WorldWideScience

Sample records for neonatal feeding practices

  1. Feeding premature neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of ‘translating’ research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed...... a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... the researchers refer to as the ‘translatability’ of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU...

  2. Audit of feeding practices in the neonatal wards at the Charlotte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    better nutritional outcomes, including protecting against obesity in ... Background. Breastfeeding is the preferred choice of infant feeding. ... pressure, the date of initiation and date of being weaned off were .... at the time of delivery. The majority ...

  3. Audit of feeding practices in the neonatal wards at the Charlotte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breastfeeding is the preferred choice of infant feeding. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a ten-step plan to help ... A total of 98 (24%) were very low birth weight (VLBW) (1 500 g or more. Only 94 ...

  4. Neonatal Feeding Behavior as a Complex Dynamical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Eugene C; Perez, Jennifer; Engstler, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    The requirements of evidence-based practice in 2017 are motivating new theoretical foundations and methodological tools for characterizing neonatal feeding behavior. Toward that end, this article offers a complex dynamical systems perspective. A set of critical concepts from this perspective frames challenges faced by speech-language pathologists and allied professionals: when to initiate oral feeds, how to determine the robustness of neonatal breathing during feeding and appropriate levels of respiratory support, what instrumental assessments of swallow function to use with preterm neonates, and whether or not to introduce thickened liquids. In the near future, we can expect vast amounts of new data to guide evidence-based practice. But unless practitioners are able to frame these issues in a systems context larger than the individual child, the availability of "big data" will not be effectively translated to clinical practice. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Clinical practice: neonatal resuscitation. A Dutch consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, F.A.M.; van Veenendaal, M.B.; Mulder, A.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The updated Dutch guidelines on Neonatal Resuscitation assimilate the latest evidence in neonatal resuscitation. Important changes with regard to the 2004 guidelines and controversial issues concerning neonatal resuscitation are reviewed, and recommendations for daily practice are provided and

  6. Standardisation of neonatal clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Z A; Giuliani, F; Haroon, A; Knight, H E; Albernaz, E; Batra, M; Bhat, B; Bertino, E; McCormick, K; Ochieng, R; Rajan, V; Ruyan, P; Cheikh Ismail, L; Paul, V

    2013-09-01

    The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21(st) Century (INTERGROWTH-21(st) ) is a large-scale, population-based, multicentre project involving health institutions from eight geographically diverse countries, which aims to assess fetal, newborn and preterm growth under optimal conditions. Given the multicentre nature of the project and the expected number of preterm births, it is vital that all centres follow the same standardised clinical care protocols to assess and manage preterm infants, so as to ensure maximum validity of the resulting standards as indicators of growth and nutrition with minimal confounding. Moreover, it is well known that evidence-based clinical practice guidelines can reduce the delivery of inappropriate care and support the introduction of new knowledge into clinical practice. The INTERGROWTH-21(st) Neonatal Group produced an operations manual, which reflects the consensus reached by members of the group regarding standardised definitions of neonatal morbidities and the minimum standards of care to be provided by all centres taking part in the project. The operational definitions and summary management protocols were developed by consensus through a Delphi process based on systematic reviews of relevant guidelines and management protocols by authoritative bodies. This paper describes the process of developing the Basic Neonatal Care Manual, as well as the morbidity definitions and standardised neonatal care protocols applied across all the INTERGROWTH-21(st) participating centres. Finally, thoughts about implementation strategies are presented. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Practice patterns in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, L M; Herrarias, C T; Sebring, R H

    1998-01-01

    To determine practice patterns of office-based pediatricians and neonatologists in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in healthy, term newborns during 1992, before the publication of the practice guideline for treatment of neonatal jaundice by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The survey was undertaken to inform the AAP's Subcommittee on Hyperbilirubinemia on current practices and to aid it in its preparation of the guidelines. It was also anticipated that this survey would serve as a basis for comparison for a second survey to be performed several years after the publication of the practice guidelines. A self-administered questionnaire describing a single case of a jaundiced, breastfed 36-hour-old healthy, full-term infant with a total serum bilirubin concentration of 11.0 mg/dL (188 microM/L) was sent to a random sample of 600 office-based pediatricians and 606 neonatologists who were members of the AAP. The final response rate was 74%. Respondents were asked to answer questions regarding treatment of the case based on their actual practices. Ranges of total serum bilirubin concentration were provided as possible answers to questions on initiation of phototherapy and exchange transfusion, and interruption of breastfeeding. Respondents were also queried about frequency of serum bilirubin testing, locations of phototherapy administration, and factors influencing their therapeutic decisions. Four hundred forty-two office-based pediatricians and 444 neonatologists completed the survey. There was a tendency for neonatologists to initiate both phototherapy and exchange transfusions at lower serum bilirubin concentrations than office-based general pediatricians. At a serum bilirubin of 13 to 19 mg/dL (222 to 325 microM/L), 54% of office-based pediatricians stated they would initiate phototherapy whereas 76% of neonatologists would do so. Forty percent of office-based practitioners said they would perform exchange transfusions at serum bilirubin levels

  8. Feeding premature neonates: Kinship and species in translational neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Mie S; Juhl, Sandra M; Sangild, Per T; Svendsen, Mette N

    2017-04-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of 'translating' research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013-2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care hold the potential for stimulating and eroding kinship relations between human and nonhuman actors. In the laboratory, piglets and researchers form 'interspecies-milk-kinships' that entail the intimate care crucial to keeping the compromised piglets alive during the experiments, thereby enhancing what the researchers refer to as the 'translatability' of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU parents may perceive the animality of bovine colostrum, and the background information obtained in piglets, as a threat to the infants' connection to their biological parents as well as the larger human collective. Our study argues that the 'species flexibility' of premature beings profoundly shapes the translational processes in the field of neonatology research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neonatal resuscitation: advances in training and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawyer T

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taylor Sawyer, Rachel A Umoren, Megan M Gray Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Neonatal Education and Simulation-based Training (NEST Program, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Each year in the US, some four hundred thousand newborns need help breathing when they are born. Due to the frequent need for resuscitation at birth, it is vital to have evidence-based care guidelines and to provide effective neonatal resuscitation training. Every five years, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR reviews the science of neonatal resuscitation. In the US, the American Heart Association (AHA develops treatment guidelines based on the ILCOR science review, and the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP translates the AHA guidelines into an educational curriculum. In this report, we review recent advances in neonatal resuscitation training and practice. We begin with a review of the new 7th edition NRP training curriculum. Then, we examine key changes to the 2015 AHA neonatal resuscitation guidelines. The four components of the NRP curriculum reviewed here include eSim®, Performance Skills Stations, Integrated Skills Station, and Simulation and Debriefing. The key changes to the AHA neonatal resuscitation guidelines reviewed include initial steps of newborn care, positive-pressure ventilation, endotracheal intubation and use of laryngeal mask, chest compressions, medications, resuscitation of preterm newborns, and ethics and end-of-life care. We hope this report provides a succinct review of recent advances in neonatal resuscitation. Keywords: neonatal resuscitation, Neonatal Resuscitation Program, NRP, simulation, deliberate practice, debriefing, eSIM

  10. Supplemental feeding of captive neonatal koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Eri; Shindo, Izumi; Miyakawa, Etsuko; Kido, Nobuhide

    2017-01-01

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are cautious animals, making supplemental feeding of neonates challenging because of disturbances to the normal routine. However, supplemental feeding is beneficial in improving juvenile nutrition using less formula than required for hand-rearing, and allowing maternal bonding to continue through suckling. In this study, two neonatal koalas, delivered by the same mother in 2 years, exhibited insufficient growth post-emergence from the pouch; supplemental feeding was therefore initiated. The amount of formula fed was determined according to the product instructions, and offspring weight was monitored. Slower than normal growth was not initially noticed in the first offspring. This caused delayed commencement of supplemental feeding. An attempt was made to counteract this by providing more formula for a longer period; however, this meant No. 1 was unable to eat enough eucalyptus when weaning. Supplemental feeding was started earlier for the second offspring than for the first, and was terminated at weaning; this juvenile showed a healthy body weight increase. Furthermore, it was able to eat eucalyptus leaves at an earlier stage than No. 1. Although No. 1 showed delayed growth, both koalas matured and are still living. This study showed that supplemental feeding is useful for koalas, if the mother will accept human intervention. The key factors for successful supplemental feeding of koalas identified by comparing the two feeding systems observed in this study are that: (1) it should be initiated as soon as insufficient growth is identified; and (2) it should be terminated before weaning age. Zoo Biol. 36:62-65, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  12. Infant-Guided, Co-Regulated Feeding in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Part I: Theoretical Underpinnings for Neuroprotection and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Catherine S

    2017-04-01

    The rapid progress in medical and technical innovations in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has been accompanied by concern for outcomes of NICU graduates. Although advances in neonatal care have led to significant changes in survival rates of very small and extremely preterm neonates, early feeding difficulties with the transition from tube feeding to oral feeding are prominent and often persist beyond discharge to home. Progress in learning to feed in the NICU and continued growth in feeding skills after the NICU may be closely tied to fostering neuroprotection and safety. The experience of learning to feed in the NICU may predispose preterm neonates to feeding problems that persist. Neonatal feeding as an area of specialized clinical practice has grown considerably in the last decade. This article is the first in a two-part series devoted to neonatal feeding. Part 1 explores factors in NICU feeding experiences that may serve to constrain or promote feeding skill development, not only in the NICU but long after discharge to home. Part II describes approaches to intervention that support neuroprotection and safety. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Effect of palady and cup feeding on premature neonates' weight gain and reaching full oral feeding time interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marofi, Maryam; Abedini, Fatemeh; Mohammadizadeh, Majid; Talakoub, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Premature neonates' feeding is of great importance due to its effective role in their growth. These neonates should reach an independent oral nutrition stage before being discharged from the Neonatal Intensive care Unit. Therefore, the researcher decided to conduct a study on the effect of palady and cup feeding on premature neonates' weight gain and their reaching full oral feeding time interval. This is a clinical trial with a quantitative design conducted on 69 premature infants (gestational age between 29 and 32 weeks) who were assigned to cup (n = 34) and palady (n = 35) feeding groups through random allocation. The first feeding was administrated either by cup or palady method in each shift within seven sequential days (total of 21 cup and palady feedings). Then, the rest of feeding was administrated by gavage. Mean hospitalization time (cup = 39.01 and palady = 30.4; P cup = 33.7 and palady = 24.1; P cup group. Mean weight changes of neonates 7 weeks after the intervention compared to those in the beginning of the intervention were significantly more in palady group compared to the cup group (cup = 146.7 and palady = 198.8; P cup group. Subjects' weight gain was also higher in palady group compared to the cup group. Premature neonates with over 30 weeks of gestational age and physiological stability can be fed by palady.

  14. Leucine pulses enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis during continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infants unable to maintain oral feeding can be nourished by orogastric tube. We have shown that orogastric continuous feeding restricts muscle protein synthesis compared with intermittent bolus feeding in neonatal pigs. To determine whether leucine leu infusion can be used to enhance protein synthes...

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of neonatal staff concerning neonatal pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizakele L.T. Khoza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal pain management has received increasing attention over the past four decades. Research into the effects of neonatal pain emphasises the professional, ethical and moral obligations of staff to manage pain for positive patient outcomes. However, evaluation studies continuously report evidence of inadequate neonate pain management and a gap between theory and practice. Objective: This study reviewed current practice in neonatal pain management to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of nurses and doctors regarding pain management for neonates in two academic hospitals. Method: A non-experimental, prospective quantitative survey, the modified Infant Pain Questionnaire, was used to collect data from 150 nurses and doctors working in the neonatal wards of two academic hospitals in central Gauteng. Results: The response rate was 35.33% (n = 53, most respondents being professional nurses (88.68%; n = 47 working in neonatal intensive care units (80.77%; n = 42; 24 (45.28% had less than 5 years’ and 29 respondents 6 or more years’ working experience in neonatal care. A review of pain management in the study setting indicated a preference for pharmacological interventions to relieve moderate to severe pain. An association (p < 0.05 was found between pain ratings on 5 procedures and frequency of administration of pharmacological pain management. Two-thirds of respondents (64% reported that there were no pain management guidelines in the neonatal wards in which they worked. Conclusion: The interventions to manage moderate neonatal pain are in line with international guidelines. However, neonatal pain management may not occur systematically based on prior assessment of neonatal pain, choice of most appropriate intervention and evaluation. This study recommends implementation of a guideline to standardise practice and ensure consistent and adequate pain management in neonates.

  16. Evaluation and Management of Neonatal Dysphagia: Impact of Pharyngoesophageal Motility Studies and Multidisciplinary Feeding Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.; Stoner, Erin; Gupta, Alankar; Bates, D. Gregory; Fernandez, Soledad; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Linscheid, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Abnormal swallowing (dysphagia) among neonates is commonly evaluated using the videofluoroscopic swallow study (VSS). Radiological findings considered high risk for administration of oral feeding include nasopharyngeal reflux, laryngeal penetration, aspiration, or pooling. Our aims were to determine pharyngoesophageal motility correlates in neonates with dysphagia and the impact of multidisciplinary feeding strategy. Methods Twenty dysphagic neonates (mean gestation ± standard deviation [SD] = 30.9 ± 4.9 weeks; median 31.1 weeks; range = 23.7–38.6 weeks) with abnormal VSS results were evaluated at 49.9 ± 16.5 weeks (median 41.36 weeks) postmenstrual age. The subjects underwent a swallow-integrated pharyngoesophageal motility assessment of basal and adaptive swallowing reflexes using a micromanometry catheter and pneumohydraulic water perfusion system. Based on observations during the motility study, multidisciplinary feeding strategies were applied and included postural adaptation, sensory modification, hunger manipulation, and operant conditioning methods. To discriminate pharyngoesophageal manometry correlates between oral feeders and tube feeders, data were stratified based on the primary feeding method at discharge, oral feeding versus tube feeding. Results At discharge, 15 of 20 dysphagic neonates achieved oral feeding success, and the rest required chronic tube feeding. Pharyngoesophageal manometry correlates were significantly different (P dysphagia or its consequences. Manometry may be a better predictor than VSS in identifying patients who are likely to succeed in vigorous intervention programs. PMID:19179881

  17. Neonatal enteral feeding tubes as loci for colonisation by members of the Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Craig

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine whether neonatal nasogastric enteral feeding tubes are colonised by the opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii and other Enterobacteriaceae, and whether their presence was influenced by the feeding regime. Methods One hundred and twenty-nine tubes were collected from two neonatal intensive care units (NICU. A questionnaire on feeding regime was completed with each sample. Enterobacteriaceae present in the tubes were identified using conventional and molecular methods, and their antibiograms determined. Results The neonates were fed breast milk (16%, fortified breast milk (28%, ready to feed formula (20%, reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF, 6%, or a mixture of these (21%. Eight percent of tubes were received from neonates who were 'nil by mouth'. Organisms were isolated from 76% of enteral feeding tubes as a biofilm (up to 107 cfu/tube from neonates fed fortified breast milk and reconstituted PIF and in the residual lumen liquid (up to 107 Enterobacteriaceae cfu/ml, average volume 250 μl. The most common isolates were Enterobacter cancerogenus (41%, Serratia marcescens (36%, E. hormaechei (33%, Escherichia coli (29%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (25%, Raoultella terrigena (10%, and S. liquefaciens (12%. Other organisms isolated included C. sakazakii (2%,Yersinia enterocolitica (1%,Citrobacter freundii (1%, E. vulneris (1%, Pseudomonas fluorescens (1%, and P. luteola (1%. The enteral feeding tubes were in place between 48 h (13%. All the S. marcescens isolates from the enteral feeding tubes were resistant to amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav. Of additional importance was that a quarter of E. hormaechei isolates were resistant to the 3rd generation cephalosporins ceftazidime and cefotaxime. During the period of the study, K. pneumoniae and S. marcescens caused infections in the two NICUs. Conclusion This study shows that neonatal enteral feeding tubes

  18. Comparison of the complementary feeding practices between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the complementary feeding practices between mothers with twins and mothers with singletons. Methods: mother-infant pairs (50 mother-twin pairs and 50 mother-singleton pairs) with children aged 6 to 23 months were recruited from two public health clinics and communities in Tema ...

  19. Neonatal ghrelin programs development of hypothalamic feeding circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steculorum, Sophie M.; Collden, Gustav; Coupe, Berengere; Croizier, Sophie; Lockie, Sarah; Andrews, Zane B.; Jarosch, Florian; Klussmann, Sven; Bouret, Sebastien G.

    2015-01-01

    A complex neural network regulates body weight and energy balance, and dysfunction in the communication between the gut and this neural network is associated with metabolic diseases, such as obesity. The stomach-derived hormone ghrelin stimulates appetite through interactions with neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). Here, we evaluated the physiological and neurobiological contribution of ghrelin during development by specifically blocking ghrelin action during early postnatal development in mice. Ghrelin blockade in neonatal mice resulted in enhanced ARH neural projections and long-term metabolic effects, including increased body weight, visceral fat, and blood glucose levels and decreased leptin sensitivity. In addition, chronic administration of ghrelin during postnatal life impaired the normal development of ARH projections and caused metabolic dysfunction. Consistent with these observations, direct exposure of postnatal ARH neuronal explants to ghrelin blunted axonal growth and blocked the neurotrophic effect of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin. Moreover, chronic ghrelin exposure in neonatal mice also attenuated leptin-induced STAT3 signaling in ARH neurons. Collectively, these data reveal that ghrelin plays an inhibitory role in the development of hypothalamic neural circuits and suggest that proper expression of ghrelin during neonatal life is pivotal for lifelong metabolic regulation. PMID:25607843

  20. Perinatal factors influencing infant feeding practices at birth: the Bedouin Infant Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Berendest, H W; Lewando-Hundt, G; Sarov, B; Naggan, L

    1991-04-01

    Bedouin Arab women delivering newborns at Soroka Medical Center, Israel, during 1 year were interviewed in hospital to determine the factors influencing infant feeding practices at birth. Eighty-six per cent breastfed, 11% breast and bottlefed, and 3% bottlefed at birth. Based on a multiple logistic regression analysis, the factors that significantly reduced the odds ratio (OR) of exclusive breastfeeding vs. breast and bottle feeding or bottle feeding at birth include: delivering during the high birth season (OR = 0.49); maternal recall of feeling unwell during pregnancy (OR = 0.59); delivering a low birthweight newborn (OR = 0.10); a newborn diagnosed with major malformations (OR = 0.30) or with major illnesses (OR = 0.32); and delivering by Caesarean section (OR = 0.09). In contrast, multiparae experienced an increased odds (OR = 1.67) of breastfeeding. Among primiparae, the factors that significantly reduced the odds of exclusive breastfeeding include: delivering during the high birth season (OR = 0.47); delivering a low birthweight newborn (OR = 0.12); and delivering by Caesarean section (OR = 0.18). Mothers of high-risk neonates and those who deliver by Caesarean section need to be educated about the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. Young primiparae are a challenge and require qualitative and quantitative research into the reasons precluding exclusive breastfeeding.

  1. Single Visit Feeding Appliance for 1‑day‑old Neonate with Cleft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015 Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 7. Single Visit Feeding Appliance for 1‑day‑old Neonate with. Cleft Palate Using Safe Dental Putty‑Gauze Hybrid Impression. Technique for Maxillary Impression. Manu Rathee. INTRODUCTION. Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is one ...

  2. Early feeding and neonatal hypoglycemia in infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cordero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the effects of early formula feeding or breast-feeding on hypoglycemia in infants born to 303 A1-A2 and 88 Class B-RF diabetics. Methods: Infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 40 mg/dL were breast-fed or formula-fed, and those with recurrences were given intravenous dextrose. Results: Of 293 infants admitted to the well-baby nursery, 87 (30% had hypoglycemia, corrected by early feeding in 75 (86%, while 12 (14% required intravenous dextrose. In all, 98 infants were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit for respiratory distress (40%, prematurity (33% or prevention of hypoglycemia (27%. Although all newborn intensive care unit patients received intravenous dextrose, 22 (22% had hypoglycemia. Of 109 hypoglycemia episodes, 89 (82% were single low occurrences. At discharge, 56% of well-baby nursery and 43% of newborn intensive care unit infants initiated breast-feeding. Conclusions: Hypoglycemia among infants of diabetic mothers can be corrected by early breast-feeding or formula feeding.

  3. Early feeding and neonatal hypoglycemia in infants of diabetic mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Shilpa; Hillier, Kirsty; Giannone, Peter J; Nankervis, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effects of early formula feeding or breast-feeding on hypoglycemia in infants born to 303 A1-A2 and 88 Class B-RF diabetics. Methods: Infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 40 mg/dL) were breast-fed or formula-fed, and those with recurrences were given intravenous dextrose. Results: Of 293 infants admitted to the well-baby nursery, 87 (30%) had hypoglycemia, corrected by early feeding in 75 (86%), while 12 (14%) required intravenous dextrose. In all, 98 infants were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit for respiratory distress (40%), prematurity (33%) or prevention of hypoglycemia (27%). Although all newborn intensive care unit patients received intravenous dextrose, 22 (22%) had hypoglycemia. Of 109 hypoglycemia episodes, 89 (82%) were single low occurrences. At discharge, 56% of well-baby nursery and 43% of newborn intensive care unit infants initiated breast-feeding. Conclusions: Hypoglycemia among infants of diabetic mothers can be corrected by early breast-feeding or formula feeding. PMID:26770697

  4. Parental feeding practices and children's weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jane; Carnell, Susan

    2007-04-01

    Global increases in childhood obesity rates demand that we tackle the problem from many directions. One promising avenue is to explore the impact of parental feeding practices, particularly those related to parental control over children's intake. In this paper, we review studies of parent feeding and child adiposity covering a range of research methodologies (case-control studies, high risk studies, cross-sectional community studies and longitudinal cohort studies). We also present results from a cross-sectional community study of pre-schoolers (n = 439) and a longitudinal study of twins from ages of 4 to 7 years (n = 3175 pairs). We conclude that parents are more likely to encourage leaner than heavier children to eat, but relationships between adiposity and other parental feeding strategies are unclear. We suggest that future research should: (i) explore the impact of a comprehensive range of authoritative and authoritarian parental feeding behaviours, preferably using the same validated scales consistently across studies; (ii) test the generalisation of existing findings to diverse socio-economic and ethnic groups and (iii) utilise experimental, prospective and genetic methodologies to explore the causal relationships between parental feeding and child weight. We describe current projects in our own group that are designed to take forward these recommendations.

  5. Extending the validity of the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Elena; Mallan, Kimberley M.; Daniels, Lynne A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding practices are commonly examined as potentially modifiable determinants of children?s eating behaviours and weight status. Although a variety of questionnaires exist to assess different feeding aspects, many lack thorough reliability and validity testing. The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) is a tool designed to measure early feeding practices related to non-responsive feeding and structure of the meal environment. Face validity, factorial validity, inte...

  6. Central pipecolic acid increases food intake under ad libitum feeding conditions in the neonatal chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Tomo; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Saito, Ei-Suke; Tomonaga, Shouzou; Saito, Shin; Bungo, Takashi; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2003-08-21

    It has been demonstrated that L-pipecolic acid (L-PA) is a major metabolic intermediate of L-lysine in the mammalian and chicken brain. A previous study showed that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of L-PA suppressed feeding in neonatal chicks, and the actions were associated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor activation. It has been reported that endogenous L-PA in the brain fluctuated under different feeding conditions. In the present study, we investigated the effect of i.c.v. injection of L-PA on food intake in the neonatal chick under ad libitum feeding conditions. The food intake was increased by 0.5 or 1.0 mg L-PA under ad libitum feeding conditions contrary to previous studies using fasted birds. A hyperphagic effect of L-PA (0.5 mg) was attenuated by both GABA-A receptor antagonist (picrotoxin, 0.5 microg) and GABA-B receptor antagonist (CGP54626, 21.0 ng). These results indicate that a hyperphagic effect of L-PA is mediated by both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors and L-PA differentially affects food intake under different feeding conditions in the neonatal chick.

  7. Translating Neurodevelopmental Care Policies Into Practice: The Experience of Neonatal ICUs in France-The EPIPAGE-2 Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrat, Veronique; Coquelin, Anaëlle; Cuttini, Marina; Khoshnood, Babak; Glorieux, Isabelle; Claris, Olivier; Durox, Mélanie; Kaminski, Monique; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Arnaud, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    To describe the implementation of neurodevelopmental care for newborn preterm infants in neonatal ICUs in France in 2011, analyze changes since 2004, and investigate factors associated with practice. Prospective national cohort study of all births before 32 weeks of gestation. Twenty-five French regions. All neonatal ICUs (n = 66); neonates surviving at discharge (n = 3,005). None. Neurodevelopmental care policies and practices were assessed by structured questionnaires. Proportions of neonates initiating kangaroo care during the first week of life and those whose mothers expressed breast milk were measured as neurodevelopmental care practices. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationships between kangaroo care or breast-feeding practices and unit policies, taking into account potential confounders. Free visiting policies, bed availability for parents, and kangaroo care encouragement significantly improved between 2004 and 2011 but with large variabilities between units. Kangaroo care initiation varied from 39% for neonates in the most restrictive units to 68% in less restrictive ones (p neurodevelopmental care significantly influenced kangaroo care initiation (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.8-7.0 for Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program implementation compared with no training). Breast milk expression by mothers was greater in units with full-time availability professionals trained for breast-feeding support (60% vs 73%; p neurodevelopmental practices occurred between 2004 and 2011, but large variabilities between units persist. Practices increased in units with supportive policies. Specific neurodevelopmental care training with multifaceted interventions strengthened the implementation of policies.

  8. [Sedation and analgesia practices among Spanish neonatal intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Alvarez, A; Carbajal, R; Courtois, E; Pertega-Diaz, S; Muñiz-Garcia, J; Anand, K J S

    2015-08-01

    Pain management and sedation is a priority in neonatal intensive care units. A study was designed with the aim of determining current clinical practice as regards sedation and analgesia in neonatal intensive care units in Spain, as well as to identify factors associated with the use of sedative and analgesic drugs. A multicenter, observational, longitudinal and prospective study. Thirty neonatal units participated and included 468 neonates. Of these, 198 (42,3%) received sedatives or analgesics. A total of 19 different drugs were used during the study period, and the most used was fentanyl. Only fentanyl, midazolam, morphine and paracetamol were used in at least 20% of the neonates who received sedatives and/or analgesics. In infusions, 14 different drug prescriptions were used, with the most frequent being fentanyl and the combination of fentanyl and midazolam. The variables associated with receiving sedation and/or analgesia were, to have required invasive ventilation (P3 (P=.023; OR=2.26), the existence of pain evaluation guides in the unit (Pneonates admitted to intensive care units receive sedatives or analgesics. There is significant variation between Spanish neonatal units as regards sedation and analgesia prescribing. Our results provide evidence on the "state of the art", and could serve as the basis of preparing clinical practice guidelines at a national level. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial on Effect of Intermittent Early Versus Late Kangaroo Mother Care on Human Milk Feeding in Low-Birth-Weight Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Dhaarani; Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Bhalla, Anil Kumar; Dhaliwal, Lakhbir Kaur

    2017-08-01

    Breastfeeding at discharge among sick low-birth-weight (LBW) infants is low despite counseling and intervention like kangaroo mother care (KMC). Research aim: The aim was to study the effects of early initiation of KMC on exclusive human milk feeding, growth, mortality, and morbidities in LBW neonates compared with late initiation of KMC during the hospital stay and postdischarge. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in level 2 and 3 areas of a tertiary care neonatal unit over 15 months. Inborn neonates weighing 1 to 1.8 kg and hemodynamically stable were randomized to receive either early KMC, initiated within the first 4 days of life, or late KMC (off respiratory support and intravenous fluids). Follow-up was until 1 month postdischarge. Outcomes were proportion of infants achieving exclusive human milk feeding and direct breastfeeding, growth, mortality and morbidities during hospital stay, and postdischarge feeding and KMC practices until 1 month. The early KMC group ( n = 80) achieved significantly higher exclusive human milk feeding (86% vs. 45%, p milk feeding (73% vs. 36%, p milk feeding and direct breastfeeding in LBW infants.

  10. Practical MRI atlas of neonatal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkovich, A.J.; Truwit, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    This book is an anatomical reference for cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in neonates and infants. It contains 122 clear, sharp MRI scans and drawings showing changes in the normal appearance of the brain and skull during development. Sections of the atlas depict the major processes of maturation: brain myelination, development of the corpus callosum, development of the cranial bone marrow, and iron deposition in the brain. High-quality scans illustrate how these changes appear on magnetic resonance images during various stages of development

  11. Effects of the neonatal intensive care unit environment on preterm infant oral feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickler RH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rita H Pickler,1 Jacqueline M McGrath,2 Barbara A Reyna,3 Heather L Tubbs-Cooley,1 Al M Best4, Mary Lewis,3 Sharon Cone,3 Paul A Wetzel51Department of Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2School of Nursing, University of Connecticut and Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT, USA; 3VCU Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Richmond, Richmond, VA, USA; 4School of Dentistry, 5School of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAObjective: To examine the effect of neonatal intensive care unit environmental characteristics (perceived levels of light and sound, and time of day in open unit wards and single-family rooms (SFRs on oral feeding outcomes in preterm infants.Design: Data were collected at each scheduled oral feeding for 87 preterm infants from the first oral feeding until discharge. Data included the prescribed volume of feeding and the volume consumed, the infant's level of wakefulness before feeding, and the nurse's perception of light and sound.Results: Data were collected on 5111 feedings in the ward unit and 5802 in the SFR unit from feedings involving 87 preterm infants. Light and sound were rated significantly lower in the SFR (χ2 = 139 and 1654.8, respectively. Feeding times of 9 am, 12 noon, and 3 pm were associated with the highest perceived levels of light and sound, regardless of unit design (P < 0.0001. Moderate light levels and feeding times of 12, 3, and 6 am were associated with improved feeding outcomes. Infants consumed a greater proportion of their prescribed feeding volume when fed in the open ward and when awake before feeding.Conclusion: Further study on the clinical effects of unit design is needed, as is study on the effects of environmental stimuli, so that interventions can be appropriately developed and tailored for infants needing the most support for optimal development.Keywords: NICU design, clinical outcomes, environment

  12. Early oral-motor management on feeding performance in premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Abnormal brain sonography [odds ratio (OR: 2.222, p = 0.047 and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC (OR: 2.857, p = 0.017 did affect the first trial in the study group. Early intervention of oral-motor management in very-low-birth-weight premature infants improved feeding performance and neonatal outcome in terms of shorter hospital days. Abnormal brain image and NEC could interfere with the success rate of initial challenge of transitioning from tube to oral feeding in the study group.

  13. Basic model of quality and good practices in neonatal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Janine H.; Goulart, Juliana M.; Lykawka, Rochelle; Bacelar, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal chest radiographs were evaluated and 3 variables were analyzed: collimation, positioning and presence of artifacts. This study is a pilot for develop a model of good practices in radiology, which is in development phase. The index of analyzed radiographs considered inadequate is expressive and it shows the need for a model that may be part of an optimization program to medical exposures. (author)

  14. Fetal and neonatal programming of postnatal growth and feed efficiency in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Ju; Wang, Binggen; Wu, Guoyao

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics). The mechanisms responsible for the epigenetic regulation of protein expression and functions include chromatin remodeling; DNA methylation (occurring at the 5´-position of cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides); and histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination). Like maternal malnutrition, undernutrition during the neonatal period also reduces growth performance and feed efficiency (weight gain:feed intake; also known as weight-gain efficiency) in postweaning pigs by 5-10%, thereby increasing the days necessary to reach the market body-weight. Supplementing functional amino acids (e.g., arginine and glutamine) and vitamins (e.g., folate) play a key role in activating the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and regulating the provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Therefore, these nutrients are beneficial for the dietary treatment of metabolic disorders in offspring with intrauterine growth restriction or neonatal malnutrition. The mechanism-based strategies hold great promise for the improvement of the efficiency of pork production and the sustainability of the global swine industry.

  15. Perspectives regarding antenatal care, delivery and breast feeding practices of women from Baluchistan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoso, A.; Khan, A.Z.; Sayed, S.A.; Rafique, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antenatal Care is one of the fundamental rights for women to safeguard their health. Neonatal mortality rates have remained relatively static, compared to the decline in infant and under 5 mortality rates, adverse practices regarding breast feeding and pre-lacteal feeds being the important factors responsible. This study aimed to explore the Antenatal Care, delivery and breast feeding practices in three districts of Blotchiness. Methods: It was a qualitative phenomenological design using Constrictive approach. The study was conducted in three districts of Baluchistan province, Gwadar, Quetta, Qila Saifullah. There were a total of 14 Focus Group Discussions with women regarding Antenatal Care, delivery and Breast feeding practices, followed by audio taping, transcription as verbatim and analysis through Nvivo version 2. A process was deployed for identification and reporting of the components in order to ensure quality and validity of the qualitative findings. Results: Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC often varied. The women preferred Dais instead of doctors, due to the affordability, customs and availability. A lack of trained doctors and long distances to get a check-up lead to home deliveries in the study setting. Colostrum was discarded by majority of the mothers, while prelacteal feed was a common practice. Conclusion: This paper has explored factors affecting ANC attendance, delivery and breast feeding practices across three settings. Both the demand and supply side factors have an important influence on practices. (author)

  16. Infant and Young Child Feeding Perceptions and Practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    child feeding (IYCF) practices comprising breastfeeding as well as complementary feeding ... begins either too early or too late with foods, which are often nutritionally ... Access this article online ..... International code of marketing the breast ...

  17. Hyperleptinemia in Neonatally Overfed Female Rats Does Not Dysregulate Feeding Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilvana Ziko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal overfeeding during the first weeks of life in male rats is associated with a disruption in the peripheral and central leptin systems. Neonatally overfed male rats have increased circulating leptin in the first 2 weeks of life, which corresponds to an increase in body weight compared to normally fed counterparts. These effects are associated with a short-term disruption in the connectivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP, and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC neurons within the regions of the hypothalamus responsible for control of energy balance and food intake. Female rats that are overfed during the first weeks of their life experience similar changes in circulating leptin levels as well as in their body weight. However, it has not yet been studied whether these metabolic changes are associated with the same central effects as observed in males. Here, we hypothesized that hyperleptinemia associated with neonatal overfeeding would lead to changes in central feeding circuitry in females as it does in males. We assessed hypothalamic NPY, AgRP, and POMC gene expression and immunoreactivity at 7, 12, or 14 days of age, as well as neuronal activation in response to exogenous leptin in neonatally overfed and control female rats. Neonatally overfed female rats were hyperleptinemic and were heavier than controls. However, these metabolic changes were not mirrored centrally by changes in hypothalamic NPY, AGRP, and POMC fiber density. These findings are suggestive of sex differences in the effects of neonatal overfeeding and of differences in the ability of the female and male central systems to respond to changes in the early life nutritional environment.

  18. Study of Relationship between Hypernatremia in Neonates and Way of Maternal Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Boskabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extreme reduction in breast milk intake during the first days of life leads to weight loss, kidney failure and hypernatremia. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hypernatremia in neonates and way of maternal breastfeeding in hospitalized infants in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad.   Materials and Methods: After obtaining parental consent, 687 infants referred to the neonatal ward and clinic of Ghaem hospital of Mashhad participated in this cross-sectional study. First, complete history of the mother and baby regarding pregnancy and delivery problems, way of breastfeeding, and the first time of lactation beginning were obtained. Then neonates were divided into two groups of normal and hypernatremia (sodium≥150 mg/dl according to the amount of blood sodium level. Data was analyzed using correlation tests, chi-square, t test and Mann-Whitney tests with SPSS software (version 11.5.   Results: According to the findings of this study, the average age (P=0.911, Apgar scores (P=0.192, time of the first lactation (P=0.081 and breast feeding duration (P=o.108 showed no statistically significant difference between normal and hypernatremia groups. But the admission weight (P=0.011, times of lactation (P=0.108, breast-feeding status (P=0.001, let down reflex in mother’s breast (0.001, kind of nutrition (P=o.oo1, breast filling after childbirth and lactation (P=0.000, and breast softening after breast-feeding (P=0.000, urination frequency (P=0.000, defecation frequency (P=0.000 and duration of maternal hospitalization (P=0.007 showed statistically significant difference between the groups.   Conclusion: Neonatal weight control, times of lactation, lactation status, breast changes during breast feeding and frequency of urination and defecation may be effective in the early detection of the reduced breast milk intake and the control of the related complications.   Key Words: Breast Feedinf, Breast Milk

  19. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have previously shown that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in...

  20. Eliminating Undesirable Variation in Neonatal Practice: Balancing Standardization and Customization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Maya; Raghavan, Aarti; Suresh, Gautham K

    2017-09-01

    Consistency of care and elimination of unnecessary and harmful variation are underemphasized aspects of health care quality. This article describes the prevalence and patterns of practice variation in health care and neonatology; discusses the potential role of standardization as a solution to eliminating wasteful and harmful practice variation, particularly when it is founded on principles of evidence-based medicine; and proposes ways to balance standardization and customization of practice to ultimately improve the quality of neonatal care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of different types of milk feeding with blood culture positive neonatal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.; Waheed, K.A.I.; Rehman, A.

    2014-01-01

    To ascertain and compare microbial growth pattern in blood culture of septic neonates who were either totally breast or formula fed. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Children's Hospital Lahore, Pakistan from Feb 2012 to Dec 2012. Methodology: All clinically septic neonates, who were either exclusively breast fed or formula fed, were enrolled in the study. They were divided into two groups and studied for the type of organisms grown on blood culture. Group-A were breast fed and group-B were formula fed. Neonates who were blood culture negative or had growth of multiple organisms or had incomplete data or who died / left against medical advice before completing the required data or babies receiving milk feeding from multiple sources or no feeding at all were excluded. BACTEC technique was used for obtaining bacterial growth. SPSS version 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 380 clinically septic neonates were enrolled. Each group consisted of 190 subjects. Incidence of culture positive sepsis in breast fed and in formula fed was 6.7% and 15.7% respectively (p-value = 0.0001). Overall, gram-negative organisms constituted the majority (16.1%). Thirty seven percent cultures grew coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) followed by Klebsiella spp (23.4%). In group A, gram-negative and gram-positive organisms were equally distributed whilst in group-B, gram-negative organisms were three times more frequent than gram-positive organisms. Predominant pattern of organisms was also different in the two groups. In group-A, CoNS was predominant while in group-B, Klebsiella spp. was most frequent. Conclusion: Culture positive sepsis is more than two times greater in formula fed babies and is caused predominantly by gram-negative organisms whilst in breast fed babies, CoNS is the commonest organism. (author)

  2. Implementation of parental feeding practices: does parenting style matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison; Hoffmann, Debra; Zbur, Samantha; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2016-09-01

    To combat childhood obesity, researchers have focused on parental feeding practices that promote child health. The current study investigated how parenting style relates to twelve parental feeding practices. Data on parenting style and parental feeding practices were obtained for a correlational study from users of Amazon's Mechanical Turk, an online survey system. USA. Mothers of children aged 7-11 years (n 193). Parenting style related differentially to eleven out of the twelve measured practices. Authoritative mothers displayed more feeding practices that promote child health and fewer practices that impede child health. Authoritarian and permissive mothers displayed more unhealthy practices than authoritative mothers, but differed from each other on the practices they employed. Parenting style may relate to more aspects of feeding than previously realized. The inclusion of numerous healthy feeding practices along with unhealthy practices in the current study provides suggestions for the application of healthy feeding behaviours. Instruction on feeding behaviours and parenting style should be a focus of future educational programmes.

  3. Trends in breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in Pakistan, 1990-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Hafsa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices have profound implications for the maternal and child health status of a society. Feeding practices in Pakistan are suboptimal, leading to adverse outcomes on child health. In Pakistan, the Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH Program, in collaboration with several international organizations, including WHO and UNICEF, is working to improve these feeding practices in the country. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Methods Estimates on the various indicators for infant and young child feeding proposed by WHO were analyzed in light of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (1990-91 and 2006-07 and several other national studies conducted since 1995. Results Nearly half the core and optional indicators have improved over the years, though modestly; the others have demonstrated no statistically significant improvement over the years. Of the five indicators required in the WHO tool for the assessment of infant and young child feeding, introduction of complementary foods, bottle-feeding, and early initiation of breastfeeding, stand in the poor category, while exclusive breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding fall in the fair category, suggesting an overall poor status. Conclusions There is considerable scope to improve breastfeeding and complementary feeding in Pakistan. Further programs should focus on improving the following indicators that have shown no significant development: early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding under six months, continued breastfeeding at two years, age appropriate feeding, and bottle feeding. Effective implementation of interventions that are known to improve breastfeeding practices is imperative, as is further research to yield data that can lead future endeavors.

  4. The History and State of Neonatal Nursing Quality Improvement Practice and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Aniko; Dowling, Donna A; Dolansky, Mary A

    2018-03-01

    Quality improvement has evolved rapidly in neonatal nursing. This review outlines the history and current state of quality improvement practice and education in neonatal nursing. The future of neonatal nursing includes a stronger emphasis on quality improvement in advanced practice education that promotes doctoral projects that result in clinical improvements. A collective focus will ensure that neonatal nurses not only deliver evidence-based care, but also continually improve the care they deliver.

  5. Translating Neurodevelopmental Care Policies Into Practice: The Experience of Neonatal ICUs in France—The EPIPAGE-2 Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquelin, Anaëlle; Cuttini, Marina; Khoshnood, Babak; Glorieux, Isabelle; Claris, Olivier; Durox, Mélanie; Kaminski, Monique; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Arnaud, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the implementation of neurodevelopmental care for newborn preterm infants in neonatal ICUs in France in 2011, analyze changes since 2004, and investigate factors associated with practice. Design: Prospective national cohort study of all births before 32 weeks of gestation. Setting: Twenty-five French regions. Participants: All neonatal ICUs (n = 66); neonates surviving at discharge (n = 3,005). Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Neurodevelopmental care policies and practices were assessed by structured questionnaires. Proportions of neonates initiating kangaroo care during the first week of life and those whose mothers expressed breast milk were measured as neurodevelopmental care practices. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationships between kangaroo care or breast-feeding practices and unit policies, taking into account potential confounders. Free visiting policies, bed availability for parents, and kangaroo care encouragement significantly improved between 2004 and 2011 but with large variabilities between units. Kangaroo care initiation varied from 39% for neonates in the most restrictive units to 68% in less restrictive ones (p neurodevelopmental care significantly influenced kangaroo care initiation (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.8–7.0 for Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program implementation compared with no training). Breast milk expression by mothers was greater in units with full-time availability professionals trained for breast-feeding support (60% vs 73%; p neurodevelopmental practices occurred between 2004 and 2011, but large variabilities between units persist. Practices increased in units with supportive policies. Specific neurodevelopmental care training with multifaceted interventions strengthened the implementation of policies. PMID:27518584

  6. Infant milk feeding practices in the Netherlands and associated factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, C.I.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe infant feeding practices and associated factors, and to explore mothers' main reasons for starting and stopping breastfeeding. Methods: We performed a national inquiry into milk feeding practices among 9133 Dutch infants aged <7 mo by means of a

  7. Complementary feeding practices and nutritional status of children 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Inappropriate complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months is major cause of under nutrition. There is scarce information on the relationship between complementary feeding practices and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the factors contributing to the complementary ...

  8. 6. EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING PRACTICE IN ZAMBIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    exposes infants to infections such as diarrhoea, despite information on its importance being given to mothers. ... feeding and these were educational level of the mother, knowledge on benefits of breast feeding and ... only attained primary school education. Only 3 (2%) respondents had attained college education while.

  9. Feeding Vitamin C during Neonatal and Juvenile Growth Improves Learning and Memory of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Beheshti, Farimah; Sohrabi, Farzaneh; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Reza Sadeghnia, Hamid

    2018-09-03

    We investigated the effects of feeding vitamin C (Vit C) during neonatal and juvenile growth on learning and memory of rats. Rats after delivery were randomly divided into four groups and treated. Group 1, control group, received normal drinking water. Groups 2-4 received Vit C 10, 100, and 500 mg/kg, respectively, from the first day. After 8 weeks, 10 male offspring of each group were randomly selected and tested in the Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests. Finally, the brains were removed for biochemical measurement. In MWM, 10-500 mg/kg Vit C reduced the latency and traveled distance and increased time spent in the target quadrant. In PA, 10 and 100 mg/kg of Vit C increased the latency; 10-500 mg/kg of Vit C decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain tissues and increased thiol and catalase (CAT) activity compared to the control group. We showed that feeding rats Vit C during neonatal and juvenile growth has positive effects on learning and memory.

  10. Practical Recommendations on Supplemental Feeding Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of a national consensus document describing in detail modern approaches to feeding infants, pediatricians keep on giving most diverse recommendations on the time of supplemental feeding introduction. The article presents a brief historical review, as well the modern view on the issue of introduction of supplemental feeding to children. In the previous century, it was common both in Russia and most European countries to introduce supplemental feeding to children at the age of 2 or even 1.5 months. In 2002, the World Health Organization put forward an initiative in support of breastfeeding and recommended not to introduce supplemental feeding before the age of 6 months. A certain “golden mean” has apparently been achieved on the basis of results of studies and a longterm discussion among the specialists in feeding from different countries — all scientific communities and national recommendations of most countries define the optimal age for supplemental feeding introduction as “from 4 (completed months to 6 (completed months” with certain individual approach. 

  11. The Influence of Parenting Practices on Feeding Problems in Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria de la Osa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of feeding problems during the preschool period and to explore the associations of feeding related behaviors with parenting practices. Participants were a large community sample of N = 622 children longitudinally assessed yearly at ages 3, 4 and 5 years-old through diagnostic interview and questionnaires reported by parents. The prevalence of children who met DSM-IV criteria for feeding disorder during the follow-up was 1.6%, the amount of children who presented feeding disorder symptoms was 33.3%, those with clinical impairment due to these symptoms were 25.7% and 11.6% reported seek for professional help related to feeding problems. Logistic regressions adjusted to children's sex and other DSM-IV diagnoses different to feeding disorder showed that the dimensions of parenting more strongly related to feeding related behaviors and impairment due to feeding problems were poor monitoring, inconsistence practices, corporal punishment, low norms and low autonomy. Although the prevalence of preschool children who met DSM-IV criteria for feeding disorder was relatively low, the presence of feeding related behaviors (symptoms, impairment and consultation was common during this developmental period. Parenting practices are associated to the presence of these behaviors, and so they must be considered into the prevention and intervention programs.

  12. Mothers who formula feed: their practices, support needs and factors influencing their Infant feeding decision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.

  13. Infant feeding practices in a high HIV prevalence rural district of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: infant feeding practices; exclusive breast-feeding; mixed feeding; HIV. Infant feeding practices in ... HIV pandemic has fuelled further research and policy development ..... offer important nutritional benefits over breast milk. • Greater ...

  14. Exclusive Breast Feeding Practice in Zambia | Tembo | Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF), the best feeding practice for infants aged from birth to six (6) months has faced challenges of adherence, exposes infants to infections such as diarrhoea, despite information on its importance being given to mothers. The main objective of this study was to establish levels of EBF ...

  15. Infant Feeding Practices and the Effect of Early Complementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine infant feeding practices and the effect of early complementary feeding on the nutritional status of children in Makada Community, Sabon Gari Local Government Area (LGA), Kaduna State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out.

  16. Enteral feeding practices in preterm infants in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Optimal feeding regimens in babies weighing <1 000 g have not been established, and wide variations occur. In South Africa. (SA) this situation is complicated by varied resource constraints. Objective. To determine the preterm enteral feeding practices of paediatricians in SA. Methods. We invited 288 ...

  17. Nutritional status, complementary feeding practices and feasible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-03

    Feb 3, 2012 ... often coincides with decreased breast milk consumption,7 increased ... discussions were held with adults to determine perceived understanding, .... underweight), and < -3 (severely underweight). .... did not eat enough food to give them energy to produce milk to feed .... for treatment when they are sick.

  18. Infant-feeding knowledge and the practices of mothers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-07

    May 7, 2012 ... Original Research: Infant-feeding knowledge and the practices of mothers and caregivers. 2013;26(1). S Afr J Clin ... interventions, such as promotion of exclusive breastfeeding. Abstract ..... nutritional benefits. The other half ...

  19. Infant and young child feeding practices on Unguja Island in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akwilina

    This study aimed at assessing the existing IYCF practices and socio-cultural factors ... with respect to exclusive breastfeeding and infant and young child feeding. ... significant benefit for both infants and mothers and these include reduced ...

  20. Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional status among children aged 6-24 months attending child welfare clinics in Kajiado Sub-County. ... and of their spouses 88.9% had attended formal education at varying levels.

  1. Parental feeding practices predict authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W

    2008-07-01

    Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles

  2. The crisis in infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, A

    1978-01-01

    This article maintains that the dramatic decline in breast-feeding in low-income countries is extracting a substantial cost, both in infant health and in outright economic loss. From the 6th to 12th month of life, breast-feeding can supply up to 3/4 of a child's protein needs. The breast-fed child has received about 375 liters of breast milk by age 2. The nutritional equivalent in cow's milk would cost about $65; in packaged dried milk formulas, close to $140. Yet in the few developing countries where surveys of breast-feeding have been conducted over the years, the common pattern is one of significant decline, with greatest decline in urban areas. As communication techniques become more effective in developing countries, urban life styles will have increasing influence on rural societies. Estimates show that losses in breast milk can produce losses in the billions of dollars to developing countries. In terms of national development, lactation has another major economic asset: its link to family planning as a major form of contraception. One investigation reports that the incidence of pregnancy in the 1st 9 months after childbirth of nonnursing mothers was twice that of mothers who breast-fed, including those who simultaneously used other foods. Just as breast milk can be the major source of nutrition, the failure to provide breast milk is a major cause of infant malnutrition and mortality. Poor parents often dilute milk formulas to extend their supply; many cannot read labels and instructions; and hygienic needs often cannot be met by the parents. Breast-fed babies are more resistant to a host of diseases. The costs and obstacles of designing campaigns to encourage breast-feeding in developing countries may be less imposing than those of alternate nutrition intervention programs designed to achieve the same ends. Such a campaign calls for: 1) attracting the public's attention to the benefits of breast-feeding and the dangers of foregoing it through the media

  3. Maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Daniels, Lynne; Jansen, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Establishing healthy eating habits early in life is one important strategy to combat childhood obesity. Given that early maternal child feeding practices have been linked to child food intake and weight, identifying the maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices is important in order to understand the determinants of childhood obesity; this was the overall aim of the current review. Academic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between maternal child feeding practices and parenting, personal characteristics and psychopathology of mothers with preschoolers. Papers were limited to those published in English, between January 2000 and June 2012. Only studies with mothers of normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were included. There were no restrictions regarding the inclusion of maternal nationality or socioeconomic status (SES). Seventeen eligible studies were sourced. Information on the aim, sample, measures and findings of these was summarised into tables. The findings of this review support a relationship between maternal controlling parenting, general and eating psychopathology, and SES and maternal child feeding practices. The main methodological issues of the studies reviewed included inconsistency in measures of maternal variables across studies and cross-sectional designs. We conclude that the maternal correlates associated with maternal child feeding practices are complex, and the pathways by which maternal correlates impact these feeding practices require further investigation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Delivery practices, hygiene, birth attendance and neonatal infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Drawing attention to home birth conditions and subsequent neonatal infections is a key starting point to reducing neonatal morbidity which are a main cause of mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: To determine the proportion of respiratory, ophthalmic, and diarrhoeal infections in neonates; the proportion ...

  5. Neonatal transport practices in Ibadan, Nigeria | Abdulraheem | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Neonatal transport involves moving sick neonates in optimal conditions to ensure good outcomes. It is well organized in most developed countries but receives little attention in developing countries where the highest burden of neonatal mortality exists and a large number of newborns require referrals daily for ...

  6. Feeding style of adolescent mothers and complementary feeding practice of their infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Adriana Oliveira da COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate feeding styles of adolescent mothers and complementary feeding practices of their infants. Methods A cross-sectional study comparing a group of dyads of 50 adolescent mothers (ages 15 to 19 with 62 adult mothers (ages 24 to 44 and their infants (9 to 24 months was performed. All mothers and infants were assisted by three basic health family units in the city of Recife, Brazil. Data were collected through a structured interview on socioeconomic conditions, maternal styles of feeding the child, and evaluation of infant feeding practices. The food styles were classified as responsive, authoritative, and passive, according to the adapted form of Carvalhaes, Perosa and Silveira of 2009. The frequency of food intake was calculated for six food groups (1. Bread and cereals; 2. Fruits and vegetables; 3. Meat, eggs, and beans; 4. Milk and dairy products; 5. Sugars, sweets, and fats; 6. Industrialized food. Children’s anthropometry and body mass index by age were classified into Z-score according to the World Health Organization Standard Curves, 2006. Results Adolescent mothers began complementary feeding more frequently before the seventh month (.=0,02, presented less responsive (.=0.04 and more authoritarian feeding styles (.=0.01, and their children received more foods with sugars, oils, and fats (.=0.02, and less meat, eggs, and beans (.=0.06 than the children of adult mothers. Conclusion Adolescent mothers adopt less responsive eating styles and offer more inadequate complementary feeding for their infants.

  7. infant bottle-feeding practice, agaro town, southwest ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    total of 224 mothers who had children between the ages of 0 and 24 months were included in the study. ... extensive advertising and aggressive sale practice of .... Reasons for bottle-feeding practice. No. %. Insufficient Breast Milk. Back to work. Short duration of Maternity leave. Availability of infant formula. Adopted child.

  8. Maternal HIV status and infant feeding practices among Ugandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal HIV status and infant feeding practices among Ugandan women. ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... population in Uganda, and to assess the impact of maternal HIV status on these practices, a questionnaire was administered to women attending the follow-up clinics for child vaccination. Among ...

  9. Long-term follow-up of vocal fold movement impairment and feeding after neonatal cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Amy Li; Ongkasuwan, Julina; Ocampo, Elena C

    2016-04-01

    To determine the long-term prognosis of children with vocal fold mobility impairment (VFMI) after cardiac surgery, with respect to time to normal feeding and incidence of admissions for pneumonia and feeding difficulties. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all neonates who had otolaryngology exam after cardiac surgery at a tertiary children's hospital from May 2007 to May 2008. Charts were reviewed for demographics, type of cardiac surgery, vocal fold mobility, diet at time of discharge and at last follow-up, time to full oral feeding, and hospital admissions. There were a total of 94 patients included in the study, 17 of whom had VFMI. While significantly more patients with VFMI required modified diet at discharge, 48% compared to 19% of patients with normal vocal fold mobility; there was no statistically significant difference in time to regular diet on long-term follow-up, 0.8 years (VFMI) compared to 0.4 years (normal vocal fold mobility). Of the 25 patients with modified diet or gastrostomy tube at discharge, 52% returned to full feeds within a year. There was no difference in hospitalizations for pneumonia in patients with or without VFMI. However in patients with VFMI, 35% required readmission for feeding difficulty or poor weight gain compared to only 5% in the infants with normal vocal fold mobility. After neonatal cardiac surgery, there do not appear to be long-term effects of VFMI with regards to readmission for pneumonia. However, there is an increased risk for hospitalization with respect to feeding difficulties in those neonates with VFMI. The overall prognosis for time to oral feeding is good. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Basic model of quality and good practices in neonatal radiography; Modelo basico de qualidade e boas praticas em radiografia neonatal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Janine H.; Goulart, Juliana M.; Lykawka, Rochelle; Bacelar, Alexandre [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal chest radiographs were evaluated and 3 variables were analyzed: collimation, positioning and presence of artifacts. This study is a pilot for develop a model of good practices in radiology, which is in development phase. The index of analyzed radiographs considered inadequate is expressive and it shows the need for a model that may be part of an optimization program to medical exposures. (author)

  11. Socioeconomic status, infant feeding practices and early childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, B G; Forste, R

    2014-04-01

    Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. As breastfeeding can protect against child obesity, disadvantaged infants are less likely to breastfeed relative to more advantaged children. Whether infant feeding patterns, as well as other maternal characteristics mediate the association between social class and obesity has not been established in available research. Examine the impact of infant feeding practices on child obesity and identify the mechanisms that link socioeconomic status (SES) with child obesity. Based on a nationally representative longitudinal survey (ECLS-B) of early childhood (n = 8030), we examine how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods and putting an infant to bed with a bottle mediate the relationship between social class and early childhood obesity relative to the mediating influence of other maternal characteristics (BMI, age at birth, smoking, depression and daycare use). Infants predominantly fed formula for the first 6 months were about 2.5 times more likely to be obese at 24 months of age relative to infants predominantly fed breast milk. The early introduction of solid foods (obesity. Unhealthy infant feeding practices were the primary mechanism mediating the relationship between SES and early childhood obesity. Results are consistent across measures of child obesity although the effect size of infant feeding practices varies. The encouragement and support of breastfeeding and other healthy feeding practices are especially important for low socioeconomic children who are at increased risk of early childhood obesity. Targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for breastfeeding support and for infant-led feeding strategies may reduce the negative association between SES and child obesity. The implications are discussed in terms of policy and practice. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Infant feeding practices in rural Meheran, Comilla, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M

    1980-11-01

    Since 1930 breast-feeding has declined worldwide. Differences exist in breast-feeding practices between developed and developing countries and between urban and rural people. In order to define the breast-feeding practices in Bangladesh, we studied longitudally 401 rural children and cross-sectionally 193 urban children. Collections of dietary data and anthropometric measurements were done monthly during the 1st year and quarterly thereafter by trained paramedical staff. One hundred percent rural, 98% urban poor, and 78% urban elite mothers breast-fed their babies at birth. At 1 year 97% rural, 90 urban poor, and 25% elite continued breast-feeding. By 2 years it decreased further. Only some rural children but many of the urban children were provided with cow's milk during breast-feeding. At 10 months, 100% urban elite, 33% of the urban poor, and 6% of rural mothers provided rice and bread to babies. The growth pattern from 4th months of age fell behind the developed countries. Heavier mothers produced heavier children. Mothers should be trained about supplementation of food and the time of supplementation. Breast-feeding is still quite prevalent in the villages of this country. Maternal nutrition and timely supplementation are important for development of children.

