zaffanello, Marco; Faa, Gavino

    2014-05-01

    During the last years, human newborns have been overexposed to biologically reactive aluminum, with possible relevant consequences on their future health and on their susceptibility to a variety of diseases. Children, newborns and particularly preterm neonates are at an increased risk of aluminum toxicity because of their relative immaturity. Based on recent original publications and classical data of the literatures, we reviewed the aluminum content in mother's food during the intrauterine life as well as in breast milk and infant formula during lactation. We also determined the possible role of aluminum in parenteral nutrition solutions, in adjuvants of vaccines and in pharmaceutical products. A special focus is placed on the relationship between aluminum overexposure and the insurgence of bone diseases. Practical points of management and prevention are suggested. Aluminum sources that infants may receive during the first 6 months of life are presented. In the context of prevention of possible adverse effects of aluminum overload in fetal tissues during development, simple suggestions to pregnant women are described. Finally, practical points of management and prevention are suggested. Pediatricians and neonatologists must be more concerned about aluminum content in all products our newborns are exposed to, starting from monitoring aluminum concentrations in milk- and soy-based formulas in which, on the basis of recent studies, there is still too much aluminum.

  11. Cerium dioxide as a new reactive sorbent for fast degradation of parathion methyl and some other organophosphates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janos, P.; Kuráň, P.; Kormunda, M.; Štengl, Václav; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Došek, M.; Šťastný, M.; Ederer, J.; Pilařová, V.; Vrtoch, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2014), s. 360-370 ISSN 1002-0721 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : cerium dioxide * carbonate precursor * lanthanides * organophosphate pesticide * parathion methyl * chemical warfare agents Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.261, year: 2014

  12. No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Alan; Tillinghast, J; Canudas-Romo, V

    2010-01-01

    We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918-1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual...

  13. Administration of memantine during withdrawal mitigates overactivity and spatial learning impairments associated with neonatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Riley, Edward P; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can disrupt central nervous system development, manifesting as behavioral deficits that include motor, emotional, and cognitive dysfunction. Both clinical and animal studies have reported binge drinking during development to be highly correlated with an increased risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We hypothesized that binge drinking may be especially damaging because it is associated with episodes of alcohol withdrawal. Specifically, we have been investigating the possibility that NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity occurs during alcohol withdrawal and contributes to developmental alcohol-related neuropathology. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 or eliprodil during withdrawal attenuates behavioral alterations associated with early alcohol exposure. In this study, we investigated the effects of memantine, a clinically used NMDA receptor antagonist, on minimizing ethanol-induced overactivity and spatial learning deficits. Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 6.0 g/kg ethanol via intubation on postnatal day (PD) 6, a period of brain development that models late gestation in humans. Controls were intubated with a calorically matched maltose solution. During withdrawal, 24 and 36 hours after ethanol exposure, subjects were injected with a total of either 0, 20, or 30 mg/kg memantine. The subjects' locomotor levels were recorded in open field activity monitors on PDs 18 to 21 and on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task on PDs 40 to 43. Alcohol exposure induced overactivity and impaired performance in spatial learning. Memantine administration significantly attenuated the ethanol-associated behavioral alterations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, memantine may be neuroprotective when administered during ethanol withdrawal. These data have important implications for the treatment of EtOH's neurotoxic effects and provide further support that ethanol withdrawal

  14. Neonatal Citrulline Supplementation and Later Exposure to a High Fructose Diet in Rats Born with a Low Birth Weight: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhat-Thang; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Pagniez, Anthony; Ouguerram, Khadija; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Winer, Norbert; Darmaun, Dominique

    2017-04-11

    A low birth weight (LBW) leads to a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Literature suggests that citrulline supplementation in adulthood prevents the effect of a high fructose diet on energy metabolism. Whether neonatal citrulline supplementation would alter early growth or energy metabolism in the long-term in rats with LBW is unknown. LBW pups born from dams fed a low (4%) protein diet, were nursed by normally-fed dams and received isonitrogenous supplements of either l-citrulline or l-alanine by gavage from the sixth day of life until weaning, and were subsequently exposed to 10%-fructose in drinking water from weaning to 90 days of age. The oral glucose tolerance was tested (OGTT) at 70 days of age, and rats were sacrificed at 90 days of age. Pre-weaning citrulline supplementation failed to alter the growth trajectory, OGTT, plasma triglycerides, or fat mass accretion in adulthood; yet, it was associated with increased liver triglycerides, decreased liver total cholesterol, and a distinct liver lipidomic profile that may result in a predisposition to liver disease. We conclude that pre-weaning supplementation with citrulline does not impact early growth, but might impact liver fat metabolism in adulthood upon exposure to a high fructose diet.

  15. Effects of a chronic exposure to a highly palatable diet and its withdrawal, in adulthood, on cerebral Na+,K+-ATPase and plasma S100B in neonatally handled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Benetti, Carla; Silveira, Patrícia P; Matté, Cristiane; Stefanello, Francieli M; Leite, Marina C; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto S; Wyse, Angela T S; Dalmaz, Carla; Goldani, Marcelo Z

    2010-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that early environment influences the metabolic response, affecting abdominal fat deposition in adult female rats exposed to a long-term highly caloric diet. In the present study, our goal was to verify the effects of the chronic exposure, in adulthood, to a highly palatable diet (chocolate) on cerebral Na+,K+-ATPase activity and S100B protein concentrations, and the response to its withdrawal in neonatally handled and non-handled rats. We measured the consumption of foods (standard lab chow and chocolate), body weight gain, S100B protein concentrations, as well as cerebral Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity during chronic exposure and after chocolate withdrawal in adult female rats that had been exposed or not to neonatal handling (10 min/day, 10 first days of life). Non-handled rats chronically exposed to chocolate exhibited increased plasma S100B levels, but there was no difference in abdominal fat S100B concentration between groups. Chronic chocolate consumption decreased Na+,K+-ATPase activity in both amygdala and hippocampus in non-handled, but not in handled rats, and this effect disappeared after chocolate withdrawal. Non-handled animals also demonstrated increased frequency of head shaking in the open field after 24h of chocolate withdrawal in comparison to handled ones. These findings suggest that neonatal handling modifies the vulnerability to metabolic and brain alterations induced by chronic exposure to a highly palatable diet in adulthood. Copyright 2009 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. METIER (Modular Ecotoxicity Tests Incorporating Ecological Relevance) for difficult substances--III. Effects of medium renewal and use of a carrier on the bioavailability of parathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhermino, L; Ribeiro, R; Gonçalves, F; Soares, A M

    1996-01-01

    In this work we compared the effects of medium renewal and use of a carrier (ethanol) in the lethal toxicity of parathion to Daphnia magna Straus. Actual concentrations measured in test solutions with and without ethanol were not significantly different, indicating that there is no need for a carrier solution to assist dissolution of parathion, up to a concentration of 5 mg litre(-1). LC50 values at 48 h from bioassays with and without medium renewal were identical, indicating that in our experimental conditions, degradation of parathion was not a significant consideration. Similar 48-h LC50 values were obtained in all tests, with or without ethanol present. Thus, potential interactions between carrier and toxicant had no effect on the lethal toxicity of parathion to D. magna.

  17. Effects of the organophosphorous methyl parathion on the branchial epithelium of a freshwater fish Metynnis roosevelti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Marcelo Rubens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Gills are vital structures for fish, since they are the main site for gaseous exchange as well as partially responsible for osmorregulation, acid-basic balance, excretion of nitrogenous compounds and taste. Chemicals in the water may alter the morphology of branchial cells of fish that are, therefore, a useful model for environmental impact and ecotoxicology studies. In order to investigate the effects of an organophosphorous compound, methyl parathion, on the gills of the fish, samples of Metynnis roosevelti were exposed to lethal (7ppm and sublethal (1ppm doses of Mentox 600 CE. Through light and scanning electron microscopy, shrinking of the branchial epithelium, followed by detachment and hyperplasia were observed. Externally, the branchial filaments presented the gradual disappearance of microridges. Even in sublethal doses, the organophosphorous reduced the health and fitness of these fish, as consequence of secondary effects derived from changes in the branchial epithelium, impairing oxygenation and ionic balance of the organism.

  18. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of lindane, carbofuran and methyl parathion on various Indian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Krishna, K.; Philip, Ligy

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption characteristics of three insecticides on four Indian soils were studied. Insecticides used were representative of organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbomate groups. The order of adsorption of pesticides on soils was: lindane > methyl parathion > carbofuran. Compost soil had shown the maximum adsorption capacity. The order of adsorption capacity of various soils were: compost soil > clayey soil > red soil > sandy soil. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted to Freundlich model and K f values increased with increase in organic matter content of the soils. Thermodynamic parameters indicated favorable adsorption of all the three pesticides in four different soils. Adsorption was exothermic in nature. Distilled water desorbed 30-60% of adsorbed pesticides whereas; organic solvents were able to affect 50-80% of sorbed pesticides. Clay content and organic matter played a significant role in pesticide adsorption and desorption processes. Hysteresis effect was observed in red, clayey and compost soils. Hysteresis effect increased with increase in organic matter and clay content of the soils

  19. Metabolic risks of neonates at birth following in utero exposure to HIV-ART: the amino acid profile of cord blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moutloatse, Gontse P.; Schoeman, Johannes C.; Lindeque, Zander; van Reenen, Mari; Hankemeier, Thomas; Bunders, Madeleine J.; Reinecke, Carolus J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Untargeted metabolomics of cord blood indicated that antiretroviral therapy to HIV-infected mothers (HIV-ART) did not compromise the exposed neonates with regard to the stress of neonatal hypoglycaemia at birth. However, identified biomarkers reflected stress in their energy metabolism,

  20. Increased expression of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs at the pituitary following exposure to estrogen during the critical period of neonatal sex differentiation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, H; Navarro, V M; Nielsen, John E

    2006-01-01

    in the neuroendocrine system controlling development and function of the reproductive axis; the HP unit being highly sensitive to the organizing effects of endogenous and exogenous sex steroids. To gain knowledge on the molecular mode of action and potential biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic compounds at the HP unit...... by combination of RT-PCR analyses and in situ hybridization. Induction of alpha- and beta-globin mRNA expression at the pituitary by neonatal exposure to estrogen was demonstrated as dose-dependent and it was persistently detected up to puberty. In contrast, durable up-regulation of alpha- and beta-globin genes...

  1. Neonatal arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Banani; Basu, Srikanta; Parmar, Veena R

    2006-02-01

    Neonatal arrhythmias are not uncommon; however, they rarely cause hemodynamic compromise. This paper aims to study the etiology, spectrum and outcome of neonates with arrhythmias who presented to a pediatric department. All neonates, either inborn or brought to the pediatric emergency with rhythm disorders, between August 1999 to August 2002, were included prospectively. Evaluation including a search for secondary causes of rhythm disorder and a chest X-ray, standard 12-lead electrocardiography and echocardiography in all. The management required in each and the outcomes were noted. Nine neonates were identified, of which 4 were inborn. Tachycardia was seen in 8 neonates and bradycardia in only one. Three neonates had an antenatal onset of arrhythmias; in the rest it was postnatal in onset. Five neonates had a secondary rhythm disorder, secondary to metabolic derangements in 4 and a cardiac mass in 1. Five had ventricular arrhythmias and 5 had hemodynamic compromise due to the arrhythmia. The outcome was poor in 4 and was related to the underlying illness. Tachyarrhythmia is more common than bradyarrhythmia in the neonate. Arrhythmias secondary to various metabolic causes are more common than primary rhythm disorders.

  2. Tuberculosis neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Durán, Xavier

    1986-01-01

    PROTOCOLOS TERAPEUTICOS. TUBERCULOSIS NEONATAL 1. CONCEPTO La tuberculosis neonatal es la infección del recién nacido producida por el bacilo de Koch. Es una situación rara pero grave que requiere un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento enérgico..

  3. Impact of exposure to cooking fuels on stillbirths, perinatal, very early and late neonatal mortality - a multicenter prospective cohort study in rural communities in India, Pakistan, Kenya, Zambia and Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Archana B; Meleth, Sreelatha; Pasha, Omrana; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Esamai, Fabian; Garces, Ana L; Chomba, Elwyn; McClure, Elizabeth M; Wright, Linda L; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Moore, Janet L; Saleem, Sarah; Liechty, Edward A; Goldenberg, Robert L; Derman, Richard J; Hambidge, K Michael; Carlo, Waldemar A; Hibberd, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Consequences of exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from biomass fuels used for cooking on neonatal deaths and stillbirths is poorly understood. In a large multi-country observational study, we examined whether exposure to HAP was associated with perinatal mortality (stillbirths from gestation week 20 and deaths through day 7 of life) as well as when the deaths occurred (macerated, non-macerated stillbirths, very early neonatal mortality (day 0-2) and later neonatal mortality (day 3-28). Questions addressing household fuel use were asked at pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal follow-up visits in a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in rural communities in five low and lower middle income countries participating in the Global Network for Women and Children's Health's Maternal and Newborn Health Registry. The study was conducted between May 2011 and October 2012. Polluting fuels included kerosene, charcoal, coal, wood, straw, crop waste and dung. Clean fuels included electricity, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas and biogas. We studied the outcomes of 65,912 singleton pregnancies, 18 % from households using clean fuels (59 % LPG) and 82 % from households using polluting fuels (86 % wood). Compared to households cooking with clean fuels, there was an increased risk of perinatal mortality among households using polluting fuels (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.44, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.30-1.61). Exposure to HAP increased the risk of having a macerated stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.66, 95%CI 1.23-2.25), non-macerated stillbirth (aOR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.15-1.85) and very early neonatal mortality (aOR 1.82, 95 % CI 1.47-2.22). Perinatal mortality was associated with exposure to HAP from week 20 of pregnancy through at least day 2 of life. Since pregnancy losses before labor and delivery are difficult to track, the effect of exposure to polluting fuels on global perinatal mortality may have previously been underestimated. Clinical

  4. Nutritional factors modify the inhibition of CNS development by combined exposure to methadone and ethanol in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, C M; Pierce, D R; Nyamweya, N N; Yang, H; Kasmi, Y; Mosby, R; Serbus, D C; Light, K E

    1997-03-01

    The consequences resulting from the combined exposure to methadone and ethanol during a time period equivalent to the third trimester brain growth spurt was the purpose of this study. Rat pups were treated on postnatal days 6-10 and sacrificed on postnatal day 11. Body weight along with the heart, liver, kidneys, whole brain, cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem weights were measured. The impact of nutritional factors were identified by delivery of the drug solutions in one of two intubation vehicles differing in both caloric density and composition. Ethanol and methadone in combination result in significantly increased detrimental effects compared to methadone alone only when possible nutritional compromise was present. The combined effect of both drugs significantly inhibited body growth and the development of all brain regions studied. Neither drug alone, nor in combination, produced significant inhibition of growth in the liver, heart, or kidney. The nutritional status of the pup, as represented by vehicle composition, was able to modify the specific drug effects and suggests that nutritional status can mask or enhance the determination of specific drug effects.

  5. Neonatal citalopram exposure decreases serotonergic fiber density in the olfactory bulb of male but not female adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlin eZhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of serotonin (5HT during early development has been shown to induce long-lasting morphological changes within the raphe nuclear complex and serotonergic circuitry throughout the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated altered raphe-derived 5HT transporter (SERT immunoreactive axonal expression in several cortical target sites after brief perinatal exposure to selective 5HT reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (CTM. Since the serotonergic raphe nuclear complex projects to the olfactory bulb (OB and perinatal 5HT disruption has been shown to disrupt olfactory behaviors, the goal of this study was to further investigate such developmental effects in the OB of CTM exposed animals. Male and female rat pups were exposed to CTM from postnatal day 8-21. After animals reach adulthood (>90 days, OB tissue sections were processed immunohistochemically for SERT antiserum. Our data revealed that the density of the SERT immunoreactive fibers decreased ~40% in the OB of CTM exposed male rats, but not female rats. Our findings support a broad and long-lasting change throughout most of the 5HT system, including the OB, after early manipulation of 5HT. Because dysfunction of the early 5HT system has been implicated in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, these new findings may offer insight into the abnormal olfactory perception often noted in patients with ASD.

  6. Neonatal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2017-03-01

    Neonatal hypertension (HT) is a frequently under reported condition and is seen uncommonly in the intensive care unit. Neonatal HT has defined arbitrarily as blood pressure more than 2 standard deviations above the base as per the age or defined as systolic BP more than 95% for infants of similar size, gestational age and postnatal age. It has been diagnosed long back but still is the least studied field in neonatology. There is still lack of universally accepted normotensive data for neonates as per gestational age, weight and post-natal age. Neonatal HT is an important morbidity that needs timely detection and appropriate management, as it can lead to devastating short-term effect on various organs and also poor long-term adverse outcomes. There is no consensus yet about the treatment guidelines and majority of treatment protocols are based on the expert opinion. Neonate with HT should be evaluated in detail starting from antenatal, perinatal, post-natal history, and drug intake by neonate and mother. This review article covers multiple aspects of neonatal hypertension like definition, normotensive data, various etiologies and methods of BP measurement, clinical features, diagnosis and management.

  7. Tirosinemia neonatal Neonatal tyrosinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael J. Manotas Cabarcas

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la técnica de Udenfriend y Cooper, se midieron los niveles de tirosina en la sangre del cordón de 26 prematuros y 31 niños de término, con el fin de comparar las concentraciones según la edad gestacional y detectar la presencia de la tirosinemia neonatal. Se encontró un caso de esta entidad en un niño de 31 semanas de edad gestacional, lo cual correspondió al 3.8% de los prematuros y al 1.8% del grupo total. La concentración de tirosina en el paciente fue de 53 JJ.M. El promedio de las concentraciones en los prematuros menores de 32 semanas fue de 16.8 :t 6.3 JJ.M; el de los niños entre 33 y 36 semanas fue de 19.3 :t 7.6 JJ.M y el de los niños de término, de 17.2 :t 9.4 JJ.M. Las pruebas estadísticas no mostraron tendencias ni diferencias significativas entre estas concentraciones. El promedio ponderado para el grupo total fue 17.7 :t 7.3 JJ.M. Se recomienda establecer programas de tamizaje para detectar este problema porque puede presentar repercusiones neurológicas posteriores.

    By means of the Udenfriend-Cooper technique, levels of tyrosine were measured in the cord blood of 26 preterm and 31 term Infants; the objective was to compare tyrosine concentrations according to gestational age and to detect the presence of neonatal tyrosinemia. A case of this disease was found In an Infant with 31 weeks of gestational age; this case represented 3.8% of preterm Infants and 1.8% of the total group. Average tyrosine concentration according to age was as follows: 16.8: ± 6.3  µM in Infants under 32 weeks of gestational age; 19.3: ±: 7.6 µM In those between 33 and 36 weeks and 17.2 : ±: 9.4 µM In the term Infants

  8. Neonatal retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero T Kivelä

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From 7% to 10% of all retinoblastomas and from 44% to 71% of familial retinoblastomas in developed countries are diagnosed in the neonatal period, usually through pre- or post-natal screening prompted by a positive family history and sometimes serendipitously during screening for retinopathy of prematurity or other reasons. In developing countries, neonatal diagnosis of retinoblastoma has been less common. Neonatal retinoblastoma generally develops from a germline mutation of RB1, the retinoblastoma gene, even when the family history is negative and is thus usually hereditary. At least one-half of infants with neonatal retinoblastoma have unilateral tumors when the diagnosis is made, typically the International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification (Murphree Group B or higher, but most germline mutation carriers will progress to bilateral involvement, typically Group A in the fellow eye. Neonatal leukokoria usually leads to the diagnosis in children without a family history of retinoblastoma, and a Group C tumor or higher is typical in the more advanced involved eye. Almost all infants with neonatal retinoblastoma have at least one eye with a tumor in proximity to the foveola, but the macula of the fellow eye is frequently spared. Consequently, loss of reading vision from both eyes is exceptional. A primary ectopic intracranial neuroblastic tumor known as trilateral retinoblastoma is no more common after neonatal than other retinoblastoma. For many reasons, neonatal retinoblastoma may be a challenge to eradicate, and the early age at diagnosis and relatively small tumors do not guarantee the preservation of both eyes of every involved child. Oncology nurses can be instrumental in contributing to better outcomes by ensuring that hereditary retinoblastoma survivors receive genetic counseling, by referring families of survivors to early screening programs when they are planning for a baby, and by providing psychological and practical support

  9. Neonatal Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Tero T.; Hadjistilianou, Theodora

    2017-01-01

    From 7% to 10% of all retinoblastomas and from 44% to 71% of familial retinoblastomas in developed countries are diagnosed in the neonatal period, usually through pre- or post-natal screening prompted by a positive family history and sometimes serendipitously during screening for retinopathy of prematurity or other reasons. In developing countries, neonatal diagnosis of retinoblastoma has been less common. Neonatal retinoblastoma generally develops from a germline mutation of RB1, the retinoblastoma gene, even when the family history is negative and is thus usually hereditary. At least one-half of infants with neonatal retinoblastoma have unilateral tumors when the diagnosis is made, typically the International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification (Murphree) Group B or higher, but most germline mutation carriers will progress to bilateral involvement, typically Group A in the fellow eye. Neonatal leukokoria usually leads to the diagnosis in children without a family history of retinoblastoma, and a Group C tumor or higher is typical in the more advanced involved eye. Almost all infants with neonatal retinoblastoma have at least one eye with a tumor in proximity to the foveola, but the macula of the fellow eye is frequently spared. Consequently, loss of reading vision from both eyes is exceptional. A primary ectopic intracranial neuroblastic tumor known as trilateral retinoblastoma is no more common after neonatal than other retinoblastoma. For many reasons, neonatal retinoblastoma may be a challenge to eradicate, and the early age at diagnosis and relatively small tumors do not guarantee the preservation of both eyes of every involved child. Oncology nurses can be instrumental in contributing to better outcomes by ensuring that hereditary retinoblastoma survivors receive genetic counseling, by referring families of survivors to early screening programs when they are planning for a baby, and by providing psychological and practical support for parents when

  10. Neonatal exposure to genistein adversely impacts the ontogeny of hypothalamic kisspeptin signaling pathways and ovarian development in the peripubertal female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa, Sandra M; Todd, Karina L; Sullivan, Alana W; Cao, Jinyan; Mickens, Jillian A; Patisaul, Heather B

    2011-04-01

    Neonatal exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) can advance pubertal onset and induce premature anestrous in female rats. It was recently discovered that hypothalamic kisspeptin (KISS) signaling pathways are sexually dimorphic and regulate both the timing of pubertal onset and estrous cyclicity. Thus we hypothesized that disrupted sex specific ontogeny of KISS signaling pathways might be a mechanism underlying these EDC effects. We first established the sex specific development of KISS gene expression, cell number and neural fiber density across peripuberty in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and arcuate nucleus (ARC), hypothesizing that the sexually dimorphic aspects of KISS signaling would be most vulnerable to EDCs. We next exposed female rats to the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN, 1 or 10 mg/kg bw), estradiol benzoate (EB, 10 μg), or vehicle from post natal day (P) 0-3 via subcutaneous (sc) injection. Animals were sacrificed on either P21, 24, 28, or 33 (n=5-14 per group at each age). Vaginal opening was significantly advanced by EB and the higher dose of GEN compared to control animals and was accompanied by lower numbers of KISS immunoreactive fibers in the AVPV and ARC. Ovarian morphology was also assessed in all age groups for the presence of multiple oocyte follicles (MOFs). The number of MOFs decreased over time in each group, and none were observed in control animals by P24. MOFs were still present, however, in the EB and 10 mg/kg GEN groups beyond P24 indicating a disruption in the timing of ovarian development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased expression of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs at the pituitary following exposure to estrogen during the critical period of neonatal sex differentiation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, H; Navarro, V M; Nielsen, John E

    2006-01-01

    Deterioration of reproductive health in human and wildlife species during the past decades has drawn considerable attention to the potential adverse effects of exposure to xenosteroids during sensitive periods of sex development. The hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) unit is a key element in the neuroe......Deterioration of reproductive health in human and wildlife species during the past decades has drawn considerable attention to the potential adverse effects of exposure to xenosteroids during sensitive periods of sex development. The hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) unit is a key element...... in the neuroendocrine system controlling development and function of the reproductive axis; the HP unit being highly sensitive to the organizing effects of endogenous and exogenous sex steroids. To gain knowledge on the molecular mode of action and potential biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic compounds at the HP unit......, we screened for differentially expressed genes at the pituitary and hypothalamus of rats after neonatal exposure to estradiol benzoate. Our analyses identified persistent up-regulation of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs at the pituitary following neonatal estrogenization. This finding was confirmed...

  12. Distribution of 14C in soil and rice plants following application of 14C - parathion to soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.M. de; Ruegg, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    Amount of residues of 14 C-parathion in soil rice plants after application of the insecticide to soil were determined in four systems studied during five weeks: pots of soil with and without plants and open or enclosed by a transparent cover. Measurements of amounts volatilized and 14 CO 2 evolution from the pesticide were made in closed system without plants. The bound residues in soil and plants were also determined. Results indicated that parathion half life in a Gley Humic soil was about two weeks. Very little radiocarbon was taken up by rice plants; of this, more was found in shoots of plants enclosed, probably by collection of the volatilized material by plants. About 6% and 4% of the 14 C-parathion were found as volatilized material and 14 CO 2 , respectively after five weeks. Bound residues varied very little and reached a maximum of 22% in soil and in plants amounted to less than 2% at the final of the experiment. (Author) [pt

  13. Neonatal Nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Doreen; Morris, Maryke

    1994-01-01

    "Neonatal Nursing" offers a systematic approach to the nursing care of the sick newborn baby. Nursing actions and responsibilities are the focus of the text with relevant research findings, clinical applications, anatomy, physiology and pathology provided where necessary. This comprehensive text covers all areas of neonatal nursing including ethics, continuing care in the community, intranatal care, statistics and pharmokinetics so that holistic care of the infant is described. This book shou...

  14. Effect of age on acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in individual-metal exposures to Daphnia magna neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traudt, Elizabeth M; Ranville, James F; Meyer, Joseph S

    2017-01-01

    In previous studies, variability was high among replicate acute cadmium (Cd) Daphnia magna lethality tests (e.g., >10-fold range of median effect concentrations [EC50s]), less among zinc (Zn) tests, and relatively low for copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) tests. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) protocol includes starting toxicity tests with neonates less than 24 h old, the authors hypothesized that age-related differences in sensitivity to metals might occur even within that relatively narrow age range. Daphnia magna neonates were collected during 3 age windows (0-4 h, 10-14 h, and 20-24 h old) and immediately exposed to each of the 4 metals for 48 h using the standard USEPA protocol. In repeated sets of tests during different weeks, the Cd EC50 of the youngest neonates was approximately 10-fold greater than the EC50 of the oldest neonates (i.e., Cd was less toxic to the youngest neonates) and the EC50 of neonates aged 10 h to 14 h was intermediate. Age-related differences were negligible in Cu, Ni, and Zn tests. Therefore, variability in toxicity of Cd may partly be caused by temporal variability in neonate age at the start of toxicity tests. Decreasing the age range of D. magna used in toxicity tests could help to improve the accuracy and precision of toxicity models, particularly for metal mixtures. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:113-119. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Neonatal neurosonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccabona, Michael, E-mail: michael.riccabona@klinikum-graz.at

    2014-09-15

    Paediatric and particularly neonatal neurosonography still remains a mainstay of imaging the neonatal brain. It can be performed at the bedside without any need for sedation or specific monitoring. There are a number of neurologic conditions that significantly influence morbidity and mortality in neonates and infants related to the brain and the spinal cord; most of them can be addressed by ultrasonography (US). However, with the introduction of first CT and then MRI, neonatal neurosonography is increasingly considered just a basic first line technique that offers only orienting information and does not deliver much relevant information. This is partially caused by inferior US performance – either by restricted availability of modern equipment or by lack of specialized expertise in performing and reading neurosonographic scans. This essay tries to highlight the value and potential of US in the neonatal brain and briefly touching also on the spinal cord imaging. The common pathologies and their US appearance as well as typical indication and applications of neurosonography are listed. The review aims at encouraging paediatric radiologists to reorient there imaging algorithms and skills towards the potential of modern neurosonography, particularly in the view of efficacy, considering growing economic pressure, and the low invasiveness as well as the good availability of US that can easily be repeated any time at the bedside.

  16. Neonatal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback. PMID:24330444

  17. Hydrolysis mechanism of methyl parathion evidenced by Q-Exactive mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Caixiang; Liao, Xiaoping; Luo, Yinwen; Wu, Sisi; Wang, Jianwei

    2015-12-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), a kind of widely used pesticides, are currently attracting great attention due to their adverse effects on human central nervous systems, particularly in children. Although the hydrolysis behavior of OPPs has been studied well, its hydrolysis mechanism remained controversial, especially at various pH conditions, partly due to their relatively complex structures and abundant moieties that were prone to be attacked by nucleophiles. The Q-Exactive mass spectrometer, part of those hybrid high-resolution mass spectrometers (HRMS), was used to determine hydrolysis products of methyl parathion (MP), a kind of OPPs in situ buffer aqueous solution with pH ranging from 1 to 13 in this study. Most of the complex hydrolysis products of MP were identified due to the high sensitivity and accuracy of HRMS. The results demonstrated that the hydrolysis rate and pathway of MP were strong pH dependent. With the increase of pH, the hydrolysis rate of MP increased, and two different reaction mechanisms were identified: SN (2)@P pathway dominated the hydrolysis process at high pH (e.g., pH ≥ 11) while SN (2)@C was the main behavior at low pH (e.g., pH ≤ 9). This study helps understand the hydrolysis mechanism of OPPs at various pH and extends the use of Q-Exactive mass spectrometry in identifying organic pollutants and their degradation products in environmental matrices.

  18. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of lindane, carbofuran and methyl parathion on various Indian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rama Krishna, K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: ramakrishnaiitm@gmail.com; Philip, Ligy [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: ligy@iitm.ac.in

    2008-12-30

    Adsorption and desorption characteristics of three insecticides on four Indian soils were studied. Insecticides used were representative of organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbomate groups. The order of adsorption of pesticides on soils was: lindane > methyl parathion > carbofuran. Compost soil had shown the maximum adsorption capacity. The order of adsorption capacity of various soils were: compost soil > clayey soil > red soil > sandy soil. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted to Freundlich model and K{sub f} values increased with increase in organic matter content of the soils. Thermodynamic parameters indicated favorable adsorption of all the three pesticides in four different soils. Adsorption was exothermic in nature. Distilled water desorbed 30-60% of adsorbed pesticides whereas; organic solvents were able to affect 50-80% of sorbed pesticides. Clay content and organic matter played a significant role in pesticide adsorption and desorption processes. Hysteresis effect was observed in red, clayey and compost soils. Hysteresis effect increased with increase in organic matter and clay content of the soils.

  19. Probing the mechanisms for the selectivity and promiscuity of methyl parathion hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purg, Miha; Pabis, Anna; Baier, Florian; Tokuriki, Nobuhiko; Jackson, Colin; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2016-11-13

    Diverse organophosphate hydrolases have convergently evolved the ability to hydrolyse man-made organophosphates. Thus, these enzymes are attractive model systems for studying the factors shaping enzyme functional evolution. Methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) is an enzyme from the metallo-β-lactamase superfamily, which hydrolyses a wide range of organophosphate, aryl ester and lactone substrates. In addition, MPH demonstrates metal-ion-dependent selectivity patterns. The origins of this remain unclear, but are linked to open questions about the more general role of metal ions in functional evolution and divergence within enzyme superfamilies. Here, we present detailed mechanistic studies of the paraoxonase and arylesterase activities of MPH complexed with five different transition metal ions, and demonstrate that the hydrolysis reactions proceed via similar pathways and transition states. However, while it is possible to discern a clear structural origin for the selectivity between different substrates, the selectivity between different metal ions appears to lie instead in the distinct electrostatic properties of the metal ions themselves, which causes subtle changes in transition state geometries and metal-metal distances at the transition state rather than significant structural changes in the active site. While subtle, these differences can be significant for shaping the metal-ion-dependent activity patterns observed for this enzyme.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Dose-response characteristics of neonatal exposure to genistein on pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin releasing hormone and volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in postpubertal castrated female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, K A; Hughes, C L

    1993-01-01

    Estrogen exposure during critical periods of development promotes androgenization of the brain, which is reflected in altered morphology, behavior, and cyclic hormone secretion in females. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that neonatal female rats injected with pharmaceutical or naturally occurring estrogens had decreased GnRH-induced LH secretion and increased volume of the SDN-POA as 42 day castrates. The current experiment defines the dose-response characteristics of neonatal exposure to the isoflavonoid phytoestrogen genistein (G) on pituitary sensitivity to GnRH and SDN-POA volume. Litters of rat pups received subcutaneous injections of either corn oil, 1, 10, 100, 200, 400, 500, or 1000 micrograms of G on days 1 to 10 of life. The litters were ovariectomized and weaned on day 21. On day 42 blood was drawn from right atrial catheters immediately prior to, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min following a single injection of 50 ng/kg of GnRH. Only the 10 micrograms dose of G was associated with increased pituitary response to GnRH, while progressive increases in exposure levels of G were associated with decreasing LH secretion. The SDN-POA volume was increased in only the 500 micrograms and 1000 micrograms exposure groups compared to controls. The results confirm that low doses of G have nonandrogenizing, pituitary-sensitizing effects, while higher doses of G mimic the more typical effects of estrogens. The use of both morphologic and physiologic end points more completely defines the reproductive consequences of environmental estrogen exposure during critical periods of CNS development.

