WorldWideScience

Sample records for neon lte emission

  1. Why is observable radio recombination line emission from galactic HII regions always close to LTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    There is no evidence for significant deviations from LTE in single-dish observations of radio recombination line emission from galactic HII regions. This is in agreement with the known properties of HII regions, particularly their density variations and limited range of excitation parameters; the optimum configuration for strong observable non-LTE effects, low electron density and high emission measure, simply does not exist in galactic HII regions, and the observed lines are emitted under near-LTE conditions. Models of the Orion Nebulae and NGC 6604 are presented which fit all available data and show only weak stimulated emission. It is concluded that reliable electron temperatures can indeed be obtained from straightforward analysis of appropriate radio recombination lines. (orig.)

  2. X-ray emission spectroscopy of well-characterised non-LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgaux, A C; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Audebert, P; Marquès, J R; Vassura, L; Vinci, T; Jacquemot, S; Dorchies, F; Leguay, P M; Chung, H K; Bowen, C; Dervieux, V; Renaudin, P; Silvert, V

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present an experimental platform developed on LULI2000 to measure x-ray emission of non-LTE plasmas in well-defined hydrodynamic conditions thanks to implementation of a whole set of diagnostics, including time-resolved electronic and ionic Thomson scattering and self-optical pyrometry. K-, L- and M-shell spectra will be presented and the methodology, that has been developed to analyze them, discussed. (paper)

  3. Electron emission from tungsten surface induced by neon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhongfeng; Zeng, Lixia; Zhao, Yongtao; Liu, Xueliang; Xiao, Guoqing; Li, Fuli; Cheng, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoan; Ren, Jieru; Zhou, Xianming; Wang, Xing; Lei, Yu; Li, Yongfeng; Yu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The electron emission from W surface induced by Ne q+ has been measured. For the same charge state, the electron yield gradually increases with the projectile velocity. Meanwhile, the effect of the potential energy of projectile has been found obviously. Our results give the critical condition for ''trampoline effect''

  4. Electron emission from tungsten surface induced by neon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongfeng; Zeng, Lixia; Zhao, Yongtao; Cheng, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoan; Ren, Jieru; Zhou, Xianming; Wang, Xing; Lei, Yu; Li, Yongfeng; Yu, Yang; Liu, Xueliang; Xiao, Guoqing; Li, Fuli

    2014-04-01

    The electron emission from W surface induced by Neq+ has been measured. For the same charge state, the electron yield gradually increases with the projectile velocity. Meanwhile, the effect of the potential energy of projectile has been found obviously. Our results give the critical condition for "trampoline effect".

  5. Current sheath curvature correlation with the neon soft x-ray emission from plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T; Lin, X; Chandra, K A; Tan, T L; Springham, S V; Patran, A; Lee, P; Lee, S; Rawat, R S

    2005-01-01

    The insulator sleeve length is one of the major parameters that can severely affect the neon soft x-ray yield from a plasma focus. The effect of the insulation sleeve length on various characteristic timings of plasma focus discharges and hence the soft x-ray emission characteristics has been investigated using a resistive divider. The pinhole images and laser shadowgraphy are used to explain the observed variation in the average soft x-ray yield (measured using a diode x-ray spectrometer) with variation of the insulator sleeve length. We have found that for a neon filled plasma focus device the change in insulator sleeve length changes the current sheath curvature angle and thus the length of the focused plasma column. The optimized current sheath curvature angle is found to be between 39 0 and 41 0 , at the specific axial position of 6.2-9.3 cm from the cathode support plate, for our 3.3 kJ plasma focus device. A strong dependence of the neon soft x-ray yield on the current sheath curvature angle has thus been reported

  6. Evidence of non-LTE Effects in Mesospheric Water Vapor from Spectrally-Resolved Emissions Observed by CIRRIS-1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D. K.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Zaragoza, G.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence of non-LTE effects in mesospheric water vapor as determined by infrared spectral emission measurements taken from the space shuttle is reported. A cryogenic Michelson interferometer in the CIRRIS-1A shuttle payload yielded high quality, atmospheric infrared spectra. These measurements demonstrate the enhanced daytime emissions of H2O (020-010) which are the result of non-LTE processes and in agreement with non-LTE models. The radiance ratios of H2O (010 to 000) and (020 to 010) Q(1) transitions during daytime are compared with non-LTE model calculations to assess the vibration-to-vibration exchange rate between H2O and O2 in the mesosphere. An exchange rate of 1.2 x 10(exp -12)cc/s is derived.

  7. Target simulations with SCROLL non-LTE opacity/emissivity databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, M.; Colombant, D.; Bar-Shalom, A.

    2001-10-01

    SCROLL[1], a collisional radiative model and code based on superconfigurations, is able to compute high Z non-LTE opacities and emissivities accurately and efficiently. It was used to create opacity/emissivity databases for Pd, Lu, Au on a 50 temperatures/80 densities grid. Incident radiation field was shown to have no effect on opacities in the case of interest, and was not taken into account. These databases were introduced in the hydrocode FAST1D[2]. SCROLL also gives an ionization temperature Tz which is used in FAST1D to obtain non-LTE corrections to the equation of state. Results will be compared to those of a previous version using Busquet’s algorithm[3]. Work supported by USDOE under a contract with NRL. [1] A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg and M. Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 65, 43(2000). [2] J. H. Gardner, A. J. Schmitt, J. P. Dahlburg, C. J. Pawley, S. E. Bodner, S. P. Obenschain, V. Serlin and Y. Aglitskiy, Phys. Plasmas, 5, 1935 (1998). [3] M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993).

  8. A non-LTE model for the Jovian methane infrared emissions at high spectral resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Allen, J. E., Jr.; Decola, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    High resolution spectra of Jupiter in the 3.3 micrometer region have so far failed to reveal either the continuum or the line emissions that can be unambiguously attributed to the nu(sub 3) band of methane (Drossart et al. 1993; Kim et al. 1991). Nu(sub 3) line intensities predicted with the help of two simple non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) models -- a two-level model and a three-level model, using experimentally determined relaxation coefficients, are shown to be one to three orders of magnitude respectively below the 3-sigma noise level of these observations. Predicted nu(sub 4) emission intensities are consistent with observed values. If the methane mixing ratio below the homopause is assumed as 2 x 10(exp -3), a value of about 300 K is derived as an upper limit to the temperature of the high stratosphere at microbar levels.

  9. Detailed non-LTE calculations of the iron emission from NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, David L.; Klein, Richard I.; Castor, John I.; Nash, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray iron line emission from NGC 1068 observed by the Ginga satellite is modeled using the new multiline, multilevel, non-LTE radiative transport code ALTAIR and a detailed atomic model for Ne-like through stripped iron. The parameter space of the obscured type 1 Seyfert nucleus model for this object is studied. The equivalent width is greater than previously predicted. It is found that detailed radiative transfer can have a significant effect on the observed line flux both for the K alpha line and for the L-shell emission. The ionization of the iron increases with temperature. Therefore the K alpha equivalent width and energy is a function not only of the ionization parameter, but also of the column depth and temperature. For a likely model of NGC 1068 it is found that the iron abundance is about twice solar, but that modifications of this model may permit a smaller abundance.

  10. Experimental study of X-ray emission yield in a Filippov-type Plasma Focus operating in neon and neon-krypton mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babazadeh, A.R.; Kiai, S.M.S.; Roshan, M.V.; Emami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Since the installation of PF-DENA at AEOI about one year ago, we performed quantitative studies of variation of X-ray radiations from a new Filippov-type plasma focus device: Dena (90 kJ, 25 kV, 288 μF). The operating gas was neon at a constant pressure of 1 torr and different pressures of krypton admixture (up to 0.3 torr), with the discharge voltage up to 18 kV. For charging voltage of 17 kV with 41 kJ stored energy and spark gap pressure of 1.2x 10 -2 torr, the maximum soft and little hard X-ray (SXR-HXR) emission is found for the neon, resulting in a total SXR yield of 2 V/shot measured by silicon semiconductor diode detectors. Concerning the effect of krypton admixture, a maximum intensity of SXR radiation has been observed at low krypton pressure that is about 1 V/shot. At higher pressure, the quality of SXR emission decreases down to zero. However, the maximum intensity of the HXR radiation yield in the same pressure range was found to be 2.5 V/shot. By increasing the pressure of krypton up tp 0.3 torr, the results show that the krypton admixture gas generally causes, a decrease of the SXR radiation yield down to zero, whereas, the HXR emission yield carries a maximum value at the optimum pressure of krypton that is about 0.1 torr. Nevertheless, the pressure increments of krypton lead to decreasing in the discharge voltage for the maximum X-ray production. (author)

  11. The ALI-ARMS Code for Modeling Atmospheric non-LTE Molecular Band Emissions: Current Status and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutepov, A. A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Manuilova, R. O.; Yankovsky, V. A.; Rezac, L.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    The Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) technique was developed in stellar astrophysics at the beginning of 1990s for solving the non-LTE radiative transfer problem in atomic lines and multiplets in stellar atmospheres. It was later successfully applied to modeling the non-LTE emissions and radiative cooling/heating in the vibrational-rotational bands of molecules in planetary atmospheres. Similar to the standard lambda iterations ALI operates with the matrices of minimal dimension. However, it provides higher convergence rate and stability due to removing from the iterating process the photons trapped in the optically thick line cores. In the current ALI-ARMS (ALI for Atmospheric Radiation and Molecular Spectra) code version additional acceleration of calculations is provided by utilizing the opacity distribution function (ODF) approach and "decoupling". The former allows replacing the band branches by single lines of special shape, whereas the latter treats non-linearity caused by strong near-resonant vibration-vibrational level coupling without additional linearizing the statistical equilibrium equations. Latest code application for the non-LTE diagnostics of the molecular band emissions of Earth's and Martian atmospheres as well as for the non-LTE IR cooling/heating calculations are discussed.

  12. CO2 non-LTE limb emissions in Mars' atmosphere as observed by OMEGA/Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccialli, A.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Määttänen, A.; González-Galindo, F.; Audouard, J.; Altieri, F.; Forget, F.; Drossart, P.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    We report on daytime limb observations of Mars upper atmosphere acquired by the OMEGA instrument on board the European spacecraft Mars Express. The strong emission observed at 4.3 μm is interpreted as due to CO2 fluorescence of solar radiation and is detected at a tangent altitude in between 60 and 110 km. The main value of OMEGA observations is that they provide simultaneously spectral information and good spatial sampling of the CO2 emission. In this study we analyzed 98 dayside limb observations spanning over more than 3 Martian years, with a very good latitudinal and longitudinal coverage. Thanks to the precise altitude sounding capabilities of OMEGA, we extracted vertical profiles of the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) emission at each wavelength and we studied their dependence on several geophysical parameters, such as the solar illumination and the tangent altitude. The dependence of the non-LTE emission on solar zenith angle and altitude follows a similar behavior to that predicted by the non-LTE model. According to our non-LTE model, the tangent altitude of the peak of the CO2 emission varies with the thermal structure, but the pressure level where the peak of the emission is found remains constant at ˜0.03 ± 0.01 Pa, . This non-LTE model prediction has been corroborated by comparing SPICAM and OMEGA observations. We have shown that the seasonal variations of the altitude of constant pressure levels in SPICAM stellar occultation retrievals correlate well with the variations of the OMEGA peak emission altitudes, although the exact pressure level cannot be defined with the spectroscopy for the investigation of the characteristics of the atmosphere of Venus (SPICAM) nighttime data. Thus, observed changes in the altitude of the peak emission provide us information on the altitude of the 0.03 Pa pressure level. Since the pressure at a given altitude is dictated by the thermal structure below, the tangent altitude of the peak emission represents

  13. Using a helium--neon laser to convert infrared radiation to visible emission on lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurtyunyan, E.A.; Kostanyan, R.B.; Mkrtchyan, V.S.; Mkrtchyan, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The conversion of infrared emission to the visible region was investigated by mixing with helium-neon laser emission in lithium niobate crystals. The infrared source was a Globar, and the laser was the LG-75. Emission of the sum frequencies was filtered out. The spectral composition of the converted radiation was analyzed by the ISP-51 spectrograph with an FEU-79 photomultiplier at the output. The amplified photomultiplier signal was recorded by the ChZ-33 frequency meter. By varying the angle between the optical axis of the crystal and the incident emission, infrared radiation in the 1.75 to 3.3 ..mu..m wavelength band could be converted to visible emission. It is suggested that measurement of the wavelength of converted emission might be used to study the distribution of concentration nonhomogeneities in crystals.

  14. Absolute, time-resolved emission of non-LTE L-shell spectra from Ti-doped aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, C.A.; Feldman, U.; Weaver, J.L.; Seely, J.F.; Constantin, C.; Holland, G.; Lee, R.W.; Chung, H.-K.; Scott, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Outstanding discrepancies between data and calculations of laser-produced plasmas in recombination have been observed since the 1980s. Although improvements in hydrodynamic modeling may reduce the discrepancies, there are indications that non-LTE atomic kinetics may be the dominant cause. Experiments to investigate non-LTE effects were recently performed at the NIKE KrF laser on low-density Ti-doped aerogels. The laser irradiated a 2mm diameter, cylindrical sample of various lengths with a 4-ns square pulse to create a volumetrically heated plasma. Ti L-shell spectra spanning a range of 0.47-3keV were obtained with a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. The diagnostic can be configured to provide 1-dimensional spatial resolution at a single photon energy, or 18 discrete energies with a resolving power, λ/δλ of 3-20. The data are examined and compared to calculations to develop absolute emission measurements that can provide new tests of the non-LTE physics

  15. Absolute, time-resolved emission of non-LTE L-shell spectra from Ti-doped aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, C.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)]. E-mail: tinaback@llnl.gov; Feldman, U. [Artep Inc. 2922 Excelsior Ct., Ellicott City, MD 21042 (United States); Weaver, J.L. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Drive, SW, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Seely, J.F. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Drive, SW, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Constantin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Holland, G. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Drive, SW, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Lee, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Chung, H.-K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Scott, H.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Outstanding discrepancies between data and calculations of laser-produced plasmas in recombination have been observed since the 1980s. Although improvements in hydrodynamic modeling may reduce the discrepancies, there are indications that non-LTE atomic kinetics may be the dominant cause. Experiments to investigate non-LTE effects were recently performed at the NIKE KrF laser on low-density Ti-doped aerogels. The laser irradiated a 2mm diameter, cylindrical sample of various lengths with a 4-ns square pulse to create a volumetrically heated plasma. Ti L-shell spectra spanning a range of 0.47-3keV were obtained with a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. The diagnostic can be configured to provide 1-dimensional spatial resolution at a single photon energy, or 18 discrete energies with a resolving power, {lambda}/{delta}{lambda} of 3-20. The data are examined and compared to calculations to develop absolute emission measurements that can provide new tests of the non-LTE physics.

  16. Calculation of emission and absorption spectra of LTE plasma by the STA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, A.B.J.; Goldstein, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Recent improvements in the Super Transition Array (STA) method for calculating Bound-Bound (BB) and Bound-Free (BF) emission and absorption spectra for LTE plasma are described and illustrated. The method accounts for all possible BB and BF radiative transitions in the plasma. Full detailed first order quantum relativistic treatment is used for calculating transition energies and probabilities. The enormous number of configurations are divided into sets of superconfigurations comprised of a collection of energetically grouped configurations to a specific one-electron transition is then represented by a Gaussian whose moments (total intensity, average energy and variance) are calculated accurately using a technique that bypasses the necessity of direct summation over all the levels involved. The calculation of these moments involves the populations of the configurations given by their statistical weights and the Boltzmann factor. For each configuration within the superconfiguration the authors use zeroeth order energies in the Boltzmann factor corrected by a superconfiguration averaged first order term. The structure of the spectrum is increasingly revealed by splitting each STA into a number of smaller STAs. When the spectrum converges it describes the detailed UTA structure, where each configuration-to-configuration array is represented by a separate Gaussian with first order energy in the Boltzmann factor. Convergence is reached with only a few thousand STAs, at most, which makes the calculations practical. It should be pointed out that in this treatment the STA moments are obtained by summing over all level-to-level transitions, rather than configuration-to-configuration average transitions. The authors also take into account orbital relaxation by calculating orbitals and energies for each superconfiguration in its own, optimized potential

  17. Amplification of spontaneous emission of neon-like argon in a fast gas-filled capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolacek, K.; Schmidt, J.; Bohacek, V.; Ripa, M.; Frolov, O.; Vrba, P.; Straus, J.; Prukner, V.; Rupasov, A. A.; Shikanov, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of the CAPEX facility and its basic diagnostics are described. The experiments carried out in the last modification of this facility accomplished with the demonstration of amplified spontaneous emission of neon-like argon (Ar 8+ ) at the wavelength 46.88 nm. The first version of the facility, CAPEX1, operated with a plastic capillary and had a short high-power passive prepulse and an imperfect gas-filling system. In the second version, CAPEX2, a ceramic capillary was used, the prepulse amplitude was lowered, and the gas-filling system was improved. In the third, most successful version, CAPEX3, the capillary bending was reduced, a longer external prepulse was used, and the gas-filling system was further optimized. For each version, results of X-ray measurements are presented and interpreted

  18. Python Radiative Transfer Emission code (PyRaTE): non-LTE spectral lines simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritsis, A.; Yorke, H.; Tassis, K.

    2018-05-01

    We describe PyRaTE, a new, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) line radiative transfer code developed specifically for post-processing astrochemical simulations. Population densities are estimated using the escape probability method. When computing the escape probability, the optical depth is calculated towards all directions with density, molecular abundance, temperature and velocity variations all taken into account. A very easy-to-use interface, capable of importing data from simulations outputs performed with all major astrophysical codes, is also developed. The code is written in PYTHON using an "embarrassingly parallel" strategy and can handle all geometries and projection angles. We benchmark the code by comparing our results with those from RADEX (van der Tak et al. 2007) and against analytical solutions and present case studies using hydrochemical simulations. The code will be released for public use.

  19. Demonstrating Fluorescence with Neon Paper and Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birriel, Jennifer J.; Roe, Clarissa

    2015-01-01

    Several papers in this journal have dealt with the fluorescence in orange neon plastic, olive oil, and soda. In each case, the fluorescent emission was excited by either green or violet-blue laser light. In this paper, we examine the fluorescent emission spectra of so-called neon colored papers and plastic clipboards available in department and…

  20. Self-consistent Non-LTE Model of Infrared Molecular Emissions and Oxygen Dayglows in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, Artem G.; Yankovsky, Valentine A.; Pesnell, William D.; Kutepov, Alexander A.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Mauilova, Rada O.

    2007-01-01

    We present the new version of the ALI-ARMS (for Accelerated Lambda Iterations for Atmospheric Radiation and Molecular Spectra) model. The model allows simultaneous self-consistent calculating the non-LTE populations of the electronic-vibrational levels of the O3 and O2 photolysis products and vibrational level populations of CO2, N2,O2, O3, H2O, CO and other molecules with detailed accounting for the variety of the electronic-vibrational, vibrational-vibrational and vibrational-translational energy exchange processes. The model was used as the reference one for modeling the O2 dayglows and infrared molecular emissions for self-consistent diagnostics of the multi-channel space observations of MLT in the SABER experiment It also allows reevaluating the thermalization efficiency of the absorbed solar ultraviolet energy and infrared radiative cooling/heating of MLT by detailed accounting of the electronic-vibrational relaxation of excited photolysis products via the complex chain of collisional energy conversion processes down to the vibrational energy of optically active trace gas molecules.