  13. FEEDING DIFFICULTIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN, PREVIOUS FEEDING PRACTICES, AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Hélcio de Sousa; Aguiar, Renata Cunha de; Lira, Débora Teixeira Jales de; Sales, Mônica Úrsula Figuerêdo; Nóbrega, Nathalia Ávila do Nascimento

    2018-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of feeding difficulties in preschoolers, its association with epidemiological factors and previous eating habits, and repercussion on nutritional status. Cross-sectional study with a questionnaire given to the mothers of 301 children aged 2-6 years enrolled in public and private kindergartens in Natal, Northeast Brazil, conducted in 2014-2015. Feeding difficulty was assessed according to Kerzner's criteria, resulting in the profiles "highly selective intake", "active child with small appetite", "fear of feeding", and "child with psychological disorder or neglected". Association with the following independent variables was analyzed by logistic regression: breastfeeding time, age of cows' milk and complementary feeding introduction, age range, family income, type of school, mothers' profile (responsive or nonresponsive), and body mass index (BMI). Feeding difficulty was found in 37.2% of cases, with predominance of "highly selective intake" (25.4%). It was not associated with infancy feeding practices, family income or type of school. There were no differences between the BMI Z score means for the groups with and without feeding difficulty (1.0±1.5 SD and 1.1±1.4 SD, respectively). The five-to-six age range had more occurrences (OR 1.8; 95%CI 1.1-2.9). Children of responsive mothers were less likely to have feeding difficulties (OR 0.4; 95%CI 0.2-0.8). Feeding difficulties were very frequent. Nutritional status was not impacted by it, and infancy eating habits were not associated with it. Responsive mothers' profile is a protective factor against eating difficulties and reinforces the importance of behavioral factors and mother-child interaction.

  14. Family food talk, child eating behavior, and maternal feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Elizabeth; Viechnicki, Gail B; Retzloff, Lauren B; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison L

    2017-10-01

    Families discuss food and eating in many ways that may shape child eating habits. Researchers studying how families talk about food have examined this process during meals. Little work has examined parent-child food-related interactions outside of mealtime. We assessed family food talk at home outside of mealtime and tested whether food talk was associated with obesogenic child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, or child weight. Preschool and school-aged mother-child dyads (n = 61) participated in naturalistic voice recording using a LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) recorder. A coding scheme was developed to reliably characterize different types of food talk from LENA transcripts. Mothers completed the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess child eating behaviors and maternal feeding practices. Child weight and height were measured and body mass index z-score (BMIz) calculated. Bivariate associations among food talk types, as a proportion of total speech, were examined and multivariate regression models used to test associations between food talk and child eating behaviors, maternal feeding practices, and child BMIz. Proportion of child Overall Food Talk and Food Explanations were positively associated with CEBQ Food Responsiveness and Enjoyment of Food (p's < 0.05). Child food Desire/Need and child Prep/Planning talk were positively associated with CEBQ Enjoyment of Food (p < 0.05). Child Food Enjoyment talk and mother Overt Restriction talk were positively associated with CEBQ Emotional Over-Eating (p < 0.05). Mother Monitoring talk was positively associated with CFQ Restriction (p < 0.05). Mother Prep/Planning talk was negatively associated with child BMIz. Food talk outside of mealtimes related to child obesogenic eating behaviors and feeding practices in expected ways; examining food talk outside of meals is a novel way to consider feeding practices and child eating behavior

  15. Breast feeding among Brazilian adolescents: practice and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J C S; Dias, F A; Stefanello, J; Reis, M C G; Nakano, A M S; Gomes-Sponholz, F A

    2014-03-01

    to characterise breast feeding practices among Brazilian adolescents and identify their breast feeding needs. the study was undertaken in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in two stages. The first stage analysed data from the Second National Survey of Breast-feeding Prevalence, held in August 2008, which included 229 adolescent mothers. The second stage was a qualitative approach, and involved interviews with 10 adolescent mothers in a primary care unit. The data from the first stage were analysed in June 2010 based on descriptive statistics. The data obtained from the interviews were transcribed and organised using thematic content analysis. breast feeding was reported by 75% of the adolescent mothers. Of the 144 mothers with infants aged breastfeeding as longer as possible in a satisfactory way for both mothers and infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cattle production on small holder farms in East Java, Indonesia : II Feeds and feeding practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marjuki,; Zemmelink, G.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.

    2000-01-01

    A survey on feeding practices was conducted with thirty-one cattle farmers belonging to three categories: households without land and no income from agricultural labour (Class 100;10 farms), households without land but deriving considerable income from agricultural labour (Class 101;10 farms), and

  17. Feeding practices correlated with authoritative parenting style and responsive feeding style scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study objective was to identify correlations of authoritative parenting and responsive feeding styles with parental practices and child behaviors previously found to protect children from or increase risk of child obesity. Participants were 144 low-income mothers of 3- to 5-year-old children (71 gir...

  18. Extending the validity of the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Elena; Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2015-06-30

    Feeding practices are commonly examined as potentially modifiable determinants of children's eating behaviours and weight status. Although a variety of questionnaires exist to assess different feeding aspects, many lack thorough reliability and validity testing. The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) is a tool designed to measure early feeding practices related to non-responsive feeding and structure of the meal environment. Face validity, factorial validity, internal reliability and cross-sectional correlations with children's eating behaviours have been established in mothers with 2-year-old children. The aim of the present study was to further extend the validity of the FPSQ by examining factorial, construct and predictive validity, and stability. Participants were from the NOURISH randomised controlled trial which evaluated an intervention with first-time mothers designed to promote protective feeding practices. Maternal feeding practices (FP) and child eating behaviours were assessed when children were aged 2 years and 3.7 years (n = 388). Confirmatory Factor analysis, group differences, predictive relationships, and stability were tested. The original 9-factor structure was confirmed when children were aged 3.7 ± 0.3 years. Cronbach's alpha was above the recommended 0.70 cut-off for all factors except Structured Meal Timing, Over Restriction and Distrust in Appetite which were 0.58, 0.67 and 0.66 respectively. Allocated group differences reflected behaviour consistent with intervention content and all feeding practices were stable across both time points (range of r = 0.45-0.70). There was some evidence for the predictive validity of factors with 2 FP showing expected relationships, 2 FP showing expected and unexpected relationships and 5 FP showing no relationship. Reliability and validity was demonstrated for most subscales of the FPSQ. Future validation is warranted with culturally diverse samples and with fathers and

  19. The impact of a nutrition education programme on feeding practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the impact of nutrition education on feeding practices of caregivers with children aged 3 to 5 years at baseline and post intervention. Methodology: A pre-test–post-test control group design was chosen using eight villages (four villages in the experimental group (E) and four villages in the control ...

  20. Child factors associated with complementary feeding practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective of the study was to identify child factors that influenced complementary feeding practices in 2006 and 2011 in Uganda. Design: Trend analysis of Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys (UDHS) from 2006 and 2011. Subjects and setting: Children aged 6 to 23 months, Uganda. Results: Between ...

  1. Child factors associated with complementary feeding practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bInstitute of Food, Nutrition and Well-being and Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of ... Objectives:The objective of the study was to identify child factors that influenced ... increasingly independent and mobile and thus exposed to .... violence, breastfeeding and infant feeding practices, vaccinations.

  2. Infant feeding practices in the rural population of north India

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Syed E.; Srivastava, Anurag; Shrotriya, Ved P.; Mishra, Payal

    2012-01-01

    Background : Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival, birth spacing, and the prevention of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation, duration, and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among different regions and communities. Objectives: To assess the pattern of infant feeding and its relation to certain practices of maternity and newborn care, and to assess the knowledge of ...

  3. Association of fathers' feeding practices and feeding style on preschool age children's diet quality, eating behavior and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-06-01

    The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n = 150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (β = -.421, p = 0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (β = -.200, p = 0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal nutrition and optimal infant feeding practices: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Kalhan, Satish C; Hay, William W

    2007-02-01

    Much recent attention has been paid to the effect of the fetal environment on not only healthy birth outcomes but also long-term health outcomes, including a role as an antecedent to adult diseases. A major gap in our understanding of these relations, however, is the effect of maternal nutrition and nutrient transport on healthy fetal growth and development. In addition, this gap precludes evidence-based recommendations about how to best feed preterm infants. The biological role of the mother and the effect of her nutritional status on infant feeding extend to postnatal infant feeding practices. Currently, evidence is incomplete about not only the composition of human milk, but also the maternal nutritional needs to support extended lactation and the appropriate nutrient composition of foods that will be used to complement breastfeeding at least through the first year of life. Consequently, a conference, organized by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements, and the US Department of Agriculture Children's Nutrition Research Center was held to explore current knowledge and develop a research agenda to address maternal nutrition and infant feeding practices. These proceedings contain presentations about the effect of maternal nutrition and the placental environment on fetal growth and birth outcomes, as well as issues pertaining to feeding preterm and full-term infants.

  5. A prospective study on medication and total parenteral nutrition practices at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar Arumugam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: TPN and medication practices at the NICU should be highly monitored for avoiding medication errors, drug interactions, and mortality rate in neonates. The most effective method can be achieved when a clinical pharmacist become a part of it.

  6. Feeding infants and young children. From guidelines to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Marion M; Cecil, Joanne E; Jackson, Diane M; Schwartz, Camille

    2011-12-01

    Following a workshop on infant feeding held at the Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen on March 17, 2010 experts were invited to exchange ideas and to review evidence on both pre and post natal dietary environments in shaping children's eating habits. A central theme during the workshop was the idea of "sensitive periods" during infancy for learning about foods and a particular focus was developed around acceptance and intake of fruits and vegetables. Presentations covered the guidelines provided by various governments on how to feed infants during weaning; the importance of the in utero experience; the impact of varying the sensory experience at weaning; the effect of parenting styles and practices on children's eating habits; the use of visual experience in promoting intake of vegetables; and reports from mothers regarding their decisions about weaning and the introduction of vegetables. This collection of papers seeks to review guidance from governments on feeding infants and to consider current evidence on parental feeding practices with the aim of enhancing insight into best practice in establishing healthy eating in children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Infant feeding practices and deterioration of breastfeeding in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Cosío, Teresita; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González-Castell, Luz Dinorah; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Ángel

    2013-01-01

    To present data on infant and young child feeding practices (IYCFP) in Mexico from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012) to support the development of public policy. Women 12-49y and children <2y. Indicators of IYCFP suggested by WHO were analyzed by geographic, socioeconomic, participation in food programs and health insurance variables. Median duration of breast-feeding: 10.2mo and 14.4% with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) <6m. Breastfeeding deteriorated in most vulnerable groups. Decline in EBF<6m 2006-2012 was explained by increases in consumption of formula and other milks (4%) and water (4%). Three-quarters (74%) of 6-11mo infants had minimum food diversity, and it was lower in the most vulnerable. Complementary feeding improved but breastfeeding declined in Mexico. Promotion actions must be integral, coordinated, financed and evaluated, with Federal government leadership and should include the participation of various stakeholders.

  8. Pain relief effect of breast feeding and music therapy during heel lance for healthy-term neonates in China: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Hong-Gu, He; Zhou, Xiuzhu; Wei, Haixia; Gao, Yaru; Ye, Benlan; Liu, Zuguo; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2015-03-01

    to test the effectiveness of breast feeding (BF), music therapy (MT), and combined breast feeding and music therapy (BF+MT) on pain relief in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. randomised controlled trial. in the postpartum unit of one university-affiliated hospital in China from August 2013 to February 2014. among 288 healthy-term neonates recruited, 250 completed the trial. All neonates were undergoing heel lancing for metabolic screening, were breast fed, and had not been fed for the previous 30 minutes. all participants were randomly assigned into four groups - BF, MT, BF+MT, and no intervention - with 72 neonates in each group. Neonates in the control group received routine care. Neonates in the other three intervention groups received corresponding interventions five minutes before the heel lancing and throughout the whole procedure. Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), latency to first cry, and duration of first crying. mean changes in NIPS scores from baseline over time was dependent on the interventions given. Neonates in the BF and combined BF+MT groups had significantly longer latency to first cry, shorter duration of first crying, and lower pain mean score during and one minute after heel lance, compared to the other two groups. No significant difference in pain response was found between BF groups with or without music therapy. The MT group did not achieve a significantly reduced pain response in all outcome measures. BF could significantly reduce pain response in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. MT did not enhance the effect of pain relief of BF. healthy-term neonates should be breast fed to alleviate pain during heel lance. There is no need for the additional input of classical music on breast feeding in clinic to relieve procedural pain. Nurses should encourage breast feeding to relieve pain during heel lance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A practical approach to classifying and managing feeding difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzner, Benny; Milano, Kim; MacLean, William C; Berall, Glenn; Stuart, Sheela; Chatoor, Irene

    2015-02-01

    Many young children are thought by their parents to eat poorly. Although the majority of these children are mildly affected, a small percentage have a serious feeding disorder. Nevertheless, even mildly affected children whose anxious parents adopt inappropriate feeding practices may experience consequences. Therefore, pediatricians must take all parental concerns seriously and offer appropriate guidance. This requires a workable classification of feeding problems and a systematic approach. The classification and approach we describe incorporate more recent considerations by specialists, both medical and psychological. In our model, children are categorized under the 3 principal eating behaviors that concern parents: limited appetite, selective intake, and fear of feeding. Each category includes a range from normal (misperceived) to severe (behavioral and organic). The feeding styles of caregivers (responsive, controlling, indulgent, and neglectful) are also incorporated. The objective is to allow the physician to efficiently sort out the wide variety of conditions, categorize them for therapy, and where necessary refer to specialists in the field. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Transition in Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Optimal infant and young child feeding, which includes initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for first six months, age appropriate complementary feeding after six months along with continued breastfeeding for 2 years and beyond, is a public health intervention to prevent child morbidity, mortality and malnutrition [1]. In India, even though institutional delivery rates are increasing, only 44% women are able to breastfeed their babies within one hour of delivery. While 65% children are exclusively breast fed for the first six months, the median duration of breastfeeding is 24.4 months and complementary feeding rates are 50%. To achieve optimal IYCF practices, each woman should have access to a community based IYCF counseling support system. Efforts are therefore needed to upgrade skill based training of health workers and revive and update the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). To promote and sustain breastfeeding amongst working women, it is essential to ensure adequate maternity leave, crèches at work place, flexible working hours, and provision of physical space for breast feeding at work place. It is imperative to also create public awareness about the dangers of bottle and formula feeding and to provide accurate information on the appropriate complementary food to be given to infants. In conclusion, India needs to make serious efforts to overcome malnutrition with not only prioritized IYCF policies but also their effective implementation in place. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Household food security and infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, Aatekah; Kleinbaum, David G; Suchdev, Parminder S; Faruque, Asg; Das, Sumon K; Schwartz, Benjamin; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-07-01

    To determine the association between household food security and infant complementary feeding practices in rural Bangladesh. Prospective, cohort study using structured home interviews during pregnancy and 3 and 9 months after delivery. We used two indicators of household food security at 3-months' follow-up: maternal Food Composition Score (FCS), calculated via the World Food Programme method, and an HHFS index created from an eleven-item food security questionnaire. Infant feeding practices were characterized using WHO definitions. Two rural sub-districts of Kishoreganj, Bangladesh. Mother-child dyads (n 2073) who completed the 9-months' follow-up. Complementary feeding was initiated at age ≤4 months for 7 %, at 5-6 months for 49 % and at ≥7 months for 44 % of infants. Based on 24 h dietary recall, 98 % of infants were still breast-feeding at age 9 months, and 16 % received ≥4 food groups and ≥4 meals (minimally acceptable diet) in addition to breast milk. Mothers' diet was more diverse than infants'. The odds of receiving a minimally acceptable diet for infants living in most food-secure households were three times those for infants living in least food-secure households (adjusted OR=3·0; 95 % CI 2·1, 4·3). Socio-economic status, maternal age, literacy, parity and infant sex were not associated with infant diet. HHFS and maternal FCS were significant predictors of subsequent infant feeding practices. Nevertheless, even the more food-secure households had poor infant diet. Interventions aimed at improving infant nutritional status need to focus on both complementary food provision and education.

  12. Breast Feeding And Its Significance In Infant Feeding Practices In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belavady Bhavani

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on breast-feeding practices have revealed a satisfactory situation in many parts of the country. However, adequacy in terms of quality and quantity of breast milk has not been studied much. Reports available indicate secretion of adequate amount of milk by the mother. This however should not be equated with adequacy of nutrients to this growing child. Concentrations of vitamins are low. The immunologica factors, proteins, minerals and calorie content are in the normal ranges observed in milk samples obtained from well-nourished mother. Breast-feeding should be recommended for as long as possible with adequate supplements. This will have a salubrious effect on the infant and help mothers in spacing births of children. Growth of infants fed soley on breast milk is satisfactory during the first 4 to 5 months. Proper time and type of supplements to be recommended for the community in general need to be studied. Effect of work outside the house on the mother and child, if any, has not received the attention it deserves. High priority has to be a corded to this study, in the present context of dynamic change occurring in the country in relation to the working status of women. Indian is considered a developing country and Indians are conservative by nature. Attitude of the community to infant feeding has not change much except in the educated urban elite and a small section of the poor who consider practice among the former as ideal. The concern and anxiety expressed with regard to breast-feeding by health personnel in foreign countries have not evoked the same response in our country. Reasons are many but if any single reason is to be assigned, it is the popularity of breast-feeding in a vast majority of our mothers. This article will highlight the findings of selected surveys on breast-feeding in the context of our present infant and pre-school feeding practices and refers to the quality and quantity of breast milk briefly.

  13. And young child feeding practices in different country settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Tina; Jimerson, Ann; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Zewale, Medhanit; Nguyen, Giang Huong

    2013-09-01

    Alive & Thrive aims to increase exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Vietnam. To develop and execute comprehensive communication strategies adapted to each context. We documented how three countries followed an established iterative planning process, with research steps followed by key decisions, to develop a communication strategy in each country. Secondary analysis and formative research identified the priority practices to focus on, and locally specific constraints to proper infant and young child feeding (IYCF). Communication strategies were then developed based on the social, cultural, economic, epidemiological, media use, and programmatic contexts of each country. There were widespread gaps between recommended and actual feeding practices, and these varied by country. Gaps were identified in household, community, and institutional levels of awareness and skills. Strategies were designed that would enable mothers in each specific setting to adopt practices. To improve priority behaviors, messaging and media strategies addressed the most salient behavioral determinants through face-to-face communication, social mobilization, and mass media. Trials of improved practices (TIPs), concept testing, and pretesting of materials proved useful to verify the relevance and likely effectiveness of communication messages and materials tailored for different audiences in each setting. Coordination and collaboration with multiple stakeholders from the start was important to harmonize messages and approaches, expand geographic coverage to national scale, and sustain the interventions. Our experience with designing large-scale communication strategies for behavior change confirms that systematic analysis and local planning cannot be omitted from the critical process of strategic design tailored to each context. Multiple communication channels matched to media habits in each setting can reach a substantial proportion of mothers

  14. Effects of healthcare professional delivered early feeding interventions on feeding practices and dietary intake: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvienko-Sikar, Karen; Toomey, Elaine; Delaney, Lisa; Harrington, Janas; Byrne, Molly; Kearney, Patricia M

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a global public health challenge. Parental feeding practices, such as responsive feeding, are implicated in the etiology of childhood obesity. This systematic review aimed to examine of effects of healthcare professional-delivered early feeding interventions, on parental feeding practices, dietary intake, and weight outcomes for children up to 2 years. The role of responsive feeding interventions was also specifically examined. Databases searched included: CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Maternity and Infant Care. participants are parents of children ≤2 years; intervention includes focus on early child feeding to prevent overweight and obesity; intervention delivered by healthcare professionals. Sixteen papers, representing 10 trials, met inclusion criteria for review. Six interventions included responsive feeding components. Interventions demonstrated inconsistent effects on feeding practices, dietary intake, and weight outcomes. Findings suggest some reductions in pressure to eat and infant consumption of non-core beverages. Responsive feeding based interventions demonstrate greater improvements in feeding approaches, and weight outcomes. The findings of this review highlight the importance of incorporating responsive feeding in healthcare professional delivered early feeding interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Observed inconsistencies across trials may be explained by methodological limitations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inducing preschool children's emotional eating: relations with parental feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Jackie; Haycraft, Emma; Farrow, Claire

    2010-08-01

    Children's emotional eating is related to greater body mass index and a less-healthy diet, but little is known about the early development of this behavior. This study aimed to examine the relations between preschool children's emotional eating and parental feeding practices by using experimental manipulation of child mood and food intake in a laboratory setting. Twenty-five 3-5-y-old children and their mothers sat together and ate a standard meal to satiety. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding their feeding practices. Children were assigned to a control or negative mood condition, and their consumption of snack foods in the absence of hunger was measured. Children whose mothers often used food to regulate emotions ate more cookies in the absence of hunger than did children whose mothers used this feeding practice infrequently, regardless of condition. Children whose mothers often used food for emotion regulation purposes ate more chocolate in the experimental condition than in the control condition. The pattern was reversed for children of mothers who did not tend to use food for emotion regulation. There were no significant effects of maternal use of restriction, pressure to eat, and use of foods as a reward on children's snack food consumption. Children of mothers who use food for emotion regulation consume more sweet palatable foods in the absence of hunger than do children of mothers who use this feeding practice infrequently. Emotional overeating behavior may occur in the context of negative mood in children whose mothers use food for emotion regulation purposes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01122290.

  16. Are parenting style and controlling feeding practices related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, J; Haycraft, E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, feeding practices and BMI in a non-clinical sample of mothers and fathers of UK preschool children. Ninety-six cohabiting parents of 48 children (19 male, 29 female, mean age 42 months) completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing parenting style, feeding practices, eating psychopathology and a range of demographic information. There were no relationships between authoritarian parenting and controlling feeding practices. In both mothers and fathers, permissive parenting style was related to lower monitoring of children's unhealthy food intake. Permissive parenting was also associated with increased use of restriction by mothers and pressure to eat by fathers. Authoritative parenting style was also related to lower use of pressure to eat by fathers only. Parenting styles were not related to child BMI in this sample. Higher child BMI was best predicted by lower paternal application of pressure to eat and greater paternal reports of drive for thinness. Parenting style may not have a direct impact on child BMI until child food selection and consumption becomes more autonomous.

  17. Relation of parenting styles, feeding styles and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Direct and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal Feeding Practices among Children with Feeding Difficulties—Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Rachel H. V.; Tosatti, Abykeyla M.; Malzyner, Gabriela; Maximino, Priscilla; Ramos, Cláudia C.; Bozzini, Ana Beatriz; Ribeiro, Letícia; Fisberg, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Background Given the positive influence of responsive caregiving on dietary habits in childhood, to raise awareness of caregivers regarding their behavior is crucial in multidisciplinary care on infant feeding. Objectives To identify the most common responsive and non-responsive feeding practices in mothers of children with feeding complaints, as well as to seek associations between practices and caregivers’ profile. Methods Cross-sectional study with 77 children under 18 years old, with comp...

  19. Child adiposity and maternal feeding practices: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Laura; Cooke, Lucy; Hill, Claire; Wardle, Jane

    2010-12-01

    Parental control has been hypothesized to cause weight gain in children by weakening self-regulatory processes. However, most studies that link control with weight have been cross-sectional, and therefore causation is uncertain. It remains possible that parental control is a response to child overweight rather than a cause. We investigated the direction of the association between parental feeding practices and children's adiposity in a longitudinal study. Three subscales of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) that measure "pressure," "restriction," and "monitoring" were completed by 213 mothers of 7-9-y-old children as part of the Physical Exercise and Appetite in CHildren Study (PEACHES) and repeated by 113 mothers 3 y later. Baseline and follow-up anthropometric measurements [body mass index (BMI); fat mass index (FMI), and waist circumference (WC)] were made by researchers when the children were aged 7-9 y and 10-11 y. Regression analyses showed no association between any of the CFQ scales at baseline and change in child adiposity. In contrast, higher child BMI at baseline predicted a smaller decrease in follow-up CFQ "monitoring" (P = 0.003) and a larger decrease in "pressure to eat" (P = 0.04) after baseline scores were controlled for. Similar results were observed for FMI and WC, although they did not reach significance for WC. There were no significant longitudinal associations between child adiposity and the CFQ "restriction" subscale. The results were more consistent with a "child-responsive" model whereby a mother's choice of feeding practice is influenced by her child's weight status rather than her feeding practices influencing the child's weight gain.

  20. Neonatal Resuscitation: Knowledge And Practice Of Nurses In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Appropriate resuscitation techniques are crucial to the survival of newborn infants. Objective. To assess knowledge of nurses in western Nigeria about neonatal resuscitation. Method. A cross-sectional survey of the nurses attached to secondary health facilities in western Nigeria was done using a ...

  1. Nasogastric feeding tubes from a neonatal department yield high concentrations of potentially pathogenic bacteria- even 1 d after insertion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinich Petersen, Sandra; Greisen, Gorm; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    probiotic administration through the tube. RESULTS: Out of the 94 NG-tubes, 89% yielded more than 1,000 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml bacteria, and 55% yielded the potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Staphylococcus aureus. The mean concentration in the yield was 5.3 (SD: 2.1, maximum 9.4) log10......BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are vulnerable to pathogens and at risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis. Nasogastric feeding tubes (NG-tubes) might contaminate feeds given through them due to biofilm formation. We wanted to determine if there is a rationale in replacing NG......-tubes more often to reduce contamination. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of used NG-tubes from a tertiary neonatal department. After removal, we flushed a 1-ml saline solution through the tube, determined the density of bacteria by culture, and related it to the duration of use and any...

  2. Sedation and analgesia practices in neonatal intensive care units (EUROPAIN): results from a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal, Ricardo; Eriksson, Mats; Courtois, Emilie; Boyle, Elaine; Avila-Alvarez, Alejandro; Andersen, Randi Dovland; Sarafidis, Kosmas; Polkki, Tarja; Matos, Cristina; Lago, Paola; Papadouri, Thalia; Montalto, Simon Attard; Ilmoja, Mari-Liis; Simons, Sinno; Tameliene, Rasa; van Overmeire, Bart; Berger, Angelika; Dobrzanska, Anna; Schroth, Michael; Bergqvist, Lena; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S

    2015-10-01

    916 (30%) of 3017 neonates in the TV, NIV, and SV groups, respectively (pneonates given O-SH-GA in the TV group needed a longer duration of TV than did those who were not given O-SH-GA (mean 136.2 h [SD 173.1] vs 39.8 h [94.7] h; panalgesia practices occur between NICUs and countries. Widespread use of O-SH-GA in intubated neonates might prolong their need for mechanical ventilation, but further research is needed to investigate the therapeutic and adverse effects of O-SH-GA in neonates, and to develop new and safe approaches for sedation and analgesia. European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal Feeding Practices among Children with Feeding Difficulties-Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rachel H V; Tosatti, Abykeyla M; Malzyner, Gabriela; Maximino, Priscilla; Ramos, Cláudia C; Bozzini, Ana Beatriz; Ribeiro, Letícia; Fisberg, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Given the positive influence of responsive caregiving on dietary habits in childhood, to raise awareness of caregivers regarding their behavior is crucial in multidisciplinary care on infant feeding. To identify the most common responsive and non-responsive feeding practices in mothers of children with feeding complaints, as well as to seek associations between practices and caregivers' profile. Cross-sectional study with 77 children under 18 years old, with complaints of feeding difficulties. Data were collected during interviews with mothers: child age, gender, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, presence of organic disease, dynamics of bottle use, self-feeding practices and posture at meals, use of appropriate feeding equipment; basic information about the mothers (parity and level of education), caregiver feeding style, presence of coercive feeding, frequency and characteristics of family meals. Statistical analysis considered significance level at 5%. The non-responsive profile predominated among mothers (76.2%, with the Authoritarian style being the most prevalent-39.7%). The responsive profile was characterized by absence of coercive feeding, stimulation of self-feeding practices, use of appropriate feeding equipment and meal environment, with interaction at meals. Non-responsive profile consisted of both inadequate environment and posture at meals, use of distraction and coercive feeding, lack of shared meals, and disregard for children's hunger signals. Only the habit of sharing meals with children was associated with mothers' profile, and considered a protection factor against non-responsive care (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.06-0.88). Both Authoritarian ( p  = 0.000) and indulgent mothers ( p  = 0.007) breastfed exclusively for longer time than negligent ones. There was a higher level of interaction with children in "responsive" parental style (OR 0.056; p  = 0.01) compared to other feeding styles. Results highlight the need for educational

  4. Marketing breastfeeding--reversing corporate influence on infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Deborah L; Graff, Kristina M

    2008-07-01

    Breast milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition and the only necessary food for the first 6 months of an infant's life. Infant formula is deficient and inferior to breast milk in meeting infants' nutritional needs. The infant formula industry has contributed to low rates of breastfeeding through various methods of marketing and advertising infant formula. Today, in New York City, although the majority of mothers initiate breastfeeding (approximately 85%), a minority of infants is breastfed exclusively at 8 weeks postpartum (approximately 25%). The article reviews the practices of the formula industry and the impact of these practices. It then presents the strategic approach taken by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and its partners to change hospital practices and educate health care providers and the public on the benefits of breast milk, and provides lessons learned from these efforts to make breastfeeding the normative and usual method of infant feeding in New York City.

  5. Infant feeding practices in the rural population of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed E Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival, birth spacing, and the prevention of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation, duration, and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among different regions and communities. Objectives: To assess the pattern of infant feeding and its relation to certain practices of maternity and newborn care, and to assess the knowledge of mothers on the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected villages of the Bhojipura Block of Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh. A total of 123 women who had delivered within the last year were interviewed in a house-to-house survey. A study instrument was used to collect data. Chi- square test and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: Most of the mothers were aged less than 30 years (78.04% and were Hindus (73.9%. Most were illiterate (69.9% and belonged to the lower socioeconomic class (97.5%. The majority were housewives (99.1% and multiparous (68.2%. Most had initiated breastfeeding (78.8% within 24 hours of delivery. About 15.4% of the infants did not receive colostrum and 22.8% of the infants were not exclusively breastfed. Ghutti (water mixed with honey and herbs, boiled water, tea, and animal milk were commonly used pre-lacteal feeds. About 47.2% of the respondents were not aware of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. About one quarter of the mothers started complementary feeding before the child was six months old. About half the deliveries had taken place at home and only a quarter of the females had had three or more antenatal visits during pregnancy. The birth weight of the majority (78% of newborns was not measured. A majority (69.9% of the mothers did not receive advice on child feeding. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed

  6. A review of infant and young child feeding practice in hospital and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early complementary feeding is a problem in the Midlands. This study has identified that age-specific feeding of infants and young children is not recognised in state hospitals, due to the inadequate frequency of feeding. There is a discrepancy between intention and practice among healthcare professionals in feeding ...

  7. Infant and child feeding practices: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyne, A H; Spencer, A J; Szuster, F S

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this preliminary investigation was to examine the feeding practices of infants and pre-school children in Adelaide, and thereby contribute to the development of appropriate preventive dental strategies. A stratified random sample of 160 two year old and three year old pre-school children in the Adelaide Statistical District was obtained. Information about feeding practices and use of comforters or 'dummies' was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire completed by parents of the selected children. Information was collected for the age periods of 0-3 months, 4-6 months, 7-12 months, 13-24 months and 25-36 months. Most of the children (81.8 per cent) were breast-fed at some stage. However the percentage of children being breast-fed decreased markedly across age periods, particularly to 13-24 months, when only 15.9 per cent of children were being breast-fed. Over half of the children, had been bottle-fed with infant formula at some stage. The highest percentage of children being bottle-fed with infant formula occurred in the 4-6 months (42.6 per cent) closely followed by the 7-12 months age period (37.4 per cent). Nearly two-thirds of children were bottle-fed with cow's milk at some stage. The highest percentage of children being bottle-fed with cow's milk occurred in the 13-24 months age period (49.6 per cent). A quarter (24.5 per cent) of the children were put to bed at some stage with a bottle containing cariogenic fluids. The majority of children used a 'dummy' at some stage during both day-time and night-time. Parents are in need of advice on appropriate feeding patterns for infants and young children.

  8. Perceptions and practices of mothers regarding child feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azim, W.; Shafi, H.; Qureshi, S.M.; Sheikh, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    Perceptions and practices of mothers regarding child feeding vary depending upon their education, socioeconomic and cultural background. The objective of current study was to see the perceptions and practices of nutrition in mothers of malnourished children. It was also aimed to ascertain malnutrition due to poverty versus ignorance. It was a retrospective study. A total 200 malnourished children from children OPD, aged 6 months to 3 years were included in this study. History was taken regarding breast feeding, weaning, ORS preparation and care of children. Physical examination was carried out to assess the nutritional status and grade of malnutrition. Weaning age at enrollment of 18 (9%) children was 4 months, 9 (4.5%) children was 5 months, 105 (52.5%) children was 6 months, 34 (17%) children was 7 months while weaning age of 34 (17%) children was 8 months. Children being inadequately fed on food were 178 (89%). Hundred percent children had history of an illness in the past. One hundred and sixty three (81.5%) of the mothers had heard about ORS but did not know how to prepare it. Only 37 (18.5%) of the mothers had full knowledge about preparation of ORS. It was concluded that poverty alone is not the only factor in causing malnutrition. Ignorance is an important factor in child malnutrition. Nutritional education should be given to the mothers to eradicate malnutrition in the children. (author)

  9. Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices in Infants Receiving Skin to Skin Care at Birth: Follow-up of Randomized Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Archana Somashekhar; Patel, Dipen Vasudev; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar Marutirao; Patel, Vijay Karshanbhai; Patel, Dhaval Nileshbhai; Phatak, Ajay Gajanan

    2016-12-01

    Skin to Skin Care (SSC) in neonatal period influences immediate breastfeeding outcomes in early childhood, especially the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. We investigated influence of 17 hours of SSC given from day one of life on Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices through one year of life. Follow-up of a Superiority Randomized Control Trial (RCT) (CTRI/2013/06/003790) conducted in a teaching hospital located in central Gujarat. Mothers of 100 neonates (48 girls, 52 boys) from previous study cohort of RCT on SSC were followed. A survey on IYCF practices during the first year of life was administered after the end of infancy. In RCT, 50 neonates had received SSC beginning of 30 min- 1 hour after birth for average 17 hours on day 1 of life. In the control group, 50 newborn were placed next to the mother and conventional care was provided. There was a significant difference between hypothermia incidences in these groups in the first two days of life. There was no difference in the groups as far as the duration of exclusive breastfeeding, number of times breastfed per day, or stoppage of night feeds. No baby in either group received bottled feeds but about 53 received some form of extra lacteal feeds in the first 6 months without significant group difference. Fewer SSC mothers reported difficulties with breastfeeding or extra lacteal supplementation. All mothers who faced problems contacted physicians for advice and 20 were advised top milk and 6 given other foods. At one year of life 66% mothers were giving less than the recommended five food servings. There was no difference in practices related to hand washing, food preparation and storage, feeding habits of child and illness episodes in the children. IYCF practices in this small group were not as per guidelines. Few positive trends were seen with fewer SSC mothers facing problems related to breastfeeding. The study was underpowered to detect differences in IYCF practices in relation to SSC.

  10. Breastfeeding Duration and Authoritative Feeding Practices in First-Time Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Elena; Mallan, Kimberley M; Byrne, Rebecca; Daniels, Lynne A; Nicholson, Jan M

    2016-08-01

    Longer breastfeeding duration appears to have a protective effect against childhood obesity. This effect may be partially mediated by maternal feeding practices during the first years of life. However, the few studies that have examined links between breastfeeding duration and subsequent feeding practices have yielded conflicting results. Using a large sample of first-time mothers and a newly validated, comprehensive measure of maternal feeding (the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire), this study examined associations between breastfeeding duration and maternal feeding practices at child age 24 months. Mothers (n = 458) enrolled in the NOURISH trial provided data on breastfeeding at child age 4, 14, and 24 months, and on feeding practices at 24 months. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations between breastfeeding duration and 5 nonresponsive and 4 structure-related "authoritative" feeding practices, adjusting for a range of maternal and child characteristics. The model showed acceptable fit (χ(2)/df = 1.68; root mean square error of approximation = .04, comparative fit index = .91, and Tucker-Lewis index = .89) and longer breastfeeding duration was negatively associated with 4 out of 5 nonresponsive feeding practices and positively associated with 3 out of 4 structure-related feeding practices. Overall, these results suggest that mothers who breastfeed longer reported using more appropriate feeding practices. These data demonstrate an association between longer breastfeeding duration and authoritative feeding practices characterized by responsiveness and structure, which may partly account for the apparent protective effect of breastfeeding on childhood obesity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Early formula feeding practices and their potential contribution to later obesity risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-02

    Background and Aims: Early feeding practices, including early introduction to solid foods and overfeeding, are known risk factors for childhood obesity. This study aimed to assess maternal formula feeding practices and infant formula feeding patterns, factors that are known to potentially contribute to later obesity risk. \\r\

  12. A Pediatrician’s Practical Guide to Diagnosing and Treating Hereditary Spherocytosis in Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaish, Hassan M.; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2015-01-01

    Newborn infants who have hereditary spherocytosis (HS) can develop anemia and hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction is less likely in these neonates if the diagnosis of HS is recognized and appropriate treatment provided. Among neonates listed in the USA Kernicterus Registry, HS was the third most common underlying hemolytic condition after glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and ABO hemolytic disease. HS is the leading cause of direct antiglobulin test (direct Coombs) negative hemolytic anemia requiring erythrocyte transfusion in the first months of life. We anticipate that as physicians become more familiar with diagnosing HS in the newborn period, fewer neonates with HS will develop hazardous hyperbilirubinemia or present to emergency departments with unanticipated symptomatic anemia. We predict that early suspicion, prompt diagnosis and treatment, and anticipatory guidance will prevent adverse outcomes in neonates with HS. The purpose of this article was to review the neonatal presentation of HS and to provide practical and up-to-date means of diagnosing and treating HS in neonates. PMID:26009624

  13. Eating, feeding, and feeling: emotional responsiveness mediates longitudinal associations between maternal binge eating, feeding practices, and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Jaclyn A; Pineros-Leano, Maria; Liechty, Janet M; Bost, Kelly K; Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-08-02

    Although it is known that maternal disordered eating is related to restrictive feeding practices, there is little research exploring mechanisms for this association or its effects on other feeding practices. The purpose of this study was to assess whether maternal emotion responses mediate the association between maternal binge eating (BE) and child feeding practices, in order to identify potential risk factors for feeding practices that influence child weight. This longitudinal observational study included (n = 260) mothers and children from the STRONG Kids Panel Survey. At Wave 1, children were an average of 37 months old (SD = 6.9), and at Wave 2 children were an average of 57 months old (SD = 8.3). Mothers self-reported their frequency of binge eating behavior (Wave 1), responses to children's negative emotions (Wave 1), feeding practices (Wave 1 and Wave 2), and child height and weight were measured at both time points. Using bias-corrected bootstrapping procedures, we tested the hypothesis that longitudinal associations between maternal BE and nonresponsive parent feeding practices would be mediated by parents' unsupportive responses to children's negative emotion. We also tested a serial mediation model positing that maternal BE predicts child body mass index (BMI) percentile change 18-24 months later, indirectly through unsupportive responses to negative emotion and nonresponsive feeding practices. Maternal BE predicted use of more nonresponsive feeding practices (e.g. Emotion Regulation, Restriction for Health, Pressure to Eat, and Food as Reward), indirectly through more Distress responses to children's negative emotions. In the serial mediation model, maternal BE was associated with greater use of Distress responses, which indirectly predicted higher child BMI percentile through Food as Reward feeding practices. These results suggest that maternal eating and emotion responsiveness are important for understanding the interpersonal context of

  14. Vomiting, abdominal distention and early feeding of banana (Musa paradisiaca) in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M; Wahab, A Samik; Soeparto, Pitono

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to assess the relationship between banana given as early solid food with the symptoms of intestinal obstruction (SIO) among neonates, in a rural community in West Lombok District, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Mothers having newborn infants were interviewed and 3,420 neonates were followed for 28 days. Compared with infants who were not given solid food, the relative risk (RR) for infants given food other than banana as early solid food was 1.87, 95% CI 0.48-8.24, p=0.4, while for infants given banana only as early solid food the RR was 9.15, 95% CI 1.96-42.58, p 0.0005. After adjustment for birthweight, colostrum, and breastfeeding, the odds ratio for infants given banana and the appearance of SIO was 2.99, 95% CI 2.65-5.14; p=0.0012. These data indicate that banana given as early solid food is an important risk factor for the appearance of SIO in neonates.

  15. [How to assess clinical practice guidelines with AGREE II: The example of neonatal jaundice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renesme, L; Bedu, A; Tourneux, P; Truffert, P

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a very frequent condition that occurs in approximately 50-70% of term or near-term (>35 GA) babies in the 1st week of life. In some cases, a high bilirubin blood level can lead to kernicterus. There is no consensus for the management of neonatal jaundice and few countries have published national clinical practice guidelines for the management of neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of these guidelines. We conducted a systematic review of the literature for national clinical practice guidelines for the management of neonatal jaundice in term or near-term babies. Four independent reviewers assessed the quality of each guideline using the AGREE II evaluation. For each of the clinical practice guidelines, the management modalities were analyzed (screening, treatment, follow-up, etc.). Seven national clinical practice guidelines were found (South Africa, USA AAP, UK NICE, Canada, Norway, Switzerland, and Israel). The AGREE II score showed widespread variation regarding the quality of these national guidelines. There was no major difference between the guidelines concerning the clinical management of these babies. The NICE guideline is the most valuable guideline regarding the AGREE II score. NICE showed that, despite a strong and rigorous methodology, there is no evidenced-based recommended code of practice (RCP). Comparing RCPs, we found no major differences. The NICE guideline showed the best quality. The AGREE II instrument should be used as a framework when developing clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of the future guideline. In France, a national guideline is needed for a more standardized management of neonatal jaundice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Neonatal outcomes of deliveries in occiput posterior position when delayed pushing is practiced: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Kristina; Jonsson, Maria

    2017-11-14

    To examine the impact of occiput posterior position, compared to occiput anterior position, on neonatal outcomes in a setting where delayed pushing is practiced. The specific aim was to estimate the risk of acidaemia. Cohort study from a university hospital in Sweden between 2004 and 2012. Information was collected from a local database of 35,546 births. Umbilical artery sampling was routine. Outcomes were: umbilical artery pH pushing, birth in occiput posterior compared with anterior position is not associated with acidaemia. The higher risk of neonatal morbidity is of concern and any long-term consequences need to be investigated in future studies.

  17. Maternal Feeding Practices among Children with Feeding Difficulties—Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel H. V. Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGiven the positive influence of responsive caregiving on dietary habits in childhood, to raise awareness of caregivers regarding their behavior is crucial in multidisciplinary care on infant feeding.ObjectivesTo identify the most common responsive and non-responsive feeding practices in mothers of children with feeding complaints, as well as to seek associations between practices and caregivers’ profile.MethodsCross-sectional study with 77 children under 18 years old, with complaints of feeding difficulties. Data were collected during interviews with mothers: child age, gender, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, presence of organic disease, dynamics of bottle use, self-feeding practices and posture at meals, use of appropriate feeding equipment; basic information about the mothers (parity and level of education, caregiver feeding style, presence of coercive feeding, frequency and characteristics of family meals. Statistical analysis considered significance level at 5%.ResultsThe non-responsive profile predominated among mothers (76.2%, with the Authoritarian style being the most prevalent—39.7%. The responsive profile was characterized by absence of coercive feeding, stimulation of self-feeding practices, use of appropriate feeding equipment and meal environment, with interaction at meals. Non-responsive profile consisted of both inadequate environment and posture at meals, use of distraction and coercive feeding, lack of shared meals, and disregard for children’s hunger signals. Only the habit of sharing meals with children was associated with mothers’ profile, and considered a protection factor against non-responsive care (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.06–0.88. Both Authoritarian (p = 0.000 and indulgent mothers (p = 0.007 breastfed exclusively for longer time than negligent ones. There was a higher level of interaction with children in “responsive” parental style (OR 0.056; p = 0.01 compared to other feeding styles

  18. Maternal feeding practices and fussy eating in toddlerhood: a discordant twin analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, H. A.; Fildes, A.; Mallan, K. M.; Llewellyn, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parental feeding practices are thought to play a causal role in shaping a child's fussiness; however, a child-responsive model suggests that feeding practices may develop in response to a child's emerging appetitive characteristics. We used a novel twin study design to test the hypothesis that mothers vary their feeding practices for twin children who differ in their 'food fussiness', in support of a child-responsive model. METHODS: Participants were mothers and their 16 mont...

  19. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Methods Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped a...

  20. Breast feeding practices in the Black community | Ross | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feeding among rural and urban Blacks, to determine whether the number of women providing early supplementary feeding has increased over a 4-year period, and to discover groups at particular risk of failure to breast-feed optimally. Women ...

  1. Infant feeding practices within a large electronic medical record database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L; Young, Jacqueline; Ray, Joel G; Tu, Karen

    2018-01-02

    The emerging adoption of the electronic medical record (EMR) in primary care enables clinicians and researchers to efficiently examine epidemiological trends in child health, including infant feeding practices. We completed a population-based retrospective cohort study of 8815 singleton infants born at term in Ontario, Canada, April 2002 to March 2013. Newborn records were linked to the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database (EMRALD™), which uses patient-level information from participating family practice EMRs across Ontario. We assessed exclusive breastfeeding patterns using an automated electronic search algorithm, with manual review of EMRs when the latter was not possible. We examined the rate of breastfeeding at visits corresponding to 2, 4 and 6 months of age, as well as sociodemographic factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Of the 8815 newborns, 1044 (11.8%) lacked breastfeeding information in their EMR. Rates of exclusive breastfeeding were 39.5% at 2 months, 32.4% at 4 months and 25.1% at 6 months. At age 6 months, exclusive breastfeeding rates were highest among mothers aged ≥40 vs. database.

  2. Single Visit Feeding Appliance for 1‑day‑old Neonate with Cleft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies of humans. Intraoral impression making is the first clinical step in the fabrication of feeding appliance for infants with oro‑nasal communication. It is difficult to control the flow of the impression material in the cleft area and undercuts in a child patient.

  3. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: clinical practices in five Portuguese neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, H; Rocha, G; Vasconcellos, G; Proença, E; Carreira, M L; Sossai, M R; Morais, B; Martins, I; Rodrigues, T; Severo, M

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of surfactant, prenatal corticosteroids (PNC) and advances in technology, the survival rate of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants has improved dramatically. Rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) vary widely among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and many studies using multiple interventions have shown some improvement in BPD rates. Implementing potentially better practices to reduce BPD has been an effort made over the last few decades. To compare five Portuguese NICUs in terms of clinical practices in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, in order to develop better practices to prevent BPD. 256 preterm neonates, gestational age (GA) NICU, must be addressed to increase the prescription of PNC, to use a lower FiO2, to be careful with fluid administration in the first weeks of life and to prevent PDA and sepsis. It is necessary to follow guidelines, recommendations or protocols to improve quality in the prevention of BPD.

  4. Neonatal mortality and prevalence of practices for newborn care in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Ayaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the past two decades there has been a sustained decline in child and infant mortality, however neonatal mortality has remained relatively unchanged. Almost all neonatal deaths (99% occur in developing countries, where the majority are delivered at homes. Evidence suggests that these deaths could be prevented by simple, inexpensive practices and interventions during the pregnancy, delivery and postnatal period. In Pakistan over the last decade extensive efforts have been made by the international donors and government to implement these practices. However, limited attempts have been made to explore if these efforts have made a difference at the grass root level. This study assessed the burden of neonatal mortality and prevalence of practices for newborn care in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A community based cross-sectional study was performed. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered to 565 women who had recently delivered. Information was collected on neonatal morbidity, mortality and practices of women regarding care during pregnancy, child birth and for newborn, till 28th day of birth. Although 70% of women mentioned receiving antenatal care by a skilled provider, only 54.5% had four or more visits. Tetanus toxoid was received by 79% of women while only 56% delivered at a health care facility by a skilled attendant. Newborn care practices like bathing the baby immediately after birth (56%, giving pre-lacteals (79.5%, late initiation of breast feeding (80.3%, application of substances on umbilical cord (58% and body massage (89% were common. Most neonates (81.1% received BCG injection and polio drops after birth. Neonatal mortality rate was 27/1000 live births with the majority of deaths occurring during the first three days of life. CONCLUSION: Even after years of efforts by government and nongovernmental sector to reduce newborn morbidity and mortality, inadequate

  5. A comparison of Wisconsin neonatal intensive care units with national data on outcomes and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Albanese, Aggie; Palta, Mari

    2008-11-01

    Improvements in neonatal care over the past 3 decades have increased survival of infants at lower birthweights and gestational ages. However, outcomes and practices vary considerably between hospitals. To describe maternal and infant characteristics, neonatal intensive care units (NICU) practices, morbidity, and mortality in Wisconsin NICUs, and to compare outcomes in Wisconsin to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development network of large academic medical center NICUs. The Newborn Lung Project Statewide Cohort is a prospective observational study of all very low birthweight (< or =1500 grams) infants admitted during 2003 and 2004 to the 16 level III NICUs in Wisconsin. Anonymous data were collected for all admitted infants (N=1463). Major neonatal morbidities, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were evaluated. The overall incidence of BPD was 24% (8%-56% between NICUs); IVH incidence was 23% (9%-41%); the incidence of NEC was 7% (0%-21%); and the incidence of grade III or higher ROP was 10% (0%-35%). The incidence rates of major neonatal morbidities in Wisconsin were similar to those of a national network of academic NICUs.

  6. Milk distribution and feeding practice data for the PATHWAY model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.M.; Whicker, F.W.

    1990-01-01

    Milk is a major source for ingestion of several radionuclides, particularly when it is produced from fresh forage. Estimation of radionuclide ingestion via milk from Nevada Test Site fallout events in the 1950s required information on the sources of milk, feeding practices for cows, and elapsed time between milking and consumption for various geographic areas. These data were essential input to the food-chain model, PATHWAY. A data base was compiled from personal interviews. Milk sources included private cows, local dairies, and regional plants that collected from and distributed to wide geographic areas. Estimates of the contribution of each source were made for communities in a nine-state area. Pasture seasons varied from 3 to 6 mo. Pasture use varied from zero to 80% of the cows' diet. Pasture use declined during the 1950s, as did the number of family cows and local dairy plants. Regional distributors captured a larger portion of the market, and improved technologies increased the shelf life of milk. These factors tended to reduce the human intake of fallout radionuclides from milk in the latter part of the 1950s

  7. [Neonatal arterial ischemic stroke: Which thrombotic biological risk factors to investigate and which practical consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, T; Valentin, J B; Saliba, E; Gruel, Y

    2017-09-01

    All biological risk factors that have been previously identified to increase the risk of thrombosis in adults, have also been studied in neonates with arterial Ischemic Stroke (NAIS), but most studies were retrospective and included relatively low numbers of affected children. We therefore could not suggest recommendations with a strong level of evidence and only expert proposals potentially useful for clinical practice will be presented in this text. Despite these limitations, the extensive analysis of published data supported that factor V Leiden (FVL) and increased levels of Lp(a) could be significant risk factors for NAIS. Importantly, these 2 risk factors cannot be considered as having provoked NAIS, and moreover, they do not influence the prognosis and the immediate treatment. However, since the FVL may have an impact for the prescription of a thromboprophylaxis when the neonate will become adult, to look for its presence in affected patients may be justified. For clinical practice, the following propositions can be applied: 1. Routine testing for thrombophilia (AT, PC PS deficiency, FV Leiden or FII20210A) or for detecting other biological risk factors such as antiphospholipid antibodies, high FVIII, homocystein or Lp(a) levels, MTHFR thermolabile variant, should not be considered in neonates with NAIS. 2. Testing for FV Leiden can be performed in case of documented family history of venous thromboembolic disease. 3. Testing neonates for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) is mandatory in case of clinical events suggesting antiphospholipid syndrome in the mother (vascular thrombosis, and/or pregnancy morbidity). 4. Routine testing for thrombophilia is not proposed in both parents in case of early death of the neonate, apart from APA in the mother. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  8. Intergenerational impact of maternal obesity and postnatal feeding practices on pediatric obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    The postnatal feeding practices of obese and overweight mothers may place their children at particular risk for the development of obesity through shared biology and family environments. This paper reviews the feeding practices of obese mothers, describes potential mechanisms linking maternal feeding behaviors to child obesity risk, and highlights potential avenues for intervention. This review documents that supporting breastfeeding, improving the food choices of obese women, and encouraging...

  9. [Feeding practices with human milk in newborns less than 1.500 g or less than 32 weeks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Díaz, Clara; Utrera-Torres, Isabel; de Alba-Romero, Concepción; Flores-Antón, Beatriz; López-Maestro, María; Lora-Pablos, David; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen R

    2016-07-01

    There is currently no unified policy on either breastfeeding support or enteral nutrition practices, as regards human milk (HM) in pre-term newborns. The aim of this study was to describe breastfeeding support measures, as well as the use of HM in very preterm infants in Spanish public hospitals. A questionnaire on enteral feeding practices was distributed. Data were analysed from units caring for newborns less than 32 weeks or 1,500g. A univariate analysis was performed comparing level ii and iii care units. There was a 91% response rate. A total of 93 units cared for infants less than 32 weeks or 1,500g (17 level ii and 76 level iii), and 49% of the units recorded the breastfeeding rate on discharge. Around 75% (70/93) had a guideline on managing HM (level iii 81 vs. level ii 47%, P=.002), and 25% had access to donor human milk. Just under half (46%) started trophic feeding in the first 6h. Target enteral feeding volume in stable preterm infants was ≥ 180ml/kg/day in 89% of the units (level iii 93% vs. level ii 70%, P =.017). HM fortifier was used in 96% of the units. In 92%, it was added when the required enteral volume was tolerated. In 59% of the units, adjustments in the quantity of fortifier were made according to weight, and in 36%, it depended on analytical criteria. Some units (9%) used pure protein fortifier. There is a marked variability in breastfeeding support measures and in feeding practices of preterm infants in Spanish neonatal units. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The Artificial Milk Feeding or Breast Feeding: Context Dependant Practices. Brazil, 1960-1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Teresinha Schmidt Passos de Amorim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the discourse analysis on breast feeding from 1960 through 1988 in Brazil, on articles published in famous women magazines. The focus of the study is the History area, mainly the Feeding History, with an interdisciplinary approach. The initial period – 1960 – is linked with the end of Juscelino Kubitschek’s Government, when the economy, guided by the industrial sector, had grown in relative and absolute terms. The final period – 1988 – characterizes the Brazilian Norm of Suckling Feeding Business approval, which restricted the milk powder marketing. The change on discourses enunciates was very evident. During the period the artificial breast feeding was stimulated, the discourse main enunciate was the women’s condition, women’s valorization and their right of freedom. With the re-encouragement to the women breast feeding the discourses were totally on this usage defense, minimizing women’s daily difficulties.

  11. Recommended Feeding and Dietary Practices To Improve Infant and Maternal Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    The LINKAGES Project is intended to improve breastfeeding and related complementary feeding and maternal dietary practices. The project, in consultation with technical experts and program managers, identified a set of recommended feeding and dietary practices intended to break the cycle of poor health and nutrition that passes from generation to…

  12. Inappropriate complementary feeding practice increases risk of stunting in children aged 12-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijra Hijra

    2016-12-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding practice increased the risk of stunting in 12-24 months old children by 8.26. This study confirms the need to scale up interventions during the first 2 years of life, including appropriate infant feeding practices.

  13. Feeding practices and nutritional status of HIV-exposed and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Optimal infant- and young child–feeding practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health and, ultimately, survival. Human breast milk is optimal nutrition for all infants. Complementary food introduced at the correct age is part of optimal feeding practices. In South Africa, widespread access ...