  1. Characterization of a fenpropathrin-degrading strain and construction of a genetically engineered microorganism for simultaneous degradation of methyl parathion and fenpropathrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yuanfan; Zhou, Jin; Hong, Qing; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Jiandong; Li, Shunpeng

    2010-11-01

    A gram-negative fenpropathrin-degrading bacterial strain Sphingobium sp. JQL4-5 was isolated from the wastewater treatment sludge of an insecticide factory. Strain JQL4-5 showed the ability to degrade other pyrethroid insecticides, but it was not able to degrade methyl parathion. To enhance its degrading range of substrate, a methyl parathion hydrolase gene (mpd) was successfully introduced into the chromosome of strain JQL4-5 with a mini-Tn-transposon system. A genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) named JQL4-5-mpd resulted, which was capable of simultaneously degrading methyl parathion and fenpropathrin. Soil treatment results indicated that JQL4-5-mpd is a promising multifunctional bacterium in the bioremediation of multiple pesticide-contaminated environments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neonatal Kraniefraktur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine Marie Harries; Stantchev, Hristo

    2015-01-01

    During the latest decades the incidence of birth traumas has decreased significantly. Even so the traumas still contribute to an increased mortality and morbidity. We present a case of spontaneous neonatal skull fracture following a normal vaginal delivery. Abnormal facial structure was seen...

  3. Neonatal Jaundice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maimburg, Rikke Damkjær; Væth, Michael; Schendel, Diana

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that infants transferred to a neonatal ward after delivery had an almost twofold increased risk of being diagnosed with infantile autism later in childhood in spite of extensive controlling of obstetric risk factors. We therefore decided to investigate other reasons ...

  4. Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention.

    OpenAIRE

    Landrigan, P J; Claudio, L; Markowitz, S B; Berkowitz, G S; Brenner, B L; Romero, H; Wetmur, J G; Matte, T D; Gore, A C; Godbold, J H; Wolff, M S

    1999-01-01

    Six million children live in poverty in America's inner cities. These children are at high risk of exposure to pesticides that are used extensively in urban schools, homes, and day-care centers for control of roaches, rats, and other vermin. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and certain pyrethroids are the registered pesticides most heavily applied in cities. Illegal street pesticides are also in use, including tres pasitos (a carbamate), tiza china, and methyl parathion. In New Yo...

  5. Early Life Exposure to Fructose Alters Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Hepatic Gene Expression and Leads to Sex-Dependent Changes in Lipid Metabolism in Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe E Clayton

    Full Text Available Fructose consumption is associated with altered hepatic function and metabolic compromise and not surprisingly has become a focus for perinatal studies. We have previously shown that maternal fructose intake results in sex specific changes in fetal, placental and neonatal outcomes. In this follow-up study we investigated effects on maternal, fetal and neonatal hepatic fatty acid metabolism and immune modulation.Pregnant rats were randomised to either control (CON or high-fructose (FR diets. Fructose was given in solution and comprised 20% of total caloric intake. Blood and liver samples were collected at embryonic day 21 (E21 and postnatal day (P10. Maternal liver samples were also collected at E21 and P10. Liver triglyceride and glycogen content was measured with standard assays. Hepatic gene expression was measured with qPCR.Maternal fructose intake during pregnancy resulted in maternal hepatic ER stress, hepatocellular injury and increased levels of genes that favour lipogenesis. These changes were associated with a reduction in the NLRP3 inflammasome. Fetuses of mothers fed a high fructose diet displayed increased hepatic fructose transporter and reduced fructokinase mRNA levels and by 10 days of postnatal age, also have hepatic ER stress, and elevated IL1β mRNA levels. At P10, FR neonates demonstrated increased hepatic triglyceride content and particularly in males, associated changes in the expression of genes regulating beta oxidation and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Further, prenatal fructose results in sex-dependant changes in levels of key clock genes.Maternal fructose intake results in age and sex-specific alterations in maternal fetal and neonatal free fatty acid metabolism, which may be associated in disruptions in core clock gene machinery. How these changes are associated with hepatic inflammatory processes is still unclear, although suppression of the hepatic inflammasome, as least in mothers and male neonates may point to impaired

  6. Effects of fertilizers, fungicides and herbicides on the fate of 14C-parathion and 14C-fonofos in soils and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenstein, E.P.; Ferris, I.; Liang, T.T.; Koeppe, M.

    1983-01-01

    The fate of 14 C-parathion and 14 C-fonofos in soil is significantly affected by the presence of organic and inorganic fertilizers, fungicides and herbicides, possibly via the effect of soil microflora. Soil microorganisms are responsible for the oxidative as well as the reductive degradation of the insecticide. Using 14 carbon, the authors studied the effects of selected fungicides (benlate, captafol and manzate) herbicides (2,4-D parathion) and fertilizers ((NH 4 ) 6 SO 4 , KNO 3 , urea) on pesticides in Cromberry soils. Results of the study stress the importance of investigating the environmental fate of a particular pesticide in relation to the presence of the agricultural chemicals

  7. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Mary Beth; Leeman, Lawrence; Hsi, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome is common due to the current opioid addiction epidemic. Infants born to women covertly abusing prescription opioids may not be identified as at risk until withdrawal signs present. Buprenorphine is a newer treatment for maternal opioid addiction and appears to result in a milder withdrawal syndrome than methadone. Initial treatment is with nonpharmacological measures including decreasing stimuli, however pharmacological treatment is commonly required. Opioid monotherapy is preferred, with phenobarbital or clonidine uncommonly needed as adjunctive therapy. Rooming-in and breastfeeding may decease the severity of withdrawal. Limited evidence is available regarding long-term effects of perinatal opioid exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neonatal Citrulline Supplementation and Later Exposure to a High Fructose Diet in Rats Born with a Low Birth Weight: A Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie Cécile; Pagniez, Anthony; Ouguerram, Khadija; Boquien, Clair; WINER, Norbert; Darmaun, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    A low birth weight (LBW) leads to a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Literature suggests that citrulline supplementation in adulthood prevents the effect of a high fructose diet on energy metabolism. Whether neonatal citrulline supplementation would alter early growth or energy metabolism in the long-term in rats with LBW is unknown. LBW pups born from dams fed a low (4%) protein diet, were nursed by normally-fed dams and received isonitrogenous supplements of either l-citrulli...

  9. [Neonatal cholestasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquete, M L

    2000-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: To warn pediatricians about the early recognition of cholestasis in newborns and infants. METHODS: A bibliographic research about cholestasis was performed using Medline, and emphasizing the most relevant publications of the last 30 years. RESULTS: The concept of cholestasis and the causes of cholestatic tendency in newborns and infants are described. Several causes of intra and extrahepatic cholestasis are reported as well. In this review, only the diseases with diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic peculiarities are commented, including extrahepatic biliary atresia, idiopathic neonatal hepatitis, galactosemia, and Alagille s syndrome. Furthermore, several resources are discussed for the diagnosis of cholestasis. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of the diagnosis of cholestasis through the detection of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns who present jaundice after 14 days of life is a goal that could change the prognosis of several diseases responsible for neonatal cholestasis.

  10. Neonatal Kraniefraktur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine Marie Harries; Stantchev, Hristo

    2015-01-01

    During the latest decades the incidence of birth traumas has decreased significantly. Even so the traumas still contribute to an increased mortality and morbidity. We present a case of spontaneous neonatal skull fracture following a normal vaginal delivery. Abnormal facial structure was seen......, and the fracture was identified with an MRI. The fractures healed without neurosurgical intervention. Case reports show that even in uncomplicated vaginal deliveries skull fractures can be seen and should be suspected in children with facial abnormalities....

  11. Neonatal Listeriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yu Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Western developed countries, Listeria monocytogenes is not an uncommon pathogen in neonates. However, neonatal listeriosis has rarely been reported in Taiwan. We describe two cases collected from a single medical institute between 1990 and 2005. Case 1 was a male premature baby weighing 1558 g with a gestational age of 31 weeks whose mother had fever with chills 3 days prior to delivery. Generalized maculopapular rash was found after delivery and subtle seizure developed. Both blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture collected on the 1st day yielded L. monocytogenes. In addition, he had ventriculitis complicated with hydrocephalus. Neurologic development was normal over 1 year of follow-up after ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation. Case 2 was a 28-weeks' gestation male premature baby weighing 1180 g. Endotracheal intubation and ventilator support were provided after delivery due to respiratory distress. Blood culture yielded L. monocyto-genes. Cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis but the culture was negative. Brain ultrasonography showed ventriculitis. Sudden deterioration with cyanosis and bradycardia developed on the 8th day and he died on the same day. Neonatal listeriosis is uncommon in Taiwan, but has significant mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of perinatal infection relies on high index of suspicion in perinatal health care professionals. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(2:161-164

  12. Neonatal side effects of maternal labetalol treatment in severe preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Karst Y.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Van Veen, Teelkien R.; Hulzebos, Christian V.

    Objective: Labetalol is often used in severe preeclampsia (PE). Hypotension, bradycardia and hypoglycemia are feared neonatal side effects, but may also occur in (preterm) infants regardless of labetalol exposure. We analyzed the possible association between intrauterine labetalol exposure and such

  13. Water-based synthesis of TiO2/CeO2 composites supported on plasma-treated montmorillonite for parathion methyl degradation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henych, Jiří; Kormunda, M.; Šťastný, Martin; Janoš, P.; Vomáčka, Petr; Matoušek, J.; Štengl, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 144, AUG (2017), s. 26-35 ISSN 0169-1317 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Montmorillonite * Parathion methyl * Plasma treatment * TiO2 /CeO2 composites Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 3.101, year: 2016

  14. Effects of GST Polymorphism on Ameliorative Effect of Curcumin and Carvacrol against DNA Damage Induced by Combined Treatment of Malathion and Parathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus pesticides has been widely used in agriculture fields to control various crop insects and their extensive use pose human life at threat because of their adverse effects on human health. In this study, we checked the effects of GST polymorphism on ameliorative effect of curcumin and carvacrol against DNA damages. Methods: Comet assay was used to assess the DNA damage and results were expressed as Tail moment. Heparinised fresh blood from healthy individuals was treated with combined concentration of malathion and parathion (i.e. 30 µg/ml of malathion and 2.5 µg/ml of parathion in presence of combination of curcumin and carvacrol (25 µg/ml curcumin + 2.5 µg/ml carvacrol and 50 µg/ml curcumin + 5.0 µg/ml carvacrol in order to observe the ameliorative role of curcumin and carvacrol. Multiplex PCR was performed for GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotyping. Results: Curcumin in combination with carvacrol (i.e. 25 µg/ml curcumin + 2.5 µg/ml carvacrol and 50 µg/ml curcumin + 5.0 µg/ml carvacrol significantly reduced the DNA damage caused by combined action of malathion and parathion which supports their antigenotoxic property. No significant relationship of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism with genotoxicity of both the pesticides and antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol was observed. Conclusion: Malathion and parathion were genotoxic in human PBL. Curcumin and carvacrol had an antigenotoxic effect against the malathion and parathion while there was not any significant effect of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism on genotoxicity of these pesticides and antigenotoxicity of curcumin and carvacrol.

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion by Fe3O4@SiO2@mTiO2 nanomicrospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Lingling; Pi, Fuwei; Wang, Yifan; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An efficient photocatalyst Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @mTiO 2 with high magnetic response and large specific surface area was synthesized. • Photocatalytic efficiency of Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @mTiO 2 on Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl Parathion was higher than TiO 2 P-25. • Possible photocatalytic degradation mechanisms for the Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl Parathion were proposed. - Abstract: A novel magnetic mesoporous nanomicrospheres Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @mTiO 2 were synthetized and characterized by a series of techniques including FE-TEM, EDS, FE-SEM, PXRD, XPS, BET, TGA as well as VSM, and subsequently tested as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion under UV irradiation. The well-designed nanomicrospheres exhibit a pure and highly crystalline anatase TiO 2 layer, large specific surface area, and high-magnetic-response. Photocatalytic degradation of the three organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and the formation intermediates were identified using HPLC, TOC-V cpn , IC, pH meter and GC–MS. Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion disappeared after 45 min, 45 min, and 80 min UV illumination, respectively. At the end of the treatment, the total organic carbon (TOC) of the OPPs was reduced 80–85%. The main mineralization products were SO 4 2− , NO 3 − and PO 4 3− and Omethoate additionally formed NO 2 − . Based on the results, we proposed the photocatalytic degradation pathways for Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion.

  16. Neuronal damage and changes in the expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in the neonatal rat cerebral cortical upon exposure to sparteine, a quinolizidine alkaloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Soto, M E; Bañuelos-Pineda, J; Orozco-Suárez, S; Schliebs, R; Beas-Zárate, C

    2006-10-01

    Sparteine is a quinolizidine alkaloid (QA) produced by Lupine species that has generated much interest due to its anti-hypertensive, anti-pyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. In the nervous system, sparteine has been shown to display anti-cholinergic and depressive activity, although how sparteine exerts its toxic effects in the brain remains unclear. We have addressed this issue by administering subcutaneous injections of sparteine (25 mg/kg of body weight) to rats on postnatal days 1 and 3, and then examining the expression of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subunits m1-m4 in the brains of the neonatal rats 14-60 days later. Administration of sparteine to neonatal rats caused neuronal damage in the cerebral motor cortex accompanied by transient changes in the expression of m1-m4 mAChR subunits as revealed by both RT-PCR and Western blotting. This effect could be prevented by pre-treatment with atropine (10 mg/kg) 1 h prior to the injection of sparteine, suggesting that the cytotoxic activity of sparteine is mediated through mAChRs.

  17. Endothelin-1–Rho kinase interactions impair lung structure and cause pulmonary hypertension after bleomycin exposure in neonatal rat pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Nancy; Seedorf, Gregory; Kuhn, Katherine; Abman, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the chronic lung disease associated with premature birth, characterized by impaired vascular and alveolar growth. In neonatal rats bleomycin decreases lung growth and causes pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is poorly responsive to nitric oxide. In the developing lung, through Rho kinase (ROCK) activation, ET-1 impairs endothelial cell function; however, whether ET-1–ROCK interactions contribute to impaired vascular and alveolar growth in experimental BPD is unknown. Neonatal rats were treated daily with intraperitoneal bleomycin with and without selective ETA (BQ123/BQ610) and ETB (BQ788) receptor blockers, nonselective ET receptor blocker (ETRB) (bosentan), or fasudil (ROCK inhibitor). At day 14, lungs were harvested for morphometrics, and measurements of Fulton's index (RV/LV+S), medial wall thickness (MWT), and vessel density. Lung ET-1 protein and ROCK activity (phospho-MYPT-1:total MYPT-1 ratio) were also measured by Western blot analysis. Bleomycin increased lung ET-1 protein expression by 65%, RV/LV+S by 60%, mean linear intercept (MLI) by 212%, and MWT by 140% and decreased radial alveolar count (RAC) and vessel density by 40 and 44%, respectively (P < 0.01 for each comparison). After bleomycin treatment, fasudil and bosentan partially restored RAC and vessel density and decreased MLI, RV/LV+S, and MWT to normal values. Bleomycin increased ROCK activity by 120%, which was restored to normal values by bosentan but not selective ETRB. We conclude that ET-1–ROCK interactions contribute to decreased alveolar and vascular growth and PH in experimental BPD. We speculate that nonselective ETRB and ROCK inhibitors may be effective in the treatment of infants with BPD and PH. PMID:27760762

  18. Methyl parathion detection in vegetables and fruits using silver@graphene nanoribbons nanocomposite modified screen printed electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy, Mani; Mani, Veerappan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Chen, Tse-Wei; Sundramoorthy, Ashok Kumar

    2017-04-01

    We have developed a sensitive electrochemical sensor for Organophosphorus pesticide methyl parathion (MP) using silver particles supported graphene nanoribbons (Ag@GNRs). The Ag@GNRs nanocomposite was prepared through facile wet chemical strategy and characterized by TEM, EDX, XRD, Raman, UV-visible, electrochemical and impedance spectroscopies. The Ag@GNRs film modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) delivers excellent electrocatalytic ability to the reduction of MP. The Ag@GNRs/SPCE detects sub-nanomolar concentrations of MP with excellent selectivity. The synergic effects between special electrocatalytic ability of Ag and excellent physicochemical properties of GNRs (large surface area, high conductivity, high area-normalized edge-plane structures and abundant catalytic sites) make the composite highly suitable for MP sensing. Most importantly, the method is successfully demonstrated in vegetables and fruits which revealed its potential real-time applicability in food analysis.

  19. Neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Dessì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper on neonatal sepsis, after a short presentation of etiopathogenesis and physiopathology, we will briefly present the clinical picture, the diagnosis and the therapy. Concerning diagnosis, we will focus our attention on procalcitonin (PCT, serum amyloid A (SAA, presepsin (sCD14 and metabolomics. Three practical tables complete the review. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  20. Acute 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene exposure causes differential concentration-dependent follicle depletion and gene expression in neonatal rat ovaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, Jill A. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hoyer, Patricia B. [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Devine, Patrick J. [INRS—Institut Armand-Frappier Research Centre, University of Quebec, Laval, QC H7V 1B7 (Canada); Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Chronic exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), generated during combustion of organic matter including cigarette smoke, depletes all ovarian follicle types in the mouse and rat, and in vitro models mimic this effect. To investigate the mechanisms involved in follicular depletion during acute DMBA exposure, two concentrations of DMBA at which follicle depletion has (75 nM) and has not (12.5 nM) been observed were investigated. Postnatal day four F344 rat ovaries were maintained in culture for four days before a single exposure to vehicle control (1% DMSO; CT) or DMBA (12 nM; low-concentration or 75 nM; high-concentration). After four or eight additional days of culture, DMBA-induced follicle depletion was evaluated via follicle enumeration. Relative to control, DMBA did not affect follicle numbers after 4 days of exposure, but induced large primary follicle loss at both concentrations after 8 days; while, the low-concentration DMBA also caused secondary follicle depletion. Neither concentration affected primordial or small primary follicle number. RNA was isolated and quantitative RT-PCR performed prior to follicle loss to measure mRNA levels of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism (Cyp2e1, Gstmu, Gstpi, Ephx1), autophagy (Atg7, Becn1), oxidative stress response (Sod1, Sod2) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway (Kitlg, cKit, Akt1) 1, 2 and 4 days after exposure. With the exception of Atg7 and cKit, DMBA increased (P < 0.05) expression of all genes investigated. Also, BECN1 and pAKT{sup Thr308} protein levels were increased while cKIT was decreased by DMBA exposure. Taken together, these results suggest an increase in DMBA bioactivation, add to the mechanistic understanding of DMBA-induced ovotoxicity and raise concern regarding female low concentration DMBA exposures. - Highlights: • Acute DMBA exposures induce large primary and/or secondary follicle loss. • Acute DMBA exposure did not impact

  1. Use of Archived Neonatal Bloodspots for Examining Associations Between Prenatal Exposure to Potentially Traumatic or Stressful Life Events, Maternal Herpesvirus Infection and Lifetime History of Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Simanek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders is over 32% among U.S. adolescents, warranting further investigation into early life risk factors for such conditions. We conducted a pilot study to examine the role that maternal herpesvirus infection may play in the pathway between maternal trauma and stress during pregnancy and offspring generalized anxiety disorder (GAD. Methods: Participants included 69 women in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study with data on past exposure to 19 potentially traumatic (PTEs and 9 stressful life events (SLEs. Lifetime history of GAD in the youngest biologic child between 6-17 years old born in Michigan (i.e., index child of each woman was ascertained via the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, 4th edition, parent version. We obtained written informed consent from participants for retrieval of archived neonatal bloodspot samples corresponding to their index child from the Michigan Neonatal Biobank (MNB and testing of these samples for markers of maternal herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and cytomegalovirus (CMV seropositivity. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between maternal PTEs or SLEs during pregnancy and offspring GAD. Results: A total of 18.1% and 31.9% of women experienced ≥ 1 PTE or SLE during pregnancy, respectively, and 10.8% of offspring met the criteria for lifetime history of GAD. We obtained maternal consent for retrieval of and tested bloodspot samples corresponding to the index child of 22 women (38%, of which 4.5% and 40.9% were seropositive for HSV-1 and CMV, respectively. We observed positive, although not statistically significant associations between ≥ 1 PTE or SLE during pregnancy and offspring lifetime history of GAD. While a greater proportion of offspring with lifetime history of GAD were born to women seropositive for CMV and HSV-1, compared to those without lifetime history, these differences were not statistically significant and we did not further

  2. Responses of metabolic and antioxidant enzymatic activities in gill, liver and plasma of Catla catla during methyl parathion exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Abhijith

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present investigation suggest that gill is the most sensitive organ to MP toxicity. The alterations of the enzymatic parameters can be effectively used as potential biomarkers for monitoring of the organophosphorus pesticides in aquatic environment. Further, MP should be used with caution in order to protect natural waters and aquatic organisms.

  3. Exposure of Neonatal Mice to Tobacco Smoke Disturbs Synaptic Proteins and Spatial Learning and Memory from Late Infancy to Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Larissa Helena; Garcia, Raphael C T; Blois, Anne M M; Dati, Lívia M M; Durão, Ana Carolina; Alves, Adilson Silva; Pacheco-Neto, Maurílio; Mauad, Thais; Britto, Luiz R G; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Camarini, Rosana; Marcourakis, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the early postnatal period has been associated with several diseases; however, little is known about the brain effects of ETS exposure during this critical developmental period or the long-term consequences of this exposure. This study investigated the effects of the early postnatal ETS exposure on both reference and working memory, synaptic proteins and BDNF from late infancy to early adulthood (P3-P73). BALB/c mice were exposed to ETS generated from 3R4F reference research cigarettes (0.73 mg of nicotine/cigarette) from P3 to P14. Spatial reference and working memory were evaluated in the Morris water maze during infancy (P20-P29), adolescence (P37-P42) and adulthood (P67-P72). Synapsin, synaptophysin, PSD95 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were assessed at P15, P35 and P65 by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Mice that were exposed to ETS during the early postnatal period showed poorer performance in the spatial reference memory task. Specifically, the ETS-exposed mice exhibited a significantly reduced time and distance traveled in the target quadrant and in the platform location area than the controls at all ages evaluated. In the spatial working memory task, ETS disrupted the maintenance but not the acquisition of the critical spatial information in both infancy and adolescence. ETS also induced changes in synaptic components, including decreases in synapsin, synaptophysin, PSD95 and BDNF levels in the hippocampus. Exposure to ETS in the early postnatal period disrupts both spatial reference and working memory; these results may be related to changes in synaptogenesis in the hippocampus. Importantly, most of these effects were not reversed even after a long exposure-free period.

  4. Exposure to Leadership WalkRounds in neonatal intensive care units is associated with a better patient safety culture and less caregiver burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, J Bryan; Sharek, Paul J; Thomas, Eric J; Gould, Jeffrey B; Nisbet, Courtney C; Amspoker, Amber B; Kowalkowski, Mark A; Schwendimann, René; Profit, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Background Leadership WalkRounds (WR) are widely used in healthcare organisations to improve patient safety. The relationship between WR and caregiver assessments of patient safety culture, and healthcare worker burnout is unknown. Methods This cross-sectional survey study evaluated the association between receiving feedback about actions taken as a result of WR and healthcare worker assessments of patient safety culture and burnout across 44 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) actively participating in a structured delivery room management quality improvement initiative. Results Of 3294 administered surveys, 2073 were returned for an overall response rate of 62.9%. More WR feedback was associated with better safety culture results and lower burnout rates in the NICUs. Participation in WR and receiving feedback about WR were less common in NICUs than in a benchmarking comparison of adult clinical areas. Conclusions WR are linked to patient safety and burnout. In NICUs, where they occurred more often, the workplace appears to be a better place to deliver and to receive care. PMID:24825895

  5. Studies on combined effects of organophosphates or carbamates and morsodren in birds. II. Plasma and cholinesterase in quail fed morsodren and orally dosed with parathion or carbofuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.; Ludke, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The degree of interaction between mercury and cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides was determined by comparing enzyme responses to sublethal dosages of parathion or carbofuran in quail fed 0.05, 0.5, or 5.0 ppm morsodren for 18 weeks. A statistically significant interaction was defined as greater brain cholinesterase inhibition in morsodren-fed than in clean-fed birds following pesticide dosage. The tissue residues of mercury that accumulated before significant mercury-parathion interactions occurred were higher than levels that might be expected in natural populations, but significant mercury-carbofuran interactions occurred in birds that had only accumulated 1.0 ppm liver mercury. The results indicate that indiscriminate usage of cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides are dangerous, since natural populations of fish-eating birds oftentimes contain this magnitude of mercury.

  6. Developmental Triclosan Exposure Decreases Maternal,Fetal, and Early Neonatal Thyroxine: Dynamic and Kinetic Data Support for a Mode-of-Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work tests the mode-of-action (MOA) hypothesis that perinatal triclosan (TCS) exposure decreases circulating thyroxine (T4) concentrations via activation of pregnane X and/or constitutive androstane receptors (PXR, CAR), resulting in up-regulation of hepatic catabolism and e...

  7. Fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine leads to augmented hepatic and circulating triglycerides in adult male offspring due to increased expression of fatty acid synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Noelle [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University (Canada); Wong, Michael [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Holloway, Alison C. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University (Canada); Hardy, Daniel B., E-mail: Daniel.Hardy@schulich.uwo.ca [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Children' s Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    While nicotine replacement therapy is assumed to be a safer alternative to smoking during pregnancy, the long-term consequences for the offspring remain elusive. Animal studies now suggest that maternal nicotine exposure during perinatal life leads to a wide range of adverse outcomes for the offspring including increased adiposity. The focus of this study was to investigate if nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to alterations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive daily subcutaneous injections of saline (vehicle) or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/day) for two weeks prior to mating until weaning. At postnatal day 180 (PND 180), nicotine exposed offspring exhibited significantly elevated levels of circulating and hepatic triglycerides in the male offspring. This was concomitant with increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the critical hepatic enzyme in de novo triglyceride synthesis. Given that FAS is regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X receptor (LXRα), we measured LXRα expression in both control and nicotine-exposed offspring. Nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation led to an increase in hepatic LXRα protein expression and enriched binding to the putative LXRE element on the FAS promoter in PND 180 male offspring. This was also associated with significantly enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [K9,14] surrounding the FAS promoter, a hallmark of chromatin activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to an increase in circulating and hepatic triglycerides long-term via changes in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the hepatic lipogenic pathway. - Highlights: • Our data reveals the links nicotine exposure in utero and long-term hypertriglyceridemia. • It is due to nicotine-induced augmented expression of hepatic FAS and LXRα activity. • Moreover, this involves nicotine-induced enhanced

  8. Photodegradation of riboflavin in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    The biologically most important flavins are riboflavin and its related nucleotides, all highly sensitive to light. It is because of its photoreactivity and its presence in almost all body fluids and tissues that riboflavin assumes importance in phototherapy of neonatal jaundice. The absorption maxima of both bilirubin and riboflavin in the body are nearly identical: 445-450 (447) nm. In consequence, blue visible light will cause photoisomerization of bilirubin accompanied by photodegradation of riboflavin. This results in diminished erythrocyte glutathione reductase, which indicates generalized tissue riboflavin deficiency and red cell lysis. Single- and double-strand breaks in intracellular DNA have occurred with phototherapy. This light exposure of neonates may result also in alterations of bilirubin-albumin binding in the presence of both riboflavin and theophylline (the latter frequently given to prevent neonatal apnea). Many newborns, especially if premature, have low stores of riboflavin at birth. The absorptive capacity of premature infants for enteral riboflavin is likewise reduced. Consequently, inherently low stores and low intake of riboflavin plus phototherapy for neonatal jaundice will cause a deficiency of riboflavin at a critical period for the newborn. Supplementation to those infants most likely to develop riboflavin deficiency is useful, but dosage, time, and mode of administration to infants undergoing phototherapy must be carefully adjusted to avoid unwanted side effects

  9. Supra-treatment threshold neonatal jaundice: Incidence in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and mucous membranes.1 The yellow colour results from .... neonate, for example, dyspnoea or poor colour. The study .... The mean bilirubin level for all neonates with and without HIV exposure peaked on day 4 (Figure 2). Clinical' jaundice. (>'5'mg/dL) n'(%). No'jaundice. Chi8squared' p8value. Gender. Female. 41((70.7).

  10. Clomipramine concentration and withdrawal symptoms in 10 neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, Peter G. J.; van der Linde, Susanne; Smit, Jan Pieter; den Boon, Jan; van Lingen, Richard A.; Jansman, Frank G. A.; De Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Wilffert, Bob

    AIM After in utero exposure to tricyclic antidepressants, neonatal withdrawal symptoms have been reported with an estimated incidence between 20 and 50%; however, few data are available for clomipramine. This could also be the case for neonatal pharmacokinetic clomipramine parameters and so this

  11. A microarray analysis of gnotobiotic mice indicating that microbial exposure during the neonatal period plays an essential role in immune system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Masahiro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have suggested that the encounter with commensal microorganisms during the neonatal period is essential for normal development of the host immune system. Basic research involving gnotobiotic mice has demonstrated that colonization at the age of 5 weeks is too late to reconstitute normal immune function. In this study, we examined the transcriptome profiles of the large intestine (LI, small intestine (SI, liver (LIV, and spleen (SPL of 3 bacterial colonization models—specific pathogen-free mice (SPF, ex-germ-free mice with bacterial reconstitution at the time of delivery (0WexGF, and ex-germ-free mice with bacterial reconstitution at 5 weeks of age (5WexGF—and compared them with those of germ-free (GF mice. Results Hundreds of genes were affected in all tissues in each of the colonized models; however, a gene set enrichment analysis method, MetaGene Profiler (MGP, demonstrated that the specific changes of Gene Ontology (GO categories occurred predominantly in 0WexGF LI, SPF SI, and 5WexGF SPL, respectively. MGP analysis on signal pathways revealed prominent changes in toll-like receptor (TLR- and type 1 interferon (IFN-signaling in LI of 0WexGF and SPF mice, but not 5WexGF mice, while 5WexGF mice showed specific changes in chemokine signaling. RT-PCR analysis of TLR-related genes showed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (Irf3, a crucial rate-limiting transcription factor in the induction of type 1 IFN, prominently decreased in 0WexGF and SPF mice but not in 5WexGF and GF mice. Conclusion The present study provides important new information regarding the molecular mechanisms of the so-called "hygiene hypothesis".