  1. Laboratory measurements of the x-ray line emission from neon-like Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Chen, H; Scofield, J; Boyce, K R; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Gu, M F; Kahn, S M; Szymkowiak, A E

    2006-01-01

    The authors have conducted a systematic study of the dominant x-ray line emission from Fe XVII. These studies include relative line intensities in the optically thin limit, intensities in the presence of radiation from satellite lines from lower charge states of iron, and the absolute excitation cross sections of some of the strongest lines. These measurements were conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap facility using crystal spectrometers and a NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center microcalorimeter array

  2. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2: THE MYSTERY OF NEON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gebhardt, Henry; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Trump, Jonathan R.; Bridge, Joanna S.; Luo, Bin; Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: grzeimann@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We use near-infrared grism spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope to examine the strength of [Ne III] λ3869 relative to Hβ, [O II] λ3727, and [O III] λ5007 in 236 low-mass (7.5 ≲ log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≲ 10.5) star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 < z < 2.35. By stacking the data by stellar mass, we show that the [Ne III]/[O II] ratios of the z ∼ 2 universe are marginally higher than those seen in a comparable set of local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, and that [Ne III]/[O III] is enhanced by ∼0.2 dex. We consider the possible explanations for this ∼4σ result, including higher oxygen depletion out of the gas phase, denser H II regions, higher production of {sup 22}Ne via Wolf-Rayet stars, and the existence of a larger population of X-ray obscured active galactic nuclei at z ∼ 2 compared to z ∼ 0. None of these simple scenarios, alone, are favored to explain the observed line ratios. We conclude by suggesting several avenues of future observations to further explore the mystery of enhanced [Ne III] emission.

  3. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2: THE MYSTERY OF NEON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gebhardt, Henry; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Trump, Jonathan R.; Bridge, Joanna S.; Luo, Bin; Schneider, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    We use near-infrared grism spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope to examine the strength of [Ne III] λ3869 relative to Hβ, [O II] λ3727, and [O III] λ5007 in 236 low-mass (7.5 ≲ log (M * /M ☉ ) ≲ 10.5) star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 < z < 2.35. By stacking the data by stellar mass, we show that the [Ne III]/[O II] ratios of the z ∼ 2 universe are marginally higher than those seen in a comparable set of local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, and that [Ne III]/[O III] is enhanced by ∼0.2 dex. We consider the possible explanations for this ∼4σ result, including higher oxygen depletion out of the gas phase, denser H II regions, higher production of 22 Ne via Wolf-Rayet stars, and the existence of a larger population of X-ray obscured active galactic nuclei at z ∼ 2 compared to z ∼ 0. None of these simple scenarios, alone, are favored to explain the observed line ratios. We conclude by suggesting several avenues of future observations to further explore the mystery of enhanced [Ne III] emission

  4. Variability of OH rotational temperatures on time scales from hours to 15 years by kinetic temperature variations, emission layer changes, and non-LTE effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Rotational temperatures derived from hydroxyl (OH) line emission are frequently used to study atmospheric temperatures at altitudes of about 87 km. While the measurement only requires intensities of a few bright lines of an OH band, the interpretation can be complicated. Ground-based temperatures are averages for the entire, typically 8 km wide emission layer. Variations in the rotational temperature are then caused by changes of the kinetic temperature and the OH emission profile. The latter can also be accompanied by differences in the layer-averaged efficiency of the thermalisation of the OH rotational level populations. Since this especially depends on the frequency of collisions with O_2, which is low at high altitudes, the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) contribution to the measured temperatures can be significant and variable. In order to understand the impact of the different sources of OH rotational temperature variations from time scales of hours to a solar cycle, we have studied spectra from the astronomical echelle spectrographs X-shooter and UVES located at Cerro Paranal in Chile. While the X-shooter data spanning 3.5 years allowed us to measure temperatures for 25 OH and two O_2 bands, the UVES spectra cover no more than 10 OH bands simultaneously but a period of about 15 years. These data have been complemented by kinetic temperature and OH and O_2 emission profiles from the multi-channel radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite. Taking the O_2 and SABER kinetic temperatures as reference and considering the different band-dependent emission profiles, we could evaluate the contribution of non-LTE effects to the measured OH rotational temperatures depending on line set, band, and time. Non-LTE contributions are significant for most bands and can exceed 10 K. The amplitudes of their average nocturnal and seasonal variation are of the order of 1 to 2 K.

  5. Calculation of opacities and emissivities for carbon plasmas under NLTE and LTE conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Martel, P.; Sauvan, P.; Minguez, E.

    2006-01-01

    We calculate different optical properties for carbon plasma in a wide range of temperatures and densities by using ATOM3R-OP code which has been recently developed. In this code we have implemented the rate equations, the Saha equation (for local thermodynamic equilibrium) and the coronal equilibrium model. We have calculated average ionizations, level populations, opacities and emissivities and we focus our study on the identification with our code of coronal equilibrium, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium and local thermodynamic equilibrium regions for this kind of plasma. Moreover, we analyse the differences in the optical properties when they are calculated in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium and local thermodynamic equilibrium. (authors)

  6. Calculation of opacities and emissivities for carbon plasmas under NLTE and LTE conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Martel, P. [Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Univ., Dept. de Fisica (Spain); Sauvan, P. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Dept. de Ingenieria Energetica, Madrid (Spain); Minguez, E. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, Instituto de Fusion Nuclear-DENIM (Spain)

    2006-06-15

    We calculate different optical properties for carbon plasma in a wide range of temperatures and densities by using ATOM3R-OP code which has been recently developed. In this code we have implemented the rate equations, the Saha equation (for local thermodynamic equilibrium) and the coronal equilibrium model. We have calculated average ionizations, level populations, opacities and emissivities and we focus our study on the identification with our code of coronal equilibrium, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium and local thermodynamic equilibrium regions for this kind of plasma. Moreover, we analyse the differences in the optical properties when they are calculated in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium and local thermodynamic equilibrium. (authors)

  7. Optimization of neon soft X-ray emission from 200 J plasma focus device for application in soft X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaiselvi, S.M. P.; Tan, T.L.; Talebitaher, A.; Lee, Paul; Rawat, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Fast Miniature Plasma Focus (FMPF) device is basically made up of coaxial electrodes with centrally placed anode and six cathode rods surrounding them concentrically. They are enclosed in a vacuum chamber, filled with low pressure operating gas. However, in our experiments, these cathode rods were removed to investigate the influence of them on neon soft X-ray (SXR) and hard X-ray (HXR) emission from the device. On removal of cathode rods, the cathode base plate serves as cathode and the plasma sheath is formed between the anode and the base plate of cathode. Neon was used as the operating gas for our experiments and the FMPF device used is of 235 J energy capacities. The experimental results showed that the FMPF device was able to focus better and the SXR emission efficiency was five times higher without cathode rods than with cathode rods. On the contrary, HXR emission did not vary with and without cathode rods. This observed phenomenon was further cross-checked through imaging of plasma dynamics, with and without cathode rods. FMPF device consists of 4 Pseudo Spark Gap (PSG) switches, which need to operate synchronously to deliver high voltage from capacitors to the anode. It was also seen that, the presence or absence of cathode rods also influence the synchronous operation of PSG switches. It also implies that this is one definite way to optimize the SXR emission from the FMPF device. This study reveals an important finding that, cathode rods play a vital role in the formation of plasma sheath with consequential influence on the radiation emission from plasma focus devices. Enhancement of the X-ray emission from this device is definitely a stepping stone in the realization of this device for industrial applications such as X-ray lithography for semiconductor industries. (author)

  8. Towards detecting methanol emission in low-mass protoplanetary discs with ALMA: the role of non-LTE excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, S. Yu.; Semenov, D. A.; Sobolev, A. M.; Gray, M. D.

    2016-08-01

    The understanding of organic content of protoplanetary discs is one of the main goals of the planet formation studies. As an attempt to guide the observational searches for weak lines of complex species in discs, we modelled the (sub)millimetre spectrum of gaseous methanol (CH3OH), one of the simplest organic molecules, in the representative T Tauri system. We used 1+1D disc physical model coupled to the gas-grain ALCHEMIC chemical model with and without 2D-turbulent mixing. The computed CH3OH abundances along with the CH3OH scheme of energy levels of ground and excited torsional states were used to produce model spectra obtained with the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) 3D line radiative transfer code LIME. We found that the modelled non-LTE intensities of the CH3OH lines can be lower by factor of >10-100 than those calculated under assumption of LTE. Though population inversion occurs in the model calculations for many (sub)millimetre transitions, it does not lead to the strong maser amplification and noticeably high line intensities. We identify the strongest CH3OH (sub)millimetre lines that could be searched for with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in nearby discs. The two best candidates are the CH3OH 50 - 40A+ (241.791 GHz) and 5-1 - 4-1E (241.767 GHz) lines, which could possibly be detected with the ˜5σ signal-to-noise ratio after ˜3 h of integration with the full ALMA array.

  9. Non-LTE CO, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Wiedemann, Gunter R.

    1989-01-01

    A more extensive and detailed non-LTE simulation of the Delta v = 1 bands of CO than attempted previously is reported. The equations of statistical equilibrium are formulated for a model molecule containing 10 bound vibrational levels, each split into 121 rotational substates and connected by more than 1000 radiative transitions. Solutions are obtained for self-consistent populations and radiation fields by iterative application of the 'Lambda-operator' to an initial LTE distribution. The formalism is used to illustrate models of the sun and Arcturus. For the sun, negligible departures from LTE are found in either a theoretical radiative-equilibrium photosphere with outwardly falling temperatures in its highest layers or in a semiempirical hot chromosphere that reproduces the spatially averaged emission cores of Ca II H and K. The simulations demonstrate that the puzzling 'cool cores' of the CO Delta V = 1 bands observed in limb spectra of the sun and in flux spectra of Arcturus cannot be explained simply by non-LTE scattering effects.

  10. New Non-LTE Model of OH and CO2 Emission in the Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere and its Application to Retrieving Nighttime Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panka, Peter A.

    The hydroxyl, OH, and carbon dioxide, CO2, molecules and oxygen atoms, O(3P), are important parameters that characterize the chemistry, energetics, and dynamics of the nighttime mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region. Hence, there is much interest in obtaining high quality observations of these parameters in order to study the short-term variability as well as the long-term trends in characteristics of the MLT region. The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics, and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite has been taking global, simultaneous measurements of limb infrared radiance in 10 spectral channels, including the OH 2.0 and 1.6-micron and CO2 4.3-micron emissions channels, continuously since late January 2002. These measurements can be interpreted using sophisticated non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) models of OH and CO2 infrared emissions which can then be applied to obtain densities of these parameters (2.0 and 1.6-micron channel for O(3P)/OH and 4.3-micron channel for CO2). The latest non-LTE models of these molecules, however, do not fully represent all the dominant energy transfer mechanisms which influence their vibrational level distributions and infrared emissions. In particular, non-LTE models of CO2 4.3-micron emissions currently under-predict SABER measurements by up to 80%, and its application for the retrieval of CO2 will result in unrealistic densities. Additionally, current O(3P) retrievals from SABER OH emissions have been reported to be at least 30% higher compared to studies using other instruments. Methods to obtain OH total densities from SABER measurements have yet to be developed. Recent studies, however, have discovered a new energy transfer mechanism which influences both OH and CO2 infrared emissions, OH(v) → O(1D) → N2( v) → CO2(v3). This study focuses on the impact of this new mechanism on OH and CO2 infrared emissions

  11. Radio protocols for LTE and LTE-advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, SeungJune; Lee, YoungDae; Park, SungJun; Jung, SungHoon

    2012-01-01

    Provides a unique focus on radio protocols for LTE and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) Giving readers a valuable understanding of LTE radio protocols, this book covers LTE (Long-Term Evolution) Layer 2/3 radio protocols as well as new features including LTE-Advanced. It is divided into two sections to differentiate between the two technologies' characteristics. The authors systematically explain the design principles and functions of LTE radio protocols during the development of mobile handsets. The book also provides essential knowledge on the interaction between mobile networks a

  12. Non-LTE diagnositics of infrared radiation of Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, Artem; Rezac, Ladislav; Kutepov, Alexander; Vinatier, Sandrine; Rey, Michael; Nikitin, Andrew; Tyuterev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Yelle (1991) and Garcia-Comas et al, (2011) demonstrated the importance of accounting for the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) breakdown in the middle and upper atmosphere of Titan for the interpretation of infrared radiances measured at these heights. In this work, we make further advance in this field by: • updating the non-LTE model of CH4 emissions in Titan's atmosphere and including a new extended database of CH4 spectroscopic parameters • studying the non-LTE CH4 vibrational level populations and the impact of non-LTE on limb infrared emissions of various CH4 ro-vibrational bands including those at 7.6 and 3.3 µm • implementing our non-LTE model into the LTE-based retrieval algorithm applied by Vinatier et al., (2015) for processing the Cassini/CIRS spectra. We demonstrate that accounting for non-LTE leads to an increase in temperatures retrieved from CIRS 7.6 µm limb emissions spectra (˜10 K at 600 km altitude) and estimate how this affects the trace gas density retrieval. Finally, we discuss the effects of including a large number of weak one-quantum and combinational bands on the calculated daytime limb 3.3 µm emissions and the impact they may have on the CH4 density retrievals from the Cassini VIMS 3.3 µm limb emission observations.

  13. MIMO Technologies in 3GPP LTE and LTE-Advanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianzhong(Charlie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP has recently completed the specification of the Long Term Evolution (LTE standard. Majority of the world's operators and vendors are already committed to LTE deployments and developments, making LTE the market leader in the upcoming evolution to 4G wireless communication systems. Multiple input multiple output (MIMO technologies introduced in LTE such as spatial multiplexing, transmit diversity, and beamforming are key components for providing higher peak rate at a better system efficiency, which are essential for supporting future broadband data service over wireless links. Further extension of LTE MIMO technologies is being studied under the 3GPP study item "LTE-Advanced" to meet the requirement of IMT-Advanced set by International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R. In this paper, we introduce various MIMO technologies employed in LTE and provide a brief overview on the MIMO technologies currently discussed in the LTE-Advanced forum.

  14. NEON VISUALIZATION ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    being able to present unique, separate views of that data. The Neon server is written in Groovy (a Java VM language), but can be accessed by any tool...between MongoDB, Spark SQL, and Postgres. The results from a single machine showed that MySQL and PostgreSQL took 5-15 seconds for aggregation queries

  15. 4G LTE/LTE-advanced for mobile broadband

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlman, Erik; Skold, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This book reflects the ongoing success of LTE throughout the world and focuses on LTE with full updates including LTE-Advanced (Release 11) to provide a complete picture of the LTE system. Overviews and detailed explanations are given for the latest LTE standards for radio interface architecture, the physical layer, access procedures, broadcast, relaying, spectrum and RF characteristics, and system performance. Key technologies presented include multi-carrier transmission, advanced single-carrier transmission, advanced receivers, OFDM, MIMO and adaptive antenna solutions, advanced radio res

  16. LTE-verkon mittaus

    OpenAIRE

    Summanen, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Tämän insinöörityön tarkoituksena oli esitellä LTE-verkon rakennetta ja radiorajapinnassa käytettäviä parametreja, sekä suorittaa muutamia nopeusmittauksia verkossa. Parametrien mittaukseen käytettiin Ascomin TEMS Investigation -ohjelmiston versiota 14.4. Nopeustestit puolestaan suoritettiin matkapuhelimeen asennetun Ookla speedtest sovelluksen avulla. Työssä käydään läpi LTE-verkon arkkitehtuuria ja siinä sijaitsevia elementtejä, sekä esitellään radiotien standardoinnissa valittuja tekn...

  17. LTE for public safety

    CERN Document Server

    Liebhart, Rainer; Wong, Curt; Merkel , Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the book is to educate government agencies, operators, vendors and other regulatory institutions how LTE can be deployed to serve public safety market and offer regulatory / public safety features. It is written in such a way that it can be understood by both technical and non-technical personnel with just introductory knowledge in wireless communication. Some sections and chapters about public safety services offered by LTE network are intended to be understood by anyone with no knowledge in wireless communication.

  18. Neon soft x-ray emission studies from the UNU-ICTP plasma focus operated with longer than optimal anode length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, M A; Verma, R; Sobhanian, S; Wong, C S; Lee, S; Springham, S V; Tan, T L; Lee, P; Rawat, R S

    2007-01-01

    The UNU-ICTP plasma focus with a significantly longer than conventional anode can still be a reasonably good neon soft x-ray (SXR) source. The highest average neon SXR yield of 3.3 J was achieved at 3 mbar. The time difference between the two first peaks of the voltage probe signal at the radial collapse phase was found to be inversely related to the SXR yield, i.e. the smaller the time difference, the higher the yield and vice versa. The estimation of average current sheath speeds using the shadowgraphic method coupled with laser and focus peak timing signals showed that the average axial rundown speed is similar to the one obtained for the optimal anode length but the average radial compression speed is decreased significantly. The range of pressure for a good neon SXR yield, however, has become much narrower, making efficient plasma focus operation a very sensitive function of the filling gas pressure for longer than the optimal anode length

  19. Some non-LTE diagnostic methods for hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Cho, K.Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper shows that if electric and magnetic fields are not negligible, then the 2-T model assumed by many non-LTE plasma diagnostic techniques may lead to serious errors. Significant difference between T e and T ex have been shown to exist with electric field strengths as low as ∼10 V/cm. Multithermal equilibrium (MTE) calculations show significant deviations in line emission coefficients when T e ≠ T ex compared to equivalent T e ≠ T q . A quasi non-dimentional MTE continuum relation is present to assist in diagnostics. Normalized line emission coefficients verses N e are used to indicate the type and extent of non-LTE. The MTE state diagram for hydrogen is used to show why non-LTE plasmas often appear to be in LTE based on N e determinations

  20. National evaluation of Naesudden 2, NEON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunell, G. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Andersson, Anders; Olsson, Goeran [Vattenfall AB, Klintehamn (Sweden); Ronsten, G. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Goeransson, Bengt [Kvaerner Turbin AB, Kristinehamn (Sweden); Simonsson, B. [KM Akustikbyraan, Solna (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Vattenfall, the main electric utility in Sweden, is operating the Naesudden II turbine (3 MW, diam. 80 m) which was erected in October 1992 on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea. An evaluation program (National Evaluation of Naesudden II, NEON) is carried out by Vattenfall in co-operation with FFA, Teknikgruppen, Kvaerner Turbin and others. This paper presents results from the evaluation of power production, availability, power performance, structural behaviour, sub-system performance, and noise emission. Comparisons with the `sister` machine Aeolus II in Wilhelmshaven, Germany, are carried out in a research program CAN (Comparison Aeolus II - Naesudden II) within WEGA II. 7 refs, 14 figs, 4 tabs

  1. LTE UE Power Consumption Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Riis; Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    is based on a review of the major power consuming parts in an LTE UE radio modem. The model includes functions of UL and DL power and data rate. Measurements on a commercial LTE USB dongle were used to assign realistic power consumption values to each model parameter. Verification measurements......In this work a novel LTE user equipment (UE) power consumption model is presented. It was developed for LTE system level optimization, because it is important to understand how network settings like scheduling of resources and transmit power control affect the UE’s battery life. The proposed model...... on the dongle show that the model results in an average error of 2.6%. The measurements show that UL transmit power and DL data rate determines the overall power consumption, while UL data rate and DL receive power have smaller impact....