  14. Impact of lack of breast feeding during neonatal age on the development of clinical signs of pneumonia and hypoxemia in young infants with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod J Chisti

    Full Text Available Hypoxemia is a grave sequel of pneumonia, and an important predictor of a fatal outcome. Pneumonia in the neonatal period is often associated with lack of breast feeding. However, there is no published report on the impact of the cessation of breast feeding in the neonatal period on the development of pneumonia and hypoxemia. The purpose of our study was to assess the impact of non-breast feeding or stopping breast feeding during the neonatal period (henceforth to be referred to as non-breast fed on clinical features of pneumonia and hypoxemia in 0-6-month-old infants with diarrhea admitted to an urban hospital in Bangladesh.We prospectively enrolled all infants (n = 107 aged 0 to 6 months who were admitted to the Special Care Ward (SCW of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh (ICDDR,B with diarrhea and pneumonia from September 2007 through December 2007.We compared the clinical features of pneumonia and hypoxemia of breast fed infants (n = 34 with those who were non-breast fed (n = 73.The median (inter-quartile range duration of hypoxemia (hours in non-breast-feds was longer than breast-fed infants [0.0 (0.0, 12.0 vs. 12.0 (0.0, 21.75; p = 0.021]. After adjusting for potential confounders such as inability to drink, fever, head nodding, cyanosis, grunting respiration, and lower chest wall in drawing, the non-breast-fed infants with pneumonia along with diarrhea had a higher probability of cough (OR 9.09; CI 1.34-61.71; p = 0.024, hypoxemia (OR 3.32; CI 1.23-8.93; p = 0.017, and severe undernutrition (OR 3.42; CI 1.29-9.12; p = 0.014.Non-breast feeding or cessation of breast feeding during the neonatal period may substantially increase the incidence of severe malnutrition, incidence of cough, and both the incidence and duration of hypoxemia in young infants presenting with pneumonia and diarrhea. The findings emphasize the paramount importance of the continuation of

  15. Impact of Lack of Breast Feeding during Neonatal Age on the Development of Clinical Signs of Pneumonia and Hypoxemia in Young Infants with Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Mohammod J.; Salam, Mohammed A.; Smith, Jonathan Harvey; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Bardhan, Pradip K.; Pietroni, Mark A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypoxemia is a grave sequel of pneumonia, and an important predictor of a fatal outcome. Pneumonia in the neonatal period is often associated with lack of breast feeding. However, there is no published report on the impact of the cessation of breast feeding in the neonatal period on the development of pneumonia and hypoxemia. The purpose of our study was to assess the impact of non-breast feeding or stopping breast feeding during the neonatal period (henceforth to be referred to as non-breast fed) on clinical features of pneumonia and hypoxemia in 0–6-month-old infants with diarrhea admitted to an urban hospital in Bangladesh. Methods We prospectively enrolled all infants (n = 107) aged 0 to 6 months who were admitted to the Special Care Ward (SCW) of the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) with diarrhea and pneumonia from September 2007 through December 2007.We compared the clinical features of pneumonia and hypoxemia of breast fed infants (n = 34) with those who were non-breast fed (n = 73). Results The median (inter-quartile range) duration of hypoxemia (hours) in non-breast-feds was longer than breast-fed infants [0.0 (0.0, 12.0) vs. 12.0 (0.0, 21.75); p = 0.021]. After adjusting for potential confounders such as inability to drink, fever, head nodding, cyanosis, grunting respiration, and lower chest wall in drawing, the non-breast-fed infants with pneumonia along with diarrhea had a higher probability of cough (OR 9.09; CI 1.34–61.71; p = 0.024), hypoxemia (OR 3.32; CI 1.23–8.93; p = 0.017), and severe undernutrition (OR 3.42; CI 1.29–9.12; p = 0.014). Conclusions and Significance Non-breast feeding or cessation of breast feeding during the neonatal period may substantially increase the incidence of severe malnutrition, incidence of cough, and both the incidence and duration of hypoxemia in young infants presenting with pneumonia and diarrhea. The

  16. Relationships between parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices and fruit and vegetable consumption in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Jackie

    2011-12-01

    Despite substantial evidence suggesting that a diet high in fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with reduced risk of cancer, only 21% of children in the UK consume the recommended 5 portions of fruit or vegetables a day. This review examines the role of parenting style, feeding style and feeding practices in FV consumption in early childhood. Whilst inconsistencies in concepts and terminology cloud this literature, overall the evidence suggests that the context of an authoritative parenting and feeding style is associated with better FV consumption in the childhood years. This context is typified by emotional warmth but high expectations for children's dietary adequacy and behaviour, accompanied by specific feeding practices such as modeling consumption of FV, making FV available within the home, covertly restricting unhealthy alternative snack foods, and encouraging children to try FV. Further longitudinal and intervention studies are required to determine the efficacy of modification of parenting style and feeding practice on children's FV intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in complementary feeding practices and nutrition status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Evaluate changes in underweight and wasting, feeding patterns, water use, sanitation, immunisation, disease episodes, deworming and vitamin A supplementation in children aged 6-23 months in returnee villages benefiting from a community-based supplementary feeding programme in northern Uganda.

  18. Sibling eating behaviours and differential child feeding practices reported by parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, C V; Galloway, A T; Fraser, K

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-familial relationships between parental reports of feeding practices used with siblings in the same family, and to evaluate whether differences in feeding practices are related to differences in siblings' eating behaviours. Eighty parents of two sibling children completed measures assessing their feeding practices and child eating behaviours. Parents reported using greater restrictive feeding practices with children who were fussier and desired to drink more than their sibling. Parents reported using more pressure to eat with siblings who were slower to eat, were fussier, emotionally under-ate, enjoyed food less, were less responsive to food, and were more responsive to internal satiety cues. Restriction and pressure to eat appear to be part of the non-shared environment which sibling children experience differently. These feeding practices may be used differently for children in the same family in response to child eating behaviours or other specific characteristics.

  19. Advances and controversies in neonatal ICU platelet transfusion practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    Some of the platelet transfusions currently given to NICU patients are unnecessary and convey no benefits. Although ordered with good intentions, unnecessary platelet transfusions carry known and unknown risks. Identifying and eliminating any unnecessary platelet transfusions in NICUs would be a step toward better care, lower costs, and more careful preservation of blood component resources. A renewed interest in platelet transfusion studies is needed, if essential data is to be gathered to improve NICU platelet transfusion practice. Retrospective studies can be of value: for instance, seeking associations between bleeding events and platelet counts can suggest the possibility of cause and effect relationships. Such studies might identify approximate platelet count levels that convey high hemorrhagic risk and might help focus future prospective trials. Prospective indirect studies also can be of value, for instance, measuring the template bleeding time and the PFA-100 closure time as a function of platelet count and perhaps as a function of circulating platelet mass, and would provide new information with relevance to platelet transfusion benefits. Such studies might give a better awareness of how low the platelet count can fall before platelet plug formation is impaired. It seems inescapable, however, that new, multicentered, randomized, prospective studies are needed, where NICU patients are assigned different platelet transfusion triggers and then carefully tracked for bleeding events and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Only that type of study is likely to generate the evidence base needed for widespread implementation of improvements in NICU platelet transfusion practice.

  20. Factors associated with parental use of restrictive feeding practices to control their children's food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Wendy N; Janicke, David M; Wistedt, Kristin M; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C

    2010-10-01

    There is a critical need to identify risk factors that make parents more likely to restrict their child's food intake. Child weight and ethnicity, parent weight, parent body dissatisfaction, and parent concern of child weight were examined as correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices in a diverse sample of 191 youth (ages 7-17). Participants attending a pediatric outpatient visit completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (parent feeding practices and beliefs), the Figure Rating Scale (body dissatisfaction) and a demographic form. Parent BMI and child degree of overweight were calculated. Parent use of restrictive feeding practices was positively associated with parent BMI and was moderated by parent body dissatisfaction. Parent concern of child weight mediated the relationship between increasing child degree of overweight and parent use of restrictive feeding practices. There were no differences by child gender or ethnicity in parent use of restrictive feeding practices. These preliminary findings highlight the importance of assessing for underlying parent motivations for utilizing restrictive feeding practices and may help to identify and intervene with families at-risk for engaging in counterproductive weight control strategies. Continued identification of correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices is needed across child development and among individuals from diverse backgrounds.

  1. Fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status in Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penilla, Carlos; Tschann, Jeanne M; Deardorff, Julianna; Flores, Elena; Pasch, Lauri A; Butte, Nancy F; Gregorich, Steven E; Greenspan, Louise C; Martinez, Suzanna M; Ozer, Emily

    2017-10-01

    Mothers' feeding practices are associated with their children's weight status, but little is known about the associations between fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status. Moreover, there is a dearth of research on Latino fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status, even though Latino children suffer some of the highest obesity rates in the U.S. We examined the associations between fathers' feeding practices and child weight status, conditional on mothers' feeding practices, within 174 Mexican American families with children aged 8-10 years. Parents completed the Parental Feeding Practices Questionnaire, which consists of four subscales: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. To assess child weight status, body mass index (BMI) was calculated and converted to age- and gender-specific percentile scores (BMI z-score). We fit four sets of regression models, one set for each of the four parental feeding practices subscales, with child BMI z-score as the outcome variable. Fathers' pressure to eat (b = -0.20, p = 0.04; 95% CI: -0.39, -0.01) and use of food to control behavior (b = -0.36, p = 0.02; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.07) were associated with lower child BMI z-score, and restriction of amount of food (b = 0.56, p Fathers' positive involvement in child eating was not associated with child BMI z-score. These findings provide empirical evidence that fathers' feeding practices are independently associated with children's weight status, even when mothers' feeding practices are taken into account, and suggest that fathers' feeding practices also matter in regard to children's weight status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal feeding practices and fussy eating in toddlerhood: a discordant twin analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly A; Fildes, Alison; Mallan, Kimberley M; Llewellyn, Clare H

    2016-07-13

    Parental feeding practices are thought to play a causal role in shaping a child's fussiness; however, a child-responsive model suggests that feeding practices may develop in response to a child's emerging appetitive characteristics. We used a novel twin study design to test the hypothesis that mothers vary their feeding practices for twin children who differ in their 'food fussiness', in support of a child-responsive model. Participants were mothers and their 16 month old twin children (n = 2026) from Gemini, a British twin birth cohort of children born in 2007. Standardized psychometric measures of maternal 'pressure to eat', 'restriction' and 'instrumental feeding', as well as child 'food fussiness', were completed by mothers. Within-family analyses examined if twin-pair differences in 'food fussiness' were associated with differences in feeding practices using linear regression models. In a subset of twins (n = 247 pairs) who were the most discordant (highest quartile) on 'food fussiness' (difference score ≥ .50), Paired Samples T-test were used to explore the magnitude of differences in feeding practices between twins. Between-family analyses used Complex Samples General Linear Models to examine associations between feeding practices and 'food fussiness'. Within-pair differences in 'food fussiness' were associated with differential 'pressure to eat' and 'instrumental feeding' (ps feeding' were positively associated with 'food fussiness', while 'restriction' was negatively associated with 'food fussiness' (ps feeding practices according to their perceptions of their toddler's emerging fussy eating behavior. Specifically, the fussier toddler is pressured more than their less fussy co-twin, and is more likely to be offered food rewards. Guiding parents on how to respond to fussy eating may be an important aspect of promoting feeding practices that encourage food acceptance.

  3. Emotional climate, feeding practices, and feeding styles: an observational analysis of the dinner meal in Head Start families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Sharon K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies conducted with ethnically diverse, low-income samples have found that parents with indulgent feeding styles had children with a higher weight status. Indulgent parents are those who are responsive to their child's emotional states but have problems setting appropriate boundaries with their child. Because the processes through which styles impact child weight are poorly understood, the aim of this study was to observe differences in the emotional climate created by parents (including affect, tone of voice, and gestures and behavioral feeding practices among those reporting different feeding styles on the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. A secondary aim was to examine differences on child weight status across the feeding styles. Methods Participants were 177 Head Start families from Houston, Texas (45% African-American; 55% Hispanic. Using an observational approach, the relationship between the observed emotional climate of the meal, behavioral feeding practices, and self-reported parent feeding styles were examined. Mean age of the children was 4.4 years (SD = 0.7 equally distributed across gender. Families were observed on 3 separate dinner occasions. Heights and weight were measured on the parents and children. Results Parents with self-reported indulgent feeding styles made fewer demands on their children to eat during dinner and showed lower levels of negative affect and intrusiveness. Surprisingly, these parents also showed higher levels of emotional detachment with their children during dinner. Hispanic boys with indulgent parents had significantly higher BMI z scores compared to Hispanic boys in the other three feeding style groups. No other differences were found on child weight status. Conclusions Results suggest that the emotional climate created by indulgent parents during dinner and their lack of demands on their children to eat may play an important role in how young children become

  4. Emotional climate, feeding practices, and feeding styles: an observational analysis of the dinner meal in Head Start families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Papaioannou, Maria A; Cross, Matthew B; Nicklas, Theresa A; Hall, Sharon K; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2011-06-10

    A number of studies conducted with ethnically diverse, low-income samples have found that parents with indulgent feeding styles had children with a higher weight status. Indulgent parents are those who are responsive to their child's emotional states but have problems setting appropriate boundaries with their child. Because the processes through which styles impact child weight are poorly understood, the aim of this study was to observe differences in the emotional climate created by parents (including affect, tone of voice, and gestures) and behavioral feeding practices among those reporting different feeding styles on the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. A secondary aim was to examine differences on child weight status across the feeding styles. Participants were 177 Head Start families from Houston, Texas (45% African-American; 55% Hispanic). Using an observational approach, the relationship between the observed emotional climate of the meal, behavioral feeding practices, and self-reported parent feeding styles were examined. Mean age of the children was 4.4 years (SD = 0.7) equally distributed across gender. Families were observed on 3 separate dinner occasions. Heights and weight were measured on the parents and children. Parents with self-reported indulgent feeding styles made fewer demands on their children to eat during dinner and showed lower levels of negative affect and intrusiveness. Surprisingly, these parents also showed higher levels of emotional detachment with their children during dinner. Hispanic boys with indulgent parents had significantly higher BMI z scores compared to Hispanic boys in the other three feeding style groups. No other differences were found on child weight status. Results suggest that the emotional climate created by indulgent parents during dinner and their lack of demands on their children to eat may play an important role in how young children become overweight. Numerous observed emotional climate and behavioral

  5. The role of feeding regimens in the growth of neonate broad-banded water snakes, Nerodia fasciata confluens, and possible effects on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, R M; Burghardt, G M

    1985-05-01

    The effect of different feeding regimens on the growth pattern of Nerodia fasciata confluens was tested using a litter of 18 captive-born neonates. The snakes were divided among three feeding groups: one group fed once per week, another fed twice per week, and the third fed on alternate days. The once per week and the twice per week groups were offered the same weight of food each week, while the alternate-day group was offered food in excess of ingestion levels during each feeding session. The results indicate that there is a shift in the allocation of energy for growth in weight, snout-vent length, and tail length with a change in the feeding regimen. Females were affected more than the males. The results are discussed in relation to their possible effect on reproduction.

  6. Individual and job-related variation in infant feeding practices among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Tucker, Jenna; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    To document working mothers' infant feeding practices and delineate factors that may shape infant feeding. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a community sample of working women with 8-month old infants (n=199). Nearly all working mothers used commercially prepared foods like infant cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Approximately one-fifth fed infants french fries, sweetened beverages, and sweetened desserts. Unhealthy infant feeding was elevated among unmarried mothers, those with less education, and those with a nonstandard work schedule. Working mothers use commercially prepared foods for infant feeding. Socially disadvantaged working mothers' infant feeding may pose health and developmental risks.

  7. Single Visit Feeding Appliance for 1-day-old Neonate with Cleft Palate Using Safe Dental Putty-Gauze Hybrid Impression Technique for Maxillary Impression

    OpenAIRE

    Rathee, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies of humans. Intraoral impression making is the first clinical step in the fabrication of feeding appliance for infants with oro-nasal communication. It is difficult to control the flow of the impression material in the cleft area and undercuts in a child patient. This clinical report presents a simple and safe impression technique for maxillary impression making in neonates and infants with cleft palate. A gauze piece was us...

  8. Early hybrid approach and enteral feeding algorithm could reduce the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuri, Lucia; Morelli, Stefano; Agati, Salvatore; Saitta, Michele B; Oreto, Lilia; Mandraffino, Giuseppe; Iannace, Enrico; Iorio, Fiore S; Guccione, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The reported incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in neonates with complex CHD with ductus-dependent systemic circulation ranges from 6.8 to 13% despite surgical treatment; the overall mortality is between 25 and 97%. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications after hybrid palliation for neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation still has to be defined, but seems comparable with that following the Norwood procedure. We reviewed the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in a series of 42 consecutive neonates with ductus-dependent systemic circulation, who received early hybrid palliation associated with a standardised feeding protocol. The median age and birth weight at the time of surgery were 3 days (with a range from 1 to 10 days) and 3.07 kg (with a range from 1.5 to 4.5 kg), respectively. The median ICU length of stay was 7 days (1-70 days), and the median hospital length of stay was 16 days (6-70 days). The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 3 days. Hospital mortality was 16% (7/42). In the postoperative period, 26% of patients were subjected to early extubation, and all of them received treatment with systemic vasodilatory agents. Feeding was started 6 hours after extubation according to a dedicated feeding protocol. After treatment, none of our patients experienced any grade of necrotising enterocolitis or major gastrointestinal adverse events. Our experience indicates that the combination of an "early hybrid approach", systemic vasodilator therapy, and dedicated feeding protocol adherence could reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in this group of neonates. Fast weaning from ventilatory support, which represents a part of our treatment strategy, could be associated with low incidence of necrotising enterocolitis.

  9. Measuring Infant and Young Child Complementary Feeding Practices: Indicators, Current Practice, and Research Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Marie T

    2017-01-01

    The publication of the WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators in 2008 equipped the nutrition and broader development community with an invaluable tool for measuring, documenting, and advocating for faster progress in improving these practices in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The indicators, with 5 of them focusing on complementary feeding (CF) practices, were originally designed for population level assessment, targeting, monitoring, and evaluation. This chapter takes stock of where we are with the existing CF indicators: it reviews how the indicators have been used, what we have learned, and what their strengths and limitations are, and it suggests a way forward. We find that the indicators have been used extensively for population level assessments and country comparisons, and to track progress. They have also been adopted by researchers in program impact evaluations and in research seeking to understand the determinants and consequences of poor CF practices for child growth and development outcomes. In addition to generating a wealth of knowledge and unveiling the severity of the global problem of poor CF practices in LMICs, the indicators have been an invaluable tool to raise awareness and call for urgent action on improving CF practices at scale. The indicators have strengths and limitations, which are summarized in this chapter. Although enormous progress has been achieved since the indicators were released in 2008, we feel it is time to reflect and revisit the CF indicators, improve them, develop new ones, and promote their appropriate use. Better indicators are critically important to stimulate action and investments in improving CF practices at scale. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Intergenerational impact of maternal obesity and postnatal feeding practices on pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L

    2013-10-01

    The postnatal feeding practices of obese and overweight mothers may place their children at increased risk for the development of obesity through shared biology and family environments. This article reviews the feeding practices of obese mothers, describes the potential mechanisms linking maternal feeding behaviors to child obesity risk, and highlights the potential avenues of intervention. Strategies important for improving the quality of the eating environment and preventing the intergenerational transmission of obesity include supporting breastfeeding, improving the food choices of obese women, and encouraging the development of feeding styles that are responsive to hunger and satiety cues. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. Intergenerational impact of maternal obesity and postnatal feeding practices on pediatric obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The postnatal feeding practices of obese and overweight mothers may place their children at particular risk for the development of obesity through shared biology and family environments. This paper reviews the feeding practices of obese mothers, describes potential mechanisms linking maternal feeding behaviors to child obesity risk, and highlights potential avenues for intervention. This review documents that supporting breastfeeding, improving the food choices of obese women, and encouraging the development of feeding styles that are responsive to hunger and satiety cues are important for improving the quality of the eating environment and preventing the intergenerational transmission of obesity. PMID:24147925

  12. Outcomes of an early feeding practices intervention to prevent childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Lynne Allison; Mallan, Kimberley Margaret; Nicholson, Jan Maree; Battistutta, Diana; Magarey, Anthea

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate outcomes of a universal intervention to promote protective feeding practices that commenced in infancy and aimed to prevent childhood obesity. The NOURISH randomized controlled trial enrolled 698 first-time mothers (mean ± SD age: 30.1 ± 5.3 years) with healthy term infants (51% female) aged 4.3 ± 1.0 months at baseline. Mothers were randomly allocated to self-directed access to usual care or to attend two 6-session interactive group education modules that provided anticipatory guidance on early feeding practices. Outcomes were assessed 6 months after completion of the second information module, 20 months from baseline and when the children were 2 years old. Maternal feeding practices were self-reported by using validated questionnaires and study-developed items. Study-measured child height and weight were used to calculate BMI z scores. Retention at follow-up was 78%. Mothers in the intervention group reported using responsive feeding more frequently on 6 of 9 subscales and 8 of 8 items (all, P ≤ .03) and overall less controlling feeding practices (P feeding practices (3 of 4 items; all, P feeding, tailored to developmental stage, increased use by first-time mothers of "protective" feeding practices that potentially support the development of healthy eating and growth patterns in young children.

  13. The Nutritional Status of Mothers Practicing Breast Feeding In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biomedical Research ... Exclusive breastfeeding is a globally recommended way of feeding and caring for young infants (0-6 months). Its benefits to both infants and mothers have been established. However, its impact on the ...

  14. FEEDING PRACTICES, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND ANEMIA IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Sathish Kumar; Ankitha; Udayamaliny

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : WHO RECOMMENDS : I nitiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of life, exclusive breast feeding on demand for six months, followed by sequential addition of semi - solid and solid foods to complement breast milk and breast feeding to be continued for 2 years . Most of the time, these recommendations are not followed, due to false beliefs or cultural factors. This has resulted in malnutrition and increasing health hazards in children...

  15. Neonatal care in rural Karnataka: healthy and harmful practices, the potential for change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleland John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year four million babies die in the first month of life and a quarter of these take place in India. A package of essential newborn care practices exists, which has a proven impact on reducing mortality, and can be implemented in low resource settings. However, childbirth and the neonatal period are culturally important times, during which there is strong adherence to traditional practices. Successful implementation of the package therefore requires in-depth knowledge of the local context and tailored behaviour change communication. Methods This study was carried out in rural Karnataka, India. It uses quantitative data from a prospective survey following mothers through their experience of pregnancy and the postnatal period; and qualitative data from in depth interviews and focus group discussions conducted with mothers, grandmothers and birth attendants. It explores local newborn care practices and beliefs, analyses their harmful or beneficial characteristics and elucidates areas of potential resistance to behaviour change and implementation of the essential newborn care package. Results Findings show that many potentially harmful newborn care practices are being carried out in the study area, such as unhygienic cord cutting, delayed breastfeeding and early bathing. Some are more amenable to change than others, depending on the strength of the underlying beliefs, and acceptability of alternative care. However, movement away from traditional practices is already taking place, particularly amongst the more educated and better off, and there is a clear opportunity to broaden, direct and accelerate this process. Conclusion Community education should be a focus of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI program being implemented in Karnataka. The added capacity of the new Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs could enable more women to be reached. With

  16. Effects of soil management practices on soil fauna feeding activity in an Indonesian oil palm plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Hsiao-Hang; Slade, Eleanor M.; Willis, Katherine J.; Caliman, Jean Pierre; Snaddon, Jake Lanion

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing the use of available soil management practices in oil palm plantations is crucial to enhance long-term soil fertility and productivity. However, this needs a thorough understanding of the functional responses of soil biota to these management practices. To address this knowledge gap, we used the bait lamina method to investigate the effects of different soil management practices on soil fauna feeding activity, and whether feeding activity was associated with management-mediated cha...

  17. Parental feeding practices in Mexican American families: initial test of an expanded measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although obesity rates are high among Latino children, relatively few studies of parental feeding practices have examined Latino families as a separate group. Culturally-based approaches to measurement development can begin to identify parental feeding practices in specific cultural groups. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to develop and test the Parental Feeding Practices (PFP) Questionnaire for use with Mexican American parents. Items reflected both parent’s use of control over child eating and child-centered feeding practices. Methods In the qualitative phase of the research, 35 Latino parents participated in focus groups. Items for the PFP were developed from focus group discussions, as well as adapted from existing parent feeding practice measures. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 37 adults to evaluate items. In the quantitative phase, mothers and fathers of 174 Mexican American children ages 8–10 completed the PFP and provided demographic information. Anthropometric measures were obtained on family members. Results Confirmatory factor analyses identified four parental feeding practice dimensions: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. Factorial invariance modeling suggested equivalent factor meaning and item response scaling across mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers differed somewhat in their use of feeding practices. All four feeding practices were related to child body mass index (BMI) percentiles, for one or both parents. Mothers reporting more positive involvement had children with lower BMI percentiles. Parents using more pressure to eat had children with lower BMI percentiles, while parents using more restriction had children with higher BMI percentiles. Fathers using food to control behavior had children with lower BMI percentiles. Conclusions Results indicate good initial validity and reliability for the PFP. It can be

  18. Parental feeding practices in Mexican American families: initial test of an expanded measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschann Jeanne M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although obesity rates are high among Latino children, relatively few studies of parental feeding practices have examined Latino families as a separate group. Culturally-based approaches to measurement development can begin to identify parental feeding practices in specific cultural groups. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to develop and test the Parental Feeding Practices (PFP Questionnaire for use with Mexican American parents. Items reflected both parent’s use of control over child eating and child-centered feeding practices. Methods In the qualitative phase of the research, 35 Latino parents participated in focus groups. Items for the PFP were developed from focus group discussions, as well as adapted from existing parent feeding practice measures. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 37 adults to evaluate items. In the quantitative phase, mothers and fathers of 174 Mexican American children ages 8–10 completed the PFP and provided demographic information. Anthropometric measures were obtained on family members. Results Confirmatory factor analyses identified four parental feeding practice dimensions: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. Factorial invariance modeling suggested equivalent factor meaning and item response scaling across mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers differed somewhat in their use of feeding practices. All four feeding practices were related to child body mass index (BMI percentiles, for one or both parents. Mothers reporting more positive involvement had children with lower BMI percentiles. Parents using more pressure to eat had children with lower BMI percentiles, while parents using more restriction had children with higher BMI percentiles. Fathers using food to control behavior had children with lower BMI percentiles. Conclusions Results indicate good initial validity and

  19. Feeding management practices and feed characteristics associated with Salmonella prevalence in live and slaughtered market-weight finisher swine: a systematic review and summation of evidence from 1950 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A M; Denagamage, T; Sargeant, J M; Rajić, A; McKean, J

    2008-11-17

    This review summarizes evidence for associations between Salmonella prevalence in market-weight swine and changes in feeding management practices or feed characteristics. A systematic review of the topic was conducted with the goal of minimizing the impact of bias on the review conclusions. Potential interventions included feed withdrawal from swine prior to slaughter, feed acidification, heat treatment of feed, pelletized feed versus mash, course versus fine grind, and wet versus dry feeds. In the reviewed literature, Salmonella prevalence was measured either by culture or by the presence of antibodies to Salmonella. The evidentiary value of studies was assessed, and studies that failed to meet predetermined standards were excluded. 7694 potentially relevant references were identified by an extensive literature search; however, 2623 references that were not published in English were excluded, because funds for translation were not available. Of the remaining references, only 277 were considered relevant to the review topic by two independent reviewers, and assessed for methodological quality. During quality assessment, 233 references were excluded because they failed to report design features that limit the introduction of bias or were conducted in a non-target population such as gnotobiotic, neonatal, nursery, or recently weaned pigs and sows. Forty-four publications passed the quality assessment conducted by 2 independent reviewers, but only 15 of the 44 publications reported studies that tested hypotheses associated with feeding management practices and feed characteristics and Salmonella prevalence in market-weight swine. The most common study design was cross-sectional (7/15). The included studies failed to provide strong evidence of an association between any of the potential interventions and Salmonella prevalence, due to the potential for confounding, and the failure to document temporal association between the intervention and Salmonella prevalence. The

  20. Maternal Education Is Associated with Disparities in Breastfeeding at Time of Discharge but Not at Initiation of Enteral Feeding in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herich, Lena Carolin; Cuttini, Marina; Croci, Ileana; Franco, Francesco; Di Lallo, Domenico; Baronciani, Dante; Fares, Katia; Gargano, Giancarlo; Raponi, Massimiliano; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between maternal education and breastfeeding in very preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. This prospective, population-based cohort study analyzed the data of all very preterm infants admitted to neonatal care during 1 year in 3 regions in Italy (Lazio, Emilia-Romagna, and Marche). The use of mothers' own milk was recorded at initial enteral feedings and at hospital discharge. We used multilevel logistic analysis to model the association between maternal education and breastfeeding outcomes, adjusting for maternal age and country of birth. Region was included as random effect. There were 1047 very preterm infants who received enteral feeding, and 975 were discharged alive. At discharge, the use of mother's own milk, exclusively or not, and feeding directly at the breast were significantly more likely for mothers with an upper secondary education or higher. We found no relationship between maternal education and type of milk at initial enteral feedings. However, the exclusive early use of the mother's own milk at initial feedings was related significantly with receiving any maternal milk and feeding directly at the breast at discharge from hospital, and the association with feeding at the breast was stronger for the least educated mothers. In this population-based cohort of very preterm infants, we found a significant and positive association between maternal education and the likelihood of receiving their mother's own milk at the time of discharge. In light of the proven benefits of maternal milk, strategies to support breastfeeding should be targeted to mothers with less education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal feeding practices and fussy eating in toddlerhood: A discordant twin analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, HA; Fildes, A; Mallan, KM; Llewellyn, CH

    2016-01-01

    Background Parental feeding practices are thought to play a causal role in shaping a child?s fussiness; however, a child-responsive model suggests that feeding practices may develop in response to a child?s emerging appetitive characteristics. We used a novel twin study design to test the hypothesis that mothers vary their feeding practices for twin children who differ in their ?food fussiness?, in support of a child-responsive model. Methods Participants were mothers and their 16?month old t...

  2. Feeding practices in late infancy in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... mum feeding in early infant feed- ing same ... basis of equal distribution of 68,748 women of child bearing age ... used by the Expanded Programme on Immunization. (EPI).14 All ..... Mothers Attitudes and Practices;. December ...

  3. Feeding Practices and Weight Gain in the First Six Months of Life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The renewed effort to encourage the practice of breast feeding has awakened interest in the study of the relationship between different modes of infant feeding and growth patterns. This relationship was studied in a cohort of 196 children in the first six months of life. The babies were classified as exclusively breastfed ...

  4. Tracheal tube airleak in clinical practice and impact on tidal volume measurement in ventilated neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ramadan A; Proquitté, Hans; Fawzy, Naglaa; Bührer, Christoph; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2011-03-01

    To determine the prevalence, size, and factors affecting tracheal tube (TT) leak in clinical practice and their influence on the displayed tidal volume (Vt) in ventilated newborn infants using uncuffed TTs. Monitoring of Vt is important for implementation of lung-protective ventilation strategies but becomes meaningless in the presence of large TT airleaks. Retrospective clinical study. Neonatal intensive care unit. Patient records of 163 neonates ventilated with Babylog 8000 for ≥ 5 hrs with a median (range) gestation age of 31.1 wks (23.3-41.9 wks) and a median birth weight of 1470 g (410-4475 g) were evaluated. : Ventilatory settings, TT leak, and Vt were recorded every 3 hrs. The lowest, median, and highest TT leaks were noted on the day the first TT leak (>5%) occurred, the day on which TT leak peaked, and the day of extubation. A TT leak of >5% was seen in 122 (75%) infants. Neonates with TT leak, compared with those without TT leak, had a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (p 40% commonly seen on the third day of mechanical ventilation. Regression analysis showed that a TT leak of 40% indicated that the displayed Vt was underestimated by 1.2 mL/kg (about 24% of target Vt). TT leak is highly variable, and TT leak of >40% with clinically relevant Vt errors occurred in nearly half of all ventilated neonates. Preterm infants of low birth weight and with small-diameter TTs ventilated for a long period were at greater risk of TT leak.

  5. Infant and young child feeding practices on Unguja Island in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Undernutrition in children has remained a challenge despite the success achieved in reduction of other childhood diseases in Zanzibar. Most empirical studies on infants and young child feeding (IYCF) have examined nutritional value of foods fed to the children in terms of energy and micronutrient content.

  6. Feed-in Tariffs: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-02

    In recent years, feed-in tariff (FIT) activity has focused primarily on revisions to current policies, underscoring the need for stable and predictable, yet flexible, policy environments. This policy brief provides a primer on key FIT design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific FIT policy design.

  7. Reported and observed controlling feeding practices predict child eating behavior after 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi J; Skouteris, Helen; Haycraft, Emma; Haines, Jess; Hooley, Merrilyn

    2015-06-01

    Controlling feeding practices are linked to children's self-regulatory eating practices and weight status. Maternal reports of controlling feeding practices are not always significantly related to independently rated mealtime observations. However, prior studies only assessed 1 mealtime observation, which may not be representative of typical mealtime settings or routines. The first aim was to examine associations between reported and observed maternal pressure to eat and restriction feeding practices at baseline (T1) and after ∼ 12 mo (T2). The second aim was to evaluate relations between maternal and child factors [e.g., concern about child weight, child temperament, child body mass index (BMI)-for-age z scores (BMIz)] at T1 and reported and observed maternal pressure to eat and restriction feeding practices (T1 and T2). The third aim was to assess prospective associations between maternal feeding practices (T1) and child eating behaviors (T2) and child BMIz (T2). A sample of 79 mother-child dyads in Victoria, Australia, participated in 2 lunchtime home observations (T1 and T2). BMI measures were collected during the visits. Child temperament, child eating behaviors, maternal parenting styles, and maternal feeding practices were evaluated at T1 and T2 via questionnaires. Associations were assessed with Pearson's correlation coefficients, paired t tests, and hierarchical regressions. Reported restriction (T1) was inversely associated with observed restriction at T1 (r = -0.24, P controlling strategies. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Differences in the emotional and practical experiences of exclusively breastfeeding and combination feeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komninou, Sophia; Fallon, Victoria; Halford, Jason Christian Grovenor; Harrold, Joanne Alison

    2017-07-01

    The majority of research examining the barriers to breastfeeding focuses on the physical challenges faced by mothers rather than the risks of encountering negative emotional and practical feeding experiences. We aimed to quantify the emotional and practical experiences of the overall sample of breastfeeding mothers and identify the differences in the emotional and practical experiences of exclusively breastfeeding mothers and combination feeding mothers, by feeding type and intention. Eight hundred forty-five mothers with infants up to 26 weeks of age and who had initiated breastfeeding were recruited through relevant social media via advertisements providing a link to an online survey. Predictors of emotional experiences included guilt, stigma, satisfaction with feeding method, and the need to defend themselves due to infant feeding choices. Practical predictors included perceived support from health professionals, main sources of infant feeding information, and respect from their everyday environment, workplace, and when breastfeeding in public. Current feeding type and prenatal feeding intention. In the overall sample, 15% of the mothers reported feeling guilty, 38% stigmatized, and 55% felt the need to defend their feeding choice. Binary logit models revealed that guilt and dissatisfaction were directly associated with feeding type, being higher when supplementing with formula. No associations with feeding intention were identified. This study demonstrates a link between current breastfeeding promotion strategies and the emotional state of breastfeeding mothers who supplement with formula to any extent. To minimize the negative impact on maternal well-being, it is important that future recommendations recognize the challenges that exclusive breastfeeding brings and provide a more balanced and realistic target for mothers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Persistently obese youth: interactions between parenting styles and feeding practices with child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Zeller, Meg H

    2013-12-01

    To assess the interaction of parent and child characteristics with feeding practices and mealtime functioning. Longitudinal, predictive study comparing baseline characteristics with follow-up assessments. The caregivers of 52 persistently obese youth and 32 nonoverweight comparison youth completed measurements of child temperament, parental feeding practices, parenting styles, and interactions during mealtimes. Adolescents with persistent obesity were significantly more likely to be parented using problematic feeding practices when parents also reported difficult child temperaments. Additionally, adolescents with persistent obesity and difficult temperaments were significantly more likely to have lower levels of positive mealtime interactions. Persistently obese youth are at increased risk for problematic parental feeding practices and mealtime functioning, particularly when youth are described as having difficult temperaments. These results indicate that further investigations are needed to better understand the mechanisms linking parent and child characteristics with health-related behaviors for adolescents with obesity.

  10. A reliable, practical, and economical protocol for inducing diarrhea and severe dehydration in the neonatal calf.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, P G; Constable, P D; Morin, D E; Drackley, J K; Foreman, J H; Thurmon, J C

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen healthy, colostrum-fed, male dairy calves, aged 2 to 7 d were used in a study to develop a diarrhea protocol for neonatal calves that is reliable, practical, and economical. After instrumentation and recording baseline data, diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administering milk replacer [16.5 mL/kg of body weight (BW), PO], sucrose (2 g/kg in a 20% aqueous solution, p.o.), spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg, PO) every 8 h, and furosemide (2 mg/kg, i.m., q6h). Calves...

  11. Prática alimentar de adolescentes Adolescents feeding practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Dianezi Gambardella

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando conhecer a prática alimentar de adolescentes, foi realizado inquérito alimentar com um grupo de 153 estudantes, de ambos os sexos, com idade média de 14,0 ± 1,5 anos, utilizando questionário auto-aplicado. Foi efetuada análise qualitativa das três principais refeições diárias, comparando-se com padrão estabelecido. Verificou-se que o desjejum foi consumido por 45% (44% meninos e 56% meninas, o almoço por 76% (36% meninos e 64% meninas e o jantar por 53% (40% meninos e 60% meninas. Observou-se que a constituição do jantar é basicamente, a mesma que a do almoço, notando-se porém a diminuição da ingestão de alimentos fonte de proteína e ferro, tais como a carne e o feijão, substituídos por alimentos fonte de proteína e cálcio (leite e derivados, o que remete a hipótese de que o lanche está tomando o lugar do jantar. O desjejum é a refeição mais negligenciada pelos adolescentes estudados. Faz-se necessário controlar a ingestão de alimentos entre as três refeições, pois esta poderá estar contribuindo de duas formas: favorecendo o consumo de nutrientes que poderiam estar deficientes ou, por outro lado, agravando quadros tais como obesidade entre outros.A study was carried out on a group of 153 students of both sexes, with an average age of 14.0 + 1.5 years, using a self-applied questionnaire, aiming to discover the feeding practices of adolescents. A qualitative analysis of the three main daily meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner in comparison with an established standard was made. It was found that 45% of the adolescents (44% boys and 56%, girls took breakfast. Lunch was taken by 76% of the adolescents (36% boys and 64% girls. With regard to dinner, taken by 53% (40% boys and 60% girls, it was found to be constituted, basically, of the same foodstuffs and/or preparations of their lunch, though with a reduction in food sources of protein and iron, such as meat and beans, replace by food sources of protein and

  12. Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, Feeding Practices, and Weight Status in 4–12 Year-Old Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R.; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding s...

  13. Predicting children's fussiness with vegetables:the role of feeding practices

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Clare E.; Haycraft, Emma; Farrow, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables are commonly rejected by children, making it is important to consider factors that are associated with children's fussiness with vegetables. The current study aimed to investigate whether fussiness with vegetables is associated with a number of factors including caregiver and child vegetable consumption; caregivers' general feeding practices; and caregivers' vegetable-specific feeding practices. Caregivers (N = 297) of preschool children completed questionnaire measures of their ch...

  14. Acceptability of evidence-based neonatal care practices in rural Uganda – implications for programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiguli Juliet

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence-based interventions to reach the Millennium Development Goals for Maternal and Neonatal mortality reduction exist, they have not yet been operationalised and scaled up in Sub-Saharan African cultural and health systems. A key concern is whether these internationally recommended practices are acceptable and will be demanded by the target community. We explored the acceptability of these interventions in two rural districts of Uganda. Methods We conducted 10 focus group discussions consisting of mothers, fathers, grand parents and child minders (older children who take care of other children. We also did 10 key informant interviews with health workers and traditional birth attendants. Results Most maternal and newborn recommended practices are acceptable to both the community and to health service providers. However, health system and community barriers were prevalent and will need to be overcome for better neonatal outcomes. Pregnant women did not comprehend the importance of attending antenatal care early or more than once unless they felt ill. Women prefer to deliver in health facilities but most do not do so because they cannot afford the cost of drugs and supplies which are demanded in a situation of poverty and limited male support. Postnatal care is non-existent. For the newborn, delayed bathing and putting nothing on the umbilical cord were neither acceptable to parents nor to health providers, requiring negotiation of alternative practices. Conclusion The recommended maternal-newborn practices are generally acceptable to the community and health service providers, but often are not practiced due to health systems and community barriers. Communities associate the need for antenatal care attendance with feeling ill, and postnatal care is non-existent in this region. Health promotion programs to improve newborn care must prioritize postnatal care, and take into account the local socio-cultural situation

  15. Acceptability of evidence-based neonatal care practices in rural Uganda - implications for programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiswa, Peter; Kemigisa, Margaret; Kiguli, Juliet; Naikoba, Sarah; Pariyo, George W; Peterson, Stefan

    2008-06-21

    Although evidence-based interventions to reach the Millennium Development Goals for Maternal and Neonatal mortality reduction exist, they have not yet been operationalised and scaled up in Sub-Saharan African cultural and health systems. A key concern is whether these internationally recommended practices are acceptable and will be demanded by the target community. We explored the acceptability of these interventions in two rural districts of Uganda. We conducted 10 focus group discussions consisting of mothers, fathers, grand parents and child minders (older children who take care of other children). We also did 10 key informant interviews with health workers and traditional birth attendants. Most maternal and newborn recommended practices are acceptable to both the community and to health service providers. However, health system and community barriers were prevalent and will need to be overcome for better neonatal outcomes. Pregnant women did not comprehend the importance of attending antenatal care early or more than once unless they felt ill. Women prefer to deliver in health facilities but most do not do so because they cannot afford the cost of drugs and supplies which are demanded in a situation of poverty and limited male support. Postnatal care is non-existent. For the newborn, delayed bathing and putting nothing on the umbilical cord were neither acceptable to parents nor to health providers, requiring negotiation of alternative practices. The recommended maternal-newborn practices are generally acceptable to the community and health service providers, but often are not practiced due to health systems and community barriers. Communities associate the need for antenatal care attendance with feeling ill, and postnatal care is non-existent in this region. Health promotion programs to improve newborn care must prioritize postnatal care, and take into account the local socio-cultural situation and health systems barriers including the financial burden. Male

  16. Adolescents' perception of parental feeding practices: Adaptation and validation of the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire for Brazilian adolescents-The CFPQ-Teen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Bein Piccoli

    Full Text Available Parental feeding practices may play a key role in dietary habits and nutritional status of adolescents, but research from adolescents' point of view on this topic is scarce.To adapt and validate an instrument of parental feeding practices as perceived by adolescents in a Brazilian setting.The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire was translated into Portuguese and adapted to be answered by adolescents (ages 12 to 18. Content analysis and FACE validity to assess cultural equivalence was undertaken by experts in the adolescent nutritional and psychological fields. Pilot study was evaluated in 23 adolescents. The final version was administered to 41 students to assess instrument reproducibility (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha and construct validity (Confirmatory Factor Analysis were assessed in a third sample of 307 adolescents.Experts and adolescents considered content validity as appropriate. In reproducibility analysis (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, 10 of the 12 factors were above 0.7. The factors "teaching about nutrition" and "food as reward" obtained values of 0.60 and 0.68, respectively. The Cronbach's Alpha of the whole scale was 0.83 and alphas for subscales ranged from 0.52 to 0.85; the factors "teaching about nutrition" and "food as a reward" had the lowest values (0.52. After removing these two factors, the Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated that the structural model was appropriate. The final scale was made up of 10 factors with 43 questions.The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire-Teen demonstrates validity and reliability, and is a suitable tool to evaluate the perceptions of adolescents regarding parental feeding practices.

  17. A Study Of Infant Feeding Practices And The Underlying Factors In A Rural Area Of Delhi

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    Taneja D. K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: 1. What are the infant feeding practices in a rural area? 2. What are the reasons underlying the harmful infant feeding practices? Objectives: 1. To study feeding practices among infants. 2. To find out the factors underlying various harmful practices. 3. To find out the sources of information/advice for the prevailing practices. 4. To determine Whether the Practice of giving diluted animal milk to infants is associated with type of family, caste or educational status of mother. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Rural field practice center of a Medical College in Delhi. Participants: Mothers of infants 6-9 Months of age, attending immunization clinic. Statistical analysis: Percentage, chi square test. Results: Water was commonly given to breast fed babies and top feeds introduced early. Consequently exclusive breast-feeding was uncommon. Semisolids were started late and diluted animal milk was commonly given to infants; as mothers often thought that child can not digest semisolids or undiluted milk. Milk was also diluted for economic reasons. Insufficient breast milk, illness of mother or child were cited as main reasons for early introduction of top milk.

  18. A focused ethnographic assessment of Middle Eastern mothers' infant feeding practices in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the barriers to following complementary feeding guidelines among Middle Eastern mothers and the cultural considerations of practitioners from an emic perspective. This is a two-phase focused ethnographic assessment of infant feeding among 22 Middle Eastern mothers in Western Canada who had healthy infants aged foods was whether or not foods were Halal, while food allergens were not causes for concern. Vitamin D supplements were not fed to 18/22 of infants, and mashed dates (Halawi), rice pudding (Muhallabia/Ferni) and sugared water/tea were the first complementary foods commonly consumed. Through constant comparison of qualitative data, three layers of influence emerged, which described mothers' process of infant feeding: socio-cultural, health care system and personal factors. Culture was an umbrella theme influencing all aspects of infant feeding decisions. Mothers cited health care professionals' lack of cultural considerations and lack of relevance and practicality of infant feeding guidelines as the main reasons for ignoring infant feeding recommendations. Early introduction of pre-lacteal feeds and inappropriate types of foods fed to infants among immigrant/refugee Middle Eastern mothers in Canada is cause of concern. Involving trained language interpreters in health teams and educating health care staff on cultural competency may potentially increase maternal trust in the health care system and eventually lead to increased awareness of and adherence to best practices with infant feeding recommendations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Professional practice of dietitians in the Brazilian School Feeding Program: A multiple case study

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    Patrícia Fernanda Ferreira PIRES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess dietician’s numerical parameters for school feeding and discuss limitations and possibilities for professional practice in the municipalities of Vale do Ivaí, in Northern Paraná, Brazil. Methods: This is a multiple case study. A semi-structured interview was administered to dietitians working at the School Feeding Program in nine cities located in Vale do Ivaí, Paraná, Brazil. Resolution nº 465/2010, from the Brazilian Federal Board of Dietitians, was used to calculate the adequacy of working hours of dietitians. The legistation of the Brazilian School Feeding Program was applied to discuss professional practice. Results: All the cities had at least one dietitian responsible for the School Feeding Program. The percentage of adequate working hours was from 20 to 66%. Some dietitians were involved in management activities, administration, procurement, and accounting, in addition to dietitian assignments for the School Feeding Program. Most dietitians worked in other sectors of the municipalities such as the health system, social assistance, and at events. This practice could compromise compliance of technical activities that must be met by the dietitians of the School Feeding Program. Conclusion: The number of dietitians in most of cities working at School Feeding Program is not sufficient to meet the number of students. The insuficient workload and excessive activities could hinder the development of dietitian’s private activities. The hiring of nutrition and dietitian technicians and administrative assistants for bureaucratic activies is recommended.

  20. Single Visit Feeding Appliance for 1-day-old Neonate with Cleft Palate Using Safe Dental Putty-Gauze Hybrid Impression Technique for Maxillary Impression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies of humans. Intraoral impression making is the first clinical step in the fabrication of feeding appliance for infants with oro-nasal communication. It is difficult to control the flow of the impression material in the cleft area and undercuts in a child patient. This clinical report presents a simple and safe impression technique for maxillary impression making in neonates and infants with cleft palate. A gauze piece was used to confine the impression material during functional movements of sucking while impression making in an awake child to avoid the risk of aspiration or swallowing.

  1. Complementary Feeding Practice of Mothers and Associated Factors in Hiwot Fana Specialized Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semahegn, Agumasie; Girma, Gezahegn Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background:- In developing world infant and child mortality remain quite high. Malnutrition remains one of the main public health problems in Ethiopia that contributing to 53% of infant and child mortality. Over one third of under-five mortality is caused by under nutrition related to inadequate complementary feeding. Child feeding behaviors are an evidence that having important for a children intellectual, health and survival. Therefore, the objective of the study was to assess of complementary feeding practice of mothers to their young child. Method:- Cross sectional study design was conducted to assess complementary feeding practice of mothers to their young children in Hiwot Fana specialized hospital in January 2013. Two hundred mothers to child pairs were participate in the study to assess their timely initiation practice of complementary feeding and associated factors. Data were collected by using semi-structured questionnaire for face to face interview method. Descriptive statistics, binary and multiple logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Results: The prevalence of timely initiate of complementary feeding was 60.5%. Nineteen percent of mothers were initiating complementary feeding early (before 6 months). The reason for too early initiation of complementary feeding was lack of knowledge and perceived inadequate breast milk production by mothers were 17(47.2%), 11(30.6%) respectively. Mothers have male child three times more likely timely initiate complementary feeding than female child [AOR = 2.9, 95% CI, 1.2, 7.3]. This might be due to traditional gender norm that discriminate female feeding “female eat little talk little” this might start at early age life. Conclusion: More than half of them initiated complementary feeding timely which was low. The main reason reported by the mothers for early initiation of complementary feeding was lack of knowledge. Mothers who have male child were three times more likely timely initiate

  2. Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2014-03-01

    Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Meta-Analysis: Colostrum Feeding Practices in Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Manish Chaturvedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the natural first food for babies. It continues to provide up to half or more of the child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the first year, and up to one third during the second year of life. Breastfeeding is the safest, least allergic and best infant feeding method. It has nutritional, immunological, behavioral and economic benefits and provides desirable mother infant bonding. Objective: To do the meta- analysis of Colostrum feeding practices of baseline study of 2004 with other studies conducted after 2004 in Uttar Pradesh. Material & Methods: The Baseline study on Colostrum feeding practices in Uttar Pradesh was done in 2004. The meta-analysis was done taking seven other studies following this one taking same variable. Results: In baseline study of 2004, the colostrum given was found to be 22.22%. Conclusion: Deprivation from colostrum feeding and suboptimal breast feeding practices are significant risk factors for under-nutrition among under-fives. There is need for promotion and protection of optimal breast feeding practices for improving nutritional status of children.

  4. A Meta-Analysis: Colostrum Feeding Practices in Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Chaturvedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the natural first food for babies. It continues to provide up to half or more of the child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the first year, and up to one third during the second year of life. Breastfeeding is the safest, least allergic and best infant feeding method. It has nutritional, immunological, behavioral and economic benefits and provides desirable mother infant bonding.Objective: To do the meta- analysis of Colostrum feeding practices of baseline study of 2004 with other studies conducted after 2004 in Uttar Pradesh.Material & Methods: The Baseline study on Colostrum feeding practices in Uttar Pradesh was done in 2004. The meta-analysis was done taking seven other studies following this one taking same variable.Results: In baseline study of 2004, the colostrum given was found to be 22.22%.Conclusion: Deprivation from colostrum feeding and suboptimal breast feeding practices are significant risk factors for under-nutrition among under-fives. There is need for promotion and protection of optimal breast feeding practices for improving nutritional status of children.

  5. Infant Feeding and Care Practices of Mothers in Igbesa and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study examined the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and its duration; complementary feeding and care practices of the mothers. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred nursing mothers were randomly selected from the ten communities that make up the area under study. Data were collected using a ...

  6. Consent for routine neonatal procedures: A study of practices in Irish neonatal units. How do we compare with the gold standard BAPM guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M A; Ryan, C A; Dempsey, E; O'Connell, R

    2017-06-09

    The Irish National Consent Policy (NCP) proposes that the legal requirement for consent extends to all forms of interventions, investigations and treatment, carried out on or behalf of the Health Service Executive (HSE). This study employs a quantitative descriptive approach to investigate the practices for obtaining consent for an identified group of routine neonatal procedures in neonatal facilities throughout Ireland. The BAPM (British Association of Perinatal Medicine) guidelines were identified as 'gold standard' for the purposes of this study. The results indicated a lack of consistency between participating units pertaining to the modes of consent utilised and notable variances from 'gold standard' guidelines. Unanimity was evident for 3 procedures only (administering BCG, 6-in-1, and donor breast milk to infant). Significant findings related to EEG with video recordings, MRI/CT and gastro intestinal imaging, screening of an infant with suspected substance abuse or retinopathy of prematurity screening (ROP), administration of Vitamin K, and the carrying out of a lumbar puncture.

  7. Integrating Characterization of Smallholders’ Feeding Practices with On-Farm Feeding Trials to Improve Utilization of Crop Residues on Smallholder Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. O. Kashongwe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized wheat straw feeding practices in smallholder farms using cross sectional survey and the results informed the design of an experiment to improve the nutritive value of wheat straw with urea and yeast culture treatment. Three diets tested in 49 days’ feeding trial were farmers’ rainy season feeding practice (FP, addition of urea to wheat straw at the time of feeding (USWS, and 14 days’ incubation of straw with urea (UTWS. Yeast culture (15 g/day was mixed with commercial dairy meal at the point of feeding. Survey data identified farmers’ strategies in utilizing crop residues of which most important were improving storage facility (77.6%, adding molasses (54.5%, and buying a shredding machine (45.1%. On-farm feeding trial showed that intake was higher for UTWS than (p<0.05 for USWS while milk yield was higher with FP than (p<0.005 with UTWS or USWS but not different (p≥0.05 between UTWS and USWS. Results imply that farmers feeding practices of crop residues may be improved for dairy cows’ feeding and therefore UTWS could be used to support maintenance and milk production during dry season. Improving farmers feed storage facilities and training on incubation of wheat straw for dairy cattle feeding were recommended.

  8. Core measures for developmentally supportive care in neonatal intensive care units: theory, precedence and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Mary; Gibbins, Sharyn; Hoath, Steven

    2009-10-01

    This paper is a discussion of evidence-based core measures for developmental care in neonatal intensive care units. Inconsistent definition, application and evaluation of developmental care have resulted in criticism of its scientific merit. The key concept guiding data organization in this paper is the United States of America's Joint Commission's concept of 'core measures' for evaluating and accrediting healthcare organizations. This concept is applied to five disease- and procedure-independent measures based on the Universe of Developmental Care model. Electronically accessible, peer reviewed studies on developmental care published in English were culled for data supporting the selected objective core measures between 1978 and 2008. The quality of evidence was based on a structured predetermined format that included three independent reviewers. Systematic reviews and randomized control trials were considered the strongest level of evidence. When unavailable, cohort, case control, consensus statements and qualitative methods were considered the strongest level of evidence for a particular clinical issue. Five core measure sets for evidence-based developmental care were evaluated: (1) protected sleep, (2) pain and stress assessment and management, (3) developmental activities of daily living, (4) family-centred care, and (5) the healing environment. These five categories reflect recurring themes that emerged from the literature review regarding developmentally supportive care and quality caring practices in neonatal populations. This practice model provides clear metrics for nursing actions having an impact on the hospital experience of infant-family dyads. Standardized disease-independent core measures for developmental care establish minimum evidence-based practice expectations and offer an objective basis for cross-institutional comparison of developmental care programmes.