  12. Neonatal hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarici D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dilek Sarici1, S Umit Sarici21Kecioren Research and Education Hospital, Kecioren, Ankara, 2Chief of Division of Neonatology, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: In this article, distribution of potassium (K+ in body fluids, pathophysiology, causes, clinical signs and symptoms, and the evaluation and treatment of neonatal hypokalemia are reviewed. K+ is the most important intracellular cation and normal serum K+ is stabilized between 3.5 and 5.5 mEq/L. Hypokalemia may be caused by increased renal losses, increased extrarenal (gastrointestinal losses, redistribution or prolonged insufficient K+ intake. Clinical signs and symptoms occur as the result of functional changes in striated muscle, smooth muscle, and the heart. Hypokalemia is usually asymptomatic when K+ levels are between 3.0 and 3.5 mEq/L; however, there may sometimes be slight muscle weakness. Moderate hypokalemia is observed when serum K+ is between 2.5 and 3.0 mEq/L. Proximal muscle weakness is observed most commonly in lower extremities; cranial muscles are normal, but constipation and distention are prominent. Severe hypokalemia develops when serum K+ falls below 2.5 mEq/L. Rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, severe muscle weakness, paralysis, respiratory distress, and respiratory arrest are observed. The clinical signs and symptoms may be unremarkable in cases of chronically developing hypokalemia; however, appropriate treatment is essential when serum K+ level falls below 2.5 mEq/L as the most dangerous complication of hypokalemia is fatal cardiac arrythmia, and changes visible with electrocardiography may not always correlate with the level of hypokalemia. Sodium (Na+, K+, chloride (Cl-, bicarbonate, creatinine, blood sugar, magnesium (Mg, plasma renin activity, aldosterone, and blood gases should be investigated by laboratory testing. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine kinase, and

  13. The neonatal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flodmark, O.

    1987-01-01

    The clinical examination of the CNS in the neonate is often difficult in cases of complex pathology. Diagnostic imaging of the neonatal brain has become extremely useful and in the last decade has developed in two main directions: CT and US. MR imaging has been used recently with varying success in the diagnosis of pathology in the neonatal brain. Despite technical difficulties, this imaging method is likely to become increasingly important in the neonate. The paper examines the normal neonatal brain anatomy as seen with the different modalities, followed by pathologic conditions. Attention is directed to the common pathology, in asphyxiated newborns, the patholphysiology of intraventicular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia in the preterm neonate, and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the term neonate. Pitfalls, artifacts, and problems in image interpretation are illustrated. Finally, the subsequent appearance of neonatal pathology later in infancy and childhood is discussed

  14. Potentially harmful excipients in neonatal medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellis, Georgi; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Varendi, Heili

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe administration of eight potentially harmful excipients of interest (EOI)-parabens, polysorbate 80, propylene glycol, benzoates, saccharin sodium, sorbitol, ethanol and benzalkonium chloride-to hospitalised neonates in Europe and to identify risk factors for exposure....... METHODS: All medicines administered to neonates during 1 day with individual prescription and demographic data were registered in a web-based point prevalence study. Excipients were identified from the Summaries of Product Characteristics. Determinants of EOI administration (geographical region......, gestational age (GA), active pharmaceutical ingredient, unit level and hospital teaching status) were identified using multivariable logistical regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall 89 neonatal units from 21 countries participated. Altogether 2095 prescriptions for 530 products administered to 726 neonates...

  15. Neonatal sensitization to ethanol-induced breathing disruptions as a function of late prenatal exposure to the drug in the rat: modulatory effects of ethanol's chemosensory cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullere, Marcela; Macchione, Ana Fabiola; Haymal, Beatriz; Paradelo, Martin; Langer, Marcos Daniel; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have systematically demonstrated abrupt changes in fetal respiratory patterns when the unborn organism is exposed to the effects of maternal ethanol intoxication. In subprimates, chronic exposure to this drug during gestation and infancy results in marked alterations of the plasticity of the respiratory network. These alterations are manifested in terms of an early incapability to overcome deleterious effects of hypoxic events as well as in terms of sensitization to ethanol's depressant effects upon breathing patterns. It has also been demonstrated that near term rat fetuses process ethanol's chemosensory cues when the drug contaminates the amniotic fluid and that associative learning processes occur due to the temporal contiguity existing between these cues and different ethanol-related physiological effects. In the present study during the course of late gestation (gestational days 17-20), pregnant rats were intragastrically administered with either 0.0 or 2.0 g/kg ethanol. Seven-day-old pups derived of these dams were evaluated in terms of respiration rates (breaths/min) and apneas when subjected to different experimental conditions. These conditions were defined by postnatal exposure to the drug (intragastric administrations of either 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg ethanol), postadministration time of evaluation (5-10 or 30-35 min) and olfactory context at test (no explicit ambient odor or ethanol ambient odor). The results, obtained via whole body plethysmography, indicated that brief prenatal experience with the drug sensitized the organisms to ethanol's depressant effects particularly when employing the higher ethanol doses. In turn, presence of ethanol odor at test potentiated the above mentioned respiratory alterations. Prenatal treatment with ethanol was not found to alter pharmacokinetic profiles resulting from postnatal exposure to the drug or to affect different morphometric parameters related with lung development. These

  16. Gene-environment interaction in the onset of eczema in infancy: filaggrin loss-of-function mutations enhanced by neonatal cat exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Bisgaard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function variants in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG are major determinants of eczema. We hypothesized that weakening of the physical barrier in FLG-deficient individuals may potentiate the effect of environmental exposures. Therefore, we investigated whether there is an interaction between FLG loss-of-function mutations with environmental exposures (pets and dust mites in relation to the development of eczema. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data obtained in early life in a high-risk birth cohort in Denmark and replicated the findings in an unselected birth cohort in the United Kingdom. Primary outcome was age of onset of eczema; environmental exposures included pet ownership and mite and pet allergen levels. In Copenhagen (n = 379, FLG mutation increased the risk of eczema during the first year of life (hazard ratio [HR] 2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-4.00, p = 0.005, with a further increase in risk related to cat exposure at birth amongst children with FLG mutation (HR 11.11, 95% CI 3.79-32.60, p < 0.0001; dog exposure was moderately protective (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.24-1.01, p = 0.05, but not related to FLG genotype. In Manchester (n = 503 an independent and significant association of the development of eczema by age 12 mo with FLG genotype was confirmed (HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.13-3.36, p = 0.02. In addition, the risk increased because of the interaction of cat ownership at birth and FLG genotype (HR 3.82, 95% CI 1.35-10.81, p = 0.01, with no significant effect of the interaction with dog ownership (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.16-2.20, p = 0.43. Mite-allergen had no effects in either cohort. The observed effects were independent of sensitisation. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a significant interaction between FLG loss-of-function main mutations (501x and 2282del4 and cat ownership at birth on the development of early-life eczema in two independent birth cohorts. Our data suggest that cat but not dog ownership substantially

  17. Degradation of the insecticide ethyl parathion in different environmental matrices by gamma radiation from Cobalt-60; Degradacao do inseticida paration etilico em diversas matrizes ambientais por meio de radiacao ionizante gama do cobalto-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchini, Luiz Carlos

    1995-07-01

    This work studies the use of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 to induce parathion degradation in different matrices, as well as, quantified GC-NPD and identified by GC-MS, the radiolysis resulting products. Results show that the insecticide was completely degraded in aqueous solution after treatment with 1.0 kGy dosis in a dosis rate of 3.12 kGy h{sup -1}. In methanol, parathion was completely degraded only with 30 kGy at 3.12 kGy h{sup -1}. The metabolites detected after radiolysis were the same formed by biological degradation, i.e, p-nitrophenol, p-aminophenol, paraoxon and aminoparathion. The gamma radiation also degraded paraoxon which is the most toxic metabolite of parathion. It was verified that, not only the total radiation, but also the dosis rate supplied to the aqueous solution had a significant effect on the insecticide degradation, and the formation of metabolites occurred in a selective way respecting the dosis and dosis rate. Otherwise, the gamma radiation did almost not degraded the parathion adsorbed in solid matrices as rice, moist and dry soil, even using dosis of 5,30 and 50 kGy, respectively. The parathion yield and the dosis of gamma radiation needed for 50% reduction of the insecticide initial concentration in aqueous solution were also calculated and presented. Thus, it was verified that irradiation of parathion besides to be an important instrument for environmental decontamination of this pesticide in aqueous matrix, it allows the production of parathion metabolites for ecotoxicological studies. (author)

  18. Developmental exposure to terbutaline and chlorpyrifos: pharmacotherapy of preterm labor and an environmental neurotoxicant converge on serotonergic systems in neonatal rat brain regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, Justin E.; Meyer, Armando; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2005-01-01

    Developmental exposure to unrelated neurotoxicants can nevertheless produce similar neurobehavioral outcomes. We examined the effects of developmental exposure to terbutaline, a tocolytic β 2 -adrenoceptor agonist used to arrest preterm labor, and chlorpyrifos (CPF), a widely used organophosphate pesticide, on serotonin (5HT) systems. Treatments were chosen to parallel periods typical of human developmental exposures, terbutaline (10 mg/kg) on postnatal days (PN) 2-5 and CPF (5 mg/kg) on PN11-14, with assessments conducted on PN45, comparing each agent alone as well as sequential administration of both. Although neither treatment affected growth or viability, each elicited similar alterations in factors that are critical to the function of the 5HT synapse: 5HT 1A receptors, 5HT 2 receptors, and the presynaptic 5HT transporter (5HTT). Either agent elicited global increases in 5HT receptors and the 5HTT in brain regions possessing 5HT cell bodies (midbrain, brainstem) as well as in the hippocampus, which contains 5HT projections. For both terbutaline and CPF, males were affected more than females, although there were some regional disparities in the sex selectivity between the two agents. Both altered 5HT receptor-mediated cell signaling, suppressing stimulatory effects on adenylyl cyclase and enhancing inhibitory effects. When animals were exposed sequentially to both agents, the outcomes were no more than additive and, for many effects, less than additive, suggesting convergence of the two agents on a common set of developmental mechanisms. Our results indicate that 5HT systems represent a target for otherwise unrelated neuroteratogens

  19. Neonatal lenticulostriate vasculopathy: case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokiniec, R.; Pawluch, R.; Majewska, U.; Krol, M.; Kornacka, M. K.

    2006-01-01

    Lenticulostriate vasculopathy (LSV) is sometimes detected as stripe-like vascular echogenicities in the region of the basal ganglia on routine brain ultrasonography in neonates. LSV is often associated with various perinatal and neonatal abnormalities. Eight infants had echogenic stripes in the basal ganglia at the location of the lenticulostriate arteries, seen by head ultrasound. One patient had infection with rubella, three had respiratory disease, one with twin to twin transfusion, two with congenital malformation, and one had a restrictive ductus arteriosus in prenatal diagnosis. Brain computed tomography in one sonographically diagnosed LSV case failed to display the lesion. Sonographic follow up of patients with LSV showed progression in one case, no change in six, and resolution of lesions in one case. Sonography is helpful in detecting early noncalcific inflammation and mineralisation in vasculitis. LSV has varied clinical associations. Although nonspecific, these findings should alert the physician to the possibility of congenital infection, chromosomal abnormality, or prenatal drug exposure. (author)

  20. Incidence and nature of medication errors in neonatal intensive care with strategies to improve safety - A review of the current literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chedoe, Indra; Molendijk, Harry A.; Dittrich, Suzanne T. A. M.; Jansman, Frank G. A.; Harting, Johannes W.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Taxis, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are highly vulnerable to medication errors because of their extensive exposure to medications in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), the general lack of evidence on pharmacotherapeutic interventions in neonates and the lack of neonate-specific formulations. We searched PubMed and

  1. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  2. Quantitative analysis of methyl and propyl parabens in neonatal DBS using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakkundi, Shirish; Mulla, Hussain; Pandya, Hitesh; Turner, Mark A; McElnay, James

    2016-06-01

    Excipients are used to overcome the chemical, physical and microbiological challenges posed by developing formulated medicines. Both methyl and propyl paraben are commonly used in pediatric liquid formulations. There is no data on systemic exposure to parabens in neonates. The European Study of Neonatal Exposure to Excipients project has investigated this. Results & methodology: DBS sampling was used to collect opportunistic blood samples. Parabens were extracted from the DBS and analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS assay. The above assay was applied to analyze neonatal DBS samples. The blood concentrations of parabens in neonates confirm systemic exposure to parabens following administration of routine medicines.

  3. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolite profiles of neonatal rat hippocampus and brainstem regions following early postnatal exposure to intermittent hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnall, Robert A.; Chen, Xi; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V.; Sirieix, Chrystelle M.; Gimi, Barjor

    2017-03-01

    Most premature infants born at less than 30 weeks gestation are exposed to periods of mild intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with apnea of prematurity and periodic breathing. In adults, IH associated with sleep apnea causes neurochemical and structural alterations in the brain. However, it is unknown whether IH in the premature infant leads to neurodevelopmental impairment. Quantification of biochemical markers that can precisely identify infants at risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome is essential. In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) facilitates the quantification of metabolites from distinct regions of the developing brain. We report the changes in metabolite profiles in the brainstem and hippocampal regions of developing rat brains, resulting from exposure to IH. Rat pups were chosen for study because there is rapid postnatal hippocampal development that occurs during the first 4 weeks in the developing rat brain, which corresponds to the first 2-3 postnatal years of development in humans. The brainstem was examined because of our interest in respiratory control disorders in the newborn and because of brainstem gliosis described in infants who succumb to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Metabolite profiles were compared between hypoxia treated rat pups (n = 9) and normoxic controls (n = 6). Metabolite profiles were acquired using the Point-RESolved spectroscopy (PRESS) MRS sequence and were quantified using the TARQUIN software. There was a significant difference in the concentrations of creatine (p = 0.031), total creatine (creatine + phosphocreatine) (p = 0.028), and total choline (p = 0.001) in the brainstem, and glycine (p = 0.031) in the hippocampal region. The changes are consistent with altered cellular bioenergetics and metabolism associated with hypoxic insult.

  4. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Y Gogri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital abscess generally occurs in older children but it can rarely affect infants and neonates too. We report a case of community acquired methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA neonatal orbital abscess in a 12-day-old term female neonate with no significant past medical history or risk factor for developing the infection. The case highlights the importance of consideration of CA-MRSA as a causative agent of neonatal orbital cellulitis even in a neonate without any obvious predisposing condition. Prompt initiation of appropriate medical therapy against MRSA and surgical drainage of the abscess prevents life threatening complications of orbital cellulitis which more often tend to be fatal in neonates.

  5. Congenital and neonatal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Michael D

    2007-09-01

    The greatest risk of death from pneumonia in childhood is in the neonatal period. It is estimated that pneumonia contributes to between 750000-1.2 million neonatal deaths annually, accounting for 10% of global child mortality. Congenital and neonatal pneumonias are often a difficult disease to identify and treat, with clinical manifestations often being non-specific. Many of the normal lung defences are compromised in the fetus and neonate, leading to an increased susceptibility to infection. The aetiology and epidemiology of congenital and neonatal pneumonias will depend on the clinical setting and population that the baby belongs to, the stage in the perinatal period, the gestational age of the baby and the definition of pneumonia. Diagnosis, treatment and prevention strategies are therefore also dependent on these factors, and will differ depending on the clinical setting. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning congenital and neonatal pneumonia worldwide and discusses future directions in the prevention of the disease.

  6. Formation and bio release of bound residues of [14 C]-lindane and [14 C]-parathion in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.M. de.

    1992-01-01

    This work studied the extractable and bound residues formation of 14 C-lindane and 14 C-parathion immediately after application and after 3 months of interaction of the pesticides with the soils. Metabolism, bio release, and the possible bioavailability of bound residues were studied by employing bio meter flasks which allowed a relative comparison of the behaviour of the two different 14 C-pesticides, by a balance of the applied or present radiocarbon in the soils after the bio tests. (author)

  7. The Neurodevelopmental Impact of Neonatal Morphine Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Attarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical management of newborn infants often necessitates recurrent painful procedures, which may alter nociceptive pathways during a critical developmental period and adversely effect neuropsychological outcomes. To mitigate the effects of repeated painful stimuli, opioid administration for peri-procedural analgesia and ICU (intensive care unit sedation is common in the NICU (neonatal intensive care unit. A growing body of basic and animal evidence suggests potential long-term harm associated with neonatal opioid therapy. Morphine increases apoptosis in human microglial cells, and animal studies demonstrate long-term changes in behavior, brain function, and spatial recognition memory following morphine exposure. This comprehensive review examines existing preclinical and clinical evidence on the long-term impacts of neonatal pain and opioid therapy.

  8. Neonatal Arrhythmias: Atrial Flutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Gonchar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current data on the diagnosis of neonatal arrhythmias, covers the prevalence, mechanisms of formation, diagnosis and treatment of one type of cardiac arrhythmias — atrial flutter. Clinical observation in terms of the diagnosis and treatment of atrial flutter in a newborn in the early neonatal period is given.

  9. Neonatal cardiac emergencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal cardiac emergencies. The neonatal period is one that fills many generalists with fear – this article will help to dispel these concerns. George A Comitis, MB ChB, DCH (SA), DA (SA), FCPaed (SA), Cert Cardiology (SA) Paed. Consultant, Paediatric Cardiology Service of the Western Cape, Red Cross War Memorial ...

  10. Predictors of early neonatal mortality at a neonatal intensive care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Predictors of early neonatal mortality at a neonatal intensive care unit of a specialized referral teaching hospital in. Ethiopia. Bogale Worku1, Assaye Kassie2, Amha Mekasha1, Birkneh Tilahun1, Alemayehu Worku3. Abstract. Background: The larger fraction of infant mortality is that of neonatal; and early neonatal death is ...

  11. Impact of long term applications of cotton pesticides on soil biological properties, dissipation of [14C]-methyl parathion and persistence of multi-pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.M.; Peres, T.B.; Luchini, L.C.; Marcondes, M.A.; Pettinelli, A. Jr.; Nakagawa, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    Biological parameters were followed in soils from a cotton farm (Tatui) where the recommended pesticides have been used for years, and from an experimental field (Sao Paulo) which was subdivided in two areas: one received the recommended pesticides and the other was maintained untreated. The soil bioactivities monitored from 1995 to 1998, after different pesticide applications, were: basal and glucose-induced respiration; anaerobic activity; nitrification rate; activity of the enzymes: dehydrogenase, aryl sulfatase and arginine deaminase; the soil capacity to mineralize an aromatic pesticide molecule ([ 14 C]-2,4-D), fungal and bacterial contributions for soil respiration until the beginning of 1998, and fungal and bacterial numbers from the beginning of 1998. The dissipation of [ 14 C]-methyl parathion - one of the recommended pesticides - was followed by radiometric techniques only in Sao Paulo, but persistence of multi-residues was determined in both soils by gas-liquid chromatography. All the biological parameters varied each sampling time and values also varied among soil samples, being inhibited or stimulated by the different pesticide applications, but they mostly recovered the initially detected activity. Dissipation of methyl parathion was fast and not affected by the other pesticide applications. Pesticide residues varied between the two soils but were mostly low after all applications, which indicates their dissipation. (author)

  12. Development of a Novel Optical Biosensor for Detection of Organophoshorus Pesticides Based on Methyl Parathion Hydrolase Immobilized by Metal-Chelate Affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wensheng; Chen, Guoping; Cui, Feng; Tan, Feng; Liu, Ran; Yushupujiang, Maolidan

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel optical biosensor device using recombinant methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) enzyme immobilized on agarose by metal-chelate affinity to detect organophosphorus (OP) compounds with a nitrophenyl group. The biosensor principle is based on the optical measurement of the product of OP catalysis by MPH (p-nitrophenol). Briefly, MPH containing six sequential histidines (6× His tag) at its N-terminal was bound to nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) agarose with Ni ions, resulting in the flexible immobilization of the bio-reaction platform. The optical biosensing system consisted of two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and one photodiode. The LED that emitted light at the wavelength of the maximum absorption for p-nitrophenol served as the signal light, while the other LED that showed no absorbance served as the reference light. The optical sensing system detected absorbance that was linearly correlated to methyl parathion (MP) concentration and the detection limit was estimated to be 4 μM. Sensor hysteresis was investigated and the results showed that at lower concentration range of MP the difference got from the opposite process curves was very small. With its easy immobilization of enzymes and simple design in structure, the system has the potential for development into a practical portable detector for field applications. PMID:23012501

  13. Immune Response to Intrapharyngeal LPS in Neonatal and Juvenile Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seakwoo; Gibbs, Kevin; Lopez, Armando; Collaco, Joseph M.; Neptune, Enid; Soloski, Mark J.; Scott, Alan; D’Alessio, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Neonates and infants have a higher morbidity and mortality associated with lower respiratory tract illnesses compared with older children. To identify age-related and longitudinal differences in the cellular immune response to acute lung injury (ALI), neonatal and juvenile mice were given Escherichia coli LPS using a novel, minimally invasive aspiration technique. Neonatal and juvenile mice received between 3.75 and 7.5 mg/kg LPS by intrapharyngeal aspiration. Airway and lung cells were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry, cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression from lung homogenates was quantified, and lung morphometry and injury scores were performed. LPS-treated neonatal mice underwent adoptive transfer with adult T regulatory cells (Tregs). After LPS aspiration, lung monocytes isolated from neonatal mice had a predominant M2 phenotype, whereas lung monocytes from juvenile mice displayed a mixed M1/M2 phenotype. At 72 hours after LPS exposure, neonatal lungs were slower to resolve inflammation and expressed lower mRNA levels of CCL2, CCL5, CXCL10, and IL-10. Juvenile, but not neonatal, mice demonstrated a significant increase in airway Tregs after LPS exposure. Adoptive transfer of adult Tregs into LPS-challenged neonatal mice resulted in reduced lung inflammation and improved weight gain. These findings underscore several vulnerabilities in the neonatal immune response to LPS-induced ALI. Most striking was the deficiency in airway Tregs after LPS aspiration. Adoptive transfer of adult Tregs mitigated LPS-induced ALI in neonatal mice, highlighting the importance of age-related differences in Tregs and their response to ALI during early postnatal development. PMID:25068533

  14. Neonatal Discontinuation Syndrome in Serotonergic Antidepressant-Exposed Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Amy; Ciolino, Jody D; Pinheiro, Emily; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Sit, Dorothy K Y; Wisner, Katherine L

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether infants exposed in utero to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants or a DSM-IV-TR-defined mood disorder have significantly more neonatal discontinuation signs compared to an unexposed group of infants at 2-4 weeks after birth. This secondary analysis was derived from 2 observational studies with enrollment from July 2000 to December 2011 in Cleveland, Ohio, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Mothers (n = 214) belonged to one of 3 groups based on exposure status during pregnancy: (1) Comparison-women who did not take psychotropics during pregnancy and had no major mood disorder; (2) SRI-exposed-women with a mood disorder who were taking an SRI but no benzodiazepines; and (3) Mood Disorder-women with depression or bipolar disorder who did not take psychotropic medications. The infants were examined for signs according to the Finnegan Scale by evaluators blind to maternal exposure status. The rates of sign presence (defined as a score ≥ 2 on the Finnegan Scale) in the SRI, Mood Disorder, and Comparison groups were similar at 34.1%, 35.1%, and 30.4%, respectively. Women in the SRI group had a significantly higher preterm birth rate (24.4%) compared to the other 2 groups (7.4% and 8.9% in the Mood Disorder and Comparison groups, respectively; P = .012). Preterm newborns had a significantly higher sign rate compared to full-term newborns (54% vs 31%, P = .020). We observed a significant relationship between Finnegan signs and preterm birth. The presence of neonatal signs at 2-4 weeks was more closely associated with prematurity than with in utero SRI or mood disorder exposure. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00279370 and NCT00585702. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. Magnetically separable reactive sorbent based on the CeO2/γ-Fe2O3 composite and its utilization for rapid degradation of the organophosphate pesticide parathion methyl and certain nerve agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoš, P.; Kuráň, P.; Pilařová, V.; Trögl, J.; Šťastný, M.; Pelant, O.; Henych, Jiří; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Životský, O.; Kormunda, M.; Mazanec, K.; Skoumal, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 262, FEB (2015), s. 747-755 ISSN 1385-8947 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Magnetically separable sorbent * Destructive sorption * Cerium oxide * Parathion methyl * Toxic organophosphates Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.310, year: 2015

  16. Clinical Pharmacology of Paracetamol in Neonates: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici, MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Paracetamol clearance is lower in neonates than in children and adults. After metabolic conversion, paracetamol is subsequently eliminated by the renal route. The main metabolic conversions are conjugation with glucuronic acid and with sulphate. In the urine of neonates sulphated paracetamol concentration is higher than the glucuronidated paracetamol level, suggesting that sulfation prevails over glucuronidation in neonates. A loading dose of 20 mg/kg followed by 10 mg/kg every 6 hours of intravenous paracetamol is suggested to achieve a compartment concentration of 11 mg/L in late preterm and term neonates. Aiming for the same target concentration, oral doses are similar with rectal administration of 25 to 30 mg/kg/d in preterm neonates of 30 weeks’ gestation, 45 mg/kg/d in preterm infants of 34 weeks’ gestation, and 60 mg/kg/d in term neonates are suggested. The above-mentioned paracetamol doses for these indications (pain, fever are well tolerated in neonates, but do not result in a significant increase in liver enzymes, and do not affect blood pressure and have limited effects on heart rate. In contrast, the higher doses suggested in extreme preterm neonates to induce closure of the patent ductus arteriosus have not yet been sufficiently evaluated regarding efficacy or safety. Moreover, focussed pharmacovigilance to explore the potential causal association between paracetamol exposure during perinatal life and infancy and subsequent atopy is warranted.

  17. Neonatal Tele-Homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Kristina Garne

    Neonatal homecare (NH) implies that parents manage tube feeding and care of their preterm infant at home supported by home visits from neonatal nurses, to monitor infant growth and the well-being of the family. Home visits are costly and time consuming in rural areas. The overall aim of this study...... was to develop a telehealth service for NH without home visits - neonatal tele-homecare (NTH) and test it in an observational study. Participatory design (PD) methods were conducted to facilitate involvement of the end-users (parent of preterm infants and clinicians) in the development of the telehealth service...

  18. The neonatal chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Luisa [Servico de Imagiologia Geral do Hospital de Santa Maria, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1649-035 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: mluisalobo@gmail.com

    2006-11-15

    Lung diseases represent one of the most life threatening conditions in the newborn. Important progresses in modern perinatal care has resulted in a significantly improved survival and decreased morbidity, in both term and preterm infants. Most of these improvements are directly related to the better management of neonatal lung conditions, and infants of very low gestational ages are now surviving. This article reviews the common spectrum of diseases of the neonatal lung, including medical and surgical conditions, with emphasis to the radiological contribution in the evaluation and management of these infants. Imaging evaluation of the neonatal chest, including the assessment of catheters, lines and tubes are presented.

  19. Neonatal pertussis, cocooning and maternal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Wheeler, Sarahn M

    2014-09-01

    The rising incidence of whooping cough, a highly contagious infection caused by Bordetella pertussis, is particularly significant for young infants who have the highest risk for morbidity and mortality. The pertussis resurgence has led to a shift in primary prevention relying on childhood vaccination to a cocooning strategy, that is, vaccination of close contacts of newborn infants (new mothers, fathers, grandparents, siblings, caretakers, etc.), thereby reducing pertussis exposure. Immunization of women during pregnancy rather than during the immediate postpartum period (the initial cocooning recommendation) appears to be a better approach by directly providing protection through transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies. This article describes neonatal pertussis, cocooning as a means of reducing neonatal exposure to pertussis and maternal immunization as a means of protecting young infants against pertussis infection.

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}@mTiO{sub 2} nanomicrospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Lingling, E-mail: zllyslngj@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science of Jiangnan University, School of Food Science Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Pi, Fuwei; Wang, Yifan [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science of Jiangnan University, School of Food Science Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Xu, Hui [Key Laboratory of Healthy & Intelligent Kitchen System Integration, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315336 (China); Zhang, Yinzhi [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science of Jiangnan University, School of Food Science Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Sun, Xiulan, E-mail: sxlzzz@jiangnan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science of Jiangnan University, School of Food Science Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China)

    2016-09-05

    Highlights: • An efficient photocatalyst Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}@mTiO{sub 2} with high magnetic response and large specific surface area was synthesized. • Photocatalytic efficiency of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}@mTiO{sub 2} on Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl Parathion was higher than TiO{sub 2} P-25. • Possible photocatalytic degradation mechanisms for the Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl Parathion were proposed. - Abstract: A novel magnetic mesoporous nanomicrospheres Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}@mTiO{sub 2} were synthetized and characterized by a series of techniques including FE-TEM, EDS, FE-SEM, PXRD, XPS, BET, TGA as well as VSM, and subsequently tested as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion under UV irradiation. The well-designed nanomicrospheres exhibit a pure and highly crystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} layer, large specific surface area, and high-magnetic-response. Photocatalytic degradation of the three organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and the formation intermediates were identified using HPLC, TOC-V{sub cpn}, IC, pH meter and GC–MS. Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion disappeared after 45 min, 45 min, and 80 min UV illumination, respectively. At the end of the treatment, the total organic carbon (TOC) of the OPPs was reduced 80–85%. The main mineralization products were SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and Omethoate additionally formed NO{sub 2}{sup −}. Based on the results, we proposed the photocatalytic degradation pathways for Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion.

  1. Sonomammography in Neonatal Mastauxe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Ghanshyam Kachewar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prominence or even enlargement of one or both breasts is known in neonates. It is believed to be a physiological response to falling levels of maternal estrogen towards last trimester of pregnancy. This input stimulates prolactin release from the newborn's pituitary leading to transient neonatal breast enlargement. This phenomenon is independent of the gender of the neonate. It presents in the first few weeks of life and resolves subsequently. Often fluid discharge is noted from the prominent or swollen breast that resolves without treatment in subsequent weeks. Manual breast manipulation for discharge removal may lead to undesirable effects like local irritation, enhanced enlargement, prolonged tissue hypertropy or even mastitis. A case of such 7-days female neonate is presented here backed with imaging evaluation for confirmation of diagnosis. Typical sonomammographic findings are described. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 22-24

  2. Neonatal Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The presentation, treatment, and outcome of neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (SVT were studied in 42 children, using neurology clinic records (1986-2005 at Indiana University School of Medicine.

  3. Neonatal mortality in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, F R; Schuman, K L; Lyon, J L

    1982-09-01

    A cohort study of neonatal mortality (N = 106) in white singleton births (N = 14,486) in Utah for January-June 1975 was conducted. Using membership and activity in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon) as a proxy for parental health practices, i.e., tobacco and alcohol abstinence, differential neonatal mortality rates were calculated. The influence of potential confounding factors was evaluated. Low activity LDS members were found to have an excess risk of neonatal death five times greater than high activity LDS, with an upper bound of a two-sided 95% confidence interval of 7.9. The data consistently indicate a lower neonatal mortality rate for active LDS members. Non-LDS were found to have a lower rate than either medium or low activity LDS.

  4. Neonatal pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The past 2-3 decades have seen dramatic changes in the approach to pain management in the neonate. These practices started with refuting previously held misconceptions regarding nociception in preterm infants. Although neonates were initially thought to have limited response to painful stimuli, it was demonstrated that the developmental immaturity of the central nervous system makes the neonate more likely to feel pain. It was further demonstrated that untreated pain can have long-lasting physiologic and neurodevelopmental consequences. These concerns have resulted in a significant emphasis on improving and optimizing the techniques of analgesia for neonates and infants. The following article will review techniques for pain assessment, prevention, and treatment in this population with a specific focus on acute pain related to medical and surgical conditions.

  5. Neonatal herpes simplex pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lissauer, T J; Shaw, P J; Underhill, G

    1984-01-01

    A neonate with herpes simplex pneumonia is described. Herpes simplex infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pneumonia in newborn infants, even in the absence of clinically apparent herpes in the mother.

  6. Maternal and neonatal tetanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, C Louise; Beeching, Nicholas J; Newton, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal tetanus is still a substantial but preventable cause of mortality in many developing countries. Case fatality from these diseases remains high and treatment is limited by scarcity of resources and effective drug treatments. The Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative, launched by WHO and its partners, has made substantial progress in eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus. Sustained emphasis on improvement of vaccination coverage, birth hygiene, and surveillance, with specific approaches in high-risk areas, has meant that the incidence of the disease continues to fall. Despite this progress, an estimated 58 000 neonates and an unknown number of mothers die every year from tetanus. As of June, 2014, 24 countries are still to eliminate the disease. Maintenance of elimination needs ongoing vaccination programmes and improved public health infrastructure. PMID:25149223

  7. Hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada Aggravated neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Campo González

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La mayoría de las veces la ictericia en el recién nacido es un hecho fisiológico, causado por una hiperbilirrubinemia de predominio indirecto, secundario a inmadurez hepática e hiperproducción de bilirrubina. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportamiento de la hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal en el Hospital Docente Ginecoobstétrico de Guanabacoa en los años 2007 a 2009. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de 173 recién nacidos que ingresaron al Departamento de Neonatología con diagnóstico de hiperbilirrubinemia agravada. RESULTADOS. La incidencia de hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada fue del 3,67 % y predominó en hermanos con antecedentes de ictericia (56,65 %. El tiempo de aparición fue de 48 a 72 h (76,87 % y entre los factores agravantes se hallaron el nacimiento pretérmino y el bajo peso al nacer. La mayoría de los pacientes fueron tratados con luminoterapia (90,17 %. CONCLUSIÓN. La hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal agravada constituye un problema de salud. Los factores agravantes son la prematuridad y el bajo peso al nacer. La luminoterapia es una medida terapéutica eficaz para su tratamiento.INTRODUCTION. Most of times jaundice in newborn is a physiological fact due to hyperbilirubinemia of indirect predominance, secondary to liver immaturity and to bilirubin hyperproduction. The aim of present of present study was to determine the behavior of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa municipality from 2007 to 2009. METHODS. A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted in 173 newborn patients admitted in the Neonatology Department diagnosed with severe hyperbilirubinemia. RESULTS. The incidence of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia was of 3,67% with predominance in brothers with a history of jaundice (56,65%. The time of appearance was of 48 to 72 hrs (76,87% and among the aggravating factors were the preterm birth and

  8. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M Al-Salem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital complications due to ethmoiditis are rare in neonates. A case of orbital abscess due to acute ethmoiditis in a 28-day-old girl is presented. A Successful outcome was achieved following antimicrobial therapy alone; spontaneous drainage of the abscess occurred from the lower lid without the need for surgery. From this case report, we intend to emphasize on eyelid retraction as a sign of neonatal orbital abscess, and to review all the available literature of similar cases.