  2. Electron temperature determination in LTE and non-LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    This article discusses how most experimental investigations assume a type of ''thermal equilibrium'' in which the excited levels are assumed to be populated according to the electron kinetic temperature, in the determination of electron temperature in LTE and non-LTE plasmas. This is justified on the basis that electron collisions dominate the equilibration of adjacent excited levels as shown by Byron, Stabler and Boartz. The comparison of temperature values calculated by various common methods as a check for local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTDE) or local thermal equilibrium (LTE) of the upper excited levels and the free electrons has been shown to indicate the excitation temperature in all cases utilized. Thomas shows that the source function of the first excited level may be dominated by non-local radiation, which would usually result in a different population than local collisional excitation would provide. Ionization from upper levels is by collisional means. The result may yield different valued excitation and electron temperatures

  3. Diagnostics of red-shifted H-alpha line emission from a C-class flare with full non-LTE radiative and hydrodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druett, M. K.; Zharkova, V. V.; Scullion, E.; Zharkov, S.; Matthews, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    We analyse H-alpha line profiles with strong redshifts during the C1.8 flare on 1st July 2012 obtained from the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) closely resembling the previous observations (Wuelser and Marti, 1989). The flare has a magnetic field configuration with two levels of loop structures. The kernels with red shifts are observed in one of the H-alpha ribbons in the south-west location formed after the main impulse recorded in the north-east. The locations of H-alpha kernels with red shifts reveal close temporal and spatial correlation with weaker HXR signatures and coincide with the locations of coronal jets observed with AIA/SDO. For interpretation we apply a revised 1D hydrodynamic and non-LTE (NLTE) radiative model for 5 level plus continuum model hydrogen atom (Druett & Zharkova, 2016) considering radiative, thermal and non-thermal excitation and ionisation by beam electrons with the updated beam densities (Zharkova & Dobranskis, 2016) and analytical excitation/ionisation rates (Zharkova& Kobylinskijj, 1993). We find the simultaneous solutions of steady state and radiative transfer equations in all optically-thick lines and continua. The electron and ion temperatures, ambient density and macrovelocity of the ambient plasma are derived from a 1D hydrodynamic model with initial condition of the pre-flaring photosphere for the two fluid ambient plasma heated by beam electrons (Zharkova & Zharkov, 2007). We simulate distributions over precipitation depth of ionisation and departure coefficients for all the hydrogen atom transitions including the deviation of ionisation from Saha equation affected by non-thermal electron beams. We show that in the very first seconds after the beam onset Balmer line profiles are sensitive to the effect of beam electrons. The combination of the additional ionisation caused by beam electrons leading to a very strong Stark effect in Balmer lines with the hydrodynamic heating and formation of a low temperature shock in the

  4. Single Carrier Transmission for UTRA LTE Uplink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priyanto, Basuki Endah; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, we have presented the key techniques for LTE uplink as well as presented the baseline performance. Radio access technology is the key aspect in LTE uplink and two radio access schemes, SC-FDMA and OFDMA, are studied. The performance results are obtained from a detailed UTRA LTE...

  5. An introduction to LTE LTE, LTE-advanced, SAE, VoLTE and 4G mobile communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Following on from the successful first edition (March 2012), this book gives a clear explanation of what LTE does and how it works. The content is expressed at a systems level, offering less technically experienced readers the opportunity to grasp the key factors which make LTE the hot topic amongst vendors and operators across the globe. Assuming no more than a basic knowledge of mobile telecommunication systems, the reader is not expected to already understand complex mathematical operations.  This second edition both updates and introduces new material for the current state of the industry

  6. Handoff mechanisms in LTE networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Preeti; Yamini, Vidhu; Mohammed, V. Noor

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we have analysed and studied the handoff mechanism in Long Term Evaluation (LTE) network. A LTE network has been defined with a set number of macro-cells, micro-cells and mobile devices. In this handoff mechanism distance and speed has been considered as an important parameters. The speed has been detected using the Gauss Markov Mobility Model, and from that distances have been predicted at different instances. In the handover process, Received Signal Power (RSP) for various users has been calculated with respect to base stations at various time intervals and the path loss between transmitter and receiver. A comparative study between path loss models is done in order to improve the signal power. A detailed study has been done on unnecessary handoff probability and handoff failure probability. Simulation results shows that there is an improvement in performance of the above mentioned parameters in the defined network.

  7. LTE-Advanced Relay Technology and Standardization

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Yifei

    2013-01-01

    LTE-Advanced Relay Technology and Standardization provides a timely reference work for relay technology with the finalizing of LTE Release 10 specifications. LTE-Advanced is quickly becoming the global standard for 4G cellular communications. The relay technology, as one of the key features in LTE-Advanced, helps not only to improve the system coverage and capacity, but also to save the costs of laying wireline backhaul. As a leading researcher in the field of LTE-Advanced standards, the author provides an in-depth description of LTE-A relay technology, and explains in detail the standard specification and design principles.     Readers from both academic and industrial fields can find sections of interest to them: Sections 2 & 4 could benefit researchers in academia and those who are engaged in exploratory work, while Sections 3 & 4 are more useful to engineers. Dr. Yifei Yuan is the Technical Director at the Standards Department of ZTE Inc.

  8. Small scale demand type neon liquefaction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, W.P.; Slifka, A.J.; Bitsy, R.M.; Sparks, L.L.; Johnson, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    Low-temperature measurement of the thermal conductivity of insulating materials is generally made using a boil-off calorimetry technique involving liquid hydrogen (LH2). Liquid neon (LNe) has nearly the same normal boiling point as LH2, but has a much larger heat of vaporization, allowing extended run times. The main drawback of using LNe has been its excessive cost; $170.00 versus $1.50/l for LH2 (1989 prices). A neon liquefaction plant has been designed and constructed to capture, purify, and refrigerate the neon boil-off from calorimetry experiments. Recycling the neon reduces operating costs to approximately $20/l. The system consists of a purification section, a heat exchanger, LNe and LH2 storage dewars, and a fully automated control system. After purification, neon is liquified in the heat exchanger by LH2 flowing countercurrently through stainless steel cooling coils. Hydrogen flow is automatically adjusted to keep the neon at its normal saturation temperature, 27 K. The liquid neon is then stored in a dewar placed directly below the heat exchanger

  9. LTE uplink scheduling - flow level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; van den Berg, J.L.; Heijenk, G.; Litjens, R.; Sacchi, Claudio; Bellalta, Boris; Vinel, Alexey; Schlegel, Christian; Granelli, Fabrizio; Zhang, Yan

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which is in charge of allocating resources to active flows in both the frequency and

  10. LTE uplink scheduling - Flow level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Berg, J.L. van den; Heijenk, G.; Litjens, R.

    2011-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which is in charge of allocating resources to active flows in both the frequency and

  11. NEON Citizen Science: Planning and Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S. J.; Henderson, S.; Gardiner, L. S.; Ward, D.; Gram, W.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be a national resource for ecological research and education. NEON citizen science projects are being designed to increase awareness and educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecological processes as well as expand NEON data collection capacity by enabling laypersons to collect geographically distributed data. The citizen science area of the NEON web portal will enable citizen scientists to collect, contribute, interpret, and visualize scientific data, as well as access training modules, collection protocols and targeted learning experiences related to citizen science project topics. For NEON, citizen science projects are a means for interested people to interact with and contribute to NEON science. Investigations at vast spatial and temporal scales often require rapid acquisition of large amounts of data from a geographically distributed population of "human sensors." As a continental-scale ecological observatory, NEON is uniquely positioned to develop strategies to effectively integrate data collected by non-scientists into scientific databases. Ultimately, we plan to work collaboratively to transform the practice of science to include "citizens" or non-scientists in the process. Doing science is not limited to scientists, and breaking down the barriers between scientists and citizens will help people better understand the power of using science in their own decision making. In preparation for fully developing the NEON citizen science program, we are partnering with Project BudBurst (PBB), a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology. The educational goals of PBB are to: (1) increase awareness of climate change, (2) educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change on plants and the environment, and (3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. Phenology was

  12. Flickering light a history of neon

    CERN Document Server

    Ribbat, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Without neon, Las Vegas might still be a sleepy desert town in Nevada and Times Square merely another busy intersection in New York City. Transformed by the installation of these brightly colored signs, these destinations are now world-famous, representing the vibrant heart of popular culture. But for some, neon lighting represents the worst of commercialism. Energized by the conflicting love and hatred people have for neon, Flickering Light explores its technological and intellectual history, from the discovery of the noble gas in late nineteenth-century London to its fading popul

  13. Opacity test using a neon-seeded theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission from a neon-seeded high-density theta-pinch has been observed for comparison with theoretical radiation emission calculations. The plasma was created in a 25-cm-long theta-coil with 90-kG field having a 3.0-μs quarter period. A gas fill of 1 torr of helium + 2% neon was used. Observation of the HeII 4686 line/continuum ratio gave an electron temperature of 25 +- 4 eV. Shadowgraphs of the plasma radius, taken with a ruby laser, gave an electron density of 0.9 +- 0.09 x 10 18 cm -3 . The VUV emission was observed in radial view and with time resolution with a 2.2-m grazing-incidence monochromator equipped with a photomultiplier and p-terphenyl scintillator. Thin foils of carbon and aluminum were used as filters to absorb stray light and pass emission in the 44- to 100-A region

  14. Solar helium and neon in the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, M.; Mcdougall, I.; Patterson, D. B.

    1994-01-01

    Neon isotopic compositions in mantle-derived samples commonly are enriched in (20)Ne and (21)Ne relative to (22)Ne compared with atmospheric neon ((20)Ne/(22)Ne and (21)Ne/(22)Ne ratios in atmospheric neon are 9.8 and 0.029, respectively), together with significant primordial (3)He. Such results have been obtained on MORB's, intraplate plume-related oceanic island basalts, backarc basin basalts, mantle xenoliths, ancient diamonds and CO2 well gases (e.g., 1 - 8). The highest (20)Ne/(22)Ne ratio observed in MORB glasses (= 13.6 plus or minus 1.3 is close to the solar value (= 13.6, as observed in solar wind). In order to explain the enrichment of (20)Ne and (21)Ne relative to atmospheric neon for samples derived from the mantle, it is necessary to postulate the presence of at least two distinct non-atmospheric components. The two most likely candidates are solar and nucleogenic ((20)Ne/(22)Ne solar = 13.6 (21)Ne/(22)Ne solar = 0.032, (20)Ne/(22)Ne nucleogenic = 2.5 and (21)Ne/(22)Ne nucleogenic = 32). This is because solar neon is the only known component with a (20)Ne/(22)Ne ratio greater than both the atmospheric value and that observed in samples derived from the mantle. Nucleogenic neon is well known to elevate (21)Ne/(22)Ne ratios. Neon isotopic signatures observed in mantle-derived samples can be accounted for by mixing of the three neon end members: solar, nucleogenic and atmospheric.

  15. NEON Citizen Science: Planning and Prototyping (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, W.

    2010-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be a national resource for ecological research and education. NEON citizen science projects are being designed to increase awareness and educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecological processes as well as expand NEON data collection capacity by enabling laypersons to collect geographically distributed data. The citizen science area of the NEON web portal will enable citizen scientists to collect, contribute, interpret, and visualize scientific data, as well as access training modules, collection protocols and targeted learning experiences related to citizen science project topics. For NEON, citizen science projects are a means for interested people to interact with and contribute to NEON science. Investigations at vast spatial and temporal scales often require rapid acquisition of large amounts of data from a geographically distributed population of “human sensors.” As a continental-scale ecological observatory, NEON is uniquely positioned to develop strategies to effectively integrate data collected by non-scientists into scientific databases. Ultimately, we plan to work collaboratively to transform the practice of science to include “citizens” or non-scientists in the process. Doing science is not limited to scientists, and breaking down the barriers between scientists and citizens will help people better understand the power of using science in their own decision making. In preparation for fully developing the NEON citizen science program, we are partnering with Project BudBurst (PBB), a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology. The educational goals of PBB are to: (1) increase awareness of climate change, (2) educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change on plants and the environment, and (3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process

  16. LTE-Advanced/WLAN testbed

    OpenAIRE

    Plaisner, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Táto práca sa zaoberá skúmaním a vyhodnocovaním komunikácie štandardov LTE-Advance a WiFi (IEEE 802.11n/ac). Pri jednotlivých štandardoch je preskúmaný chybový parameter EVM. Pre prácu s jednotlivými štandardmi je navrhnuté univerzálne pracovisko (testbed). Toto univerzálne pracovisko slúži na nastavovanie vysielacieho a prijímacieho zariadenia a na spracovávanie prenášaných signálov a ich vyhodnocovanie. Pre túto prácu je vybrané prostredie Matlab, cez ktoré sa ovládajú použité prístroje ako...

  17. Non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres of hot stars. 2: Hot, metal-rich white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, T.; Hubeny, I.

    1995-01-01

    We present several model atmospheres for a typical hot metal-rich DA white dwarf, T(sub eff) = 60,000 K, log g = 7.5. We consider pure hydrogen models, as well as models with various abundances of two typical 'trace' elements-carbon and iron. We calculte a number of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE models, taking into account the effect of numerous lines of these elements on the atmospheric structure. We demostrate that while the non-LTE effects are notvery significant for pure hydrogen models, except for describing correctly the central emission in H-alpha they are essential for predicting correctly the ionization balance of metals, such as carbon and iron. Previously reported discrepancies in LTE abundances determinations using C III and C IV lines are easily explained by non-LTE effects. We show that if the iron abundance is larger than 10(exp -5), the iron line opacity has to be considered not only for the spectrum synthesis, but also in the model construction itself. For such metal abundances, non-LTE metal line-blanketed models are needed for detailed abundance studies of hot, metal-rich white dwarfs. We also discuss the predicted Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum and show that it is very sensitive to metal abundances, as well as to non-LTE effects.

  18. Estudio comparativo entre redes LTE Advanced y LTE a nivel de CORE.

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Contreras, David Oswaldo

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo de titulación contiene un estudio y análisis de las tecnologías LTE y LTE -Advanced a nivel de CORE de voz. Mediante la metodología de investigación descriptiva, se expondrán profundamente las principales características tecnológicas de las redes LTE y LTE Advanced, haciendo un enfoque hacia la arquitectura del CORE de voz y sus principales procesos para la administración de la movilidad, llamadas originadas y llamadas terminadas. Se detallará paso a paso ...

  19. Transition rate diagrams and excitation of titanium in a glow discharge in argon and neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Zdeněk; Steers, Edward B. M.; Pickering, Juliet C.

    2018-06-01

    Emission spectra of titanium in a Grimm-type glow discharge in argon and neon were studied using the formalism of transition rate diagrams. Ti I spectra in argon and neon discharges are similar, without signs of selective excitation, and populations of Ti I levels exhibit a decreasing trend as function of energy, except for some scatter. A major excitation process of Ti II in argon discharge is charge transfer from argon ions to neutral titanium. In neon discharge, a strong selective excitation was observed of Ti II levels at ≈13.3-13.4 eV relative to the Ti I ground state. It was attributed to charge transfer from doubly charged titanium ions to neutral titanium, while the Ti++ ions are produced by charge transfer and ionization of neutral titanium by neon ions. Cascade excitation is important for Ti II levels up to an energy of ≈13 eV relative to the Ti I ground state, both in argon and neon discharges.

  20. A strategy to sample nutrient dynamics across the terrestrial-aquatic interface at NEON sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, E. S.; Goodman, K. J.; Roehm, C. L.; Meier, C. L.; Luo, H.; Ayres, E.; Parnell, J.; Krause, K.; Fox, A. M.; SanClements, M.; Fitzgerald, M.; Barnett, D.; Loescher, H. W.; Schimel, D.

    2012-12-01

    The construction of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) across the U.S. creates the opportunity for researchers to investigate biogeochemical transformations and transfers across ecosystems at local-to-continental scales. Here, we examine a subset of NEON sites where atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic observations will be collected for 30 years. These sites are located across a range of hydrological regimes, including flashy rain-driven, shallow sub-surface (perched, pipe-flow, etc), and deep groundwater, which likely affect the chemical forms and quantities of reactive elements that are retained and/or mobilized across landscapes. We present a novel spatial and temporal sampling design that enables researchers to evaluate long-term trends in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus biogeochemical cycles under these different hydrological regimes. This design focuses on inputs to the terrestrial system (atmospheric deposition, bulk precipitation), transfers (soil-water and groundwater sources/chemistry), and outputs (surface water, and evapotranspiration). We discuss both data that will be collected as part of the current NEON design, as well as how the research community can supplement the NEON design through collaborative efforts, such as providing additional datasets, including soil biogeochemical processes and trace gas emissions, and developing collaborative research networks. Current engagement with the research community working at the terrestrial-aquatic interface is critical to NEON's success as we begin construction, to ensure that high-quality, standardized and useful data are not only made available, but inspire further, cutting-edge research.

  1. Handover Framework for Relay Enhanced LTE Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Van Phan, Vinh; Raaf, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Relaying is one of the proposed technologies for future releases of UTRAN Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. Introducing relaying is expected to increase the coverage and capacity of LTE networks. In order to enable relaying, the architecture, protocol and radio resource management procedures...... of LTE, such as handover, have to be modified. A user can be handed over not only between two base stations, but also between relays and base stations, and between two relays. With the introduction of relaying, there is a need for a new procedure to hand over a relay and all its associated users...... to another base station, allowing a flexible and dynamic relay deployment. In this paper, we extend the LTE release 8 handover mechanisms so that it can accommodate these new handover functionalities in a flexible manner....

  2. Configuration interaction in LTE spectra of heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.

    1992-11-01

    We present a method for including the effects of configuration interaction (CI) between relativistic subconfigurations of an electron configuration in the calculation of emission and absorption spectra of plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Analytical expressions for the correction to the intensities, owing to Cl, of an unresolved transition array (UTA) and of a supertransition array (STA) are obtained when the correction is small compared to the spin-orbit splitting, bypassing the need to diagonalize energy matrices. These expressions serve as working formulas in the STA model and, in addition, reveal a priori the conditions under which CI effects are significant. Examples of the effect are presented

  3. New computational method for non-LTE, the linear response matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, K.B.; Grasiani, F.R.; Harte, J.A.; Libby, S.B.; More, R.M.; Zimmerman, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    My coauthors have done extensive theoretical and computational calculations that lay the ground work for a linear response matrix method to calculate non-LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) opacities. I will give briefly review some of their work and list references. Then I will describe what has been done to utilize this theory to create a computational package to rapidly calculate mild non-LTE emission and absorption opacities suitable for use in hydrodynamic calculations. The opacities are obtained by performing table look-ups on data that has been generated with a non-LTE package. This scheme is currently under development. We can see that it offers a significant computational speed advantage. It is suitable for mild non-LTE, quasi-steady conditions. And it offers a new insertion path for high-quality non-LTE data. Currently, the linear response matrix data file is created using XSN. These data files could be generated by more detailed and rigorous calculations without changing any part of the implementation in the hydro code. The scheme is running in Lasnex and is being tested and developed

  4. The First NEON School in La Silla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennefeld, M.; Melo, C.; Selman, F.

    2016-06-01

    The NEON Observing Schools have long provided PhD students with practical experience in the preparation, execution and reduction of astronomical observations, primarily at northern observatories. The NEON School was held in Chile for the first time, with observations being conducted at La Silla. The school was attended by 20 students, all from South America, and observations were performed with two telescopes, including the New Technology Telescope. A brief description of the school is presented and the observing projects and their results are described.