  9. Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, Feeding Practices, and Weight Status in 4–12 Year-Old Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R.; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles, and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4–12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: seven longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, one randomized control trial. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviors and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal, carefully

  10. Parenting Styles, Feeding Styles, Feeding Practices, and Weight Status in 4-12 Year-Old Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shloim, Netalie; Edelson, Lisa R; Martin, Nathalie; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles, and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and body mass index (BMI) in children. Medline (Ovid), PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4-12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: seven longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, one randomized control trial. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviors and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal, carefully

  11. Parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices and weight status in 4-12 year-old children: A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netalie eShloim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood is a critical period in the development of obesity. Eating patterns established early in life track into later life. Therefore, parental approaches to feeding in their general parenting style, feeding styles and specific feeding practices will have a profound impact on how children eat and grow. A systematic research review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify, discuss and integrate recent research investigating the relationship between parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices and body mass index (BMI in children. Medline (Ovid, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Food Science and Technology Abstracts were systematically searched using sensitive search strategies. Studies were limited to papers published in English between 2010 and February 2015 with participants aged 4 to 12 years old with outcomes including obesity, change in weight, or BMI. The search yielded 31 relevant quantitative peer-reviewed papers meeting all inclusion criteria: 7 longitudinal, 23 cross-sectional, 1 randomised control trial.. Associations between parenting style and child BMI were strongest and most consistent within the longitudinal studies. Uninvolved, indulgent or highly protective parenting was associated with higher child BMI, whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a healthy BMI. Similarly for feeding styles, indulgent feeding was consistently associated with risk of obesity within cross-sectional studies. Specific feeding practices such as restriction and pressure to eat were linked to BMI, especially within cross-sectional studies. Where child traits were measured, the feeding practice appeared to be responsive to the child, therefore restriction was applied to children with a high BMI and pressure to eat applied to children with a lower BMI. Behaviours and styles that are specific to the feeding context are consistently associated with child BMI. However, since obesity emerges over time, it is through longitudinal

  12. Associations between child emotional eating and general parenting style, feeding practices, and parent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Abby; Rhee, Kyung; Peterson, Carol B; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-09-01

    Emotional eating is the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions. Prior research has identified a relationship between parenting style and child emotional eating, but this has not been examined in clinical samples. Furthermore, the relationship between specific parenting practices (e.g., parent feeding practices) and child emotional eating has not yet been investigated. The current study examined relationships between child emotional eating and both general and specific parenting constructs as well as maternal symptoms of depression and binge eating among a treatment-seeking sample of overweight children. Participants included 106 mother-child dyads who attended a baseline assessment for enrollment in a behavioral intervention for overeating. Ages of children ranged from 8 to 12  years old. Mothers completed self-report measures of their child's emotional eating behavior, their own feeding practices, and symptoms of depression and binge eating. Children completed a self-report measure of their mothers' general parenting style. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify the parent variable that was most strongly related to child emotional eating, controlling for child age and gender. Emotional feeding behavior (i.e., a tendency to offer food to soothe a child's negative emotions) was the parent factor most significantly related to child emotional eating. Findings suggest that emotional feeding practices in parents may be related to emotional eating in children. Treatment with overweight children who engage in emotional eating may be improved by targeting parent feeding practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Validation of an instrument to assess toddler feeding practices of Latino mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, Virginia; Kaiser, Lucia L

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes qualitative and quantitative aspects of testing a 34-item Toddler-Feeding Questionnaire (TFQ), designed for use in Latino families, and the associations between feeding practices and toddler dietary outcomes. Qualitative methods included review by an expert panel for content validity and cognitive testing of the tool to assess face validity. Quantitative analyses included use of exploratory factor analysis for construct validity; Pearson's correlations for test-retest reliability; Cronbach's alpha (α) for internal reliability; and multivariate regression for investigating relationships between feeding practices and toddler diet and anthropometry. Interviews were conducted using a convenience sample of 94 Latino mother and toddler dyads obtained largely through the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Data collection included household characteristics, self-reported early-infant feeding practices, the toddler's dietary intake, and anthropometric measurements. Factor analysis suggests the TFQ contains three subscales: indulgent; authoritative; and environmental influences. The TFQ demonstrated acceptable reliability for most measures. As hypothesized, indulgent practices in Latino toddlers were associated with increased energy consumption and higher intakes of total fat, saturated fat, and sweetened beverages. This tool may be useful in future research exploring the relationship of toddler feeding practices to nutritional outcomes in Latino families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sedation and analgesia practices in neonatal intensive care units (EUROPAIN): results from a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbajal, Ricardo; Eriksson, Mats; Courtois, Emilie; Boyle, Elaine; Avila-Alvarez, Alejandro; Andersen, Randi Dovland; Sarafidis, Kosmas; Polkki, Tarja; Matos, Cristina; Lago, Paola; Papadouri, Thalia; Montalto, Simon Attard; Ilmoja, Mari-Liis; Simons, Sinno; Tameliene, Rasa; van Overmeire, Bart; Berger, Angelika; Dobrzanska, Anna; Schroth, Michael; Bergqvist, Lena; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Anand, Kanwaljeet J. S.; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Trinkl, Anna; Deindl, Philipp; Wald, Martin; Rigo, Vincent; Dussart, Anneliese; Dierckx, Elke; Coppens, Sophie; Kiilsapaa, Birgit; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Metsäranta, Marjo; Nikolajev, Kari; Saarela, Timo; Peltoniemi, Outi; Tammela, Outi; Lehtonen, Liisa; Savagner, Christophe; Sevestre, Anna; Alexandre, Cénéric; Bouchon-Guedj, Nathalie; Saumureau, Simone; Grosse, Camille; Jouvencel, Philippe; Ramful, Duksha; Clamadieu, Catherine; Mourdie, Julien; Montcho, Yannis; Cambonie, Gilles; Di Maio, Massimo; Patural, Hugues; Asrtuc, Dominique; Norbert, Karine; Bouchera, Kassis; Lang, Mathieu; Galene Gromez, Sophie; Hamon, Isabelle; Nolent, Paul; Ntwari, René-Christian; Lallemant, Carine; Chary Tardy, Anne Cécile; Pelluau, Sonia; Roue, Jean Michel; Picaud, Jean Charles; Camelio, Aurélie; Tourneux, Pierre; Saint-Faust, Marie; Morville, Patrice; David, Alexandra; Theret, Bernard; Frédérique, Martin; Topf, Georg; Menendez-Castro, Ricardo; Fujiwara-Pichler, Erhard; Deeg, Karl Heinz; Anatolitou, Fani; Baroutis, George; Papazafeiratou, Chrissoulan; Giannakopoulou, Christine; Baltogianni, Maria; Delivoria, Varvara; Sterpi, Magdalena; Saklamaki-Kontou, Melpomeni; Dimitriou, Gabriel; Charitou, Antonia; Thomaidou, Agathi; Chatziioannidis, Ilias; Salvanos, Iraklis; Pirelli, Anna; Poggiani, Carlo; Fasolato, Valeria; Cristofori, Gloria; Gomirato, Serena; Allegro, Antonella; Alfiero, Michela; Biban, Paolo; Bertolini, Alessandra; Golin, Rosanna; Franco, Elena; Molinaro, Grazia; Federica, Visintini; Rossini, Roberto; Garetti, Elisabetta; Faraoni, Maddalena; Dani, Carlo; Germini, Cristina; Braguglia, Annabella; Benigni, Gina; Azzali, Adriano; Santa, Barresi; Romoli, Raffaella; Carrera, Giuseppe; Miria, Natile; Savant, Patrizia; Cossu, Maria Antonia; Giancarlo, Gargano; Cassar, Robert; Bos, Annelis; van Kaam, Anton; Brouwer, Mieke; van Lingen, Richard; Bambang Oetomo, Sidarto; Sivertsen, Wiebke; Nakstad, Britt; Solhjell, Kari; Flagstad, Gro; Salvesen, Bodil; Nessestrand, Ingunn A. M.; Nordhov, Marianne; Anderssen, Sven-Harald; Wasland, Kristin; Danielsen, Kåre; Kristoffersen, Laila Marie; Ytterdahl Bergland, Unni; Borghild Stornes, Randi; Andresen, Jannicke; Solberg, Rønnaug; Hochnowski, Kristoffer; Terpinska, Ewa; Kociszewska-Najman, Bozena; Melka, Andrzej; Głuszczak, Ewa; Niezgoda, Anna; Borszewska-Kornacka, Maria Katarzyna; Witwicki, Jacek M.; Korbal, Piotr; Ramos, Helena; Garcia, Pedro; Machado, Cidália; Clemente, Fátima; Costa, Miguel; Trindade, Cristina; Salazar, Anabela; Martins Barroso, Laura; Resende, Cristine; Afonso, Maria Eulàlia; Torres, Jacinto; Maciel, Paula; Nunes, José Luis; Neve Dos Santos, Vera Alexandra; Melgar Bonis, Ana; Euba Lopez, Aintzane; Tapia Collados, Caridad; Jesus Ripalda, María; Solis Sanchez, Gonzalo; Martin Parra, Belén; Botet, Francesc; Fernandez Trisac, Jose Luis; Elorza Fernandez, María Dolores; Arriaga Redondo, María; Bargallo Ailagas, Eva; Saenz, Pilar; Lopez Ortego, Paloma; Ventura, Purificación; Galve, Zenaida; Perez Ocon, Amaya; Crespo Suarez, Pilar; Dianez Vega, Gloria; San Feliciano, Laura; Herranz Carillo, Gloria; Esteban Diez, Inés; Reyné, Mar; Garcia Borau, María José; de Las Cuevas, Isabel; Couce, María L.; González Carrasco, Ersilia; Montoro Exposito, Aurora; Concheiro Guisan, Ana; Luna Lagares, Salud; Sanchez Redondo, Maria Dolores; Hellström Westas, Lena; Moren, Stefan; Norman, Elisabeth; Olsson, Emma; Åberg, Emma; Printz, Gordana; Turner, Mark; McBride, Tim; Bomont, Robert; Webb, Delyth; Saladi, Murthy; Thirumurugan, Arumugavelu; Brooke, Nigel; Skene, Caryl; Bilolikar, Harsha; Noble, Vibert; Vora, Amish; Thompson, Fiona; Deorukhkar, Anjum; El-Refee, Sherif; McIntyre, John; Millman, Guy; Reed, Joanne; Babirecki, Matthew; Kumar, Dev; Yadav, Mahesh; O'Brien, Margaret; Gasiorowski, Edward Robert; Rawlingson, Chris; Shastri, Aravind; Tibby, Shane; Walsh, Sandra; Azzopardi, Denis; Soe, Aung; MaCrae, Duncan; Eyre, Elizabeth; Menon, Gopi; Gupta, Samir; James, Anitha; Surana, Pinki; Adams, Eleri; Wolf, Andrew; Maxwell, Nicola; Wagstaff, Miles; Mann, Rebecca; Kumar, Yadlapalli; Quinn, Michael; Jones Dyson, Steve; Mannix, Paul; Morris, Kevin; Ewer, Andrew; Gurusamy, Kalyana; Deshpande, Sanjeev; Alexander, John; Blake, Kathryn; Kumar, Siva; Oddie, Sam; Ohadike, Pamela; McKechnie, Liz; Gibson, David; Shirsalkar, Anand; Suryanarayanan, Balaji; Hubbard, Marie; Lal, Mithilesh; Ali, Imdad; Shah, Divyen; Sketchley, Suzanne; Gupta, Richa; Schofield, Joanne; Ezzat, Medhat; Mupanemunda, Richard; Gallagher, Andrew; Kronsberg, Shari

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonates who are in pain or are stressed during care in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often given sedation or analgesia. We investigated the current use of sedation or analgesia in neonatal ICUs (NICUs) in European countries. Methods EUROPAIN (EUROpean Pain Audit In Neonates) was a

  16. Knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers related to infant feeding in the context of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liska Janse van Rensburg

    2016-10-01

    Objective: To determine the knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers in maternity wards in a regional hospital in Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa, regarding infant feeding in the context of HIV. Methods: For this descriptive cross-sectional study, all the healthcare workers in the maternity wards of Pelonomi Regional Hospital who voluntarily gave their consent during the scheduled meetings (n = 64, were enrolled and handed over the self-administered questionnaires. Results: Only 14% of the respondents considered themselves to be experts in HIV and infant feeding. Approximately 97% felt that breastfeeding was an excellent feeding choice provided proper guidelines were followed. However, 10% indicated that formula feeding is the safest feeding option. 45% stated that heat-treated breast milk is a good infant feeding option; however, 29% considered it a good infant feeding option but it requires too much work. Only 6% could comprehensively explain the term “exclusive breastfeeding” as per World Health Organisation (WHO definition. Confusion existed regarding the period for which an infant could be breastfed according to the newest WHO guidelines, with only 26% providing the correct answer. Twenty per cent reported that no risk exists for HIV transmission via breastfeeding if all the necessary guidelines are followed. Conclusion: Healthcare workers' knowledge did not conform favourably with the current WHO guidelines. These healthcare workers were actively involved in the care of patients in the maternity wards where HIV-infected mothers regularly seek counselling on infant feeding matters.

  17. Infectivity of Oryctes Nudivirus Produced on Cell Culture Dsir Ha-1179 Against Larvae and Its Effects on Feeding of Neonates of Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes Rhinoceros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ain Farhah Ros Saidon Khudri; Wahizatul Afzan Azmi; Ramle Moslim; Norman Kamarudin; Siti Ramlah Ahmad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Oryctes nudivirus (OrNV) is a classical biocontrol agent for a major oil palm insect pest the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros. The infectivity of three Malaysian indigenous types of OrNV types A, B and C were tested on larvae and neonates. On larvae, the peroral inoculation test technique indicated that the highest mortality of 100 % was achieved using type A produced from cell culture DSIR-HA-1179, while the highest infectivity of 41.7 % was recorded for type A prepared from infected guts. No differences in infectivity were observed on other treatments, which ranged from 13.1 % to 41.7 %. In the substrate contamination inoculation test technique, results showed that the level of infectivity was even lower in all OrNV treatments, ranging as low as 6.7 % to only 15.0 %. Low infectivity was mainly due to inactivation of virus inocula in the larval food substrates. Based on the results for both inoculation methods, the OrNV type C prepared from cell culture DSIR-HA-1179 was found more effective in controlling the L3 larvae than the other types of OrNV. The impact of OrNV infection on food consumption by the neonates was studied. The feeding of inoculated neonates with OrNV reduced rapidly, especially at the early stage of the experiment between eight days after treatment (DAT) to 16 DAT. At this period, the food consumption by all tested OrNV was rapidly reduced and maintained low until the experiment ended at 60 DAT. The highest feeding reduction rate was on neonates treated by type A (-0.074x) followed by neonates treated by type C (-0.053x) and type B (-0.035x). Therefore, it was suggested that besides on highly virulent, the selection of OrNV for field release should also based on high reduction rate on food consumption by the infected insects on plant hosts. (author)

  18. Food superstition, feeding practices and nutritional anthropometry of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food superstitions were held on foods like fufu, beans, snail, cocoa drink, okro, dika nut, etc. Conclusively, this research has revealed that 29% acknowledged that there is still an existence of food superstition among pregnant women that attend ante-natal in UNTH Ituku/Ozalla and about 19% of them still practice it.

  19. A qualitative approach for exploration of feeding practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    nutrition problem found in black preschool children is ... ment, culture, nutritional practices and food environ- ... teraction found in a group” (Morgan, 1988:12). ... Six major topics on nutrition of the child to be included ... any kind of qualitative analysis is the complete tran- ... the interview process and might only be present.

  20. Practical experiences with irradiation of laboratory animals' feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiker, D.

    1979-01-01

    The increasing need for well-defined, standardized experimental animals for research has led to the development of many new methods of keeping the animals free from pathogenic microorganisms. In this connection the problem of contaminated food has taken on ever greater significance. The methods most commonly used today, namely chemical treatment and heat treatment of the fodder, have many disadvantages and interest in the use of radiation sterilization has accordingly increased. The author discusses the various aspects of this method in relation to SPF animals and reports on the three years' experience of the Research Institute for Experimental Animal Breeding (University of Vienna) in Himberg with the use of exclusively radiation-treated diets in the rearing of rats and mice. The ease of handling irradiated fodder, the reliability of the method from the microbiological point of view and the excellent breeding results already obtained make this process - despite its somewhat higher cost - the best possible method of pasteurizing the feed of experimental animals. (author)

  1. Small ruminant feed systems: perceptions and practices in the transitional zone of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Zijpp Akke J

    2010-03-01

    and agronomic investigations into major feeds, the creation of non-cropping zones around village fringes and studies on labour demands of different feed systems are proposed. The insight gained in this study on farmers' perceptions and practices relating to small ruminant feeds could guide in the selection and introduction of feed innovations that fit into current feed systems to enhance adoption.

  2. Household Food Insecurity, Mother's Feeding Practices, and the Early Childhood's Iron Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarkia, Nahid; Neyestani, Tirang R; Omidvar, Nasrin; Zayeri, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Health consequences of food insecurity among infants and toddlers have not been fully examined. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between household food insecurity, mother's infant feeding practices and iron status of 6-24 months children. In this cross-sectional study, 423 mother-child pairs were randomly selected by multistage sampling method. Children blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations. Household food security was evaluated using a validated Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. The mother's feeding practices were evaluated using Infant and Young Child Feeding practice variables including: The duration of breastfeeding and the time of introducing of complementary feeding. Based on the results, of the studied households only 47.7% were food secure. Mild and moderate-severe household food insecurity was 39.5% and 12.8%, respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia were seen in 29.1%, 12.2%, and 4.8% of children, respectively. There was no significant association between household food insecurity; mother's feeding practices and child ID with or without anemia. We found no association between household food insecurity and the occurrence of anemia in the 6-24 months children. However, these findings do not rule out the possibility of other micronutrient deficiencies among the food-insecure household children.

  3. Breast milk banking: current opinion and practice in Australian neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Eva Y; Kecskés, Zsuzsoka; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed E

    2012-09-01

    To find out the knowledge and attitudes of health-care professionals (HCPs) in Australian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) towards breast milk banking (BMBg) and pasteurised donated breast milk (PDBM). Cross-sectional structured survey of HCPs in all 25 NICUs in Australia. Response rate was 43.4% (n= 358 of 825). Participants included nurses and midwives (291, 81.3%) and the remainder were neonatologists and neonatal trainees (67, 18.7%). A variable number of HCPs agreed that PDBM would decrease the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (81%) and allergies (48.9%), 8.4% thought PDBM will carry risk of infections and 78.8% agreed that PDBM is preferable over formula, but only 67.5% thought that establishing breast milk banks (BMBs) are justifiable. Significant differences were found between doctors and nurses/midwives, with 19.4% of doctors compared with 5.8% of nurses/midwives agreed that PDBM carried an increased risk of infection. Although, over 90% of nurses/midwives and 70% of doctors agreed that the donation of breast milk is important, only 71% of nurses/midwives and 52.2% of doctors thought that setting up a BMB was justifiable. The opinions about BMBg differ widely between HCPs; however, the majority support the practice. HCPs had different knowledge gaps in regard to BMBg. Nurses/midwives positively view the practice of BMBg more strongly compared with neonatologists. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Development of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiff Annie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing recognition that public health strategies to prevent childhood obesity need to start early in life. Any behavioural interventions need to target maternal attitudes and infant feeding practices, This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to assess maternal attitudes towards infant growth and milk feeding practices. Methods We designed a 57-item (19 questions, self-administered questionnaire to measure the following four domains- 1 type of milk feeding, decision making and sources of advice; 2 frequency and quantity of milk feeds; 3 attitudes to infant feeding and growth; and 4 theory-based beliefs about following infant feeding recommendations. Forty mothers completed the questionnaire on two occasions six days apart (to assess test-retest reliability and then participated in a semi-structured, open-ended telephone interview covering the same domains (to assess criterion validity. Percentage agreement, Cohen's Kappas (for categorical variables and Spearman's correlation coefficients (for continuous variables were used to quantify reliability and validity. Internal consistency between theory-based constructs (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention was quantified by Chronbach's alpha. Results Of the 57 questionnaire items 51 (89% had percentage agreement above 70% indicating good test-retest reliability, and the remaining 6 items had moderate or substantial levels of agreement (kappa 0.41-0.68. Comparing questionnaire with interview coding (validity, percentage agreement was above 66% for 39/57 items (68%. Of the 16 items with percentage agreement below 66%, only five had kappa values below 0.20 (two items had insufficient interview responses. Internal consistency was 0.51, 0.79 and 0.90 for self-efficacy, outcome expectancy and intention respectively. Conclusions This questionnaire could be a useful tool in understanding the determinants of infant feeding and

  5. Association between household food security and infant feeding practices in urban informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, T N; Ochola, S; Mutua, M K; Kimani-Murage, E W

    2018-02-01

    Studies in urban informal settlements show widespread inappropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and high rates of food insecurity. This study assessed the association between household food security and IYCF practices in two urban informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The study adopted a longitudinal design that involved a census sample of 1110 children less than 12 months of age and their mothers aged between 12 and 49 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information on: IYCF practices and household food security. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between food insecurity and IYFC practices. The findings showed high household food insecurity; only 19.5% of the households were food secure based on Household Insecurity Access Score. Infant feeding practices were inappropriate: 76% attained minimum meal frequency; 41% of the children attained a minimum dietary diversity; and 27% attained minimum acceptable diet. With the exception of the minimum meal frequency, infants living in food secure households were significantly more likely to achieve appropriate infant feeding practices than those in food insecure households: minimum meal frequency (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.26, P=0.530); minimum dietary diversity (AOR=1.84, P=0.046) and minimum acceptable diet (AOR=2.35, P=0.008). The study adds to the existing body of knowledge by demonstrating an association between household food security and infant feeding practices in low-income settings. The findings imply that interventions aimed at improving infant feeding practices and ultimately nutritional status need to also focus on improving household food security.

  6. Infants and young children feeding practices and nutritional status in two districts of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katepa-Bwalya, Mary; Mukonka, Victor; Kankasa, Chipepo; Masaninga, Freddie; Babaniyi, Olusegun; Siziya, Seter

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate feeding is important in improving nutrition and child survival. Documentation of knowledge of caregiver on infant feeding is scanty in Zambia. The aim of this study was to describe feeding practices and nutritional status among infants and young children (IYC) in two districts in Zambia: Kafue and Mazabuka. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and March 2006 using both quantitative and qualitative methods. A questionnaire was administered to caregiver of children aged under24 months. Lengths and weights of all children were measured. Focused group discussions were conducted in selected communities to assess parents or guardian knowledge, attitude and practice related to infant feeding. A total of 634 caregivers (361 from Kafue and 273 from Mazabuka) participated in the study. About 311/618 (54.0%) of the caregiver knew the definition and recommended duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and when to introduce complementary feeds. Two hundred and fifty-one (81.2%) out of 310 respondents had acquired this knowledge from the health workers. Only 145/481 (30.1%) of the respondents practiced exclusive breastfeeding up to six months with 56/626 (8.9%) of the mothers giving prelacteal feeds. Although 596/629 (94.8%) of the respondents reported that the child does not need anything other than breast milk in the first three days of life, only 318/630 (50.5%) of them considered colostrum to be good. Complementary feeds were introduced early before six months of age and were usually not of adequate quality and quantity. Three hundred and ninety-one (64%) out of 603 caregivers knew that there would be no harm to the child if exclusively breastfed up to six months. Most of the children's nutritional status was normal with 25/594 (4.2%) severely stunted, 10/596 (1.7%) severely underweight and 3/594 (0.5%) severely wasted. The caregiver in the communities knew about the recommended feeding practices, but this knowledge did not translate into good

  7. Malnourished Under-Five Children Feeding Practices in Cipacing Village 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Tresna Fujianti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal parenting, especially feeding practices, is very important in childhood period and may affect the child’s nutritional state. Proper nutrition affects the growth and development of children. The aim of this study is to describe parenting feeding practices in malnourished under-five children. Methods: A descriptive study on 43 mothers with malnourished under-five children aged 12−59 months was performed in Cipacing Village, Jatinangor, Sumedang during the periode of October−November 2012. Results: The composition of children based on their malnutrition status and description on good and poor parenting were presented in the result. Twenty two children (51.2% were severely under nourished, 18 children (41.9% were under nourished, and 3 children (7% experienced overweight. Good maternal parenting was identified in child nurturing (86%, feeding frequency (93%, feeding style (62.8%, and situation of feeding (74.4% while poor maternal parenting was observed in feeding time (55.8% and types of food given (51.2%. Conclusions: Maternal parenting plays an important role in children nutrition status.

  8. Cardiovascular MRI without sedation or general anesthesia using a feed-and-sleep technique in neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windram, Jonathan; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Shariat, Masoud; Greer, Mary-Louise; Yoo, Shi-Joon [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Crawford, Mark W. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Anesthesia, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    MRI in small children generally necessitates the use of general anesthesia. We describe our initial results with a new technique that we name the feed-and-sleep method, whereby an infant can undergo a cardiac MRI without the need for general anesthesia or sedation. The infant is fasted for 4 h prior to the scan and is then fed by his mother prior to the scan. He is then swaddled with 1 to 2 infant sheets before being placed in a vacuum-bag immobilizer. As air is removed from the bag, the immobilizer becomes a rigid cradle that fits the infant's body. We prioritize the sequences according to the purpose of the study and in the order of clinical importance. Between January 2010 and January 2011 a total of 20 infants with the median age 14.5 days (minimum 2 days, maximum 155 days) underwent CMR studies via this method. All were performed successfully with no distress to the infant. The median scan time was 46.5 min (minimum 20, maximum 66). All had complex congenital heart defects and all planned sequences were acquired with sufficient quality to allow accurate diagnosis and to plan appropriate surgery. Using this technique, infants younger than 6 months can complete a cardiovascular MRI without the need for sedation or general anesthesia. We advocate the incorporation of this safe and reliable technique into routine clinical practice. (orig.)

  9. Cardiovascular MRI without sedation or general anesthesia using a feed-and-sleep technique in neonates and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windram, Jonathan; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Shariat, Masoud; Greer, Mary-Louise; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Crawford, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    MRI in small children generally necessitates the use of general anesthesia. We describe our initial results with a new technique that we name the feed-and-sleep method, whereby an infant can undergo a cardiac MRI without the need for general anesthesia or sedation. The infant is fasted for 4 h prior to the scan and is then fed by his mother prior to the scan. He is then swaddled with 1 to 2 infant sheets before being placed in a vacuum-bag immobilizer. As air is removed from the bag, the immobilizer becomes a rigid cradle that fits the infant's body. We prioritize the sequences according to the purpose of the study and in the order of clinical importance. Between January 2010 and January 2011 a total of 20 infants with the median age 14.5 days (minimum 2 days, maximum 155 days) underwent CMR studies via this method. All were performed successfully with no distress to the infant. The median scan time was 46.5 min (minimum 20, maximum 66). All had complex congenital heart defects and all planned sequences were acquired with sufficient quality to allow accurate diagnosis and to plan appropriate surgery. Using this technique, infants younger than 6 months can complete a cardiovascular MRI without the need for sedation or general anesthesia. We advocate the incorporation of this safe and reliable technique into routine clinical practice. (orig.)

  10. Retrospective reports of parental feeding practices and emotional eating in adulthood: The role of food preoccupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Ruhl, Holly; Chow, Chong Man; Ellis, Lillian

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the role of food preoccupation as a potential mediator of the associations between parental feeding behaviors during childhood (i.e., restriction for weight, restriction for health, emotion regulation) and emotional eating in adulthood. Participants (N = 97, Mage = 20.3 years) recalled their parents' feeding behaviors during early and middle childhood and reported on current experiences of food preoccupation and emotional eating. Findings revealed that recalled parental feeding behaviors (restriction for weight, restriction for health, emotion regulation) and food preoccupation were positively associated with later emotional eating (correlations ranged from 0.21 to 0.55). In addition, recalled restriction for weight and emotion regulation feeding were positively associated with food preoccupation, r = 0.23 and 0.38, respectively. Further, food preoccupation mediated the association between emotion regulation feeding and later emotional eating (CI95% = 0.10 to 0.44). These findings indicate that parental feeding practices in childhood are related to food preoccupation, and that food preoccupation mediates the association between emotion regulation feeding in childhood and emotional eating in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parent-child feeding practices in a developing country: Findings from the Family Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Collins, Clare E; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee

    2018-06-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Malaysia, examination of family environmental factors is warranted. Reviews from developed countries report inconsistent findings on the relationship between parental-child feeding practices and child weight-related health outcomes. The current study aimed to examine parent-child feeding practices by familial-child characteristics in Malaysia. The Family Diet Study was conducted with urban Malay families and included a child aged 8-12 years and their main carer(s). Seven domains of parent-child feeding practices were assessed using the child feeding questionnaire and familial demographics, including socio-economic status, child anthropometry and dietary intake were collected. Inferential statistics were used to explore the relationships between variables. Of the 315 families enrolled, 236 completed all measures, with the majority of parent-reporters being mothers (n = 182). One-third of the children were classified as overweight/obese. Three domains of parent-child feeding practices had median scores of 4.0 out of 5.0 [concern about child overweight (CCO) (Interquartile range (IQR): 3.3, 4.7); pressure-to-eat (PTE) (IQR: 3.3, 4.5) and food monitoring (IQR: 3.0, 5.0)]. The domain of 'perceived child overweight' was positively associated with child age (r = 0.45, p parent-child feeding practices. Further research examining the cultural context of family environmental factors related to childhood obesity is warranted within Malaysia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-03-07

    Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped at dinner in their homes. Mothers were chosen from a larger study to create a 2 X 2 X 2 design: maternal ethnicity (African American vs. Latina) by child gender by child weight status (healthy weight vs. overweight/obese). Observers coded videotapes for a range of maternal feeding strategies and other behaviors. Many mothers spent considerable time encouraging eating--often in spite of the child's insistence that he or she was finished. Mothers talked little about food characteristics, rarely referred to feelings of hunger and fullness, and made more attempts to enforce table manners than to teach eating skills. Latina mothers showed higher levels of teaching eating skills and encouraging their children to eat; African American mothers showed higher levels of enforcing table manners and getting children to clear their plates. Mothers of boys used more unelaborated commands and less questions/suggestions than mothers of girls. Finally, compared to mothers of overweight/obese children, mothers of healthy weight children showed higher levels of encouraging eating and lower levels of discouraging eating. Most of the mothers in this study did not engage in feeding practices that are consistent with current recommendations. They did this, despite the fact that they knew they were being observed. These results should be used to inform future research about the motivations behind mothers' feeding practices and the development of interventions by helping identify areas in greatest need of change.

  13. Influence of Feeding Practices on Malnutrition in Haitian Infants and Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Irarrázaval

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Infant malnutrition remains an important cause of death and disability, and Haiti has the highest prevalence in the Americas. Therefore, preventive strategies are needed. Our aims were (1 To assess the prevalence of malnutrition among young children seen at a health center in Haiti; (2 Examine adherence to infant feeding practices recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO and the association to nutritional status. This cross-sectional study recruited children from the Saint Espri Health Center in Port Au Prince in 2014. We recorded feeding practices, socio-demographic data, and anthropometric measurements (WHO-2006. We evaluated 278 infants and children younger than two years old, aged 8.08 ± 6.5 months, 53.2% female. 18.35% were underweight (weight/age <−2 SD; 13.31% stunted (length/age <−2 SD, and 13.67% had moderate or severe wasting (weight/length <−2 SD. Malnutrition was associated with male gender, older age, lower maternal education level, and greater numbers of siblings (Chi2, p < 0.05. Adherence to recommended breastfeeding practices was 11.8–97.9%, and to complementary feeding practices was 9.7–90.3%. Adherence was associated with a lower prevalence of malnutrition. Conclusion: Prevalence of infant and young child malnutrition in this population is high. Adherence to WHO-recommended feeding practices was associated with a better nutritional status.

  14. An Assessment of the Breastfeeding Practices and Infant Feeding Pattern among Mothers in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashmika Motee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. While many mothers understand the importance of breastfeeding, others are less knowledgeable on the benefits of breastfeeding and weaning. The aim in here is to assess breastfeeding pattern, infant formula feeding pattern, and weaning introduction in Mauritius and to investigate the factors that influence infant nutrition. 500 mothers were interviewed using a questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on infant feeding practices. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS (version 13.0, whereby chi-square tests were used to evaluate relationships between different selected variables. The prevalence of breastfeeding practice in Mauritius has risen from 72% in 1991 to 93.4% as found in this study, while only 17.9% breastfed their children exclusively for the first 6 months, and the mean duration of EBF (exclusive breastfeeding is 2.10 months. Complementary feeding was more commonly initiated around 4–6 months (75.2%. Despite the fact that 60.6% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and 26.1% of mothers are found to breastfeed up to 2 years, the practice of EBF for the first 6 months is low (17.9%. Factors found to influence infant feeding practices are type of delivery, parity, alcohol consumption, occupation, education, and breast problems.

  15. The relationship between controlling feeding practices and boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nambiar, Smita; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-12-01

    Parental controlling feeding practices have been directly associated with maladaptive child eating behaviors, such as eating in the absence of hunger (EAH). The aims of this study were to examine EAH in very young children (3-4years old) and to investigate the association between maternal controlling feeding practices and energy intake from a standardized selection of snacks consumed 'in the absence of hunger'. Thirty-seven mother-child dyads enrolled in the NOURISH RCT participated in a modified EAH protocol conducted in the child's home. All children displayed EAH, despite 80% reporting to be full or very full following completion of lunch 15min earlier. The relationships between maternal and child covariates and controlling feeding practices and EAH were examined using non-parametric tests, and were stratified by child gender. For boys only, pressure to eat was positively associated with EAH. Neither restriction nor monitoring practices were associated with EAH in either boys or girls. Overall, the present findings suggest that gender differences in the relationship between maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviors emerge early and should be considered in future research and intervention design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayati Dyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (-scores aged ≥ 6 to Methods Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215 who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19% were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social

  17. Inadequate feeding practices and impaired growth among children from subsistence farming households in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael; Arbide, Isabel; Teshome, Aklilu; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2009-07-01

    Whether current child feeding practices and behaviours among rural households in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia conform to the World Health Organization (WHO) guiding principles for complementary feeding is uncertain. We assessed socio-demographic status, anthropometry, breastfeeding, complementary feeding practices and behaviours, and motor development milestones in a convenience sample of 97 breastfed children aged 6-23 months from three rural Sidama communities. Energy and nutrient intakes from complementary foods were also calculated from 1-day in-home weighed records. Prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% for infants aged 6-8 months to 52% for children aged 12-23 months, whereas for wasting, the corresponding prevalence was 10% and 14%, respectively. Very few children were exclusively breastfed up to 6 months of age (n = 2), or received solids/semi-solids for the recommended minimum number of times containing the recommended number of food groups. Responsive feeding was not practised and no cellular animal products were consumed. Median intakes of energy, and intakes and densities of micronutrients from complementary foods (but not protein) were below WHO recommendations, assuming average breast milk intakes; greatest shortfalls were for retinol, vitamin C and calcium densities. Mothers of stunted children were shorter and lighter, and from households of lower socio-economic status than non-stunted children (P feeding practices and behaviours, as well as prenatal influences on growth, are urgently required in this setting.

  18. Relationship between Parental Feeding Practices and Neural Responses to Food Cues in Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet A Allen

    Full Text Available Social context, specifically within the family, influences adolescent eating behaviours and thus their health. Little is known about the specific mechanisms underlying the effects of parental feeding practices on eating. We explored relationships between parental feeding practices and adolescent eating habits and brain activity in response to viewing food images. Fifty- seven adolescents (15 with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 21 obese and 21 healthy weight controls underwent fMRI scanning whilst viewing images of food or matched control images. Participants completed the Kids Child Feeding Questionnaire, the Childrens' Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ and took part in an observed meal. Parents completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionniare and the DEBQ. We were particularly interested in brain activity in response to food cues that was modulated by different feeding and eating styles. Healthy-weight participants increased activation (compared to the other groups to food in proportion to the level of parental restriction in visual areas of the brain such as right lateral occipital cortex (LOC, right temporal occipital cortex, left occipital fusiform gyrus, left lateral and superior LOC. Adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus had higher activation (compared to the other groups with increased parental restrictive feeding in areas relating to emotional control, attention and decision-making, such as posterior cingulate, precuneus, frontal operculum and right middle frontal gyrus. Participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus also showed higher activation (compared to the other groups in the left anterior intraparietal sulcus and angular gyrus when they also reported higher self restraint. Parental restriction did not modulate food responses in obese participants, but there was increased activity in visual (visual cortex, left LOC, left occipital fusiform gyrus and reward related brain areas (thalamus and parietal operculum in

  19. Relationship between Parental Feeding Practices and Neural Responses to Food Cues in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alison; Blissett, Jacqueline; Chechlacz, Magdalena; Barrett, Timothy; Higgs, Suzanne; Nouwen, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Social context, specifically within the family, influences adolescent eating behaviours and thus their health. Little is known about the specific mechanisms underlying the effects of parental feeding practices on eating. We explored relationships between parental feeding practices and adolescent eating habits and brain activity in response to viewing food images. Fifty- seven adolescents (15 with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 21 obese and 21 healthy weight controls) underwent fMRI scanning whilst viewing images of food or matched control images. Participants completed the Kids Child Feeding Questionnaire, the Childrens’ Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) and took part in an observed meal. Parents completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionniare and the DEBQ. We were particularly interested in brain activity in response to food cues that was modulated by different feeding and eating styles. Healthy-weight participants increased activation (compared to the other groups) to food in proportion to the level of parental restriction in visual areas of the brain such as right lateral occipital cortex (LOC), right temporal occipital cortex, left occipital fusiform gyrus, left lateral and superior LOC. Adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus had higher activation (compared to the other groups) with increased parental restrictive feeding in areas relating to emotional control, attention and decision-making, such as posterior cingulate, precuneus, frontal operculum and right middle frontal gyrus. Participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus also showed higher activation (compared to the other groups) in the left anterior intraparietal sulcus and angular gyrus when they also reported higher self restraint. Parental restriction did not modulate food responses in obese participants, but there was increased activity in visual (visual cortex, left LOC, left occipital fusiform gyrus) and reward related brain areas (thalamus and parietal operculum) in response to

  20. Parental feeding practices in relation to low diet quality and obesity among LSES children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entin, Anna; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Naggan, Lechaim; Vardi, Hillel; Shahar, Danit R

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relationships between parental feeding practices, diet quality, overweight, and obesity among low-socioeconomic status (LSES) preschoolers. A cohort of preschool children (aged 5-6) and their mothers was recruited from November 2009 to December 2009. To overcome seasonal and personal variation in dietary intake, 3 replications of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a parental Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) were obtained in person at baseline, 3 months from baseline, and 6 months from baseline. Anthropometric measurements were attained at preschool class on the same dates. Scores of the 12 factors of the CFPQ were calculated and related to dietary intake. Correlation coefficients between the mean energy and fat intake and CFPQ factors' scores were calculated. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc analyses was used to compare nutrient intake and anthropometric measures across CFPQ tertiles. Preschoolers (n = 63), aged 64.4 ± 5.0 months (47% boys), were recruited. Unhealthy feeding practices including food as a reward for good behavior and food restriction for promoting health were associated with increased consumption of junk food, sweets, and snacks. Among healthy feeding practices, encouraging balance and food variety and healthy eating modeled by parents were associated with increased vegetable consumption and smaller waist circumference. Weight was negatively associated with factors that reflect parental pressure and food restriction for weight control. Our data showed that certain feeding practices relate to a higher diet quality and lower weight and waist circumference. These practices may be encouraged in order to improve diet quality and prevent overweight and obesity.

  1. Breast feeding a sick child; can social media influence practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylod, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Breast milk represents optimum infant nutrition. The World Health Organization's recommendation that babies should be exclusively breastfed for a minimum of 6 months (Kramer & Kakuma, 2001) remains unchanged in its second decade (Kramer & Kakuma, 2014), which is acknowledged in industrialized countries by successive policies and guidelines for the promotion and care of breastfeeding in children's wards and departments. The known protective influence of breast milk in preventing the onset of disease in later life is of particular import for any sick infant, but the user voice as represented by Helen Calvert's Twitter campaign @heartmummy#hospitalbreastfeeding has united service user and professional voices to call for improved breastfeeding support in pediatric care. Although breastfeeding rates in industrialized countries drop markedly in the first 6 weeks, breastfed babies with cardiac conditions benefit from better oxygen saturations, faster weight gain, and shorter hospital stays. Unwell babies are most in need of the benefits of breast milk. However, families and staff overcome physical barriers to the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding, including lack of space, privacy, and separation of the maternal-infant dyad. Many women are motivated to breastfeed or express milk but are reluctant to approach health professionals for help and advice. Despite robust evidence and sound guidelines and policies, breastfeeding knowledge and experience amongst Child Health professionals is often inadequate and leaves them unable to support families. While @heartmummy#hospitalbreastfeeding highlights the issue, Child Health strategy needs investment in young people's long term health by increasing staff skills and focusing on breastfeeding as a core therapeutic intervention. Lactation Consultants could offer training, disseminate good practice, and address the needs of breastfeeding families.

  2. Sedation and analgesia practices at Italian neonatal intensive care units: results from the EUROPAIN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Paola; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Baraldi, Eugenio; Pozzato, Roberta; Courtois, Emilie; Rambaud, Jérôme; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Carbajal, Ricardo

    2017-03-07

    We aimed to examine current bedside analgesia/sedation (A/S) and pain assessment (PA) practices in Italian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in relation to the findings of an epidemiological European study and recently-introduced national guidelines. We analyzed the Italian data from the EUROPAIN (EUROpean-Pain-Audit-In-Neonates) prospective observational study on A/S practices that involved 6680 newborns admitted to tertiary-level NICUs in 18 European countries. Demographics, type of assisted ventilation, type and mode of A/S administration and PA were analyzed. Multivariate linear regression models were used to identify factors predicting A/S and PA practices. From October 1 st , 2012 to June 30 th , 2013, thirty Italian NICUs gathered data on 422 newborn: 131 on invasive ventilation (IV); 150 on noninvasive ventilation (NIV); and 141 on spontaneous ventilation (SV). A/S was documented for 35.3% of all infants admitted (86.3% IV; 17.3% NIV; 7.1% SV [p = 0.0001]), and varied considerably between NICUs (as reported in other European countries). Strong analgesics were used in 32.5% of cases, sedatives in 10.2%, mild analgesics in 3.8%. Fentanyl was used in 78.6% of cases, morphine in 8.4%, neuromuscular blockers in 5.3%, midazolam in 22.1%. The performance of PA was documented in 67.5% of all newborn (85.5% IV; 67.3% NIV; 51.1% SV [p = 0.001]). Illness severity, type of ventilation, bedside PA, and number of NICU beds were all factors associated with A/S use on multivariate analysis, while gestational age ≤ 32 weeks, and type of ventilation and presence of a pain team were associated with PA. We documented a generally widespread, but still highly variable use of A/S and PA at Italian NICUs, despite the diffusion of national guidelines. There is an urgent need to improve routine PA to enable customized pain and stress control (and prevention) in all infants. Clinical Trials.gov # NCT01694745 .

  3. Patterns of cultural consensus and intracultural diversity in Ghanaian complementary feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Nikhila; Pelto, Gretel; Tawiah, Charlotte; Zobrist, Stephanie; Milani, Peiman; Manu, Grace; Laar, Amos; Parker, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Designing effective interventions to improve infant and young child (IYC) feeding requires knowledge about determinants of current practices, including cultural factors. Current approaches to obtaining and using research on culture tend to assume cultural homogeneity within a population. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of cultural consensus (homogeneity) in communities where interventions to improve IYC feeding practices are needed to address undernutrition during the period of complementary feeding. A second, related objective was to identify the nature of intracultural variation, if such variation was evident. Selected protocols from the Focused Ethnographic Study for Infant and Young Child Feeding Manual were administered to samples of key informants and caregivers in a peri-urban and a rural area in Brong-Ahafo, Ghana. Cultural domain analysis techniques (free listing, caregiver assessment of culturally significant dimensions, and food ratings on these dimensions), as well as open-ended questions with exploratory probing, were used to obtain data on beliefs and related practices. Results reveal generally high cultural consensus on the 5 dimensions that were assessed (healthiness, appeal, child acceptance, convenience, and modernity) for caregiver decisions and on their ratings of individual foods. However, thematic analysis of caregiver narratives indicates that the meanings and content of the constructs connoted by the dimensions differed widely among individual mothers. These findings suggest that research on cultural factors that affect IYC practices, particularly cultural beliefs, should consider the nature and extent of cultural consensus and intracultural diversity, rather than assuming cultural homogeneity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A review of infant and young child feeding practice in hospital and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To describe infant and young child feeding practices at home and in hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Midlands, South .... Table 1 reflects the timing as well as the content of information ... frequency of meat consumption in the home was not determined. .... households do not have access to internet, the majority has a.

  5. Feeding Practices of Mothers from Varied Income and Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Borrelli, Amanda; Espinosa, Carolina; Worobey, Harriet S

    2013-11-01

    Relatively few investigators have explored the role of maternal control in describing the feeding behavior of nonwhite parents of preschool-age children. The present study was conducted to examine if controlling feeding behaviors (i.e., restriction and pressuring) varied by income (middle vs. low) and race/ethnicity (white vs. Hispanic), and if they were associated with the BMI of their 4-year-old offspring. Responses to the "restriction" and "pressure to eat" variables of the Child Feeding Questionnaire were compared between 51 white middle-income mothers and 49 Hispanic low-income mothers. Mothers from both groups gave predominantly "neutral" ratings in their self-reports of feeding practices. However, relative to the Hispanic mothers, white mothers indicated significantly less restriction and pressure to eat. Higher child BMI was predicted by male gender and being Hispanic. The utility of maternal feeding practices in predicting child overweight is discussed, and the significant association between the conceptually different constructs of restriction and pressure to eat is examined.

  6. Providers perspectives on self-regulation impact their use of responsive feeding practices in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; Speirs, Katherine E; Williams, Natalie A; Ramsay, Samantha; McBride, Brent A; Hatton-Bowers, Holly

    2017-11-01

    Supporting children's self-regulation in eating through caregivers' practice of responsive feeding is paramount to obesity prevention, and while much attention has been given to supporting children's self-regulation in eating through parents' responsive feeding practices in the home setting, little attention has been given to this issue in childcare settings. This qualitative study examines childcare providers' perspectives on using responsive feeding practices with young children (2-5years). Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with providers until saturation was reached. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. The final sample included 18 providers who were employed full-time in Head Start or state-licensed center-based childcare programs, cared for children (2-5y), and were directly responsible for serving meals and snacks. Providers were primarily (67%) employed in childcare programs that served children from low-income families and received reimbursement for meals and snacks from the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program. Three factors emerged that shaped childcare providers' experiences using responsive feeding practices: the providers' perspectives about whether or not young children can self-regulate food intake, their understanding of Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) portion size regulations, and the availability of food at the center where they worked. Future research should examine how childcare providers' understanding of children's ability to self-regulate their food intake, the appropriate use of the CACFP regulations in relationship to serving sizes, and having food available to offer seconds promotes providers' use of responsive feeding practices in center-based childcare programs and children's dietary behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Validity of the toddler feeding questionnaire for measuring parent authoritative and indulgent feeding practices which are associated with stress and health literacy among Latino parents of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerman, William J; Lounds-Taylor, Julie; Mitchell, Stephanie; Barkin, Shari L

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the contribution of parental feeding practices to childhood obesity among Latino children is a solution-oriented approach that can lead to interventions supporting healthy childhood growth and lowering rates of obesity. The purpose of this study was to confirm the reliability and validity of the Toddler Feeding Questionnaire (TFQ) to measure parental feeding practices among a sample of Spanish-speaking parent-preschool child pairs (n = 529), and to test the hypothesis that parent characteristics of body mass index (BMI), stress, and health literacy are associated with more indulgent and less authoritative feeding practices. Standardized parent-report questionnaires were completed during baseline interviews in a randomized controlled trial of an obesity prevention intervention. The TFQ includes subscales for indulgent practices (11 items), authoritative practices (7 items), and environmental influences (6 items) with response options scored on a 5-point Likert scale and averaged. Factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure. Internal consistency was good for indulgent (α = 0.66) and authoritative (α = 0.65) practices but lower for environmental (α = 0.48). Spearman correlation showed indulgent practices and environmental influences were associated with unhealthy child diet patterns, whereas authoritative practices were associated with a healthier child diet. Multivariate linear regression showed higher parent stress was associated with higher indulgent and lower authoritative scores; higher parent health literacy was positively associated with indulgent scores. These results indicate the TFQ is a valid measure of authoritative and indulgent parent feeding practices among Spanish-speaking parents of preschool-age children and that stress and health literacy, potentially modifiable parent characteristics, could be targeted to support healthy feeding practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal Knowledge and Practice in Mashhad City about Breast-feeding in First 6 -Month of Infant's Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tehranian

    2014-04-01

     breast-feeding. Average of maternal knowledge about exclusive breast-feeding was 19/818+4/545 of total score 28 and average of maternal practice was 7/106+2/338 of total score 12. Status of growth infants at 4/8% was very good and in 42/9% was good. There was a significant relationship between maternal practice about Breast-feeding and fathers' education, number of children, status of growth (P

  9. Infant feeding practices among mothers with and without HIV in Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nordstrand, Møyfrid Elin

    2012-01-01

    Master i samfunnsernæring The HIV prevalence in adults and children in South Africa is high. South Africa is also a country where the breastfeeding rate is low and the child mortality rate is high. HIV-infected mothers have to weigh the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) through breastfeeding versus the risk of other diseases from formula feeding when choosing infant feeding practice. In 2007 researches conducted a third and last wave in a panel survey in Khayelitsha. I...

  10. [Hunger strike and forced feeding: a historical look at medical practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Jean-Pierre; Huber-Giseke, Tina; Getaz, Laurent; Kramer-Gauchat, Marie-Claire; Nyffenegger, Laurent; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2010-12-01

    Hunger strike is not a disease but a common situation in prisons. This article takes a historical look at medical practices in connection with the forced feeding of hunger strikers. We now know the fate of the strikers who were subjected to forced feeding. Depending on the context and the political situation in the country, the fate of these people, mostly political prisoners, is described as humiliating and abominable frequently ending in death or irreparable consequences. Particularly difficult for health professionals, this act raises clinical, ethical and legal questions and refers to the fundamental principles of medicine.

  11. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying Toh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO, 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001. These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice.

  12. Perceptions of parents, nurses, and physicians on neonatal intensive care practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latour, Jos M.; Hazelzet, Jan A.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2010-01-01

    To identify satisfaction with neonatal intensive care as viewed by parents and healthcare professionals and to explore similarities and differences between parents and healthcare professionals. A 3-round Delphi method to identify neonatal care issues (round 1) and to determine the importance of

  13. Parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, and level of acculturation of Chinese Americans in relation to their school-age child's weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiao-Liang; Contento, Isobel

    2014-09-01

    Parents influence their child's eating behavior and attitudes directly as food providers and indirectly through their parental feeding styles and feeding concerns and practices. Chinese American parents' practices are likely influenced by culture. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, level of parental acculturation (LPA), and child weight status via a self-administered questionnaire. This survey study involved a convenience sample of 712 individuals who were parents of 5- to 10-year old children attending Chinese language after-school programs. The prevalence of overweight was 11.5% and obesity was 11.1%. LPA was not directly predictive of child overweight in multiple regression but from categorical data, Chinese American parents tended to use indulgent (33.2%) and authoritarian (27.9%) feeding styles, with the former increasing with acculturation and the latter decreasing. Indulgent parents had more than expected overweight and obese children, and authoritarian and authoritative parents, fewer. LPA was negatively predictive of pressure to eat healthy foods (p Parental perceptions and concerns about child weight were predictors of child weight. Consequently, parental concerns and responsiveness to child needs without also encouragement (demandingness) to eat healthy foods (indulgent feeding style) may promote overweight. The authoritative parental feeding style may contribute to children having healthy weights and therefore healthy lives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal attitudes and child-feeding practices: relationship with the BMI of Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uauy Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile has experienced the nutritional transition due to both social and economic progress. As a consequence, higher rates of overweight and obesity have been observed in children. In western countries, researchers have tried to determine pathways by which parents influence their children's eating behavior; up to now findings have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional and retrospective relationship between maternal attitudes and child-feeding practices and children's weight status in children who had been subject of an obesity prevention intervention for two years. Methods In 2006, for a cross-sectional study, a random sample of 232 children (125 girls, mean age 11.91 ± 1.56 y and 107 boys mean age 11.98 ± 1.51 y was selected from three primary schools from a small city called Casablanca. Weight and height were determined to assess their nutritional status, using body mass index (BMI z scores. Child-feeding practices and attitudes were determined cross-sectionally in 2006, using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ. To analyze the relationship between trends in weight change and child-feeding practices and attitudes, BMI z scores of all the 232 children in 2003 were used. Results Cross-sectionally, mothers of overweight children were significantly more concerned (P z score was positively correlated with concern for child's weight (r = 0.28, P z score between age 9 and 12 was positively correlated with concern for child's weight, but only in boys (r = 0.21, P z score at age 12. Conclusion Mothers of overweight children were more concerned with their children's weight; this indicated the Western negative attitude towards childhood overweight. None of the child-feeding practices were significantly correlated with a change in BMI z score.

  15. Infant feeding practices and its impact on the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition infant feeding practices and its impact on the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nanda

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein-Energy-Malnulrition is an important Public Hea Ith Problem among infants and young children. Though poverty is known to be the major fac­tor but faulty feeding habits arising out of ignorance often lead to inadequate intake of essential nutrients by the infant. In order to find out the actual prevailing feeding practices and its impact on the nutritional status of infants this study conducted in one urban andtivo rural units of Varanasi district by adopting appropriate sampling procedure. In a II mothers of360 infants (120 in each study un it were interviewed regarding breastfeeding practices, dilution and nature of top milk, age of introducing supplementaryfeeding etc. It was observed that the o verall prevalence of PEM was sig­nificantly higher in bottle fed group (72.73% than spoonfed group (40.11%. Similarly the prevalence of PEM was 67.86% in late weaned group as compared to 48.38% in optimum weaned group.

  16. Comparison of infant-feeding practices in two health subdistricts with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... replacement feeding and mixed feeding rates, as well as the age at which ... infant-feeding options, such as inappropriate replacement feeding and mixed ... and socio-demographic information, and the other infant-feeding.

  17. Consent for routine neonatal procedures: A study of practices in Irish neonatal units. How do we compare with the gold standard BAPM guidelines?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, M A

    2017-06-01

    The Irish National Consent Policy (NCP)¹ proposes that the legal requirement for consent extends to all forms of interventions, investigations and treatment, carried out on or behalf of the Health Service Executive (HSE). This study employs a quantitative descriptive approach to investigate the practices for obtaining consent for an identified group of routine neonatal procedures in neonatal facilities throughout Ireland. The BAPM (British Association of Perinatal Medicine)² guidelines were identified as ‘gold standard’ for the purposes of this study. The results indicated a lack of consistency between participating units pertaining to the modes of consent utilised and notable variances from ‘gold standard’ guidelines. Unanimity was evident for 3 procedures only (administering BCG, 6-in-1, and donor breast milk to infant). Significant findings related to EEG with video recordings, MRI\\/CT and gastro intestinal imaging, screening of an infant with suspected substance abuse or retinopathy of prematurity screening (ROP), administration of Vitamin K, and the carrying out of a lumbar puncture.

  18. The effect of a structured neonatal resuscitation program on delivery room practices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, C A

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This study evaluated the introduction of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association into the delivery room of an Irish maternity hospital. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled observational study of 51 deliveries before and 51 deliveries following the training of delivery room personnel in the NRP. SAMPLE: Participants were 33 nurse-midwives and 11 pediatric resident physicians. MAIN OUTCOME VARIABLE: Evaluation of postdelivery, newborn resuscitation practices. RESULTS: The introduction of the NRP was associated with significant improvements in delivery room preparation, in the evaluation and management of the newborn infant, and in thermal protection at birth. Although there was a trend to use more free-flow oxygen following the introduction of the NRP, this was not statistically significant. Bag and mask ventilation was also used more frequently following NRP training. However, there were no significant differences in the use of endotracheal intubation, chest compressions, and medications. Fifteen of the 51 infants became hypothermic prior to the introduction of the NRP; none of the infants developed hypothermia in the post-NRP part of the study.

  19. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Madise, Nyovani J; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Mutua, Martin K; Gitau, Tabither M; Yatich, Nelly

    2011-05-26

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to assess breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in Nairobi slums with reference to WHO recommendations. Data from a longitudinal study conducted in two Nairobi slums are used. The study used information on the first year of life of 4299 children born between September 2006 and January 2010. All women who gave birth during this period were interviewed on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices at recruitment and this information was updated twice, at four-monthly intervals. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding in infancy and early introduction of complementary foods. There was universal breastfeeding with almost all children (99%) having ever been breastfed. However, more than a third (37%) were not breastfed in the first hour following delivery, and 40% were given something to drink other than the mothers' breast milk within 3 days after delivery. About 85% of infants were still breastfeeding by the end of the 11th month. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months was rare as only about 2% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Factors associated with sub-optimal infant breastfeeding and feeding practices in these settings include child's sex; perceived size at birth; mother's marital status, ethnicity; education level; family planning (pregnancy desirability); health seeking behaviour (place of delivery) and; neighbourhood (slum of residence). The study indicates poor

  20. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutua Martin K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organisation (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to assess breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in Nairobi slums with reference to WHO recommendations. Methods Data from a longitudinal study conducted in two Nairobi slums are used. The study used information on the first year of life of 4299 children born between September 2006 and January 2010. All women who gave birth during this period were interviewed on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices at recruitment and this information was updated twice, at four-monthly intervals. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding in infancy and early introduction of complementary foods. Results There was universal breastfeeding with almost all children (99% having ever been breastfed. However, more than a third (37% were not breastfed in the first hour following delivery, and 40% were given something to drink other than the mothers' breast milk within 3 days after delivery. About 85% of infants were still breastfeeding by the end of the 11th month. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months was rare as only about 2% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Factors associated with sub-optimal infant breastfeeding and feeding practices in these settings include child's sex; perceived size at birth; mother's marital status, ethnicity; education level; family planning (pregnancy desirability; health seeking behaviour (place of delivery and; neighbourhood

  1. Mealtime Structure and Responsive Feeding Practices Are Associated With Less Food Fussiness and More Food Enjoyment in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnane, Julia M; Jansen, Elena; Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2017-01-01

    To identify associations between structure-related and non-responsive feeding practices and children's eating behaviors. Cross-sectional online survey design. Parents (n = 413) of 1- to 10-year-old children. Parental feeding practices and child eating behaviors were measured via the validated Feeding Practices and Structure and Children's Eating Behaviour questionnaires. Associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviors were tested using hierarchical multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for covariates. Feeding practices accounted for 28% and 21% of the variance in food fussiness and enjoyment of food, respectively (P practices was practices were associated with lower food fussiness and higher enjoyment of food. Overall, the findings suggested that mealtime structure and responsive feeding are associated with more desirable eating behaviors. Contrary to predictions, there was no evidence to indicate that these practices are associated with better self-regulation of energy intake. Longitudinal research and intervention studies are needed to confirm the importance of these feeding practices for children's eating behaviors and weight outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neonatal retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero T Kivelä

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From 7% to 10% of all retinoblastomas and from 44% to 71% of familial retinoblastomas in developed countries are diagnosed in the neonatal period, usually through pre- or post-natal screening prompted by a positive family history and sometimes serendipitously during screening for retinopathy of prematurity or other reasons. In developing countries, neonatal diagnosis of retinoblastoma has been less common. Neonatal retinoblastoma generally develops from a germline mutation of RB1, the retinoblastoma gene, even when the family history is negative and is thus usually hereditary. At least one-half of infants with neonatal retinoblastoma have unilateral tumors when the diagnosis is made, typically the International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification (Murphree Group B or higher, but most germline mutation carriers will progress to bilateral involvement, typically Group A in the fellow eye. Neonatal leukokoria usually leads to the diagnosis in children without a family history of retinoblastoma, and a Group C tumor or higher is typical in the more advanced involved eye. Almost all infants with neonatal retinoblastoma have at least one eye with a tumor in proximity to the foveola, but the macula of the fellow eye is frequently spared. Consequently, loss of reading vision from both eyes is exceptional. A primary ectopic intracranial neuroblastic tumor known as trilateral retinoblastoma is no more common after neonatal than other retinoblastoma. For many reasons, neonatal retinoblastoma may be a challenge to eradicate, and the early age at diagnosis and relatively small tumors do not guarantee the preservation of both eyes of every involved child. Oncology nurses can be instrumental in contributing to better outcomes by ensuring that hereditary retinoblastoma survivors receive genetic counseling, by referring families of survivors to early screening programs when they are planning for a baby, and by providing psychological and practical support

  3. Links between maternal feeding practices and children's eating difficulties. Validation of French tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigal, Natalie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine

    2012-04-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to validate measures of young children's eating difficulties and maternal feeding practices in a French sample, as well as to assess the links between these practices and children's eating difficulties. Mothers (n=502) of French children aged 20-36 months completed four questionnaires that were validated using a Structural Equation Modelling approach. Links between children and maternal components were investigated using a PLS regression. The Children's Eating Difficulties Questionnaire yielded a 4-dimension solution: Neophobia, Pickiness, Low Appetite and Low Enjoyment in food. The Feeding Style Questionnaire assessed three dimensions: Authoritarian, Authoritative and Permissive Styles. The Feeding Strategy Questionnaire, designed to evaluate strategies used by mothers to make their child taste rejected foods, resulted in four factors: Coercion, Explanation, Contingency and Preference. The Questionnaire relating to Parental Motivations when buying food for children presented a 6-dimension solution: Convenience, Weight-control, Natural, Health-concern, Preference and Price. The factors associated positively with the four dimensions of the Children's Eating Difficulties Questionnaire were on the one hand Permissive Style and Practices to fulfil child's desires, and on the other hand Authoritarian Style, Contingent and Coercive Practices aimed at forcing children to taste rejected foods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of family communication and parents' feeding practices in children's food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Siril; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Honkanen, Pirjo

    2015-06-01

    This study used Family Communication Patterns Theory (FCPT) to explore how family-dinner-related communication takes place and how parents' feeding practices may be associated with children's preferences for dinner meals. The sample consisted of 12 dyads with seven- and eight-year-old Norwegian children and their parents. In-depth photo interviews were used for collecting data. Interview transcripts and photographs were examined through content analysis. Results indicated that most families were conversation oriented, and communication tended to shift from consensual during weekdays to pluralistic at weekends. On weekdays, the dinner menu was often a compromise between children's preferences and parents' intentions to provide quick, healthy dinner options for the family. To a greater extent at weekends, children were allowed to choose dinner alternatives for the entire family. Restriction of unhealthy dinner alternatives was the practice most used to control children's diets and, in fact, might explain children's high preferences for unhealthy dinner alternatives. Results underline the importance of giving children control of what they eat and being responsive to children's preferences while guiding them towards healthy dinner alternatives rather than using force and restriction. From a more theoretical perspective, this study explored how FCPT could be combined with theories about parents' feeding practices to understand meal preferences and choices among young children and their families, and how time and situation (context) influence families' communication patterns and feeding practices in their homes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Infant feeding practices of low-income, African-American, adolescent mothers: an ecological, multigenerational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M; Gavin, L; Black, M M; Teti, L

    1999-10-01

    The early introduction of non-milk foods among African-American infants has been well documented. Several studies report the addition of semi-solids as early as 1-2 weeks of age. This study investigated, through ethnographic, repeat indepth interviews with teen mothers and grandmothers of infants, the determinants of such feeding practices and the inter-generational factors involved in infant feeding decision-making. Nineteen adolescent mothers were recruited from Baltimore City WIC programs. The teen mothers were interviewed in their homes during four separate visits and the grandmothers at least twice. Ethnographic field guides focused on questions about what, why and how infants were fed and on the 'ethnotheories' of parenting and infant care in this population. All interviews were taped and transcripts were analyzed using text retrieval software. Results confirmed that it is the cultural norm to feed cereal in the bottle and to feed other semi-solid foods within the first month of life. Most grandmothers played the dominant role in deciding what the infant should eat and the timing of the introduction of solids. This pattern occurred both because grandmothers had extensive physical access to their grandchildren and because teen mothers were dependent upon grandmothers. The use of qualitative research methods, with an ecological, multi-generational focus, provides a rich description of the context within which infant feeding decisions are made.