  9. Patient dose in neonatal units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smans, K.; Struelens, L.; Smet, M.; Bosmans, H.; Vanhavere, F.

    2008-01-01

    Lung disease represents one of the most life-threatening conditions in prematurely born children. In the evaluation of the neonatal chest, the primary and most important diagnostic study is therefore the chest radiograph. Since prematurely born children are very sensitive to radiation, those radiographs may lead to a significant radiation detriment. Hence, knowledge of the patient dose is necessary to justify the exposures. A study to assess the patient doses was started at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Univ. Hospital in Leuven. Between September 2004 and September 2005, prematurely born babies underwent on average 10 X-ray examinations in the NICU. In this sample, the maximum was 78 X-ray examinations. For chest radiographs, the median entrance skin dose was 34 μGy and the median dose area product was 7.1 mGy.cm 2 . By means of conversion coefficients, the measured values were converted to organ doses. Organ doses were calculated for three different weight classes: extremely low birth weight infants ( 2500 g). The doses to the lungs for a single chest radiograph for infants with extremely low birth weights, low birth weights and normal birth weights were 24, 25 and 32 μGy, respectively. (authors)

  10. [Neonatal asphyxia: neurologic outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, A; Stanca, M; Sposato, M; Santoro, F; Danti, F R; Dosi, C; Allemand, F

    2013-08-01

    The neonatal asphyxia is recognized as an important cause of morbidity and mortality during the pediatric age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between some neonatal variables and neurological outcome at two years of life in infants with asphyxia, in order to produce a correct prognosis and to grant a rapid and targeted therapy. We have recruited 63 patients whose history and neuroimages suggested a neonatal asphyxia, and we have analysed their clinical- instrumental parameters every three months until two years of life. A correlation study was carried out in order to find a statistical significance indicated by p-value Neonatal seizures are not related to an increased risk to develop epilepsy. Epilepsy alone is a rare event and it usually complicates CP picture. Most subject with both epilepsy and CP are term infants with adequate weight. Preterm VLBW infants have a greater risk to develop a psychomotor delay. Clinical conditions at birth are related to CP severity (several neonatal neurological signs are the greater risk factors). Severely pathological neonatal EEG (background activity) is related to CP severity and an early symptomatic epilepsy onset is related with both epilepsy and CP severity.

  11. Hospitalised neonates in Estonia commonly receive potentially harmful excipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lass Jana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28 days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83% prescriptions and 93 (87% medicines. 47 (38% of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97% received at least one medicine (median number 2 with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99% and 297 (85% of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable.

  12. Neonatal procedural pain and preterm infant cortisol response to novelty at 8 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Ruth E; Weinberg, Joanne; Whitfield, Michael F

    2004-07-01

    Stress systems may be altered in the long term in preterm infants for multiple reasons, including early exposure to procedural pain in neonatal intensive care. This question has received little attention beyond hospital discharge. Stress responses (cortisol) to visual novelty in preterm infants who were born at extremely low gestational age (ELGA; neonatal exposure to procedural pain and morphine in the neonatal intensive care unit. Seventy-six infants, 54 preterm (neonatal skin-breaking procedures. In contrast, cortisol responses to novelty were predicted equally well by neonatal pain or GA at birth. No relationship between morphine dosing and cortisol response was demonstrated in these infants. ELGA preterm infants show a different pattern of cortisol levels before and after positive stimulation of visual novelty than more maturely born, VLGA preterm and term-born infants. Exposure to high numbers of skin-breaking procedures may contribute to "resetting" basal arousal systems in preterm infants.

  13. Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  14. Microsomal biotransformation of chlorpyrifos, parathion and fenthion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): mechanistic insights into interspecific differences in toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Rainbow trout often serve as a surrogate species evaluating xenobiotic toxicity in cold-water species including other salmonids of the same genus, which are listed as threatened or endangered. Biotransformation tends to show species-specific patterns that influence susceptibility to xenobiotic toxicity, particularly organophoshpate insecticides (OPs). To evaluate the contribution of biotransformation in the mechanism of toxicity of three organophosphate (phosphorothionate) insecticides, chlorpyrifos, parathion and fenthion, microsomal bioactivation and detoxification pathways were measured in gills, liver and olfactory tissues in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and compared to juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Consistent with species differences in acute toxicity, significantly higher chlorpyrifos bioactivation was found in liver microsomes of rainbow trout (up to 2-fold) when compared with coho salmon. Although bioactivation to the oxon was observed, the catalytic efficiency towards chlorpyrifos dearylation (detoxification) was significantly higher in liver for both species (1.82 and 0.79 for trout and salmon, respectively) when compared to desulfuration (bioactivation). Bioactivation of parathion to paraoxon was significantly higher (up to 2.2-fold) than detoxification to p-nitrophenol in all tissues of both species with rates of conversion in rainbow trout, again significantly higher than coho salmon. Production of fenoxon and fenthion sulfoxides from fenthion was detected only in liver and gills of both species with activities in rainbow trout significantly higher than coho salmon. NADPH-Dependent hydrolysis of fenthion was observed in all tissues, and was the only activity detected in olfactory tissues. These results indicate rainbow trout are more sensitive than coho salmon to the acute toxicity of OP pesticides because trout have higher catalytic rates of oxon formation. Thus, rainbow trout may serve as a conservative surrogate

  15. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  16. Educating neonatal nurse practitioners in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFlore, Judy; Thomas, Patricia E; Zielke, Marjorie A; Buus-Frank, Madge E; McFadden, Barbara E; Sansoucie, Debra A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this education project is to prepare neonatal nurse practitioners using a nonlinear (random exposure to information delivered in context rather than abstracting information as is done in a traditional lecture), asynchronous approach. The Internet-based 3-dimensional virtual "living world" classroom will have a living textbook and a virtual neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Deploying the program within a virtual living world will enhance program accessibility and overcome the challenges of nurses returning to school. Greater accessibility can help to alleviate the shortage of neonatal providers, which are needed to meet the needs of the growing population.A Neonatal Curriculum Consortium comprising expert neonatal nurse practitioners and faculty are developing multimedia learning modules for core content defined by national organizations and certifying bodies. Our Internet-based, multisite, nonlinear, asynchronous universal neonatal curriculum has at its core a 3-dimensional virtual "living text book" for didactic instruction and a "living world" NICU for "deliberate practice." The NICU will feature an interactive virtual infant patient. Our "Virtual NICU" will assist students to transition from the classroom, to the simulation laboratory, and ultimately to the clinical area. Providing clinical learning experiences in the virtual NICU will enhance the students' opportunities to learn to care for the culturally diverse populations they will serve as neonatal nurse practitioners.

  17. Neonatal nonimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaish, Hassan M; Christensen, Robert D; Lemons, Richard S

    2017-02-01

    As in adults and older children, anemia in newborn infants can be the result of erythropoietic failure, hemorrhage, or hemolysis. When hemolysis is the prime consideration, it can be challenging for physicians caring for neonates to choose from the wide variety of available diagnostic tests. This review describes the authors' opinions regarding rational, consistent, and cost-effective means of making an exact diagnosis of a neonatal hemolytic condition. Two recent advances in the diagnosis of neonatal nonimmune hemolytic disorders are highlighted in this review: introduction of flow cytometry-based Eosin-5-maleimide (EMA) uptake as a screening test to identify RBC membrane defects and next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based panels to uncover exact mutations causing hemolysis. The availability of newer tools such as EMA and NGS to diagnose specific hemolytic conditions, which might otherwise remain unknown, enables neonatal practitioners not only to identify the exact cause of hemolysis but also to discover novel mutations that can be implicated in the cause of neonatal hemolytic processes.

  18. Neonatal Sepsis in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Alexandre; Rand, Katherine; Johnson, Josh A; Gautier, Jacqueline; Koster, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Infections (including sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia and tetanus) stand as a major contributor to neonatal mortality in Haiti (22%). Infants acquire bacteria that cause neonatal sepsis directly from the mother's blood, skin or vaginal tract either before or during delivery. Nosocomial and environmental pathogens introduce further risk after delivery. The absence of cohesive medical systems and methods for collecting information limits the available data in countries such as Haiti. This study seeks to add more information on the burden of severe bacterial infections and their etiology in neonates of Haiti. Researchers conducted a secondary retrospective analysis of a de-identified database from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at Nos Petit Frères et Soeurs-St. Damien Hospital (NPFS-SDH). Records from 1292 neonates admitted to the NICU at NPFS-SDH in Port-au-Prince Haiti from 2013 to 2015 were reviewed. Sepsis accounted for 708 of 1292 (54.8%) of all admissions to the NICU. Infants admitted for sepsis had a mortality rate of 23% (163 of 708 infants admitted for sepsis). The most common organism cultured was Streptococcus agalactiae, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginusa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabillis Failure to order or obtain a culture was associated with an increased fatality (odds ratio 2.4) for infants with sepsis. Resistance should be a concern when treating empirically. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Transient neonatal diabetes or neonatal hyperglycaemia: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transient neonatal diabetes and neonatal hyperglycaemia both present in the neonatal period with features of hyperglycaemia, dehydration and weight loss. Differentiating these conditions clinically is difficult. We describe the case of a 13 day old female whom we managed recently who could have had either condition.

  20. The value of neonatal autopsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal autopsy rates were in decline internationally at the end of the last century. Our objective was to assess the current value of neonatal autopsy in providing additional information to families and healthcare professionals.

  1. Illicit drug use and neonatal outcomes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schempf, Ashley H

    2007-11-01

    Although the neonatal consequences of tobacco and alcohol exposure are well established, the evidence related to prenatal illicit drug use is less consistent despite prevalent views to the contrary. The many social, psychosocial, behavioral, and biomedical risk factors for adverse birth outcomes associated with illicit drug use complicate the evaluation of neonatal effects. Placing emphasis on recent research, this review summarizes the epidemiologic literature on the neonatal impact of marijuana, opiate, and cocaine use. Of these drugs, cocaine use is most consistently related to fetal growth decrements and dose-response effects have been observed. However, studies to date have largely failed to control for associated social, psychosocial, and contextual factors. Additional recommendations for future research are provided. It is likely that interventions will need to address the factors surrounding drug use to greatly improve neonatal outcomes (e.g., social circumstances, poor nutrition, stress, infections).

  2. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    western Johannesburg and also at the. Donald Gordon Medical Centre. Neonatal skin, like the respiratory system, bears the brunt of the extreme change in external environment that characterises birth. NEONATES. 488 CME September 2004 Vol.22 No.9. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH). Fig. 1. Café-au-lait macule. Fig. 2.

  3. Neonatal Malaria in the Gambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Conclusions: These data show that neonatal malaria is not uncommon in The Gambia and that the clinical features are akin to those of neonatal septicaemia. Key words: Malaria; septicaemia; neonate: ... mechanisms such as the milk diet of the infant being deficient in p-amino-benzoic acid,. 9 haematological factors such as ...

  4. Rings in the neonate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hackett, C B

    2011-02-01

    Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is an uncommon disease of the neonate. It is believed to be caused by the transplacental passage of maternal autoantibodies to the ribonucleoproteins (Ro\\/SSA, La\\/SSB or rarely U RNP) as these are almost invariably present in NLE sera. The most common clinical manifestations include cutaneous lupus lesions and congenital complete heart block. Hepatobiliary and haematologic abnormalities are reported less frequently. We describe a patient with cutaneous NLE to illustrate and raise awareness of the characteristic annular eruption of this condition. We also emphasize the need for thorough investigation for concomitant organ involvement and for maternal education regarding risk in future pregnancies.

  5. Ultrasonography of Neonatal Cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Ultrasonography (US) is as an important tool for differentiation of obstructive and non-obstructive causes of jaundice in infants and children. Beyond two weeks of age, extrahepatic biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis are the two most common causes of persistent neonatal jaundice: differentiation of extrahepatic biliary atresia, which requires early surgical intervention, is very important. Meticulous analysis should focus on size and configuration of the gallbladder and anatomical changes of the portahepatis. In order to narrow the differential diagnosis, combined approaches using hepatic scintigraphy, MR cholangiography, and, at times, percutaneous liver biopsy are necessary. US is useful for demonstrating choledochal cyst, bile plug syndrome, and spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic bile duct

  6. Neonatal nursing: an unmet challenge in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyan, Geetanjli; Vatsa, Manju

    2014-11-01

    Nurses comprise a key component to maternal and newborn health care delivery, including the care of 'at-risk' or sick newborns. However, the efficiency and effectiveness of services rely heavily on adequate numbers of highly skilled neonatal nurses. Currently, in India, a significant shortage of trained nurses in the field of newborn care is contributing to poor neonatal outcomes. Specifically, nurses caring for newborns lack the competency and experience needed to ensure optimal care. This deficiency has been linked to a lack of expert faculty, standardized training and minimal or no exposures to newborn clinical care areas during pre service education. Moreover, in addition to a lack of operational research in the area, nurses who provide care for newborns are often faced with numerous system related issues that impede their ability to provide optimal care. Most notably, frequent changes of work place, poor wages, and lack of continuing education, skill maintenance, recognition, and collaborative team culture further compromise the nursing care. All these lead to poor motivation and competency. To meet this challenge, it is essential that emphasis be placed on the identification and support of nursing faculty with expertise in newborn and neonatal care who are able to ensure that nurses receive standardized education for pre-service, in-service and ongoing care. In addition, importance should be placed on encouraging newborn nursing research as well as on governmental increases in salary compensation. Lastly, given the shortage of physicians to take care of sick neonates in remote areas, the creation of a cadre of Neonatal nurse practitioner/ advanced practice nurses would be an invaluable solution in developing countries. Furthermore, centralized oversight of newborn education and training would be best served, if responsibility was placed with Reproductive maternal newborn child health (RMNCH) workers and district level officers.

  7. HIV and pregnancy: Maternal and neonatal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cecchini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Data regarding epidemiological aspects, antiretroviral drug safety, and outcomes of HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns are limited in Argentina. We underwent a retrospective analysis of registries of HIV-infected pregnant women assisted at Helios Salud, Buenos Aires, Argentina (1997-2006. Variables associated with preterm delivery and neonatal complications were analyzed by univariate and logistic regression analyses. A total of 204 mother-child binomium were included. Maternal age (median: 29 years; 32.5% without prior diagnosis of HIV-infection. Baseline median CD4 T-cell count: 417 cell/μl; 98% received antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy [2 nucleoside analogs plus either nevirapine (55% or a protease inhibitor (32%]. Overall incidence of toxicity was 12.5%: rash (8%, anemia (3.5% and hepatotoxicity (1%. Rash was associated with exposure to nevirapine. Eighty one percent and 50% reached HIV-viral loads <1000 and <50 copies/ml at the end of pregnancy, respectively. Twenty six percent had obstetric complications and 16% had preterm delivery. Of the newborns, 1.6% had congenital defects and 9% had neonatal complications. Overall neonatal mortality was 1% and perinatal transmission was 0.7%. Protease inhibitor use and obstetric complications were associated to preterm delivery while obstetric complications were associated with neonatal complications. In our population, hepatotoxicity was low despite frequent use of nevirapine. Protease inhibitor use was associated to preterm delivery. A favorable virological response and a low rate of perinatal transmission was observed, what supports the consensus that antiretroviral therapy benefits during pregnancy outweigh risks of maternal and neonatal adverse events.

  8. Neonatal abstinence syndrome: a never ending story!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes N. van den Anker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal Abstinence syndrome (NAS is the result of fetal exposure to illicit or prescription drugs (for example opioids, benzodiazepines, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors taken by the mother prenatally. NAS is a complex of symptoms, caused by acute withdrawal of the illicit drug(s used by their mothers during pregnancy, seen in neonates hours or days after being born. In the United States of America around 16% of teenagers and 7% of women between the ages of 18 and 25 use illicit drugs during their pregnancies. In this paper the treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy and treatment of NAS are presented. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  9. Clinical presentation and management of neonatal abstinence syndrome: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordean A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alice Ordean,1 Brian C Chisamore21Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, St Joseph's Health Centre, and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Exposure to prescription medications and illicit drug use during pregnancy has been associated with neonatal abstinence syndrome. The clinical presentation consists of neurological respiratory, gastrointestinal, and vasomotor disturbances. All infants require observation and supportive care to ensure appropriate adaptation and growth in the newborn period. A smaller percentage may also require additional pharmacotherapy, depending on the specific gestational substance exposure. Women should be counseled antenatally about the possible neonatal effects, and mother–baby dyad care should be implemented for this particular patient population.Keywords: neonatal withdrawal, opioids, marijuana, cocaine, benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

  10. Neonatal nutrition and metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thureen, Patti J; Hay, William W

    2006-01-01

    ..., the volume highlights the important longterm effects of fetal and neonatal growth on health in later life. In addition, there are very practical chapters on methods and techniques for assessing nutritional status, body composition, and evaluating metabolic function. Written by an authoritative, international team of cont...

  11. Quantitative analysis of methyl and propyl parabens in neonatal DBS using LC–MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Yakkundi, Shirish; Mulla, Hussain; Pandya, Hitesh; Turner, Mark A; McElnay, James

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Excipients are used to overcome the chemical, physical and microbiological challenges posed by developing formulated medicines. Both methyl and propyl paraben are commonly used in pediatric liquid formulations. There is no data on systemic exposure to parabens in neonates. The European Study of Neonatal Exposure to Excipients project has investigated this. Results & methodology: DBS sampling was used to collect opportunistic blood samples. Parabens were extracted from the DBS and ana...

  12. Potential use of the oligochaete Limnodrilus profundicola V., as a bioindicator of contaminant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Adile; Duran, Mustafa; Sen, Alaattin

    2011-02-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) were of special interest to this study as these biochemical tools have been widely used for the determination of exposure to pollutants. In this study, the freshwater oligochaete Limnodrilus profundicola was tested for its potential as a bioindicator of freshwater pollution. For this purpose, the ChE and EROD activities of L. profundicola and the level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of water samples collected from different sites along the Curuksu stream on the Menderes River (the ancient Meander) running through south-western Turkey were studied. First, these activities were characterized using, as model substrates, acetylthiocholine (ATC), propionylthiocholine (PTC), and butyrylthiocholine (BTC). Then, the in vivo effects of insecticides and pollutants on these activities were investigated. L. profundicola were exposed to various doses of methyl-parathion, methomyl, and deltamethrin. Although significant inhibition of ChE was detected with each of the insecticides, the highest level of inhibition was observed with methyl-parathion. In addition to the inhibition of ChE, the activity of EROD was induced by exposure to oil-contaminated sediments. Thus, although L. profundicola has a reputation for being very resistant to pollution (although it is not insensitive to it), we demonstrated that it may potentially be used as a bioindicator species for contaminant exposure when ChE and EROD are used as biomarkers. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Recommendations for neonatal transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Hernando, J; Thió Lluch, M; Salguero García, E; Rite Gracia, S; Fernández Lorenzo, J R; Echaniz Urcelay, I; Botet Mussons, F; Herranz Carrillo, G; Sánchez Luna, M

    2013-08-01

    During pregnancy, it is not always possible to identify maternal or foetal risk factors. Infants requiring specialised medical care are not always born in centres providing intensive care and will need to be transferred to a referral centre where intensive care can be provided. Therefore Neonatal Transport needs to be considered as part of the organisation of perinatal health care. The aim of Neonatal Transport is to transfer a newborn infant requiring intensive care to a centre where specialised resources and experience can be provided for the appropriate assessment and continuing treatment of a sick newborn infant. Intrauterine transfer is the ideal mode of transport when the birth of an infant with risk factors is diagnosed. Unfortunately, not all problems can be detected in advance with enough time to safely transfer a pregnant woman. Around 30- 50% of risk factors will be diagnosed during labour or soon after birth. Therefore, it is important to have the knowledge and resources to resuscitate and stabilise a newborn infant, as well as a specialised neonatal transport system. With this specialised transport it is possible to transfer newly born infants with the same level of care that they would receive if they had been born in a referral hospital, without increasing their risks or affecting the wellbeing of the newborn. The Standards Committee of the Spanish Society of Neonatology reviewed and updated recommendations for intrauterine transport and indications for neonatal transfer. They also reviewed organisational and logistic factors involved with performing neonatal transport. The Committee review included the type of personnel who should be involved; communication between referral and receiving hospitals; documentation; mode of transport; equipment to stabilise newly born infants; management during transfer, and admission at the referral hospital. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Basic model of quality and good practices in neonatal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Janine H.; Goulart, Juliana M.; Lykawka, Rochelle; Bacelar, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal chest radiographs were evaluated and 3 variables were analyzed: collimation, positioning and presence of artifacts. This study is a pilot for develop a model of good practices in radiology, which is in development phase. The index of analyzed radiographs considered inadequate is expressive and it shows the need for a model that may be part of an optimization program to medical exposures. (author)

  15. Antioxidant status of neonates exposed in utero to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, L; Gulian, J M; Dalmasso, C; Calaf, R; Simeoni, U; Millet, V

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the influence of maternal smoke exposure on neonatal and maternal antioxidant status, 39 mothers who were active smokers, 14 mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 17 controls, and their newborns were included in a prospective, controlled study. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, measured as total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and concentrations of specific antioxidants were measured in cord and in maternal blood. A similar, significant increase in ceruloplasmin concentration was observed in neonates born to actively smoking mothers and in those born to ETS exposed mothers. Uric acid and TRAP concentrations were significantly increased in ETS-exposed newborns and their mothers, compared to newborns and mothers from the active smoking and no-exposure groups with a trend towards increased uric acid, TRAP and FRAP concentrations being observed in the active smokers group. Neonatal and maternal antioxidant concentrations correlated significantly, except for ceruloplasmin. Cord blood vitamin A, E and C concentrations were unaffected by smoke exposure. These results show that maternal active smoking as well as ETS exposure significantly affect neonatal and maternal antioxidant status. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Buprenorphine: a new player in neonatal withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, S; Brant, R; Regier, M; Yossuck, P

    2015-01-01

    To study the incidence and patient characteristics of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) in infants who were born to opioid addicted mothers and required NICU admission over the three year period. From 2009 to 2011, data of infants admitted in WVUH NICU with history of maternal drug exposure were extracted and reviewed. Infants born to mothers treated with buprenorphine (BPN) and those with methadone (MTD) were compared. Incidence of drug exposure infants significantly increased in 2011. BPN exposure infants increased substantially while the number of MTD exposure infants did not significantly change. Eighty-one percent of those MTD exposure infants required drug treatment for NAS compared to 26% of BPN exposure infants. Significant increase in opioid exposure infants with NAS was observed in our unit in 2011. Although, the incidence of BPN exposure with NAS increased significantly, only 25% of them required drug treatment.

  17. Basic model of quality and good practices in neonatal radiography; Modelo basico de qualidade e boas praticas em radiografia neonatal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Janine H.; Goulart, Juliana M.; Lykawka, Rochelle; Bacelar, Alexandre [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal chest radiographs were evaluated and 3 variables were analyzed: collimation, positioning and presence of artifacts. This study is a pilot for develop a model of good practices in radiology, which is in development phase. The index of analyzed radiographs considered inadequate is expressive and it shows the need for a model that may be part of an optimization program to medical exposures. (author)

  18. Fellowship Training in the Emerging Fields of Fetal-Neonatal Neurology and Neonatal Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Christopher D; Tam, Emily W Y; Chang, Taeun; Soul, Janet S; Miller, Steven P; Glass, Hannah C

    2016-10-01

    Neonatal neurocritical care is a growing and rapidly evolving medical subspecialty, with increasing numbers of dedicated multidisciplinary clinical, educational, and research programs established at academic institutions. The growth of these programs has provided trainees in neurology, neonatology, and pediatrics with increased exposure to the field, sparking interest in dedicated fellowship training in fetal-neonatal neurology. To meet this rising demand, increasing numbers of training programs are being established to provide trainees with the requisite knowledge and skills to independently deliver care for infants with neurological injury or impairment from the fetal care center and neonatal intensive care unit to the outpatient clinic. This article provides an initial framework for standardization of training across these programs. Recommendations include goals and objectives for training in the field; core areas where clinical competency must be demonstrated; training activities and neuroimaging and neurodiagnostic modalities which require proficiency; and programmatic requirements necessary to support a comprehensive and well-rounded training program. With consistent implementation, the proposed model has the potential to establish recognized standards of professional excellence for training in the field, provide a pathway toward Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education certification for program graduates, and lead to continued improvements in medical and neurological care provided to patients in the neonatal intensive care unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Developmental pharmacokinetics of propylene glycol in preterm and term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Roosmarijn F W; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; Kulo, Aida; de Hoon, Jan; Verbesselt, Rene; Danhof, Meindert; Allegaert, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is often applied as an excipient in drug formulations. As these formulations may also be used in neonates, the aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of propylene glycol, co-administered intravenously with paracetamol (800 mg PG/1000 mg paracetamol) or phenobarbital (700 mg PG/200 mg phenobarbital) in preterm and term neonates. A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed based on 372 PG plasma concentrations from 62 (pre)term neonates (birth weight (bBW) 630-3980 g, postnatal age (PNA) 1-30 days) using NONMEM 6.2. The model was subsequently used to simulate PG exposure upon administration of paracetamol or phenobarbital in neonates (gestational age 24-40 weeks). In a one compartment model, birth weight and PNA were both identified as covariates for PG clearance using an allometric function (CL(i) = 0.0849 × {(bBW/2720)(1.69) × (PNA/3)(0.201)}). Volume of distribution scaled allometrically with current bodyweight (V(i) = 0.967 × {(BW/2720)(1.45)}) and was estimated 1.77 times higher when co-administered with phenobarbital compared with paracetamol. By introducing these covariates a large part of the interindividual variability on clearance (65%) as well as on volume of distribution (53%) was explained. The final model shows that for commonly used dosing regimens, the population mean PG peak and trough concentrations range between 33-144 and 28-218 mg l(-1) (peak) and 19-109 and 6-112 mg l(-1) (trough) for paracetamol and phenobarbital formulations, respectively, depending on birth weight and age of the neonates. A pharmacokinetic model was developed for PG co-administered with paracetamol or phenobarbital in neonates. As such, large variability in PG exposure may be expected in neonates which is dependent on birth weight and PNA. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Exposure assessment of traditional and IPM farmers on using pesticides: A case study at Bang Rieng Sub District, Khuan Nieng District, Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viris Jirachaiyabhas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire was developed to quantitatively evaluate the exposure to pesticides and to gauge the concentration of organophosphate pesticides such as chlorpyrifos and methyl-parathion while the farmers of Bang Rieng were spraying these pesticides. The results were applied to the exposure assessment and to compare the quantity of exposure to these pesticides between 33 traditional and 40 integrated pest management (IPM farmers of Bang Rieng. There was a significant difference in the level of exposure between the traditional farmers, who had the average pesticide exposure scores of 58.30 points and the IPM farmers, whose average scores were 53.50 points, (p < 0.015. Concentrations of organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and methyl-parathion were measured. Thirty-three air samples were collected by personal sampling during the period of pesticide spraying. Traditional farmers were exposed to higher levels of the pesticide(s with a mean concentration of 0.1865 mg/m compared to the IPM farmers who were exposed to a mean pesticide concentration of 0.037 mg/m3. It was estimated that the farmers of Bang Rieng would be exposed to 186-19,616.6 mg of the organophosphatepesticide(s via inhalation throughout their lifetime (65 years. Moreover, according to the exposure assessment, the traditional farmers exposed to a greater amount of the pesticide(s via inhalation compared to the IPM farmers.

  1. Diffuse neonatal gastric infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.F.; Woisard, K.K.; Cooper, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Diffuse neonatal gastric infarction can be a devastating complication of invasion of the gastric wall and vessels by fungi colonizing the gastric mucosa. Even in the presence of extensive transmural necrosis, however, the radiographs do not necessarily show evidence of gastric mucosal abnormality. Instead, plain films and positive contrast studies may erroneously suggest a mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. Ancillary evidence of a devitalized viscus in a baby who appears to have complete gastric outlet obstruction should suggest the diagnosis of gastric infarction. (orig.)

  2. Diffuse neonatal gastric infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.F.; Woisard, K.K.; Cooper, G.L.

    1988-02-01

    Diffuse neonatal gastric infarction can be a devastating complication of invasion of the gastric wall and vessels by fungi colonizing the gastric mucosa. Even in the presence of extensive transmural necrosis, however, the radiographs do not necessarily show evidence of gastric mucosal abnormality. Instead, plain films and positive contrast studies may erroneously suggest a mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. Ancillary evidence of a devitalized viscus in a baby who appears to have complete gastric outlet obstruction should suggest the diagnosis of gastric infarction.

  3. Telemedicine in Neonatal Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Kristina Garne; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For the majority of preterm infants, the last weeks of hospital admission mainly concerns tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding. Neonatal home care (NH) was developed to allow infants to remain at home for tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding with regular home...... visits from neonatal nurses. For hospitals covering large regions, home visits may be challenging, time consuming, and expensive and alternative approaches must be explored. OBJECTIVE: To identify parental needs when wanting to provide neonatal home care supported by telemedicine. METHODS: The study used...... participatory design and qualitative methods. Data were collected from observational studies, individual interviews, and focus group interviews. Two neonatal units participated. One unit was experienced in providing neonatal home care with home visits, and the other planned to offer neonatal home care...

  4. Metabolomic Analysis of the Secretome of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Following Methyl Parathion and Methyl Paraoxon Exposure. Phase 3. LC-MS-MS Structural Confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    attention deficit - hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) in their offspring. The...17 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ADHD attention deficit - hyperactivity disorder ADMA asymmetric dimethylarginine APG Aberdeen Proving...Wright, R.O.; Weisskopf, M.G. Attention - Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder and Urinary Metabololites or Organophosphate Pesticides. Pediatrics

  5. Histopathological alterations in neonate after in utero irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Gawad, I.I.

    2000-01-01

    Series of experiments were performed to study the histopathological changes induced in embryonic tissue during various stages of gestation in female rats after gamma irradiation. Pregnant rats were exposed to doses 0.5, 1,2 and 3 Gy on 9 th 12 th and 15 th days of gestation. Histopathological changes were detected in tissues of neonates, namely, liver ileum, kidney, brain, spleen, suprarenal, thymus, lungs and heart. These tissues showed variable degrees of radiation induced tissue changes. For quantifying these changes arbitrary scores were formulated to assess the type and severity of changes observed tissues of thirty six neonates randomly selected after radiation exposure of pregnant animals as scheduled

  6. Radiation dose in the neonatal intensive care unit of Antoine Beclere Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, C.; Rehel, J. L.; Aubert, B.; Musset, D.

    2006-07-01

    As part of a program aiming a better knowledge of the medical exposure of the french population and in the frame of the principle of optimisation, a study of radiation doses to neonates was carried out in neonatal intensive care unit of Antoine Beclere hospital. From March to August 2005, entrance surface dose (ESD) received by 63 neonates classified according the their weight (184 X-ray examinations) was measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) during examination. The mean ESD ESD per exposure was found between 20 and 37 {mu}Gy according to the weight of neonates. The newborn of less than 1000 g at birth have a mean of 20 X-ray examinations. Above 1000 g the number of X-ray examinations was between 5 and 8.5. During their stay in neonatal intensive care unit, the total ESD of neonates was from 500 {mu}Gy for the smallest Neonates (<1000 g) and the other respectively. Results indicate that neonate exposition, is very small compared with french and international data. ESD was significantly lower than the french reference level of 80 {mu}Gy. (Author)

  7. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families. CF causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in ...