  5. Method for traceable measurement of LTE signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder Dash, Soumya; Pythoud, Frederic; Leuchtmann, Pascal; Leuthold, Juerg

    2018-04-01

    This contribution presents a reference setup to measure the power of the cell-specific resource elements present in downlink long term evolution (LTE) signals in a way that the measurements are traceable to the international system of units. This setup can be used to calibrate the LTE code-selective field probes that are used to measure the radiation of base stations for mobile telephony. It can also be used to calibrate LTE signal generators and receivers. The method is based on traceable scope measurements performed directly at the output of a measuring antenna. It implements offline digital signal processing demodulation algorithms that consider the digital down-conversion, timing synchronization, frequency synchronization, phase synchronization and robust LTE cell identification to produce the downlink time-frequency LTE grid. Experimental results on conducted test scenarios, both single-input-single-output and multiple-input-multiple-output antenna configuration, show promising results confirming measurement uncertainties of the order of 0.05 dB with a coverage factor of 2.

  6. Resilience of LTE networks against smart jamming attacks

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan M.; Shamma, Jeff S.; Stuber, Gordon L.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial LTE networks are being studied for mission-critical applications, such as public safety and smart grid communications. In this paper, LTE networks are shown vulnerable to Denial-of-Service (DOS) and loss of service attacks from smart

  7. Silicon compounds of neon and argon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roithová, J.; Schröder, Detlef

    -, č. 46 (2009), s. 8788-8790 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1223 Grant - others: ERC (XE) Adg HORIZOMS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : argon * bond formation * dications * neon Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 11.829, year: 2009

  8. VoLTE performance in railway scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  9. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R.I.; Stein, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations from LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient b is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section αsub(ν) grows with frequency ν faster than ν 2 ; b exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of αsub(ν). Overpopulation (b > 1) always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature. (author)

  10. Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.

  11. System Level Analysis of LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye

    This PhD thesis focuses on system level analysis of Multi-Component Carrier (CC) management for Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced. Cases where multiple CCs are aggregated to form a larger bandwidth are studied. The analysis is performed for both local area and wide area networks. In local area...... reduction. Compared to the case of reuse-1, they achieve a gain of 50∼500% in cell edge user throughput, with small or no loss in average cell throughput. For the wide area network, effort is devoted to the downlink of LTE-Advanced. Such a system is assumed to be backwards compatible to LTE release 8, i...... scheme is recommended. It reduces the CQI by 94% at low load, and 79∼93% at medium to high load, with reasonable loss in downlink performance. To reduce the ACK/NACK feedback, multiple ACK/NACKs can be bundled, with slightly degraded downlink throughput....

  12. Improved non-LTE simulation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Michel; Klapisch, Marcel; Colombant, Denis; Fyfe, David; Gardner, John

    2008-11-01

    The RAdiation Dependent Ionization Model (RADIOM)- a.k.a Busquet's model-[1] has proven its success in simulating non --LTE effects in laser fusion plasmas [2]. This improved algorithm can take into account Auger effect by a new parameter fitted to SCROLL [3] results. It is independent of the photon binning thanks to a projection on a standard grid. It guarantees smoother convergence to LTE. This algorithm has been implemented in a new way in the hydro-code FASTnD. Hydro simulations on the recent subMJ targets[4], with and without non-LTE corrections will be shown. [1] M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4191(1993). [2] D.G. Colombant et al, Phys. Plas. 7,2046 (2000). [3] A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg M. Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Transf. 65 ,43 (2000). [4] S. P. Obenschain, D. G. Colombant, A. J. Schmitt et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056320 (2006).

  13. VoLTE Performance in Railway Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  14. Mobility management in LTE heterogeneous networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karandikar, Abhay; Mehta, Mahima

    2017-01-01

    This book is the first of its kind, compiling information on the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) standards, which are enhanced to address new mobility-related challenges in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). It identifies the related challenges and discusses solutions and the simulation methodology for modeling HetNet mobility – cutting-edge information that was previously accessible only in the form of 3GPP specifications and documents, and research papers. The book reviews the current LTE mobility framework and discusses some of the changes for enhancing mobility management in HetNets. It describes the measurement procedures, handover (HO) mechanisms and HO success/failure scenarios. HetNets are intended to provide very high spectral efficiency while ensuring seamless coverage by deploying low-power nodes within the umbrella macrocell network. While mobility management in homogeneous networks is well understood, LTE standards are being enhanced to address the HetNet-specific mobility management challenges emergi...

  15. Wi-Fi Coexistence with Duty Cycled LTE-U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of Wi-Fi and LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U technologies has drawn significant concern in industry. In this paper, we investigate the Wi-Fi performance in the presence of duty cycle based LTE-U transmission on the same channel. More specifically, one LTE-U cell and one Wi-Fi basic service set (BSS coexist by allowing LTE-U devices to transmit their signals only in predetermined duty cycles. Wi-Fi stations, on the other hand, simply contend the shared channel using the distributed coordination function (DCF protocol without cooperation with the LTE-U system or prior knowledge about the duty cycle period or duty cycle of LTE-U transmission. We define the fairness of the above scheme as the difference between Wi-Fi performance loss ratio (considering a defined reference performance and the LTE-U duty cycle (or function of LTE-U duty cycle. Depending on the interference to noise ratio (INR being above or below −62 dbm, we classify the LTE-U interference as strong or weak and establish mathematical models accordingly. The average throughput and average service time of Wi-Fi are both formulated as functions of Wi-Fi and LTE-U system parameters using probability theory. Lastly, we use the Monte Carlo analysis to demonstrate the fairness of Wi-Fi and LTE-U air time sharing.

  16. Non LTE Effects in Laser Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel

    1997-11-01

    Laser produced plasmas are not in Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium(LTE) because of the strong gradients and the escaping radiation. Departure from LTE changes the average charge state Z^*, and through it the electron temperature and other thermodynamical variables. Hydrodynamic simulations using LTE and non LTE modes show that in some cases the temperatures can change by an order of magnitude. Several rad/hydro models have solved the approximate atomic rate equations in-line within the average atom model(W. A. Lokke and W. H. Grasburger, LLNL, Report UCRL-52276 (1977),G. Pollack, LANL, Report LA-UR-90-2423 (1990)), or with global rates(M. Busquet, J. P. Raucourt and J. C. Gauthier, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 54, 81 (1995)). A new technique developed by Busquet, the Radiation Dependent Ionization Model (RADIOM)(M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993)) has been implemented in the NRL hydro-code. It uses an ionization temperature Tz to obtain the opacities and EOS in table look-ups. A very elaborate LTE atomic physics such as the STA code( A. Bar-Shalom and J. Oreg, Phys. Rev. E, 54, 1850 (1996), and ref. therein), or OPAL, can then be used off-line for generating the tables. The algorithm for Tz is very simple and quick. RADIOM has recently been benchmarked with a new detailed collisional radiative model SCROLL(A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg and M. Klapisch, Phys. Rev. E, to appear in July (1997)) on a range of temperatures, densities and atomic numbers. RADIOM has been surprisingly successful in calculations of non-LTE opacities.

  17. Resource allocation using ANN in LTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Tuncay; Ersoy, Mevlut

    2017-07-01

    LTE is the 4th generation wireless network technology, which provides flexible bandwidth, higher data speeds and lower delay. Difficulties may be experienced upon an increase in the number of users in LTE. The objective of this study is to ensure a faster solution to any such resource allocation problems which might arise upon an increase in the number of users. A fast and effective solution has been obtained by making use of Artificial Neural Network. As a result, fast working artificial intelligence methods may be used in resource allocation problems during operation.

  18. ASA's Chandra Neon Discovery Solves Solar Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory survey of nearby sun-like stars suggests there is nearly three times more neon in the sun and local universe than previously believed. If true, this would solve a critical problem with understanding how the sun works. "We use the sun to test how well we understand stars and, to some extent, the rest of the universe," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "But in order to understand the sun, we need to know exactly what it is made of," he added. It is not well known how much neon the sun contains. This is critical information for creating theoretical models of the sun. Neon atoms, along with carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, play an important role in how quickly energy flows from nuclear reactions in the sun's core to its edge, where it then radiates into space. Chandra X-ray Spectrum of II Pegasi Chandra X-ray Spectrum of II Pegasi The rate of this energy flow determines the location and size of a crucial stellar region called the convection zone. The zone extends from near the sun's surface inward approximately 125,000 miles. The zone is where the gas undergoes a rolling, convective motion much like the unstable air in a thunderstorm. "This turbulent gas has an extremely important job, because nearly all of the energy emitted at the surface of the sun is transported there by convection," Drake said. The accepted amount of neon in the sun has led to a paradox. The predicted location and size of the solar convection zone disagree with those deduced from solar oscillations. Solar oscillations is a technique astronomers previously relied on to probe the sun's interior. Several scientists have noted the problem could be fixed if the abundance of neon is in fact about three times larger than currently accepted. Attempts to measure the precise amount of neon in the Sun have been frustrated by a quirk of nature; neon atoms in the Sun give off no signatures in visible light. However, in a gas

  19. Soft X-ray spectroscopic investigation of a plasma focus operated in pure neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presura, R.; Zoita, V.; Paraschiv, I.

    1996-01-01

    The soft X-ray emission of the medium-energy plasma focus device IPF-2/20 operated in pure neon was studied with spectral resolution. The spectra of H- and He-like Ne ions were recorded by means of a de Broglie spectrograph for initial filling pressures in the range 1.3 to 7 torr. Both the soft X-ray emission characteristics and the plasma parameters are strongly dependent on the working gas pressure. The intensity of the He-like neon ions lines increases when the working gas pressure is raised, while for the H-like ions it has a maximum for about 5 torr filling. The electron density has values of the order of 10 20 cm -3 . The electron temperature ranges between 300 and 350 eV. Both the plasma density and the plasma temperature decrease when the initial gas pressure is increased. (author). 2 figs., 9 refs

  20. Soft X-ray spectroscopic investigation of a plasma focus operated in pure neon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presura, R; Zoita, V; Paraschiv, I [Inst. of Physics and Technology of Radiation Devices, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The soft X-ray emission of the medium-energy plasma focus device IPF-2/20 operated in pure neon was studied with spectral resolution. The spectra of H- and He-like Ne ions were recorded by means of a de Broglie spectrograph for initial filling pressures in the range 1.3 to 7 torr. Both the soft X-ray emission characteristics and the plasma parameters are strongly dependent on the working gas pressure. The intensity of the He-like neon ions lines increases when the working gas pressure is raised, while for the H-like ions it has a maximum for about 5 torr filling. The electron density has values of the order of 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The electron temperature ranges between 300 and 350 eV. Both the plasma density and the plasma temperature decrease when the initial gas pressure is increased. (author). 2 figs., 9 refs.

  1. 'LTE-diffusion approximation' for arc calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowke, J J; Tanaka, M

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of the 'LTE-diffusion approximation' for predicting the properties of electric arcs. Under this approximation, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is assumed, with a particular mesh size near the electrodes chosen to be equal to the 'diffusion length', based on D e /W, where D e is the electron diffusion coefficient and W is the electron drift velocity. This approximation overcomes the problem that the equilibrium electrical conductivity in the arc near the electrodes is almost zero, which makes accurate calculations using LTE impossible in the limit of small mesh size, as then voltages would tend towards infinity. Use of the LTE-diffusion approximation for a 200 A arc with a thermionic cathode gives predictions of total arc voltage, electrode temperatures, arc temperatures and radial profiles of heat flux density and current density at the anode that are in approximate agreement with more accurate calculations which include an account of the diffusion of electric charges to the electrodes, and also with experimental results. Calculations, which include diffusion of charges, agree with experimental results of current and heat flux density as a function of radius if the Milne boundary condition is used at the anode surface rather than imposing zero charge density at the anode

  2. Correlation Evaluation on Small LTE Handsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of the first MIMO handset on the market. It investigates the correlation coefficient computed from coaxial cable measurements and from optical fiber measurements. The results are compared and discussed. The question of the actual feasibility of low correlation...... for the LTE-700 band in small terminals is raised....

  3. Kesiapan Operator Seluler dalam Mengimplementasikan Teknologi Long Term Evolution (LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ariyanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar kesiapan operator seluler dalam mengimplementasikan teknologi Long Term Evolution (LTE. Model penelitian dengan menggunakan mengadopsi teknik Net Readiness Framwork. Adapun kriteria pengukurannya terdiri dari Leadership, Governance, Competencies dan Technology. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menyebarkan kuesioner kepada operator seluler di Indonesia dan melakukan wawancara kepada regulator. Kajian ini menggunakan teknik analisis data kuantitatif deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa PT. Axis, PT. HCPT dan PT. Telkomsel mempunyai tingkat kesiapan LTE Visionary yang berarti perusahaan sangat antusias dalam perubahan dan lebih dahulu mengambil resiko untuk mengimplementasikan LTE dalam organisasinya yang merupakan bagian yang tak terpisahkan proses bisnis perusahaan. PT. Indosat dan PT. XL mempunyai nilai kesiapan LTE leader  yang berarti perusahaan mampu mengadaptasi perubahan dan menginspirasi organsiasi lain dalam penerapan LTE. PT. Smartfren pada tingkat kesiapan LTE savvy yang berarti operator seluler memahami sebab dan efek dari perubahan dari munculnya LTE terhadap organisasi, namun belum melakukan adaptasi.

  4. Backward particle production in neutrino neon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsinos, E.; Simopoulou, E.; Giannakopoulos, N.; Vayaki, A.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Allport, P.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Sansum, R.A.; Berggren, M.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Coghen, T.; Jones, G.T.; O'Neale, S.O.; Varvell, K.; Marage, P.; Sacton, J.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Apeldoorn, G.W. van

    1989-01-01

    Backward proton and pion production is studied in ν and anti ν charged current interactions in neon. The results are compared with other experiments and theory. The complete backward proton data are compatible with protons produced by reinteractions in the nucleus. However in events with only one proton, muon variables appear correlated to those for the backward proton, as expected by the two-nucleon correlation model. (orig.)

  5. Non-LTE effects on the strength of the Lyman edge in quasar accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoerzer, H.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Allard, F.

    1994-01-01

    We have calculated UV/EUV (300 A which is less than or equal to lambda which is less than or equal to 1500 A) continuous energy distributions of accretion disks in the centers of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for disk luminosities in the range 0.1 L(sub Edd) less than or equal to L(sub acc) less than 1.0 L(sub Edd) and central masses ranging from 10(exp 8) solar mass to 10(exp 9) solar mass. The vertical gas pressure structure of the disk and the disk height are obtained analytically; the temperature stratification and the resulting continuum radiation fields are calculated numerically. We have included non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) effects of both the ionization equilibrium and the level populations of hydrogen and helium. We show that these non-LTE effects reduce the strength of the Lyman edge when comapred to the LTE case. In non-LTE we find that the edge can be weakly in emission or absorption for disks seen face-on, depending on the disk parameters.

  6. Muon transfer from hot muonic hydrogen atoms to neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacot-Guillarmod, R.; Beer, G.A.; Knowles, P.E.; Mason, G.R.; Olin, A.; Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M.; Brewer, J.H.; Forster, B.M.; Huber, T.M.; Kammel, P.; Zmeskal, J.; Petitjean, C.

    1992-01-01

    A negative muon beam has been directed on adjacent solid layers of hydrogen and neon. Three targets differing by their deuterium concentration were investigated. Muonic hydrogen atoms can drift to the neon layer where the muon is immediately transferred. The time structure of the muonic neon X-rays follows the exponential law with a disappearance rate corresponding to the one of μ -p atoms in each target. The rates λ ppμ and λ pd can be extracted

  7. The neon gas field ion source-a first characterization of neon nanomachining properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livengood, Richard H.; Tan, Shida; Hallstein, Roy; Notte, John; McVey, Shawn; Faridur Rahman, F.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    At the Charged Particle Optics Conference (CPO7) in 2006, a novel trimer based helium gas field ion source (GFIS) was introduced for use in a new helium ion microscope (HIM), demonstrating the novel source performance attributes and unique imaging applications of the HIM (Hill et al., 2008 ; Livengood et al., 2008 ). Since that time there have been numerous enhancements to the HIM source and platform demonstrating resolution scaling into the sub 0.5 nm regime (Scipioni et al., 2009 ; Pickard et al., 2010 ). At this Charged Particle Optics Conference (CPO8) we will be introducing a neon version of the trimer-GFIS co-developed by Carl Zeiss SMT and Intel Corporation. The neon source was developed as a possible supplement to the gallium liquid metal ion source (LMIS) used today in most focused ion beam (FIB) systems (Abramo et al., 1994 ; Young et al.,1998 ). The neon GFIS source has low energy spread (∼1 eV) and a small virtual source size (sub-nanometer), similar to that of the helium GFIS. However neon does differ from the helium GFIS in two significant ways: neon ions have high sputtering yields (e.g. 1 Si atom per incident ion at 20 keV); and have relatively shallow implant depth (e.g. 46 nm in silicon at 20 keV). Both of these are limiting factors for helium in many nanomachining applications. In this paper we will present both simulation and experimental results of the neon GFIS used for imaging and nanomachining applications.

  8. Coexistence of 3G repeaters with LTE base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Hwang, Gyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Repeaters have been an attractive solution for mobile operators to upgrade their wireless networks at low cost and to extend network coverage effectively. Since the first LTE commercial deployment in 2009, many mobile operators have launched LTE networks by upgrading their 3G and legacy networks. Because all 3G frequency bands are shared with the frequency bands for LTE deployment and 3G mobile operators have an enormous number of repeaters, reusing 3G repeaters in LTE networks is definitely a practical and cost-efficient solution. However, 3G repeaters usually do not support spatial multiplexing with multiple antennas, and thus it is difficult to reuse them directly in LTE networks. In order to support spatial multiplexing of LTE, the role of 3G repeaters should be replaced with small LTE base stations or MIMO-capable repeaters. In this paper, a repeater network is proposed to reuse 3G repeaters in LTE deployment while still supporting multilayer transmission of LTE. Interestingly, the proposed network has a higher cluster throughput than an LTE network with MIMO-capable repeaters.

  9. Numerical Study of Radiation Emissions from the Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akel, M.; Salo, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ion populations of studied plasma have been calculated versus electron temperatures. The expected emission spectra (full, Bremsstrahlung, recombination, and line) of plasma focus operated with different gases (nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon) have been studied for different conditions using POPULATE, SPECTRA, XRAYFIL and FLYCHK codes for non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model (NLTE). The suitable electron temperatures ranges for soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions from plasma focus have been investigated. The Ratio- BPX65.F code has been written in FORTRAN 77 for studying the soft X-ray emission of plasma focus using BPX65 PIN Diode X-ray Spectrometer technique. The X-ray ratio curves for various electron temperatures with probable electron and ion densities of the studied plasma produced have been computed with the assumption of non-LTE model for the distribution of the ionic species. The calculated X-ray ratio curves have been compared with experimental results for the argon plasma focus. These ratio curves could be used for electron temperatures deduction of plasma focus (author).