  6. Association between Australian-Indian mothers' controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Rati; Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits. The secondary aim studied the relationship between controlling feeding practices and two proxy indicators of diet quality. Participants were 203 Australian-Indian mothers with children aged 1-5 years. Controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring) and children's appetite traits (food approach traits: food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, desire to drink, emotional overeating; food avoidance traits: satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and emotional undereating) were measured using self-reported, previously validated scales/questionnaires. Children's daily frequency of consumption of core and non-core foods was estimated using a 49-item list of foods eaten (yes/no) in the previous 24 hours as an indicator of diet quality. Higher pressure to eat was associated with higher scores for satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and lower score for enjoyment of food. Higher restriction was related to higher scores for food responsiveness and emotional overeating. Higher monitoring was inversely associated with fussiness, slowness in eating, food responsiveness and emotional overeating and positively associated with enjoyment of food. Pressure to eat and monitoring were related to lower number of core and non-core foods consumed in the previous 24 hours, respectively. All associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal and child covariates (n = 152 due to missing data). In conclusion, pressure to eat was associated with higher food avoidance traits and lower consumption of core foods. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with higher food approach traits. In contrast, monitoring practices were related to lower food avoidance and food approach traits and lower non-core food consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations between infant feeding practices and length, weight, and disease in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding are well known, but the relative detrimental impacts of other foods on infant health are unknown. Because infants in developing countries are fed a wide range of food, quantifying the burden of these diverse feeding practices on infant health is essential for public health policy. We used data from the Demographic Health Survey from 20 developing countries over multiple years to examine the independent association of six different types of food (exclusive breastfeeding, nonexclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods with five measures of infant health (length, weight, diarrhea, fever, and cough. We estimated associations with regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors with infant, mother, and household factors and community-year fixed effects. We used these estimates in a simulation model to quantify the burden of different combinations of food on infant health. We show that for an infant younger than 6 months old, following current guidelines and exclusively breastfeeding instead of giving the infant solid foods may increase length by 0.75 centimeters and weight by 0.25 kilograms and decrease diarrhea, fever, and cough prevalence by 8%, 12%, and 11%, respectively. We found that the burden on infant health of some feeding practices is less than others. Although all other feeding practices are associated with worse health outcomes than exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding supplemented with liquids has a lower burden on infant health than solid foods and infant formula has a lower burden than milk or nonmilk liquids as measured by four of five health metrics. Providing specific quantified burden estimates of these practices can help inform public health policy related to infant feeding practices.

  8. Emotion Regulation Feeding Practices Link Parents' Emotional Eating to Children's Emotional Eating: A Moderated Mediation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Holub, Shayla C

    2015-08-01

    Past research suggests an association between parents' and children's emotional eating, but research has yet to examine mechanisms underlying this association. The current study examined whether feeding for emotion regulation mediates the association between parents' and children's emotional eating, and whether this association is moderated by children's self-regulation in eating. 95 parents reported on their own and their children's emotional eating, their children's self-regulation in eating, as well as their feeding practices. Findings revealed that feeding for emotion regulation mediated the association between parents' and children's emotional eating when children's self-regulation in eating was low, but not when self-regulation in eating was high. The current findings demonstrate the complexity of the link between parents' and children's emotional eating, suggesting practitioners should consider both feeding practices and children's self-regulation in eating when designing intervention programs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved.For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Child-feeding practices in children with down syndrome and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kristen L; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A; Stettler, Nicolas

    2005-02-01

    To compare parental feeding practices and evaluate their relationship to weight status among children with Down syndrome (DS) and their unaffected siblings. Cross-sectional study of sibling pairs, one child with DS (n = 36) and one child without DS (n = 36), between 3 and 10 years of age. Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), which assesses six aspects of control in feeding, separately for each child. Children's height and weight were measured using standard research procedures for calculation of body mass index (BMI) and BMI Z scores (BMIZ). Mean BMIZ was higher among children with DS than their siblings (1.1 +/- 0.9 vs 0.1 +/- 1.1; P child weight status, and lower pressure to eat for children with DS than for their siblings. After adjustment for BMIZ, differences remained significant only for concern (10.6 +/- 3.5 vs 6.4 +/- 3.4; P child overweight and concern were positively associated with BMIZ, whereas pressure was inversely associated with BMIZ. Differences in child-feeding practices may play a role in the development of obesity in DS.

  10. Compliance with Prevention Practices and their Association with Central Line-Associated Blood Stream Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Philip; Furuya, E. Yoko; Edwards, Jeffrey; Dick, Andrew; Liu, Hangsheng; Herzig, Carolyn; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Stone, Patricia W.; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Bundles and checklists have been shown to decrease CLABSIs, but implementation of these practices and association with CLABSI rates have not been described nationally. We describe implementation and levels of compliance with prevention practices in a sample of US Neonatal ICUs and assess their association with CLABSI rates. Methods An online survey assessing infection prevention practices was sent to hospitals participating in National Healthcare Safety Network CLABSI surveillance in October 2011. Participating hospitals permitted access to their NICU CLABSI rates. Multivariable regressions were used to test the association between compliance with NICU specific CLABSI prevention practices and corresponding CLABSI rates. Results Overall, 190 Level II/III and Level III NICUs participated. The majority of NICUs had written policies (84%-93%) and monitored compliance with bundles and checklists (88% - 91%). Reporting ≥ 95% compliance for any of the practices ranged from 50%- 63%. Reporting ≥ 95% compliance with insertion checklist and assessment of daily line necessity were significantly associated with lower CLABSI rates (pprevention policies and monitor compliance, although reporting compliance ≥ 95% was suboptimal. Reporting ≥ 95% compliance with select CLABSI prevention practices was associated with lower CLABSI rates. Further studies should focus on identifying and improving compliance with effective CLABSI prevention practices in neonates. PMID:25087136

  11. Using human rights to improve maternal and neonatal health: history, connections and a proposed practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Cottingham, Jane; Hilber, Adriane Martin; Kismodi, Eszter; Lincetto, Ornella; Roseman, Mindy Jane

    2008-08-01

    We describe the historical development of how maternal and neonatal mortality in the developing world came to be seen as a public-health concern, a human rights concern, and ultimately as both, leading to the development of approaches using human rights concepts and methods to advance maternal and neonatal health. We describe the different contributions of the international community, women's health advocates and human rights activists. We briefly present a recent effort, developed by WHO with the Harvard Program on International Health and Human Rights, that applies a human rights framework to reinforce current efforts to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality.

  12. Neonatal abstinence syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a newborn who was exposed to addictive opiate drugs while in the mother’s womb. Causes Neonatal ... Increased muscle tone Irritability Poor feeding Rapid breathing Seizures Sleep problems Slow weight gain Stuffy nose, sneezing ...

  13. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Clinical practices in five Portuguese neonatal intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guimarães

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of surfactant, prenatal corticosteroids (PNC and advances in technology, the survival rate of extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants has improved dramatically. Rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD vary widely among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs and many studies using multiple interventions have shown some improvement in BPD rates. Implementing potentially better practices to reduce BPD has been an effort made over the last few decades. Aim: To compare five Portuguese NICUs in terms of clinical practices in very low birth weight (VLBW infants, in order to develop better practices to prevent BPD. Patients and methods: 256 preterm neonates, gestational age (GA < 30 weeks and/or birthweight (BW < 1250g admitted to five Portuguese NICUs (centers 1 to 5 between 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2006, were studied. VLBW infants with major malformations, grade IV intraventricular haemorrhage in the first week of life and metabolic or neuromuscular disease were excluded. BPD was defined as oxygen dependency at 36 weeks of postconceptional age. We considered a practice to be improved as clinically significant whenever a decrease greater than 10% in the prevalence of BPD adjusted for the practice, GA and BW was achieved compared to BPD prevalence adjusted only for GA and BW. Results: The overall prevalence of BPD was 12.9%. Our results revealed that PNC use should be improved in centers 4 and 5; fluid policy in center 4; oxygen therapy and sepsis prevention in centers 1 and 2. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA treatment should be improved in center 2. Conclusion: The implementation of potentially better practices to reduce lung injury in neonates in Portuguese NICUs, according to each NICU, must be addressed to increase the prescription of PNC, to use a lower FiO2, to be careful with fluid administration in the first weeks of life and to prevent PDA and sepsis. It is necessary to follow guidelines, recommendations or

  14. Neonatal Tele-Homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Kristina Garne

    Neonatal homecare (NH) implies that parents manage tube feeding and care of their preterm infant at home supported by home visits from neonatal nurses, to monitor infant growth and the well-being of the family. Home visits are costly and time consuming in rural areas. The overall aim of this study...

  15. Effect of enteral IGF-1 supplementation on feeding tolerance, growth, and gut permeability in enterally fed premature neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, Willemijn E.; van Vliet, Ineke; de Gast-Bakker, Dana-Anne H.; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.; Alles, Martine S.; Hoijer, Maarten; Tibboel, Dick; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2008-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of the premature newborn functions suboptimally with regard to digestion, absorption, and feeding tolerance. Human milk contains trophic factors, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), that are believed to stimulate gut growth and function. The objective of this

  16. Quantifying Neonatal Sucking Performance: Promise of New Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilouto, Gilson J; Cunningham, Tommy J; Mullineaux, David R; Tamilia, Eleonora; Papadelis, Christos; Giannone, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal feeding has been traditionally understudied so guidelines and evidence-based support for common feeding practices are limited. A major contributing factor to the paucity of evidence-based practice in this area has been the lack of simple-to-use, low-cost tools for monitoring sucking performance. We describe new methods for quantifying neonatal sucking performance that hold significant clinical and research promise. We present early results from an ongoing study investigating neonatal sucking as a marker of risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We include quantitative measures of sucking performance to better understand how movement variability evolves during skill acquisition. Results showed the coefficient of variation of suck duration was significantly different between preterm neonates at high risk for developmental concerns (HRPT) and preterm neonates at low risk for developmental concerns (LRPT). For HRPT, results indicated the coefficient of variation of suck smoothness increased from initial feeding to discharge and remained significantly greater than healthy full-term newborns (FT) at discharge. There was no significant difference in our measures between FT and LRPT at discharge. Our findings highlight the need to include neonatal sucking assessment as part of routine clinical care in order to capture the relative risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at discharge. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Authoritative Mothers Exhibit More Permissive Feeding Practices Eating Away from Home with their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kasparian, Michelle Marie

    2012-01-01

    Eating away from home has been identified as one possible contributor to childhood obesity, with links to poor diet quality and higher weight status due to dietary quality of meals at restaurants and consumersâ attitudes. Parenting style has been associated with childrenâ s weight status and overall attitudes toward food, with authoritative parenting being shown to help protect against childhood obesity. The current study aimed to compare and contrast parenting and feeding practices at h...

  18. Feeding practices and potential risk factors for laminitis in dairy cows in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pilachai, R.

    2013-01-01

    Laminitis is considered an important health problem facing the Thai dairy industry. Although the etiology of laminitis is multifactorial, nutrition is considered an important risk factor. Rumen acidosis, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and histamine may play a role in the development of laminitis in dairy cattle. However, the relevancy of these risk factors in relation to the occurrence of laminitis under practical feeding conditions in Thailand is not clear. In Thailand, dairy rations are generall...

  19. Undernutrition, poor feeding practices, and low coverage of key nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Chessa K; Daelmans, Bernadette M E G; de Onis, Mercedes; Kothari, Monica T; Ruel, Marie T; Arimond, Mary; Deitchler, Megan; Dewey, Kathryn G; Blössner, Monika; Borghi, Elaine

    2011-12-01

    To estimate the global burden of malnutrition and highlight data on child feeding practices and coverage of key nutrition interventions. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to estimate prevalence rates and numbers of underweight and stunted children according to United Nations region from 1990 to 2010 by using surveys from 147 countries. Indicators of infant and young child feeding practices and intervention coverage were calculated from Demographic and Health Survey data from 46 developing countries between 2002 and 2008. In 2010, globally, an estimated 27% (171 million) of children younger than 5 years were stunted and 16% (104 million) were underweight. Africa and Asia have more severe burdens of undernutrition, but the problem persists in some Latin American countries. Few children in the developing world benefit from optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. Fewer than half of infants were put to the breast within 1 hour of birth, and 36% of infants younger than 6 months were exclusively breastfed. Fewer than one-third of 6- to 23-month-old children met the minimum criteria for dietary diversity, and only ∼50% received the minimum number of meals. Although effective health-sector-based interventions for tackling childhood undernutrition are known, intervention-coverage data are available for only a small proportion of them and reveal mostly low coverage. Undernutrition continues to be high and progress toward reaching Millennium Development Goal 1 has been slow. Previously unrecognized extremely poor breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices and lack of comprehensive data on intervention coverage require urgent action to improve child nutrition.

  20. Infants-feeding practices and their relationship with socio-economic and health conditions in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Ijaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan, has high infant mortality rate. Among every 1000 live births 0.76% becomes the victim of death due to malnutrition and fatal infections. Therefore, feeding modes and practices may serve as important factors for assessment of an infant's growth and nutritional status. This study was designed to assess the exclusive breast feeding rate, frequency of diseases during breast feeding, status of breast feeding along with weaning, level of education, occupation and socio-economic status of parents. Methods: In the descriptive and cross-sectional study, a total of one hundred (100 infants were included. The sampling technique was non-probability convenience sampling. This study was conducted at vaccination centers and children clinics in different hospitals in city of Lahore -Pakistan. Results: The results showed that 67% of the mothers exclusively breastfed their babies. 64% of the mothers had knowledge of exclusive breast feeding. The practice of breast feeding was found as 81% while artificial feeding was practiced among 19% of the mothers. Majority of the mothers started weaning their babies at the age 4 (31% and 6 months (32% whereas 28% mothers started after 6 months. 54% of mothers continued breastfeeding along with weaning. 72% of the mothers were aware of the importance of colostrum. Conclusion: Maternal education and women's employment have been found major determinants for breastfeeding. The result indicates that in Pakistan, mothers receive counseling on breast feeding which is quite satisfactory and feeding practices of infants are found as better in Pakistan.

  1. Feeding practices for infants and young children during and after common illness. Evidence from South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Global evidence shows that children's growth deteriorates rapidly during/after illness if foods and feeding practices do not meet the additional nutrient requirements associated with illness/convalescence. To inform policies and programmes, we conducted a review of the literature published from 1990 to 2014 to document how children 0–23 months old are fed during/after common childhood illnesses. The review indicates that infant and young child feeding (IYCF) during common childhood illnesses is far from optimal. When sick, most children continue to be breastfed, but few are breastfed more frequently, as recommended. Restriction/withdrawal of complementary foods during illness is frequent because of children's anorexia (perceived/real), poor awareness of caregivers' about the feeding needs of sick children, traditional beliefs/behaviours and/or suboptimal counselling and support by health workers. As a result, many children are fed lower quantities of complementary foods and/or are fed less frequently when they are sick. Mothers/caregivers often turn to family/community elders and traditional/non‐qualified practitioners to seek advice on how to feed their sick children. Thus, traditional beliefs and behaviours guide the use of ‘special’ feeding practices, foods and diets for sick children. A significant proportion of mothers/caregivers turn to the primary health care system for support but receive little or no advice. Building the knowledge, skills and capacity of community health workers and primary health care practitioners to provide mothers/caregivers with accurate and timely information, counselling and support on IYCF during and after common childhood illnesses, combined with large‐scale communication programmes to address traditional beliefs and norms that may be harmful, is an urgent priority to reduce the high burden of child stunting in South Asia. PMID:26840205

  2. Association between clean delivery kit use, clean delivery practices, and neonatal survival: pooled analysis of data from three sites in South Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Seward

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis accounts for up to 15% of an estimated 3.3 million annual neonatal deaths globally. We used data collected from the control arms of three previously conducted cluster-randomised controlled trials in rural Bangladesh, India, and Nepal to examine the association between clean delivery kit use or clean delivery practices and neonatal mortality among home births.Hierarchical, logistic regression models were used to explore the association between neonatal mortality and clean delivery kit use or clean delivery practices in 19,754 home births, controlling for confounders common to all study sites. We tested the association between kit use and neonatal mortality using a pooled dataset from all three sites and separately for each site. We then examined the association between individual clean delivery practices addressed in the contents of the kit (boiled blade and thread, plastic sheet, gloves, hand washing, and appropriate cord care and neonatal mortality. Finally, we examined the combined association between mortality and four specific clean delivery practices (boiled blade and thread, hand washing, and plastic sheet. Using the pooled dataset, we found that kit use was associated with a relative reduction in neonatal mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.39-0.68. While use of a clean delivery kit was not always accompanied by clean delivery practices, using a plastic sheet during delivery, a boiled blade to cut the cord, a boiled thread to tie the cord, and antiseptic to clean the umbilicus were each significantly associated with relative reductions in mortality, independently of kit use. Each additional clean delivery practice used was associated with a 16% relative reduction in neonatal mortality (odds ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.92.The appropriate use of a clean delivery kit or clean delivery practices is associated with relative reductions in neonatal mortality among home births in underserved, rural populations.

  3. Moms and Media: Exploring the Effects of Online Communication on Infant Feeding Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Robert; McKeever, Brooke W

    2017-09-01

    Using a survey of mothers with young children (N = 455), this study applies Fishbein and Ajzen's reasoned action approach (RAA) to examine the relationship between online communication and infant feeding practices. Contrary to expectations, attitudes, perceived normative pressure, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) did not fully mediate the relationship between time spent online and behavioral intentions. Our findings indicate a significant, direct, negative association between time spent online and breastfeeding intentions In this article, theoretical and practical implications for health communication are discussed.

  4. A reliable, practical, and economical protocol for inducing diarrhea and severe dehydration in the neonatal calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, P G; Constable, P D; Morin, D E; Drackley, J K; Foreman, J H; Thurmon, J C

    1998-07-01

    Fifteen healthy, colostrum-fed, male dairy calves, aged 2 to 7 d were used in a study to develop a diarrhea protocol for neonatal calves that is reliable, practical, and economical. After instrumentation and recording baseline data, diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administering milk replacer [16.5 mL/kg of body weight (BW), PO], sucrose (2 g/kg in a 20% aqueous solution, p.o.), spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg, PO) every 8 h, and furosemide (2 mg/kg, i.m., q6h). Calves were administered sucrose and diuretic agents for 48 h to induce diarrhea and severe dehydration. Clinical changes after 48 h were severe watery diarrhea, severe depression, and marked dehydration (mean, 14% BW loss). Cardiac output, stroke volume, mean central venous pressure, plasma volume, thiocyanate space, blood pH and bicarbonate concentration, base excess, serum chloride concentration, and fetlock temperature were decreased. Plasma lactate concentration, hematocrit, and serum potassium, creatinine, phosphorus, total protein and albumin concentrations were increased. This non-infectious calf diarrhea protocol has a 100% response rate, while providing a consistent and predictable hypovolemic state with diarrhea that reflects most of the clinicopathologic changes observed in osmotic/maldigestive diarrhea caused by infection with rotavirus, coronavirus or cryptosporidia. Limitations of the protocol, when compared to infectious diarrhea models, include failure to induce a severe metabolic acidosis, absence of hyponatremia, renal instead of enteric loss of chloride, renal as well as enteric loss of free water, absence of profound clinical depression and suspected differences in the morphologic and functional effect on intestinal epithelium. Despite these differences, the sucrose/diuretic protocol should be useful in the initial screening of new treatment modalities for calf diarrhea. To confirm their efficacy, the most effective treatment methods should then be examined in

  5. Validation of the comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire in parents of preschool children in Brazil

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    Sarah Warkentin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent national surveys in Brazil have demonstrated a decrease in the consumption of traditional food and a parallel increase in the consumption of ultra-processed food, which has contributed to a rise in obesity prevalence in all age groups. Environmental factors, especially familial factors, have a strong influence on the food intake of preschool children, and this has led to the development of psychometric scales to measure parents’ feeding practices. The aim of this study was to test the validity of a translated and adapted Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire in a sample of Brazilian preschool-aged children enrolled in private schools. Methods A transcultural adaptation process was performed in order to develop a modified questionnaire (43 items. After piloting, the questionnaire was sent to parents, along with additional questions about family characteristics. Test-retest reliability was assessed in one of the schools. Factor analysis with oblique rotation was performed. Internal reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha and correlations between factors, discriminant validity using marker variables of child’s food intake, and convergent validity via correlations with parental perceptions of perceived responsibility for feeding and concern about the child’s weight were also performed. Results The final sample consisted of 402 preschool children. Factor analysis resulted in a final questionnaire of 43 items distributed over 6 factors. Cronbach alpha values were adequate (0.74 to 0.88, between-factor correlations were low, and discriminant validity and convergent validity were acceptable. Conclusions The modified CFPQ demonstrated significant internal reliability in this urban Brazilian sample. Scale validation within different cultures is essential for a more comprehensive understanding of parental feeding practices for preschoolers.

  6. Feeding practice in acute stroke patients in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md Titu; Al-Amin, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Imran; Ayaz, K F M; Zakaria, M H; Ahmed, Srijoni; Ahasan, H A M Nazmul

    2010-12-01

    Feeding is a basic component of care and it is the most common and difficult management issue for stroke patients. Objective of this study was to know the practice of feeding (oral & nasogastric tube feeding), different types of food used and their caloric value in stroke patients. This direct observational study was done from June 2010 to November 2010, in different medicine wards of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, and included 100 acute stroke patients confirmed by CT scan or MRI of brain and duration of hospital stay for at least 24 hours. Out of 100 cases, 22% took their feeding orally and 78% cases through nasogastric tube. Artificial milk powder 66% cases (NG tube vs. Orally, 58% vs. 8%), juice 18% (NG tube 13% vs. orally 5%), horlicks & juice & soup 10% (NG tube vs. Orally, 7% vs. 3%), khichury 2% orally, bread & egg & shuji 4% cases orally. In 100 cases studied, none of them fulfilled the calorie requirement up to the standard level according to the guideline of Nutrition & Food Science Institute, of Dhaka University, Bangladesh. Though this study was small scale but the magnitude of under nutrition among stroke patients revealed is alarming and needs urgent attention.

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EUROPEAN CORN BORER FEEDING ACTIVITY AND NITROGEN LEAF CONTENT UNDER DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

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    Ankica Sarajlić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most destructive maize pest in Croatia is European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (ECB. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, different maize genotypes and nitrogen leaf content on ECB feeding activity. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia under field conditions during 2012-2013 vegetation season. Experiment treatments were as follows: three irrigation levels (A1 - control, A2 from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3 from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1 - 0, B2 - 100 and B3 - 200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1 - OSSK 596; C2 - OSSK 617; C3 - OSSK 602 and C4 - OSSK 552. Ear weight, number of larvae in stem and shank, tunnel length and nitrogen leaf content were evaluated. Genotype C1 was the most susceptible for following the tested variables of ECB feeding: tunnel length (TL, larvae in stalk (LS and total number of larvae (TNL at P<0.05 probability level. By raising the level of irrigation, European corn borer feeding activity was reduced while by raising the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. These results suggest that good production practices can significantly affect the susceptibility of maize to European corn borer.

  8. Low-Income Women's Feeding Practices and Perceptions of Dietary Guidance: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jennifer S; Neshteruk, Cody D; Balantekin, Katherine N; Birch, Leann L

    2016-12-01

    Objectives Describe themes characterizing feeding behaviors of low-income women participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and identify the attitudes, beliefs, and sources of information that inform these practices. Methods Formative research was conducted including focus groups and semi-structured individual phone interviews with a total of 68 low-income women participating in WIC. Qualitative data were recorded, transcribed, imported into NVivo 8.0, and analyzed for common themes. Results Mothers reported feeding behaviors inconsistent with guidance from WIC and the American Academy of Pediatrics. Three main themes were identified. First, mothers reported receiving conflicting messaging/advice from medical professionals, WIC nutritionists, and family members, which was confusing. Mothers also reported dissatisfaction with the "one size fits most" approach. Lastly, mothers reported relying on their "instincts" and that "all babies are different" when deciding and rationalizing what feeding guidance to follow. Conclusions Future interventions targeting this high-risk population should consider developing personalized (individualized) messaging, tailored to the needs of each mother-child dyad. Focused efforts are needed to build partnerships between WIC providers and other health care providers to provide more consistent messages about responsive feeding to prevent early obesity.

  9. INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES IN GUNTUR DISTRICT-A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Swapna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Optimal Infant and Young Child-Feeding (IYCF practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health, and ultimately the survival of infants and young children. It was estimated that, if 90% of infants are covered with a package of intervention to protect, promote, and support the optimal IYCF practices, almost one-fifth of overall under-five mortality can be averted. OBJECTIVES 1. To study the socio-demographic characteristics of the Infants and Young children living in the rural areas. 2. To study the core Infant and Young Child Feeding indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in Venigandla village, the rural field practice area of NRI Medical College, Guntur, for a period of 4 months from January to April 2015. A total of 100 children aged 6-23 months were studied using a pre-tested semi-structured schedule. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel and analysed using Epi Info software. RESULTS Of the 100 children studied, majority of families belong to lower middle class (40% according to BG Prasad socio- economic classification. One in 10 children was given pre- lacteal feeds after birth. Two-thirds of mothers breastfed their children within first hour after birth. Three fourths of children received exclusively breastfed up to 6 months of age. Minimum Dietary Diversity was observed in 74%, Minimum Meal Frequency observed in 94% and Minimum Acceptable Diet was observed in 70% of the 6-23 months children. CONCLUSION The IYCF practices were observed to be better in the present study when compared to similar studies done elsewhere in the country. Area specific programmes need to be created for providing comprehensive nutrition and health education for mothers, to protect, promote and sustain the optimal IYCF practices.

  10. [Neonatal herpes: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations and management. Guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renesme, L

    2017-12-01

    To describe the epidemiology of neonatal herpes and its risk factors, clinical and paraclinic manifestations, propose guidelines for a newborn at risk of neonatal herpes, describe treatment modalities, describe post-natal transmission and its prevention. Bibliographic search from Medline, Cochrane Library databases and research of international clinical practice guidelines. Neonatal herpes is rare (about 20 cases per year in France) and mainly due to HSV 1 (level of evidence LE3). The main risk factors for mother-to-child transmission are maternal primary episode of genital herpes close to delivery and serotype HSV 1 (LE3). There are three clinical forms of neonatal herpes : SEM infection for skin, eyes and mucosa, central nervous system (CNS) associated infection, and the disseminated infection. Neurological mortality and morbidity depend on the clinical form and the HSV serotype (LE3). In most of the case of neonatal herpes, the mothers have no history of genital herpes (LE3). Fever and vesicular rash may be absent at the time of diagnosis (LE3). In case of suspicion of neonatal herpes, different samples (blood and cerebrospinal fluid) for HSV PCR must be carried out to confirm the diagnosis (Professional consensus). Any newborn suspected of neonatal herpes should be treated with intravenous aciclovir (Grade A) prior to the results of HSV PCR (Professional consensus). In case of maternal genital herpes at delivery, the management of an asymptomatic newborn depends on the evaluation of the risk of transmission. In case of maternal reactivation (low risk of transmission), HSV PCR samples are taken at 24hours of life and the newborn must be follow closely until results. In the case of maternal primary episode or non-primary infection first episode (high risk of transmission), the samples are taken at 24hours of life and intravenous treatment with aciclovir is started (Professional consensus). The treatment of neonatal herpes is based on intravenous aciclovir (60mg

  11. Factors associated with infant feeding of human milk at discharge from neonatal intensive care: Cross-sectional analysis of nurse survey and infant outcomes data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Sunny G; Rogowski, Jeannette A; Spatz, Diane L; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Kenny, Michael; Lake, Eileen T

    2016-01-01

    Nurses are principal caregivers in the neonatal intensive care unit and support mothers to establish and sustain a supply of human milk for their infants. Whether an infant receives essential nutrition and immunological protection provided in human milk at discharge is an issue of health care quality in this setting. To examine the association of the neonatal intensive care unit work environment, staffing levels, level of nurse education, lactation consultant availability, and nurse-reported breastfeeding support with very low birth weight infant receipt of human milk at discharge. Cross sectional analysis combining nurse survey data with infant discharge data. A national sample of neonatal intensive care units (N=97), nurses (N=5614) and very low birth weight infants (N=6997). Sequential multivariate linear regression models were estimated at the unit level between the dependent variable (rate of very low birth weight infants discharged on "any human milk") and the independent variables (nurse work environment, nurse staffing, nursing staff education and experience, lactation consultant availability, and nurse-reported breastfeeding support). The majority of very low birth weight infants (52%) were discharged on formula only. Fewer infants (42%) received human milk mixed with fortifier or formula. Only 6% of infants were discharged on exclusive human milk. A 1 SD increase (0.25) in the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index composite score was associated with a four percentage point increase in the fraction of infants discharged on human milk (pmilk (pmilk at discharge (p=.056). A 1 SD increase (7%) in the fraction of infants who received breastfeeding support was associated with an eight percentage point increase in the fraction of infants discharged on human milk (pmilk. Investments by nurse administrators to improve work environments and support educational preparation of nursing staff may ensure that the most vulnerable infants have the best

  12. Food addiction in children: Associations with obesity, parental food addiction and feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, T; Skinner, J; Joyner, M A; Palmieri, J; Vaughan, K; Gearhardt, A N

    2017-08-01

    Food addiction research in children is limited, and to date addictive-like eating behaviors within families have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to understand factors associated with addictive-like eating in children. The association between food addiction in children with obesity, parental food addiction, and parental feeding practices (i.e., restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring) was investigated. Parents/primary caregivers (aged≥18years) of children aged 5-12years, recruited and completed an online cross-sectional survey including demographics, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Parents, reporting on themselves and one of their children, were given a food addiction diagnosis and symptom score according to the YFAS predefined criteria. The total sample consisted of 150 parents/primary caregivers (48% male) and 150 children (51% male). Food addiction was found to be 12.0% in parents and 22.7% in children. In children, food addiction was significantly associated with higher child BMI z-scores. Children with higher food addiction symptoms had parents with higher food addiction scores. Parents of FA children reported significantly higher levels of Restriction and Pressure to eat feeding practices, but not Monitoring. Children with elevated YFAS-C scores may be at greater risk for eating-related issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Feeding Practices and Expectations among Middle-Class Anglo and Puerto Rican Mothers of 12-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Pamela A.; Harwood, Robin L.; Schoelmerich, Axel

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in beliefs and practices about infant feeding among middle class Anglo and Puerto Rican mothers. Interviews and observations indicated that Anglo mothers reported earlier attainment of self-feeding and more emphasis on child rearing goals related to self-maximization. Puerto Rican mothers reported later attainment of…

  14. Knowledge and Practice of Exclusive Breast Feeding: Effects of Health Promotion Intervention in Nigeria.

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    UDOCHI M NWOSU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Low level of knowledge and practice of exclusive breast feeding have been reported in Nigeria especially in rural communities. The purpose of this study is to identify factors contributing to low knowledge and practice of exclusive breast feeding (E B F in rural communities of Abia State, Nigeria and apply health promotion intervention (H P I to address these factors in order to increase knowledge and practice of E B F. METHOD: A quasi-experimental study design was used. Four communities formed the unit of allocation to experimental and control groups for the purpose of introducing health promotion intervention. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting the study sample. A sample size of 400 households out of 1978 enumerated from the four communities was used for the survey, two as experimental and two as control. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire that was interviewer administered. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Chi-square statistic was used in determining statistical significance. Analysis of knowledge and practice of EBF was taken before and after H P I and compared in both experimental and control groups.\\ RESULT: The results indicated increase in knowledge of E B F from 28(14% to 200(98.5%. Correspondingly, practice of E B F increased from 21 (10% to 162(80% in the experimental group. No significant increase was made in the control group both in knowledge and practice of EBF. Factors contributing to low level of practice of EBF in the study area included low level of knowledge about ten steps to successful breast feeding, illusory fears about EBF, ignorance, resistance to change, cultural imperatives and medical reasons. Health promotion intervention directed at the rural women helped to scale up the practice of EBF to 70% within nine months. CONCLUSION: The study recommends health promotion intervention as a proven method for scaling up knowledge and practice of EBF in

  15. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Maria A; Cross, Matthew B; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-01-01

    To examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nominal group technique. Parents completed information on food parenting practices and feeding styles. Three dietary recalls were collected on each child. Parents completed measures in Head Start centers and/or over the telephone. 667 parents of preschool-aged children participated. Food parenting practices and F & V intake. Mean differences in the food parenting practices across the 4 feeding styles were established through multivariate general linear modeling using MANOVA. Moderated multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the moderating role of feeding style on food parenting practices and child F & V intake. The indulgent feeding style moderated the relationship between food parenting practices and child F & V intake. This study indicates that parents' feeding styles have a moderating effect on the relationship between the food parenting practices and children's F & V intake. This finding can facilitate the development of interventions aimed at reducing childhood overweight. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal symptoms of depression are related to observations of controlling feeding practices in mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Farrow, Claire; Blissett, Jackie

    2013-02-01

    Maternal depression can impair parenting practices and has been linked with less sensitive feeding interactions with children, but existing research is based on self-reports of feeding practices. This study examined relationships between maternal self-reported symptoms of depression with observations of mothers' child feeding practices during a mealtime. Fifty-eight mothers of 3- and 4-year-old children were video recorded eating a standardized lunch. The recording was then coded for instances of maternal controlling feeding practices and maternal vocalizations using the Family Mealtime Coding System. Mothers also provided information on current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Mothers who reported greater symptoms of depression were observed to use more verbal and physical pressure for their child to eat and to offer more incentives or conditions in exchange for their child eating. Mothers also used more vocalizations with their child about food during the observed mealtime when they had greater symptoms of depression. There was no link between symptoms of depression and observations of maternal use of restriction. Symptoms of depression are linked with observations of mothers implementing a more controlling, less sensitive feeding style with their child. Health professionals working with families in which mothers have symptoms of depression may benefit from receiving training about the possible impact of maternal depression on child-feeding practices, and mothers with symptoms of depression may benefit from guidance regarding its potential impact on their child-feeding interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Learning to overeat: maternal use of restrictive feeding practices promotes girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann L; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever

    2003-08-01

    Experimental findings causally link restrictive child-feeding practices to overeating in children. However, longitudinal data are needed to determine the extent to which restrictive feeding practices promote overeating. Our objectives were to determine whether restrictive feeding practices foster girls' eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and whether girls' weight status moderates the effects of restrictive feeding practices. Longitudinal data were used to create a study design featuring 2 maternal restriction factors (low and high), 2 weight-status factors (nonoverweight and overweight), and 3 time factors (ages 5, 7, and 9 y). Mean EAH increased significantly (P responsive to environmental cues. These findings are not expected to be generalized to boys or to other racial and ethnic groups.

  18. Invited review: Improving neonatal survival in small ruminants: science into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, C M; Conington, J; Corbiere, F; Holmøy, I H; Muri, K; Nowak, R; Rooke, J; Vipond, J; Gautier, J-M

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal mortality in small ruminant livestock has remained stubbornly unchanging over the past 40 years, and represents a significant loss of farm income, contributes to wastage and affects animal welfare. Scientific knowledge about the biology of neonatal adaptation after birth has been accumulating but does not appear to have had an impact in improving survival. In this paper, we ask what might be the reasons for the lack of impact of the scientific studies of lamb and kid mortality, and suggest strategies to move forward. Biologically, it is clear that achieving a good intake of colostrum, as soon as possible after birth, is crucial for neonatal survival. This provides fuel for thermoregulation, passive immunological protection and is involved in the development of attachment between the ewe and lamb. The behaviour of the lamb in finding the udder and sucking rapidly after birth is a key component in ensuring sufficient colostrum is ingested. In experimental studies, the main risk factors for lamb mortality are low birthweight, particularly owing to poor maternal nutrition during gestation, birth difficulty, litter size and genetics, which can all be partly attributed to their effect on the speed with which the lamb reaches the udder and sucks. Similarly, on commercial farms, low birthweight and issues with sucking were identified as important contributors to mortality. In epidemiological studies, management factors such as providing assistance with difficult births, were found to be more important than risk factors associated with housing. Social science studies suggest that farmers generally have a positive attitude to improving neonatal mortality but may differ in beliefs about how this can be achieved, with some farmers believing they had no control over early lamb mortality. Facilitative approaches, where farmers and advisors work together to develop neonatal survival strategies, have been shown to be effective in achieving management goals, such as

  19. Infant Feeding Attitudes and Practices of Spanish Low-Risk Expectant Women Using the IIFAS (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelo, María Del Carmen Suárez; Movilla-Fernández, María Jesús; Pita-García, Paula; Novío, Silvia

    2018-04-22

    The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has been shown to have good psychometric properties for English-speaking populations, but it has not been validated among low-risk pregnant women in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the translated version of the IIFAS in order to examine infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy. Low-risk expectant women ( n = 297) were recruited from eight primary public health care centres in Galicia (Spain). Questionnaires including both socio-demographic and breastfeeding characteristics and items about infant feeding were administered during the third trimester. Participants were contacted by telephone during the postpartum period to obtain information regarding their infant feeding status. Prediction validity and internal consistency were assessed. The translated IIFAS (69.76 ± 7.75), which had good psychometric properties (Cronbach's alpha = 0.785; area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve = 0.841, CI 95% = 0.735⁻0.948), showed more positive attitudes towards breastfeeding than towards formula feeding, especially among mothers who intended to exclusively breastfeed. This scale was also useful for inferring the intent to breastfeed and duration of breastfeeding. This study provides evidence that the IIFAS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy.

  20. Infant Feeding Attitudes and Practices of Spanish Low-Risk Expectant Women Using the IIFAS (Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Suárez Cotelo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS has been shown to have good psychometric properties for English-speaking populations, but it has not been validated among low-risk pregnant women in Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the translated version of the IIFAS in order to examine infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy. Low-risk expectant women (n = 297 were recruited from eight primary public health care centres in Galicia (Spain. Questionnaires including both socio-demographic and breastfeeding characteristics and items about infant feeding were administered during the third trimester. Participants were contacted by telephone during the postpartum period to obtain information regarding their infant feeding status. Prediction validity and internal consistency were assessed. The translated IIFAS (69.76 ± 7.75, which had good psychometric properties (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.785; area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve = 0.841, CI95% = 0.735–0.948, showed more positive attitudes towards breastfeeding than towards formula feeding, especially among mothers who intended to exclusively breastfeed. This scale was also useful for inferring the intent to breastfeed and duration of breastfeeding. This study provides evidence that the IIFAS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing infant feeding attitudes in Spanish women with an uncomplicated pregnancy.

  1. Epidemiology of Trichinella infection in the horse: the risk from animal product feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, K D; Djordjevic, M; Cuperlovic, K; Sofronic, Lj; Savic, M; Djordjevic, M; Damjanovic, S

    2004-09-02

    A discovery in 2002 of a Trichinella spiralis-infected horse in Serbia offered an opportunity to conduct needed epidemiological studies on how horses, considered herbivores, acquire a meat-borne parasite. This enigma has persisted since the first human outbreaks from infected horse meat occurred in then 1970s. The trace back of the infected horse to a farm owner was carried out. Interviews and investigations on the farm led to the conclusion that the owner had fed the horse food waste in order to condition the horse prior to sale. Further investigations were then carried out to determine the frequency of such practices among horse owners. Based on interviews of horse producers at local horse markets, it was revealed that the feeding of animal products to horses was a common practice. Further, it was alleged that many horses, particularly those in poor nutritional condition would readily consume meat. A subsequent series of trials involving the experimental feeding of 219 horses demonstrated that 32% would consume meat patties. To confirm that horses would eat infected meat under normal farm conditions, three horses were offered infected ground pork balls containing 1100 larvae. All three became infected, and at necropsy at 32 weeks later, were still positive by indirect IFA testing, but not by ELISA using an excretory-secretory (ES) antigen. This result indicates that further study is needed on the nature of the antigen(s) used for potential serological monitoring and surveillance of horse trichinellosis, especially the importance of antigenic diversity. The experimentally-infected horses also had very low infection levels (larvae per gram of muscle) at 32 weeks of infection, and although the public health consequences are unknown, the question of whether current recommended inspection procedures based on pepsin digestion of selected muscle samples require sufficient quantities of muscle should be addressed. It is concluded that horses are more willing to consume

  2. Exploring infant feeding practices: cross-sectional surveys of South Western Sydney, Singapore, and Ho Chi Minh City

    OpenAIRE

    Leow, Timothy Yong Qun; Ung, Andrew; Qian, Shelley; Nguyen, Jessie Thanh; An, Yvonne; Mudgil, Poonam; Whitehall, John

    2017-01-01

    Background Infant feeding practices are known to influence the child?s long-term health. Studies have associated obesity and other diseases with reduced breastfeeding and early introduction of high calorie beverages (HCBs). The rising prevalence of obesity is already a problem in most developed countries, especially Australia, but cultural differences are influential. Our aim is to examine and compare infant feeding practices and educational levels of respondents through questionnaires in thr...

  3. A situational review of infant and young child feeding practices and interventions in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Mariel; Hajeebhoy, Nemat

    2011-01-01

    Sub-optimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are likely a significant contributor to high undernutrition rates in Viet Nam. To date, however, there has been no comprehensive review of IYCF practices in Viet Nam. The objectives of this paper were to review: 1) patterns/trends in IYCF in Viet Nam; 2) the barriers and facilitators to IYCF practices; and 3) interventions and policies and their effectiveness. Methods used include reviewing and analyzing existing data, summarizing and organizing the evidence into broad themes based on a pre-defined conceptual framework. Findings show that the proportion of children ever breastfed is almost universal and the median duration of breastfeeding is 13-18 months. However, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months is low (8-17%) and appears to be declining over time. Information on complementary feeding is limited, but two key challenges are: early introduction, and low nutrient quality of complementary foods. Facilitators of optimal IYCF were support from 1) government progressive policies, 2) non-profit organizations and 3) family members. Barriers to optimal IYCF included 1) the lack of enforcement of, and compliance with the code of marketing breast milk substitutes, 2) inadequate knowledge among health care providers; and 3) maternal poor knowledge. These findings indicate that the evidence base on complementary feeding is weak in Viet Nam and needs to be strengthened. The review also reinforces that program and policy actions to improve IYCF in Viet Nam must target multiple stakeholders at different levels: the family, the health system and the private sector.

  4. Compliance With Protocols for Prevention of Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Sepsis: Practicalities and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn L. Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare two protocols for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP against neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS sepsis, with respect to staff compliance, in a prospective cohort study in the obstetric units of a community hospital (A and a university teaching hospital (B.

  5. Fetal and neonatal brain injury: mechanisms, management, and the risks of practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevenson, David K; Benitz, William E; Sunshine, Philip

    2003-01-01

    ..., imaging studies, and laboratory measurements can identify the timing and severity of the injury event. Despite these advances, fetal and neonatal brain injury remains a major concern with devastating consequences. It is hoped that this definitive account will provide the clinician not only with a better understanding of the mechanisms involved but also with...

  6. Repair of neonatal brain injury : bringing stem cell-based therapy into clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Nienke; Nijboer, Cora H.; van Bel, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury is one of most important causes of neonatal mortality and long-term neurological morbidity in infants born at term. At present, only hypothermia in infants with perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy has shown benefit as a neuroprotective strategy. Otherwise,

  7. Infant and Young Child Feeding Decision Making and Practices: Malawian Mothers' and Fathers' Roles in the Context of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, Nainisha; Hamela, Gloria; Mofolo, Innocent; Maman, Suzanne; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Hoffman, Irving F; Flax, Valerie L

    2018-02-01

    Few studies in low- and middle-income countries have examined the roles of couples in infant and young child feeding decision making and practices, and there is no corresponding data in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Research aim: This study aimed to explore mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their roles in feeding decision making and practices. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 15 mothers and their male partners, recruited from the catchment areas of two urban and two rural government clinics in Lilongwe District, Malawi. The mothers were ≥ 18 years of age, were HIV positive, and had a child < 24 months of age. Twelve of the 15 fathers were also HIV positive. The interviews were analyzed using content analysis. Mothers were responsible for child care, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding. Fathers provided monetary support for purchasing food and offered verbal support to encourage mothers to implement recommended feeding practices. Many fathers found it difficult to support adequate complementary feeding because of household food insecurity. Mothers were advised on child feeding during prevention of mother-to-child transmission clinic visits. No fathers in this study accompanied women to clinic appointments, so they were less well-informed about feeding than mothers. Fathers usually deferred to mothers in feeding decision making. One-third of mothers wanted fathers to be more involved in child feeding. Malawian mothers' and fathers' roles in feeding decision making in the context of HIV align with local gender norms. Strategies are needed to improve fathers' knowledge of and involvement in child feeding, as desired by mothers.

  8. The role of family communication and parents' feeding practices in children's food preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, Siril; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Honkanen, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript version. Published version at http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2015.02.002 This study used Family Communication Patterns Theory (FCPT) to explore how familydinner-related communication takes place and how parents’ feeding practices may be associated with children’s preferences for dinner meals. The sample consisted of 12 dyads with seven- and eight-year-old Norwegian children and their parents. In-depth photo interviews were used for collecting dat...

  9. Obesity Risk in Children: The Role of Acculturation in the Feeding Practices and Styles of Low-Income Hispanic Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2015-12-01

    Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hispanic mothers of preschoolers were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study examining child eating behaviors. At baseline, mothers completed questionnaires on feeding styles, feeding practices, and acculturation. Regression analyses compared feeding styles and food parenting practices of first-generation, immigrant mothers born outside the United States (n = 138) and mothers born in the United States (n = 31). The correlates of acculturation with these same constructs were also examined. Immigrant mothers reported using highly directive food parenting practices more often than mothers born in the United States, including pressuring their child to consume more food, using food as a reward, and controlling child food intake by limiting less-healthy foods. First-generation mothers were more likely to show authoritarian, and less likely to show indulgent, feeding styles. Greater maternal acculturation was associated with less restriction of food for weight reasons. Although first-generation, immigrant mothers reported using highly controlling food parenting practices with their children, those born in the United States were more indulgent with their children in the feeding context. Mechanisms that promote greater indulgence in more-acculturated mothers need to be identified.

  10. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children

    OpenAIRE

    Goulding, Alison N; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Chen, Yu-Pu; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depr...

  11. The Stimulatory Effect of Cerebral Intraventricular Injection of cNPY on Precocial Feeding Behavior in Neonatal Chicks (Gallus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqian Chen

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY is one of the most potent stimulants of food intake in many animals. Most of the supporting evidence for the effects of NPY has been gathered in mammalian species using porcine NPY. To investigate the effects of NPY on precocial feeding initiation in chicks, we firstly used chicken NPY (cNPY to study its role in food intake and spontaneous activities in 3-day-old male chicks. Food intake was monitored at different times after intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of cNPY (2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 μg/10 μL and anti-cNPY antibody (anti-cNPY (1:9000, 1:3000 or 1:1000 in dilution. cNPY given at different doses significantly increased food intake at 30 min, 60 min, 90 min and 120 min after injection. Chicks treated with 5.0 μg/10 μL of cNPY showed a maximal 4.48 fold increase in food intake comparing to the control at 30 min. There is still more than 2 fold increase in food intake at 120 min after injection of cNPY. Food intake was significantly inhibited by a single ICV injection of anti-cNPY diluted to 1:9000 (60% inhibition, 1:3000 (92% inhibition, and 1:1000 (95% inhibition at 30 min with 1:1000 being the maximally effective concentration. The inhibitory effects of anti-cNPY (diluted to1:9000, 1:3000, 1:1000 at 120 min post ICV injection were 22%, 42% and 46%, respectively. But ICV of anti-cNPY (1:3000 in dilution did not block the orexigenic effect of 2.5 μg/10 μL of cNPY. ICV injection of different concentrations of cNPY increases locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner while ICV anti-cNPY greatly decreased the distance moved by each chick compared to control groups. Taken together, our results demonstrated that cNPY has a promoting effect on chick food intake and locomotor activity, and that endogenous cNPY might play a positive role in regulating precocial feeding behavior in newly hatched chicks.

  12. Infant-feeding practices of mothers and the nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast-feeding has a unique biological and emotional influence on the health of ... its advantages, however, breast-feeding is declining in developing countries ... Most studies on breast-feeding and weaning have been conducted in urban ...

  13. A Qualitative Investigation of Parents' Perspectives About Feeding Practices With Siblings Among Racially/Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Trofholz, Amanda; Schulte, Anna; Conger, Katherine; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about parent feeding practices with siblings. Because this is a new area of research, qualitative research is needed to understand parents' perspectives about how they make decisions about feeding siblings and whether they adapt their feeding practices dependent on sibling characteristics such as weight status. The main objective of the current study was to describe parent feeding practices with siblings. Qualitative cross-sectional study with 88 parents with at least 2 siblings. Parents were interviewed in their homes in Minneapolis/St Paul Minnesota. Parents were from racially/ethnically diverse (64% African American) and low-income households (77% earned Parents' perceptions of feeding practices with siblings. Qualitative interviews were coded using a hybrid deductive and inductive content analysis approach. Parents indicated that they used child food preferences, in-the-moment decisions, and planned meals when deciding how to feed siblings. Additionally, the majority of parents indicated that they managed picky eating by making 1 meal or giving some flexibility/leeway to siblings about having other food options. Furthermore, parents endorsed using different feeding practices (eg, food restriction, portion control, pressure-to-eat, opportunities for healthful eating) with siblings dependent on child weight status or age/developmental stage. Findings from the current study may inform future research regarding how to measure parent feeding practices with siblings in the home environment and the development of interventions tailored for families with multiple children in the home. Future quantitative research is needed to confirm these qualitative findings. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Infant feeding practice on growth velocity in 4-6 month-olds

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    Joko Kurniawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background In developing countries, 5-10% of infants suffer from failure to thrive. Adequate feeding is the most crucial factor for optimal growth in early life. Objective To assess the differences in growth velocity at 4 to 6 months of age, based on the infant feeding practices. Methods This cross-sectional study involving 4 to 6 month-old babies from 6 public health centres in Yogyakarta was performed from August to November 2016. Data on body weight, and growth velocity as they related to weight at birth were collected. Subjects were divided into groups according to their feeding practices. Results Of 173 subjects, 130 (75% infants were exclusively breastfed, 19 infants (11% were given breast milk and formula, 14 (8% infants were given breast milk and complementary food (8%, and 10 (6% infants were given formula and complementary food. The mean growth velocity z-scores by group were as follows: exclusively breastfed 0.04 (SD 1.15 (95%CI -0.16 to 0.24, breast milk and formula -0.61 (SD 0.84 (95%CI -1.01 to -0.21, breast milk and complementary food -0.69 (SD 1.14 (95%CI -1.35 to -0.04, formula and complementary food 0.23 (SD 1.50 (95%CI: -0.84 to 1.31. The mean difference in growth velocity between the exclusively breastfed vs. breast milk and formula groups was 0.65 (SD 0.28 (95%CI: 0.10 to 1.20; P=0.02; vs. breast milk and complementary food was 0.73 (SD 0.32 (95%CI: 0.10 to 1.37; P=0.02; and vs. formula and complementary food was -0.19 (SD 0.37 (95%CI: -0.93 to 0.55; P=0.61. Conclusion Exclusively breastfed have the most optimal growth velocity compared to infants who experience other feeding practices.

  15. Variation in Perfusion Strategies for Neonatal and Infant Aortic Arch Repair: Contemporary Practice in the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, David B; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Hill, Kevin; Wallace, Amelia S; Bateson, Brian; Jacobs, Marshall L

    2016-09-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) is used as an adjunct or alternative to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) for neonates and infants undergoing aortic arch repair. Clinical studies have not demonstrated clear superiority of either strategy, and multicenter data regarding current use of these strategies are lacking. We sought to describe the variability in contemporary practice patterns for use of these techniques. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (2010-2013) was queried to identify neonates and infants whose index operation involved aortic arch repair with cardiopulmonary bypass. Perfusion strategy was classified as isolated DHCA, RCP (with less than or equal to ten minutes of DHCA), or mixed (RCP with more than ten minutes of DHCA). Data were analyzed for the entire cohort and stratified by operation subgroups. Overall, 4,523 patients (105 centers) were identified; median age seven days (interquartile range: 5.0-13.0). The most prevalent perfusion strategy was RCP (43%). Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and mixed perfusion accounted for 32% and 16% of cases, respectively. In all, 59% of operations involved some period of RCP. Regional cerebral perfusion was the most prevalent perfusion strategy for each operation subgroup. Neither age nor weight was associated with perfusion strategy, but reoperations were less likely to use RCP (31% vs 45%, P RCP and DHCA in the RCP group was longer than the DHCA time in the DHCA group (45 vs 36 minutes, P neonates and infants. In contemporary practice, RCP is the most prevalent perfusion strategy for these procedures. Use of DHCA is also common. Further investigation is warranted to ascertain possible relative merits of the various perfusion techniques. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy: a UK survey of opinion, practice and neuro-investigation at the end of 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Andrew; Azzopardi, Denis; Wyatt, John; Robertson, Nicola J

    2009-04-01

    The 2007 Cochrane review of therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy (NE) indicates a significant reduction in adverse outcome. UK National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines are awaited. To benchmark current opinion and practice to inform future strategies for optimal knowledge transfer for therapeutic hypothermia. A web based questionnaire (30 sections related to opinion and practice of management of NE) sent to the clinical leads of Level I, II and III neonatal units throughout the UK in November/December 2007. One hundred and twenty-five (out of 195) UK neonatal units responded (response rate 66%). Ten percent, 37.5% and 51.5% responses were from level I, II and III units respectively. Twenty eight percent of all units provided therapeutic hypothermia locally (52% of level III units), however 80% of responders would offer therapeutic hypothermia if there was the facility. Overall, 57% of responders considered therapeutic hypothermia effective or very effective - similar for all unit levels; 43% considered more data are required. Regional availability of therapeutic hypothermia exists in 55% of units and 41% of units offer transfer to a regional centre for therapeutic hypothermia. In the UK in 2007, access to therapeutic hypothermia was widespread although not universal. More than half of responders considered therapeutic hypothermia effective. Fifty-five percent of perinatal networks have the facility to offer therapeutic hypothermia. The involvement of national bodies may be necessary to ensure the adoption of therapeutic hypothermia according to defined protocols and standards; registration is important and will help ensure universal neurodevelopmental follow up.