  8. Airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds in neonatal incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazad, P; Cortes, D R; Puppala, B L; Donovan, R; Kumar, S; Gulati, A

    2008-08-01

    To identify and quantify airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside neonatal incubators during various modes of operation within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment. Air samples were taken from 10 unoccupied incubators in four operational settings along with ambient air samples using air sampling canisters. The samples were analyzed following EPA TO-15 using a Tekmar AutoCan interfaced to Agilent 6890 Gas Chromatograph with a 5973 Mass Spectrometer calibrated for 60 EPA TO-15 method target compounds. Non-target compounds were tentatively identified using mass spectral interpretation and with a mass spectral library created by National Institute for Standards and Technology. Two non-target compounds, 2-heptanone and n-butyl acetate, were found at elevated concentrations inside the incubators compared with ambient room air samples. Increase in temperature and addition of humidity produced further increased concentrations of these compounds. Their identities were verified by mass spectra and relative retention times using authentic standards. They were quantified using vinyl acetate and 2-hexanone as surrogate standards. The emission pattern of these two compounds and background measurements indicate that they originate inside the incubator. There is evidence that exposure to some VOCs may adversely impact the fetal and developing infants' health. Currently, as there is no definitive information available on the effects of acute or chronic low-level exposure to these compounds in neonates, future studies evaluating the health effects of neonatal exposure to these VOCs are needed.

  9. Clinical practice: neonatal resuscitation. A Dutch consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, F.A.M.; van Veenendaal, M.B.; Mulder, A.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The updated Dutch guidelines on Neonatal Resuscitation assimilate the latest evidence in neonatal resuscitation. Important changes with regard to the 2004 guidelines and controversial issues concerning neonatal resuscitation are reviewed, and recommendations for daily practice are provided and

  10. Genetically engineered Pseudomonas putida X3 strain and its potential ability to bioremediate soil microcosms contaminated with methyl parathion and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Xu, Xingjian; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-02-01

    A multifunctional Pseudomonas putida X3 strain was successfully engineered by introducing methyl parathion (MP)-degrading gene and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene in P. putida X4 (CCTCC: 209319). In liquid cultures, the engineered X3 strain utilized MP as sole carbon source for growth and degraded 100 mg L(-1) of MP within 24 h; however, this strain did not further metabolize p-nitrophenol (PNP), an intermediate metabolite of MP. No discrepancy in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and cobalt (Co) was observed between the engineered X3 strain and its host strain. The inoculated X3 strain accelerated MP degradation in different polluted soil microcosms with 100 mg MP kg(-1) dry soil and/or 5 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil; MP was completely eliminated within 40 h. However, the presence of Cd in the early stage of remediation slightly delayed MP degradation. The application of X3 strain in Cd-contaminated soil strongly affected the distribution of Cd fractions and immobilized Cd by reducing bioavailable Cd concentrations with lower soluble/exchangeable Cd and organic-bound Cd. The inoculated X3 strain also colonized and proliferated in various contaminated microcosms. Our results suggested that the engineered X3 strain is a potential bioremediation agent showing competitive advantage in complex contaminated environments.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Parathion, Malathion, Diazinon, and Pirimiphos Methyl in Dried Medicinal Plants Using Solid-Phase Microextraction Fibre Coated with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ahmadkhaniha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and sensitive headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of different organophosphorus pesticides in dried medicinal plant samples is described. The analytes were extracted by single-walled carbon nanotubes as a new solid-phase microextraction adsorbent. The developed method showed good performance. For diazinon and pirimiphos methyl calibration, curves were linear (r2≥0.993 over the concentration ranges from 1.5 to 300 ng g−1, and the limit of detection at signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 0.3 ng g−1. For parathion and malathion, the linear range and limit of detection were 2.5–300 (r2≥0.991 and 0.5 ng g−1, respectively. In addition, a comparative study between the single-walled carbon nanotubes and a commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre for the determination of target analytes was carried out. Single-walled carbon nanotubes fibre showed higher extraction capacity, better thermal stability (over 350∘C, and longer lifespan (over 250 times than the commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre. The developed method was successfully applied to determine target organophosphorus pesticides in real samples.

  12. Fetal and neonatal endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unüvar, Tolga; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2012-06-01

    Endocrine disruptors are substances commonly encountered in every setting and condition in the modern world. It is virtually impossible to avoid the contact with these chemical compounds in our daily life. Molecules defined as endocrine disruptors constitute an extremely heterogeneous group and include synthetic chemicals used as industrial solvents/lubricants and their by-products. Natural chemicals found in human and animal food (phytoestrogens) also act as endocrine disruptors. Different from adults, children are not exposed only to chemical toxins in the environment but may also be exposed during their intrauterine life. Hundreds of toxic substances, which include neuro-immune and endocrine toxic chemical components that may influence the critical steps of hormonal, neurological and immunological development, may affect the fetus via the placental cord and these substances may be excreted in the meconium. Children and especially newborns are more sensitive to environmental toxins compared to adults. Metabolic pathways are immature, especially in the first months of life. The ability of the newborn to metabolize, detoxify and eliminate many toxins is different from that of the adults. Although exposures occur during fetal or neonatal period, their effects may sometimes be observed in later years. Further studies are needed to clarify the effects of these substances on the endocrine system and to provide evidence for preventive measures.

  13. Neonatal morphine enhances nociception and decreases analgesia in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo Hua; Sweitzer, Sarah M

    2008-03-14

    The recognition of the impact of neonatal pain experience on subsequent sensory processing has led to the increased advocacy for the use of opioids for pain relief in infants. However, following long-term opioid exposure in intensive care units more than 48% of infants exhibited behaviors indicative of opioid abstinence syndrome, a developmentally equivalent set of behaviors to opioid withdrawal as seen in adults. Little is known about the long-term influence of repeated neonatal morphine exposure on nociception and analgesia. To investigate this, we examined mechanical and thermal nociception on postnatal days 11, 13, 15, 19, 24, 29, 39 and 48 following subcutaneous administration of morphine (3 mg/kg) once daily on postnatal days 1-9. The cumulative morphine dose-response was assessed on postnatal days 20 and 49, and stress-induced analgesia was assessed on postnatal days 29 and 49. Both basal mechanical and thermal nociception in neonatal, morphine-exposed rats were significantly lower than those in saline-exposed, handled-control rats and naive rats until P29. A rightward-shift of cumulative dose-response curves for morphine analgesia upon chronic neonatal morphine was observed both on P20 and P49. The swim stress-induced analgesia was significantly decreased in neonatal morphine-exposed rats on P29, but not on P49. These data indicate that morphine exposure equivalent to the third trimester of gestation produced prolonged pain hypersensitivity, decreased morphine antinociception, and decreased stress-induced analgesia. The present study illustrates the need to examine the long-term influence of prenatal morphine exposure on pain and analgesia in the human pediatric population.

  14. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage presenting as late onset neonatal jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Umar Amin; Ahmad, Nisar; Rasool, Akhter; Choh, Suhail

    2009-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of adrenal hemorrhage vary depending on the degree and rate of hemorrhage, as well as the amount of adrenal cortex compromised by hemorrhage. We report here a case of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage that presented with late onset neonatal jaundice. The cause of adrenal hemorrhage was birth asphyxia.

  15. Neonatal respiratory distress in a reference neonatal unit in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute fetal distress, elective caesarean delivery, APGAR score < 7 at the 1st minute, prematurity, male gender and macrosomia were independent predictors of NRD. The main etiologies were neonatal infections (31%) and transient tachypnea of the newborn (25%). Its neonatal mortality rate was 24.5%, mainly associated ...

  16. Feeding premature neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... parents may perceive the animality of bovine colostrum, and the background information obtained in piglets, as a threat to the infants' connection to their biological parents as well as the larger human collective. Our study argues that the ‘species flexibility’ of premature beings profoundly shapes...

  17. Fetal and Neonatal Arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Edgar; Öhman, Annika

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are an important aspect of fetal and neonatal medicine. Premature complexes of atrial or ventricular origin are the main cause of an irregular heart rhythm. The finding is typically unrelated to an identifiable cause and no treatment is required. Tachyarrhythmia most commonly relates to supraventricular reentrant tachycardia, atrial flutter, and sinus tachycardia. Several antiarrhythmic agents are available for the perinatal treatment of tachyarrhythmias. Enduring bradycardia may result from sinus node dysfunction, complete heart block and nonconducted atrial bigeminy as the main arrhythmia mechanisms. The management and outcome of bradycardia depend on the underlying mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost of neonatal care.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, S; Sics, A; Congdon, P

    1988-01-01

    A six month evaluation of the costs of a regional neonatal medical and surgical unit was carried out. The total cost for six months was pounds 970,000 and this covered 4349 inpatient days and 282 admissions. For medical cases the cost ranged from pounds 132 to pounds 27,600 and the mean daily cost for different weight groups ranged from pounds 159 to pounds 274. The average daily cost for regional patients at pounds 258 was greater than for district patients who cost pounds 199. Altogether 23...

  19. Intraoperative fluid therapy in neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evidence base for the administration of intraoperative fluids in neonates is poor and extrapolated from adults and children. Differences from adults and children in physiology and anatomy of neonates inform our practice. Keywords: fluid ..... compromise lung function and wound healing. The EGL develops early in ...

  20. Neonatal Tetanus: A Continuing Menace

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    WHO/EPI/GEN/86/7 REVE 1 (ENGLISH). 27. UNICEF. Neonatal tetanus: protecting mothers and children. The State of World's Children 1994: 10. 28. WHO. EPI: Disease incidence and immunization coverage (Saudi Arabia). Weekly Epidem. Record. 1986;. 61(7): 45-46. 29. WHO. EPI. Neonatal tetanus mortality surveys.

  1. Early neonatal bilirubin, hematocrit, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejoko, Bolaji O; Owa, Joshua A; Oseni, Saheed B A; Badejoko, Olusegun; Fatusi, Adesegun O; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa A

    2014-10-01

    To document the patterns of bilirubin and hematocrit values among glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient and G6PD-normal Nigerian neonates in the first week of life, in the absence of exposure to known icterogenic agents. The G6PD status of consecutive term and near-term neonates was determined, and their bilirubin levels and hematocrits were monitored during the first week of life. Infants were stratified into G6PD deficient, intermediate, and normal on the basis of the modified Beutler's fluorescent spot test. Means of total serum bilirubin (TSB) and hematocrits of the 3 groups of infants were compared. The 644 neonates studied comprised 353 (54.8%) boys and 291 (45.2%) girls and 540 (83.9%) term and 104 (16.1%) near-term infants. They consisted of 129 (20.0%) G6PD-deficient, 69 (10.7%) G6PD-intermediate, and 446 (69.3%) G6PD-normal neonates. The G6PD-deficient and G6PD-intermediate infants had higher mean TSB than their G6PD-normal counterparts at birth and throughout the first week of life (P hematocrits at birth were similar in the 3 G6PD groups. However, G6PD-deficient and -intermediate infants had higher declines in hematocrit, bilirubin levels, and need for phototherapy than G6PD-normal infants (P < .001). The G6PD-deficient and G6PD-intermediate neonates had a higher risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and would therefore need greater monitoring in the first week of life, even without exposure to known icterogenic agents. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Metabolic aspects of neonatal rat islet hypoxia tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Ayman; Laue, Christiane; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Sensitivity of pancreatic islets to hypoxia is one of the most important of the obstacles responsible for their failure to survive within the recipients. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro hypoxia tolerance of neonatal and adult rat islet cells and to study the glucose metabolism in these cells after exposure to hypoxia. Islet cells from both age categories were cultured in different hypoxic levels for 24 h and insulin secretion and some metabolites of glucose metabolism were analysed. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion decreased dramatically in both cell preparations in response to the decrease in oxygen level. The reduction of insulin secretion was more detectable in adult cells and started at 5% O(2), while a significant reduction was obtained at 1% O(2) in neonatal cells. Moreover, basal insulin release of neonatal cells showed an adaptation to hypoxia after a 4-day culture in hypoxia. Intracellular pyruvate was higher in neonatal cells than in adult ones, while no difference in lactate level was observed between them. Similar results to that of pyruvate were observed for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The study reveals that neonatal rat islet cells are more hypoxia-tolerant than the adult ones. The most obvious metabolic observation was that both pyruvate and lactate were actively produced in neonatal cells, while adult cells depended mainly on lactate production as an end-product of glycolysis, indicating a more enhanced metabolic flexibility of neonatal cells to utilize the available oxygen and, at the same time, maintain metabolism anaerobically.

  3. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice.

  4. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice

  5. [Effects of neonatal nutritional status on the risk for metabolic syndrome in Chilean obese children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapunar, Jorge; Bustos, Paulina; Sáez, Katia; Muñoz, Sergio; Asenjo, Sylvia

    2014-12-01

    Neonatal malnutrition defined by birth weight (BW) is a risk factor for obesity and cardio-metabolic diseases in adults. Neonatal ponderal index (NPI) may have better diagnostic value than BW to establish nutritional status. To determine the effect of neonatal nutritional status, established by the three NPI curves available in Chile, on the risk of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in obese school children. A nested case/control study in a sample of 410 obese school children aged 10 to 16 years (57% males) was performed. The dichotomous response variable was the presence of MS defined as International Diabetes Federation (IDF) or Cook's criteria. The exposure variable was having NPI p90, however, showed a trend towards a reduced risk of MS, which only reached significance using Lagos's Table and Cook's Criteria. Neonatal malnutrition defined by NPI is common in obese school children. The condition of neonatal under nutrition defined as PNI p90 could be protective.

  6. Newborn physiological responses to noise in the neonatal unit,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Schefer Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The incorporation of technologies in the care of infants has contributed to increased survival; however, this has turned neonatal unit into a noisy environment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physiological and functional effects resulting from the exposure to noise on low-weight newborns in incubators in a neonatal unit. METHODS: Prospective, observational, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study. The adopted statistical method included tables of frequency, descriptive statistics, and Student's t-test, with a 0.05 level of significance. As data collection tools, the environmental noise and the noise inside of the incubator were evaluated, and the Assessment of Preterm Infant Behavior scale was used to assess premature newborn behavior and projected specifically to document the neurobehavioral functioning of preterm infants. The data collection occurred from September of 2012 to April of 2013; 61 low-weight newborns admitted in the neonatal unit and in incubators were observed. RESULTS: Significant differences in the variables heart rate and oxygen saturation were noted when newborns were exposed to noise. CONCLUSION: Low-weight neonates in incubators present physiological alterations when facing discomfort caused by environmental noise in neonatal units.

  7. Depression during gestation in adolescent mothers interferes with neonatal neurobehavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carvalho de Moraes Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the neurobehavior of neonates born to adolescent mothers with and without depression during gestation. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included healthy term neonates born to adolescent mothers with untreated depression during gestation, without exposure to legal or illicit drugs, and compared them with infants born to adolescent mothers without psychiatric disorders. Maternal psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 and neonatal neurobehavior by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS at 24 to 72 hours of life. Neurobehavioral outcomes were analyzed by ANOVA adjusted for confounders. Results: 37 infants born to mothers with depression during gestation were compared to 332 infants born to mothers without psychiatric disorders. Infants of mothers with depression had smaller head circumferences. Significant interactions of maternal depression and male gender, gestational age > 40 weeks, regional anesthesia during delivery, vaginal delivery, and infant head circumference ≥ 34 cm were found. Worse performance was noted in the following neonatal neurobehavioral parameters: arousal, excitability, lethargy, hypotonicity, and signs of stress and abstinence. Conclusion: Infants born to adolescent mothers with depression exhibit some behavioral changes in the first days of life. These changes are associated with infant sex, gestational age, type of anesthesia, mode of delivery, and head circumference.

  8. Newborn physiological responses to noise in the neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sandra Maria Schefer; Kozlowski, Lorena de Cássia; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira de; Marques, Jair Mendes; Ribas, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of technologies in the care of infants has contributed to increased survival; however, this has turned neonatal unit into a noisy environment. To evaluate the physiological and functional effects resulting from the exposure to noise on low-weight newborns in incubators in a neonatal unit. Prospective, observational, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study. The adopted statistical method included tables of frequency, descriptive statistics, and Student's t-test, with a 0.05 level of significance. As data collection tools, the environmental noise and the noise inside of the incubator were evaluated, and the Assessment of Preterm Infant Behavior scale was used to assess premature newborn behavior and projected specifically to document the neurobehavioral functioning of preterm infants. The data collection occurred from September of 2012 to April of 2013; 61 low-weight newborns admitted in the neonatal unit and in incubators were observed. Significant differences in the variables heart rate and oxygen saturation were noted when newborns were exposed to noise. Low-weight neonates in incubators present physiological alterations when facing discomfort caused by environmental noise in neonatal units. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Placental passage of antiepileptic drugs at delivery and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Anna M; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Ritchie, James C; Pennell, Page B

    2017-05-01

    Children of women treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at increased risk of adverse outcomes detectable in the neonatal period, which may be associated with the amount of AEDs in the fetal circulation. Placental passage of AEDs can be measured by calculating the ratio of umbilical cord to maternal AED concentrations collected at delivery. The aims of this study were to determine the umbilical cord concentrations and umbilical-to-maternal ratios for AEDs, and whether higher cord concentrations are associated with increased risk of neonatal complications. AED cord and maternal blood concentrations from 70 mother-newborn dyads and neonatal complications were recorded. Logistic regressions were performed to determine the association between AED concentrations and complications. Mean umbilical-to-maternal ratios for total concentrations ranged from 0.79 for carbamazepine to 1.20 for valproic acid, and mean umbilical-to-maternal ratios for free concentrations ranged from 0.86 for valproic acid to 1.42 for carbamazepine, indicating complete placental passage. Neither umbilical cord concentrations nor umbilical-to-maternal ratios were associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Additional investigations are warranted to delineate the relationship between quantified fetal AED exposure and neonatal complications. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Heart rate variability in neonates of type 1 diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Noirin E; Higgins, Mary F; Kinsley, Brendan F; Foley, Michael E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a common finding in offspring of pre-gestational type 1 diabetic pregnancy. Echocardiographic and biochemical evidence of fetal cardiac dysfunction have also been reported. Studies suggest that offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM) undergo a fetal programming effect due to the hyperglycaemic intrauterine milieu which increases their risk of cardiovascular morbidity in adult life. Decreased neonatal heart rate variability (HRV) has been described in association with in-utero growth restriction, prematurity, sudden infant death syndrome and congenital heart disease. The effect of in-utero exposure to hyperglycaemia in diabetic pregnancy on neonatal HRV is unknown. Our aim was to determine if neonatal HRV differs between normal and diabetic pregnancy. This was a prospective observational study of 38 patients with pregestational type 1 diabetes and 26 controls. HRV assessment was performed using Powerlab (ADI Instruments Ltd). Heart rate variability assessment and cord blood sampling for pH and glucose were performed for all neonates. Maternal glycaemic control was assessed via measurement of glycosylated haemoglobin in each trimester in the diabetic cohort. Neonates of diabetic mothers had evidence of altered heart rate variability, with increased low frequency to high frequency ratio (LF: HF), suggestive of a shift towards sympathetic predominance (pheart to fluctuations in maternal glycaemia with subsequent alterations in HRV may explain why infants of diabetic mothers are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Neonatal gastrointestinal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Padma

    2006-01-01

    Radiological imaging is an important part of the evaluation and management of neonates with suspected anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical presentation is often non-specific, commonly with abdominal distension and vomiting for which the underlying cause may or may not be clinically apparent. In a proportion of patients, the clinical assessment alone may suffice in providing the diagnosis and no further imaging is necessary. The reader must have an understanding of the normal radiographic appearances of the gastrointestinal tract in neonates and appreciate normal variants and differences to adults. In certain cases, the abdominal radiograph alone is diagnostic. In others, sonography and contrast studies are useful adjunct investigations and the indications for CT and MRI are few, but specific. Appropriate radiological investigation will help to establish the diagnosis and guide surgical intervention whilst also avoiding unnecessary radiation. Some of the conditions require transfer to specialist paediatric institutions for care. Thus, in some circumstances it is appropriate for imaging to be delayed and performed at the specialist centre with early referral often essential for the continued well being of the child

  12. Neonatal status of twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple pregnancy is a pregnancy where more than one fetus develops simultaneously in the womb, as a result of the ovulation and fertilization of more than one egg. It is relatively rare in humans and represents the rest of the phylogenetic stages. The most common are twins and they indicate the development of two fetuses in the womb. The frequency of twin pregnancies is about 1%. Multiple pregnancies belong to a group of high-risk pregnancies because of the many complications that occur during the pregnancy: higher number of premature deliveries, bleeding, early neonatal complications and higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Such pregnancies and infants require greater supervision and monitoring. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of baby twins born at the maternity ward of the General Hospital in Prokuplje and their morbidity and mortality. Data on the total number of deliveries, number of twins, parity and maternal age, gestational age, body weight of twins, method of delivery, Apgar score and perinatal mortality were collected and statistically analyzed by means of retrospective analysis of operative birth and neonatal protocol for 6 years (2005 of 2010. Out of 4527 mothers who gave birth 43 were pairs of twins, or 0.95% of women gave birth to twins. These babies are more likely born by Caesarean section, but delivered with slightly lower birth weight.

  13. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A.; Lu, Zhengfeng [University of Chicago Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-15

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  14. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A; Lu, Zhengfeng

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: 1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, 2) only the support tray included and 3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient.

  15. Neonatal Mortality of Inborns in the Neonatal Unit of a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neonatal deaths comprised of 120 early neonatal deaths and 39 late neonatal deaths. The yearly neonatal mortality rate showed a steady decline except for 1999 during which there was a slight rise. The incidence of neonatal deaths decreased with age, weight at birth and maturity. Low birth weight and birth asphyxia ...

  16. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts of Fe3+, Co2+ and Cu2+ for the degradation of methyl parathion in diluted aqueous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy A. Vela-Monroy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of pesticides (plaguicides, herbicides, fungicides, among others in aqueous media is a subject of great importance for ensuring the water quality into numerous hydric sources. This work reports the assessment of homogeneous (metal ion solutions and heterogeneous (oxides supported on alumina systems that are based on Fe3+, Co2+ y Cu2+, which were used as catalysts for oxidation (degradation of methyl parathion (a plaguicide in aqueous solution. Hydrogen peroxide was herein used as oxidizing molecule under mild condition of reaction (25 ºC and atmospheric pressure. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Fe3+/H2O2 (Fenton system was the most active homogeneous catalyst compared to Co2+/H2O2 and Cu2+/H2O2 systems. Solids catalysts such as cobalt, copper or iron oxides as well as mixed oxides supported on alumina were active at pH close to neutrality. Fe-Co-Cu/Al2O3, Co-Cu/Al2O3 and FeCo/Al2O3 mixed systems were solids with the highest catalytic activity. In addition, an important effect of the support (-Al2O3 on the reaction pH was observed, allowing to reach values close to that of the neutrality, and thus increasing the catalytic activity of both cobalt oxide and copper oxide species. These results allow advancing on a new pathway for searching catalysts to remove organophosphorous pesticides from residual waters.

  17. Prenatal determinants of neonatal lung function in high-risk newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Loland, Lotte; Holst, Klaus Kähler

    2009-01-01

    responsiveness to methacholine by transcutaneous oxygen measurements. Risk factor analyses included anthropometrics; demographics; socioeconomic factors; parental atopic history; previous deliveries; exposures during the third trimester to the mother's smoking, alcohol, and medicines; third trimester pregnancy...... complications including mother's asthma status; and mode of delivery. RESULTS: Lung function was determined in 404 neonates, age 6 weeks. Neonates with body mass index in the upper quartile had 14% lower baseline forced expiratory volume at 0.5 second, and neonates of mothers smoking during the third trimester...

  18. Neonate brain disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xydis, V.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Hypoxic-Ischemic insults in the brain of neonates constitute major cause of morbidity and mortality. A wide range of motor, sensory, and cognitive disabilities are observed in this population spanning from slight motor deficits, school difficulties and behavioral problems up to cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Pathologically involved areas characterized by high metabolic demands and therefore with enhanced vulnerability to any reduction or cessation of energy and oxygen supply. Watershed areas of the brain (vascular end zones and vascular border zones) are predominately affected in any adverse event. Radiologic and pathologic appearance of these lesions depends both on the severity of the insult and the maturity of the brain. The dominant pathology observed in preterm neonates is white matter lesions. There are three basic patterns of brain destruction in this population. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL focal fPVL, diffuse dPVL), germinal matrix haemorrhage (GMH) associated with intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), and parenchymal haemorrhage (PH). fPVL is characterized by focal necrosis of all cellular elements in the periventricular white matter, resulting in the formation of cysts, and dPVL is characterized by diffuse destruction of the premyelinating oligodendrocytes (pre-OLs) the precursors of mature oligodendroglia cells responsible for the formation of myelin in a later stage. GMH is located beneath germinal matrix layer surrounding the lateral ventricles and can extend into the ventricular system resulting thus to IVH. Finally, PH is located within the parenchyma adjacent to the ventricles and is believed to represent haemorrhagic infarcts following venous drainage compromise. In term or near-term neonates, the top-ographic pattern of injuries involves mainly gray matter structures. Most frequent predilection sites include the cerebral cortex (paracentral lobule, Rolandic area, visual cortex and hippocampus), basal ganglia, thalamus, and

  19. The neonate in distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, T.I. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Respiratory distress is a very common and yet non-specific symptom in neonates and young infants. It may be manifested clinically in many ways, including tachypnea, apnea, periodic respiratory, grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. In many instances, the chest radiograph is diagnostic or at least suggestive of the diagnosis. This fact is important in determining surgical or medical conditions that require emergency therapy. Even if the chest film is normal, valuable information can be gained. This initial normal radiograph can be used as a baseline film in the face of further developing symptoms which, likewise, may have developing radiographic findings. In any event, the chest radiograph gives the clinician ''direction'' in his or her search for the cause of the patient's respiratory distress

  20. Neonatal Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Limme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage. The immunosuppressive therapy by 1 mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5 mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images is strongly suggestive.

  1. Neonatal Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limme, Boris; Nicolescu, Ramona; Misson, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage). The immunosuppressive therapy by 1 mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5 mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images) is strongly suggestive. PMID:25389504

  2. Kinetics of Phytosterol Metabolism in Neonates Receiving Parental Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem-Rao, T. Hang; Tunc, Ilker; Mavis, Alisha M.; Cao, Yumei; Polzin, Elizabeth M.; Firary, Mary F.; Wang, Xujing; Simpson, Pippa M.; Patel, Shailendra B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Phytosterols in soybean oil (SO) lipids likely contribute to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. No characterization of phytosterol metabolism has been done in infants receiving SO lipids. Methods In a prospective cohort study, 45 neonates (36 SO lipid vs 9 control) underwent serial blood sample measurements of sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. Mathematical modeling was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of phytosterol metabolism and phytosterol exposure. Results Compared to controls, SO lipid-exposed infants had significantly higher levels of sitosterol and campesterol (pPhytosterols in SO lipid accumulate rapidly in neonates. Very preterm infants receiving SO lipid have higher sitosterol exposure, and may have poorly developed mechanisms of eliminating phytosterols that may contribute to their vulnerability to PNALD. PMID:25897540

  3. Kinetics of phytosterol metabolism in neonates receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem-Rao, T Hang; Tunc, Ilker; Mavis, Alisha M; Cao, Yumei; Polzin, Elizabeth M; Firary, Mary F; Wang, Xujing; Simpson, Pippa M; Patel, Shailendra B

    2015-08-01

    Phytosterols in soybean oil (SO) lipids likely contribute to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. No characterization of phytosterol metabolism has been done in infants receiving SO lipids. In a prospective cohort study, 45 neonates (36 SO lipid vs. 9 control) underwent serial blood sample measurements of sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. Mathematical modeling was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of phytosterol metabolism and phytosterol exposure. Compared to controls, SO lipid-exposed infants had significantly higher levels of sitosterol and campesterol (P Phytosterols in SO lipid accumulate rapidly in neonates. Very preterm infants receiving SO lipid have higher sitosterol exposure, and may have poorly developed mechanisms of eliminating phytosterols that may contribute to their vulnerability to PNALD.

  4. An observational study of blood concentrations and kinetics of methyl- and propyl-parabens in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, H; Yakkundi, S; McElnay, J; Lutsar, I; Metsvaht, T; Varendi, H; Nellis, G; Nunn, A; Duncan, J; Pandya, H; Turner, M

    2015-03-01

    Systemic exposure to parabens in the neonatal population, in particular propyl-parabens (PPB), remains a concern. Blood concentrations and kinetics of methyl-parabens (MPB) and PPB were therefore determined in neonates receiving medicines containing these excipients. A multi-centre, non-interventional, observational study of excipient-kinetics in neonates. 'Dried Blood Spot' samples were collected opportunistically at the same time as routine samples and the observations modelled using a non-linear mixed effects approach. A total of 841 blood MPB and PPB concentration data were available for evaluation from 181 pre- and term-neonates. Quantifiable blood concentrations of MPB and PPB were observed in 99% and 49% of patients, and 55% and 25% of all concentrations were above limit of detection (10 ng/ml), respectively. Only MPB data was amenable to modelling. Oral bioavailability was influenced by type of formulation and disposition was best described by a two compartment model with clearance (CL) influenced by post natal age (PNA); CL PNA21 days 0.88 L/h. Daily repeated administration of parabens containing medicines can result in prolonged systemic exposure to the parent compound in neonates. Animal toxicology studies of PPB that specifically address the neonatal period are required before a permitted daily exposure for this age group can be established.

  5. Neonatal exposure to citalopram, a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor, programs a delay in the reflex ontogeny in rats Exposição neonatal ao citalopram, um inibidor seletivo da recaptação de serotonina, programa retardo na ontogênese reflexa em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Bomfim de Jesus Deiró

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin influences the growth and development of the nervous system, as well as its behavioral manifestations. The possibility exists that increased brain serotonin availability in young animals modulates their neuro-behavioral responses. This study investigated the body weight gain and reflex ontogeny of neonatal rats treated during the suckling period with two doses of citalopram (5 mg, or 10 mg/kg, sc, daily. The time of the appearance of reflexes (palm grasp righting, free-fall righting, vibrissa placing, auditory startle response, negative geotaxis and cliff avoidance as well as the body weight evolution were recorded. In general, a delay in the time of reflex development and a reduced weight gain were observed in drug-treated animals. These findings suggest that serotoninergic mechanisms play a role in modulating body weight gain and the maturation of most reflex responses during the perinatal period in rats.A serotonina influencia o crescimento e o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso e sua expressão comportamental. O aumento da disponibilidade de serotonina no cérebro de ratos jovens parece modular as respostas neurocomportamentais. Neste estudo, foram investigados o ganho de peso corporal e a ontogênese dos reflexos em ratos neonatos, tratados diariamente, durante o período de aleitamento, com duas doses de citalopram (5 ou 10 mg/Kg de peso corporal, via subcutânea. Foram avaliados, o tempo de aparecimento dos reflexos (preensão palmar, endireitamento, colocação pelas vibrissas, resposta ao susto, geotáxico negativo e aversão ao precipício, e a evolução do peso corporal. Foi observado atraso no tempo de desenvolvimento de alguns reflexos e redução no ganho de peso corporal. Os achados em ratos sugerem que as alterações no ganho de peso corporal e na maturação dos reflexos são programadas, durante o período perinatal, com participação de mecanismos serotoninérgicos de modulação.

  6. A Retrospective Cohort Study of Birth Outcomes in Neonates Exposed to Naltrexone in Utero: A Comparison with Methadone-, Buprenorphine- and Non-opioid-Exposed Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty, Erin; Hulse, Gary

    2017-07-01

    days) and had higher rates of NAS (7.5 vs. 0.2%). Exposure of neonates to prenatal methadone was associated with a high incidence of neonatal mortality (2.0 vs. 0.2 per 100 live births) and congenital anomalies (10.6 vs. 4.4 per 100 births) compared with the control group. Rates of neonatal mortality and congenital abnormalities in buprenorphine-exposed neonates were not significantly different to the control group. The use of implant naltrexone during pregnancy was not associated with higher rates of negative birth outcomes compared with methadone- and buprenorphine-exposed neonates. Significantly, naltrexone and buprenorphine were not associated with the high rates of neonatal mortality or congenital anomalies seen in methadone-exposed neonates.