  10. Committee report on visual appearance of neon lights. Neon no hikari no miekata ni kansuru tokubetsu kenkyu iinkai hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kansaku, H. (Chukyo University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Letters)

    1991-04-25

    Were summarized the results of experiments and literature searches, conducted by the Commettee on Visual Appearance of Neon Lights,'' which was set up to provide scientific and basic data for understanding of relationship between neon lights and psychological reaction of human, and for realizing of neon sign advertisements with playing a role as neon lights and without any environmental problems. Analytical results of influences of six colors, such as red, yellow, green, blue, violet, and white, brightnesses, and flickering frequencies to the psycological reaction of human on the direct observations of neon lights were described. Results of influences of the neon light incidence into the room to the psychology of residents were also introduced. Furthermore, evaluation of neon lights as an aspect was discussed. Consequently, based on the combination of activity and estimativity, some attentions to be payed on the setting-up of neon lights were pointed out. A red flickering neon light'' was given as clearly a bad example. 2 figs.

  11. Visualization of electromagnetic exposure near LTE antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvezdina, M. Yu; Shokova, Yu A.; Nazarova, O. Yu; Al-Ali, H. T. A.; Al-Farhan, G. H. A.

    2018-01-01

    Technical progress in wireless data transfer has given an opportunity to apply information and communication technologies in various areas of economics. Digital economy is linked to the 4th and 5th generation mobile network deployment. The peculiarities of the abovementioned standards decrease BTS antenna range three times in dense developed areas and worsen electromagnetic background in big cities. In the paper the comparative assessment results for rooftop electromagnetic exposure near BTS LTE and BTS GSM antennae are given. It is shown, that at the same level of transmitter power, energy flux density for LTE standard is three times less than the one for GSM. Moreover, the conclusion is made that the rooftop could be considered safe for people for indefinite time if antenna is placed more than 5 meters above the rooftop. The value of antenna height is taken to be on the safe side, as it is required by an application of “preventive principle”.

  12. Size-density relations in dark clouds: Non-LTE effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, P.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major goals of molecular astronomy has been to understand the physics and dynamics of dense interstellar clouds. Because the interpretation of observations of giant molecular clouds is complicated by their very complex structure and the dynamical effects of star formation, a number of studies have concentrated on dark clouds. Leung, Kutner and Mead (1982) (hereafter LKM) and Myers (1983), in studies of CO and NH 3 emission, concluded that dark clouds exhibit significant correlations between linewidth and cloud radius of the form delta v varies as R(0.5) and between mean density and radius of the form n varies as R(-1), as originally suggested by Larson (1981). This result suggests that these objects are in virial equilibrium. However, the mean densities inferred from the CO data of LKM are based on an local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of their 13CO data. At the very low mean densities inferred by LKM for the larger clouds in their samples, the assumption of LTE becomes very questionable. As most of the range in R in the density-size correlation comes from the clouds observed in CO, it seems worthwhile to examine how non-LTE effects will influence the derived densities. Microturbulent models of inhomogeneous clouds of varying central concentration with the linewidth-size and mean density-size relations found by Myers show sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO line in the larger clouds, with the result that LTE analysis considerbly underestimates the actual column density. A more general approach which doesn't require detailed modeling of the clouds is to consider whether the observed T/sub R/*(13CO)/T/sub R/*(12CO) ratios in the clouds studied by LKM are in the range where the LTE-derived optical depths be seriously in error due to sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO molecule

  13. Dynamic Relaying in 3GPP LTE-Advanced Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Phan Vinh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relaying is one of the proposed technologies for LTE-Advanced networks. In order to enable a flexible and reliable relaying support, the currently adopted architectural structure of LTE networks has to be modified. In this paper, we extend the LTE architecture to enable dynamic relaying, while maintaining backward compatibility with LTE Release 8 user equipments, and without limiting the flexibility and reliability expected from relaying. With dynamic relaying, relays can be associated with base stations on a need basis rather than in a fixed manner which is based only on initial radio planning. Proposals are also given on how to further improve a relay enhanced LTE network by enabling multiple interfaces between the relay nodes and their controlling base stations, which can possibly be based on technologies different from LTE, so that load balancing can be realized. This load balancing can be either between different base stations or even between different networks.

  14. Dynamic Relaying in 3GPP LTE-Advanced Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Van Phan, Vinh; Redana, Simone

    2009-01-01

    Relaying is one of the proposed technologies for LTE-Advanced networks. In order to enable a flexible and reliable relaying support, the currently adopted architectural structure of LTE networks has to be modified. In this paper, we extend the LTE architecture to enable dynamic relaying, while...... maintaining backward compatibility with LTE Release 8 user equipments, and without limiting the flexibility and reliability expected from relaying.With dynamic relaying, relays can be associated with base stations on a need basis rather than in a fixed manner which is based only on initial radio planning....... Proposals are also given on how to further improve a relay enhanced LTE network by enabling multiple interfaces between the relay nodes and their controlling base stations, which can possibly be based on technologies different from LTE, so that load balancing can be realized. This load balancing can...

  15. From LTE to 5G for Connected Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    been initiated. In this article, we measure how current LTE network implementations perform in comparison with the initial LTE requirements. The target is to identify certain key performance indicators that have suboptimal implementations and therefore lend themselves to careful consideration when...... time, and coverage of four operational LTE networks based on 19,000 km of drive tests covering a mixture of rural, suburban, and urban environments. The measurements have been collected using commercial radio network scanners and measurement smartphones. Even though LTE has low air interface delays......, the measurements reveal that core network delays compromise the overall round-trip time design requirement. LTE's breakbefore- make handover implementation causes a data interruption at each handover of 40 ms at the median level. While this is in compliance with the LTE requirements, and lower values are certainly...

  16. A Wireless Location System in LTE Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qi; Hu, Rongyi; Liu, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Personal location technologies are becoming important with the rapid development of Mobile Internet services. In traditional cellular networks, the key problems of user location technologies are high-precision synchronization among different base stations, inflexible processing resources, and low accuracy positioning, especially for indoor environment. In this paper, a new LTE location system in Centralized Radio Access Network (C-RAN) is proposed, which makes channel and location measurement...

  17. Novel Architecture for LTE World-Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    The 4th Generation of mobile communications (4G) came with new challenges on the antenna bandwidth and on the front-end architecture of mobile phones. This letter proposes a novel architecture overcoming these challenges. It includes narrow-band tunable antennas, co-designed with a tunable Front-......- End (FE). Simulations and measurements demonstrate the concept for low and high bands of the LTE frequency spectrum....

  18. LTE Adaptation for Mobile Broadband Satellite Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastia Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key factors for the successful deployment of mobile satellite systems in 4G networks is the maximization of the technology commonalities with the terrestrial systems. An effective way of achieving this objective consists in considering the terrestrial radio interface as the baseline for the satellite radio interface. Since the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE standard will be one of the main players in the 4G scenario, along with other emerging technologies, such as mobile WiMAX; this paper analyzes the possible applicability of the 3GPP LTE interface to satellite transmission, presenting several enabling techniques for this adaptation. In particular, we propose the introduction of an inter-TTI interleaving technique that exploits the existing H-ARQ facilities provided by the LTE physical layer, the use of PAPR reduction techniques to increase the resilience of the OFDM waveform to non linear distortion, and the design of the sequences for Random Access, taking into account the requirements deriving from the large round trip times. The outcomes of this analysis show that, with the required proposed enablers, it is possible to reuse the existing terrestrial air interface to transmit over the satellite link.

  19. Scheduling strategies for LTE uplink with flow behaviour analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Berg, J.L. van den; Litjens, R.; Heijenk, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology developed to support diversity of data traffic at potentially high rates. It is foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which is in charge of allocating resources to active flows in both the frequency and time dimension. In this paper we present a performance comparison of two distinct scheduling schemes for LTE uplink (fa...

  20. NEON terrestrial field observations: designing continental scale, standardized sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. H. Kao; C.M. Gibson; R. E. Gallery; C. L. Meier; D. T. Barnett; K. M. Docherty; K. K. Blevins; P. D. Travers; E. Azuaje; Y. P. Springer; K. M. Thibault; V. J. McKenzie; M. Keller; L. F. Alves; E. L. S. Hinckley; J. Parnell; D. Schimel

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in climate and land use and the resulting shifts in species distributions and ecosystem functions have motivated the development of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). Integrating across spatial scales from ground sampling to remote sensing, NEON will provide data for users to address ecological responses to changes in climate, land use,...

  1. Manufacturing cycle for pure neon-helium mixture production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batrakov, B.P.; Kravchenko, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The manufacturing cycle for pure neon-helium mixture production with JA-300 nitrogen air distributing device has been developed. Gas mixture containing 2-3% of neon-helium mixture (the rest is mainly nitrogen 96-97%) is selected out of the cover of the JA-300 column condensator and enters the deflegmator under the 2.3-2.5 atm. pressure. The diflegmator presents a heat exchange apparatus in which at 78 K liquid nitrogen the condensation of nitrogen from the mixture of gases entering from the JA-300 column takes place. The enriched gas mixture containing 65-70% of neon-helium mixture and 30-35% of nitrogen goes out from the deflegmator. This enriched neon-helium mixture enters the gasgoeder for impure (65-70%) neon-helium mixture. Full cleaning of-neon helium mixture of nitrogen is performed by means of an adsorber. As adsorbent an activated coal has been used. Adsorption occurs at the 78 K temperature of liquid nitrogen and pressure P=0.1 atm. As activated coal cooled down to nitrogen temperature adsorbs nitrogen better than neon and helium, the nitrogen from the mixture is completely adsorbed. Pure neon-helium mixture from the adsorber comes into a separate gasgolder. In one campaign the cycle allows obtaining 2 m 3 of the mixture. The mixture contains 0.14% of nitrogen, 0.01% of oxygen and 0.06% of hydrogen

  2. A non-LTE retrieval scheme for sounding the upper atmosphere of Mars in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; García-Comas, Maya; Funke, Bernd; Jimenez-Monferrer, Sergio; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Several instruments on board Mars Express have been sounding the upper atmosphere of Mars systematically in a limb geometry in the IR part of the spectrum. Two of them in particular, OMEGA and PFS, performed emission measurements during daytime and detected the strongest IR bands of species like CO2 and CO (Piccialli et al, JGRE, submitted). Similarly on Venus, the instrument VIRTIS carried out observations of CO2 and CO bands at 2.7, 4.3 and 4.7 um at high altitudes (Gilli et al, JGRE, 2009). All these daylight atmospheric emissions respond to fluorescent situations, a case of non-local thermodynamic equilibrum conditions (non-LTE), well understood nowadays using comprehensive non-LTE theoretical models and tools (Lopez-Valverde et al., Planet. Space Sci., 2011). However, extensive exploitation of these emissions has only been done in optically thin conditions to date (Gilli et al, Icarus, 2015) or in a broad range of altitudes if in nadir geometry (Peralta et al, Apj, 2015). Within the H2020 project UPWARDS we aim at performing retrievals under non-LTE conditions including optically thick cases, like those of the CO2 and CO strongest bands during daytime in the upper atmosphere of Mars. Similar effort will also be applied eventually to Venus. We will present the non-LTE scheme used for such retrievals, based on similar efforts performed recently in studies of the Earth's upper atmosphere using data from the MIPAS instrument, on board Envisat (Funke et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2009; Jurado-Navarro, PhD Thesis, Univ. Granada, 2015). Acknowledgemnt: This work is supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Programme under grant agreement UPWARDS-633127

  3. Towards a QoE-Driven Resource Control in LTE and LTE-A Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel architecture for providing quality of experience (QoE awareness to mobile operator networks. In particular, we describe a possible architecture for QoE-driven resource control for long-term evolution (LTE and LTE-advanced networks, including a selection of KPIs to be monitored in different network elements. We also provide a description and numerical results of the QoE evaluation process for different data services as well as potential use cases that would benefit from the rollout of the proposed framework.

  4. Liquid neon heat intercept for superconducting energy storage magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.; McIntosh, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Previous analyses of heat intercept solutions are extended to include both insulation and strut heat leaks. The impact of using storable, boiling cryogens for heat intercept fluids, specifically liquid neon and nitrogen, is also examined. The selection of fluid for the heat intercepts is described. Refrigeration power for 1000 and 5000 MWhr SMES units is shown with optimum refrigeration power for each quantity shown in tables. Nitrogen and Neon cooled intercept location for minimum total refrigeration power for a 5000 MWhr SMES are each shown, as well as the location of nitrogen and neon cooled intercepts for minimum total refrigeration power for 5000 MWhr SMES. Cost comparisons are itemized and neon cost and availability discussed. For a large energy storage magnet system, liquid neon is a more effective heat intercept fluid than liquid nitrogen. Reasons and application of the conclusion are amplified

  5. Diffusion of neon in white dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2010-12-01

    Sedimentation of the neutron rich isotope 22Ne may be an important source of gravitational energy during the cooling of white dwarf stars. This depends on the diffusion constant for 22Ne in strongly coupled plasma mixtures. We calculate self-diffusion constants D(i) from molecular dynamics simulations of carbon, oxygen, and neon mixtures. We find that D(i) in a mixture does not differ greatly from earlier one component plasma results. For strong coupling (coulomb parameter Γ> few), D(i) has a modest dependence on the charge Z(i) of the ion species, D(i)∝Z(i)(-2/3). However, D(i) depends more strongly on Z(i) for weak coupling (smaller Γ). We conclude that the self-diffusion constant D(Ne) for 22Ne in carbon, oxygen, and neon plasma mixtures is accurately known so that uncertainties in D(Ne) should be unimportant for simulations of white dwarf cooling.

  6. On the Way towards Fourth-Generation Mobile: 3GPP LTE and LTE-Advanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martín-Sacristán

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-Term Evolution (LTE is the new standard recently specified by the 3GPP on the way towards fourth-generation mobile. This paper presents the main technical features of this standard as well as its performance in terms of peak bit rate and average cell throughput, among others. LTE entails a big technological improvement as compared with the previous 3G standard. However, this paper also demonstrates that LTE performance does not fulfil the technical requirements established by ITU-R to classify one radio access technology as a member of the IMT-Advanced family of standards. Thus, this paper describes the procedure followed by the 3GPP to address these challenging requirements. Through the design and optimization of new radio access techniques and a further evolution of the system, the 3GPP is laying down the foundations of the future LTE-Advanced standard, the 3GPP candidate for 4G. This paper offers a brief insight into these technological trends.

  7. On the Way towards Fourth-Generation Mobile: 3GPP LTE and LTE-Advanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Sacristán David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long-Term Evolution (LTE is the new standard recently specified by the 3GPP on the way towards fourth-generation mobile. This paper presents the main technical features of this standard as well as its performance in terms of peak bit rate and average cell throughput, among others. LTE entails a big technological improvement as compared with the previous 3G standard. However, this paper also demonstrates that LTE performance does not fulfil the technical requirements established by ITU-R to classify one radio access technology as a member of the IMT-Advanced family of standards. Thus, this paper describes the procedure followed by the 3GPP to address these challenging requirements. Through the design and optimization of new radio access techniques and a further evolution of the system, the 3GPP is laying down the foundations of the future LTE-Advanced standard, the 3GPP candidate for 4G. This paper offers a brief insight into these technological trends.

  8. Double-NAT Based Mobility Management for Future LTE Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Valtulina, Luca; Pras, Aiko; Liebsch, Marco; Taleb, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the major modifications required in the current LTE network to realize a decentralized LTE architecture and develop a novel IP mobility management solution for it. The proposed solution can handle traffic redirecting and IP address continuity above the distributed anchor

  9. Performance of Flow-Aware Networking in LTE backbone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2012-01-01

    technologies, such as Long Term Evolution (LTE). This paper proposes usage of a modified Flow Aware Networking (FAN) technique for enhancing Quality of Service (QoS) in the all-IP transport networks underlying LTE backbone. The results obtained with OPNET Modeler show that FAN, in spite of being relatively...

  10. Potential of dynamic spectrum allocation in LTE macro networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, H.; Ramachandra, P.; Kovacs, I.Z.; Jorguseski, L.; Gunnarsson, F.; Kurner, T.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) worldwide are extensively deploying LTE networks in different spectrum bands and utilising different bandwidth configurations. Initially, the deployment is coverage oriented with macro cells using the lower LTE spectrum bands. As the offered traffic

  11. Studi Pemanfaatan Digital Dividend Untuk Layanan Long Term Evolution (LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ariyanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sesuai dengan Permen kominfo No. 22/PER/M/KOMINFO/11/2011 tentang Penyelenggaraan Penyiaran Televisi Digital Terestrial Penerimaan Tetap Tidak Berbayar (Free To Air, pada tahun 2018 semua TV analog migrasi secara penuh ke TV digital. Dengan demikian ada alokasi tersisa sebesar 2 x 45 Mhz FDD yang disebut sebagai digital dividend. Frekuensi tersebut rencananya akan digunakan untuk teknologi LTE. Namun sebelum digelar teknologi LTE pada frekuensi digital dividend tersebut maka perlu dikaji bagaimana penggunaan digital dividend untuk layanan LTE. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hasil perhitungan link budget frekuensi 700 MHz untuk LTE, mengetahui perbandingan kapasitas user pada daerah tipe dense-urban, urban, sub-urban dan rural, mengetahui estimasi jumlah pelanggan LTE, mengetahui jumlah operator LTE optimum dan pembagian bandwidthnya.  Metode penelitian dengan menggunakan studi literatur. Kajian ini menggunakan teknik analisis kuantitatif deskriptif.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jangkauan paling besar yaitu daerah rural kemudian disusul berturut-turut daerah sub urban, dense urban dan urban. Kapasitas user per site dalam 1 Km2 dari urutan terbesar ke kecil berturut-turut yaitu daerah rural, sub urban, urban dan dense urban. Estimasi jumlah pelanggan LTE di Indonesia paling besar yaitu di daerah dense-urban yaitu mencapai 500 user/Km2 pada tahun ke 8. Jumlah operator LTE-700 MHz paling optimum sebanyak 3 operator dengan pembagian bandwidth masing-masing 15 MHz.

  12. Resilience of LTE networks against smart jamming attacks: Wideband model

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan M.; Shamma, Jeff S.; Stuber, Gordon L.

    2015-01-01

    communications. We have previously shown that LTE networks are vulnerable to Denial-of-Service (DOS) and loss of service attacks from smart jammers. In this paper, we extend our previous work on resilience of LTE networks to wideband multipath fading channel

  13. Scheduling strategies for LTE uplink with flow behaviour analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Berg, J.L. van den; Litjens, R.; Heijenk, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology developed to support diversity of data traffic at potentially high rates. It is foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which

  14. Scheduling strategies for LTE uplink with flow behaviour analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Litjens, R.; Brogle, Marc; Osipov, Evgeny; Heijenk, Gerhard J.

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology developed to support diversity of data traffic at potentially high rates. It is foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which

  15. Capacity gain with an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    , such as 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE). T his paper describe s how to adapt the reversible multi - chain/channel queuing system to model an LTE cell serving ETCS - equipped trains . It is proposed to use the multiple user chains available in the model to represent varying bitrate in LTE radio access network....... Usin g this model , LTE and GSM - R are compare d in terms of capacity on an example at Copenhagen Main Train Station . The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the benefits that railway operators and infrastructure managers can expect from the introduc tion of LTE , as a telecommunication technology...... Control System (ETCS) signaling , the capacity of GSM - R turns out to be insufficient . GSM - R cannot ful fill the railway requirements , in terms of the number of simultaneous ETCS connections . This is why , alternative , more efficient communication technologies should be considered by railways...

  16. Resilience of LTE networks against smart jamming attacks: Wideband model

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan M.