  17. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  18. Predictors of obesity and overweight in preschoolers: The role of parenting styles and feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis Yavuz, H; Selcuk, Bilge

    2018-01-01

    Childhood obesity/overweight (OB/OW) displayed a rapid increase and high prevalence in the last few decades in preschool-aged children, which raised health concerns across the world and motivated researchers to investigate the factors that underlie childhood obesity. The current study examined parenting styles and child-feeding practices as potential predictors for OB/OW in preschool children, controlling for child's temperament, which has been shown to be linked with OB/OW. The sample included 61 normal weight (NW) and 61 obese/overweight (OB/OW) Turkish pre-schoolers (M age = 62.2 months; SD = 7.64, range = 45-80 months). Parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative), child-feeding practices (restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring), and child's temperament (negative affectivity) were measured with mothers' reports. Results showed that authoritarian parenting and maternal pressure to eat were the two parenting variables that significantly predicted child's weight status; the odds of being OB/OW was 4.71 times higher in children whose mothers used higher authoritarian parenting style, and was 0.44 times lower when mothers pressured their child to eat. These findings suggest that understanding the unique role of different aspects of parenting in the risk of early OB/OW status of children would be important in developing more effective interventions from early years in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Infant Feeding Practices And Its Impact On The Prevalence Of Protein Energy- Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nanda

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein-Energy-Malnulrition is an important Public Hea Ith Problem among infants and young children. Though poverty is known to be the major fac­tor but faulty feeding habits arising out of ignorance often lead to inadequate intake of essential nutrients by the infant. In order to find out the actual prevailing feeding practices and its impact on the nutritional status of infants this study conducted in one urban andtivo rural units of Varanasi district by adopting appropriate sampling procedure. In a II mothers of360 infants (120 in each study un it were interviewed regarding breastfeeding practices, dilution and nature of top milk, age of introducing supplementaryfeeding etc. It was observed that the o verall prevalence of PEM was sig­nificantly higher in bottle fed group (72.73% than spoonfed group (40.11%. Similarly the prevalence of PEM was 67.86% in late weaned group as compared to 48.38% in optimum weaned group.

  20. Child feeding practices and household food insecurity among low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Ferarro, Mabel; Franchello, Alejandra; Barrera, Raul de La; Machado, Marcia Maria Tavares; Pfeiffer, Martha Erin; Peterson, Karen Eileen

    2012-03-01

    This qualitative study of low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina, examines the influence of socio-economic conditions, organizational structures, family relationships, and food insecurity on child feeding practices and weight status. Thirty-eight mothers of preschool children living in urban Buenos Aires participated in four focus group discussions. The results indicated that many mothers were aware that obesity may be detrimental to the child's health, but most of them are unclear about the specific consequences. Maternal employment, family pressures, food insecurity and financial worries seem to influence child feeding practices. These findings have important implications for developing strategies for nutritional assistance that could benefit the health of children and provide opportunities for educational programs that are directed to nutritional awareness in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The right to eat regularly and properly is an obligation of the State and must be implemented taking into account the notion of food sovereignty and respecting the importance of preserving the culture and eating habits of a country and its diverse population groups.

  1. Neonatal Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Loss & grief > Neonatal death Neonatal death E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... cope with your baby’s death. What is neonatal death? Neonatal death is when a baby dies in ...

  2. In ovo feeding of creatine pyruvate alters energy reserves, satellite cell mitotic activity and myogenic gene expression of breast muscle in embryos and neonatal broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M M; Gao, T; Zhang, L; Li, J L; Lv, P A; Yu, L L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on energy reserves, satellite cell mitotic activity (SCMA) and myogenic gene expression in breast muscle of embryos and neonatal broilers. A total of 960 eggs were randomly allocated into three treatments: 1) non-injected control group, 2) saline group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%), and 3) CrPyr group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%) containing 12 mg CrPyr/egg at 17.5 d of incubation. After hatching, a total of 120 male chicks were randomly assigned to each treatment group, with eight replicate sets per group. Selected chicks had body BW close to the average of their pooled group. Our results showed that the total and relative breast muscle weights of broilers subjected to CrPyr treatment were higher than those in the control and saline groups on 19 d of incubation (19 E), the day of hatch, 3 and 7 d post-hatch (P creatine concentrations on 19 E, the day of hatch and 3 d post-hatch, the same treatment increased phosphocreatine concentrations on 19 E. Broilers in the CrPyr group showed higher expression of myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) (P < 0.05), myogenin and paired box 7 (Pax7), as well as higher index of SCMA on 3 d post-hatch. However, myostatin mRNA expression in CrPyr-treated broilers was down-regulated on 3 d post-hatch (P < 0.05). These results indicated that IOF of CrPyr increased energy reserves of embryos and SCMA of broilers on 3 d post-hatch, which led to enhanced muscle growth in the late embryos and neonatal broilers. Additionally, IOF of CrPyr increased the activity of satellite cells possibly through up-regulating MyoD, myogenin, and Pax7 mRNA expression and down-regulating myostatin mRNA expression. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Guidelines for Feeding Very Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Sourabh Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  4. The feeding practices and structure questionnaire: construction and initial validation in a sample of Australian first-time mothers and their 2-year olds

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Elena; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nicholson, Jan M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-01-01

    Background Early feeding practices lay the foundation for children’s eating habits and weight gain. Questionnaires are available to assess parental feeding but overlapping and inconsistent items, subscales and terminology limit conceptual clarity and between study comparisons. Our aim was to consolidate a range of existing items into a parsimonious and conceptually robust questionnaire for assessing feeding practices with very young children (

  5. Fruit and Vegetable Intakes of Preschool Children Are Associated With Feeding Practices Facilitating Internalization of Extrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; Lee, Yoonna

    2016-05-01

    To examine the association between feeding practices and both fruit and vegetable intakes of preschoolers. Cross-sectional; data collected from 2009 to 2010. Child care centers enrolled in the cohort of the Synergistic Theory and Research on Obesity and Nutrition Group Kids program. Three hundred and sixteen mother-child dyads were recruited in the baseline survey as primary caregivers of children aged 2-5 years. Ten aspects of maternal feeding practices were measured using a Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. The frequency of children's fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated by mothers. Spearman's rank order correlation and linear regression analysis between parental feeding practices and both fruit and vegetable consumption were adjusted for potential confounders. Pearson's correlation coefficients among 10 parental feeding practices were calculated. Children in the study consumed fruit 1.7 ± 0.9 times per day and vegetables 1.4 ± 0.8 times per day. Feeding practices of building a healthy home food environment and involvement were positively related and those of restriction for health were negatively related to children's vegetable consumption (P < .001); moreover, encouraging balance and variety and monitoring were positively related to children's fruit consumption (P < .001). The results of this study suggest that both fruit and vegetable intakes of preschool children are more likely to increase if parents employ feeding practices that encourage child autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors associated with infant feeding of human milk at discharge from neonatal intensive care: Cross-sectional analysis of nurse survey and infant outcomes data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Sunny G.; Rogowski, Jeannette A.; Spatz, Diane L.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Kenny, Michael; Lake, Eileen T.

    2016-01-01

    Context Nurses are principal caregivers in the neonatal intensive care unit and support mothers to establish and sustain a supply of human milk for their infants. Whether an infant receives essential nutrition and immunological protection provided in human milk at discharge is an issue of health care quality in this setting. Objectives To examine the association of the neonatal intensive care unit work environment, staffing levels, level of nurse education, lactation consultant availability, and nurse-reported breastfeeding support with very low birth weight infant receipt of human milk at discharge. Design and setting Cross sectional analysis combining nurse survey data with infant discharge data. Participants A national sample of neonatal intensive care units (N = 97), nurses (N = 5614) and very low birth weight infants (N = 6997). Methods Sequential multivariate linear regression models were estimated at the unit level between the dependent variable (rate of very low birth weight infants discharged on “any human milk”) and the independent variables (nurse work environment, nurse staffing, nursing staff education and experience, lactation consultant availability, and nurse-reported breastfeeding support). Results The majority of very low birth weight infants (52%) were discharged on formula only. Fewer infants (42%) received human milk mixed with fortifier or formula. Only 6% of infants were discharged on exclusive human milk. A 1 SD increase (0.25) in the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index composite score was associated with a four percentage point increase in the fraction of infants discharged on human milk (p nurses with a bachelor’s degree in nursing was associated with a three percentage point increase in the fraction infants discharged on human milk (p nurses, and more infants who receive breastfeeding support by nurses have higher rates of very low birth weight infants discharged home on human milk. Investments by nurse

  7. Management of neonatal abstinence syndrome: a national survey and review of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, M J; Hopewell, J; White, M J

    2009-07-01

    To ascertain the present management of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in neonatal units in the United Kingdom (UK) and Ireland. Postal questionnaire to 235 neonatal units, with telephone follow-up of non-respondents. The response rate was 90%, and 96% of respondents had a formal NAS guideline. The median number of infants treated annually for NAS was 6 (range 1-100). The method of Finnegan was the most widely used scoring system (52%). Morphine sulphate was the most commonly used first line agent for both opiate (92%) and polysubstance (69%) withdrawal. Dosing regimens varied widely. Units using a maximum daily morphine dose of seizures secondary to both opiate and polydrug withdrawal in 73% and 81% of units, respectively. 29% of units allowed infants to be discharged home on medication. 58% of these allowed administration of opiates in the community and in almost half of cases this was managed by a parent. Mothers on methadone whose serology was positive for hepatitis B and/or C were four times more likely to be discouraged from breastfeeding. The majority of units currently use an opiate as the drug of first choice as recommended. Doses utilised and second agents added vary significantly between units. Many of our findings reflect the lack of high-quality randomised studies regarding management of NAS.

  8. Survey of contemporary feeding practices in critically ill children in the Asia-Pacific and the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Judith J M; Ong, Chengsi; Han, Wee Meng; Mehta, Nilesh M; Lee, Jan Hau

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition is a fundamental component of care of critically ill children. Determining variation in nutritional practices within paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) allows for review and improvement of nutrition practices. The aim was to survey the nutrition practices and perspectives of paediatric intensivists and dieticians in Asia-Pacific and the Middle East. A questionnaire was developed to collect data on (1) the respondent's and institution's characteristics, (2) nutritional assessments and nutrient delivery practices, and (3) the perceived importance and barriers to optimal enteral feeding in the PICU. We analysed 47 responses from 35 centres in 18 different countries. Dedicated dietetic services were only present in 13 (37%) centres and regular nutrition assessments were conducted in only 12 (34%) centres. In centres with dedicated dieticians, we found greater use of carbohydrate, fat additives and special formulas. Two thirds [31 (66%)] of respondents used total fluids to estimate energy requirements. Only 11 (31%) centres utilized feeding protocols. These centres had higher use of small bowel feeding, acid suppressants, laxatives and gastric residual volume thresholds. When dealing with feed intolerance, they were also more likely to start a motility agent. There was also a lack of consensus on when feeding should start and the use of adjuncts. Nutrition practices and barriers are unique in Asia-Pacific and the Middle East and strongly reflect a lack of dietetic services. Future effort should focus on developing a uniform approach on nutrition practices to drive paediatric critical care nutrition research in these regions.

  9. Complementary Feeding: Review of Recommendations, Feeding Practices and Adequacy of Homemade Complementary Food Preparations in Developing Countries – lessons from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motuma A Abeshu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding provides the ideal food during the first 6 months of life. Complementary feeding is the process starting when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient, the target age being between 6 to 23 months. The gap between nutritional requirement and amount obtained from breast milk increases with age. For energy, 200kcal, 300kcal and 550kcal per day is expected to be covered by complementary foods at 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months, respectively. In addition, the complementary foods must provide relatively large proportions of micronutrients such as: iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and vitamin B6. In several parts of the developing world, complementary feeding continues as a challenge to good nutrition in children. In Ethiopia, only 4.2% of breastfed children of 6–23 months of age have a minimum acceptable diet. The gaps are mostly attributed to either poor dietary quality or poor feeding practices, if not both. Commercial fortified foods are often beyond the reach of the poor. Thus, homemade complementary foods remain commonly used. However, unfortified complementary foods that are predominantly plant-based provide insufficient amounts of key nutrients (particularly iron, zinc and calcium during the age of 6 – 23 months even, when based on an improved recipe. This review thus assessed complementary feeding practice and recommendation and reviewed the level of adequacy of homemade complementary foods.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG UNDER-3 YEARS CHILDREN IN URBAN SLUMS OF HUBBALLI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana P, Dattatreya D Bant

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is a serious public health problem affecting the growth and development of children which have detrimental effect in later adolescent and adult life. Although Malnutrition is multifaceted problem, Infant and young child feeding practices by mothers is crucial for optimum growth and development of the children Objectives: 1 To Assess the Infant and Young child feeding practices followed by the Mothers. 2 To study the influence of feeding practices on weight of Under 3 years children. Methodology: Cross-sectional study conducted in an urban slum of Hubli. 110 mother-child pairs recruited , where the child was between 7 months to 3 years of age. Employed a pre-structured questionnaire as tool and Child’s Anthropometry done. Data presented as percentages and proportions. Chi square test is applied to test association between Feeding practices and underweight, P value less than 0.05 considered as significant. Results: 22.7 % mothers had Breast fed within recommended time following delivery, prelacteal feeding practices observed in 47.3 % and 37.3% followed Exclusively Breast Feeding. However Timely Initiation of complementary foods was seen only in 34.5%. Breast feeding continued in 47.3 % beyond 6 months. 53.6 % & 86.4% didn’t satisfy the Minimum meal frequency and dietary diversity respectively. 50.9% of children were Normal, 49.09% were Underweight. Conclusions: Nearly 50% of the children under this study were underweight. Mothers who had not Exclusively Breast fed for 6 months, not continued Breast feeding beyond 6 months and inadequate meal frequency of the child were significantly associated with underweight of the children.

  11. Maternal nutritional status & practices & perinatal, neonatal mortality in rural Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamji, Mahtab S; V S Murthy, P V; Williams, Livia; Vardhana Rao, M Vishnu

    2008-01-01

    Despite a vast network of primary health centres and sub-centres, health care outreach in rural parts of India is poor. The Dangoria Charitable Trust (DCT), Hyderabad, has developed a model of health care outreach through trained Village Health and Nutrition Entrepreneur and Mobilisers (HNEMs) in five villages of Medak district in Andhra Pradesh, not serviced by the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) of the Government of India. Impact of such a link worker on perinatal/ neonatal mortality has been positive. The present study attempts to examine the association of maternal nutrition and related factors with perinatal, and neonatal mortality in these villages. Women from five selected villages who had delivered between June 1998 and September 2003, were identified. Those who had lost a child before one month (28 days), including stillbirths, (group 1- mortality group), who could be contacted and were willing to participate, were compared with those who had not lost a child (group II- no mortality), through a structured questionnaire and physical examination for anthropometric status and signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Categorical data were analysed using Pearson chi square analysis. Continuous data were analysed using Student's t test. Mortality during perinatal, neonatal period was 8.2 per cent of all births. Malnutrition was rampant. Over 90 per cent women had 3 or more antenatal check-ups, had taken tetanus injections and had complied with regular consumption of iron-folic acid tablets. Higher percentage of women in group I (mortality group) tended to have height less than 145 cm (high risk) and signs and symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies. However, differences between groups I and II were not statistically significant. Pre-term delivery, difficult labour (use of forceps), first parity, birth asphyxia (no cry at birth) and day of initiating breastfeeding showed significant association with mortality. Significant association between signs

  12. Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

  13. A Continuous Quality Improvement Project to Implement Infant-Driven Feeding as a Standard of Practice in the Newborn/Infant Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrupcala, Kimberly A; Edwards, Taryn M; Spatz, Diane L

    2015-01-01

    To increase the number of neonates who were fed according to cues prior to discharge and potentially decrease length of stay. Continuous quality improvement. Eighty-five bed level IV neonatal intensive care unit. Surgical and nonsurgical neonates of all gestational ages. Neonates younger than 32 weeks gestation, who required intubation, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), or did not have suck or gag reflexes were excluded as potential candidates for infant-driven feeding. The project was conducted over a 13-month period using the following methods: (a) baseline data collection, (b) designation of Infant Driven Feeding (IDF) Champions, (c) creation of a multidisciplinary team, (d) creation of electronic health record documentation, (e) initial staff education, (f) monthly team meetings, (g) reeducation throughout the duration of the project, and (h) patient-family education. Baseline data were collected on 20 neonates with a mean gestational age of 36 0/7(th) weeks and a mean total length of stay (LOS) of 43 days. Postimplementation data were collected on 150 neonates with a mean gestational age of 36 1/7(th) weeks and a mean total LOS of 36.4 days. A potential decrease in the mean total LOS of stay by 6.63 days was achieved during this continuous quality improvement (CQI) project. Neonates who are fed according to cues can become successful oral feeders and can be safely discharged home regardless of gestational age or diagnosis. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  14. Practice variation in the transfer of premature infants from incubators to open cots in Australian and New Zealand neonatal nurseries: results of an electronic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Karen; Bogossian, Fiona; East, Christine; Davies, Mark William

    2010-06-01

    The incubator environment is essential for optimal physiological functioning and development of the premature infant but the infant is ultimately required to make a successful transfer from incubator to open cot in order to be discharged from hospital. Criteria for transfer lack a systematic approach because no clear, specific guideline predominates in clinical practice. Practice variation exists between continents, regions and nurseries in the same countries, but there is no recent review of current practices utilised for transferring premature infants from incubators to open cots. To document current practice for transferring premature infants to open cots in neonatal nurseries. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Twenty-two neonatal intensive care units and fifty-six high dependency special care baby units located in public hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. A sample of 78 key clinical nursing leaders (nurse unit managers, clinical nurse consultants or clinical nurse specialists) within neonatal nurseries identified through email or telephone contact. Data were collected using a web-based survey on practice, decision-making and strategies utilised for transferring premature infants from incubators to open cots. Descriptive statistics (frequencies and crosstabs) were used to analyse data. Comparisons between groups were tested for statistical significance using Chi-squared or Fisher's exact test. Significant practice variation between countries was found for only one variable, nursing infants clothed (p=0.011). Processes and practices undertaken similarly in both countries include use of incubator air control mode, current weight criterion, thermal challenging, single-walled incubators and heated mattress systems. Practice variation was significant between neonatal intensive care units and special care baby units for weight range (p=0.005), evidence-based practice (p=0.004), historical nursery practice (p=0.029) and incubator air control mode (p=0

  15. Age-appropriate feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending child welfare clinic at a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

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    Umar M Lawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appropriate infant feeding is the key to optimum infant and child development and survival. This study investigates age-appropriate infant feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending the immunization and child welfare clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, a sample of 300 sets of infants (age ≤12 months and caregivers was systematically selected and studied. The data were analyzed using the MINITAB ® 12.21 (USA statistical software. Results: All the infants studied were still on breast milk. Most of the mothers demonstrated correct body positioning (89.9 and attachment (78.7% during breastfeeding, and effective suckling was demonstrated in 77.0%. Interestingly, none of the infants was either exclusively breastfed for 6 months or currently on exclusive breastfeeding. Furthermore, only 64 (58.2% of the 110 infants that were more than 6 months of age had appropriately been started on complementary feeding from 6 months of age. Overall, most caregivers (88.7% had "fair" to "good" infant feeding practices. The practices were significantly associated with their level of education, and their relationship with the infants. Up to 40.0% and 73.7% of the infants had varying degrees of wasting and stunting respectively. Infant feeding practices and the age of the infants emerged as the only factors significantly associated with stunting, while both the caregivers′ practices and age of the infants emerged as significant predictors of wasting in the infants. Conclusion and Recommendations: Barely 3 years to the 2015 target of the millennium development goals (MDGs, infant feeding and nutritional status still poses a serious threat to the dream of realizing the MDG-4. The Ministry of Health and relevant developing partners in this region should as a matter of urgency, formulate and implement a strong community-based public health intervention program to

  16. [Breast feeding practice and activities for its promotion in Central America, Panamá and Dominican Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, B; Delgado, H L; Valverde, V; Townsend, J; Fischer, M; Praun, A

    1985-06-01

    This paper summarizes the data presented by the representatives of Central America, Panama and the Dominican Republic at the II Regional Seminar on the Promotion of Breast-Feeding, held in Isla Contadora, Panama, April 25-29, 1983. The representatives of Costa Rica, Honduras and Panama provided up-to-date, representative data in regard to the breast-feeding practice. The average weaning age in the urban and rural areas of Costa Rica is 6 and 4 months, respectively. In Honduras and Panama, 43 and 17% of the infants from urban areas, and 21 and 37% of the babies from rural areas, respectively, were weaned before they reached four months of age. The need for availability of permanent systems to collect information on the breast-feeding practice in the different countries is pointed out. With regard to promotion actions, the absence of a national policy in favor of breast-feeding is evident. Moreover, in the national education systems, little importance is given to the subject. On the other hand, the advances achieved by some hospitals in favoring breast-feeding are mentioned. These include rooming in, the feeding of colostrum to newborns, and the establishment of human milk banks to feed premature babies whose mothers are unable to breast-feed them. Another acknowledged fact is that in the rural areas the agricultural home educators do not reinforce the breast-feeding practice. Also, there is a lack of information on the fulfillment of laws instituted for the protection of pregnant and lactating mothers, as far as pre and postnatal rest is concerned.

  17. Parental feeding practices and associations with child weight status. Swedish validation of the Child Feeding Questionnaire finds parents of 4-year-olds less restrictive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Paulina; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Faith, Myles S

    2014-10-01

    The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) assesses parental feeding attitudes, beliefs and practices concerned with child feeding and obesity proneness. The questionnaire has been developed in the U.S., and validation studies in other countries are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the CFQ in Sweden and the associations between parenting practices and children's weight status. Based on records from the Swedish population register, all mothers of 4-year-olds (n = 3007) from the third largest city in Sweden, Malmö, were contacted by mail. Those who returned the CFQ together with a background questionnaire (n = 876) received the CFQ again to enable test-retest evaluation; 564 mothers completed the CFQ twice. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test whether the original 7-factor model was supported. Good fit (CFI = 0.94, TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04, SRMR = 0.05) was obtained after minor modifications such as dropping 2 items on restriction and adding 3 error covariances. The internal reliability and the 2-week test-retest reliability were good. The scores on restriction were the lowest ever reported. When the influence of parenting practices on child BMI (dependent variable) was examined in a structural equation model (SEM), child BMI had a positive association with restriction and a negative association with pressure to eat. Restriction was positively influenced by concern about child weight. The second SEM treated parenting practices as dependent variables. Parental foreign origin and child BMI had direct effects on restriction, while pressure to eat was also influenced by parental education. While the results of the study support the usefulness of the CFQ in Sweden, carefully designed cross-cultural comparisons are needed to explain why the levels of restrictive feeding in Swedish families are the lowest reported. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Emotional climate, feeding practices, and feeding styles: an observational analysis of the dinner meal in Head Start families

    OpenAIRE

    Hall Sharon K; Nicklas Theresa A; Cross Matthew B; Papaioannou Maria A; Power Thomas G; Hughes Sheryl O; Shewchuk Richard M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A number of studies conducted with ethnically diverse, low-income samples have found that parents with indulgent feeding styles had children with a higher weight status. Indulgent parents are those who are responsive to their child's emotional states but have problems setting appropriate boundaries with their child. Because the processes through which styles impact child weight are poorly understood, the aim of this study was to observe differences in the emotional climate...

  19. Prevalent infant feeding practices among the mothers presenting at a tertiary care hospital in Garhwal Himalayan region, Uttarakhand, India

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    Vyas Kumar Rathaur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is paucity of studies on infant feeding practices from the rural areas of garhwal Himalayas of the state of uttarakhand. The present study was designed to assess the infant feeding practices in Garhwal region. Infant feeding practices have significant implications on a child's health. Early nutritional status especially during the first year of life has been shown to have a significant effect on child health and development. Optimal infant feeding practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health, and ultimately the survival of infants and young children. The study of infant feeding practices is essential before formulation of any interventional programme. Settings and Design: A study was conducted in HNB Base Hospital and Teaching Institute with the aim to assess the infant feeding practices and the prevalence of malnutrition in the study population reporting at the hospital in garhwal region of uttarakhand. Methods and Material: This is an observational cross sectional study. 275 infants were included in the study. After taking informed consent, case study forms were filled by interviewing the infants' mothers. Weight, length and head circumference of each infant was also measured. The information thus obtained was compiled, tabulated and analysed statistically. Results: The study findings revealed that 46.4% infants in the age group 0-5 months were breastfed within 1 hour of birth. 52.8% infants aged 0-5 months of were exclusively breastfed. 33.6% infants in age group 0-5 months received prelacteal feeds. 53.12% infants in age group 6-8 months received solid, semi-solid or soft food, in addition to breast milk. 53.33% infants were partially or fully bottle fed. Age appropriate feeding was found in 56% infants. The percentage of wasting, stunting and underweight in 0-5 months was 33.6%,30.4% and 36.8% respectively . The percentage of wasting, stunting and underweight in 6-11 months was 28%, 26.5% and

  20. Infant and Young Child Feeding – Knowledge and Practices of ASHA workers of Doiwala Block, Dehradun District

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    Vartika Saxena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Promotion and support of breastfeeding is a global priority and an important child-survival intervention. Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs can play a significant role in the promotion of breast-feeding. Present research paper reviews their knowledge & practices with respect to Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF issues. Further, it also analyzes difficulties being faced by them in promoting positive IYCF practices so that necessary support can be provided for carrying out their desired role. Material and Methods: It was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in the block Doiwala of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand. All 168 ASHAs were included in the study for the assessment of knowledge and practices by interview technique based on predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire. Results: 98% ASHAs had complete and correct information about exclusive breast feeding, however only 38% ASHAs were aware that breastfeeding should be started within 4 hours in children delivered by caesarean section. Only 18% ASHAs reported to be able to motivate mothers to practice exclusive breast feeding. Insufficient mother’s milk (55.4%, Caesarean sections (20.2%, coercion from elders in the family to start top milk were among the important factors attributed for failure of exclusive breastfeeding. Regarding complementary feeding, only 45% ASHAs knew the correct timing of initiation of complementary feeding; however 58% ASHAs had introduced the complementary feeding at 7th month in their children. 83.9% ASHAs knew that complementary food should be semisolid in consistency, while 87.5% and 32.7% ASHAs were aware that egg and non-vegetarian food items can be given as complementary food to the child. Bottle feeding had been practiced by about 33% of ASHAs in the past; however no ASHA had reported bottle feeding currently. Conclusion: Present research paper concludes that although knowledge level of ASHAs is high regarding IYCF

  1. Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis

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    Paxton Susan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. Methods One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating, child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food fussiness and interest in food, and mother reported child height and weight. The questionnaire was repeated 12 months later. Regression analyses were used to find longitudinal associations between maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and child body mass index (BMI. Results Modelling of healthy eating predicted lower child food fussiness and higher interest in food one year later, and pressure to eat predicted lower child interest in food. Restriction did not predict changes in child eating behaviour. Maternal feeding practices did not prospectively predict child food responsiveness or child BMI. Conclusion Maternal feeding practices appear to influence young children's eating behaviour but not weight status in the short term.

  2. Diets and Feeding Practices during the First 1000 Days Window in the Phnom Penh and North Eastern Districts of Cambodia

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    Somphos Vicheth Som

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although several health and development indicators have improved significantly in Cambodia, inadequate breastfeeding and inappropriate complementary feeding practices leave many children at high risk of malnutrition during the early stages of life. In 2014, the prevalence of wasting and stunting among Cambodian children under 5 were 10% and 32%, respectively. Thus, a strong focus on improving feeding practices within the first 1000 days window to reduce child malnutrition prevalence in Cambodia is needed. This cross-sectional study assessed the current feeding practices among of women of reproductive age, pregnant women, lactating women and children less than 24 months living in six districts from Phnom Penh and two rural provinces in the North East of Cambodia. The nutritional status of pregnant women was poor, with 21.4% having a Middle Upper arm circumference below 23 cm. While breastfeeding was predominant within the first 6 months of age in every district, feeding practices of pregnant women and children were a concern, as >70% of the children were not meeting the minimum acceptable diet, and most of the women did not improve their diet during pregnancy. Inadequate nutrition during the first 1000 days is highly prevalent in Cambodia. A comprehensive national Mother, Infant and Young Child Nutrition strategy needs to be developed and operationalized to improve feeding practices of Cambodian women and children.

  3. Associations of land, cattle and food security with infant feeding practices among a rural population living in Manyara, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, Bailey; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Caulfield, Laura E; Patil, Crystal L

    2018-01-19

    Livelihoods strategies and food security experiences can positively and negatively affect infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. This study contributes to this literature by exploring how variation in household economics among rural farmers in Tanzania relates to IYCF patterns over the first 8 months of an infant's life. These data were produced from a longitudinal study in which a cohort of mother-infant dyads was followed from birth to 24 months. In addition to baseline maternal, infant, and household characteristics, mothers were queried twice weekly and monthly about infant feeding practices and diet. Weekly and monthly datasets were merged and analyzed to assess infant feeding patterns through the first 8 months. Standard statistical methods including survival and logistic regression analyses were used. Aside from breastfeeding initiation, all other IYCF practices were suboptimal in this cohort. Land and cattle ownership were associated with the early introduction of non-breastmilk food items. Food insecurity also played a role in patterning and inadequate complementary feeding was commonplace. Health promotion programs are needed to delay the introduction of animal milks and grain-based porridge, and to achieve a minimum acceptable diet after 6 months of age among smallholder farmers in rural Tanzania. Results highlight that livelihoods-based health promotion interventions, built from a flexible and integrated design, may be an important strategy to address community-level variation in infant feeding practices and promote optimal IYCF practices.

  4. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices

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    Laura Houldcroft

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child’s perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents’ controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explore if perceptions of parental feeding practices moderated the relationship between preadolescents’ eating behaviours longitudinally. Two hundred and twenty nine preadolescents (mean age at recruitment 8.73 years completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours and their perceptions of parental feeding practices at two time points, 12 months apart (T1 and T2. Preadolescents’ perceptions of their parental feeding practices remained stable. Perceptions of restriction and pressure to eat were continuous. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction significantly moderated the relationships between eating behaviours at T1 and T2. The findings from this study suggest that in a preadolescent population, perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction of food may exacerbate the development of problematic eating behaviours.

  5. Parental feeding practices and socioeconomic status are associated with child adiposity in a multi-ethnic sample of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardel, Michelle; Willig, Amanda L; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Casazza, Krista; Beasley, T Mark; Fernández, José R

    2012-02-01

    Parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, but results have been inconsistent across populations. Research is needed to elucidate the relationship between parental feeding practices and adiposity in diverse populations. The present study tested if: (1) parental feeding practices differed by race/ethnicity, (2) parental pressure to eat and parental restriction were associated with adiposity levels, and (3) to investigate the relationship between parental feeding practices and/or child adiposity with socioeconomic status (SES). Structural equations modeling was conducted to test the model in 267 children aged 7-12 years self-identified as African American (AA), European American (EA), or Hispanic American (HA) from economically diverse backgrounds. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography scanning were used to determine body composition and abdominal fat distribution, respectively. Parental restriction was a significant predictor of child adiposity while parental pressure to eat had an inverse relationship with child adiposity. HA parents reported significantly higher levels of restriction and pressure to eat, whereas EA parents reported the lowest. SES was positively associated with child adiposity and inversely related to parental restriction and pressure to eat. Thus, parental feeding practices differ across racial/ethnic groups and SES and may contribute to population differences in child adiposity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of maternal infant feeding practices and beliefs on the expression of food neophobia in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassells, Erin L; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A; Mallan, Kimberley M

    2014-11-01

    Food neophobia is a highly heritable trait characterized by the rejection of foods that are novel or unknown and potentially limits dietary variety, with lower intake and preference particularly for fruits and vegetables. Understanding non-genetic (environmental) factors that may influence the expression of food neophobia is essential to improving children's consumption of fruits and vegetables and encouraging the adoption of healthier diets. The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal infant feeding beliefs (at 4 months) were associated with the expression of food neophobia in toddlers and whether controlling feeding practices mediated this relationship. Participants were 244 first-time mothers (M=30.4, SD=5.1 years) allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial. The relationships between infant feeding beliefs (Infant Feeding Questionnaire) at 4 months and controlling child feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire) and food neophobia (Child Food Neophobia Scale) at 24 months were tested using correlational and multiple linear regression models (adjusted for significant covariates). Higher maternal Concern about infant under-eating and becoming underweight at 4 months was associated with higher child food neophobia at 2 years. Similarly, lower Awareness of infant hunger and satiety cues was associated with higher child food neophobia. Both associations were significantly mediated by mothers' use of Pressure to eat. Intervening early to promote positive feeding practices to mothers may help reduce the use of controlling practices as children develop. Further research that can further elucidate the bi-directional nature of the mother-child feeding relationship is still required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Article Commentary: The Influence of Early Infant-Feeding Practices on the Intestinal Microbiome and Body Composition in Infants

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    Aifric O'Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite many years of widespread international recommendations to support exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life, common hospital feeding and birthing practices do not coincide with the necessary steps to support exclusive breastfeeding. These common hospital practices can lead to the infant receiving formula in the first weeks of life despite mothers’ dedication to exclusively breastfeed. Consequently, these practices play a role in the alarmingly high rate of formula-feeding worldwide. Formula-feeding has been shown to alter the infant gut microbiome in favor of proinflammatory taxa and increase gut permeability and bacterial load. Furthermore, several studies have found that formula-feeding increases the risk of obesity in later childhood. While research has demonstrated differences in the intestinal microbiome and body growth between exclusively breast versus formula-fed infants, very little is known about the effects of introducing formula to breastfed infants either briefly or long term on these outcomes. Understanding the relationships between mixed-feeding practices and infant health outcomes is complicated by the lack of clarity in the definition of mixed-feeding as well as the terminology used to describe this type of feeding in the literature. In this commentary, we highlight the need for hospitals to embrace the 10 steps of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative developed by UNICEF and the WHO for successful breastfeeding. We present a paucity of studies that have focused on the effects of introducing formula to breastfed infants on the gut microbiome, gut health, growth, and body composition. We make the case for the need to conduct well-designed studies on mixed-feeding before we can truly answer the question: how does brief or long-term use of formula influence the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding?

  8. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia

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    Yovita Ananta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. According to the 2007 Indonesian National Household Health Survey, only 23% of mothers exclusively breastfeed for six months. Objectives To determine the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, to evaluate factors associated with infant feeding practices, and to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively-breastfed and formula-fed infants. Methods A survey was conducted in hospitals located in 17 provinces in Indonesia. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was calculated. Many variables were investigated as potential predictors for exclusive breastfeeding using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further analysis was performed to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants at the time of survey. Results From 1,804 infant subjects, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 46.3%, ranging from 10.5% in East Java to 66.9% in Jambi. Predominant breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and formula feeding rates were 14.3%, 8.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. Maternal unemployment was associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding (P=0.000. There were significantly more formula-fed infants who were undernourished compared to exclusively-breastfed infants (14% vs. 8%, P=0.001. There were also significantly more infants in the formula-fed group who had abnormal head circumference compared to those in the exclusively-breastfed group (9% vs. 6%, P=0.031. Child development, as assessed by the Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire, was similar between the two groups (P=0.996. Conclusion The overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 46.3%. Maternal unemployment is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfed infants have significant better growth and head circumference compared to formula fed infants, while the development is similar between the two groups.

  9. Contextual and Cultural Influences on Parental Feeding Practices and Involvement in Child Care Centers among Hispanic Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Noereem Z; Gorman, Kathleen; Dickin, Kate; Greene, Geoffrey; Tovar, Alison

    2015-08-01

    Parental feeding practices shape children's dietary preferences and behaviors, which can influence a child's weight status. Limited research exists on the precursors and contextual influences of feeding, particularly among Hispanic parents. Therefore, this study explored two areas potentially important for obesity prevention in young children: (1) precursors and contextual influences on parental feeding and (2) parental perceptions and knowledge of the child care food environment. Four focus groups (n=36) were held with Hispanic parents, predominantly mothers, of preschool children at two child care centers. Parents were asked about influences on what and how they feed their children, awareness of the child care center feeding environment, and current involvement in the child care center. Themes were coded using NVivo10 software (QSR International, Melbourne, Australia). Participants' childhood experiences influenced how they feed their children. Parents stated that both husbands and grandparents often indulged their children with unhealthy foods and thought this interfered with their efforts to maintain a healthy home environment. Participants reported that what their children ate while in child care sometimes influenced the home feeding environment. Cultural and environmental factors influence parental feeding and involvement in the child care setting. Consistent with socioecological system theory, exploring interactions between the environment and culture using a family focus framework, such as the Family Ecological Model, could provide a better understanding of these influences among Hispanic parents. Future obesity prevention interventions with Hispanic families should be culturally relevant and target the different environments where children spend their time.

  10. Infant and Young Child Feeding Behavior among Working Mothers in India: Implications for Global Health Policy and Practice

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    Vinay Kumar, MD, MPH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding introduced in 2006 recommended the initiation of breastfeeding immediately after birth, preferably within one hour; exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; appropriate and adequate complementary feeding from six months of age while continuing breastfeeding; and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two years or beyond. Working women in India constitute a dominant and expanding pool of mothers. There is paucity of research focused on feeding behavior within this group. Method: One hundred and fifty working women answered a structured questionnaire about their demographics, birth history, levels of awareness and practice of feeding guidelines, and perceptions about breastfeeding and counseling. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Majority of participants belonged to 21-39 years age group, had nuclear families, received college education, and delivered in institutional setups. Gaps were observed between the mother’s levels of awareness and practice for different tenets of national guidelines. Higher education, longer maternity leave, higher income, and utilization of counseling services facilitated adoption of optimal feeding behavior. Most women perceived breast milk to be superior to any alternative and favored provision of counseling during last trimester. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counseling women on optimal feeding behavior is a potential intervention to convert its awareness into actual practice. The lessons learned from this study can help refine both national and global Mother and Child Health policies and programs.

  11. Infant Feeding Practices and Nut Allergy over Time in Australian School Entrant Children

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    Jessica Paton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To measure the association between infant feeding practices and parent-reported nut allergy in school entrant children. Method. The Kindergarten Health Check Questionnaire was delivered to all 110 Australian Capital Territory (ACT primary schools between 2006 and 2009. Retrospective analyses were undertaken of the data collected from the kindergarten population. Results. Of 15142 children a strong allergic reaction to peanuts and other nuts was reported in 487 (3.2% and 307 (3.9%, children, respectively. There was a positive association between parent reported nut allergy and breast feeding (OR=1.53; 1.11–2.11 and having a regular general practitioner (GP (OR=1.42; 1.05–1.92. A protective effect was found in children who were fed foods other than breast milk in the first six months (OR=0.71; 0.60–0.84. Conclusion. Children were at an increased risk of developing a parent-reported nut allergy if they were breast fed in the first six months of life.

  12. A Qualitative Investigation of Parents’ Perspectives about Feeding Practices with Siblings among Racially/Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Trofholz, Amanda; Schulte, Anna; Conger, Katherine; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective Little is known about parent feeding practices with siblings. Because this is a new area of research, qualitative research is needed to understand parents’ perspectives about how they make decisions about feeding siblings and whether they adapt their feeding practices dependent on sibling characteristics such as weight status. The main objective of the current study was to describe parent feeding practices with siblings. Design Qualitative cross-sectional study with 88 parents with at least two siblings. Setting Parents were interviewed in their homes in Minneapolis/St. Paul Minnesota. Participants Parents were from racially/ethnically diverse (64% African American) and low-income households (77% earned siblings. Analysis Qualitative interviews were coded using a hybrid deductive and inductive content analysis approach. Results Parents indicated that they used child food preferences, in-the-moment decisions, and planned meals when deciding how to feed siblings. Additionally, the majority of parents indicated that they managed picky eating by making one meal or giving some flexibility/leeway to siblings about having other food options. Furthermore, parents endorsed using different feeding practices (e.g., food restriction, portion control, pressure-to-eat, opportunities for healthful eating) with siblings dependent on child weight status or age/developmental stage. Conclusions and Implications Findings from the current study may inform future research regarding how to measure parent feeding practices with siblings in the home environment and the development of interventions tailored for families with multiple children in the home. Future quantitative research is needed to confirm these qualitative findings. PMID:27373864

  13. The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ-28): A parsimonious version validated for longitudinal use from 2 to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Elena; Williams, Kate E; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nicholson, Jan M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-05-01

    Prospective studies and intervention evaluations that examine change over time assume that measurement tools measure the same construct at each occasion. In the area of parent-child feeding practices, longitudinal measurement properties of the questionnaires used are rarely verified. To ascertain that measured change in feeding practices reflects true change rather than change in the assessment, structure, or conceptualisation of the constructs over time, this study examined longitudinal measurement invariance of the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) subscales (9 constructs; 40 items) across 3 time points. Mothers participating in the NOURISH trial reported their feeding practices when children were aged 2, 3.7, and 5 years (N = 404). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) within a structural equation modelling framework was used. Comparisons of initial cross-sectional models followed by longitudinal modelling of subscales, resulted in the removal of 12 items, including two redundant or poorly performing subscales. The resulting 28-item FPSQ-28 comprised 7 multi-item subscales: Reward for Behaviour, Reward for Eating, Persuasive Feeding, Overt Restriction, Covert Restriction, Structured Meal Setting and Structured Meal Timing. All subscales showed good fit over 3 time points and each displayed at least partial scalar (thresholds equal) longitudinal measurement invariance. We recommend the use of a separate single item indicator to assess the family meal setting. This is the first study to examine longitudinal measurement invariance in a feeding practices questionnaire. Invariance was established, indicating that the subscales of the shortened FPSQ-28 can be used with mothers to validly assess change in 7 feeding constructs in samples of children aged 2-5 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Practical Tuning Method for the Robust PID Controller with Velocity Feed-Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Sariyildiz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID control is the most widely used control method in industrial and academic applications due to its simplicity and efficiency. Several different control methods/algorithms have been proposed to tune the gains of PID controllers. However, the conventional tuning methods do not have sufficient performance and simplicity for practical applications, such as robotics and motion control. The performance of motion control systems may significantly deteriorate by the nonlinear plant uncertainties and unknown external disturbances, such as inertia variations, friction, external loads, etc., i.e., there may be a significant discrepancy between the simulation and experiment if the robustness is not considered in the design of PID controllers. This paper proposes a novel practical tuning method for the robust PID controller with velocity feed-back for motion control systems. The main advantages of the proposed method are the simplicity and efficiency in practical applications, i.e., a high performance robust motion control system can be easily designed by properly tuning conventional PID controllers. The validity of the proposal is verified by giving simulation and experimental results.

  15. Feeding practices of infants through the first year of life in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, M; Riva, E; Banderali, G; Scaglioni, S; Veehof, S H E; Sala, M; Radaelli, G; Agostoni, C

    2004-04-01

    To investigate infant feeding practices through the first year of life in Italy, and to identify factors associated with the duration of breastfeeding and early introduction of solid foods. Structured phone interviews on feeding practices were conducted with 2450 Italian-speaking mothers randomly selected among women who delivered a healthy-term singleton infant in November 1999 in Italy. Interviews were performed 30 d after delivery and when the infants were aged 3, 6, 9 and 12 mo. Type of breastfeeding was classified according to the WHO criteria. Breastfeeding started in 91.1% of infants. At the age of 6 and 12 mo, respectively, 46.8% and 11.8% of the infants was still breastfed, 68.4% and 27.7% received formula, and 18.3% and 65.2% were given cow's milk. Solids were introduced at the mean age of 4.3 mo (range 1.6-6.5 mo). Introduction of solids occurred before age 3 and 4 mo in 5.6% and 34.2% of infants, respectively. The first solids introduced were fruit (73.1%) and cereals (63.9%). The main factors (negatively) associated with the duration of breastfeeding were pacifier use (p introduction of formula (p introduction of solids (p = 0.05). Factors (negatively) associated with the introduction of solids foods before the age of 3 mo were mother not having breastfed (p introduction of formula (p introduction of complementary foods. National guidelines, public messages and educational campaigns should be promoted in Italy.

  16. Association between maternal social capital and infant complementary feeding practices in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yunhee; Kim, Jane; Seo, Eunkyo

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have explored the potential of social capital in improving child nutritional status; however, most components of pathways between social capital and nutritional status have remained unexplained. Complementary feeding practice is a strong mediator of child nutritional status. This study examined the association between complementary feeding practice and maternal social capital in rural Ethiopia, using cross-sectional data of infant aged 6-12 months and their mother pairs (n = 870). The Short Social Capital Assessment Tool was used to assess maternal structural (i.e., community group membership, having emotional/economic support from individuals, and citizenship activities) and cognitive social capital (i.e., trust, social harmony, and sense of belonging) in the past 12 months. Infant's dietary diversity score (DDS, range: 0-7), minimum dietary diversity (MDD), and minimum meal frequency (MMF) were assessed using a 24-hr dietary recall. Multivariable ordinal/binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Having support from two or more individuals was associated with higher DDS (OR = 1.84) and meeting a minimum level of dietary diversity (MDD: OR = 5.20) but not with MMF, compared to those having no support. Having two or more group memberships was associated with higher DDS (OR = 2.2) but not with MDD or MMF, compared to those without group membership. Citizenship activities showed mixed associations with MMF and no association with DDS or MDD. Cognitive social capital showed no association with DDS or MDD and lower odds of meeting MMF (OR = 0.56). These mixed results call for further studies to examine other potential pathways (e.g., hygiene and caring behaviours) in which social capital could improve child nutritional status. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Malay version comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire tested among mothers of primary school children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohaimi, Shamarina; Wei, Wong Yoke; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ) is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate parental feeding practices. It has been confirmed among children in America and applied to populations in France, Norway, and New Zealand. In order to extend the application of CFPQ, we conducted a factor structure validation of the translated version of CFPQ (CFPQ-M) using confirmatory factor analysis among mothers of primary school children (N = 397) in Malaysia. Several items were modified for cultural adaptation. Of 49 items, 39 items with loading factors >0.40 were retained in the final model. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the final model (twelve-factor model with 39 items and 2 error covariances) displayed the best fit for our sample (Chi-square = 1147; df = 634; P Malaysia. The present study extends the usability of the CFPQ and enables researchers and parents to better understand the relationships between parental feeding practices and related problems such as childhood obesity.

  18. Sociocultural and Environmental Influences on Brazilian Immigrant Mothers' Beliefs and Practices Related to Child Feeding and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Wallington, Sherrie F; Greaney, Mary L; Hasselman, Maria H; Machado, Marcia M T; Mezzavilla, Raquel S; Detro, Barbara M

    2017-05-01

    Background Length of residence in the United States (US), changes in dietary and physical activity behaviors, and economic and social barriers contribute to high childhood obesity rates among children from immigrant families in the US. Brazilians comprise a fast-growing immigrant population group in the US, yet little research has focused on health issues affecting Brazilian children in immigrant families. Understanding sociocultural and environmental influences on parents' beliefs and practices related to child feeding and weight status is essential to altering obesity trends in this group. Methods Qualitative study consisting of five focus groups with a convenience sample of 29 Brazilian immigrant mothers. Results Analyses revealed that the sociocultural and environment transitions faced by Brazilian immigrant mothers' influence their beliefs and practices related to child feeding and weight status. Additionally, acculturation emerged as a factor affecting mothers' feeding practices and their children's eating habits, with mothers preferring Brazilian food environments and that their children preferring American food environments. Mothers viewed themselves as being responsible for promoting and maintaining their children's healthy eating and feeding behaviors, but changes in their social and cultural environments due to immigration and the pressures and demands of raising a family in a new country make this difficult. Conclusions Health promotion interventions to improve healthful eating and feeding practices of Brazilian children in immigrant families must account for social and cultural changes and daily life demands due to immigration as well as potential variation in the levels of acculturation between mothers and their children.

  19. Telemedicine in Neonatal Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Kristina Garne; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    participatory design and qualitative methods. Data were collected from observational studies, individual interviews, and focus group interviews. Two neonatal units participated. One unit was experienced in providing neonatal home care with home visits, and the other planned to offer neonatal home care......BACKGROUND: For the majority of preterm infants, the last weeks of hospital admission mainly concerns tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding. Neonatal home care (NH) was developed to allow infants to remain at home for tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding with regular home...... visits from neonatal nurses. For hospitals covering large regions, home visits may be challenging, time consuming, and expensive and alternative approaches must be explored. OBJECTIVE: To identify parental needs when wanting to provide neonatal home care supported by telemedicine. METHODS: The study used...

  20. Examining variability in parent feeding practices within a low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, and immigrant population using ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Loth, Katie; Miner, Michael; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-04-21

    Current measures of parent feeding practices are typically survey-based and assessed as static/unchanging characteristics, failing to account for fluctuations in these behaviors across time and context. The current study uses ecological momentary assessment to examine variability of, and predictors of, parent feeding practices within a low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, and immigrant sample. Children ages 5-7 years old and their parents (n = 150 dyads) from six racial/ethnic groups (n = 25 from each; Black/African American, Hispanic, Hmong, Native American, Somali, White) were recruited for this mixed-methods study through primary care clinics. Among parents who used restriction (49%) and pressure-to-eat (69%) feeding practices, these feeding practices were utilized about every other day. Contextual factors at the meal associated with parent feeding practices included: number of people at the meal, who prepared the meal, types of food served at meals (e.g., pre-prepared, homemade, fast food), meal setting (e.g., kitchen table, front room), and meal emotional atmosphere (p meat proteins, and refined grains (p < 0.05). There were some differences by race/ethnicity across findings (p < 0.01), with Hmong parents engaging in the highest levels of pressure-to-eat feeding practices. Parent feeding practices varied across the week, indicating feeding practices are more likely to be context-specific, or state-like than trait-like. There were some meal characteristics more strongly associated with engaging in restriction and pressure-to-eat feeding practices. Given that parent feeding practices appear to be state-like, future interventions and health care providers who work with parents and children may want to address contextual factors associated with parent feeding practices to decrease restriction and pressure-to-eat parent feeding practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  2. Neonatal jaundice and its management: knowledge, attitude and practice of community health workers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olusoji J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ is still a leading cause of preventable brain damage, physical and mental handicap, and early death among infants in many communities. Greater awareness is needed among all health workers. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of primary health care workers about the description, causes, effective treatment, and sequelae of NNJ. Methods The setting was a local government area i.e. an administrative district within the south-western part of Nigeria. Community health workers in this area were interviewed by means of a self-administered questionnaire which focused on awareness and knowledge of neonatal jaundice and its causes, treatment and complications. Results Sixty-six community health workers participated in the survey and male-to-female ratio was 1:5. Their work experience averaged 13.5 (SD 12.7 years. Only 51.5% of the respondents gave a correct definition of NNJ. 75.8 % knew how to examine for this condition while 84.9 % knew at least two of its major causes in our environment. Also, only 54.5 % had adequate knowledge of effective treatment namely, phototherapy and exchange blood transfusion. Rather than referring affected babies to hospitals for proper management, 13.4 %, 10.4 % and 3 % of the participants would treat with ineffective drugs, natural phototherapy and herbal remedies respectively. None of the participants knew any effective means of prevention. Conclusion Primary health care workers may have inadequate knowledge and misconceptions on NNJ which must be addressed concertedly before the impact of the condition on child health and well-being can be significantly reduced. We recommend regular training workshops and seminars for this purpose.

  3. Weaning practices among pastoralists: New evidence of infant feeding patterns from Bronze Age Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventresca Miller, Alicia; Hanks, Bryan K; Judd, Margaret; Epimakhov, Andrey; Razhev, Dmitry

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates infant feeding practices through stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotopic analyses of human bone collagen from Kamennyi Ambar 5, a Middle Bronze Age cemetery located in central Eurasia. The results presented are unique for the time period and region, as few cemeteries have been excavated to reveal a demographic cross-section of the population. Studies of weaning among pastoral societies are infrequent and this research adds to our knowledge of the timing, potential supplementary foods, and cessation of breastfeeding practices. Samples were collected from 41 subadults (Eurasia that were dependent on milk products as a supplementary food. Our discussion centers on supporting this hypothesis with modern information on central and east Eurasian herding societies including the age at which complementary foods are introduced, the types of complementary foods, and the timing of the cessation of breastfeeding. Integral to this work is the nature of pastoral economies and their dependence on animal products, the impact of complementary foods on nutrition and health, and how milk processing may have affected nutrition content and digestibility of foods. This research on Eurasian pastoralists provides insights into the complexities of weaning among prehistoric pastoral societies as well as the potential for different complementary foods to be incorporated into infant diets in the past. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Perspectives and reflections on the practice of behaviour change communication for infant and young child feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Gretel H; Martin, Stephanie L; van Liere, Marti J; Fabrizio, Cecilia S

    2016-04-01

    Behaviour change communication (BCC) is a critical component of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) interventions. In this study we asked BCC practitioners working in low- and middle-income countries to participate in an examination of BCC practice. We focus here on results of their personal reflections related to larger issues of practice. We used a combination of iterative triangulation and snowball sampling procedures to obtain a sample of 29 BCC professionals. Major themes include (1) participants using tools and guidelines to structure their work, and many consider their organisation's tools to be their most important contribution to the field; (2) they value research to facilitate programme design and implementation; (3) half felt research needed to increase; (4) they have a strong commitment to respecting cultural beliefs and culturally appropriate programming; (5) they are concerned about lack of a strong theoretical foundation for their work. Based on participants' perspectives and the authors' reflections, we identified the following needs: (1) conducting a systematic examination of the alternative theoretical structures that are available for nutrition BCC, followed by a review of the evidence base and suggestions for future programmatic research to fill the gaps in knowledge; (2) developing a checklist of common patterns to facilitate efficiency in formative research; (3) developing an analytic compendium of current IYCF BCC guidelines and tools; (4) developing tools and guidelines that cover the full programme process, including use of innovative channels to support 'scaling up nutrition'; and (5) continued support for programmes of proven effectiveness. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Associations Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Nonresponsive Feeding Styles and Practices in Mothers of Young Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Mesa, Tatiana; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Wright, Julie A

    2017-05-26

    Childhood obesity is a significant global public health problem due to increasing rates worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that nonresponsive parental feeding styles and practices are important influences on children's eating behaviors and weight status, especially during early childhood. Therefore, understanding parental factors that may influence nonresponsive parental feeding styles and practices is significant for the development of interventions to prevent childhood obesity. The objectives of this systematic review were to (1) identify and review existing research examining the associations between maternal depressive symptoms and use of nonresponsive feeding styles and practices among mothers of young children (2-8 years of age), (2) highlight the limitations of reviewed studies, and (3) generate suggestions for future research. Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols) guidelines, six electronic academic databases were searched for peer-reviewed, full-text papers published in English between January 2000 and June 2016. Only studies with mothers 18+ years old of normally developing children between 2 and 8 years of age were included. Of the 297 citations identified, 35 full-text papers were retrieved and 8 were reviewed. The reviewed studies provided mixed evidence for associations between maternal depressive symptoms and nonresponsive feeding styles and practices. Two out of three studies reported positive associations with nonresponsive feeding styles, in that mothers with elevated depressive symptoms were more likely than mothers without those symptoms to exhibit uninvolved and permissive or indulgent feeding styles. Furthermore, results of reviewed studies provide good evidence for association between maternal depressive symptoms and instrumental feeding (3 of 3 reviewed studies) and nonresponsive family mealtime practices (3/3), but mixed evidence for pressuring children to eat (3/6) and emotional

  6. Feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Gromis, Judy C; Lohse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    To describe the feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children. Thirty- to 60-minute meetings involving a semistructured interview and 2 questionnaires administered by the interviewer. Low-income communities in Philadelphia, PA. Thirty-two parents of 2- to 6-year-old children. The feeding practices and styles of low-income parents of preschoolers. Qualitative interviews analyzed iteratively following a thematic approach; quantitative data analyzed using nonparametric and chi-square tests. Qualitative analyses revealed parents used a myriad of feeding practices to accomplish child-feeding goals. Racial/ethnic differences were seen; East Asian parents used more child-focused decision-making processes, whereas black parents used more parent-focused decision-making processes. Quantitative analyses substantiated racial/ethnic differences; black parents placed significantly higher demands on children for the amounts (H = 5.89, 2 df, P = .05; Kruskal-Wallis) and types (H = 8.39, 2 df, P = .01; Kruskal-Wallis) of food eaten compared to parents of other races/ethnicities. In contrast, significantly higher proportions of East Asian parents were classified as having an indulgent feeding style compared to black parents and parents of other races/ethnicities (chi(2)[4, n = 32] = 9.29, P < .05). Findings provide support for tailoring nutrition education programs to meet the diverse needs of this target audience. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Overweight and obesity among Malay primary school children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan: parental beliefs, attitudes and child feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Abdul Manan W M; Norazawati, A K; Lee, Y Y

    2012-04-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a major public health problem in Malaysia. Parents play an important role in child feeding especially among younger children. A study was conducted to evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and practices in child feeding among parents of normal weight, as well as overweight and obese primary school children in Kelantan using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 175 Malay children from three schools in Kota Bharu district in Kelantan. This study showed that 13.1% of the children were overweight and obese. Scores for perceived parent weight (p parents of overweight and obese children compared to parents of children with normal body weight. However, the score for pressure to eat among parents of overweight and obese children was significantly lower (p parents of normal weight children. The perceived child weight (r = 0.468, p parental weight (r = 0.190, p children's body mass index (BMI), whereas pressure to eat factor (r = -0.355, p children's body mass index (BMI). The findings showed that parental feeding practices were linked to children's weight status and childhood obesity. Therefore parents should be given education and guidance on appropriate child feeding practices to maintain their child's nutritional status on a healthy weight range.