  7. Radiologic findings of neonatal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Guk Myeong; Jung, Hye Won; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bokyung Kim; Lee, Nam Yong

    1997-01-01

    To review the simple radiographic and sonographic findings in infants with neonatal sepsis. We retrospectively analyzed simple chest and abdominal radiographs, and brain sonograms in 36 newborn infants (preterm : term=23 :13). With neonatal sepsis diagnosed by blood culture and clinical manifestations. Pulmonary parenchymal infiltrate excluding respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary edema or atelectasis was found in 22 infants (61%). Paralytic ileus, hepatosplenomegaly, and necrotizing enterocolitis were present in 18(50%), 9(25%), and 1(3%) infants, respectively, while skeletal changes suggesting osteomyelitis were found in three. Brain sonography was performed in 29 infants and in four, abnormalities were seen ; these comprised three germinal matrix hemorrhages and one intraparenchymal hemorrhage. In six patients(17%) radiologic examinations revealed no abnormality. In patients with neonatal sepsis, pulmonary infiltrates and paralytic ileus were common abnormalities. Although these were nonspecific, radiologic findings may be used to supplement clinical and laboratory findings in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and planning its treatment

  8. Radiologic findings of neonatal sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Guk Myeong; Jung, Hye Won [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Bokyung Kim; Lee, Nam Yong [Sansung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To review the simple radiographic and sonographic findings in infants with neonatal sepsis. We retrospectively analyzed simple chest and abdominal radiographs, and brain sonograms in 36 newborn infants (preterm : term=23 :13). With neonatal sepsis diagnosed by blood culture and clinical manifestations. Pulmonary parenchymal infiltrate excluding respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary edema or atelectasis was found in 22 infants (61%). Paralytic ileus, hepatosplenomegaly, and necrotizing enterocolitis were present in 18(50%), 9(25%), and 1(3%) infants, respectively, while skeletal changes suggesting osteomyelitis were found in three. Brain sonography was performed in 29 infants and in four, abnormalities were seen ; these comprised three germinal matrix hemorrhages and one intraparenchymal hemorrhage. In six patients(17%) radiologic examinations revealed no abnormality. In patients with neonatal sepsis, pulmonary infiltrates and paralytic ileus were common abnormalities. Although these were nonspecific, radiologic findings may be used to supplement clinical and laboratory findings in diagnosing neonatal sepsis and planning its treatment.

  9. Microbes causing severe neonatal septicemia in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Khashana, Abdelmoneim

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is the most challenging neonatal disease in developing countries despite the progress in the neonatal management. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the most common organisms causing severe neonatal sepsis in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. The study conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) unit of pediatric department in Suez Canal University Hospital in the period from December 2013 to November 2014.Blood cultures showed the growth of Escherichia coli...

  10. Transient pseudohypoparathyroidism and neonatal seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, S

    2001-04-01

    The case of a neonate is presented who had late onset seizure associated with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and raised parathyroid hormone. The infant did not have any stigmata of pseudohypoparathyroidism. The hypocalcemia was initially resistant to calcium therapy, but responded to vitamin D analog therapy. The diagnosis of 'transient neonatal pseudohypoparathyroidism' was entertained, as the infant remained stable and seizure-free with normal serum biochemistry during 8 months of follow-up.

  11. Clinical spectrum, management and outcome of neonatal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ejaz Ahmed; Choudhry, Shehla; Fatima, Masooma; Batool, Zahra

    2015-11-01

    To identify clinical spectrum, management and outcome of neonatal candidiasis. The retrospective study was conducted at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, and comprised microbiological records of all the babies admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from January 2009 to January 2014 that were reviewed to identify those with positive candida cultures. Medical records were analysed for demographic and clinical spectrum features, management and outcome. SPSS 16 was used statistical analysis. Of the total 1550 neonatal admissions, 560 (36%) had positive cultures, and, of them, candida was isolated in 49(8.8%) neonates. Among them, 13(26%) had candida albicans and the rest had candida species. Majority were males 34(70%), and preterm with 30(61%) being <37 weeks. The mean birth weight was 2000±873 grams. Mean age at admission was 6±7.6 days. Overall, 39(80%) had ≥2 risk factors. The commonest site of isolation was blood in 41(84%). Besides, 32 (65%) received fluconazole alone for treatment. Mean duration of anti-fungal therapy was 10±5 days (range: 1-21 days). Twelve (24%) neonates expired and the cause of death was candida sepsis in 10(20%) cases. Mortality was not significantly associated with gender, place of birth, gestation, risk factors, length of stay, prior antibiotic exposure or receipt of antifungal prophylaxis except those who were ≤1500 grams (p<0.05). Approximately one in ten at-risk neonates may develop candida sepsis with high mortality. Early institution of anti-fungal therapy may prove to be life-saving.

  12. Construction and Application of Human Neonatal DTI Atlases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv eDeshpande

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Atlas-based analysis is one of many analytical methods and is used to investigate typical as well as abnormal neurodevelopment. It has been widely applied to the adult and pediatric populations. Successful applications of atlas-based analysis (ABA in those cohorts have motivated the creation of a neonatal atlas and parcellation map. The purpose of this review is to discuss the various neonatal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI atlases that are available for use in ABA, examine how such atlases are constructed, review their applications, and observe future directions in DTI. Neonatal DTI atlases are created from a template, which can be study-specific or standardized, and merged with the corresponding parcellation map. Study-specific templates can retain higher image registration accuracy, but are usually not applicable across different studies. However, standardized templates can be used to make comparisons among various studies, but may not accurately reflect the anatomies of the study population. Methods such as volume-based template estimation are being developed to overcome these limitations. The applications for ABA, including atlas-based image quantification and atlas-based connectivity analysis, vary from quantifying neurodevelopmental progress to analyzing population differences in groups of neonates. ABA can also be applied to detect pathology related to prematurity at birth or exposure to toxic substances. Future directions for this method include research designed to increase the accuracy of the image parcellation. Methods such as multi-atlas label fusion and multi-modal analysis applied to neonatal DTI currently comprise an active field of research. Moreover, ABA can be used in high-throughput analysis to efficiently process medical images and to assess longitudinal brain changes. Nevertheless, the overarching goal of neonatal ABA is application to the clinical setting, to assist with diagnoses, monitor disease progression, and outcome

  13. Clinical Spectrum, Management and Outcome of Neonatal Candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, E. A.; Choudhry, S.; Fatima, M.; Batool, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify clinical spectrum, management and outcome of neonatal candidiasis. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, and comprised microbiological records of all the babies admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from January 2009 to January 2014 that were reviewed to identify those with positive candida cultures. Medical records were analysed for demographic and clinical spectrum features, management and outcome. SPSS 16 was used statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 1550 neonatal admissions, 560 (36 percent) had positive cultures, and, of them, candida was isolated in 49(8.8 percent) neonates. Among them, 13(26 percent) had candida albicans and the rest had candida species. Majority were males 34(70 percent), and preterm with 30(61 percent) being <37 weeks. The mean birth weight was 2000±873 grams. Mean age at admission was 6±7.6 days. Overall, 39(80 percent) had >2 risk factors. The commonest site of isolation was blood in 41(84 percent). Besides, 32 (65 percent) received fluconazole alone for treatment. Mean duration of anti-fungal therapy was 10±5 days (range: 1-21 days). Twelve (24 percent) neonates expired and the cause of death was candida sepsis in 10(20 percent) cases. Mortality was not significantly associated with gender, place of birth, gestation, risk factors, length of stay, prior antibiotic exposure or receipt of antifungal prophylaxis except those who were <1500 grams (p<0.05). Conclusion: Approximately one in ten at-risk neonates may develop candida sepsis with high mortality. Early institution of anti-fungal therapy may prove to be life-saving. (author)

  14. Exposición a contaminantes atmosféricos durante el embarazo y desarrollo prenatal y neonatal: protocolo de investigación en el proyecto INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development: Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esplugues

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El proyecto INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente es una red de investigación cooperativa que tiene como objetivos estudiar los efectos del medio ambiente y la dieta en el desarrollo fetal e infantil. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar el protocolo de exposición a contaminantes atmosféricos durante el embarazo y desarrollo prenatal y neonatal en el proyecto INMA. Métodos: La información para la evaluación de la exposición a contaminación atmosférica durante el embarazo se basa en mediciones de contaminantes atmosféricos en el exterior (dióxido de nitrógeno [NO2], compuestos orgánicos volátiles [COV], ozono, partículas [PM10, PM2,5] y su composición [hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos], medición de contaminantes de exposición individual (en el interior de la vivienda y captadores personales [COV y NO2], determinación de un marcador biológico de exposición a hidrocarburos (1-hidroxipireno, en información recogida mediante cuestionarios y en la utilización de sistemas de información geográfica. Esta información permite elaborar índices de exposición individual a contaminación atmosférica con los que analizar su posible relación con el desarrollo fetal y la salud del recién nacido. Discusión: El protocolo que se presenta y el tipo de estudio permiten obtener una aproximación a la exposición individual a contaminantes atmosféricos. Por último, el elevado número de participantes (n = 4.000, así como la heterogeneidad de las características ambientales y sociodemográficas, acrecienta el potencial del estudio.Introduction: The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood] project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project

  15. Long-term behavioral effects of repetitive pain in neonatal rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, K J; Coskun, V; Thrivikraman, K V; Nemeroff, C B; Plotsky, P M

    1999-06-01

    Human preterm neonates are subjected to repetitive pain during neonatal intensive care. We hypothesized that exposure to repetitive neonatal pain may cause permanent or long-term changes because of the developmental plasticity of the immature brain. Neonatal rat pups were stimulated one, two, or four times each day from P0 to P7 with either needle prick (noxious groups N1, N2, N4) or cotton tip rub (tactile groups T1, T2, T4). In groups N2, N4, T2, T4 stimuli were applied to separate paws at hourly intervals;each paw was stimulated only once a day. Identical rearing occurred from P7 to P22 days. Pain thresholds were measured on P16, P22, and P65 (hot-plate test), and testing for defensive withdrawal, alcohol preference, air-puff startle, and social discrimination tests occurred during adulthood. Adult rats were exposed to a hot plate at 62 degrees C for 20 s, then sacrificed and perfused at 0 and 30 min after exposure. Fos expression in the somatosensory cortex was measured by immunocytochemistry. Weight gain in the N2 group was greater than the T2 group on P16 (p memory in the social discrimination test (p somatosensory cortex in the T4 group compared with the N4 group (p < 0.05), whereas no differences occurred just after exposure. These data suggest that repetitive pain in neonatal rat pups may lead to an altered development of the pain system associated with decreased pain thresholds during development. Increased plasticity of the neonatal brain may allow these and other changes in brain development to increase their vulnerability to stress disorders and anxiety-mediated adult behavior. Similar behavioral changes have been observed during the later childhood of expreterm neonates who were exposed to prolonged periods of neonatal intensive care.

  16. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Human Milk From Mothers of Preterm Compared With Term Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeorg, Hiie; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Eelmäe, Imbi; Metsvaht, Hanna Kadri; Treumuth, Sirli; Merila, Mirjam; Ilmoja, Mari-Liis; Lutsar, Irja

    2017-05-01

    Human milk is the preferred nutrition for neonates and a source of bacteria. Research aim: The authors aimed to characterize the molecular epidemiology and genetic content of staphylococci in the human milk of mothers of preterm and term neonates. Staphylococci were isolated once per week in the 1st month postpartum from the human milk of mothers of 20 healthy term and 49 preterm neonates hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis and multilocus sequence typing were used. The presence of the mecA gene, icaA gene of the ica-operon, IS 256, and ACME genetic elements was determined by PCR. The human milk of mothers of preterm compared with term neonates had higher counts of staphylococci but lower species diversity. The human milk of mothers of preterm compared with term neonates more often contained Staphylococcus epidermidis mecA (32.7% vs. 2.6%), icaA (18.8% vs. 6%), IS 256 (7.9% vs. 0.9%), and ACME (15.4% vs. 5.1%), as well as Staphylococcus haemolyticus mecA (90.5% vs. 10%) and IS 256 (61.9% vs. 10%). The overall distribution of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) types and sequence types was similar between the human milk of mothers of preterm and term neonates, but a few mecA-IS 256-positive MLVA types colonized only mothers of preterm neonates. Maternal hospitalization within 1 month postpartum and the use of an arterial catheter or antibacterial treatment in the neonate increased the odds of harboring mecA-positive staphylococci in human milk. Limiting exposure of mothers of preterm neonates to the hospital could prevent human milk colonization with more pathogenic staphylococci.

  17. Porcine Neonatal Coccidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, S. E.; Josephson, G. K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Coccidia were identified in intestinal sections from 82 piglets comprising 37 consignments from 34 farms, and represented a yearly increasing incidence in the three years 1978 to 1980. Piglets were primarily from medium to large farms with intensive, continuous-farrowing, confinement-rearing programs. Piglets, usually five days to 15 days old, had yellow, fluid diarrhea, became unthrifty and sometimes died. In six piglets from two farms, a green, adherent, fibrinonecrotic membrane was seen throughout most of the jejunum and ileum. Significant gross lesions were not observed in the other 76 piglets. Moderate to severe villous atrophy of jejunum and ileum was seen histologically. Various asexual and sexual stages of coccidia were seen within parasitophorous vacuoles of villar epithelial cells. Multifocal erosions with necrosis of villar tips and occasionally more diffuse mucosal necrosis with fibrinocellular exudate were seen. Isospora suis oocysts were identified in feces from several weaners from one farm. Amprolium and decoquinate mixed in the sow ration at 1 kg/tonne for three weeks prior to and postfarrowing was moderately successful in stopping outbreaks of neonatal diarrhea associated with coccidiosis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7343074

  18. Osteoarthritis in the neonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, W.; Hayek, W.H.; Bens, G.

    1979-01-01

    A fatally ending index case of sepsis osteoarthritis that was diagnosed retrospectively initiated this report. This patient had severe, asymmetrically distributed metaphyseal growthdisturbances, many long bones. In order to determine the features of early radiologic diagnosis we report the findings of 7 further patients with neonatal septic osteoarthritis with clinical and radiological follow-up. The most important observation for early radiologic diagnosis of osteoarthritis is the displacement of fat layers along the metaphysis. Other findings of the soft tissues have the same diagnostic value as bone destruction and subperiosteal new bone formation found one to three weeks later on roentgenfilms. Detecting early signs of osteoarthritis helps in localizing the focus for bacteriologic diagnosis, which is to be more successful than blood cultures. Diagnosing a joint empyema initiates surgical intervention for pressure relief in order to avoid necrosis of the epiphysis as seen in the femoral bone in septic arthritis of the hip joint. Early diagnosis and treatment to destruction of growing cartilage is necessary to avoid gross disturbances and length discrepancies of long bones. In cases of sepsis called 'babygram' and a repeat examination 10 to 14 days later is mandatory. (orig.) [de

  19. Neonatal chest image quality addressed through training to enhance radiographer awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesta Friedrich-Nel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnostic radiographers working in the neonatal intensive care unit primarily aim to produce an image of optimal quality using optimal exposure techniques without repeating exposures, to keep neonatal radiation dose to a minimum.   Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine whether radiographers were producing optimal quality chest images and, if not, whether additional training could contribute to reaching this goal in the Free State Province of South Africa.   Methods: Neonatal chest image quality was determined in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit by using a checklist based on and compiled from published guidelines to evaluate the quality of 450 randomly-selected images. Thereafter, a training programme was designed, based on the evaluation criteria of the checklist and image quality areas identified. The training also referred to positioning techniques that should be applied to ensure optimal image quality. After presentation of the training, 450 newly-produced neonatal chest images were evaluated. These images were selected through purposive sampling as this evaluation only included images of participating radiographers who completed the training.   Results: Image quality that showed significant improvement included a reduction in electrocardiogram lines superimposed on chest anatomy, a tendency to centre closer to thoracic vertebra four, and visible four-sided collimation on images. Image quality areas with no significant enhancement were the absence of lead markers and radiation shielding.   Conclusion: The study has shown that a training programme has the potential to improve neonatal chest image quality.

  20. Hypothyroidism in Filipino neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevarra, R.; Torres, J.F.; Estrada, F.A.; San Luis, T.O.L.

    1988-01-01

    Thyroid hormone determination (T4, T3, rT3, TSH) in cord blood of 3,897 newborns was carried out in Metro Manila (non-endemic) and central, Northern and Southern Luzon (endemic for goiter). The objective is to detect congenital hypothyroidism and establish its incidence in new born Filipinos. This was done by radioimmunoassay, using commercial kits from Abbott Laboratories. The results obtained as mean values for non-endemic regions are: T4: 10.96 +- 2.25 ug/dl; T3: 60-64 +- 13.82 ng/dl; rT3: 250.4 +- 64.9 ng/dl; and TSH 5.89 +- 2.58 uU/ml, n=200. Mean values in endemic regions (n = 205) are T4: 9.46 +- 2.18 ug/dl; T3: 67.8 +- 12.05 ng/dl; rT3: 184.3 +- 32.7 ng/dl and TSH: 6.65 +- 3.13 uU/ml. From the above data, nomograms were drawn where the values obtained from each case were plotted. From non-endemic regions 28 positive cases were recalled and in the endemic regions 16 positive cases were also recalled for re-examination but most of them turned out to be false positive. As of now, four positive cases were found in Metro Manila, i.e. 4/2, 441 births and five in endemic regions out of 1,456 births so the incidence of neonatal hypothyroidism is 9/3,897 births. This is 9 times higher than most reports abroad which is about 1/4000 births. (Auth.). 36 refs; 10 tabs; 10 figs

  1. Fetal and neonatal thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar Mohan Batra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal thyrotoxicosis is a rare disease occurring in 1 out of 70 pregnancies with Grave′s disease or in 1 out of 4000-50,000 deliveries. The mortality is 12-20%, usually from heart failure, but other complications are tracheal compression, infections and thrombocytopenia. It results from transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins from mother to fetus through the placenta. This transplacental transfer begins around 20 th week of pregnancy and reaches its maximum by 30 th week. These autoantibodies bind to the fetal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptors and increase the secretion of the thyroid hormones. The mother has an active autoimmune thyroid disease or has been treated for it in the past. She may be absolutely euthyroid due to past treatment by drugs, surgery or radioiodine ablation, but still have active TSH receptor stimulating autoantibodies, which can cause fetal thyrotoxicosis. The other features of this disease are fetal tachycardia, fetal goiter and history of spontaneous abortions and findings of goiter, ascites, craniosyntosis, fetal growth retardation, maceration and hydrops at fetal autopsy. If untreated, this disease can result in intrauterine death. The treatment for this disease consists of giving carbimazole to the mother, which is transferred through the placenta to the fetus. The dose of carbimazole is titrated with the fetal heart rate. If the mother becomes hypothyroid due to carbimazole, thyroxine is added taking advantage of the fact that very little of thyroxine is transferred across the placenta. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis patients are very sick and require emergency treatment. The goal of the treatment is to normalize thyroid functions as quickly as possible, to avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism while providing management and supportive therapy for the infant′s specific signs and symptoms.

  2. Maternal hypotension and neonatal acidemia during Caeserean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the incidence of neonatal acidaemia following delivery through caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia and determine the prevalence of maternal hypotension during Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia and its correlation with neonatal acidaemia. Design: Prospective observational ...

  3. Buprenorphine During Pregnancy Reduces Neonate Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who received buprenorphine had milder symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal than those born to women who received methadone. ... with less neonatal distress. Buprenorphine, like methadone, reduces opioid craving and alleviates withdrawal symptoms without the safety and health risks related ...

  4. Sedation and analgesia practices in neonatal intensive care units (EUROPAIN): results from a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal, Ricardo; Eriksson, Mats; Courtois, Emilie; Boyle, Elaine; Avila-Alvarez, Alejandro; Andersen, Randi Dovland; Sarafidis, Kosmas; Polkki, Tarja; Matos, Cristina; Lago, Paola; Papadouri, Thalia; Montalto, Simon Attard; Ilmoja, Mari-Liis; Simons, Sinno; Tameliene, Rasa; van Overmeire, Bart; Berger, Angelika; Dobrzanska, Anna; Schroth, Michael; Bergqvist, Lena; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S

    2015-10-01

    Neonates who are in pain or are stressed during care in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often given sedation or analgesia. We investigated the current use of sedation or analgesia in neonatal ICUs (NICUs) in European countries. EUROPAIN (EUROpean Pain Audit In Neonates) was a prospective cohort study of the management of sedation and analgesia in patients in NICUs. All neonates admitted to NICUs during 1 month were included in this study. Data on demographics, methods of respiration, use of continuous or intermittent sedation, analgesia, or neuromuscular blockers, pain assessments, and drug withdrawal syndromes were gathered during the first 28 days of admission to NICUs. Multivariable linear regression models and propensity scores were used to assess the association between duration of tracheal ventilation (TV) and exposure to opioids, sedatives-hypnotics, or general anaesthetics in neonates (O-SH-GA). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01694745. From Oct 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013, 6680 neonates were enrolled in 243 NICUs in 18 European countries. Mean gestational age of these neonates was 35.0 weeks (SD 4.6) and birthweight was 2384 g (1007). 2142 (32%) neonates were given TV, 1496 (22%) non-invasive ventilation (NIV), and 3042 (46%) were kept on spontaneous ventilation (SV). 1746 (82%), 266 (18%), and 282 (9%) neonates in the TV, NIV, and SV groups, respectively, were given sedation or analgesia as a continuous infusion, intermittent doses, or both (panalgesia was 89.3% (70.0-100) for neonates in the TV group. Opioids were given to 1764 (26%) of 6680 neonates and to 1589 (74%) of 2142 neonates in the TV group. Midazolam was given to 576 (9%) of 6680 neonates and 536 (25%) neonates of 2142 neonates in the TV group. 542 (25%) neonates in the TV group were given neuromuscular blockers, which were administered as continuous infusions to 146 (7%) of these neonates. Pain assessments were recorded in 1250 (58%) of 2138, 672 (45%) of 1493, and

  5. Two Neonates with Congenital Hydrocolpos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vydehi Murthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neonatal hydrocolpos is a rare condition. Hydrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina with fluid accumulation due to a combination of stimulation of secretary glands of the reproductive tract and vaginal obstruction. The differential for a neonatal presentation of lower abdominal mass includes urogenital anomalies, Hirschsprung’s, disease or sacrococcygeal teratoma. Prenatal diagnosis and early newborn imaging studies leads to early detection and treatment of these cases. Case. We report here two cases of neonatal hydrocolpos with prenatal diagnosis of lower abdominal mass. Postnatally, ultrasound, MRI imaging, and cystoscopy confirmed large cystic mass as hydrocolpos with distal vaginal obstruction. Both patients had enlarged renal system secondary to mass effect. Conclusion. High index of suspicion for hydrocolpos in a newborn presenting with fetal diagnosis of infraumbilical abdominal mass will facilitate timely intervention and prevention of complications.

  6. Diagnostic imaging in neonatal stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhle, S.; Ipsiroglu, O.; Weninger, M.

    2000-01-01

    A cerebral artery infarction is an important differential diagnosis in the newborn with neurological abnormalities. Based on clinical data, its incidence is estimated to be 1 in 4000 newborns. Since the course is often subclinical, the true incidence is probably higher. Diagnosis: Cerebral ultrasound and Doppler sonography as readily available screening tools play a central role in the initial diagnosis of neonatal cerebral infarction. Definitive diagnosis is made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Beside symptomatic anticonvulsive therapy, treatment aims at the prevention of secondary ischemic injury. Discussion: Three term infants with different clinical courses of neonatal stroke are presented to sensitize the clinician and the radiologist for this probably underdiagnosed entity. The role of imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal cerebral infarction is discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Neonatal hemophilia: a rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a X-linked hereditary condition that lead to decreased factor VIII activity, occurs mainly in males. Decreased factor VIII activity leads to increased risk of bleeding events. During neonatal period, diagnosis is made after post-partum bleeding complication or unexpected bleeding after medical procedures. Subgaleal hemorrhage during neonatal period is a rare, severe extracranial bleeding with high mortality and usually related to traumatic labor or coagulation disorders. Subgaleal hemorrhage complications result from massive bleeding. We present a neonate with unremarkable family history and uneventful pregnancy with a vaginal delivery with no instrumentation, presenting with severe subgaleal bleeding at 52 hours of life. Aggressive support measures were implemented and bleeding managed. The unexpected bleeding lead to a coagulation study and the diagnosis of severe hemophilia A. There were no known sequelae. This case shows a rare hemophilia presentation reflecting the importance of coagulation studies when faced with unexplained severe bleeding.

  8. Antimicrobial therapy in neonatal intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Tzialla, C.; Borghesi, A.; Serra, G.; Stronati, M.; Corsello, G.

    2015-01-01

    Severe infections represent the main cause of neonatal mortality accounting for more than one million neonatal deaths worldwide every year. Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medications in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and in industrialized countries about 1% of neonates are exposed to antibiotic therapy. Sepsis has often nonspecific signs and symptoms and empiric antimicrobial therapy is promptly initiated in high risk of sepsis or symptomatic infants. However continued us...

  9. Bupivacaine versus lidocaine analgesia for neonatal circumcision

    OpenAIRE

    Stolik-Dollberg, Orit C; Dollberg, Shaul

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Analgesia for neonatal circumcision was recently advocated for every male infant, and its use is considered essential by the American Academy of Pediatrics. We compared the post-operative analgesic quality of bupivacaine to that of lidocaine for achieving dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) when performing neonatal circumcision. Methods Data were obtained from 38 neonates following neonatal circumcision. The infants had received DPNB analgesia with either lidocaine or bupivac...

  10. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Tamayo, Cristian; Janniger, Camila K; Micali, Giuseppe; Schwartz, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    Acne may present in neonates, infants, and small children. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris are not considered to be rare. The presentation of acne in this patient population sometimes represents virilization and may portend later development of severe adolescent acne. Neonatal and infantile acne vulgaris must be distinguished from other cutaneous disorders seen in newborns and infants. Infantile acne tends to be more pleomorphic and inflammatory, thus requiring more vigorous therapy than neonatal acne.

  11. Continuous and intermittent exposure of neonatal rat calvarial cells to PTHrP (1-36 inhibits bone nodule mineralization in vitro by downregulating bone sialoprotein expression via the cAMP signaling pathway [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/18x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan A Kamel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and growth of the skeleton in the absence of parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP is abnormal.  The shortening of appendicular bones in PTHrP gene null mice is explained by an effect of PTHrP on endochondral bone growth.  Whether or not PTHrP influences intramembranous ossification is less clear.  The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous PTHrP on intramembranous ossification in vitro.  Neonatal rat calvarial cells maintained in primary cell culture conditions that permit spontaneous formation of woven bone nodules by intramembranous ossification were studied. The expression of PTHrP, parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R, and alkaline phosphatase (AP by osteogenic cells in developing nodules and the effects of PTHrP (1-36 on nodule development was determined over 3-18 days. PTHrP and PTH1R were detected colonies of osteogenic cells on culture day three, and AP was detected on day six. PTHrP and its receptor were localized in pre-osteoblasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, and AP activity was detected in pre-osteoblasts and osteoblasts but not osteocytes. Continuous and intermittent exposure to PTHrP (1-36 decreased the number of mineralized bone nodules and bone sialoprotein (BSP mRNA and protein, but had no effect on the number of AP-positive osteogenic cell colonies, cell proliferation, apoptosis, or osteopontin (OPN mRNA. These results demonstrate that osteogenic cells that participate in the formation of woven bone nodules in vitro exhibit PTHrP and PTH1R before they demonstrate AP activity. Exogenous PTHrP (1-36 inhibits the mineralization of woven bone deposited during bone nodule formation in vitro, possibly by reducing the expression of BSP.

  12. Neonatal ghrelin programs development of hypothalamic feeding circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steculorum, Sophie M.; Collden, Gustav; Coupe, Berengere; Croizier, Sophie; Lockie, Sarah; Andrews, Zane B.; Jarosch, Florian; Klussmann, Sven; Bouret, Sebastien G.

    2015-01-01

    A complex neural network regulates body weight and energy balance, and dysfunction in the communication between the gut and this neural network is associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity. The stomach-derived hormone ghrelin stimulates appetite through interactions with neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). Here, we evaluated the physiological and neurobiological contribution of ghrelin during development by specifically blocking ghrelin action during early postnatal development in mice. Ghrelin blockade in neonatal mice resulted in enhanced ARH neural projections and long-term metabolic effects, including increased body weight, visceral fat, and blood glucose levels and decreased leptin sensitivity. In addition, chronic administration of ghrelin during postnatal life impaired the normal development of ARH projections and caused metabolic dysfunction. Consistent with these observations, direct exposure of postnatal ARH neuronal explants to ghrelin blunted axonal growth and blocked the neurotrophic effect of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin. Moreover, chronic ghrelin exposure in neonatal mice also attenuated leptin-induced STAT3 signaling in ARH neurons. Collectively, these data reveal that ghrelin plays an inhibitory role in the development of hypothalamic neural circuits and suggest that proper expression of ghrelin during neonatal life is pivotal for lifelong metabolic regulation. PMID:25607843

  13. Neonatal lupus erythematosus in a Nigerian infant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-15

    Jun 15, 2017 ... persisted unchanged after 14 days of antibiotics. A skin snip was taken for histology and a diagnosis of neonatal lupus erythematosus was made. Key words: neonatal lupsus erythematosus, infant .... anti-Rho (SSA) antibody which is present in 95% of cases of Neonatal lupus is fundamental.8,9 The signifi-.

  14. 21 CFR 880.5400 - Neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neonatal incubator. 880.5400 Section 880.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.5400 Neonatal incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal incubator is a device consisting of a...

  15. Neonatal tetanus mortality in coastal Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Steinglass, R; Mutie, D M

    1993-01-01

    In a house-to-house survey in Kilifi District, Kenya, mothers of 2556 liveborn children were interviewed about neonatal mortality, especially from neonatal tetanus (NNT). The crude birth rate was 60.5 per 1000 population, the neonatal mortality rate 21.1 and the NNT mortality rate 3.1 per 1000...

  16. Neonatal arrhythmias: diagnosis, treatment, and clinical outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Ban, Ji-Eun

    2017-01-01

    Arrhythmias in the neonatal period are not uncommon, and may occur in neonates with a normal heart or in those with structural heart disease. Neonatal arrhythmias are classified as either benign or nonbenign. Benign arrhythmias include sinus arrhythmia, premature atrial contraction, premature ventricular contraction, and junctional rhythm; these arrhythmias have no clinical significance and do not need therapy. Supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia, atrioventricular conduction...

  17. Malaria parasite positivity among febrile neonates | Enyuma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria, earlier considered rare in neonates, has been reported with increasing frequency in the last decade. Neonatal malaria diagnosis is challenging because the clinical features are non-specific, variable and also overlap with bacterial infection. Aim: To determine the prevalence of neonatal malaria and ...

  18. Neonatal varicella: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj AK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chicken pox is an infectious childhood disease. It is rare ininfants and newborns due to passive immunity receivedfrom the mother. The characteristic skin eruptions inchicken pox are vesicular with erythematous base andaccompanied with pruritus. The skin of the palms and solesis typically spared. We report a case of neonatal varicellawhere the mother was having skin eruptions at the time ofdelivery and the neonate contracted it during the perinatalperiod and developed clinical disease on the day five of life.Specific anti-viral therapy was given to the mother and thebaby and the recovery was uneventful.

  19. Pain Management Perceptions of the Neonatal Nurses in NICUs and Neonatal Units in Ardebil, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin Mehrnoush; Tahereh Ashktorab; Mohammad heidarzadeh; Sirous momenzadeh; jafar khalafi

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine neonatal nurses’ perceptions of knowledge and practice in pain management in NICUs & neonatal units. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used. A total of 120 neonatal nurses who working in NICUs & neonatal units in Ardebil province, Iran were selected using the convenience sampling technique. A questionnaire of Nurses’ Perceptions of Neonatal Pain (Cong, 2013), including 36 questions with Likert scale and 2 open ended questions, wa...