    2015-12-03

    LTE/LTE-A networks have been successfully providing advanced broadband services to millions of users worldwide. Lately, it has been suggested to use LTE networks for mission-critical applications like public safety, smart grid and military communications. We have previously shown that LTE networks are vulnerable to Denial-of-Service (DOS) and loss of service attacks from smart jammers. In this paper, we extend our previous work on resilience of LTE networks to wideband multipath fading channel, SINR estimation in frequency domain and computation of utilities based on observable parameters under the framework of single-shot and repeated games with asymmetric information. In a single-shot game formulation, network utility is severely compromised at its solutions, i.e. at the Nash Equilibria (NE). We propose evolved repeated-game strategy algorithms to combat smart jamming attacks that can be implemented in existing deployments using current technology. © 2015 IEEE.

  17. Investigations of Townsend discharges in neon by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielis, J.W.H.

    1979-01-01

    The decay frequency of Ne( 3 P 2 )-atoms has been determined at 77 K and 295 K as a function of gas density from time sampling analysis of a N + 2 -ion impurity in the afterglow of a Townsend discharge in neon. From the sampling spectra of ions in the afterglow of a Townsend discharge, mobilities of positive ions in neon have been determined as a function of the reduced electric field strength at 77 K and 295 K. From mobility data the interaction potential as a function of intermolecular distance between a N + 2 -ion and a neon atom is evaluated. (Auth.)

  18. Isotopic separation in a rotating neon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, J.B.S.

    1976-01-01

    The background to the use of rotating plasma as element and isotope separators is briefly reviewed. The principles of the process are outlined. The rotation in a plasma centrifuge is produced by passing a radial current across an axial magnetic field. The different mass spheres, if under the influence of azimuthal forces, may be separated by crossing the field. Details are given of the Vortex II experiment in which 22 Ne is separated from neon in a fully ionized rotating plasma. It was demonstrated that 22 Ne enrichments of approximately 15% could be achieved with the possibility of higher values when the design and operation of the plasma centrifuge have been optimised. (U.K.)

  19. Size-density relations in dark clouds: Non-LTE effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, P.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major goals of molecular astronomy has been to understand the physics and dynamics of dense interstellar clouds. Because the interpretation of observations of giant molecular clouds is complicated by their very complex structure and the dynamical effects of star formation, a number of studies have concentrated on dark clouds. Leung, Kutner and Mead (1982) (hereafter LKM) and Myers (1983), in studies of CO and NH3 emission, concluded that dark clouds exhibit significant correlations between linewidth and cloud radius of the form delta v varies as R(0.5) and between mean density and radius of the form n varies as R(-1), as originally suggested by Larson (1981). This result suggests that these objects are in virial equilibrium. However, the mean densities inferred from the CO data of LKM are based on an local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of their 13CO data. At the very low mean densities inferred by LKM for the larger clouds in their samples, the assumption of LTE becomes very questionable. As most of the range in R in the density-size correlation comes from the clouds observed in CO, it seems worthwhile to examine how non-LTE effects will influence the derived densities. One way to assess the validity of LTE-derived densities is to construct cloud models and then to interpret them in the same way as the observed data. Microturbulent models of inhomogeneous clouds of varying central concentration with the linewidth-size and mean density-size relations found by Myers show sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO line in the larger clouds, with the result that LTE analysis considerbly underestimates the actual column density. A more general approach which doesn't require detailed modeling of the clouds is to consider whether the observed T sub R*(13CO)/T sub R*(12CO) ratios in the clouds studied by LKM are in the range where the LTE-derived optical depths (and hence column densities) can be seriously in error due to sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO

  20. Analysis of LTE 800MHz Network Deployment Strategy%LTE 800MHz网络部署策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余扬尧; 陈杨; 杨芙蓉

    2016-01-01

    Starting ifrst with the current mobile user development situation of the three operators, the paper analyzed the necessity of China telecom LTE 800 MHz network construction, the network coverage, terminal market, construction speed, the business competition, and etc., concluded the short-term, mid-term and long-term deployment strategy for LTE 800 MHz.%首先从当前三大运营商的移动业务用户发展情况入手,分析了中国电信LTE 800 MHz网络建设的必要性,对LTE 800 MHz的网络覆盖、终端市场、建设速度、业务竞争等几个方面进行分析,得出了LTE 800 MHz近、中、远期的部署策略。

  1. Analysis of neon soft x-ray spectra from short-pulse laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abare, A.C.; Keane, C.J.; Crane, J.K.; DaSilva, L.B.; Lee, R.W.; Perry, M.D.; Falcone, R.W.

    1993-04-01

    We report preliminary results from the analysis of streaked soft x-ray neon spectra a gas jet target. In obtained from the interaction of a picosecond Nd:glass laser with these experiments streaked spectra show prompt harmonic emission followed by longer time duration soft x-ray line emission. The majority of the line emission observed was found to originate from Li- and Be-like Ne and the major transitions in the observed spectra have been identified. Li-like emission lines were observed to decay faster in time than Be-like transitions, suggesting that recombination is taking place. Line ratios of n=4-2 and n=3-2 transitions supported the view that these lines were optically thin and thick, respectively. The time history of Li-like Ne 2p-4d and 2p-3d lines is in good agreement with a simple adiabatic expansion model coupled to a time dependent collisional-radiative code. Further x-ray spectroscopic analysis is underway which is aimed at diagnosing plasma conditions and assessing the potential of this recombining neon plasma as a quasi-steady-state recombination x-ray laser medium

  2. Does an electron form a bubble in liquid neon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storchak, V.G.; Brewer, J.H.; Morris, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Muon spin relaxation measurements in liquid neon in electric fields up to 35 kV/cm reveal the existence of a delocalized electron state which is responsible for delayed muonium atom formation. Other fraction of radiolysis electrons created in the positive muon's ionization track is believed to be localized inside bubbles and therefore possesses low mobility. Bubble formation in liquid neon is discussed in detail

  3. [Research on the identification method of LTE condition in the laser-induced plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Juan-juan; Huang, Dan; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Wei-guang; Dong, Lei; Yin, Wang-bao; Jia, Suo-tang

    2014-12-01

    Because of the poor accuracy of the commonly used Boltzmann plot method and double-line method, the Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution combined with the Saha-Eggert formula is proposed to improve the measurement accuracy of the plasma temperature; the simple algorithm for determining the linewidth of the emission line was established according to the relationship between the area and the peak value of the Gaussian formula, and the plasma electron density was calculated through the Stark broadening of the spectral lines; the method for identifying the plasma local thermal equilibrium (LTE) condition was established based on the McWhirter criterion. The experimental results show that with the increase in laser energy, the plasma temperature and electron density increase linearly; when the laser energy changes within 127~510 mJ, the plasma electron density changes in the range of 1.30532X10(17)~1.87322X10(17) cm(-3), the plasma temperature changes in the range of 12586~12957 K, and all the plasma generated in this experiment meets the LTE condition threshold according to the McWhirter criterion. For element Al, there exist relatively few observable lines at the same ionization state in the spectral region of the spectrometer, thus it is unable to use the Boltzmann plane method to calculate temperature. One hundred sets of Al plasma spectra were used for temperature measurement by employing the Saha-Boltzmann method and the relative standard deviation (RSD) value is 0.4%, and compared with 1.3% of the double line method, the accuracy has been substantially increased. The methods proposed can be used for rapid plasma temperature and electron density calculation, the LTE condition identification, and are valuable in studies such as free calibration, spectral effectiveness analysis, spectral temperature correction, the best collection location determination, LTE condition distribution in plasma, and so on.

  4. Power Saving Scheduling Scheme for Internet of Things over LTE/LTE-Advanced Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Wei Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The devices of Internet of Things (IoT will grow rapidly in the near future, and the power consumption and radio spectrum management will become the most critical issues in the IoT networks. Long Term Evolution (LTE technology will become a promising technology used in IoT networks due to its flat architecture, all-IP network, and greater spectrum efficiency. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP specified the Discontinuous Reception (DRX to reduce device’s power consumption. However, the DRX may pose unexpected communication delay due to missing Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH information in sleep mode. Recent studies mainly focus on optimizing DRX parameters to manage the tradeoff between the energy consumption and communication latency. In this paper, we proposed a fuzzy-based power saving scheduling scheme for IoT over the LTE/LTE-Advanced networks to deal with the issues of the radio resource management and power consumption from the scheduling and resource allocation perspective. The proposed scheme considers not only individual IoT device’s real-time requirement but also the overall network performance. The simulation results show that our proposed scheme can meet the requirements of the DRX cycle and scheduling latency and can save about half of energy consumption for IoT devices compared to conventional approaches.

  5. An approximate method to calculate ionization of LTE and non-LTE plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Gu Peijun

    1987-01-01

    When matter, especially high Z element, is heated to high temperature, it will be ionized many times. The degree of ionization has a strong effect on many plasma properties. So an approximate method to calculate the mean ionization degree is needed for solving many practical problems. An analytical expression which is convenient for the approximate numerical calculation is given by fitting it to the scaling law and numerical results of the ionization potential of Thomas-Fermi statistical model. In LTE case, the ionization degree of Au calculated by using the approximate method is in agreement with that of the average ion model. By extending the approximate method to non-LTE case, the ionization degree of Au is similarly calculated according to Corona model and Collision-Radiatoin model(C-R). The results of Corona model agree with the published data quite well, while the results of C-R approach those of Corona model as the density is reduced and approach those of LTE as the density is increased. Finally, all approximately calculated results of ionization degree of Au and the comparision of them are given in figures and tables

  6. Collisional interaction between metastable neon atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drunen, Wouter Johannes van

    2008-07-07

    In this thesis, the study of cold gases of neon atoms in different metastable states is described. It contains measurements of the collisional parameters for both the 3s[3/2]{sub 2} and the 3s'[1/2]{sub 0} metastable state and the dependence of the inelastic loss on external fields. Furthermore, the investigation of frequency dependent laser-induced collisions, and the possibility to excite photoassociation resonances is presented. For the measurements described here, neon atoms have been confined in a magnetooptical trap, in a magnetostatic trap, or in an optical dipole trap, respectively. By laser cooling inside the magnetic trap, atomic samples with more than 95 percent occupation of the magnetic substate m{sub J} = +2 could be prepared. They have a typical temperature of 0.5 mK, central densities up to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}, and a central phase-space density of up to 2.2.10{sup -7}. After loading the optical dipole trap from the magnetic trap, 2.5.10{sup 6} atoms with typical temperatures of 0.1 mK, and central densities up to 5.10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} were trapped. By evaporative cooling of the atoms in the magnetic trap we could increase the phase-space density by a factor of 200 to 5.10{sup -5}. Investigating the frequency dependence of laser-induced collisions did not reveal an experimental signature for the excitation of photoassociation resonances. For the {sup 3}D{sub 3} line a frequency dependence of laser enhanced Penning ionization was observed. Measurement of the two-body loss coefficient as function of the magnetic field showed a field dependence of the inelastic loss. These losses increase towards both small and large offset fields. The implementation of an optical dipole trap allowed us to trap the {sup 3}P{sub 0} metastable state. From the trap loss measurements we determined the two-body loss coefficient of the {sup 3}P{sub 0} metastable state for both bosonic isotopes {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne. For {sup 20}Ne we obtained {beta}=6{sup +5}{sub

  7. Collisional interaction between metastable neon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drunen, Wouter Johannes van

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, the study of cold gases of neon atoms in different metastable states is described. It contains measurements of the collisional parameters for both the 3s[3/2] 2 and the 3s'[1/2] 0 metastable state and the dependence of the inelastic loss on external fields. Furthermore, the investigation of frequency dependent laser-induced collisions, and the possibility to excite photoassociation resonances is presented. For the measurements described here, neon atoms have been confined in a magnetooptical trap, in a magnetostatic trap, or in an optical dipole trap, respectively. By laser cooling inside the magnetic trap, atomic samples with more than 95 percent occupation of the magnetic substate m J = +2 could be prepared. They have a typical temperature of 0.5 mK, central densities up to 10 11 cm -3 , and a central phase-space density of up to 2.2.10 -7 . After loading the optical dipole trap from the magnetic trap, 2.5.10 6 atoms with typical temperatures of 0.1 mK, and central densities up to 5.10 10 cm -3 were trapped. By evaporative cooling of the atoms in the magnetic trap we could increase the phase-space density by a factor of 200 to 5.10 -5 . Investigating the frequency dependence of laser-induced collisions did not reveal an experimental signature for the excitation of photoassociation resonances. For the 3 D 3 line a frequency dependence of laser enhanced Penning ionization was observed. Measurement of the two-body loss coefficient as function of the magnetic field showed a field dependence of the inelastic loss. These losses increase towards both small and large offset fields. The implementation of an optical dipole trap allowed us to trap the 3 P 0 metastable state. From the trap loss measurements we determined the two-body loss coefficient of the 3 P 0 metastable state for both bosonic isotopes 20 Ne and 22 Ne. For 20 Ne we obtained β=6 +5 -4 .10 -10 cm 3 /s and for 22 Ne β = 11 +7 -6 .10 -10 cm 3 /s. (orig.)

  8. Network performance and fault analytics for LTE wireless service providers

    CERN Document Server

    Kakadia, Deepak; Gilgur, Alexander

    2017-01-01

     This book is intended to describe how to leverage emerging technologies big data analytics and SDN, to address challenges specific to LTE and IP network performance and fault management data in order to more efficiently manage and operate an LTE wireless networks. The proposed integrated solutions permit the LTE network service provider to operate entire integrated network, from RAN to Core , from UE to application service, as one unified system and correspondingly collect and align disparate key metrics and data, using an integrated and holistic approach to network analysis. The LTE wireless network performance and fault involves the network performance and management of network elements in EUTRAN, EPC and IP transport components, not only as individual components, but also as nuances of inter-working of these components. The key metrics for EUTRAN include radio access network accessibility, retainability, integrity, availability and mobility. The key metrics for EPC include MME accessibility, mobility and...

  9. Enhanced cognitive Radio Resource Management for LTE systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem; Shin, Kang G.

    2013-01-01

    as it improves network efficiency by exploiting radio environment information, intelligent optimization algorithms to configure transmission parameters, and mitigate interference. In this paper, we propose a cognitive resource management scheme to adapt LTE

  10. Non-LTE considerations in spectral diagnostics of thermal transport and implosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, R.; Skupsky, S.; Delettrez, J.; Yaakobi, B.

    1984-01-01

    Recent thermal-transport and target-implosion experiments have used the emission of radiation from highly-ionized ions to signal the advance of laser-driven heat fronts and to mark the trajectories and stagnation points of imploding shells. We examine the results of such experiments with particular attention given to non-LTE effects of non-Maxwellian electrons and of finite ionization times on the populations of signature-emitting atomic species and on the formation of signature spectra and x-ray images in these experiments

  11. User-Location Aware Downlink Performance Analysis of LTE Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Olaifa, John Olorunfemi

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the performance of Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks, system-level simulation with detailed focus on network related effects such as mobility, scheduling and interference management must be emphasized. Existing studies evaluate user throughput and dimension LTE networks usually assuming uniform distribution of users within the cell. These studies report average user throughputs over the cell and the 5th percentile throughputs as estimates of the performance of the users ...

  12. Random access procedures and radio access network (RAN) overload control in standard and advanced long-term evolution (LTE and LTE-A) networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Thomsen, Henning; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe and discuss the current LTE random access procedure and the Radio Access Network Load Control solution within LTE/LTE-A. We provide an overview of the several considered load control solutions and give a detailed description of the standardized Extended Access Class B...

  13. Non-LTE effects in inertial confinement fusion target chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, J.J.; Moses, G.A.; Peterson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    In previous studies of transport processes in inertial confinement fusion target chambers, the radiative properties of the background plasma were calculated under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). In this paper, the authors present a study of the equation of state and the radiative properties of high temperature, low-to-moderate density ( 21 cm -3 ) plasmas for the determination of the conditions under which non-LTE effects become important and for an assessment of the importance of non-LTE processes in target chambers during high yield inertial fusion target explosions. For this purpose, two-body (radiative and dielectronic) and three-body (collisional) recombination and de-excitation processes are considered in calculating the steady state ionization and excitation populations. The results of this study indicate that non-LTE processes generally become important at temperatures of > or approx. 1, 10 and 100 eV for plasma densities of 10 18 , 10 19 and 10 21 cm -3 , respectively. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations utilizing the equation of state and the opacities for a non-LTE argon plasma were performed to study the response of a background gas to an inertial fusion target explosion. These calculations indicate that non-LTE processes are often the dominant atomic processes in the background plasma and that they can strongly affect the radiative and shock properties as energy is transported away from the point of the target explosion. (author). 22 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  14. Location-assured, multifactor authentication on smartphones via LTE communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan A.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2013-05-01

    With the added security provided by LTE, geographical location has become an important factor for authentication to enhance the security of remote client authentication during mCommerce applications using Smartphones. Tight combination of geographical location with classic authentication factors like PINs/Biometrics in a real-time, remote verification scheme over the LTE layer connection assures the authenticator about the client itself (via PIN/biometric) as well as the client's current location, thus defines the important aspects of "who", "when", and "where" of the authentication attempt without eaves dropping or man on the middle attacks. To securely integrate location as an authentication factor into the remote authentication scheme, client's location must be verified independently, i.e. the authenticator should not solely rely on the location determined on and reported by the client's Smartphone. The latest wireless data communication technology for mobile phones (4G LTE, Long-Term Evolution), recently being rolled out in various networks, can be employed to enhance this location-factor requirement of independent location verification. LTE's Control Plane LBS provisions, when integrated with user-based authentication and independent source of localisation factors ensures secure efficient, continuous location tracking of the Smartphone. This feature can be performed during normal operation of the LTE-based communication between client and network operator resulting in the authenticator being able to verify the client's claimed location more securely and accurately. Trials and experiments show that such algorithm implementation is viable for nowadays Smartphone-based banking via LTE communication.

  15. Quad Band Handset Antenna for LTE MIMO and WLAN Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact quad band antenna for long-term evolution (LTE MIMO and WLAN application in the handset is presented in this paper. The proposed antenna comprises two symmetrical quarter wavelength radiating strips and a slotted ground plane. On the ground plane, a T-shaped slot is cut from the bottom. Two symmetrical P-shaped slots are etched at both sides of the ground plane. The radiating strips and slots generate a lower resonant at 780 MHz and an upper resonant at 2.350 GHz to cover LTE 700 Band 14, LTE 2300, 2.4 GHz WLAN, and LTE 2500. A novel isolation technique by placing a rectangular patch between the radiating strips is presented. The rectangular patch creates a dedicated current path for each radiating strip. The proposed antenna has high isolation of less than −18 dBi at LTE 2300, 2.4 GHz WLAN, and LTE 2500 band.

  16. Enhanced cognitive Radio Resource Management for LTE systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2013-10-01

    The explosive growth in mobile Internet and related services has increased the need for more bandwidth in cellular networks. The Long-Term Evolution (LTE) technology is an attractive solution for operators and subscribers to meet such need since it provides high data rates and scalable bandwidth. Radio Resource Management (RRM) is essential for LTE to provide better communication quality and meet the application QoS requirements. Cognitive resource management is a promising solution for LTE RRM as it improves network efficiency by exploiting radio environment information, intelligent optimization algorithms to configure transmission parameters, and mitigate interference. In this paper, we propose a cognitive resource management scheme to adapt LTE network parameters to the environment conditions. The scheme optimizes resource blocks assignment, modulation selection and bandwidth selection to maximize throughput and minimize interference. The scheme uses constrained optimization for throughput maximization and interference control. It is also enhanced by learning mechanism to reduce the optimization complexity and improve the decision-making quality. Our evaluation results show that our scheme achieved significant improvements in throughput and LTE system capacity. Results also show the improvement in the user satisfaction over other techniques in LTE RRM.