  8. Child feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers of Indonesian middle class urban families: what are the problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers with children (aged 12-36 months) of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver in Indonesian urban middle class families. It was designed as a qualitative multiple case study. Mothers and caregivers from 26 families were interviewed in depth, and caregivers were categorized as family and domestic-paid caregivers. The result suggested that offering formula milk to young children was a common practice, and there was a high recognition and familiarity toward a range of formula milk brands. Mothers reported challenges in encouraging their children to eat, and in some cases they appeared to lack knowledge on overcoming their child's feeding problem. The findings suggested the need to address the child feeding problems experienced by mothers in order to overcome the double burden of child nutrition in Indonesia.

  9. Self-reported breast feeding practices and the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Cynthia; Sarkar, Abdullah; Hashem, Alaa AbouBakr; Hamadah, Reem E; Alhoulan, Asma; AlMakadma, Yosra A; Khan, Tehreem A; Al-Hamdani, Abdurahman K; Senok, Abiola

    2016-12-16

    The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a practice guideline for healthcare providers to promote breastfeeding and increase breastfeeding rates. This study aimed to examine reported experiences and views on breastfeeding of women using prenatal and postnatal services, and opinions of staff, in the context of the BFHI programme in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Prospective cohort study. This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted from December 2013 to September 2015 at two healthcare facilities (BFHI and non-BFHI) in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Women 36-40 weeks gestation receiving antenatal care at the hospitals were enrolled. Questionnaires were administered prenatally, at 1, 3 and 6 months postnatal and to the administrator and maternity staff. We recruited 277 women with an estimated 80% response rate. 156 (BFHI=78/139, non-BFHI=78/138, 56%) participants completed all questionnaires. Most BFHI-hospital participants (77.9%, n=8 for this question) acknowledged seeing the breast feeding policy compared to 23.5% (n=23) at the non-BFHI-hospital (p<0.01). Breast feeding education and encouragement was higher at the BFHI-hospital (93.3%) compared to the non-BFHI-hospital (48.2%; p<0.01). At postpartum discharge, 51% (n=53) of mothers in the BFHI-hospital were breast feeding exclusively versus 29.6% (n=29) at the non-BFHI-hospital. Where formula feed was introduced, women in the BFHI-hospital more often practiced mixed feeding rather than exclusive formula feeding with some switching from mixed feeding to exclusive breast feeding between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Exclusive breast feeding rates declined in both hospitals at 3 and 6 months postpartum with lack of community services for lactation being a major reason. Although BFHI-hospital staff (n=9) were more conversant with BFHI principles, defects in adherence to the BFHI 10 Steps were identified. This is the first study assessing the effectiveness of BFHI implementation in Saudi Arabia. Although women

  10. Nutritional Deficiencies, the Absence of Information and Caregiver Shortcomings: A Qualitative Analysis of Infant Feeding Practices in Rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Yue

    Full Text Available Development during the first two years of life is critical and has a lasting impact on a child's health. Poor infant and child nutrition can lead to deficiencies in essential micronutrients, which may cause a weakened immune system and lasting effects on children's growth and development. Recent studies in rural Shaanxi Province found an anemia prevalence of 54.3% among rural children aged six to twelve months. While new large-scale, quantitative research has begun to catalogue the extent of child malnutrition and anemia, no effort has yet been made to look more closely at the potential reasons for rural children's nutritional deficiencies through qualitative analysis. This study aims to elucidate some of the fundamental causes of poor complementary feeding practices that may lead to anemia among children in rural Shaanxi Province, China.We interviewed sixty caregivers participating in a large survey on child health and nutrition. We conducted three waves of interviews with children's primary caregivers in seventeen rural villages within four nationally-designated poverty counties in the southern part of Shaanxi Province.The qualitative analysis reveals that poor complementary feeding practices are common across our sample. Information gathered from our interviews suggests that complementary feeding practices are impeded by two constraints: absence of understanding topics related to infant health and nutrition under caregivers, as well as inadequate sources of information on these topics. Poverty does not appear to constrain child feeding practices.Our results uncover lack of proper knowledge on infant and child nutrition among rural caregivers in China. This situation causes them to fail incorporating micronutrient rich foods in their children's diet. Age-appropriate complementary feeding can stimulate children's physical and cognitive development, but in its absence it leads to iron-deficiency anemia. We suggest that steps be taken to educate

  11. Maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviours: A comparison of mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore differences between mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity in a wide range of their reported child feeding practices and their reports of their children's eating behaviours. Mothers (N = 437) with a 2-6-year-old child participated. They comprised two groups, based on their BMI: healthy weight (BMI of 18.0-24.9, inclusive) or overweight/obese (BMI of 25.0 or more). All mothers provided demographic information and completed self-report measures of their child feeding practices and their child's eating behaviour. In comparison to mothers with healthy weight, mothers with overweight/obesity reported giving their child more control around eating (p obesity reported their children to have a greater desire for drinks (p = 0.003), be more responsive to satiety (p = 0.007), and be slower eaters (p = 0.034). Mothers with overweight/obesity appear to engage in generally less healthy feeding practices with their children than mothers with healthy weight, and mothers with overweight/obesity perceive their children as more avoidant about food but not drinks. Such findings are likely to inform future intervention developments and help health workers and clinicians to better support mothers with overweight/obesity with implementing healthful feeding practices and promoting healthy eating habits in their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preventative lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and young child feeding practices: findings from qualitative research in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesorogol, Carolyn; Jean-Louis, Sherlie; Green, Jamie; Iannotti, Lora

    2015-12-01

    To prevent undernutrition in an urban slum in Haiti, a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) was introduced through a randomised control trial. Food supplementation for young child nutrition has a long history in Haiti, but there is little empirical information regarding the effects of supplementation on young child feeding practices. One of the concerns raised by supplementation is that it may disrupt other positive feeding practices such as breastfeeding and use of other complementary foods, with negative consequences for child nutrition. We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with mother-baby pairs from the three comparison groups: control, 3-month LNS supplementation and 6-month LNS supplementation. Findings from those in the LNS groups indicated high acceptance and satisfaction with LNS and perceptions that it positively affects child health and development. LNS was integrated into and enhanced ongoing complementary feeding practices. The effects of LNS use on duration and perceived quantity of breastfeeding were variable, but generally, breastfeeding was maintained during and after the intervention. Interviews generated insights into beliefs regarding infant and young child feeding practices such as introduction and use of complementary foods, and breastfeeding duration, exclusivity and cessation. Implications for the use of LNS in public health nutrition programmes are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children fromlow-income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nomina...

  14. A call for research exploring social media influences on mothers' child feeding practices and childhood obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg; Birch, Leann L

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing interest in leveraging social media to prevent childhood obesity, however, the evidence base for how social media currently influences related behaviors and how interventions could be developed for these platforms is lacking. This commentary calls for research on the extent to which mothers use social media to learn about child feeding practices and the mechanisms through which social media influences their child feeding practices. Such formative research could be applied to the development and dissemination of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention programs that utilize social media. Mothers are identified as a uniquely important target audience for social media-based interventions because of their proximal influence on children's eating behavior and their high engagement with social media platforms. Understanding mothers' current behaviors, interests, and needs as they relate to their social media use and child feeding practices is an integral first step in the development of interventions that aim to engage mothers for obesity prevention. This commentary highlights the importance of mothers for childhood obesity prevention; discusses theoretical and analytic frameworks that can inform research on social media and mothers' child feeding practices; provides evidence that social media is an emerging context for social influences on mothers' attitudes and behaviors in which food is a salient topic; and suggests directions for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Colostrum replacer feeding regimen, addition of sodium bicarbonate, and milk replacer: the combined effects on absorptive efficiency of immunoglobulin G in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, R G; Cabral, M A; Chapman, C E; Kent, E J; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

    2014-01-01

    Eighty Holstein and Holstein cross dairy calves were blocked by birth date and randomly assigned to 1 of 8 treatments within each block to examine the effect of a colostrum replacer (CR) feeding regimen, supplementation of CR with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and provision of a milk replacer (MR) feeding on IgG absorption. Calves were offered a CR containing 184.5g/L of IgG in either 1 feeding at 0h (within 30 min of birth), with or without 30g of NaHCO3, with or without a feeding of MR at 6h of age, or 2 feedings of CR (123g of IgG at 0h with or without 20g of NaHCO3 and 61.5g of IgG at 6h with or without 10g of NaHCO3), with or without a MR feeding at 12h. Therefore, treatments were (1) 1 feeding of CR; (2) 2 feedings of CR; (3) 1 feeding of CR + 30g of NaHCO3; (4) 2 feedings of CR + 30g of NaHCO3; (5) 1 feeding of CR + MR feeding; (6) 2 feedings of CR + MR feeding; (7) 1 feeding of CR + 30g NaHCO3 + MR feeding; and (8) 2 feedings of CR + 30g NaHCO3 + MR feeding. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24h after birth and were analyzed for IgG via radial immunoassay. Results indicated that CR feeding schedule, MR feeding, and the interactions CR × Na, CR × MR, and CR × Na × MR were similar for 24-h serum IgG, apparent efficiency of absorption, or area under the curve. Serum IgG at 24h, apparent efficiency of absorption, and area under the curve were decreased with addition of NaHCO3 compared with calves not supplemented with NaHCO3. These data indicate that supplementation of CR with NaHCO3 is not beneficial to IgG absorption and feeding MR within 6h of CR feeding does not affect IgG absorption. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal representations of their children in relation to feeding beliefs and practices among low-income mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Christy Y Y; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko A; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2015-12-01

    Identifying maternal characteristics in relation to child feeding is important for addressing the current childhood obesity epidemic. The present study examines whether maternal representations of their children are associated with feeding beliefs and practices. Maternal representations refer to mothers' affective and cognitive perspectives regarding their children and their subjective experiences of their relationships with their children. This key maternal characteristic has not been examined in association with maternal feeding. Thus the purpose of the current study was to examine whether maternal representations of their children, reflected by Working Model of the Child Interview typologies (Balanced, Disengaged, or Distorted), were associated with maternal feeding beliefs (Authority, Confidence, and Investment) and practices (Pressure to Eat, Restriction, and Monitoring) among low-income mothers of young children, with maternal education examined as a covariate. Results showed that Balanced mothers were most likely to demonstrate high authority, Distorted mothers were least likely to demonstrate confidence, and Disengaged mothers were least likely to demonstrate investment in child feeding. Moreover, Balanced mothers were least likely to pressure their children to eat. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for the study of childhood obesity and for applied preventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Globalization, localization and food culture: perceived roles of social and cultural capitals in healthy child feeding practices in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Keiko; Ominami, Chihiro; Song, Chunyan; Murayama, Nobuko; Wolff, Cindy

    2014-03-01

    The current study examined parental perceptions of sociocultural factors associated with healthy child feeding practices among parents of preschool-age children in rural Japan. Fifteen Japanese mothers of preschool-age children participated in this qualitative study. These participants were aged 22-39 years and resided in a rural town in western Japan. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews to assess parental perceptions of healthy child feeding practices and their relationships with globalization and localization. These interviews were transcribed, translated into English and coded, based on the principles of grounded theory. A codebook was developed and pre-identified, and the newly-identified themes from this codebook were examined and compared. Overall, local and seasonal foods, along with traditional Japanese foods and simple foods (soshoku), were considered to be beneficial for children. Participants also noted that children were expected to be mindful and exhibit good table manners that reflect cultural values related to meal-time socializing or family bonding, and food appreciation. On the other hand, the majority of the participants stated that foods containing food additives and imported foods were unsuitable for children. Participants noted that strong social capital, especially social support from their mothers or mothers-in-law, as well as social networks for obtaining fresh local foods, contributed to healthy child feeding practices. Cultural capital (including the preservation of traditional Japanese dietary habits, eating rules and inter-generational commensality), was also identified as being key to healthy feeding practices. Identifying and promoting the social and cultural capital that positively support healthy child feeding practices may be an important component of nutrition education programs.

  18. Smartphone Versus Pen-and-Paper Data Collection of Infant Feeding Practices in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuyi; Wu, Qiong; van Velthoven, Michelle HMMT; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Igor; Li, Ye; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (MNCH) household survey data are collected mainly with pen-and-paper. Smartphone data collection may have advantages over pen-and-paper, but little evidence exists on how they compare. Objective To compare smartphone data collection versus the use of pen-and-paper for infant feeding practices of the MNCH household survey. We compared the two data collection methods for differences in data quality (data recording, data entry, open-ended answers, and interrater reliability), time consumption, costs, interviewers’ perceptions, and problems encountered. Methods We recruited mothers of infants aged 0 to 23 months in four village clinics in Zhaozhou Township, Zhao County, Hebei Province, China. We randomly assigned mothers to a smartphone or a pen-and-paper questionnaire group. A pair of interviewers simultaneously questioned mothers on infant feeding practices, each using the same method (either smartphone or pen-and-paper). Results We enrolled 120 mothers, and all completed the study. Data recording errors were prevented in the smartphone questionnaire. In the 120 pen-and-paper questionnaires (60 mothers), we found 192 data recording errors in 55 questionnaires. There was no significant difference in recording variation between the groups for the questionnaire pairs (P = .32) or variables (P = .45). The smartphone questionnaires were automatically uploaded and no data entry errors occurred. We found that even after double data entry of the pen-and-paper questionnaires, 65.0% (78/120) of the questionnaires did not match and needed to be checked. The mean duration of an interview was 10.22 (SD 2.17) minutes for the smartphone method and 10.83 (SD 2.94) minutes for the pen-and-paper method, which was not significantly different between the methods (P = .19). The mean costs per questionnaire were higher for the smartphone questionnaire (¥143, equal to US $23 at the exchange rate on April 24, 2012) than for the pen

  19. Infant feeding practices among HIV-positive mothers at Tembisa hospital, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelia Chaponda

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: In the postnatal hospital setting of this study, the feeding choices of mothers were influenced by nursing personnel. Nursing personnel could marry the influential ‘authority’ they have with correct and consistent information, in order to change feeding behaviour. Significant ‘others’ like grandmothers and other relatives also influenced decisions on infant feeding. As such, family dynamics need to be considered when encouraging breastfeeding.

  20. Anemia and Feeding Practices among Infants in Rural Shaanxi Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfu Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6–11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb. Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6–11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01, and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01. The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding.

  1. Hospital discharge bags and breastfeeding at 6 months: data from the infant feeding practices study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Matlak, Stephanie; Merewood, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Distribution of industry-sponsored formula sample packs to new mothers undermines breastfeeding. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II), we aimed to determine whether receipt of 4 different types of bags was associated with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. We extracted data from IFPS II questionnaires. Type of discharge bag received was categorized as "formula bag," "coupon bag," "breastfeeding supplies bag," or "no bag". We examined exclusive breastfeeding status at 10 weeks (post hoc) and at 6 months using univariate descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. Overall, 1868 (81.4%) of women received formula bags, 96 (4.2%) received coupon bags, 46 (2.0%) received breastfeeding supplies bags, and 284 (12.4%) received no bag. By 10 weeks, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bags or no bag were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding than formula bag recipients. In the adjusted model, compared to formula bag/coupon bag recipients, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bag/no bag were significantly more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36). The vast majority of new mothers received formula sample packs at discharge, and this was associated with reduced exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months. Bags containing breastfeeding supplies or no bag at all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months.

  2. Complementary feeding messages that target cultural barriers enhance both the use of lipid-based nutrient supplements and underlying feeding practices to improve infant diets in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Keriann H; Muti, Monica; Chasekwa, Bernard; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Madzima, Rufaro C; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2012-04-01

    Supplementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LiNS) is promoted as an approach to prevent child undernutrition and growth faltering. Previous LiNS studies have not tested the effects of improving the underlying diet prior to providing LiNS. Formative research was conducted in rural Zimbabwe to develop feeding messages to improve complementary feeding with and without LiNS. Two rounds of Trials of Improved Practices were conducted with mothers of infants aged 6-12 months to assess the feasibility of improving infant diets using (1) only locally available resources and (2) locally available resources plus 20 g of LiNS as Nutributter®/day. Common feeding problems were poor dietary diversity and low energy density. Popular improved practices were to process locally available foods so that infants could swallow them and add processed local foods to enrich porridges. Consumption of beans, fruits, green leafy vegetables, and peanut/seed butters increased after counselling (P < 0.05). Intakes of energy, protein, vitamin A, folate, calcium, iron and zinc from complementary foods increased significantly after counselling with or without the provision of Nutributter (P < 0.05). Intakes of fat, folate, iron, and zinc increased only (fat) or more so (folate, iron, and zinc) with the provision of Nutributter (P < 0.05). While provision of LiNS was crucial to ensure adequate intakes of iron and zinc, educational messages that were barrier-specific and delivered directly to mothers were crucial to improving the underlying diet. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Effect of peer counselling by mother support groups on infant and young child feeding practices: the Lalitpur experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Komal P; Sankar, Jhuma; Sankar, M Jeeva; Gupta, Arun; Dadhich, J P; Gupta, Y P; Bhatt, Girish C; Ansari, Dilshad A; Sharma, B

    2014-01-01

    Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of peer counselling by mother support groups (MSG's) in improving the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in the community. We conducted this repeated-measure before and after study in the Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India between 2006 and 2011. We assessed the IYCF practices before and after creating MSG's within the community. The feeding practices were reassessed at two time points-2 (T1) and 5 years (T2) after the intervention and compared with that of the pre-intervention phase (T0). The total population covered by the project from the time of its initiation was 105000. A total of 425 (T0), 480 (T1) and 521 (T2) mother infant pairs were selected from this population. There was significant improvement in the following IYCF practices in the community (represented as %; adjOR (95% CI, p) such as initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour at both T1 (71% vs. 11%); 19.6 (13.6, 28.2, p =  counseling by MSG's improved the IYCF practices in the district and could be sustained.

  4. Qualitative exploration of practices to prevent medication errors in neonatal intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishoej, Rikke Mie; Lai Nielsen, Henriette; Strzelec, Stina Maria

    2018-01-01

    to prevent MEs involved technology, procedures, education, skills and hospital pharmacy services. Potential future practices to prevent MEs included customizing the computerized physician order entry systems to support optimal prescribing, standardizing the double-check process, training of calculation...

  5. The influence of early feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake among preschool children in 4 European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Jones, Louise; Oliveira, Andreia; Moschonis, George; Betoko, Aisha; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Manios, Yannis; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Emmett, Pauline; Charles, Marie Aline

    2013-09-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake in children remains below recommendations in many countries. The long-term effects of early parental feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake are not clearly established. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether early feeding practices influence later fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children. The study used data from 4 European cohorts: the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'Enfant study, the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort, and the Greek EuroPrevall study. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed in each cohort by food-frequency questionnaire. Associations between early feeding practices, such as breastfeeding and timing of complementary feeding, and fruit and/or vegetable intake in 2-4-y-old children were tested by using logistic regressions, separately in each cohort, after adjustment for infant's age and sex and maternal age, educational level, smoking during pregnancy, and maternal fruit and vegetable intake. Large differences in early feeding practices were highlighted across the 4 European cohorts with longer breastfeeding duration in the Generation XXI Birth Cohort and earlier introduction to complementary foods in ALSPAC. Longer breastfeeding duration was consistently related to higher fruit and vegetable intake in young children, whereas the associations with age of introduction to fruit and vegetable intake were weaker and less consistent across the cohorts. Mothers' fruit and vegetable intake (available in 3 of the cohorts) did not substantially attenuate the relation with breastfeeding duration. The concordant positive association between breastfeeding duration and fruit and vegetable intake in different cultural contexts favors an independent specific effect.

  6. Consumption of highly processed snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages and child feeding practices in a rural area of Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mariela; Zelaya Blandón, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate feeding behaviours are important for child growth and development. In societies undergoing nutrition transition, new food items are introduced that may be unfavourable for child health. Set in rural Nicaragua, the aim of this study was to describe the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices as well as the consumption of highly processed snack foods (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). All households with at least one child 0- to 35-month-old (n = 1371) were visited to collect information on current IYCF practices in the youngest child as well as consumption of SSBs and HP snacks. Breastfeeding was dominant (98%) among 0- to 1-month-olds and continued to be prevalent (60%) in the second year, while only 34% of the 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed. Complementary feeding practices were deemed acceptable for only 59% of the 6- to 11-month-old infants, with low dietary diversity reported for 50% and inadequate meal frequency reported for 30%. Consumption of HP snacks and SSBs was frequent and started early; among 6- to 8-month-olds, 42% and 32% had consumed HP snacks and SSBs, respectively. The difference between the observed IYCF behaviours and World Health Organization recommendations raises concern of increased risk of infections and insufficient intake of micronutrients that may impair linear growth. The concurrent high consumption of SSBs and HP snacks may increase the risk of displacing the recommended feeding behaviours. To promote immediate and long-term health, growth and development, there is a need to both promote recommended IYCF practices as well as discourage unfavourable feeding behaviours. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The feeding practices and structure questionnaire: construction and initial validation in a sample of Australian first-time mothers and their 2-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Elena; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nicholson, Jan M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-06-04

    Early feeding practices lay the foundation for children's eating habits and weight gain. Questionnaires are available to assess parental feeding but overlapping and inconsistent items, subscales and terminology limit conceptual clarity and between study comparisons. Our aim was to consolidate a range of existing items into a parsimonious and conceptually robust questionnaire for assessing feeding practices with very young children (review 10 factors were specified. Of these, 9 factors (40 items) showed acceptable model fit and internal reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.61-0.89). Four factors reflected non-responsive feeding practices: 'Distrust in Appetite', 'Reward for Behaviour', 'Reward for Eating', and 'Persuasive Feeding'. Five factors reflected structure of the meal environment and limits: 'Structured Meal Setting', 'Structured Meal Timing', 'Family Meal Setting', 'Overt Restriction' and 'Covert Restriction'. Feeding practices generally showed the expected pattern of associations with child eating behaviours but none with weight. The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) provides a new reliable and valid measure of parental feeding practices, specifically maternal responsiveness to children's hunger/satiety signals facilitated by routine and structure in feeding. Further validation in more diverse samples is required.

  8. Neonatal care practices in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Margaret; Shiroor, Anushree; Hill, Zelee

    2018-04-16

    Recommended immediate newborn care practices include thermal care (immediate drying and wrapping, skin-to-skin contact after delivery, delayed bathing), hygienic cord care and early initiation of breastfeeding. This paper systematically reviews quantitative and qualitative data from sub-Saharan Africa on the prevalence of key immediate newborn care practices and the factors that influence them. Studies were identified by searching relevant databases and websites, contacting national and international academics and implementers and hand-searching reference lists of included articles. English-language published and unpublished literature reporting primary data from sub-Saharan Africa (published between January 2001 and May 2014) were included if it met the quality criteria. Quantitative prevalence data were extracted and summarized. Qualitative data were synthesized through thematic analysis, with deductive coding used to identify emergent themes within each care practice. A framework approach was used to identify prominent and divergent themes. Forty-two studies were included as well as DHS data - only available for early breastfeeding practices from 33 countries. Results found variation in the prevalence of immediate newborn care practices between countries, with the exception of skin-to-skin contact after delivery which was universally low. The importance of keeping newborn babies warm was well recognized, although thermal care practices were sub-optimal. Similar factors influenced practices across countries, including delayed drying and wrapping because the birth attendant focused on the mother; bathing newborns soon after delivery to remove the dirt and blood; negative beliefs about the vernix; applying substances to the cord to make it drop off quickly; and delayed breastfeeding because of a perception of a lack of milk or because the baby needs to sleep after delivery or does not showing signs of hunger. The majority of studies included in this review came

  9. Feeding Practices of Mothers from Varied Income and Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Borrelli, Amanda; Espinosa, Carolina; Worobey, Harriet S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Relatively few investigators have explored the role of maternal control in describing the feeding behaviour of nonwhite parents of preschool-age children. The present study was conducted to examine if controlling feeding behaviours (i.e. restriction and pressuring) varied by income (middle vs. low) and race/ethnicity (white vs.…

  10. Improving infant and young child feeding practices through nutrition education with local resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Irmgard; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Reinbott, Anika; Krawinkel, Michael B; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Poor nutritional status in early infancy is associated with growth faltering and increased risk for morbidity. Main causes for undernutrition are a diet poor in quality and quantity, feeding practices, and hygiene. Programmes emphasize on affordable ways for improving diets for low-income families. Little is known about the period needed for behaviour changes. Longitudinal studies were conducted in Malawi and Cambodia looking at infant and young child feeding as well as growth of children below two years. At baseline 6-9 months old children and their caregivers participating in a nutrition education(NE) program of FAO were invited. The recruited children were matched by age (days) and sex with children living in an area without NE (control). Baseline data was collected prior the NE carried out by trained volunteers twice a month based on locally adopted teaching materials. The children and their caregivers were visited every three months for a total period of 12 months. At baseline the mean age of the children in Malawi was 227 days, all breastfed (n = 149). In Cambodia the mean age was 230 days and 90% of them were still breastfed (n = 96). The mean HAZ was -1.53 in Malawi and -0.87 in Cambodia. Minimum acceptable diet(MAD) was received by 42% and 34% of the children in the intervention areas of Malawi and Cambodia respectively. After three months MAD was achieved by 88% in Malawi and 45% in Cambodia. The rates in the control area in Malawi increased as well from 22% at baseline to 52% three months later. A similar change could be observed in Cambodia with 28% of the children receiving MAD at baseline and 38% three months later. Hygiene behaviour was one focus of the NE in both countries. In Malawi soap usage before feeding the child increased to 32% (p< 0.001), and before food preparation to 33% (both p < 0.001). Also washing before eating the food increased to 22%. In the control area no significant changes in terms of soap usage could be observed. In

  11. Infant and young child feeding practice among mothers with 0-24 months old children in Slum areas of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta; Tafere, Tadese Ejigu; Abitew, Dereje Berhanu

    2017-01-01

    Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure the health, growth and development of children. However, infant feeding practice is suboptimal in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. The slum area is a heavily populated urban informal settlement characterized by substandard housing, squalor, with a lack of reliable sanitation services, supply of clean water, reliable electricity, law enforcement and other basic services. Residents of the slum area were poor and less educated. This further compromises infant feeding practice. The aim of this study was to assess infant and young child feeding practice among mothers with 0-24 month old children in the study area. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 mothers with 0-24 month old children from June 01-30 / 2016. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Infant and young child feeding practice was assessed using the fifteen World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice was 113 (84%). Sixty (15%) mothers gave prelacteal feeds and, 96 (23%) mothers used a bottle to feed their index child. Appropriate complementary feeding practice was only 20 (7%). Thirty nine out of forty mothers introduced complementary food timely, 131 (47%) of mothers gave the minimum meal frequency, and 20 (7%) children took the minimum food diversity and acceptable diet. Independent predictors for complementary feeding practice were having secondary and above education of the mother, receiving postnatal care, possession of radio and giving birth at hospital. In this study infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practice was poor. Therefore, there is a need for strengthening the promotion on IYCF practice during postnatal care and using mass media to giving emphasis for optimal complementary feeding practices, especially for mothers with a lower educational status.

  12. The Impact of Integrated Infant and Young Child Feeding and Micronutrient Powder Intervention on Feeding Practices and Anemia in Children Aged 6-23 Months in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locks, Lindsey M; Reerink, Ietje; Tucker Brown, Amal; Gnegne, Smaila; Ramalanjaona, Noelimanjaka; Nanama, Simeon; Duggan, Christopher P; Garg, Aashima

    2017-06-07

    This study assesses the impact of an integrated infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and micronutrient powder (MNP) intervention on children's risk of anemia and IYCF practices in Madagascar. Quantitative baseline and endline surveys were conducted in representative households with children 6-23 months from two districts, where an 18-month IYCF-MNP intervention was implemented. Relative risks comparing children's risk of anemia and maternal IYCF knowledge and practices at baseline versus endline, and also at endline among MNP-users versus non-users were estimated using log-binomial regression models. 372 and 475 children aged 6-23 months were assessed at baseline and endline respectively. Prevalence of anemia fell from 75.3% to 64.9% from baseline to endline ( p = 0.002); the reduction in the risk of anemia remained significant in models adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics (ARR (95% CI): 0.86 (0.78, 0.95), p = 0.003). In endline assessments, 229 out of 474 (48.3%) of children had consumed MNPs. MNP-users had a lower risk of anemia (ARR (95% CI): 0.86 (0.74, 0.99), p = 0.04) than non-users, after controlling for child's dietary diversity and morbidity, maternal counseling by community-health-workers, and sociodemographic characteristics. Mothers interviewed at endline also had greater nutrition knowledge and were more likely to feed their children ≥4 food groups (ARR (95% CI): 2.92 (2.24, 3.80), p children's consumption of micronutrients and reducing risk of anemia. The addition of MNP does not negatively impact, and may improve, IYCF practices.

  13. Associations between maternal sense of coherence and controlling feeding practices: The importance of resilience and support in families of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eli, Karin; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Mokoena, Lincoln; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Faith, Myles S; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-10-01

    Sense of Coherence (SOC) measures an individual's positive, or salutogenic, orientation toward her/his capacities, environment, future, and life. SOC comprises three factors: comprehensibility (the sense of one's own life as ordered and understandable); manageability (the perception of available resources and skills to manage stressors); and meaningfulness (the overall sense that life is filled with meaning and purpose). In numerous studies, SOC has been associated with resilience to stress. However, associations between parental SOC and controlling feeding practices have yet to be studied. This study examines the validity of the SOC 13-item, 3-factor questionnaire, associations between SOC and maternal and child characteristics, and associations between SOC and use of pressuring or restrictive feeding, among mothers of 4-year-olds. 565 mothers (23.5% of foreign origin, 30.3% with overweight/obesity) recruited via the Swedish population registry (response rate: 65%), completed the SOC-13, the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), and a background questionnaire. The validity of SOC-13 was examined using confirmatory factor analysis; associations with background characteristics and feeding practices were tested with structural equation modeling. SOC-13 validity testing showed acceptable fit (TLI = 0.93, CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.06, SRMR = 0.04) after allowing one pair of error terms to correlate. The Cronbach's alpha for meaningfulness was 0.73, comprehensibility 0.76, and manageability 0.75. SOC increased with mothers' Swedish background and education, and decreased with higher BMI. Child gender, age, and BMI, were not associated with SOC. Lower SOC was associated with controlling practices and with concern about child weight and eating. The associations between SOC and feeding suggest that SOC-related parameters could inform childhood obesity research, and that prevention should address the socioeconomic barriers that parents face in building resilience to stress

  14. Short communication: Effect of on-farm feeding practices on rumen protected lysine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P; Tucker, H A; Clark, R E; Miura, M; Ballard, C S

    2016-02-01

    Two independent studies were conducted to determine whether mechanical mixing of total mixed ration (TMR) or TMR dry matter alters Lys release from 6 rumen-protected Lys (RPL) products (A, B, C, D, E, and F). In the first study, routine mixing procedures were simulated to determine if inclusion of RPL products in TMR altered in situ release of Lys. Following mixing, Dacron bags containing RPL products were ruminally incubated for 0, 6, 12, or 24 h to determine Lys release. The second study occurred independently of the first, in which Lys release from RPL products was evaluated when incorporated into a TMR that differed in dry matter (DM) content. Bags containing TMR and RPL product mixture were stored at room temperature for 0, 6, 18, and 24 h to simulate RPL product exposure to TMR when mixed and delivered once per day. Concentration of free Lys in both studies was determined using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Following mechanical mixing, ruminal Lys release was significantly greater for C and tended to increase for F. Mechanical mixing did not alter ruminal Lys release from other RPL products evaluated. Hours of ruminal incubation significantly altered Lys release for all products evaluated, and a significant interaction of mechanical mixing and hours of ruminal incubation was observed for A and C. Exposure to lower TMR DM (40.5 versus 51.8%) significantly increased Lys release from B but did not alter Lys release from the other RPL products evaluated. Moreover, time of exposure to TMR significantly increased Lys release from all RPL products evaluated, and a significant interaction of TMR DM and time of exposure to TMR was observed for B and E. These data suggest mechanical mixing and variation in TMR DM may compromise the rumen protection of RPL products; therefore, on-farm feeding practices may alter efficacy of RPL products in dairy rations. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Infant feeding practices and reported food allergies at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luccioli, Stefano; Zhang, Yuanting; Verrill, Linda; Ramos-Valle, Moraima; Kwegyir-Afful, Ernest

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the frequency of physician-diagnosed food allergies among 6-year-old US children and study the impact of exclusive breastfeeding and complementary food introduction on this frequency. Data were analyzed from children who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II Year 6 Follow-Up Study (Y6FU). Children with probable food allergy (pFA) were defined as children with report of physician-diagnosed food allergy at age 6 years. Subgroups of pFA included children who were not diagnosed before 1 year of age (new pFA) and those with atopic risk factors (high risk). Prevalence of total pFA in the Y6FU was 6.34%. The majority of these children had new pFA and high-risk factors. Higher maternal education, higher family income, family history of food allergy, and reported eczema before 1 year of age were significantly associated with higher odds of total or new pFA. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and timing of complementary food introduction were not significantly associated with total pFA. However, exclusive breastfeeding of ≥4 months compared with no breastfeeding was marginally associated with lower odds of new pFA (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51; P = .07); this effect was not observed with high-risk children. Analysis of infant and maternal variables in the Y6FU cohort of US children revealed that socioeconomic and atopic factors were the main predictors of pFA at age 6 years. Exclusive breastfeeding of ≥4 months may have a preventive effect on development of pFA after 1 year of age in non high-risk children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Effectiveness of peer-counseling for promoting optimal complementary feeding practices among infants belonging to urban slums of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharwal Vandana, Passi Santosh Jain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Promotion of appropriate complementary feeding practices is important in reducing malnutrition in infants and young children. Yet, India has dismal rates of optimal complementary feeding practices which are not rising. Aim: This study aimed to find the impact of the educational intervention directed through peer counselors to promote optimal complementary feeding practices. Methods and materials: This is an Interventional study, which has been conducted in an urban slum of Delhi using multi-stage random sampling. From the study area two sectors were randomly selected. From one sector, 54 pregnant women were selected who were not given any counselling forming the non-intervention group. From the other sector, 159 pregnant women were selected to form the intervention group (Igr which were further divided into 3 sub-groups; one sub-group was imparted counselling by a nutrition professional (Igr A; n=53 and the other two (Igr B1;n=53 and Igr B2;n=53 by the peer counselors who where the local health workers trained for promoting optimal infant feeding practices. The infants were followed up till their first birthday and in order to study the impact of counseling, the complementary feeding practices of the intervention and the non-intervention groups have been compared Results: In the intervention groups, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was significantly higher as compared to the non-intervention group (67.5 % vs. 4.2 %. In the intervention groups, 2.6 per cent infants received semi-solid/ solid foods before the age of 6 months, 75.1 percent between 6 – 7 months and the rest by the age of 9 months. However, in the Non-Igr, the respective figures were 48.9, 19.4 and 25.4 per cent; and at the age of one year, 6.4 per cent infants were still being given predominantly mother’s milk. 99.3 per cent infants in the Igrs as compared to 82.3 per cent in the Non-Igr (P<0.05 continued to receive breast milk till the age of

  17. Bidirectional association between parental child-feeding practices and body mass index at 4 and 7 y of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Lisa; Lopes, Carla; Severo, Milton; Santos, Susana; Real, Helena; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Oliveira, Andreia

    2016-03-01

    Evidence of the association between parental child-feeding practices and the child's body mass index (BMI) is controversial, and bidirectional effects have been poorly studied. We aimed to examine bidirectional associations between parental child-feeding practices and BMI at 4 and 7 y of age. This study included 3708 singleton children from the Generation XXI birth cohort with data on parental child-feeding practices and BMI at 4 and 7 y old. Feeding practices were assessed through a self-administered questionnaire by combining the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale and then adapting it to Portuguese preschool children. Weight and height were measured according to standardized procedures, and age- and sex-specific BMI z scores were computed based on the WHO Growth References. Linear regression models were used to estimate the bidirectional associations between each practice and BMI z score. Crosslagged analyses were performed to compare the directions of those associations (the mean score of each practice and BMI z score at both ages were standardized to enable effect size comparisons). After adjustments, pressure to eat and overt control at 4 y of age were associated with a lower BMI z score 3 y later (β: -0.05; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.03 and β: -0.05; 95% CI: -0.09, -0.01, respectively). Regarding the opposite direction of association, a higher BMI z score at 4 y of age was significantly associated with higher levels of restriction and covert control at 7 y of age (β: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.08 and β: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.08, respectively) and with lower levels of pressure to eat (β: -0.17; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.15). The only bidirectional practice, pressure to eat, was more strongly influenced by the BMI z score than the reverse (βstandardized: -0.17 compared with βstandardized: -0.04; likelihood ratio test: P parents both respond to and influence the child's weight; thus, this child-parent interaction should be considered in future

  18. Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability, version II (TRIPS-II): a simple and practical neonatal illness severity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo K; Aziz, Khalid; Dunn, Michael; Clarke, Maxine; Kovacs, Lajos; Ojah, Cecil; Ye, Xiang Y

    2013-05-01

    Derive and validate a practical assessment of infant illness severity at admission to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Prospective study involving 17,075 infants admitted to 15 NICUs in 2006 to 2008. Logistic regression was used to derive a prediction model for mortality comprising four empirically weighted items (temperature, blood pressure, respiratory status, response to noxious stimuli). This Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability, version II (TRIPS-II) was then validated for prediction of 7-day and total NICU mortality. TRIPS-II discriminated 7-day (receiver operating curve [ROC] area, 0.90) and total NICU mortality (ROC area, 0.87) from survival. Furthermore, there was a direct association between changes in TRIPS-II at 12 and 24 hours and mortality. There was good calibration across the full range of TRIPS-II scores and the gestational age at birth, and addition of TRIPS-II improved performance of prediction models that use gestational age and baseline population risk variables. TRIPS-II is a validated benchmarking tool for assessing infant illness severity at admission and for up to 24 hours after. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Remifentanil analgesia during laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity: a practical approach in neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Nihal; Bas, Ahmet Y; Kavurt, Sumru; Celik, Istemi H; Yucel, Husniye; Turkbay, Dursun; Hekimoğlu, Emre; Koc, Orhan

    2014-11-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a significant cause of childhood blindness. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of remifentanil analgesia during laser treatment of ROP performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Remifentanil was infused continuously during the procedure starting with a dose of 0.2 µg/kg/min and increased gradually to 0.6 µg/kg/min to provide an adequate level of analgesia. We enrolled 64 infants. Remifentanil was infused continuously at a mean rate of 0.4 ± 0.1 μg/kg/min. No major adverse effects were observed except in two patients with reversible bradycardia and hypotension. Premature infant pain profile (PIPP) scores revealed no pain. Patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia had similar remifentanil dosage, intubation duration, and extubation time. Remifentanil analgesia for ROP treatment performed in the NICU by pediatricians is a safe and effective modality. This modality offers a practical solution in hospitals without readily available pediatric anesthetists. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2012-02-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  1. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2009-06-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  2. Determinants of pre-lacteal feeding practices in urban and rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... ... place of residence. Keywords: Pre-lacteal feeds, mothers, infants, urban, rural, Nigeria. ... The World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Unit- ed Nations .... Factors considered for the multivariable model were based from ...

  3. Knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers related to infant feeding in the context of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liska Janse van Rensburg

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Healthcare workers' knowledge did not conform favourably with the current WHO guidelines. These healthcare workers were actively involved in the care of patients in the maternity wards where HIV-infected mothers regularly seek counselling on infant feeding matters.

  4. Exploring infant feeding practices: cross-sectional surveys of South Western Sydney, Singapore, and Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Timothy Yong Qun; Ung, Andrew; Qian, Shelley; Nguyen, Jessie Thanh; An, Yvonne; Mudgil, Poonam; Whitehall, John

    2017-06-13

    Infant feeding practices are known to influence the child's long-term health. Studies have associated obesity and other diseases with reduced breastfeeding and early introduction of high calorie beverages (HCBs). The rising prevalence of obesity is already a problem in most developed countries, especially Australia, but cultural differences are influential. Our aim is to examine and compare infant feeding practices and educational levels of respondents through questionnaires in three culturally different sites: Campbelltown (South Western Sydney), Australia, Singapore and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (HCMC). Consenting parents and carers (aged ≥18 years old) of at least one child (≤6 years old) were recruited from paediatric clinics in Campbelltown, Singapore and HCMC. Participants completed an infant feeding practices questionnaire regarding breastfeeding, beverage and solid initiation in addition to the parent's ethnicity, age, and educational level. Data was analysed quantitatively using SPSS. Two hundred eighty-three participants were recruited across the three sites, HCMC (n = 84), Campbelltown (n = 108), and Singapore (n = 91). 237 (82.6%) children were breastfed but in all only 100 (60.2%) were exclusively breastfed for five months or more. There was a statistical difference in rates of breast feeding between each region. HCMC (n = 18, 21.4%) had the lowest, followed by Campbelltown (n = 35, 32.4%), and then Singapore (n = 47, 51.7%). There was also a difference in rates of introduction of HCBs by 3 years of age, with those in HCMC (n = 71, 84.5%) were higher than Campbelltown (n = 71, 65.8%) and Singapore (n = 48, 52.8%). The educational level of respondents was lower in Vietnam where only 46.4% (n = 39) had completed post-secondary education, compared to 75.0% (n = 81) in Campbelltown and 75.8% (n = 69) in Singapore. Rates of breast feeding were inversely correlated with rates of introduction of HCB and positively related to

  5. Complementary feeding practices and child growth outcomes in Haiti: an analysis of data from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Rebecca A; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Teta, Ismael Ngnie; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Marhone, Joseline Pierre

    2015-10-01

    The Haitian National Nutrition Policy identifies the promotion of optimal complementary feeding (CF) practices as a priority action to prevent childhood malnutrition. We analysed data from the nationally representative 2005-2006 Haiti Demographic Health Survey using the World Health Organization 2008 infant and young child feeding indicators to describe feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months and thus inform policy and programme planning. Multivariate regression analyses were used to identify the determinants of CF practices and to examine their association with child growth outcomes. Overall, 87.3% of 6-8-month-olds received soft, solid or semi-solid foods in the previous 24 h. Minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF) and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were achieved in 29.2%, 45.3% and 17.1% of children aged 6-23 months, respectively. Non-breastfed children were more likely to achieve MDD than breastfed children of the same age (37.3% vs. 25.8%; P < 0.001). The proportion of children achieving MMF varied significantly by age (P < 0.001). Children with overweight mothers were more likely to achieve MDD, MMF and MAD [odds ratio (OR) 2.08, P = 0.012; OR 1.81, P = 0.02; and OR 2.4, P = 0.01, respectively] than children of normal weight mothers. Odds of achieving MDD and MMF increased with household wealth. Among mothers with secondary or more education, achieving MDD or MAD was significantly associated with lower mean weight-for-age z-score and height-for-age z-score (P-value <0.05 for infants and young child feeding indicator × maternal education interaction). CF practices were mostly inadequate and contributed to growth faltering among Haitian children 6-23 months old. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Feeding practice in captive wild ruminants : pecularities in the nutrition of browsers/concentrate selectors and intermediate feeders. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Clauss, M; Kienzle, E; Hatt, J M

    2003-01-01

    We present a review on the feeding practice, the nutritional pathology and the documented nutritional peculiarities of zoo ruminants. The difference in chemical composition between browse and grass historically led to the conclusion that browsers need a diet lower in fibre and higher in protein than grazing ruminants. The term “concentrate selectors”, coined to describe browsing ruminants, additionally focused the attention on the chemical nature of a browser’s diet assumed high in easily fer...

  7. Application of a good manufacturing practices checklist and enumeration of total coliform in swine feed mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora da Cruz Payao Pellegrini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study in four swine feed mills aimed to evaluate the correlation between the score of the inspection checklist defined in the Normative Instruction 4 (IN 4/ Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, and the enumeration of total coliforms throughout the manufacturing process. The most of non-conformities was found in the physical structure of the feed mills. Feed mill B showed the lowest number of unconformities while units A and D had the largest number of nonconformities. In 38.53% (489/1269 of the samples the presence of total coliform was detected, however no significant difference in the bacterial counts was observed between sampling sites and feed mills. The logistic regression pointed higher odds ratio (OR for total coliforms isolation at dosing (OR = 9.51, 95% CI: 4.43 to 20.41, grinding (OR = 7.10, 95% CI = 3.27 to 15.40 and residues (OR = 6.21, 95% CI: 3.88 to 9.95 In spite of having the second score in the checklist inspection, feed mill C presented the highest odds for total coliforms isolation (OR= 2,43, IC 95%: 1,68-3,53. The data indicate no association between the score of checklist and the presence of hygienic indicators in feed mills.

  8. Breastfeeding, Bottle Feeding Practices and Malocclusion in the Primary Dentition: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Hermont

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence.

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Malay Version Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire Tested among Mothers of Primary School Children in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamarina Shohaimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate parental feeding practices. It has been confirmed among children in America and applied to populations in France, Norway, and New Zealand. In order to extend the application of CFPQ, we conducted a factor structure validation of the translated version of CFPQ (CFPQ-M using confirmatory factor analysis among mothers of primary school children (N = 397 in Malaysia. Several items were modified for cultural adaptation. Of 49 items, 39 items with loading factors >0.40 were retained in the final model. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the final model (twelve-factor model with 39 items and 2 error covariances displayed the best fit for our sample (Chi-square = 1147; df = 634; P<0.05; CFI = 0.900; RMSEA = 0.045; SRMR = 0.0058. The instrument with some modifications was confirmed among mothers of school children in Malaysia. The present study extends the usability of the CFPQ and enables researchers and parents to better understand the relationships between parental feeding practices and related problems such as childhood obesity.

  10. Creating Best Practices for the Submission of Actionable Food and Feed Testing Data Generated in State and Local Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, Kathryn; Salfinger, Yvonne; Randolph, Robyn; Shea, Shari; Larson, Kirsten

    2017-07-01

    Laboratory accreditation provides a level of standardization in laboratories and confidence in generated food and feed testing results. For some laboratories, ISO/IEC 17025:2005 accreditation may not be fiscally viable, or a requested test method may be out of the scope of the laboratory's accreditation. To assist laboratories for whom accreditation is not feasible, the Association of Public Health Laboratories Data Acceptance Work Group developed a white paper entitled "Best Practices for Submission of Actionable Food and Feed Testing Data Generated in State and Local Laboratories." The basic elements of a quality management system, along with other best practices that state and local food and feed testing laboratories should follow, are included in the white paper. It also covers program-specific requirements that may need to be addressed. Communication with programs and end data users is regarded as essential for establishing the reliability and accuracy of laboratory data. Following these suggested best practices can facilitate the acceptance of laboratory data, which can result in swift regulatory action and the quick removal of contaminated product from the food supply, improving public health nationally.

  11. Using Statistical Process Control to Drive Improvement in Neonatal Care: A Practical Introduction to Control Charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Munish; Kaplan, Heather C

    2017-09-01

    Quality improvement (QI) is based on measuring performance over time, and variation in data measured over time must be understood to guide change and make optimal improvements. Common cause variation is natural variation owing to factors inherent to any process; special cause variation is unnatural variation owing to external factors. Statistical process control methods, and particularly control charts, are robust tools for understanding data over time and identifying common and special cause variation. This review provides a practical introduction to the use of control charts in health care QI, with a focus on neonatology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Current practices on sheep and beef farms in New Zealand for depriving sheep of feed prior to transport for slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M W; Gregory, N G; Muir, P D

    2012-05-01

    To assess current practices on sheep and beef farms that deprive sheep of feed prior to transport to facilitate effluent management and processing at slaughter. A national telephone survey of 122 sheep and 346 sheep and beef farmers was conducted in March and April 2010. They were asked how long sheep were held off green feed prior to transport and why, what environment the sheep were held in, and if that period ever varied. Of the 468 respondents, 303 (65%) removed their sheep from green feed 3-12 h before transport for slaughter, with longer periods reported in the South than North Island. The main reasons given were to reduce the volume of effluent for transport operators (n=174), to prevent wool staining during transport (n=173), and that sheep were better suited to load and travel empty (n=171). Water was provided during feed deprivation by 313 farmers. The period of food deprivation could be altered in response to requirements of transporters and processors, the weather, and by the class of stock involved, although 115/468 (25%) farmers stated that they never changed their normal protocol. Amongst survey respondents, common practices compared favourably with recommendations to reduce effluent during transportation. Previous studies have investigated the effects of fasting lambs whilst in lairage prior to slaughter and focussed on carcass quality such as carcass weight and tenderness. Changes in liveweight and gastrointestinal tract contents suggest feed deprivation reduces the risk of defaecation and urination contributing to the accumulation of effluent during transport and of carcass contamination during processing. However, the point at which that risk is acceptable to transport and processing is unclear. Fasting results in physiological changes indicative of altered metabolism but it is not clear when those changes are indicative of adaptation to food deprivation or metabolic depletion and compromised welfare. There may be opportunities to improve the

  13. [Recombinant human erythropoietin in neonates: guidelines for clinical practice from the French Society of Neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, E; Beuchée, A; Truffert, P; Pouvreau, N; Patkai, J; Baud, O; Boubred, F; Flamant, C; Jarreau, P-H

    2015-10-01

    1/To assess the effectiveness and safety of EPO in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in preterm infants. 2/To provide guidelines for clinical practice in France. 1/This systematic evidence review is based on PubMed search, Cochrane library. 2/Using French National Authority for Health methods concerning guidelines for clinical practice. Early EPO reduced the risk of RBC transfusions, donor exposure, and the number of transfusions in very preterm infants (LE2). Late EPO reduced the risk of RBC transfusions and the number of transfusions in very preterm infants (LE2). There is no difference between the effectiveness of early and late EPO (LE2). There is no difference between high-dose and low-dose EPO (LE2). The level of evidence is too low to recommend the intravenous route. EPO has no impact on the rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis (LE3), and retinopathy of prematurity (LE2). The level of evidence is too low to recommend EPO for neuroprotection in very preterm or term infants. EPO to reduce RBC transfusion in very preterm infants is recommended (Level A). The optimal time to start therapy is unknown (Level B). The recommended dose is 750IU/kg/week via three subcutaneous injections for 6weeks (Level B). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementing knowledge into practice for improved neonatal survival; a cluster-randomised, community-based trial in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy Tran Q

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, almost 4 million newborns die during the first 4 weeks of life every year. By increased use of evidence-based knowledge in the healthcare system a large proportion of these neonatal deaths could be prevented. But there is a severe lack of knowledge on effective methods for successful implementation of evidence into practice, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent studies have demonstrated promising results with increased survival among both mothers and newborns using community-based approaches. In Vietnam evidence-based guidelines on reproductive health were launched in 2003 and revised in 2009. The overall objective of the current project is to evaluate if a facilitation intervention on the community level, with a problem-solving approach involving local representatives if the healthcare system and the community, results in improvements of neonatal health and survival. Methods/Design The study, which has been given the acronym NeoKIP (Neonatal Health - Knowledge Into Practice, took place in 8 districts composed by 90 communes in a province in northern Vietnam, where neonatal mortality rate was 24/1000 in 2005. A cluster randomised design was used, allocating clusters, as defined as a commune and its correponding Commune Health Center (CHC to either intervention or control arm. The facilitation intervention targeted staff at healthcare centres and key persons in the communes. The facilitator role was performed by lay women (Women's Union representatives using quality improvement techniques to initiate and sustain improvement processes targeting identified problem areas. The intervention has been running over 3 years and data were collected on the facilitation process, healthcare staff knowledge in neonatal care and their behaviour in clinical practice, and reproductive and perinatal health indicators. Primary outcome is neonatal mortality. Discussion The intervention is participatory and dynamic

  15. Impact of Implementing 5 Potentially Better Respiratory Practices on Neonatal Outcomes and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Leslie A.; LaPierre, Justine; Welch, Maureen; Porter, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We implemented 5 potentially better practices to limit mechanical ventilation (MV), supplemental oxygen, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in newborn infants born before 33 weeks' gestation. METHODS: The methods used in this study included (1) exclusive use of bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP), (2) provision of bCPAP in the delivery room, (3) strict intubation criteria, (4) strict extubation criteria, and (5) prolonged CPAP to avoid supplemental oxygen. We excluded outborn infants and those with major anomalies and obstetric complications from analysis. RESULTS: Demographics were similar in 61 infants born before and 60 born after implementation. For infants born at 26 to 3267 weeks' gestation, intubation (first 72 hours) decreased from 52% to 11% (P < .0001) and surfactant use decreased from 48% to 14% (P = .0001). In all infants, the mean ± SD fraction of inspired oxygen requirement (first 24 hours) decreased from 0.27 ± 0.08 to 0.24 ± 0.05 (P = .0005), days of oxygen decreased from 23.5 ± 44.5 to 9.3 ± 22.0 (P = .04), and days of MV decreased from 8.8 ± 27.8 to 2.2 ± 6.2 (P = .005). Hypotension decreased from 33% to 15% (P = .03). The percentage of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 17% before and 8% after (P = .27). Nurse staffing ratios remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of these potentially better practices reduced the need for MV, surfactant, and supplemental oxygen as well as reduced hypotension among infants born before 33 weeks' gestation without adverse consequences. The costs for equipment and surfactant were lower. PMID:21669893

  16. Association Between Maternal Stress, Work Status, Concern About Child Weight, and Restrictive Feeding Practices in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swyden, Katheryn; Sisson, Susan B; Morris, Amanda S; Lora, Karina; Weedn, Ashley E; Copeland, Kristen A; DeGrace, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between maternal stress, work status, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive feeding practices among mothers of preschool children. Methods 285 mothers of 2-to-5-year-old children completed an on-line survey. Questions included demographics, items from the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, and the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Linear regression and ANOVA examined the relationship between maternal stress, work hours, concern about child weight, and the use of restrictive practices for one 2-to-5-year-old child living within the home. Results Mothers were 32.6 ± 5.2 years of age and spent 39.7 ± 12.0 h/week at work. Seventy-one percent worked full time. Children were 3.4 ± 1.0 years of age and 51% male. Stress (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.001) and concern about child weight (3.41 ± 0.77, p ≤ 0.00) were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Mothers with severe/extremely severe stress used restriction more than mothers with normal stress, respectively (3.63 ± 0.80, 3.30 ± 0.81, p = 0.03). No difference was found among mothers with mild/moderate stress (3.50 ± 0.63, p = 0.06). There was no association between work hours (p = 0.50) or work status (p = 0.91) and the use of restrictive feeding practices. Conclusions Maternal stress and concern about child weight were associated with the use of restrictive feeding practices. Considering the current rates of childhood obesity in the United States, understanding factors that influence a child's food environment is advantageous and can help improve maternal and child health.