  20. Epidural analgesia in labour and neonatal respiratory distress: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Chandra, Sue; Ijaz, Zainab; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2014-03-01

    Epidural analgesia is the commonest mode for providing pain relief in labour, with a combination of bupivacaine and fentanyl most often used in practice. To test whether late-preterm and term neonates exposed to opioids in epidural analgesia in labour are more likely to develop respiratory distress in the immediate neonatal period. A case-control study was conducted of singleton infants born during January 2006 to December 2010. Cases were neonates ≥34 weeks gestation, who developed respiratory distress within 24 h of life requiring supplemental oxygen ≥2 h and/or positive pressure ventilation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Controls were gestation and site-matched neonates who did not develop any respiratory distress within the same period. The information on exposure to epidural analgesia and on potential confounding variables was obtained from the standardised delivery record, routinely filled out on all women admitted to the labour wards. In our study, 206 cases and 206 matched controls were enrolled. Exposure to epidural analgesia was present in 146 (70.9%) cases as compared with 131 (63.6%) of the controls. The association between exposure to epidural analgesia and respiratory distress in neonates was statistically significant upon adjustment for all potential confounders (adjusted OR: 1.75, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.99; p = 0.04). When data was separately analysed for term and late-preterm infants, the results were consistent across these subpopulations, showing no interaction effect. Late-preterm and term infants exposed to maternal epidural analgesia in labour are more likely to develop respiratory distress in the immediate neonatal period.

  1. Neonatal vitamin D status and risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk Nielsen, Nete; Munger, Kassandra L; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2017-01-01

    was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. The association between different levels of 25(OH)D and risk of MS was evaluated by odds ratios (OR) calculated in conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: We observed that lower levels of 25(OH)D in neonates were associated......OBJECTIVE: As previous research has suggested that exposure to vitamin D insufficiency in utero may have relevance for the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), we aimed to examine the direct association between level of neonatal vitamin D and risk of MS. METHODS: We carried out a matched case...... with an increased risk of MS. In the analysis by quintiles, MS risk was highest among individuals in the bottom quintile (

  2. Radiation doses to neonates requiring intensive care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.; Dellagrammaticas, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    Radiological investigations have become accepted as an important part of the range of facilities required to support severely ill newborn babies. Since the infants are so small, many of the examinations are virtually ''whole-body'' irradiations and it was thought that the total doses received might be appreciable. A group of such babies admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Sheffield over a six-month period have been studied. X-ray exposure factors used for each examination have been noted and total skin, gonad and bone marrow doses calculated, supplemented by measurements on phantoms. It is concluded that in most cases doses received are of the same order as those received over the same period from natural background radiation and probably less than those received from prenatal obstetric radiography, so that the additional risks from the diagnostic exposure are small. The highest doses are received in CT scans and barium examinations and it is recommended that the need for these should be carefully considered. (author)

  3. The challenges of neonatal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Graves, Martin J.; Lomas, David J.; Edwards, Andrea; Austin, Topun

    2012-01-01

    Improved neonatal survival rates and antenatal diagnostic imaging is generating a growing demand for postnatal MRI examinations. Neonatal brain MRI is now becoming standard clinical care in many settings, but with the exception of some research centres, the technique has not been optimised for imaging neonates and small children. Here, we review some of the challenges involved in neonatal MRI, including recent advances in overall MR practicality and nursing practice, to address some of the ways in which the MR experience could be made more neonate-friendly. (orig.)

  4. The challenges of neonatal magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Graves, Martin J.; Lomas, David J. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Edwards, Andrea [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Austin, Topun [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Improved neonatal survival rates and antenatal diagnostic imaging is generating a growing demand for postnatal MRI examinations. Neonatal brain MRI is now becoming standard clinical care in many settings, but with the exception of some research centres, the technique has not been optimised for imaging neonates and small children. Here, we review some of the challenges involved in neonatal MRI, including recent advances in overall MR practicality and nursing practice, to address some of the ways in which the MR experience could be made more neonate-friendly. (orig.)

  5. Current Trends in Neonatal Tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaiah, Amal; Moyer, Kelly; Pereira, Kevin D

    2016-08-01

    The indications for neonatal tracheostomy may have changed with current noninvasive respiratory therapies compared with previous decades. To study the current trends in neonatal tracheostomy and identify the primary indication for the procedure and risk factors for failed extubation. This retrospective medical record review included 47 neonates who underwent tracheostomy from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013, at the University of Maryland Children's Hospital. Group 1 included infants undergoing tracheostomy for the primary indication of upper airway obstruction; group 2, infants with primary pulmonary disease. Data on weight, gestational age, comorbid conditions, congenital abnormalities, complications, outcomes, and indications for tracheostomy were compared statistically between groups. Differences in gestational age, birth weight, and age at tracheostomy. Among the 47 infants included in the study (30 boys; 17 girls, mean [SD] age, 113 [73] days), 31 (66%) demonstrated anatomical causes of airway obstruction, and 16 (34%) had significant pulmonary disease. Among infants with anatomical causes, subglottic stenosis represented the largest group (11 of 31 [35%]). The mean age at the time of tracheostomy was significantly lower in the group with airway obstruction (98.9 vs 146.9 days; difference, 48 [95% CI, 4.8-91.2] days; P = .04). No procedure-related morbidity or mortality was encountered. Anatomical upper airway obstruction may be returning as the most common indication for a neonatal tracheostomy, thereby supporting the belief that current respiratory therapies have lowered the burden of chronic lung disease and the need for prolonged ventilatory care.

  6. Internipple measurements in Indian neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and transverse ocular distance are some important measurements when diagnosing dysmorphology.[4]. The internipple index (internipple distance (cm) × 100 ÷ circum ference of ... internipple distance to chest circumference compared with neonates ... first 3 days of life, and to correlate these measurements with gender,.

  7. Standardisation of neonatal clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Z A; Giuliani, F; Haroon, A; Knight, H E; Albernaz, E; Batra, M; Bhat, B; Bertino, E; McCormick, K; Ochieng, R; Rajan, V; Ruyan, P; Cheikh Ismail, L; Paul, V

    2013-09-01

    The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21(st) Century (INTERGROWTH-21(st) ) is a large-scale, population-based, multicentre project involving health institutions from eight geographically diverse countries, which aims to assess fetal, newborn and preterm growth under optimal conditions. Given the multicentre nature of the project and the expected number of preterm births, it is vital that all centres follow the same standardised clinical care protocols to assess and manage preterm infants, so as to ensure maximum validity of the resulting standards as indicators of growth and nutrition with minimal confounding. Moreover, it is well known that evidence-based clinical practice guidelines can reduce the delivery of inappropriate care and support the introduction of new knowledge into clinical practice. The INTERGROWTH-21(st) Neonatal Group produced an operations manual, which reflects the consensus reached by members of the group regarding standardised definitions of neonatal morbidities and the minimum standards of care to be provided by all centres taking part in the project. The operational definitions and summary management protocols were developed by consensus through a Delphi process based on systematic reviews of relevant guidelines and management protocols by authoritative bodies. This paper describes the process of developing the Basic Neonatal Care Manual, as well as the morbidity definitions and standardised neonatal care protocols applied across all the INTERGROWTH-21(st) participating centres. Finally, thoughts about implementation strategies are presented. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Pathophysiology of Equine Neonatal Septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ospina Chirivi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal septicemia is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in horses in their first seven days of life and within their pathophysiology. It is important to consider the extrinsic and intrinsic predisposing factors which make foals susceptible to agents of primarily bacterial etiology. However, other types of infectious etiology (viruses and fungi should be considered too, as well as noninfectious etiologies. The paper mentions a wide variety of mechanisms that produce different injuries that must be addressed with measures of critical neonatal care, so it is imperative for the veterinarian to know the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease, its clinical presentation and anatomo-pathological lesions. Thus, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, and peripheral circulatory collapse or shock are some of the elements defined as the pillars of the pathophysiology of neonatal septicemia, extensively studied in equine medicine. This paper presents a short review of the triggering mechanisms of neonatal septicemia highlighting the importance of epidemiological investigations in Colombia. It shows the need for retrospective and prospective studies and for divulgation of some of the preventive measures of the disease in horses.

  9. Time Perception during Neonatal Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; De Bernardo, Giuseppe; Res, Giulia; Sordino, Desiree; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Weiner, Gary; Cavallin, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    To assess the accuracy of time perception during a simulated complex neonatal resuscitation. Participants in 5 neonatal resuscitation program courses were directly involved in a complex simulation scenario. They were asked to assume the role of team leader, assistant 1, or assistant 2. At the end of the scenario, each participant completed a questionnaire on perceived time intervals for key resuscitation interventions. During the scenario, actual times were documented by an external observer and video recorded for later review. In addition, participants were asked to evaluate their self-perceived level of stress and preparation. Health care providers (68 physicians and 40 nurses) were involved in 36 scenarios. Perceived time intervals for the initiation of key resuscitation interventions were shorter than the actual time intervals, regardless of the participant's role in the scenario. Self-assessed levels of stress and preparation did not influence time perception. Health care providers underestimate the passage of time, irrespective of their role in a simulated complex neonatal resuscitation. Participant's self-assessed levels of stress and preparation were not related to the accuracy of their time perception. These findings highlight the importance of assigning a dedicated individual to document interventions and the passage of time during a neonatal resuscitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adequate collateral circulation before radial arterial puncture may not be a reliable predictor of subsequent risk of vascular injury.75. Conclusion and recommendations. Indwelling arterial catheters remain a practical, reliable and accurate method of neonatal blood gas sampling, provided they are inserted and maintained ...

  11. Caffeine impact on neonatal morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Jacob V; Beharry, Kay; Valencia, Gloria B; Natarajan, Girija; Davis, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    Caffeine is a silver bullet in neonatology. This ubiquitous trimethylxanthine, pervasively used in the human diet and beverages, significantly impacts on major acute neonatal morbidities including apnea of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, patent ductus arteriousus with or without surgical ligation and post-operative apnea. Potential uses in respiratory distress syndrome as suggested by improved lung function in primate models is supported by the decreased time on mechanical ventilation and need for oxygen therapy. Improved later outcomes at 18 to 22 months include clinically significant decreases in cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, and severe retinopathy of prematurity in those babies who received caffeine during the neonatal period compared to non-caffeine treated placebo neonates. Ongoing and future research studies focus on optimizing current dose regimens to determine whether benefits can be maximized while maintaining an impressive safety profile. Molecular pharmacologic studies focused on the molecular and the biochemical mechanisms underlying the protective effects of caffeine are also being done to optimize treatment regimes and to target potential molecular pathways leading to further decreases in acute and long term neonatal morbidities. Since its use in newborns three decades ago, caffeine is now one of the safest, most cost-beneficial and effective therapies in the newborn.

  12. Efecto del enriquecimiento con nutrientes en la degradación de clorpirifos, malatión y metil paratión Inorganic nutrients effect addition over the chlorpyrifos, malathion and methyl parathion degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Upegui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el efecto del enriquecimiento con nutrientes (una sal de fósforo o un fertilizante comercial con N, P y K como alternativa para mejorar la capacidad de degradación de los microorganismos en una matriz sólida, contaminada con los pesticidas organofosforados: clorpirifos, malatión y metil paratión, se realizaron experimentos de cultivo bajo condiciones controladas de oscuridad, temperatura y humedad por 30 días. En todos los tratamientos hubo degradación de los pesticidas; sin embargo, en el tratamiento con fósforo los tiempos para degradar el clorpirifos y el metil paratión fueron mayores. La presencia de los pesticidas no generó efectos tóxicos detectables sobre la microflora en ninguno de los tratamientos evaluados. La actividad biológica de las matrices no presentó una relación directa con la capacidad de degradación.In order to evaluate the effect of inorganic nutrient addition (phosphorus or commercial fertilizer over the microbial degradation capacity present in a solid matrix contaminated with chlorpyrifos, malathion and methyl parathion, microcosms assays were held under controlled conditions of light, moisture and temperature for 30 days. Results showed that even though three treatments microorganisms were able to degrade the three organophosphorus pesticides, microorganisms of phosphorus-enrichment treatment were less efficient to degrade Chlorpyrifos and Methyl Parathion than microorganisms of Fertilizer-enrichment treatment. It was not observed a direct relation between mineralization and microbial pesticides degradation capacity. The microbial activity was not affected by the presence of organophosphorus pesticides.

  13. Long-term cognitive impairments in adult rats treated neonatally with beta-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika; Brittebo, Eva B.

    2009-01-01

    Most cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) can produce the neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Dietary exposure to BMAA has been suggested to be involved in the etiology of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC). Little is known about BMAA-induced neurotoxicity following neonatal administration. Our previous studies have revealed an uptake of BMAA in the hippocampus and striatum of neonatal mice. Furthermore, rats treated wit...

  14. Noise levels in a neonatal intensive care unit in the Cape metropole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Continuous noise exposure is potentially harmful to infants\\' auditory systems and wellbeing. Although the effects of noise on infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have been well researched overseas, limited studies have been conducted in South Africa. Aim. To conduct a detailed noise assessment ...

  15. Neonatal nutrition and later outcomes of very low birth weight infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is, however, little information from poor countries on the long-term effects of these deficiencies in such infants. ... With neonatal feeding regimes as the exposure variable, post-discharge re-hospitalization, mortality and Saigal and Rosenbaum's functional disability assessment scores were compared as the outcome ...

  16. Ileal atresia and multiple jejunal perforations in a premature neonate with gestational alloimmune liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    McAdams, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Recovery after surgical repair of an ileal atresia with or without intestinal perforation requires prolonged exposure to parenteral nutrition (PN) that may lead to PN-associated liver disease. Early liver failure and cholestasis out of proportion for PN exposure may be a harbinger for gestational alloimmune liver disease (GALD), a potentially life-threatening condition that often requires liver transplant if not treated in a timely manner. This case report presents a premature neonate with il...

  17. Neonatal characteristics and perinatal complications in neonates with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergaz-Shaltiel, Zivanit; Engel, Offra; Erlichman, Ira; Naveh, Yaron; Schimmel, Michael S; Tenenbaum, Ariel

    2017-05-01

    The annual rate of Down syndrome (DS) births in Jerusalem is stable, regardless of prenatal screening, and diagnostic measures. We aimed to evaluate our historical cohort for obstetrical characteristics and the neonatal course and complications. We reviewed computerized medical files of neonates with the diagnosis of DS born in the four main hospitals in Jerusalem between the years 2000 and 2010 and evaluated for maternal history and primary neonatal hospitalization. A total of 403 neonates were diagnosed with DS. The average maternal age was 35.6 years, 73% were born via spontaneous vaginal delivery. In all gestational ages, the mean birth weight and head circumference percentiles were significantly lower than the general population (P < 0.001 for both) and at each week the HC percentile was lower than the weight percentile (P < 0.0001), worse among males. Mortality during the primary hospitalization was 3.7%. The most common anomalies were cardiac (79%) with either congenital defects or functional abnormalities, neither influenced the length of hospitalization. The main reasons for prolonged hospitalization were prematurity and anomalies of other (non-cardiac) organs. Common perinatal complications included respiratory failure or need for oxygen supplementation (32%), hyperbilirubinemia (23%), sepsis (6.4%), and feeding difficulties (13%). About 84% were fed by human milk; of those, two thirds were exclusively breast-fed and one third were supplemented with infant formula. In conclusion, infants with DS were small for gestational age with relatively reduced head circumference. Despite the increased rate of congenital anomalies and perinatal complications, most infants were discharged home in good medical condition and were exclusively breastfed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Diagnostic imaging in neonatal stroke; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Neonatal stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhle, S.; Ipsiroglu, O.; Weninger, M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde, Wien (Austria). Abt. fuer Neonatologie, angeborene Stoerungen und Intensivmedizin; Puig, S.; Prayer, D. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2000-01-01

    A cerebral artery infarction is an important differential diagnosis in the newborn with neurological abnormalities. Based on clinical data, its incidence is estimated to be 1 in 4000 newborns. Since the course is often subclinical, the true incidence is probably higher. Diagnosis: Cerebral ultrasound and Doppler sonography as readily available screening tools play a central role in the initial diagnosis of neonatal cerebral infarction. Definitive diagnosis is made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Beside symptomatic anticonvulsive therapy, treatment aims at the prevention of secondary ischemic injury. Discussion: Three term infants with different clinical courses of neonatal stroke are presented to sensitize the clinician and the radiologist for this probably underdiagnosed entity. The role of imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal cerebral infarction is discussed. (orig.) [German] Ein Infarkt im Stromgebiet der Zerebralarterien stellt eine wichtige Differentialdiagnose bei neurologischen Auffaelligkeiten in der Neonatalperiode dar. Die Inzidenz wird anhand von klinischer Daten auf 1:4000 Lebendgeborene geschaetzt. Da der Verlauf oft subklinisch ist, liegt die wahre Inzidenz wahrscheinlich hoeher. Diagnose: Bei der Diagnosestellung kommen dem Schaedelultraschall und der Doppelsonographie als leicht verfuegbaren Screening-Methoden eine zentrale Rolle zu. Die definitive Diagnose wird, je nach Verfuegbarkeit, mittels Computertomographie oder Kernspintomographie gestellt. Die Behandlung ist neben der symptomatischen (antikonvulsiven) Therapie auf die Vermeidung von ischaemischen Sekundaerschaeden gerichtet. Diskussion: Wir wollen mit der vorliegenden Arbeit anhand von 3 Kindern mit verschiedenen klinischen Verlaeufen eines sog. Neonatal stroke den Stellenwert der bildgebenden Verfahren bei der Diagnostik und Verlaufskontrolle aufzeigen und die Sensibilitaet fuer dieses vermutlich unterdiagnostizierte Krankheitsbild erhoehen

  19. Colestase neonatal prolongada: estudo prospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRADO Elizabeth Teixeira Mendes Livramento

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Em razão da urgência de se decidir por um tratamento clínico ou por uma intervenção cirúrgica imediata, o estudo da colestase neonatal prolongada envolve dois objetivos básicos: o diagnóstico diferencial entre atresia biliar e hepatite neonatal e a pesquisa dos agentes etiológicos associados. Desta maneira, através de estudo prospectivo desenvolvido na década de 1970, foram avaliadas 77 crianças portadoras de colestase neonatal prolongada para estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial entre atresia biliar e hepatite neonatal e, numa segunda fase, 108 crianças, visando esclarecer a etiopatogenia da colestase neonatal prolongada. Os resultados do diagnóstico diferencial revelaram que, dos 18 atributos avaliados, apenas oito mostraram-se bons indicadores de atresia biliar, em ordem decrescente: ductos proliferados (espaço-porta, fibrose (espaço-porta, colestase (espaço-porta, cor das fezes -- acolia, hepatomegalia, colestase canalicular (lóbulo, infiltrado (espaço-porta, células gigantes (lóbulo. Estes oito atributos foram então compostos, mediante uma ponderação, em um único indicador de grande poder discriminativo, capaz de decidir o diagnóstico diferencial em 99% dos casos. Quanto à etiopatogenia, registrou-se: vírus rubéola 0%, vírus herpes simples 0%, listeriose 0%, citomegalovirose 2,2%, vírus hepatite B 2,4%, toxoplasmose 2,8%, deficiência de alfa-1-antitripsina 13,1%, sífilis 21,1 %, auto-anticorpos hepáticos 58,4%. O trabalho desenvolvido mostra que as 8 variáveis mais decisivas, como indicadoras diferenciais entre atresia biliar e hepatite neonatal, permanecem como índices fundamentais, auxiliando, em conjunto com novos métodos diagnósticos, na composição de uma estratégia multifatorial cada vez menos invasiva e mais precisa. O estudo da etiopatogenia, dependente das condições epidemiológicas locais e da época, com a introdução de novos métodos diagnósticos, torna-se atualmente cada vez mais

  20. Acute symptomatic neonatal seizures in preterm neonates: etiologies and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Francesco; Spagnoli, Carlotta

    2017-12-15

    Acute symptomatic neonatal seizures in preterm newborns are a relevant clinical challenge due to the presence of many knowledge gaps. Etiology-wise, acute symptomatic seizures have an age-specific epidemiology, with intraventricular hemorrhage and its complications representing the first cause in extremely and very preterm neonates, whereas other etiologies have similar occurrence rates as in full-term infants. Specific treatment strategies for the premature neonates are not yet available. Studies suggest a similarly low response rate with even more unfavorable prognosis than in full-term infants. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes are likely under way during the preterm period, with the potential to affect both effectiveness and safety of antiepileptic drugs in these patients. However, due to the lack of clear evidence to guide prioritization of second-line drugs, off-label medications are frequently indicated by review papers and flow-charts, and are prescribed in clinical practice. We therefore conclude by exploring potential future lines of research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurobehavioral Assessments in a Mouse Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-ischemic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinGi; Yu, Ji Hea; Seo, Jung Hwa; Shin, Yoon-Kyum; Wi, Soohyun; Baek, Ahreum; Song, Suk-Young; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2017-11-24

    We performed unilateral carotid artery occlusion on CD-1 mice to create a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) model and investigated the effects of neonatal HI brain injury by studying neurobehavioral functions in these mice compared to non-operated (i.e., normal) mice. During the study, Rice-Vannucci's method was used to induce neonatal HI brain damage in postnatal day 7-10 (P7-10) mice. The HI operation was performed on the pups by unilateral carotid artery ligation and exposure to hypoxia (8% O2 and 92% N2 for 90 min). One week after the operation, the damaged brains were evaluated with the naked eye through the semi-transparent skull and were categorized into subgroups based on the absence ("no cortical injury" group) or presence ("cortical injury" group) of cortical injury, such as a lesion in the right hemisphere. On week 6, the following neurobehavioral tests were performed to evaluate the cognitive and motor functions: passive avoidance task (PAT), ladder walking test, and grip strength test. These behavioral tests are helpful in determining the effects of neonatal HI brain injury and are used in other mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, neonatal HI brain injury mice showed motor deficits that corresponded to right hemisphere damage. The behavioral test results are relevant to the deficits observed in human neonatal HI patients, such as cerebral palsy or neonatal stroke patients. In this study, a mouse model of neonatal HI brain injury was established and showed different degrees of motor deficits and cognitive impairment compared to non-operated mice. This work provides basic information on the HI mouse model. MRI images demonstrate the different phenotypes, separated according to the severity of brain damage by motor and cognitive tests.

  2. Benign neonatal deep hypothermia in rodents and its relations to hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard W

    2017-07-01

    The neonates of many rodent species survive deep hypothermia (T b  = 0-8 °C). In key respects, this hypothermia is more akin to hibernation than was thought during much of the twentieth century, indicating that studies of neonatal hypothermia may usefully supplement studies of hibernation in understanding evolved tissue adaptations to near-freezing T b . To clarify evolutionary diversity in neonatal survival of deep hypothermia, neonates of six species or strains were subjected to a standardized procedure: exposure for 2.5 h to test T b s followed by autoresuscitation. Mus and Peromyscus differed dramatically, the lowest T b survived by all ages studied (3-10 days) being 7-8 °C in Mus and 0-1 °C in Peromyscus. There was, however, no evidence of intrageneric plasticity because feral and laboratory Mus were identical, and Peromyscus species with cold- and warm-climate distribution ranges were identical. When neonates survive deep hypothermia, a key question is whether the experience is benign, meaning neonates tolerate hypothermia. To test the benign nature of deep hypothermia, neonates of Peromyscus leucopus were exposed four times (3 h each) to T b  = 1-2 °C when 3-10 days old; controls were same-sex siblings not hypothermia exposed. When 74 such sibling pairs were exposed after weaning to predation by screech owls, the hypothermia-treated and control siblings did not differ in which was caught first. Based on study of deaths in 253 sibling pairs prior to weaning while under parental care, parents cared for hypothermia-treated siblings as attentively as controls. The results indicate that the experience of multiple neonatal deep-hypothermic episodes is benign in P. leucopus.

  3. Neonatal erythroderma – clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boull CL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Christina L Boull, Kristen P Hook Department of Dermatology, Division of Pediatric Dermatology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Neonatal erythroderma is rare, but significant as it may be the initial manifestation of an array of infectious, metabolic, and genetic conditions, some of which are life-threatening. Initial management should focus on identifying and treating life threatening etiololgies and complications, including infection, and fluid, electrolyte, and temperature disturbances. Often, the etiology of erythroderma is difficult to quickly identify in the neonate, as there is significant clinical overlap between causative entities. Furthermore, rapid definitive diagnostic tests are lacking. Herein we provide a review of the specific clinical features and diagnostic tests, which can aid in making a correct diagnosis. Skin care for the erythrodermic infant is also discussed. We encourage subspecialist consultation when appropriate to aid in the evaluation, especially when initial testing is nondiagnostic. Keywords: psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, cutaneous candidiasis

  4. Maternal Preeclampsia and Neonatal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl H. Backes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a multiorgan, heterogeneous disorder of pregnancy associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal strategies in the care of the women with preeclampsia have not been fully elucidated, leaving physicians with incomplete data to guide their clinical decision making. Because preeclampsia is a progressive disorder, in some circumstances, delivery is needed to halt the progression to the benefit of the mother and fetus. However, the need for premature delivery has adverse effects on important neonatal outcomes not limited to the most premature infants. Late-preterm infants account for approximately two thirds of all preterm deliveries and are at significant risk for morbidity and mortality. Reviewed is the current literature in the diagnosis and obstetrical management of preeclampsia, the outcomes of late-preterm infants, and potential strategies to optimize fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia.

  5. Neonatal pustular dermatosis: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal pustular eruption is a group of disorders characterized by various forms of pustulosis seen in first 4 weeks of life. Its presentation is often similar with some subtle differences, which can be further established by few simple laboratory aids, to arrive at a definite diagnosis. Given their ubiquitous presentation, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate among self-limiting, noninfectious, pustular dermatosis such as erythema toxicum neonatorum, transient neonatal pustular melanosis, miliaria pustulosa, etc., and potentially life threatening infections such as herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus infections. This review article tries to address the chronological, clinical, morphological, and histological differences among the various pustular eruptions in a newborn, in order to make it easier for a practicing dermatologist to diagnose and treat these similar looking but different entities of pustulation with a clear demarcation between the physiological benign pustular rashes and the infectious pustular lesions.

  6. CT findings in neonatal hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, H.; Laufer, L.; Berginer, J.; Hertzanu, Y. [Department of Radiology, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P. O. Box 151, Beer-Sheva 84101 (Israel); Hershkowitz, E.; Berenstein, T.; Sofer, S. [Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Maor, E. [Department of Pathology, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    1998-06-01

    Background. Newborn infants are particularly prone to hypothermia, a condition with a high mortality. Objective. To study the CT brain patterns in infants with hypothermia and neurological symptoms. Materials and methods. We reviewed the brain CT of nine infants with neonatal hypothermia, multiple organ failure, seizures and coma. Results. Two infants had normal CT scans, acutely and at follow-up, and were clinically normal at follow-up. In seven infants, CT showed diffuse cerebral oedema, with reversal of the normal density relationship between grey and white matter and a relative increased density of the thalami, brainstem and cerebellum - the `reversal sign`. In six surviving infants with severe developmental delay, follow-up CT revealed cerebral atrophy with multicystic encephalomalacia. Conclusions. The `reversal sign` has been described in the abused child, birth asphyxia and anoxia due to drowning. Neonatal hypothermia is offered as a further cause. (orig.) With 6 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  7. [Distance education in neonatal nursing scenarios: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Laís Machado; Paula, Mariane Andreza de; Duarte, Elysangela Dittz; Bueno, Mariana

    2015-06-01

    Identify resources that support learning mediated by technology in the field of neonatal nursing. Systematic review with searches conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO. Titles and abstracts were independently evaluated by two experts. Of the 2,051 references, 203 full-text articles were analyzed, resulting in the inclusion of nine studies on semiotics and semiology, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, general aspects of neonatal care, diagnostic reasoning and assessment of pain. Only two articles addressed the development of educational strategies and seven papers described the assessment of these strategies by experts and/or users. Distance education is an important resource for education, and its improvement and updating, and it particularly adds advantages for neonatal nursing by approximating teaching and real-life situations and by minimizing the exposure of newborns for teaching purposes. The lack of educational initiatives mediated by technology suggests the need for the development, evaluation and dissemination of educational resources focused on nursing care of newborns and their families.

  8. Quality improvement in radiography in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loovere, Linda; Boyle, Elaine M; Blatz, Susan; Bowslaugh, Marion; Kereliuk, Marilyn; Paes, Bosco

    2008-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to ensure that X-rays performed consistently adhere to established technological quality standards and are achieved without compromising patient care while minimizing exposure risks. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether educational sessions targeting areas deemed suboptimal would facilitate improvement. A retrospective, 1-week review of all neonatal X-rays and documentation of clinical information on X-ray requisitions (n = 132) was completed in a tertiary care neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), by a single observer. Standards for X-ray evaluation were defined a priori based on radiographic principles and essential documented medical information for correct interpretation. Targeted areas for improvement were identified and addressed through brief educational sessions and printed pamphlets. The review was repeated after recommendations were implemented, 1 month (n = 93) and 1 year (n = 76) later. Improvements were evident in both the completion of X-ray requisitions and image quality. In particular, there was a statistically significant improvement in requisition legibility (P = 0.019), completeness of the medical history (P artifacts obscuring views (P educational sessions. A neonatal X-ray audit is a simple, effective way to evaluate radiographic technique and encourage provision of basic clinical information for diagnostic interpretation by radiologists and neonatologists. As well, structured, collaborative educational sessions between radiology and neonatology staff appear to be a successful and sustainable method to effect overall improvement.

  9. Distance education in neonatal nursing scenarios: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Machado Freire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identify resources that support learning mediated by technology in the field of neonatal nursing. METHOD Systematic review with searches conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO. Titles and abstracts were independently evaluated by two experts. RESULTS Of the 2,051 references, 203 full-text articles were analyzed, resulting in the inclusion of nine studies on semiotics and semiology, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, general aspects of neonatal care, diagnostic reasoning and assessment of pain. Only two articles addressed the development of educational strategies and seven papers described the assessment of these strategies by experts and/or users. CONCLUSION Distance education is an important resource for education, and its improvement and updating, and it particularly adds advantages for neonatal nursing by approximating teaching and real-life situations and by minimizing the exposure of newborns for teaching purposes. The lack of educational initiatives mediated by technology suggests the need for the development, evaluation and dissemination of educational resources focused on nursing care of newborns and their families.

  10. Hepatobiliary scan in neonatal Jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, Nurun; Hasan, Mizanul; Karim, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Jaundice is more or less common in newborn babies. Through physiological jaundice is most common cause of neonatal jaundice, possibility of obstructive jaundice especially biliary atresia should be kept in mind. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia followed by surgical treatment can save baby's life. Otherwise death is inevitable due to liver failure. Hepatobiliary scan is the imaging study of choice in neonatal jaundice especially when there is persistent conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Total 27 newborn babies of suspected biliary atresia, aged 14 days to 4 months were referred to Institute of Nuclear Medicine for Hepatobiliary scan. All of them had high serum bilirubin ranged from 6.0 mg/dl with an average of 9.35 ng/dl serum bilirubin level. Ultrasonography of hepatobiliary system was performed in 14 cases showing normal sized liver in 4 cases and hepatomegaly in 10 cases. Hepatobiliary scan was done with 99m Tc-Mebrofenin (Br IDA) after preparing the baby with phenobarbitone for 3-5 days. 20 (67%) cases were scan positive suggesting biliary atresia (BA) and 7(27%) cases were scan negative. In BA there will be increased hepatic uptake of the radionuclide without any significant excretion even in 24 hours delayed images. Presence of radiotracer in the bowel exclude the diagnosis of BA. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia is very important because in this condition surgery should be performed early (within 60 days of life). Studies suggest that hepatobiliary scan after hepatic stimulation with phenobarbitone for a period of 3-5 days is highly accurate for differentiating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal jaundice. It is very important to perform hepatobiliary scan in a case of neonatal jaundice to exclude biliary atresia for the sake of baby's life.(author)

  11. Therapeutic hypothermia in neonatal asphyxia

    OpenAIRE

    Cornette, L.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is a serious condition affecting newborn infants which can result in death and disability. There is now strong clinical evidence that moderate post-asphyxial total body cooling or hypothermia in full term neonates results in long-term neuroprotection, allowing us to proclaim this innovative therapy as “standard of care.” The treatment is a time-critical emergency and should be started within 6 hours after the insult. Such requires optimal collaboration among lo...

  12. Simultaneous occurrence of foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and neonatal neutropenia due to maternal neutrophilic autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling Taaning, Ellen Birkerod; Jensen, Lise; Varming, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and neonatal neutropenia caused by maternal autoantibodies against neutrophils are rare disorders. We describe a newborn with severe thrombocytopenia and intracerebral bleeding caused by maternal anti-HPA-3a alloantibodies and mild neutropenia...