  17. Effect of neon ions on synchronized Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.; Carpenter, S.G.; Tokita, N.; Howard, J.

    1985-01-01

    The variation in radiosensitivity across the cell cycle after exposure to neon ions and 60 Co γ-rays is reported for cultured hamster cells. The cells were first synchronized by mitotic selection, then resynchronized in the region of the G 1 /S boundary by treatment with 10 -3 M hydroxyurea. Although the use of hydroxyurea improves the synchrony, it does sensitize cells at the G 1 /S boundary to some degree. The cells were exposed at the plateau and the distal peak position of a neon ion beam modified by a 10 cm wide ridge filter. The results indicate that the variation (ratio of maximum to minimum survival after fixed doses of radiation that are approximately matched to produce similar cell killing) was approximately 80 to 100-fold for 60 Co γ-rays and neon ions at the plateau, and 25-fold for distal peak neon ions. While the r.b.e. of distal peak neon ions decreased rapidly with increasing dose for cells in late S-phase, the r.b.e. is independent of dose for cells at the G 1 /S boundary. (author)

  18. Effect of neon ions on synchronized Chinese hamster cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.; Carpenter, S.G.; Tokita, N. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Howard, J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1985-08-01

    The variation in radiosensitivity across the cell cycle after exposure to neon ions and /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays is reported for cultured hamster cells. The cells were first synchronized by mitotic selection, then resynchronized in the region of the G/sub 1//S boundary by treatment with 10/sup -3/ M hydroxyurea. Although the use of hydroxyurea improves the synchrony, it does sensitize cells at the G/sub 1//S boundary to some degree. The cells were exposed at the plateau and the distal peak position of a neon ion beam modified by a 10 cm wide ridge filter. The results indicate that the variation (ratio of maximum to minimum survival after fixed doses of radiation that are approximately matched to produce similar cell killing) was approximately 80 to 100-fold for /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays and neon ions at the plateau, and 25-fold for distal peak neon ions. While the r.b.e. of distal peak neon ions decreased rapidly with increasing dose for cells in late S-phase, the r.b.e. is independent of dose for cells at the G/sub 1//S boundary.

  19. Investigations on afterglows of neon gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenhuysen, L.W.G.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and numerical investigations on afterglows of neon gas discharges are described. The investigated pressure range extends from 0.5 torr to 100 torr; the discharge currents lie between about 1 mA and 100 mA. The decay of the 1s atom densities has been determined experimentally as function of the time elapsed in the afterglow. From the measured decay of metastable 1s 5 atom densities at gas pressure 5 atoms as well as the coefficinets of atomic collisional transfer between the 1s 5 and 1s 4 level are determined. To obtain more insight in the mutual influences of the various loss and production processes of 1s atoms and charge carriers in the afterglow a numerical model has been formed. The behaviour of the afterglow radiation intensity has been measured on discharges with a gas pressure of 1, 10, 20, 50 and 100 torr and a discharge current of 22, 24 and 50 mA. From the results the recombination distribution fractions of the 1s levels are determined and the electron densities at the start of the afterglow of 20, 50 and 100 torr discharges. With the help of the selective excitation spectroscopy the coefficients of atomic transfer between the 2p levels have been measured in the afterglow of discharge with a gas pressure of 1, 10, 20, 50 and 100 torr and a discharge current of 22 mA. From these results and the measured intensities of the various spectral lines in the afterglow the partial recombination coefficients for the 2p levels are calculated. (Auth. )

  20. Recent developments in the super transition array model for spectral simulation of LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently developed sub-picosecond pulse lasers have been used to create hot, near solid density plasmas. Since these plasmas are nearly in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), their emission spectra involve a huge number of populated configurations. A typical spectrum is a combination of many unresolved clusters of emission, each containing an immense number of overlapping, unresolvable bound-bound and bound-free transitions. Under LTE, or near LTE conditions, traditional detailed configuration or detailed term spectroscopic models are not capable of handling the vast number of transitions involved. The average atom (AA) model, on the other hand, accounts for all relevant transitions, but in an oversimplified fashion that ignores all spectral structure. The Super Transition Array (STA) model, which has been developed in recent years, combines the simplicity and comprehensiveness of the AA model with the accuracy of detailed term accounting. The resolvable structure of spectral clusters is revealed by successively increasing the number of distinct STA's, until convergence is attained. The limit of this procedure is a detailed unresolved transition array (UTA) spectrum, with a term-broadened line for each accessible configuration-to-configuration transition, weighted by the relevant Boltzman population. In practice, this UTA spectrum is actually obtained using only a few thousand to tens of thousands of STA's (as opposed, typically, to billions of UTAs). The central result of STA theory is a set of formulas for the moments (total intensity, average transition energy, variance) of an STA. In calculating the moments, detailed relativistic first order quantum transition energies and probabilities are used. The energy appearing in the Boltzman factor associated with each level in a superconfiguration is the zero order result corrected by a superconfiguration averaged first order correction. Examples and application to recent measurements are presented

  1. The continuous UV flux of alpha lyrae: NON-LTE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snijders, M.A.J.

    1977-01-01

    Non--LTE calculations for the ultraviolet C I and Si I continuous opacity show that LTE results overestimate the importance of these sources of opacity and underestimate the emergent flux in α Lyr. The largest errors occur between 1100 and 1160 A where the predicted flux in non--LTE is as much as 50 times larger than in LTE, in reasonable accord with Copernicus observations.The discrepancy between LTE models and observations has been interpreted by Praderie et al. to result from the existence of a chromosphere. Until a self--consistent non-LTE model atmosphere becomes available, such an interpretation is premature

  2. The continuous UV flux of Alpha Lyrae - Non-LTE results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, M. A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Non-LTE calculations for the ultraviolet C I and Si I continuous opacity show that LTE results overestimate the importance of these sources of opacity and underestimate the emergent flux in Alpha Lyr. The largest errors occur between 1100 and 1160 A, where the predicted flux in non-LTE is as much as 50 times larger than in LTE, in reasonable accord with Copernicus observations. The discrepancy between LTE models and observations has been interpreted to result from the existence of a chromosphere. Until a self-consistent non-LTE model atmosphere becomes available, such an interpretation is premature.

  3. LTE/Wi-Fi Coexistence in 5 GHz ISM Spectrum: Issues, Solutions and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abinader, Fuad; A. de Sousa Jr., Vicente; Choudhurry, Sayantan

    2018-01-01

    solutions is the aggregation of ISM unlicensed spectrum to licensed bands, using wireless networks defined by IEEE and 3GPP. While Wi-Fi networks are aggregated to LTE small cells via LTE/WLAN Aggregation (LWA), in proposals like LTE-U and LAA-LTE, the LTE air interface itself is used for transmission...... on the unlicensed band. Wi-Fi technology is widespread and also operates in the 5 GHz ISM spectrum bands, which may bring performance issues due to the coexistence of both technologies in the same spectrum band. This work is dedicated to the study of coexistence between LTE and Wi-Fi access systems operating in 5...

  4. Power Saving Scheduling Scheme for Internet of Things over LTE/LTE-Advanced Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Yen-Wei; Chou, Li-Der

    2015-01-01

    The devices of Internet of Things (IoT) will grow rapidly in the near future, and the power consumption and radio spectrum management will become the most critical issues in the IoT networks. Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology will become a promising technology used in IoT networks due to its flat architecture, all-IP network, and greater spectrum efficiency. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) specified the Discontinuous Reception (DRX) to reduce device’s power consumption. Howev...

  5. Heat transfer in pool boiling liquid neon, deuterium and hydrogen, and critical heat flux in forced convection of liquid neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astruc, J.M.

    1967-12-01

    In the first part, free-convection and nucleate pool boiling heat transfer (up to burn-out heat flux) between a platinum wire of 0.15 mm in diameter in neon, deuterium and hydrogen has been studied at atmospheric pressure. These measurements were continued in liquid neon up to 23 bars (Pc ≅ 26.8 b). Film boiling heat transfer coefficients have been measured in pool boiling liquid neon at atmospheric pressure with three heating wires (diameters 0.2, 0.5, 2 mm). All the results have been compared with existing correlations. The second part is devoted to measurements of the critical heat flux limiting heat transfer with small temperature differences between the wall and the liquid neon flowing inside a tube (diameters 3 x 3.5 mm) heated by joule effect on 30 cm of length. Influences of flow stability, nature of electrical current, pressure, mass flow rate and subcooling are shown. In conclusion, the similarity of the heat transfer characteristics in pool boiling as well as in forced convection of liquid neon and hydrogen is emphasized. (author) [fr

  6. Potential of dynamic spectrum allocation in LTE macro networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H.; Ramachandra, P.; Kovács, I. Z.; Jorguseski, L.; Gunnarsson, F.; Kürner, T.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) worldwide are extensively deploying LTE networks in different spectrum bands and utilising different bandwidth configurations. Initially, the deployment is coverage oriented with macro cells using the lower LTE spectrum bands. As the offered traffic (i.e. the requested traffic from the users) increases the LTE deployment evolves with macro cells expanded with additional capacity boosting LTE carriers in higher frequency bands complemented with micro or small cells in traffic hotspot areas. For MNOs it is crucial to use the LTE spectrum assets, as well as the installed network infrastructure, in the most cost efficient way. The dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) aims at (de)activating the available LTE frequency carriers according to the temporal and spatial traffic variations in order to increase the overall LTE system performance in terms of total network capacity by reducing the interference. This paper evaluates the DSA potential of achieving the envisaged performance improvement and identifying in which system and traffic conditions the DSA should be deployed. A self-optimised network (SON) DSA algorithm is also proposed and evaluated. The evaluations have been carried out in a hexagonal and a realistic site-specific urban macro layout assuming a central traffic hotspot area surrounded with an area of lower traffic with a total size of approximately 8 × 8 km2. The results show that up to 47 % and up to 40 % possible DSA gains are achievable with regards to the carried system load (i.e. used resources) for homogenous traffic distribution with hexagonal layout and for realistic site-specific urban macro layout, respectively. The SON DSA algorithm evaluation in a realistic site-specific urban macro cell deployment scenario including realistic non-uniform spatial traffic distribution shows insignificant cell throughput (i.e. served traffic) performance gains. Nevertheless, in the SON DSA investigations, a gain of up

  7. Non-LTE effects in Al I lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzhevitski, V. S.; Shimansky, V. V.; Shimanskaya, N. N.

    2012-07-01

    We present the theoretical analysis of the Al I line formation in the spectra of late-type stars ignoring the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The calculations were based on the 39-level aluminum atom model for one-dimensional hydrostatic stellar atmosphere models with the parameters: T eff from 4000 to 9000 K, log g = 0.0-4.5, and metallicity [ A] = 0.0;-1.0;-2.0;-3.0;-4.0. The aluminum atom model and the method of calculations were tested by the study of line profiles in the solar spectrum. We refined the oscillator strengths and Van-der-Vaals broadening constants C 6 of the investigated transitions. We conclude that the Al I atom is in the overionization state: the 3 p level is underpopulated in the line formation region. This leads to the line weakening, as compared with the LTE results. The overionization effect becomes more pronounced with increasing temperature and decreasing metallicity. We show that the use of various atomic data (ionization cross-sections) for the low levels of Al I does not change the behavior of non-LTE deviations, whereas the value of these deviations varies essentially. For nine selected Al I lines we calculated the grids of theoretical non-LTE corrections (Δ X NLTE = log ɛ NLTE - log ɛ LTE) to the Al abundances determinedwith the LTE assumption. The non-LTE corrections are positive and significant for the stars with temperatures T eff > 6000 K. These corrections weakly depend on log g, and increase with declining stellar metallicity.

  8. Plasma performance improvement with neon gas puffing in HT-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, X.; Wan, B.; Li, J.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zhu, Y.; Wu, Z.; Liu, H.; Qian, J.

    2005-01-01

    The neon gas puffing for the production of a radiative layer near the plasma edge with the improved energy and particle confinement has been investigated in HT-7 during the 2003 campaign. Plasma characteristics of these discharges in HT-7 are similar to the TEXTOR RI-mode discharges. The peaked electron temperature and the broadened density profiles were formed in these discharges with the combination of LHCD and IBW heating. The central electron temperature was increased by nearly 50%, compared those discharges with the same plasma parameters and injected power without the neon gas puffing. These discharges also exhibited relatively higher plasma inductance. (author)

  9. Angular Correlation between Photoelectrons and Auger Electrons from K-Shell Ionization of Neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landers, A. L.; Robicheaux, F.; Bhandary, A.; Jahnke, T.; Schoeffler, M.; Titze, J.; Akoury, D.; Doerner, R.; Osipov, T.; Lee, S. Y.; Adaniya, H.; Hertlein, M.; Weber, Th.; Prior, M. H.; Belkacem, A.; Ranitovic, P.; Bocharova, I.; Cocke, C. L.

    2009-01-01

    We have used cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy to study the continuum correlation between the photoelectron of core-photoionized neon and the subsequent Auger electron. We observe a strong angular correlation between the two electrons. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations agree quite well with the photoelectron energy distribution that is shifted due to the potential change associated with Auger decay. However, a striking discrepancy results in the distribution of the relative angle between Auger and photoelectron. The classical model predicts a shift in photoelectron flux away from the Auger emission direction, and the data strikingly reveal that the flux is lost rather than diverted, indicating that the two-step interpretation of photoionization followed by Auger emission is insufficient to fully describe the core-photoionization process.

  10. Hydrogenic ionization model for mixtures in non-LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaoui, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Hydrogenic Ionization Model for Mixtures (HIMM) is a non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE), time-dependent ionization model for laser-produced plasmas containing mixtures of elements (species). In this version, both collisional and radiative rates are taken into account. An ionization distribution for each species which is consistent with the ambient electron density is obtained by use of an iterative procedure in a single calculation for all species. Energy levels for each shell having a given principal quantum number and for each ion stage of each species in the mixture are calculated using screening constants. Steady-state non-LTE as well as LTE solutions are also provided. The non-LTE rate equations converge to the LTE solution at sufficiently high densities or as the radiation temperature approaches the electron temperature. The model is particularly useful at low temperatures where convergence problems are usually encountered in our previous models. We apply our model to typical situation in x-ray laser research, laser-produced plasmas and inertial confinement fusion. Our results compare well with previously published results for a selenium plasma. (author)

  11. A Compact Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for LTE Mobile Handset Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyong Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact (8 × 62 × 5 mm3; 2.48 cc frequency reconfigurable antenna that uses electrical switching with PIN diodes is proposed for the low frequency LTE band (699 MHz–862 MHz, high frequency LTE band (2496 MHz–2690 MHz, GSM850/900 bands (824 MHz–960 MHz, and DCS/PCS/WCDMA bands (1710 MHz–2170 MHz. The penta-band PIFA is first designed for GSM850/900/DCS/PCS/WCDMA bands by using two slits and ground pins within a limited antenna volume (8 × 54.6 × 5 mm3; 2.18 cc. The frequency reconfigurable antenna based on this penta-band PIFA is thus proposed to additionally cover all LTE bands. The proposed antenna has two PIN diodes with an optimal location. For State 1 (PIN diode 1: ON state, PIN diode 2: OFF state, the proposed antenna covers the low frequency LTE band, DCS/PCS/WCDMA bands, and high frequency LTE band. For State 2 (PIN diode 1: OFF state, PIN diode 2: ON state, the antenna covers the GSM850/900 bands. Simulated and measured results show that the total efficiency of the proposed antenna was greater than 40% for all operating frequency bands.

  12. Novel Miniaturized Octaband Antenna for LTE Smart Handset Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel octaband LTE mobile phone antenna is presented, which has a compact size with the overall dimension of 35 mm × 9 mm × 3 mm. The miniaturized octaband antenna is implemented by a simple prototype of three parts which include a folded monopole as feeding element, main radiator element, and parasitic radiator element. The main and parasitic radiator elements are excited by the folded monopole feeding element coupling and shorting to the handset ground plane. A wide bandwidth in low-frequency bands covering from 747 MHz to 960 MHz (LTE Band13/GSM850/GSM900 is contributed by both main and parasitic radiator elements. In addition, the folded monopole is designed to resonate at 2530 MHz, and the coupling between the feeding element and main radiator element is designed to resonate at 1840 MHz. Subsequently, the wide bandwidth in high-frequency bands covering from 1710 MHz to 2690 MHz (DCS1800/PCS1900/WCDMA2100/LTE2300/LTE2500 is contributed by both structures. The antenna has the total efficiency up to 30% in low bands and up to 75% in high bands, respectively. At the same time, the proposed miniaturized octaband LTE mobile phone antenna is fabricated and tested to verify the design.

  13. Optimization of mNeonGreen for Homo sapiens increases its fluorescent intensity in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida-Miyake, Emiko; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Tanida, Isei

    2018-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is tremendously useful for investigating many cellular and intracellular events. The monomeric GFP mNeonGreen is about 3- to 5-times brighter than GFP and monomeric enhanced GFP and shows high photostability. The maturation half-time of mNeonGreen is about 3-fold faster than that of monomeric enhanced GFP. However, the cDNA sequence encoding mNeonGreen contains some codons that are rarely used in Homo sapiens. For better expression of mNeonGreen in human cells, we synthesized a human-optimized cDNA encoding mNeonGreen and generated an expression plasmid for humanized mNeonGreen under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The resultant plasmid was introduced into HEK293 cells. The fluorescent intensity of humanized mNeonGreen was about 1.4-fold higher than that of the original mNeonGreen. The humanized mNeonGreen with a mitochondria-targeting signal showed mitochondrial distribution of mNeonGreen. We further generated an expression vector of humanized mNeonGreen with 3xFLAG tags at its carboxyl terminus as these tags are useful for immunological analyses. The 3xFLAG-tagged mNeonGreen was recognized well with an anti-FLAG-M2 antibody. These plasmids for the expression of humanized mNeonGreen and mNeonGreen-3xFLAG are useful tools for biological studies in mammalian cells using mNeonGreen.

  14. Voice over LTE via Generic access (Volga) as a possible solution of mobile networks transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Stepaniuk, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    This paper is focused on Voice over LTE via Generic Access Network, which concept is to connect the already existing Mobile Switching Centers to the LTE network via a gateway supporting 2G or 3G voice environment.

  15. A W−Ne interatomic potential for simulation of neon implantation in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, Marie; Juslin, Niklas; Huang, Guiyang [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States); Wirth, Brian D., E-mail: bdwirth@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2300 (United States); P.O. Box 2008, MS-6003, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    An interatomic pair potential for W−Ne is developed for atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of neon implantation in tungsten. The new potential predicts point defect energies and binding energies of small clusters that are in good agreement with electronic structure calculations. Molecular dynamics simulations of small neon clusters in tungsten show that trap mutation, in which an interstitial neon cluster displaces a tungsten atom from its lattice site, occurs for clusters of three or more neon atoms. However, near a free surface, trap mutation can occur at smaller sizes, including even a single neon interstitial in close proximity to a (100) or (110) surface.

  16. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... patient. The device may use techniques such as mass spectrometry or thermal conductivity. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neon gas analyzer. 868.1670 Section 868.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...