  17. Role of Social Support in Improving Infant Feeding Practices in Western Kenya: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuria, Altrena G; Martin, Stephanie L; Egondi, Thaddeus; Bingham, Allison; Thuita, Faith M

    2016-03-01

    We designed and tested an intervention that used dialogue-based groups to engage infants' fathers and grandmothers to support optimal infant feeding practices. The study's aim was to test the effectiveness of increased social support by key household influencers on improving mothers' complementary feeding practices. Using a quasi-experimental design, we enrolled mothers, fathers, and grandmothers from households with infants 6-9 months old in 3 rural communities (1 intervention arm with fathers, 1 intervention arm with grandmothers, and 1 comparison arm) in western Kenya. We engaged 79 grandmothers and 85 fathers in separate dialogue groups for 6 months from January to July 2012. They received information on health and nutrition and were encouraged to provide social support to mothers (defined as specific physical actions in the past 2 weeks or material support actions in the past month). We conducted a baseline household survey in December 2011 in the 3 communities and returned to the same households in July 2012 for an endline survey. We used a difference-in-difference (DiD) approach and logistic regression to evaluate the intervention. We surveyed 554 people at baseline (258 mothers, 165 grandmothers, and 131 fathers) and 509 participants at endline. The percentage of mothers who reported receiving 5 or more social support actions (of a possible 12) ranged from 58% to 66% at baseline in the 3 groups. By endline, the percentage had increased by 25.8 percentage points (P=.002) and 32.7 percentage points (P=.001) more in the father and the grandmother intervention group, respectively, than in the comparison group. As the number of social support actions increased in the 3 groups, the likelihood of a mother reporting that she had fed her infant the minimum number of meals in the past 24 hours also increased between baseline and endline (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.30; P=.047). When taking into account the interaction effects of

  18. Feeding practices among children attending child welfare clinics in Ragama MOH area: a descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera Priyantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding during early childhood is important for normal physical and mental growth as well as for health in later life. Currently, Sri Lanka has adopted the WHO recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by addition of complementary feeds thereafter, with continuation of breastfeeding up to or beyond two years. This study was conducted to evaluate the current feeding practices among Sri Lankan children during early childhood. Methods This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Ragama Medical Officer of Health (MOH area. It was conducted between 10 August 2010 and 30 October 2010. Children between the ages of 24 and 60 months, attending child welfare clinics, were included in the study on consecutive basis. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data regarding sociodemographic characteristics and feeding practices. Results There were 208 boys and 202 girls in the study population. Of them, 255 (62.2% were exclusively breastfed up to 6 months. Younger children had a statistically significant, higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding compared to older children. Three hundred and fifty one (85.6% children had received infant formula, and it was started before the age of 6 months in 61 children, and in 212 before one year. Sugar was added to infant formula in 330 (80.4% children, and out of them 144 had sugar added within first year of life. Complementary foods were started before 4 months in 29 (7% children. Of the 410 children, 294 (71.7% were breastfed beyond 2 years and 41.6% of them were breastfed at regular intervals throughout the day. Three hundred and thirty eight (82.6% children were receiving overnight feeding of either breast milk or infant formula even after 2 years. Conclusions Though a high rate of exclusive breastfeeding was observed in this study population, there are many other issues related to feeding during the early years of life that need

  19. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to either 1 or 2 feedings of colostrum replacer: effect on uptake and rate of absorption of immunoglobulin G in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, R G; Kent, E J; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

    2012-06-01

    Forty Holstein dairy calves were blocked by birth date and sex, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments within each block to elucidate the effect of feeding regimen and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) supplementation on absorption of IgG from colostrum replacer (CR). Calves received CR containing 191.4 g of IgG fed either in 1 feeding at 0 h (within 45 min of birth), with or without 30 g of NaHCO₃, or in 2 feedings (127.6 g of IgG at 0 h, with or without 20 g of NaHCO₃, and 63.8 g of IgG at 6 h, with or without 10 g of NaHCO₃). The treatments were (1) 1 feeding of CR+0 g of NaHCO₃; (2) 1 feeding of CR+30 g of NaHCO₃; (3) 2 feedings of CR+0 g of NaHCO₃; and (4) 2 feedings of CR+30 g total of NaHCO₃. Only calves born with no dystocia were used on this study. Blood samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24h postpartum and were analyzed for IgG using a radial immunoassay. Results indicated that, individually, feeding regimen and NaHCO₃ treatments had no effect. However, the interaction was significant for 24-h IgG and area under the curve, and showed a trend for apparent efficiency of absorption. Absorption rate data indicated that, for calves fed within 45 min of birth, most IgG absorption occurred in the first 6 h after birth. From 6 to 12 h postpartum, IgG absorption started to decrease; however, IgG absorption remained higher for calves fed in a single feeding than in 2 feedings. These data indicated that NaHCO₃ may increase IgG absorption when calves are fed colostrum in a single feeding but is not beneficial when colostrum is fed in 2 feedings. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices of Emirati Mothers in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Hadia

    2013-02-25

    Breastfeeding is the preferred method of feeding for the infant. The present study aimed at investigating the different infant feeding practices and the influencing factors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A convenient sample of 593 Emirati mothers who had infants up to 2 years of age was interviewed. The interviews included a detailed questionnaire and conducted in the Maternal and Child Health Centers (MCH) and Primary Health Centers (PHC) in three cities. Almost all the mothers in the study had initiated breastfeeding (98%). The mean duration of breastfeeding was 8.6 months. The initiation and duration of breastfeeding rates were influenced by mother's age (Pbreastfeeding practices. Among the 593 infants in the study, 24.1% had complementary feeding, 25% of the infants were exclusively breastfed, and 49.4% were predominantly breastfed since birth. About 30% of the infants were given nonmilk fluids such as: Anis seed drink (Yansun), grippe water and tea before 3 months of age. The majority of the infants (83.5%) in the three areas received solid food before the age of 6 months. A variety of reasons were reported as perceived by mothers for terminating breastfeeding. The most common reasons were: new pregnancy (32.5%), insufficient milk supply (24.4%) and infant weaned itself (24.4%). In conclusion, infant and young child feeding practices in this study were suboptimal. There is a need for a national community-based breastfeeding intervention programme and for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding as part of a primary public health strategy to decrease health risks and problems in the UAE.

  1. Agreement between Cochrane Neonatal reviews and clinical practice guidelines for newborns in Denmark a cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Greisen, Gorm; Madsen, Lars P

    2007-01-01

    for disagreement were numerous; usage of evidence with higher bias risks than randomised trials in guidelines development was the most frequent one. Cochrane reviews were rarely (10%) used during guideline development. Nine guideline topics (5%) revealed diversity among the departments' recommendations....... CONCLUSIONS: There is good agreement between Cochrane reviews and neonatal guidelines in Denmark. The disagreements are few. Cochrane reviews were rarely used for guideline development. Guideline heterogeneity among neonatal departments seems moderate....

  2. A study of knowledge, attitude and beliefs of Anganwari workers regarding infant and young child feeding practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Mahajan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malnutrition permeates all aspects of health, growth, cognition, motor and social development of young children. Anganwari Worker (AWW is a community based frontline honorary worker of the ICDS Programme. She is an agent of social change and capable of mobilizing community support for promotion of Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF practices, thereby helping to curb child malnutrition to a large extent. Rationale: The AWW is the key functionary who can appropriately guide the mothers regarding appropriate IYCF practices in the best possible way, provided she herself is well equipped with adequate knowledge. OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitude and beliefs of Anganwari workers regarding IYCF practices. Material & Methods: 100 AWWs were assessed for their knowledge, attitude and beliefs regarding IYCF practices. Both pre-test and post-test evaluations were done. Results: About 19% of the AWWs did not know the age up to which the child should be exclusively breastfed and 13% did not know about the age of introduction of complementary feeding. Only 47 % of the AWWs knew about the “feeding on demand” concept.  More than 90% of AWWs believed that colostrum should be given to the baby. None of the AWWs knew about the quantitative additional calorie, protein and calcium requirements in lactating mothers. There was significant difference (P<0.001 between mean pre test scores (19.48±1.98 and mean post-test knowledge scores (22.21±0.93 of Anganwari workers. Conclusion: Repetitive practical orientation programmes would help in increasing the knowledge of AWWs and improving their skills for implementation of correct IYCF norms. Efficient, coordinated and well-targeted approaches can bring about positive changes in child under nutrition.

  3. Invited review: Practical feeding management recommendations to mitigate the risk of subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, E; Petri, R M; Aschenbach, J R; Bradford, B J; Penner, G B; Tafaj, M; Südekum, K-H; Zebeli, Q

    2018-02-01

    Rumen health is of vital importance in ensuring healthy and efficient dairy cattle production. Current feeding programs for cattle recommend concentrate-rich diets to meet the high nutritional needs of cows during lactation and enhance cost-efficiency. These diets, however, can impair rumen health. The term "subacute ruminal acidosis" (SARA) is often used as a synonym for poor rumen health. In this review, we first describe the physiological demands of cattle for dietary physically effective fiber. We also provide background information on the importance of enhancing salivary secretions and short-chain fatty acid absorption across the stratified squamous epithelium of the rumen; thus, preventing the disruption of the ruminal acid-base balance, a process that paves the way for acidification of the rumen. On-farm evaluation of dietary fiber adequacy is challenging for both nutritionists and veterinarians; therefore, this review provides practical recommendations on how to evaluate the physical effectiveness of the diet based on differences in particle size distribution, fiber content, and the type of concentrate fed, both when the latter is part of total mixed ration and when it is supplemented in partial mixed rations. Besides considering the absolute amount of physically effective fiber and starch types in the diet, we highlight the role of several feeding management factors that affect rumen health and should be considered to control and mitigate SARA. Most importantly, transitional feeding to ensure gradual adaptation of the ruminal epithelium and microbiota; monitoring and careful management of particle size distribution; controlling feed sorting, meal size, and meal frequency; and paying special attention to primiparous cows are some of the feeding management tools that can help in sustaining rumen health in high-producing dairy herds. Supplementation of feed additives including yeast products, phytogenic compounds, and buffers may help attenuate SARA

  4. Influence of the availability of commercial infant foods on feeding practices in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morales, A; Larkin, F A

    1972-03-01

    A study was conducted into infant feeding regimens among 150 Jamaican women. The target population was limited to women living in the Kingston-St. Andrews Corporate area and attending hospitals or clinics where nutrition education was offered. Subjects were questioned as to obstetric history, socio-economic status, sources of information, and infant feeding habits. Nearly all infants in the study were weaned by 1 year of age with a nearly equal number being weaned in the 1st 6 months and the 2nd 6 months. Mothers who never breast fed their infants or weaned early did so for unavoidable reasons, e.g., maternal illness, infant prematurity or hospitalization, or insufficient milk. Most weaning due to these reasons occurred within the 1st 6 months of life. More than 1/2 of the women did not have clearly defined physiological reasons for discontinuing breast feeding. Income and place of residence were not related to the decision to cease breast feeding. Women attending private clinics and receiving information on infant nutrition from health personnel tended to breast feed for a longer time. 18 commercial infant food products were available. 15 of these were a form of processed cow's milk requiring a measure of skill in preparing. The rest were goat's milk, cow's milk, or gruel. 40% of the women in the study used more than 1 of these commercial preparations, indicating a general preference for formulas rather than for a particular brand name. There is a question as to whether the wide availability of these products actually influenced women's decisions to discontinue breast feeding.

  5. School feeding, moving from practice to policy: reflections on building sustainable monitoring and evaluation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Espejo, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    To provide an overview of the status of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of school feeding across sub-Saharan Africa and to reflect on the experience on strengthening M&E systems to influence policy making in low-income countries. Literature review on the M&E of school feeding programmes as well as data from World Food Programme surveys. Sub-Saharan Africa. Countries implementing school feeding. Only two randomized controlled impact evaluations have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. Where M&E data collection is underway, the focus is on process and service delivery and not on child outcomes. M&E systems generally operate under the Ministry of Education, with other Ministries represented within technical steering groups supporting implementation. There is no internationally accepted standardized framework for the M&E of school feeding. There have been examples where evidence of programme performance has influenced policy: considering the popularity of school feeding these cases though are anecdotal, highlighting the opportunity for systemic changes. There is strong buy-in on school feeding from governments in sub-Saharan Africa. In response to this demand, development partners have been harmonizing their support to strengthen national programmes, with a focus on M&E. However, policy processes are complex and can be influenced by a number of factors. A comprehensive but simple approach is needed where the first step is to ensure a valid mandate to intervene, legitimizing the interaction with key stakeholders, involving them in the problem definition and problem solving. This process has been facilitated through the provision of technical assistance and exposure to successful experiences through South–South cooperation and knowledge exchange.

  6. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and Weight Gain at 4 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Wouwe, J.P. van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%).

  8. Feeding practices and nutrient intake of under-five children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The underfive children generally met the mean daily energy, protein, iron, vitamin A, thiamin and riboflavin intake. However, zinc, calcium, niacin and ascorbate were below the recommended allowance. The study showed that most of the under-five children were feed infrequently as against the recommended frequency of ...

  9. Infant feeding practices during the first 6 months of life in a low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative findings indicated that gripe water, Lennon's Behoedmiddel and herbal medicines were also given to infants. Nutritive liquids and/or food most commonly given as supplementary feeds were formula milk and commercial infant cereal. Conclusion. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) during the first 6 months of life was ...

  10. Comparison of effects of breast-feeding practices on birth-spacing in three societies: nomadic Turkana, Gainj, and Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S J

    1994-01-01

    Variation in the duration and pattern of breast-feeding contributes significantly to inter-population differences in fertility. In this paper, measures of suckling frequency and intensity are used to compare the effects of breast-feeding practices on the duration of lactational amenorrhoea, and on the length of the birth interval in three prospective studies undertaken during the 1980s, among Quechua Indians of Peru, Turkana nomads of Kenya, and Gainj of Papua New Guinea. In all three societies, lactation is prolonged well into the second year postpartum, and frequent, on-demand breast-feeding is the norm. However, the duration of lactational amenorrhoea and the length of birth intervals vary considerably. Breast-feeding patterns among Gainj and Turkana are similar, but Turkana women resume menses some 3 months earlier than do the Gainj. The average birth interval among the Gainj exceeds that of nomadic Turkana by over 15 months. Suckling activity decreases significantly with increasing age of nurslings among both Gainj and Quechua, but not among Turkana. Earlier resumption of menses among Turkana women may be linked to the unpredictable demands of the pastoral system, which increase day-to-day variation in the number of periods of on-demand breast-feeding, although not in suckling patterns. This effect is independent of the age of infants. The short birth intervals of Turkana women, relative to those of the Gainj, may be related to early supplementation of Turkana nurslings with butterfat and animals' milk, which reduces energetic demands on lactating women at risk of negative energy balance.

  11. Breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices in the first 6 months of life among Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants: the InnBaKost survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Sellen, Daniel; Mosdøl, Annhild; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-03-01

    To examine breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices during the first 6 months of life among Norwegian infants of Somali and Iraqi family origin. A cross-sectional survey was performed during March 2013-February 2014. Data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ adapted from the second Norwegian national dietary survey among infants in 2006-2007. Somali-born and Iraqi-born mothers living in eastern Norway were invited to participate. One hundred and seven mothers/infants of Somali origin and eighty mothers/infants of Iraqi origin participated. Breast-feeding was almost universally initiated after birth. Only 7 % of Norwegian-Somali and 10 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants were exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age. By 1 month of age, water had been introduced to 30 % of Norwegian-Somali and 26 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants, and infant formula to 44 % and 34 %, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of Norwegian-Somali and 68 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants had been introduced to solid or semi-solid foods at 4 months of age. Breast-feeding at 6 months of age was more common among Norwegian-Somali infants (79 %) compared with Norwegian-Iraqi infants (58 %; P=0·001). Multivariate analyses indicated no significant factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding at 3·5 months of age. Factors positively associated with breast-feeding at 6 months were country of origin (Somalia) and parity (>2). Breast-feeding initiation was common among Iraqi-born and Somali-born mothers, but the exclusive breast-feeding period was shorter than recommended in both groups. The study suggests that there is a need for new culture-specific approaches to support exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices among foreign-born mothers living in Norway.

  12. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Perinatal Practices"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Perinatal Practices"ABS 1. VACUUM EXTRACTION AND RISK OF NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS: A POPULATION-BASED COHORT STUDY • D. Rossetti, A.S. Laganà, G. Valenti, B. Chiofalo, S. Butticè, G. Sanpietro, A.M.C. Rapisarda, F. Sapia, M. Noventa, A. Vitagliano, S.G. VitaleABS 2. ELECTIVE CAESAREAN SECTION AND RES­PIRATORY MORBIDITIES IN TERM INFANTS • P. Mallya, S. GargABS 3. RISK FACTORS AND OUTCOME IN PRE­VIABLE PPROM AND CURRENT TREATMENT PRACTICE • A. van Gennip, E.E.M. Mulder, R.M. Brohet, J. van Eyck, R.A. van LingenABS 4. ASSESSMENT OF FUNCTIONAL STATUS IN PRETERM INFANTS: ONLINE SURVEY TO INFORM SCORING OF A CLINICIAN-REPORTED OUTCOMES (CLINRO TOOL • M. Turner, I. Hansen-Pupp, J. Higginson, R. Ward, M. Vanya, E. Flood, E. Schwartz, H. Doll, A. Tocoian, A. Mangili, N. Barton, S. SardaABS 5. INFANTS AND MATERNAL OUTCOME OF PREGNANCIES COMPLICATED BY H1N1 INFECTION NEEDING ECMO THERAPY: A UK ECMO CENTRE EXPERIENCE • N. Singh, J. Behrsin, F. Siddiqui, R. Porter, M. Charlton, A. Akuma, S. MittalABS 6. THE ASSOCIATION OF NEONATAL MORBIDITIES AND MORTALITY OF PRETERM INFANTS WITH

  13. Neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Dessì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper on neonatal sepsis, after a short presentation of etiopathogenesis and physiopathology, we will briefly present the clinical picture, the diagnosis and the therapy. Concerning diagnosis, we will focus our attention on procalcitonin (PCT, serum amyloid A (SAA, presepsin (sCD14 and metabolomics. Three practical tables complete the review. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  14. Understanding care and feeding practices: building blocks for a sustainable intervention in India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingam, Raghu; Gupta, Pallavi; Zafar, Shamsa; Hill, Zelee; Yousafzai, Aisha; Iyengar, Sharad; Sikander, Siham; Haq, Zaeem ul; Mehta, Shilpa; Skordis-Worrel, Jolene; Rahman, Atif; Kirkwood, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition and inadequate stimulation both negatively influence child health and development and have a long-term impact on school attainment and income. This paper reports data from India and Pakistan looking at how families interact, play with, and feed children; their expectations of growth and development; and the perceived benefits, consequences, opportunities, and barriers of adopting recommended feeding and developmental behaviors. These data were collected as part of formative research for the Sustainable Program Incorporating Nutrition and Games (SPRING) trial. This trial aims to deliver an innovative, feasible, affordable, and sustainable intervention that can achieve delivery at a scale of known effective interventions that maximize child development, growth, and survival and improve maternal psychosocial well-being in rural India and Pakistan. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Breast feeding practices of mothers with children (aged 0-36 months ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increased so that the infant is eating two to four meals per day by about six months of age. Infants over six months of age need to eat meals and snacks about four to six times a day in addition to breast feeding. In this study group cereals were introduced as early as two months. The next two foods introduced were fruits and ...

  16. Beliefs about feeding practices and nutrition for children with disabilities among families in Dharavi, Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Pagedar, Sunita; Wirz, Sheila; Filteau, Suzanne

    2003-03-01

    Attitudes arise from specific experiences and emotions driven by cultural beliefs. An understanding of societal constructs regarding disability in a given culture contributes to developing strategies to meet the needs of children with disabilities by providing culturally competent services. In 1999, a series of focus-group discussions were conducted with families in a low-income community in Mumbai, India to collect qualitative information on the knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA) regarding disability, feeding and nutrition to facilitate the development of an intervention to improve the nutritional well-being of children with disabilities. The KSA of this population of poor families has seldom been directly examined. The specific objectives of this study were (i) to describe the experiences of families with young disabled children in the local community; (ii) to identify the nutritional and feeding needs of children with disabilities; and (iii) to identify any service, environmental or attitudinal barriers to acquiring an adequate nutritional status. Content analysis of concepts in the focus groups identified four emerging themes: (i) acceptance of disability; (ii) services and needs; (iii) future; and (iv) food and nutrition. The focus-group findings enabled a broader understanding of attitudes towards disability within this population, which can have an impact on the care of the child. The findings provided insights into the content of the intervention to be helpful for local families incorporating an understanding of the cultural background of the local community that must be included alongside our understanding of the feeding impairment.

  17. MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND ATTACHMENT: THE EVALUATION OF MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS DURING FEEDING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eSantona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Internal working models of attachment (IWM can moderate the effect of maternal depression on mother-child interactions and child development. Clinical depression pre-dating birthgiving has been found to predict incoherent and less sensitive caregiving. Dysfunctional patterns observed, included interactive modes linked to feeding behaviors which may interfere with hunger-satiation biological rhythms and the establishment of children’s autonomy and individuation. Feeding interactions between depressed mothers and their children seem to be characterized by repetitive interactive failures: children refuse food through oppositional behavior or negativity. The aim of this study was to investigate parenting skills in the context of feeding in mothers with major depression from the point of view of attachment theory. This perspective emphasises parents’ emotion, relational and affective history and personal resources. The sample consisted of 60 mother-child dyads. Mothers were divided into two groups: 30 with Major Depression and 30 without disorders. Children’s age ranged between 12 and 36 months The measures employed were the Adult Attachment Interview and the Scale for the Evaluation of Alimentary Interactions between Mothers and Children. Insecure attachment prevailed in mothers with major depression,, with differences on the Subjective Experience and State of Mind Scales. Groups also differed in maternal sensitivity, degrees of interactive

  18. Does maternal autonomy influence feeding practices and infant growth in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Monal R; Griffiths, Paula L; Suchindran, Chirayath; Nagalla, Balakrishna; Vazir, Shahnaz; Bentley, Margaret E

    2011-08-01

    The high prevalence of child under-nutrition remains a profound challenge in the developing world. Maternal autonomy was examined as a determinant of breast feeding and infant growth in children 3-5 months of age. Cross-sectional baseline data on 600 mother-infant pairs were collected in 60 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. The mothers were enrolled in a longitudinal randomized behavioral intervention trial. In addition to anthropometric and demographic measures, an autonomy questionnaire was administered to measure different dimensions of autonomy (e.g. decision-making, freedom of movement, financial autonomy, and acceptance of domestic violence). We conducted confirmatory factor analysis on maternal autonomy items and regression analyses on infant breast feeding and growth after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic variables, and accounting for infant birth weight, infant morbidity, and maternal nutritional status. Results indicated that mothers with higher financial autonomy were more likely to breastfeed 3-5 month old infants. Mothers with higher participation in decision-making in households had infants that were less underweight and less wasted. These results suggest that improving maternal financial and decision-making autonomy could have a positive impact on infant feeding and growth outcomes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Infant Feeding Beliefs, Attitudes, Knowledge and Practices of Chinese Immigrant Mothers: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Le, Qun; Greaney, Mary L

    2017-12-23

    Chinese are a fast-growing immigrant population group in several parts of the world (e.g., Australia, Canada, Europe, Southeast Asia, United States). Research evidence suggests that compared to non-Hispanic whites, individuals of Asian-origin including Chinese are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes at a lower body mass index (BMI). These risks may be possibly due to genetic differences in body composition and metabolic responses. Despite the increasing numbers of Chinese children growing up in immigrant families and the increasing prevalence of obesity among Chinese, little research has been focused on children of Chinese immigrant families. This integrative review synthesizes the evidence on infant feeding beliefs, attitudes, knowledge and practices of Chinese immigrant mothers; highlights limitations of available research; and offers suggestions for future research. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched four electronic academic/research databases (CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, and PubMed) to identify peer-reviewed, full-text papers published in English between January 2000 and September 2017. Only studies with mothers 18+ years old of normally developing infants were included. Of the 797 citations identified, 15 full-text papers were retrieved and 11 studies (8 cross-sectional studies, 3 qualitative studies) met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Reviewed studies revealed high initiation rates of breastfeeding, but sharp declines in breastfeeding rates by six months of age. In addition, reviewed studies revealed that the concomitantly use of breast milk and formula, and the early introduction of solid foods were common. Finally, reviewed studies identified several familial and socio-cultural influences on infant feeding beliefs and practices that may increase risk of overweight and obesity during infancy and early childhood among Chinese

  20. Maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviours : a comparison of mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Haycraft, Emma; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore differences between mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity in a wide range of their reported child feeding practices and their reports of their children's eating behaviours. Mothers (N = 437) with a 2-6-year-old child participated. They comprised two groups, based on their BMI: healthy weight (BMI of 18.0–24.9, inclusive) or overweight/obese (BMI of 25.0 or more). All mothers provided demographic information and completed self-report measures of thei...

  1. Infant Feeding Beliefs, Attitudes, Knowledge and Practices of Chinese Immigrant Mothers: An Integrative Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Le, Qun; Greaney, Mary L.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese are a fast-growing immigrant population group in several parts of the world (e.g., Australia, Canada, Europe, Southeast Asia, United States). Research evidence suggests that compared to non-Hispanic whites, individuals of Asian-origin including Chinese are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes at a lower body mass index (BMI). These risks may be possibly due to genetic differences in body composition and metabolic responses. Despite the increasing numbers of Chinese children growing up in immigrant families and the increasing prevalence of obesity among Chinese, little research has been focused on children of Chinese immigrant families. This integrative review synthesizes the evidence on infant feeding beliefs, attitudes, knowledge and practices of Chinese immigrant mothers; highlights limitations of available research; and offers suggestions for future research. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched four electronic academic/research databases (CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, and PubMed) to identify peer-reviewed, full-text papers published in English between January 2000 and September 2017. Only studies with mothers 18+ years old of normally developing infants were included. Of the 797 citations identified, 15 full-text papers were retrieved and 11 studies (8 cross-sectional studies, 3 qualitative studies) met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Reviewed studies revealed high initiation rates of breastfeeding, but sharp declines in breastfeeding rates by six months of age. In addition, reviewed studies revealed that the concomitantly use of breast milk and formula, and the early introduction of solid foods were common. Finally, reviewed studies identified several familial and socio-cultural influences on infant feeding beliefs and practices that may increase risk of overweight and obesity during infancy and early childhood among Chinese

  2. A survey of dairy calf management practices among farms using manual and automated milk feeding systems in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano-Galarza, Catalina; LeBlanc, Stephen J; DeVries, Trevor J; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Rushen, Jeffrey; Marie de Passillé, Anne; Haley, Derek B

    2017-08-01

    Dairy calves in North America traditionally are housed individually and fed by manual milk feeding (MMF) systems with buckets or bottles. Automated milk feeders (AMF) allow for more natural milk feeding frequencies and volumes, and calves are usually housed in groups. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of various milk-fed calf management and feeding practices and (2) compare these practices between dairy farms using MMF and AMF systems. A national online survey was performed from January to May 2015 to quantify management practices for the care of milk-fed dairy calves in Canada. A total of 670 responses were received (6% of all dairy farms in Canada). Among respondents, 16% used AMF and 84% used MMF. Seventy percent of the farms using AMF had freestall barns compared with only 48% of those using MMF. A greater proportion of AMF farms (30%) also had automatic milking systems (AMS) compared with MMF farms (8%). Among tiestall farms, a herd size of >80 milking cows was associated with having an AMF [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-11.4]. For freestall or bedded-pack farms, a herd size of >80 milking cows (OR = 3.5; CI: 1.8-6.6), having an AMS (OR = 3.1; CI: 1.6-5.7), and use of cow brushes (OR = 3.1; CI: 1.3-6.9) were associated with having an AMF. Calves fed with AMS typically were housed in groups of 10 to 15, whereas almost 76% of the farms with MMF housed calves individually. Although both AMF and MMF farms fed similar amounts of milk in the first week of life (median = 6 L/d), the cumulative volume fed in the first 4 wk differed significantly, with a median of 231 versus 182 L for AMF and MMF, respectively. Median peak milk allowance was higher for AMF than for MMF (10 vs. 8 L/d, respectively). In summary, farms using AMF were larger, provided more milk to calves, and used more automation in general (i.e., in other areas of their operation). These data provide insights into calf-rearing practices across

  3. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Alison N; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Chen, Yu-Pu; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2014-06-16

    Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with children (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0

  4. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. Methods In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Results Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with

  5. Neonatal transfusion practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindern, Jeannette Susanne von

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are probably the most frequently used drug given to very preterm infants; more than 90% of infants with a birth weight <1000 grams receive one or more RBC transfusions. Except for reduction of the amount of blood drawn for laboratory tests and use of a single donor program, no

  6. Neonatal mortality in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, F R; Schuman, K L; Lyon, J L

    1982-09-01

    A cohort study of neonatal mortality (N = 106) in white singleton births (N = 14,486) in Utah for January-June 1975 was conducted. Using membership and activity in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon) as a proxy for parental health practices, i.e., tobacco and alcohol abstinence, differential neonatal mortality rates were calculated. The influence of potential confounding factors was evaluated. Low activity LDS members were found to have an excess risk of neonatal death five times greater than high activity LDS, with an upper bound of a two-sided 95% confidence interval of 7.9. The data consistently indicate a lower neonatal mortality rate for active LDS members. Non-LDS were found to have a lower rate than either medium or low activity LDS.

  7. Neonatal pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The past 2-3 decades have seen dramatic changes in the approach to pain management in the neonate. These practices started with refuting previously held misconceptions regarding nociception in preterm infants. Although neonates were initially thought to have limited response to painful stimuli, it was demonstrated that the developmental immaturity of the central nervous system makes the neonate more likely to feel pain. It was further demonstrated that untreated pain can have long-lasting physiologic and neurodevelopmental consequences. These concerns have resulted in a significant emphasis on improving and optimizing the techniques of analgesia for neonates and infants. The following article will review techniques for pain assessment, prevention, and treatment in this population with a specific focus on acute pain related to medical and surgical conditions.

  8. The feeding practices and structure questionnaire: construction and initial validation in a sample of Australian first-time mothers and their 2-year olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Early feeding practices lay the foundation for children’s eating habits and weight gain. Questionnaires are available to assess parental feeding but overlapping and inconsistent items, subscales and terminology limit conceptual clarity and between study comparisons. Our aim was to consolidate a range of existing items into a parsimonious and conceptually robust questionnaire for assessing feeding practices with very young children (years). Methods Data were from 462 mothers and children (age 21–27 months) from the NOURISH trial. Items from five questionnaires and two study-specific items were submitted to a priori item selection, allocation and verification, before theoretically-derived factors were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Construct validity of the new factors was examined by correlating these with child eating behaviours and weight. Results Following expert review 10 factors were specified. Of these, 9 factors (40 items) showed acceptable model fit and internal reliability (Cronbach’s α: 0.61-0.89). Four factors reflected non-responsive feeding practices: ‘Distrust in Appetite’, ‘Reward for Behaviour’, ‘Reward for Eating’, and ‘Persuasive Feeding’. Five factors reflected structure of the meal environment and limits: ‘Structured Meal Setting’, ‘Structured Meal Timing’, ‘Family Meal Setting’, ‘Overt Restriction’ and ‘Covert Restriction’. Feeding practices generally showed the expected pattern of associations with child eating behaviours but none with weight. Conclusion The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) provides a new reliable and valid measure of parental feeding practices, specifically maternal responsiveness to children’s hunger/satiety signals facilitated by routine and structure in feeding. Further validation in more diverse samples is required. PMID:24898364

  9. Enteral feeding of intrauterine growth restriction preterm infants: theoretical risks and practical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bozzetti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR infants are thought to have impaired gut function after birth secondary to intrauterine redistribution of the blood flow, due to placental insufficiency, with a consequent reduction of gut perfusion. For this reason, infants complicated by IUGR have been considered at higher risk of feeding intolerance. Postnatal evaluation of splanchnic perfusion, through Doppler of the superior mesenteric artery, and of splanchnic oxygenation, through near infrared spectroscopy measurements, may be useful in evaluating the persistence (or not of the redistribution of blood flow occurred in utero.

  10. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  11. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl O. Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children’s weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children’s weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  12. NURSING INTERVENTION THROUGH FAMILY PATHNERSHIP INCREASES BEHAVIOR IN PRACTICE OF FEEDING PATTERN ON INFANT OF AGE 6–24 MONTHS FOR NUCLEAR AND EXTENDED FAMILY

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    A. Aziz Alimul Hidayat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing intervention is nursing action with a supportive and educative approach done by nurses cooperating with families in overcoming the problems of nursing family. The aim of the research was to explain the effect of nursing intervention through family pathnership toward behavior in practice of feeding pattern on infant of age 6–24 months for nuclear and extended family, including the breastfeeding (ASI, PASI, soft food, family food, snacks, and way of feeding. Method: The design of the research was experimental. The sample of the research was ninety six (96 samples, which was chosen with simple random sampling.The sample was then divided into two parts of family in Kenjeran District and Bulak Surabaya, namely nuclear family and extended family. The variables measured were breastfeeding, PASI, soft food, family food, and a way of feeding through interviewing and observation. The data analysis used was Mann Whitney U. Result: Result showed that effect of nursing interventions on the style of feeding containing of giving PASI (p = 0.003, soft food (p = 0.005, family food (p = 0.00, snacks (p = 0.034, and way of feeding (p = 0.00. Those effects can be shown with the increasing of frequency and way of feeding before and after intervention. Discussion: The conclusion is nursing intervention through the supportive and educative approach as the form of actions on families with problems on the pattern of feeding has the influence on the practice of feeding pattern. The increasing of feeding frequency shows the cognitive and behavioral change on the practice of feeding pattern which can possibly improve the status of infants nutrient.

  13. Infant Feeding Practices of Emirati Women in the Rapidly Developing City of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Gardner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic and cultural transition in the United Arab Emirates (UAE has been accompanied by new challenges to public health; most notably a rapid rise in chronic disease. Breastfeeding is known to improve health outcomes in adulthood, is associated with reduced risk of developing chronic disease, and is therefore an important public health issue for this rapidly increasing population. Factors associated with infant feeding practices were examined in a cohort of 125 Emirati women and their infants, with data collected at birth and 3, 6 and 15 months postpartum by questionnaires and interviews. Participants were recruited in the Corniche Hospital, the main maternity hospital in the city of Abu Dhabi. Factors affecting the duration of breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary foods were investigated using univariate and multivariate statistics. Recommended infant feeding practices, such as exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods, were poorly adhered to. Factors implicated in early cessation of breastfeeding included: time to first breastfeed, mother’s education level, employment status and early introduction of complementary foods.

  14. Iodine status and associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development in six-month-old South African infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Rothman, Marinel; Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Covic, Namukolo; Faber, Mieke; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2017-10-01

    Iodine is important for normal growth and psychomotor development. While infants below 6 months of age receive iodine from breast milk or fortified infant formula, the introduction of complementary foods poses a serious risk for deteriorating iodine status. This cross-sectional analysis assessed the iodine status of six-month-old South African infants and explored its associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development. Iodine concentrations were measured in infant (n = 386) and maternal (n = 371) urine (urinary iodine concentration [UIC]), and in breast milk (n = 257 [breast milk iodine concentrations]). Feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development were assessed in all infants. The median (25th-75th percentile) UIC in infants was 345 (213-596) μg/L and was significantly lower in stunted (302 [195-504] μg/L) than non-stunted (366 [225-641] μg/L) infants. Only 6.7% of infants were deficient. Maternal UIC (128 [81-216] μg/L; r s  = 0.218, p psychomotor developmental scores were observed. Our results suggest that iodine intake in the studied six-month-old infants was adequate. Iodine in breast milk and commercial infant cereals potentially contributed to this adequate intake. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Infant Feeding Practices of Emirati Women in the Rapidly Developing City of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Hazel; Green, Katherine; Gardner, Andrew

    2015-09-02

    Rapid economic and cultural transition in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has been accompanied by new challenges to public health; most notably a rapid rise in chronic disease. Breastfeeding is known to improve health outcomes in adulthood, is associated with reduced risk of developing chronic disease, and is therefore an important public health issue for this rapidly increasing population. Factors associated with infant feeding practices were examined in a cohort of 125 Emirati women and their infants, with data collected at birth and 3, 6 and 15 months postpartum by questionnaires and interviews. Participants were recruited in the Corniche Hospital, the main maternity hospital in the city of Abu Dhabi. Factors affecting the duration of breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary foods were investigated using univariate and multivariate statistics. Recommended infant feeding practices, such as exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods, were poorly adhered to. Factors implicated in early cessation of breastfeeding included: time to first breastfeed, mother's education level, employment status and early introduction of complementary foods.

  16. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Taheri P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.

  17. Practice paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics abstract: ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Denise Baird; Posthauer, Mary Ellen; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2013-07-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that individuals have the right to request or refuse nutrition and hydration as medical treatment. Registered dietitians should work collaboratively as part of an interprofessional team to make recommendations on providing, withdrawing, or withholding nutrition and hydration in individual cases and serve as active members of institutional ethics committees. This practice paper provides a proactive, integrated, systematic process to implement the Academy's position. The position and practice papers should be used together to address the history and supporting information of ethical and legal issues of feeding and hydration identified by the Academy. Elements of collaborative ethical deliberation are provided for pediatrics and adults and in different conditions. The process of ethical deliberation is presented with the roles and responsibilities of the registered dietitian and the dietetic technician, registered. Understanding the importance and applying concepts dealing with cultural values and religious diversity is necessary to integrate clinical ethics into nutrition care. Incorporating screening for quality-of-life goals is essential before implementing the Nutrition Care Process and improving health literacy with individual interactions. Developing institution-specific policies and procedures is necessary to accelerate the practice change with artificial nutrition, clinical ethics, and quality improvement projects to determine best practice. This paper supports the "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Ethical and Legal Issues of Feeding and Hydration" published in the June 2013 issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of in ovo feeding of carbohydrates and arginine on hatchability, body weight, energy metabolism and perinatal growth in duck embryos and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangara, M; Chen, W; Xu, J; Huang, F R; Peng, J

    2010-10-01

    1. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that in ovo feeding of carbohydrates and arginine into the duck amnion may improve the glycogen store and perinatal growth. At 23 d of incubation, fertile eggs were injected with 1·2 ml of sodium chloride (NaCl), sucrose + maltose (CHO), arginine (Arg) or sucrose + maltose + arginine (CHO + Arg), with controls not injected. Body weight, liver and muscle glycogen levels, and hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity were determined at 25 d of incubation, at hatch, and at 3 and 7 d posthatch. 2. At hatch and 7 d of age, the body weights were greater in the in ovo-feeding treatments than the controls. Arg and CHO + Arg significantly enhanced liver glycogen level at hatch compared with controls. CHO and CHO + Arg significantly increased muscle glycogen level at 25 d of incubation over controls. CHO and Arg decreased glucose-6-phosphatase at 25 d of incubation, whereas NaCl and CHO + Arg increased glucose-6-phosphatase at hatch relative to controls. 3. In ovo feeding of carbohydrates and arginine at 23 d of incubation may improve glycogen reserves, which may, in turn, provide the energy needed for perinatal growth.

  19. A practical study on the feasibility of alpha and gamma-tocopherol quantification for distinguishing Iberian pig feeding systems

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    García-Casco, J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to test the feasibility of using alpha and gamma-tocopherol quantification in fat and muscle to establish a correct classification of Iberian pigs according to their feeding background in practical situations. Samples were obtained over three different seasons from the four categories of pigs described in the Industry Quality Policy (FREE-OUT “bellota”; FREE-OUT-FEED “recebo”; FEEDOUT “campo”; and FEED-IN “cebo”. Linear discriminant functions were calculated with data obtained from seasons 1 and 2 and validated. The classification of fat and muscle samples from season 3 in the four feeding categories according to the calculated discriminant functions achieved an average of 76% success rate in distinguishing the true origin of pig samples. Quantification in muscle seemed to have higher prediction ability. Regression equations to quantify weight gained depending on the gamma-tocopherol concentration had higher R2 values for muscle than for fat (R2= 0.81 vs. 0.62. Merging of the feeding categories established by the Quality Policy could raise the accuracy of the alpha and gamma-tocopherol quantification method to up to between 89% and 98%.Este estudio se llevó a cabo para comprobar la fiabilidad del uso de la cuantificación de alfa y gamma-tocoferol en grasa y músculo para establecer una clasificación correcta de los cerdos ibéricos de acuerdo a su alimentación. Las muestras se obtuvieron durante tres campañas diferentes procedentes de cuatro categorías de cerdos según se describe en la norma de calidad (FREE-OUT: «bellota», FREEOUT- FEED: «recebo», FEED-OUT: «campo» y FEED-IN: «cebo». Se calcularon funciones discriminantes con los datos obtenidos de las campañas 1 y 2 y se validaron. La clasificación de las muestras de grasa y músculo obtenidas de la tercera campaña en las cuatro categorías de acuerdo a las funciones discriminantes calculadas alcanzó un rango medio de éxito del 76

  20. Exploring the Meanings that Dietitians Associate with their Role of Mother and Dietitian and How They Translate into Child-feeding Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Rebecca; Lordly, Daphne

    2015-03-01

    To explore the meanings that dietitians associate with their role of mother and dietitian and how they translate into child-feeding practices. The ideological case-study approach of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, a qualitative research design, was utilized. A convenience sample of 3 dietitians was recruited from the faculty of a university nutrition department. Dietitians participated in semi-structured interviews that were voice-recorded and transcribed. Data were thematically organized and interpreted using the theory of Symbolic Interactionism. Five themes were developed: the evolution of food-related practices, tensions between the role of dietitian and mother, mealtime interaction, integration of dietetic values in child-feeding practices, and the individuality of the mother. Dietitian mothers used various parenting styles when interacting with their children. Their beliefs about best practice in child-feeding correspond with the recommendations of their dietetic profession. Their perception of what it meant to be a good mother was influenced by their identity as a dietitian. Dietitian mothers need to be aware of the influence of professional discourse; professional thoughts can influence personal thoughts and actions related to child-feeding practices. Further exploration of the topic including maternal and child-feeding practices from the child's perspective is warranted.

  1. "Great Job Cleaning Your Plate Today!" Determinants of Child-Care Providers' Use of Controlling Feeding Practices: An Exploratory Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Dipti A; McBride, Brent A; Speirs, Katherine E; Blitch, Kimberly A; Williams, Natalie A

    2016-11-01

    National early childhood obesity prevention policies recommend that child-care providers avoid controlling feeding practices (CFP) (eg, pressure-to-eat, food as reward, and praising children for cleaning their plates) with children to prevent unhealthy child eating behaviors and childhood obesity. However, evidence suggests that providers frequently use CFP during mealtimes. Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (2011) benchmarks for nutrition in child care as a framework, researchers assessed child-care providers' perspectives regarding their use of mealtime CFP with young children (aged 2 to 5 years). Using a qualitative design, individual, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with providers until saturation was reached. Providers were selected using maximum variation purposive sampling from varying child-care contexts (Head Start, Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP]-funded centers, non-CACFP programs). All providers were employed full-time in Head Start or state-licensed center-based child-care programs, cared for children (aged 2 to 5 years), and were directly responsible for serving meals and snacks. Child-care providers' perspectives regarding CFP. Thematic analysis using NVivo (version 9, 2010, QSR International Pty Ltd) to derive themes. Providers' perspectives showed barriers, motivators, and facilitators regarding their use of mealtime CFP. Providers reported barriers to avoiding CFP such as CFP were effective for encouraging desired behaviors, misconceptions that providers were encouraging but not controlling children's eating, and fear of parents' negative reaction if their child did not eat. Providers who did not practice CFP were motivated to avoid CFP because they were unnecessary for encouraging children to eat, and they resulted in negative child outcomes and obesity. Facilitators as an alternative to CFP included practicing healthful feeding practices such as role modeling, peer modeling, and sensory exploration of

  2. Ad libitum or demand/semi-demand feeding versus scheduled interval feeding for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Felicia M; Tosh, Karen; McGuire, William

    2010-02-17

    Scheduled interval feeding of prescribed enteral volumes is current standard practice for preterm infants. However, feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (ad libitum or demand/semi demand) rather than at scheduled intervals might help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge. To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding prescribed volumes at scheduled intervals on growth rates and the time to hospital discharge. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 to Oct 2009), EMBASE (1980 to Oct 2009), CINAHL (1982 to Oct 2009), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (including cluster randomised trials) that compared a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding at scheduled intervals. We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. We found eight randomised controlled trials that compared ad libitum or demand/semi-demand regimens with scheduled interval regimes in preterm infants in the transition phase from intragastric tube to oral feeding. The trials were generally small and of variable methodological quality. The duration of the intervention and the duration of data collection and follow-up in most of the trials was not likely to have allowed detection of measurable effects on growth. Three trials reported that feeding preterm infants using an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand feeding regimen allowed earlier discharge from hospital (by about two to four days) but other trials did not confirm this

  3. Infant feeding practices of teenage mothers attending a well-baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Pillay

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the breastfeeding practices of urban, predominantly isiZulu speaking, South ... South Africa has a low exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rate. The ... perceptions of teenage mothers around the benefits of.

  4. Feeding practices in infancy associated with caries incidence in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Rodrigues, Priscila Humbert; Vítolo, Márcia Regina

    2015-08-01

    Early-life feeding behaviors foretell later dietary habits and health outcomes. Few studies have examined infant dietary patterns and caries occurrence prospectively. Assess whether patterns in food and drink consumption before age 12 months are associated with caries incidence by preschool age. We collected early-life feeding data within a birth cohort from low-income families in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Three dietary indexes were defined, based on refined sugar content and/or previously reported caries associations: a count of sweet foods or drinks introduced cariogenic items in infancy was positively associated with future caries. S-ECC incidence was highest in the uppermost tertile of the '6-month sweet index' (adjusted cumulative incidence ratio, RR, versus lowest tertile: 1.46; 95% CI: 0.97, 2.04) and the uppermost tertile of the '12-month sweet index' (RR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.23). The association was specific for sweet items: caries incidence did not differ by tertile of the '6-month nonsweet index' (RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.40). Additionally, each one-unit increase on the 6-month and the 12-month sweet indexes, but not the 6-month nonsweet index, was statistically significantly associated with greater S-ECC incidence and associated with more decayed, missing, or restored teeth. Results were robust to minor changes in the items constituting each index and persisted if liquid items were excluded. Dietary factors observed before age 12-months were associated with S-ECC at preschool age, highlighting a need for timely, multilevel intervention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Neonatal and pediatirc intensive care in developing countries. Myth or reality? Luxury or necessity? From theory to practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, I

    2003-01-01

    Neonatal and pediatric intensive care poses a major challenge in developing countries where the socio-economic level is low and health care resources are limited. Given the large size of the pediatric population as well as of great socio-cultural and symbolic importance of the child, there is a natural, compelling need for management of serious diseases in newborns and infants. The lack of timely disease prevention and treatment accounts in part for the frequency and severity of cases. Thus the status of intensive care units can exist in this setting is a pertinent question. The purpose of this study was to attempt to answer this question by surveying neonatal and pediatric care in developing countries based on experience in Morocco over the last 25 years.

  6. Meal frequency and dietary diversity feeding practices among children 6-23 months of age in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tefera Chane; Workie, Shimelash Bitew; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu

    2017-05-19

    Child feeding practices are multidimensional, and they change rapidly within short age intervals. Suboptimal complementary feeding practices contribute to a rapid increase in the prevalence of undernutrition in children in the age of 6-23 months. Information on child feeding practices among urban resident is limited in Ethiopia. The aim was to measure minimum meal frequency and dietary diversity and associated factors among children 6-23 months of age in Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out to select 623 mothers/caregivers with 6-23 months of children reside in Wolaita Sodo town using systematic sampling from March 02 to 20, 2015. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on socio-demographic, child feeding practices and health-related characteristics. Data were entered to Epi-Data version 3.02 and transported to SPSS version 21 for further analysis. Binary logistic regression was used to see the association between the outcome variables and explanatory variables, and multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency. The study revealed that the percentage of 6-23 months of children who meet the recommended level of minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency were 27.3 and 68.9%, respectively. Mothers/caregivers who were housewives and government employees feed their children more diversified foods as compared to mothers who were private workers. As compared to children 17-23 months of age, children in the age group of 6-8 and 9-11 months had better probability to meet minimum dietary diversity. Government-employed and illiterate mothers were less likely to feed their children to fulfil the minimum requirement of meal frequency. Children in the age of 9-11 months were also less likely to be fed frequently. Even though the study showed better progress as compared to the national prevalence of complementary

  7. Exclusive breastfeeding-Does it make a difference? : A longitudinal, prospective study of daily feeding practices, health and growth in a sample of Swedish infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aarts, Clara

    2001-01-01

    The concept of exclusive breastfeeding in relation to daily feeding practices and to health and growth of infants in an affluent society was examined. In a descriptive longitudinal prospective study 506 mother-infant pairs were followed from birth through the greater part of the first year. Feeding was recorded daily, and health and growth were recorded fortnightly. Large individual variations were seen in breastfeeding patterns. A wide discrepancy between the exclusive breastfeeding rates o...

  8. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Sheryl O.; Power, Thomas G.; O’Connor, Teresia M.; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (...

  9. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, Klazine; Sleddens, Ester F. C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Toddlers? eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. Methods An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardian...

  10. CONSIDERATIONS FOR ON-FARM RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION OF USEFUL FEEDING/NUTRITION PRACTICES FOR SMALL RUMINANTS IN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Louis Goetsch

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Many funding organizations view on-farm research as having greater impact than ‘on-station’ trials, a feeling shared by farmers and pastoralists because of the opportunity to see and evaluate findings first-hand.  Langston University provides technical assistance in a 5-year project supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development, entitled Ethiopia Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program (ESGPIP, which includes on-farm research and demonstrations of useful feeding/nutrition practices.  The ESGPIP partners with research and extension entities throughout Ethiopia in implementing specific activities.  One effective strategy in on-farm research and demonstrations used by some partners involves group management of animals by Farmer Research Groups (FRG situated in different villages.  Four or five FRG have been used by ESGPIP implementing partners, with each consisting of 9 or 10 farmers contributing 3 or 6 animals.  Funds were provided to construct a simple barn with three pens (10 animals per pen at each FRG for group housing and feeding at night.  One or two animals per farmer were subjected to each of three feeding treatments.  Conversely, in other settings treatment imposition on individual farmers and their animals in multiple communities was most suitable.  Both approaches allow for statistical analysis of data, desirable for publication of the findings and, perhaps more importantly, true value or meaning of any differences noted.  With use of farmer-owned animals in some instances it may not be feasible to impose negative control treatments, but an appropriate common or standard supplemental feedstuff treatment allows for an adequate basis of comparison.  For sustainability, on-farm research should include input by and intimate involvement of producers and participation of local technology transfer personnel.

  11. The challenges of neonatal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Graves, Martin J.; Lomas, David J.; Edwards, Andrea; Austin, Topun

    2012-01-01

    Improved neonatal survival rates and antenatal diagnostic imaging is generating a growing demand for postnatal MRI examinations. Neonatal brain MRI is now becoming standard clinical care in many settings, but with the exception of some research centres, the technique has not been optimised for imaging neonates and small children. Here, we review some of the challenges involved in neonatal MRI, including recent advances in overall MR practicality and nursing practice, to address some of the ways in which the MR experience could be made more neonate-friendly. (orig.)

  12. Tuberculosis neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Durán, Xavier

    1986-01-01

    PROTOCOLOS TERAPEUTICOS. TUBERCULOSIS NEONATAL 1. CONCEPTO La tuberculosis neonatal es la infección del recién nacido producida por el bacilo de Koch. Es una situación rara pero grave que requiere un diagnóstico precoz y un tratamiento enérgico..

  13. Infant feeding-related maternity care practices and maternal report of breastfeeding outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer M; Perrine, Cria G; Freedman, David S; Williams, Letitia; Morrow, Brian; Smith, Ruben A; Dee, Deborah L

    2018-02-07

    Evidence-based maternity practices and policies can improve breastfeeding duration and exclusivity. Maternity facilities report practices through the Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey, but individual outcomes, such as breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, are not collected. mPINC data on maternity care practices for 2009 were linked to data from the 2009 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), which collects information on mothers' behaviors and experiences around pregnancy. We calculated total mPINC scores (range 0-100). PRAMS data on any and exclusive breastfeeding at 8 weeks were examined by total mPINC score quartile. Of 15 715 women in our sample, 53.7% were breastfeeding any at 8 weeks, and 29.3% were breastfeeding exclusively. They gave birth at 1016 facilities that had a mean total mPINC score of 65/100 (range 19-99). Care dimension subscores ranged from 41 for facility discharge care to 81 for breastfeeding assistance. In multivariable analysis adjusting for covariates, a positive relationship was found between total mPINC score quartile and both any breastfeeding (quartile 2: odds ratio [OR] 1.40 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.08-1.83], quartile 3: OR 1.50 [95% CI 1.15-1.96], quartile 4: OR 2.12 [95% CI 1.61-2.78] vs quartile 1) and exclusive breastfeeding (quartile 3: OR 1.41 [95% CI 1.04-1.90], quartile 4: OR 1.89 [95% CI 1.41-2.55] vs quartile 1) at 8 weeks. These data demonstrate that evidence-based maternity care practices and policies are associated with better breastfeeding outcomes. Maternity facilities may evaluate their practices and policies to ensure they are helping mothers achieve their breastfeeding goals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Tanker milk variability according to farm feeding practices: vitamins A and E, carotenoids, color, and terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabriel, C; Cornu, A; Journal, C; Sibra, C; Grolier, P; Martin, B

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the variability in the composition of bulk milk mixtures of fat-soluble compounds (vitamins A and E, carotenoids, and terpenoids) and assess the links with milk production conditions. Milk from 10 collection trips in the French department of the Haute-Loire (10 to 36 herds per trip) was sampled in the tanker twice during the winter period and 3 times during the grazing season. The collection trips differed in their altitude (440 to 1,150 m) and the forage system (grass or based on corn silage). Vitamins A and E, carotenoids, and terpenoids of the 50 tanker loads of milk were analyzed. Data of milk production conditions in the 204 farms made it possible to constitute indicators for the collection trip and to define 50 mean herds. The relationships between mean herd characteristics (breed, stage of lactation, and feed) and milk characteristics were investigated. The constituents of tanker loads of milk were comparable to those observed in milk produced by groups of animals receiving contrasting diets (rich in concentrate or corn silage vs. pasture). The characteristics of the milk differed according to the period; those produced at grazing were more yellow (1.02 +/- 0.4; mean of difference) and richer in beta-carotene, lutein, vitamin E (2.0 +/- 1.2, 0.23 +/- 0.12, and 6.1 +/- 5.0 mug/g of fat, respectively), and sesquiterpenes (2.7 +/- 2.5) than winter. The variations observed for beta-carotene, lutein, and vitamin E were linked to the proportion of grazed grass or grass silage in the forage (r = 0.66, 0.69, and 0.51, respectively), unlike the vitamin A content. During grazing, 20 of the 32 terpenoids identified were associated with the proportion of permanent grassland available for grazing or cut. These results show that feeding is an effective way to modify the quality of dairy products, even in the case of bulk tank milk mixtures. Dairy plants could market different milks, which would contain specific compositions.

  15. Mothers literacy status and its association with feeding practices and PEM among 1-5 year aged children in southern part of India, Mysore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of PEM in children aged 1 to 5 years and to study the association of mothers educational status with feeding practices and nutritional status of children aged 1 to 5 years. Methods: A cross sectional study of 600 children of 1-5 year age group in urban slums of Mysore city was carried out with cluster random sampling method. The data was collected by using a predesigned and pretested proforma. Assessment of the nutritional status was done by clinical examination and anthropometry. WHO child growth standards, 2006 reference data were used to classify malnutrition. Results: Among 600 children examined, 285 (47.5% were males and 315 (52.5% were females. Exclusive breast feeding was given in 295 (49.2% of children. Pre lacteal feeds and top milk feeds were given in 123 (20.5% and 108 (18% of children respectively. The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was observed to be 31.3%, 42.2% and 14.2% respectively. About 12.8% of mothers were illiterate and this was significantly associated with feeding practices and nutritional status of children. Conclusions: Mothers literacy status plays important role in feeding practices of their children which inturn is an important factor in determining the nutritional status of child

  16. Poor Infant Feeding Practices and High Prevalence of Malnutrition in Urban Slum Child Care Centres in Nairobi: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwase, Ivan; Mutoro, Antonina; Owino, Victor; Garcia, Ada L; Wright, Charlotte M

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the style and quality of feeding and care provided in child day-care centres in slum areas. This study purposively sampled five day-care centres in Nairobi, Kenya, where anthropometric measurements were collected among 33 children aged 6-24 months. Mealtime interactions were further observed in 11 children from four centres, using a standardized data collection sheet. We recorded the child actions, such as mood, interest in food, distraction level, as well as caregiver actions, such as encouragement to eat, level of distraction and presence of neutral actions. Of the 33 children assessed, with a mean age of 15.9 ± 4.9 months, 14 (42%) were female. Undernutrition was found in 13 (39%) children with at least one Z score feed, with most children eating less than half of their served meal. Poor hygiene coupled with non-responsive care practices observed in the centres is a threat to child health, growth and development. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Neonatal Hyperglycemia due to Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargas-Berríos, N; García-Fragoso, L; García-García, I; Valcárcel, M

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hyperglycemia is a metabolic disorder found in the neonatal intensive care units. Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a very uncommon cause of hyperglycemia in the newborn, occurring in 1 in every 400,000 births. There are two subtypes of neonatal diabetes mellitus: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM) and transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM). We describe a term, small for gestational age, female neonate with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus who presented with poor feeding tolerance and vomiting associated with hyperglycemia (385 mg/dL), glycosuria, and metabolic acidosis within the first 12 hours of life. The neonate was treated with intravenous insulin, obtaining a slight control of hyperglycemia. An adequate glycemia was achieved at 5 weeks of life. The molecular studies showed complete loss of maternal methylation at the TND differentially methylated region on chromosome 6q24. The etiology of this neonate's hyperglycemia was a hypomethylation of the maternal TND locus. A rare cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus must be considered if a neonate presents refractory hyperglycemia. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Puerto Rico of transient neonatal mellitus due to the uncommon mechanism of maternal hypomethylation of the TND locus. Its prevalence in Puerto Rico is unknown.

  18. Effects of baby-friendly hospital initiative on breast-feeding practices in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Akram, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine changes in the breastfeeding practices of mothers after receiving counseling on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding as defined by the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative comparing baby friendly hospitals (BFHs) and non-baby-friendly hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: The observational study was conducted from June 2007 to June 2009 in randomly selected baby-friendly and non-baby-friendly hospitals of Sindh, Pakistan. Non-probability purposive sampling was employed. The maternity staff was trained on Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The changes in breastfeeding practices were analysed by SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 236 women were included in the study. Of them, 196 (83.05%) were from baby-friendly hospitals and 40 (16.94%) from non-baby-friendly hospitals. Besides, 174 (88.7%) mothers in baby-friendly hospitals and 5 (12.5%) in non-baby-friendly hospitals during antenatal care received counseling by healthcare providers. There was an increase in breastfeeding practice up to 194 (98.97%) in the first category compared to 12 (30%) in the other category. Conclusion: Counseling under the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative improved breastfeeding practices up to 98.97% in baby-friendly compared to non-baby-friendly hospitals. (author)

  19. The Relationship between Practices and Child Care Providers' Beliefs Related to Child Feeding and Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Jane D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between child care