  13. Which biomarkers reveal neonatal sepsis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    Full Text Available We address the identification of optimal biomarkers for the rapid diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. We employ both canonical correlation analysis (CCA and sparse support vector machine (SSVM classifiers to select the best subset of biomarkers from a large hematological data set collected from infants with suspected sepsis from Yale-New Haven Hospital's Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. CCA is used to select sets of biomarkers of increasing size that are most highly correlated with infection. The effectiveness of these biomarkers is then validated by constructing a sparse support vector machine diagnostic classifier. We find that the following set of five biomarkers capture the essential diagnostic information (in order of importance: Bands, Platelets, neutrophil CD64, White Blood Cells, and Segs. Further, the diagnostic performance of the optimal set of biomarkers is significantly higher than that of isolated individual biomarkers. These results suggest an enhanced sepsis scoring system for neonatal sepsis that includes these five biomarkers. We demonstrate the robustness of our analysis by comparing CCA with the Forward Selection method and SSVM with LASSO Logistic Regression.

  14. RISK FACTORS IN NEONATAL ANAEROBIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Tabib

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic bacteria are well known causes of sepsis in adults but there are few studies regarding their role in neonatal sepsis. In an attempt to define the incidence of neonatal anaerobic infections a prospective study was performed during one year period. A total number of 400 neonates under sepsis study were entered this investigation. Anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures were sent. The patients were subjected to comparison in two groups: anaerobic culture positive and anaerobic culture negative and this comparison were analyzed statistically. There were 7 neonates with positive anaerobic culture and 35 neonates with positive aerobic culture. A significant statistical relationship was found between anaerobic infections and abdominal distention and pneumonia. It is recommended for those neonates with abdominal distention and pneumonia refractory to antibiotic treatment to be started on antibiotics with anaerobic coverage.

  15. Neonatal and Maternal 25-OH Vitamin D Serum Levels in Neonates with Early-Onset Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Taha Soliman; Madiha, Abd-Allah Sayed; Hanan, Mostafa Kamel; Abdel-Azeem, Mohamed El-Mazary; Marian, Gamil S

    2017-05-09

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is important for calcium metabolism and plays an important role in the immune functions. The aim of this study was to measure neonatal and maternal 25-OH vitamin D serum levels in neonates with early onset sepsis. The study included fifty neonates with early onset sepsis (25 full-term and 25 preterm infants) and thirty age and sex matched healthy neonates as controls. After history taking and clinical examination, complete blood count, C-reactive protein and 25-OH vitamin D serum levels (neonatal and maternal) were measured for all neonates. The mean gestational age for neonates with sepsis was (37.5 ± 0.98 for full term and 34.1 ± 1.26 for preterm neonates). Neonatal and maternal 25-OH vitamin D serum levels were significantly lower in patients (6.4 ± 1.8 and 24.6 ± 2.2 nmol/L) than controls (42.5 ± 20.7 and 50.4 ± 21.4 nmol/L). Significant negative correlations between neonatal and maternal 25-OH vitamin D serum levels and all sepsis markers and significant positive correlations between neonatal and maternal 25-OH vitamin D levels were present. At cut-off values <20 nmol/L for neonatal and <42 nmol/L for maternal 25-OH vitamin D for detection of neonatal sepsis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value (PPV) and negative predicted value (NPV) were 84%, 79%, 94.7% and 82.3% for neonatal and 82%, 77%, 91.4% and 80.6% for maternal 25-OH vitamin D, respectively. Positive correlations between neonatal and maternal 25-OH Vitamin D serum levels are present and they are negatively correlated with all sepsis markers. They can be sensitive early predictors for early onset sepsis in neonates.

  16. Treatment and Prevention of Neonatal Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Widness, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Because red blood cell (RBC) transfusion therapy remains the primary treatment of anemia encountered in early life, the basis for RBC transfusion in the treatment of symptomatic anemia is discussed in this review along with several important aspects of neonatal blood banking practices. Nontransfusion approaches to the prevention and treatment of neonatal anemia also are described. Finally, this review covers the controversy surrounding whether neonatal RBC transfusion therapy should be restri...

  17. Neonatal resuscitation: a report from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, S

    2000-07-01

    There has been a considerable increase in the educational level and awareness of neonatal care in developing countries over last decade. The importance of neonatal resuscitation, however, has been ignored. This report discusses the importance of structured neonatal courses with emphasis on the need for more such courses at regional levels, especially in developing countries. The concept of basic and advanced life support of the newborn is also presented.

  18. Use of computed radiography in respiratory distress syndrome in the neonatal nursery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Y.; Odagiri, K.

    1989-03-01

    A study was performed to establish the value of a computed radiography (CR) system in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). CR images obtained with various X-ray doses were compared with the images of a standard film-screen system. The image quality of CR taken with about one half radiation exposure, was comparable to that of the standard high speed film-screen combination. The use of CR could lead to a significant reduction in radiation in the neonatal I.C.U.

  19. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  20. Neonatal morbidity in term neonates is related to gestational age at birth and level of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, A.S.; van Elburg, R.M.; Kostense, P.J.; van Geijn, H.P.; Bolte, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study was to assess whether the incidence of neonatal morbidity of neonates born at term and admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) differs by gestational age and level of care. Methods: This is a 5-year retrospective cohort study of singleton term births

  1. Neonatal morbidity in term neonates is related to gestational age at birth and level of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, Andrea Solnes; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Kostense, Pieter J.; van Geijn, Herman P.; Bolte, Antoinette C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether the incidence of neonatal morbidity of neonates born at term and admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) differs by gestational age and level of care. This is a 5-year retrospective cohort study of singleton term births admitted to the NICU

  2. [Iodinated contrast in pregnant women and neonatal thyroid function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, P; Terral, D; Colombier, M; Mulliez, A; Suarez, C; Brunhes, A; Gallot, D

    2016-12-01

    There is a theoretical risk for neonatal hypothyroidism after prenatal exposure to iodinated contrast media. Current recommendations are in favour of neonatal thyroid function assessment. Our aim was to check if recommendations were observed, and if neonatal evaluation demonstrated anomalies. Over the period from 01/01/2010 to 01/08/2015, maternal and newborn records were retrospectively reviewed. All pregnant women who underwent a computed tomography and their newborns were included. We collected thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) levels. A total of 101 maternal and newborn records were reviewed. Mean gestational age at CT scan was 29.3±7.2 weeks. The mean dose of total iodine administered was 82.6±19.1mL. Only 21 newborns had a biological analysis (20.8%). All newborns had normal TSH and T4 levels at birth. Only 7 newborns had a T3 level above the upper threshold value, but according to expert opinion none have been considered pathological. Our study revealed that recommendations for neonatal thyroid function assessment after prenatal exposure to iodinated contrast media were not observed. This exposure seemed unlikely to have an important effect on thyroid function at birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Dramatic Increases in Maternal Opioid Use and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Dramatic Increases in Maternal Opioid Use and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Email Facebook Twitter Text Description of Infographic Use of opiates during pregnancy can result in a drug withdrawal syndrome in newborns called neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). ...

  4. Predictors of successful early extubation following congenital cardiac surgery in neonates and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Peter D; Nicholson, Lisa; Isaacs, Janet; Spanos, Steven; Olshove, Vincent; Naguib, Aymen

    2009-08-01

    There is a paucity of literature discussing the predictive likelihood of successfully extubating neonates and infants in the operating room immediately following congenital cardiac surgery. Given the unknown consequences of anaesthetics on neurodevelopmental outcomes, minimising the exposure of this population to such agents may have long-term benefits. Retrospective chart review of 391 patients less than 1 year of age. The probability of successfully extubating these patients was based on quantifiable, objective criteria. The relevant variables include age, weight, bypass time, lactate level and specific congenital anomaly. The practice of immediate extubation of infants and neonates is achievable, safe and predicted based on specific patient variables. This practice will minimise the anaesthetic exposure of these especially young patients who may be at risk for long-term consequences related to anaesthetic exposure.

  5. Noise levels in a neonatal transport incubator in medically configured aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Steven E; Nesbitt, Jeffrey C; Krageschmidt, Dale A; Sobczak, Steven C; Johnson, Robert V

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate exposure of neonates to noise during air medical transport as few commercially available hearing protective devices exist for premature newborns during air medical transport. Sound pressure levels in an infant incubator during actual flight conditions in four common medically configured aircraft were measured. Three noise dosimeters measured time-weighted average noise exposure during flight in each aircraft. One dosimeter was placed in the infant incubator, and the remaining dosimeters recorded noise levels in various parts of the aircraft cabin. The incubator provided a 6-dBA decrease in noise exposure from that in the crew cabin. The average noise level in the incubator in all aircraft was close to 80 dB, much higher than the proposed limits of 45 dB for neonatal intensive care unit noise exposure or 60 dB during transport. Exposure of neonates to elevated noise levels during transport may be harmful, and steps should be taken to protect the hearing of this patient population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antenatal corticosteroids for neonates born before 25 Weeks-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh Deshmukh

    Full Text Available Efficacy of antenatal corticosteroids before 25 weeks of gestation is unclear.To assess and compare neonatal outcomes following ANC exposure at 22, 23 and 24 weeks of gestation by conducting systematic review and meta- analysis.A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCT and non-RCTs reporting on neonatal outcomes after exposure to ANC up to 246 weeks of gestation using the Cochrane systematic review methodology. Databases Pubmed, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Central library, and online abstracts of conference proceedings including the Pediatric Academic Society (PAS were searched in Feb 2017. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality defined as death before discharge during the first admission. Secondary outcomes included severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH> grade III and IV/or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC >stage II and chronic lung disease (CLD. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model. The level of evidence (LOE was summarised using the GRADE guidelines.There were no RCTs; 8 high quality non-RCTs were included in the review. Meta-analysis showed reduction in mortality [N = 10109; OR = 0.47(0.39-0.56, p<0.00001; LOE: Moderate] and severe IVH and PVL [N = 5084; OR = 0.71(0.61-0.82, p<0.00001; LOE: Low] after exposure to ANC in neonates born <25 weeks. There was no significant difference in CLD [N = 4649; OR = 1.19(0.85-1.65 p = 0.31; LOE: Low] and NEC [N = 5403; OR = 0.95 (0.76-1.19 p = 0.65; LOE: Low]. Mortality was comparable in neonates born at 22, 23 or 24 weeks.Moderate to low quality evidence indicates that exposure to ANC is associated with reduction in mortality and IVH/or PVL in neonates born before 25 weeks.

  7. Pelayanan Kesehatan Ibu dan Kematian Neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Fitri Yani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia bersama seluruh negara berkembang berupaya mencapai kesepakatan Millenium Development Goals (MDGs dengan salah satu sasaran menurunkan angka kematian neonatal dari 20 per 1.000 kelahiran hidup menjadi 15 per 1.000 kelahiran hidup. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui hubungan pelayanan kesehatan ibu dengan kematian neonatal di Kabupaten Lampung Timur tahun 2011. Penelitian dengan desain studi kasus kontrol ini mengamati kasus ibu yang mengalami kematian neonatal dan kontrol ibu yang tidak mengalami kematian neonatal. Analisis multivariat menemukan pelayanan antenatal dan pertolongan persalinan berhubungan secara signifikan dengan kematian neonatal, setelah mengendalikan variabel umur ibu dan riwayat kehamilan (OR = 16,32; nilai p = 0,000; dan (OR = 18,36; nilai p = 0,31. Bayi yang dilahirkan dari Ibu dengan pelayanan antenatal tidak lengkap berisiko mengalami kematian neonatal 16,32 dan 18,36 kali lebih besar daripada bayi yang dilahirkan. Ibu dengan pelayanan antenatal lengkap dan penolong persalinan profesional. Tidak ada hubungan penolong persalinan dengan kematian neonatal, setelah mengontrol variabel pelayanan antenatal, umur ibu, riwayat kehamilan, riwayat penyakit, dan riwayat persalinan. Disarankan meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan antenatal dengan memerhatikan faktor umur ibu dan riwayat persalinan, mengembangkan kegiatan audit maternal perinatal serta meningkatkan keterampilan petugas penolong persalinan. All developing countries including Indonesia seek to reach agreement the Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s. It is objectives include reducing neonatal mortality by 25 percent from 20 per 1,000 live birth to 15 per 1,000 live births. This study aimed to determine the relationship of maternal health services with neonatal mortality in East Lampung District in 2011. This study used case control design to compare between the groups of mother whom have neonatal deaths (cases and neonatal life (control in East Lampung District in

  8. A Neonatal Murine Model of MRSA Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth A; You, Dahui; Shrestha, Bishwas; Siefker, David; Patel, Vivek S; Yadav, Nikki; Jaligama, Sridhar; Cormier, Stephania A

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants particularly following lower respiratory tract viral infections such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). However, the mechanisms by which co-infection of infants by MRSA and RSV cause increased lung pathology are unknown. Because the infant immune system is qualitatively and quantitatively different from adults we developed a model of infant MRSA pneumonia which will allow us to investigate the effects of RSV co-infection on disease severity. We infected neonatal and adult mice with increasing doses of MRSA and demonstrate that neonatal mice have delayed kinetics in clearing the bacteria in comparison to adult mice. There were differences in recruitment of immune cells into the lung following infection. Adult mice exhibited an increase in neutrophil recruitment that coincided with reduced bacterial titers followed by an increase in macrophages. Neonatal mice, however, exhibited an early increase in neutrophils that did not persist despite continued presence of the bacteria. Unlike the adult mice, neonatal mice failed to exhibit an increase in macrophages. Neonates exhibited a decrease in phagocytosis of MRSA suggesting that the decrease in clearance was partially due to deficient phagocytosis of the bacteria. Both neonates and adults responded with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines following infection. However, in contrast to the adult mice, neonates did not express constitutive levels of the anti-microbial peptide Reg3γ in the lung. Infection of neonates did not stimulate expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 by dendritic cells and neonates exhibited a diminished T cell response compared to adult mice. Overall, we have developed a neonatal model of MRSA pneumonia that displays a similar delay in bacterial clearance as is observed in the neonatal intensive care unit and will be useful for performing co

  9. Procedural pain in neonatal units in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyololo, O'Brien Munyao; Stevens, Bonnie; Gastaldo, Denise; Gisore, Peter

    2014-11-01

    To determine the nature and frequency of painful procedures and procedural pain management practices in neonatal units in Kenya. Cross-sectional survey. Level I and level II neonatal units in Kenya. Ninety-five term and preterm neonates from seven neonatal units. Medical records of neonates admitted for at least 24 h were reviewed to determine the nature and frequency of painful procedures performed in the 24 h period preceding data collection (6:00 to 6:00) as well as the pain management interventions (eg, morphine, breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact, containment, non-nutritive sucking) that accompanied each procedure. Neonates experienced a total of 404 painful procedures over a 24 h period (mean=4.3, SD 2.0; range 1-12); 270 tissue-damaging (mean=2.85, SD 1.1; range 1-6) and 134 non-tissue-damaging procedures (mean=1.41, SD 1.2; range 0-6). Peripheral cannula insertion (27%) and intramuscular injections (22%) were the most common painful procedures. Ventilated neonates and neonates admitted in level II neonatal units had a higher number of painful procedures than those admitted in level I units (mean 4.76 vs 2.96). Only one procedure had a pain intensity score documented; and none had been performed with any form of analgesia. Neonates in Kenya were exposed to numerous tissue-damaging and non-tissue-damaging procedures without any form of analgesia. Our findings suggest that education is needed on how to assess and manage procedural pain in neonatal units in Kenya. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. The innate immune response to lower respiratory tract E. Coli infection and the role of the CCL2-CCR2 axis in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Ndeh, Roland; Collaco, Joseph M; Poupore, Amy K; Dikeman, Dustin; Zhong, Qiong; Singer, Benjamin D; D'Alessio, Franco; Scott, Alan

    2017-09-01

    Neonates have greater morbidity/mortality from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) compared to older children. Lack of conditioning of the pulmonary immune system due to limited environmental exposures and/or infectious challenges likely contributes to the increase susceptibility in the neonate. In this study, we sought to gain insights into the nature and dynamics of the neonatal pulmonary immune response to LRTI using a murine model. Wildtype (WT) and Ccr2 -/- C57BL/6 neonatal and juvenile mice received E. coli or PBS by direct pharyngeal aspiration. Flow cytometry was used to measure immune cell dynamics and identify cytokine-producing cells. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to measure cytokine/chemokine expression. Innate immune cell recruitment in response to E. coli-induced LRTI was delayed in the neonatal lung compared to juvenile lung. Lung clearance of bacteria was also significantly delayed in the neonate. Ccr2 -/- neonates, which lack an intact CCL2-CCR2 axis, had higher mortality after E. coli challenged than Ccr2 +/+ neonates. A greater percentage of CD8 + T cells and monocytes from WT neonates challenged with E. coli produced TNF compared to controls. The pulmonary immune response to E. coli-induced LRTI differed significantly between neonatal and juvenile mice. Neonates were more susceptible to increasing doses of E. coli and exhibited greater mortality than juveniles. In the absence of an intact CCL2-CCR2 axis, susceptibility to LRTI-induced mortality was further increased in neonatal mice. Taken together these findings underscore the importance of age-related differences in the innate immune response to LRTI during early stages of postnatal life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fetal and neonatal atrial arrhythmias: an association with maternal diabetes and neonatal macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, J I; Krishnan, A; Kaltman, J; Donofrio, M T

    2013-12-01

    To determine if the incidence of maternal diabetes mellitus or neonatal macrosomia is more frequent in fetuses and neonates with atrial arrhythmias than the general population. Fetuses and neonates neonates with atrial flutter or ectopic atrial tachycardia were more likely to be macrosomic or be born to diabetic mothers than the general population. Postnatal echocardiography suggests that there may be abnormal diastolic left ventricular filling in some babies with these arrhythmias. Independent of ventricular hypertrophy, we speculate that isolated, non-recurrent fetal or neonatal atrial flutter, or ectopic atrial tachycardia may be caused by cardiac diastolic dysfunction and atrial stretch in utero. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by oral and injection routes. Deuterated BPA was used to avoid issues of background contamination. Linear pharmacokinetics were observed in adult rats treated orally in the range of 0-200 μg/kg bw. Evidence for enterohepatic recirculation of conjugated, but not aglycone, BPA was observed in adult rats. Significant inverse relationships were observed between postnatal age and measures of internal exposures to aglycone BPA and its elimination. In neonatal rats treated orally, internal exposures to aglycone BPA were substantially lower than from subcutaneous injection. The results reinforce the critical role for first-pass Phase II metabolism of BPA in gut and liver after oral exposure that attenuates internal exposure to the aglycone form in rats of all ages. The internal exposures to aglycone BPA observed in adult and neonatal rats following a single oral dose of 100 μg/kg bw are inconsistent with effects mediated by classical estrogen receptors based on binding affinities. However, an impact on alternative estrogen signaling pathways that have higher receptor affinity cannot be excluded in neonatal rats. These findings emphasize the importance of matching aglycone BPA internal dosimetry with receptor affinities in experimental animal studies reporting toxicity.

  13. The Cumulative Daily Tolerance Levels of Potentially Toxic Excipients Ethanol and Propylene Glycol Are Commonly Exceeded in Neonates and Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Kristine Svinning; Hertel, Steen Axel; Lundstrøm, Kaare Engell

    2018-01-01

    neonates and infants and compare these levels to the tolerance limits found in guidelines published by European Medicines Agency (EMA). As part of the SEEN study, all medicinal products administered to neonates and infants were recorded. All included neonates received ≥2 medicinal products/day and infants...... ≥3 medicinal products/day. Daily excipient levels were calculated based on quantities obtained from manufacturers or databases. Excipient levels were compared to tolerance limits proposed by the EMA. Altogether, 470 neonates and 160 infants were included, recording 4207 prescriptions and 316 products...... exceed tolerance limit of 6 mg/kg/day. Of the total number of prescriptions involving PG-containing medicinal products (n = 174), 70% would alone exceed a maximum tolerance limit of 50 mg/kg/day. Maximal daily exposure to ethanol (1563 mg/kg/day) or PG (954 mg/kg/day) exceeded the tolerance limits...

  14. Risk factors for nosocomial infections in selected neonatal intensive care units in Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Mario A; Efird, Meica M; Lozano, Juan M; Bose, Carl L; Rojas, María X; Rondón, Martín A; Ruiz, Gloria; Piñeros, Juan G; Rojas, Catherine; Robayo, Guillermo; Hoyos, Angela; Gosendi, Maria H; Cruz, Hernan; O'Shea, Michael; Leon, Angela

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to identify risk factors for nosocomial infections among infants admitted into eight neonatal intensive care units in Colombia. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors could be used to guide the design of interventions to prevent the problem. Data were collected prospectively from eight neonatal units. Nosocomial infection was defined as culture-proven infection diagnosed after 72 hours of hospitalization, resulting in treatment with antibiotics for >3 days. Associations were expressed as odds ratios. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. From a total of 1504 eligible infants, 80 were treated for 127 episodes of nosocomial infection. Logistic regression analysis identified the combined exposure to postnatal steroids and H2-blockers, and use of oral gastric tubes for enteral nutrition as risk factors significantly associated with nosocomial infection. Nosocomial infections in Colombian neonatal intensive care units were associated with modifiable risk factors including use of postnatal steroids and H2-blockers.

  15. Similarities and differences in gastrointestinal physiology between neonates and adults: a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo; Zheng, Qing-Shan; Li, Guo-Fu

    2014-11-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling holds great promise for anticipating the quantitative changes of pharmacokinetics in pediatric populations relative to adults, which has served as a useful tool in regulatory reviews. Although the availability of specialized software for PBPK modeling has facilitated the widespread applications of this approach in regulatory submissions, challenges in the implementation and interpretation of pediatric PBPK models remain great, for which controversies and knowledge gaps remain regarding neonatal development of the gastrointestinal tract. The commentary highlights the similarities and differences in the gastrointestinal pH and transit time between neonates and adults from a PBPK modeling prospective. Understanding the similarities and differences in these physiological parameters governing oral absorption would promote good practice in the use of pediatric PBPK modeling to assess oral exposure and pharmacokinetics in neonates.

  16. Etiologies of Prolonged Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia in Neonates Admitted to Neonatal Wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Sabzehei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jaundice is a common condition among neonates. Prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia occurs when jaundice persists beyond two weeks in term neonates and three weeks in preterm neonates. This study aimed to determine the etiologies of prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in infants admitted to the neonatal ward of Besat Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Methods: This study was conducted on all infants diagnosed with prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia during 2007-2012 in the neonatal ward of Besat Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Demographic characteristics of infants, physical examination and laboratory findings were collected and analyzed to determine the etiologies of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Results: In total, 100 infants diagnosed with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were enrolled in this study, including 49 male and 51 female neonates with mean age of 20±1 days and mean bilirubin level of 17.5±4.0 mg/dL. Main causes of hyperbilirubinemia were urinary tract infection, ABO incompatibility, hypothyroidism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in 14%, 5%, 6% and 5% of neonates, respectively. Moreover, unknown etiologies, such as breastfeeding, were detected in 70% of the studied infants. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, determining the main causes of prolonged unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in neonates is of paramount importance. In the majority of cases, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is associated with physiological factors, such as breastfeeding.

  17. Evaluation of Neonates with Ventriculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Ozlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Neonatal meningitis and ventriculitis still remain a problem with high mortality in spite of systemic and intraventricular antibiotics. Ventriculitis due to repeated taps is a serious problem of posthemorragic hydrocephalus in preterm infants. Methods: In this study, we evaluated 16 infants with ventriculitis followed at Cukurova University Faculty of Medicine Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between January 1999-December 2004. Results: Mean gestational week was 33± 5 (25-40 weeks and mean birth weight was 2096 ± 912 (980-3500 grams. Venticulitis was diagnosed at 38 ± 22 days. Eleven of the infants had intraventricular hemorrhage and 15 had hydrocephalus, 5 of whom had congenital hydrocephalus. Drainage of CSF was performed by taps in 13 infants. Gram negative microorganisms (Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa were predominating in cultures. Both intravenous and intraventricular antibiotic treatment was performed according to the cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Vancomycine and amicasine as intraventricular therapy were performed for 28 ±17 days. Cerebrospinal fluid protein levels increased significantly at 8 infant during intraventricular therapy. Mean cerebrospinal fluid protein at the begining of intraventricular treatment was 624.1± 429.1 (109-1330 mg/dl while on 14th day of treatment it was 993.7± 582.2 (89-1750 mg/dl. Seven of the infants were ventriculoperitoneal shunted 6 of them were reinfected. Seven of the infants were died during treatment, 1 infant with ventriculoperitoneal shunt was treated and 8 infants were discharged during treatment because of parents’ refusal of therapy. Conclusion: Despite the new treatment regimens, the ventriculitis still remains a problem because of nonstandardized practice in neonatal care. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 553-558

  18. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Terapia nutricional e sepse neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas,Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de; Leão,Renata Teixeira; Gomes,Andréia Patrícia; Siqueira-Batista,Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo do presente artigo é revisar a literatura acerca dos conhecimentos atuais relativos à terapia nutricional - enteral e parenteral - para os recém-nascidos pré-termo, principalmente os de muito baixo peso, destacando seu efeito protetor na sepse neonatal e na enterocolite necrosante. As diferentes modalidades de alimentação do recém-nascido prematuro - especialmente para aqueles de muito baixo peso - e seu efeito protetor na diminuição de complicações (mormente as infecciosas) foram ...

  20. Teamwork in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Vanessa Maziero

    2013-01-01

    Medical and technological advances in neonatology have prompted the initiation and expansion of developmentally supportive services for newborns and have incorporated rehabilitation professionals into the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) multidisciplinary team. Availability of therapists specialized in the care of neonates, the roles of…

  1. Outcome of neonatal surgeries in Nnewi, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prune belly syndrome. 2 (1.4). Neonatal testicular torsion. 2 (1.4). Vaginal atresia. 1 (0.7). Musculoskeletal. Abscesses. 6 (4.1). Congenital cutis aplasia. 2 (1.4). Tumours. Sacrococcygeal teratoma. 4 (2.7). Cystic hygroma. 2 (1.4). Cervical teratoma. 2 (1.4). Total. 147 (100.0). Outcome of neonatal surgeries Ekwunife et al.

  2. Factors infleuncing neonatal septicaemia in Maiduguri, north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal septicaemia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in the tropics. The risk factors vary, and the clinical features of neonatal septicaemia may be vague and nonspecific, therefore a high index of suspicion is vital to early diagnosis and treatment. The aetiological agents ...

  3. Neonatal malaria complicated by hypoglycaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no established and widely accepted guidelines for clinical management of severe neonatal malaria. The aim of this paper is to raise the alertness of physicians regarding the occurrence of severe malaria in the neonatal period and to describe the treatment modality we adopted (in the absence of an internationally ...

  4. Neonatal and paediatric bloodstream infections: Pathogens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment for HA-BSI is piperacillin-tazobactam and amikacin, with escalation to meropenem in cases of suspected meningitis and in neonates and paediatric patients requiring transfer to tertiary care/an intensive care unit (ICU). Data extraction and analysis. We retrospectively reviewed paediatric and neonatal BSI episodes ...

  5. The Changing Spectrum of Neonatal Hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadzic, Nedim; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    Neonatal hepatitis (NH) is a default diagnosis reached after excluding other more specific causes of prolonged neonatal cholestasis (PNC). The purpose of this brief review is to highlight the expanding spectrum of diagnoses causing PNC of infancy and to address emerging clinical dilemmas about the

  6. Rebound hyperbilirubinaemia in neonates admitted to Mofid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction and aim. Approximately 60% of term neonates and 80% of preterm neonates develop hyperbilirubinaemia in the rst week of life. Rebound hyperbilirubinaemia may occur after cessation of phototherapy, especially when the Coombs test is positive, in premature infants, and in those treated with phototherapy for ...

  7. Neurodevelopmental outcome after neonatal perforator stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ecury-Goossen, Ginette M; van der Haer, Marit; Smit, Liesbeth S; Feijen-Roon, Monique; Lequin, Maarten; de Jonge, Rogier C J; Govaert, Paul; Dudink, Jeroen

    AIM: To assess outcome after neonatal perforator stroke in the largest cohort to date. METHOD: Survivors from a cohort of children diagnosed with neonatal perforator stroke using cranial ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging were eligible for inclusion. Recovery and Recurrence Questionnaire

  8. Neonatal innate immunity - A translational perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Human newborns are highly susceptible to infections, which appears to be due to immaturity of the neonatal innate immune system. At birth, neonatal innate immune responses are characterized by decreased Th1-polarizing responses, whereas generation of Th2-polarizing and regulatory responses is

  9. The study of thrombocytopenia in sick neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, I.; Hassan, K.A.; Ahmad, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the number of cases and manifestations of thrombocytopenia in sick neonates. Subjects and Methods: A total of 365 neonates from 0-28 days of age admitted with different clinical problems irrespective of birth weight and gestational age were evaluated for thrombocytopenia. These neonates were categorized into five different groups (A-E), which were of neonatal infections, asphyxia neonatorum, preterm and smallness for gestational age, jaundice and miscellaneous respectively. Results: Out of 365 cases, 88 were found to have thrombocytopenia (platelet counts < 150,000 per mm/sup 3/) which was 24.1% of the total. In group A (neonatal infections), out of 152 neonates, 62 had low platelet counts (40.78%). In group B (neonatal asphyxia), out of 90 only 11 had thrombocytopenia (12.2%). In group C (preterm and small for gestational age), out of 60 cases only 9 had thrombocytopenia. In group D (jaundice), all 33 cases had normal platelet counts. In group E (miscellaneous), out of 30 cases only 6 had thrombocytopenia. The common manifestations in thrombocytopenic babies were petechiae and bruises followed by gastrointestinal hemorrhages. The percentage of manifest thrombocytopenia cases was 56.8% and of occult thrombocytopenia 43.1 %. Conclusion: The leading causes of thrombocytopenia in sick neonates are infections, asphyxia, complicated pre- maturity and smallness for gestational age. Apart from the platelet counts the bleeding mainfestations also depend upon the underlying ailments. (author)

  10. Maternal and Neonatal Care. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains the materials required to teach a course in maternal and neonatal care that will prepare students for employment as practical nurses. The course's five instructional units cover procedures for caring for the following: prenatal patients, patients in labor and delivery, postpartum patients, healthy neonates, and…

  11. Gastric perforation in neonates is ac

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... Background: Gastric perforation in neonates is a catastrophe associated with high morbidity. Most are due to underlying primary pathology. Objectives: To review the management of gastric perforation in neonates in Kwa Zulu. -Natal, South Africa. Design: Retrospective study of consecutive complete data ...

  12. Neonatal maxillary orthopedics: past to present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Prahl, C.; Berkowitz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal maxillary orthopedics was introduced in the treatment protocol for cleft lip and palate in the 1950s of the last century. A wide range of appliances has been designed with pin-retained active appliances at one end of the spectrum and passive appliances at the other. Although neonatal

  13. Prevalence, perceptions and practices surrounding neonatal breast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These lead to increased morbidity such as abscess formation and cellulitis. Objective: To document prevalence of, and perceptions about neonatal breast enlargement in newborns and interventions if any in south east Nigeria. Results: Neonatal breast enlargement was present in 50.8% of the target population with females ...

  14. Electromagnetic fields in neonatal incubators: the reasons for an alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Nardi, Valentina; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Di Fabio, Sandra; Pinto, Iole; Verrotti, Alberto

    2017-10-23

    Neonatal incubators are important tools for sick newborns in the first few days of life. Nevertheless, their electric engine, often very close to the newborn's body, emits electromagnetic fields (EMF) to which newborns are exposed. Aim of this paper is to review the available literature on EMF exposure in incubators, and the effects of such exposures on newborns that have been investigated. We carried out a systematic review of studies about EMF emissions produced by incubators, using Medline and Embase databases from 1993 to 2017. We retrieved 15 papers that described the EMF exposure in incubators and their biological effects on babies. EMF levels in incubators appear to be between 2 and 100 mG, depending on the distance of the mattress from the electric engine. In some cases, they exceed this range. These values interfere with melatonin production or with vagal tone. Even caregivers are exposed to high EMF, above 200 mG, when working at close contact with the incubators. EMF have been described as potentially hazardous for human health, and values reported in this review are an alert to prevent babies' and caregivers' exposure when close to the incubators. A precautionary approach should be adopted in future incubator design, to prevent high exposures of newborns in incubators and of caregivers as well.

  15. Systematic review of qualitative studies exploring parental experiences in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maghaireh, Dua'a