  17. Core level photoelectron spectroscopy probed heterogeneous xenon/neon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokapanich, Wandared; Björneholm, Olle; Öhrwall, Gunnar; Tchaplyguine, Maxim

    2017-01-01

    Binary rare gas clusters; xenon and neon which have a significant contrariety between sizes, produced by a co-expansion set up and have been studied using synchrotron radiation based x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concentration ratios of the heterogeneous clusters; 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% were controlled. The core level spectra were used to determine structure of the mixed cluster and analyzed by considering screening mechanisms. Furthermore, electron binding energy shift calculations demonstrated cluster aggregation models which may occur in such process. The results showed that in the case of low mixing ratios of 3% and 5% of xenon in neon, the geometric structures exhibit xenon in the center and xenon/neon interfaced in the outer shells. However, neon cluster vanished when the concentration of xenon was increased to 10%. - Highlights: • Co-expansion setup is suitable for producing binary Xe/Ne clusters. • Appropriate temperature, pressure, and mixing ratios should be strictly controlled. • Low mixing ratio, Xe formed in the core and Xe/Ne interfacing in the outer shell. • High mixing ratio, only pure Xe clusters were detected.

  18. Energy saved neon sign lighting power supply for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanitteerapan, T.; Dokpikul, S.; Arunrungrasmi, S. [King Mongkut Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Electrical Technology Education, Faculty of Industrial Education

    2007-07-01

    Petroleum oil, natural gas and fossil fuels are commonly used in power plants for electrical power generation. However, because of their negative environmental impacts, energy and environmental savings from renewable energy resources are necessary choices. Solar energy can be converted to the electrical voltage by using solar arrays. This process can be used in many electrical applications. This paper introduced a neon sign lighting power supply for a small photovoltaic powered stand-alone commercial advertising board for a remote area in Thailand. The circuit implementation was very simple, consisting of an active switch device, a resonant capacitor and high frequency transformer. The control also operated as a fixed frequency and fixed duty ratio controller. The paper discussed the principle of neon sign lighting, power circuit operation, and control circuit operation. To verify the proposed power supply, the circuit experiment of the proposed power supply for the neon sign lighting was applied to a 10 foot long, 10 millimeter diameter bulb. The neon sign was ignited smoothly with little power consumption. 2 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  19. Recent results from neutrino interactions in heavy neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cnops, A.M.; Connolly, P.L.; Kahn, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Recent results presented from a study of muon neutrinos interacting in heavy neon include dilepton production, strange particle rates, the D 0 →K 0 π + π - decay, the lack of observation of new particles, and the cross section for nu/sub e/ + e elastic scattering. 8 references

  20. Molecular Iodine Fluorescence Using a Green Helium-Neon Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Excitation of molecular iodine vapor with a green (543.4 nm) helium-neon laser produces a fluorescence spectrum that is well suited for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. Application of standard evaluation techniques to the spectrum yields ground electronic-state molecular parameters in good agreement with literature…

  1. Pricing Resources in LTE Networks through Multiobjective Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yung-Liang; Jiang, Jehn-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    The LTE technology offers versatile mobile services that use different numbers of resources. This enables operators to provide subscribers or users with differential quality of service (QoS) to boost their satisfaction. On one hand, LTE operators need to price the resources high for maximizing their profits. On the other hand, pricing also needs to consider user satisfaction with allocated resources and prices to avoid “user churn,” which means subscribers will unsubscribe services due to dissatisfaction with allocated resources or prices. In this paper, we study the pricing resources with profits and satisfaction optimization (PRPSO) problem in the LTE networks, considering the operator profit and subscribers' satisfaction at the same time. The problem is modelled as nonlinear multiobjective optimization with two optimal objectives: (1) maximizing operator profit and (2) maximizing user satisfaction. We propose to solve the problem based on the framework of the NSGA-II. Simulations are conducted for evaluating the proposed solution. PMID:24526889

  2. Improvements to the RADIOM non-LTE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, M.; Colombant, D.; Klapisch, M.; Fyfe, D.; Gardner, J.

    2009-12-01

    In 1993, we proposed the RADIOM model [M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids 85 (1993) 4191] where an ionization temperature T z is used to derive non-LTE properties from LTE data. T z is obtained from an "extended Saha equation" where unbalanced transitions, like radiative decay, give the non-LTE behavior. Since then, major improvements have been made. T z has been shown to be more than a heuristic value, but describes the actual distribution of excited and ionized states and can be understood as an "effective temperature". Therefore we complement the extended Saha equation by introducing explicitly the auto-ionization/dielectronic capture. Also we use the SCROLL model to benchmark the computed values of T z.

  3. LTE for Railways: Impact on Performance of ETCS Railway Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    The Global System for Mobile Communications-Railways (GSM-R) is an obsolete mobile technology with considerable shortcomings in terms of capacity and data transmission capabilities. Because of these shortcomings, GSM-R is becoming the element limiting the number of running trains in areas with high...... train concentration, such as major train stations. Moreover, GSM-R cannot support advanced data services. Hence, modern technologies, such as long-term evolution (LTE), have to be evaluated as possible railway communication technologies to replace GSM-R in the future. This article analyzes...... the characteristics of the LTE railway radio access network in terms of eNodeB (LTE base station) density and eNodeB transmission power. Based on this analysis, a set of computer-based simulation scenarios (e.g., OPNET) with varying numbers of eNodeBs is evaluated regarding the achieved transfer delay and data...

  4. Pricing resources in LTE networks through multiobjective optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yung-Liang; Jiang, Jehn-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    The LTE technology offers versatile mobile services that use different numbers of resources. This enables operators to provide subscribers or users with differential quality of service (QoS) to boost their satisfaction. On one hand, LTE operators need to price the resources high for maximizing their profits. On the other hand, pricing also needs to consider user satisfaction with allocated resources and prices to avoid "user churn," which means subscribers will unsubscribe services due to dissatisfaction with allocated resources or prices. In this paper, we study the pricing resources with profits and satisfaction optimization (PRPSO) problem in the LTE networks, considering the operator profit and subscribers' satisfaction at the same time. The problem is modelled as nonlinear multiobjective optimization with two optimal objectives: (1) maximizing operator profit and (2) maximizing user satisfaction. We propose to solve the problem based on the framework of the NSGA-II. Simulations are conducted for evaluating the proposed solution.

  5. Pricing Resources in LTE Networks through Multiobjective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Liang Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The LTE technology offers versatile mobile services that use different numbers of resources. This enables operators to provide subscribers or users with differential quality of service (QoS to boost their satisfaction. On one hand, LTE operators need to price the resources high for maximizing their profits. On the other hand, pricing also needs to consider user satisfaction with allocated resources and prices to avoid “user churn,” which means subscribers will unsubscribe services due to dissatisfaction with allocated resources or prices. In this paper, we study the pricing resources with profits and satisfaction optimization (PRPSO problem in the LTE networks, considering the operator profit and subscribers' satisfaction at the same time. The problem is modelled as nonlinear multiobjective optimization with two optimal objectives: (1 maximizing operator profit and (2 maximizing user satisfaction. We propose to solve the problem based on the framework of the NSGA-II. Simulations are conducted for evaluating the proposed solution.

  6. Adaptive Modulation and Coding for LTE Wireless Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, S. S.; Tiong, T. C.

    2015-04-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the new upgrade path for carrier with both GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks. The LTE is targeting to become the first global mobile phone standard regardless of the different LTE frequencies and bands use in other countries barrier. Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) is used to increase the network capacity or downlink data rates. Various modulation types are discussed such as Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Spatial multiplexing techniques for 4×4 MIMO antenna configuration is studied. With channel station information feedback from the mobile receiver to the base station transmitter, adaptive modulation and coding can be applied to adapt to the mobile wireless channels condition to increase spectral efficiencies without increasing bit error rate in noisy channels. In High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), AMC can be used to choose modulation types and forward error correction (FEC) coding rate.

  7. LTE HetNet Mobility Performance Through Emulation with Commercial Smartphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Riis; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Lauridsen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a laboratory emulation setup for evaluation of Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobility performance in a co-channel heterogeneous network (HetNet). The setup consists of two eNodeB emulators, signal faders and release 9 LTE User Equipment (UE). It is shown how the LTE HetNet ...

  8. Software Defined Networking to support IP address mobility in future LTE network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Valtulina, Luca; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Pras, Aiko; Liebsch, Marco; Taleb, Tarik

    2017-01-01

    The existing LTE network architecture dose not scale well to increasing demands due to its highly centralized and hierarchical composition. In this paper we discuss the major modifications required in the current LTE network to realize a decentralized LTE architecture. Next, we develop two IP

  9. Characteristics of x-rays from a plasma focus operated with neon gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaullah, M [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Alamgir, K [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Shafiq, M [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Hassan, S M [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Sharif, M [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Hussain, S [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Waheed, A [PINSTECH, PO Box 2151, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2002-11-01

    The x-ray emission from a low-energy (2.3 kJ) plasma focus is investigated with neon as the filling gas. Two anode configurations are used in the experiment: the conventional cylindrical anode, and tapered anode slightly toward the open end. The latter geometry enhances soft x-ray emission by an order of magnitude. The emission is pressure dependent and, in both cases, the highest emission is observed at 3-3.5 mbar. For the cylindrical anode, the soft x-ray emission is up to 7 J per shot, which is from a pinched plasma column, 5-6 mm long. For the tapered anode, up to 80 J per shot soft x-ray yield in 4{pi} geometry is recorded, which corresponds to 4% wall plug efficiency. The diameter of the x-ray emission filament is much larger compared with the cylindrical anode. The bulk of emitted radiation is of energy 1.2-1.3 keV, which is thought to arise from recombination of hydrogen-like (Ne x) ions with the low-energy electrons.

  10. Characteristics of x-rays from a plasma focus operated with neon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaullah, M; Alamgir, K; Shafiq, M; Hassan, S M; Sharif, M; Hussain, S; Waheed, A

    2002-01-01

    The x-ray emission from a low-energy (2.3 kJ) plasma focus is investigated with neon as the filling gas. Two anode configurations are used in the experiment: the conventional cylindrical anode, and tapered anode slightly toward the open end. The latter geometry enhances soft x-ray emission by an order of magnitude. The emission is pressure dependent and, in both cases, the highest emission is observed at 3-3.5 mbar. For the cylindrical anode, the soft x-ray emission is up to 7 J per shot, which is from a pinched plasma column, 5-6 mm long. For the tapered anode, up to 80 J per shot soft x-ray yield in 4π geometry is recorded, which corresponds to 4% wall plug efficiency. The diameter of the x-ray emission filament is much larger compared with the cylindrical anode. The bulk of emitted radiation is of energy 1.2-1.3 keV, which is thought to arise from recombination of hydrogen-like (Ne x) ions with the low-energy electrons

  11. Optimized green operation of LTE networks in the presence of multiple electricity providers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2012-12-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can significantly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and help to save the environment. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, introducing renewable energies as alternative power sources becomes a real challenge to network operators. In this paper, we propose a method that reduces the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (Renewable energy and electricity retailers). We formulate an optimization problem that leads to the maximization of the profit of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operator, and at the same time to the minimization of CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Optimized green operation of LTE networks in the presence of multiple electricity providers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can significantly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and help to save the environment. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, introducing renewable energies as alternative power sources becomes a real challenge to network operators. In this paper, we propose a method that reduces the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (Renewable energy and electricity retailers). We formulate an optimization problem that leads to the maximization of the profit of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operator, and at the same time to the minimization of CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Reducing LTE Uplink Transmission Energy by Allocating Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Jensen, Anders Riis; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    The effect of physical resource block (PRB) allocation on an LTE modem's transmit power and total modem energy consumption is examined. In this paper the uplink resource blocks are scheduled in either a Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) or Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) manner......, to determine if low transmission power & long transmission time or high transmission power & short transmission time is most energy efficient. It is important to minimize the LTE modem's energy consumption caused by uplink transmission because it affects phone battery time, and because researchers rarely focus...

  14. Predicted continuum spectra of type II supernovae - LTE results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviv, G.; Wehrse, R.; Wagoner, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The continuum spectral energy distribution of the flux emerging from type II supernovae is calculated from quasi-static radiative transfer through a power-law density gradient, assuming radiative equilibrium and LTE. It is found that the Balmer jump disappears at high effective temperatures and low densities, while the spectrum resembles that of a dilute blackbody but is flatter with a sharper cutoff at the short-wavelength end. A significant UV excess is found in all models calculated. The calculation should be considered exploratory because of significant effects which are anticipated to arise from departure from LTE.

  15. Synchronized RACH-less Handover Solution for LTE Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbera, Simone; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Rosa, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    reductions in the data connectivity interruption time at each handover, no need for random access in the target cell, and reduced overall handover execution time. Laboratory handover measurement results, using commercial LTE equipment, are presented and analyzed to justify the latency benefits......Some of the most recent LTE features require synchronous base stations, and time-synchronized base stations also offer opportunities for improved handover mechanisms by introducing a new synchronized RACH-less handover scheme. The synchronized RACH-less handover solution offers significant...

  16. Power-Consumption Measurements for LTE User Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads

    wireless communications test set and the Agilent N6705B DC power analyzer to establish a power consumption model for LTE user equipment (UE). The model is useful when you need to examine the UE battery life in system-level simulations. We will explain how the Agilent equipment can be used in manual tests......, but we do not discuss how to make automated tests (for example, using VEE software). In this application note, we analyze smartphones adhering to the 3GPP LTE standard [1]....

  17. LTE modem power consumption, SAR and RF signal strength emulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musiige, Deogratius; Vincent, Laulagnet; Anton, François

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for emulating the LTE modem power consumption, emitted SAR and RF signal strength when transmitting an LTE signal. The inputs of the methodology are: modem logical/protocol commands, time advance, near-field specifier, and antenna characteristics. The power...... emulation model(s) are computed by a two layer 451 neural network based on physical power measurements. SAR is emulated by polynomial interpolation models based on FDTD simulations. The accuracies of the mathematical function approximations for the emulation models of power and SAR are 5.19% and 3...

  18. Mercury depletion as a way of changing the emission spectrum of a fluorescent lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2000-01-01

    We present a promising option for changing the emission spectrum of a fluorescent lamp. In a neon/mercury discharge, neon radiation is produced when the mercury density is sufficiently low. Under certain discharge conditions, radial cathaphoresis causes depletion of mercury atoms in the center of

  19. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI.

  20. Cloudified Mobility and Bandwidth Prediction in Virtualized LTE Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Zongliang; Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Braun, Torsten; Pras, Aiko; van den Berg, Hans Leo

    Network Function Virtualization involves implementing network functions (e.g., virtualized LTE component) in software that can run on a range of industry standard server hardware, and can be migrated or instantiated on demand. A prediction service hosted on cloud infrastructures enables consumers to

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Downlink Subcarrier Allocation Schemes in LTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The efficient utilization of the air interface in the LTE standard is achieved through a combination of subcarrier allocation schemes, adaptive modulation and coding, and transmission power allotment. The scheduler in the base station has a major role in achieving the required QoS and the overall...

  2. MIH based mobility for TETRA-LTE network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana

    2013-01-01

    TETRA is a digital trunked mobile radio standard, devel- oped to meet the needs of traditional Professional Mobile Radio user or-ganizations. As TETRA does not provide for broadband services, many companies are looking into integration of LTE and TETRA in order to provide support for real time mu...

  3. Heterogeneous LTE-Advanced Network Expansion for 1000x Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Sanchez, Maria Laura Luque; Maternia, Michal

    2013-01-01

    this paper studies LTE (Long-Term Evolution)-Advanced heterogeneous network expansion in a dense urban environment for a 1000 times capacity increase and a 10 times increase in minimum user data rate requirements. The radio network capacity enhancement via outdoor and indoor small cell densificat...

  4. Performance of Uplink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Carrier aggregation (CA) has been proposed to aggregate two or more component carriers (CCs) to support a much wider transmission bandwidth for LTE-Advanced systems. With carrier aggregation, it is possible to schedule a user equipment (UE) on multiple component carriers simultaneously. In this p...

  5. TD-LTE maritime trunking communication system based on TVWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chunxiang; Chen, Xing; Li, Wanchao; Chen, Baodan

    2014-10-01

    This paper collects the measurement results of 470 MHZ-960MHZ spectrum in the coastal areas, and analyzes the characteristics of TV broadcast spectrum occupancy in the measurement region. Moreover, this article proposes construct the TD-LTE maritime trunking communication system using geolocation database, television database (TVDB) and cognitive radio (CR) technology.

  6. RRM Strategies in LTE&WiMAX Interworking System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    , that could be applied in 4G systems (LTE interworking with WiMAX is considered). Furthermore, it will also discuss the Radio Resource Management (RRM) problem addressing the challenges of designing a RRM system for such a multi-RAT wireless environment. Different functionalities and possibilities...

  7. Non-LTE Analysis of Interstellar Line Spectra of SiO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziwei; Stancil, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    SiO emission lines are important probes of chemical processes in diverse astrophysical environments. In circumstellar outflows of AGB stars, the production of silicate grains is preceded by SiO formation, making SiO a useful measure of Si depletion. SiO is also commonly observed in shocks associated with the outflows of young stellar objects, both low- and high-mass. To model SiO emission for non-LTE conditions requires collisional rate coefficients due to H2 impact which are currently unavailable. Unknown collisional rate coefficients are often estimated from known systems. For the case of SiO-H2, rate coefficients have previously been adapted from a different collider, He (Dayau & Balanca 2006), based on a reduced-mass scaling approach. Recently it has been suggested that scaling via the interaction potential well depth and the reduced masses of the collisional systems may be more reliable (Walker et al. 2014). Using the non-LTE spectral modeling package Radex (van der Tak et al. 2007), we construct diagnostic plots of SiO line ratios using SiO-H2 collisional rate coefficients based on (i) reduced-mass scaling from the LAMDA database, (ii) potential well-depth scaling, and (iii) a more comprehensive input with multiple colliders (H2, He and H). Our goal is to give a more rigorous approach to SiO line emission simulations to better understand Si chemistry, dust formation/destruction, and other astrophysical processes.This work was supported by NASA ATP grant NNX15AI61G.

  8. Extreme UV observation of 3-3 transitions of niobium in near neon-like charge states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchet-Poulizac, M.C. E-mail: marie-claude.buchet-poulizac@lasim.univ-lyon1.fr; Cassimi, A.; Cremer, G.; Grandin, J.-P.; Hennecart, D.; Husson, X.; Jacquet, E.; Wyart, J.-F

    2003-05-01

    The emission spectra of highly ionised niobium ions generated by beam-foil excitation in the range 7-21 nm show most 3-3 transitions belonging to the neon-like ions and neighbouring Na-, Mg- and F- sequences. Wavelengths have been determined in reference to {delta}n=1 transitions between Rydberg states. Line identification have been made by comparison to extra- or interpolation of wavenumbers along isoelectronic sequences when data were available and to ab initio atomic structure calculations, using either a Cowan code or a fully relativistic parametric code for Ne- and F-sequences.

  9. A dielectric barrier discharge in neon at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Junxia; Luo Haiyun; Wang Xinxin

    2011-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge in neon at atmospheric pressure is investigated with electrical measurement and fast photography. It is found that a stable diffuse discharge can be easily generated in a gap with a gap space of 0.5-6 mm and is identified with a glow discharge. The first breakdown voltage of the gap is considerably higher than that of the same gap working in a stable diffuse discharge mode, which indicates that Penning ionization of neon metastables from the previous discharge with inevitable gas impurities plays an important role in the decrease in the breakdown voltage. Discharge patterns are observed in a gap shorter than 1 mm. From the experiments with a wedge-like gap, it is found that the discharge patterns are formed in the area with a higher applied electric field, which suggests that a higher applied electric field may cause a transition from a diffuse glow to discharge patterns.

  10. Simulations of Neon Pellets for Plasma Disruption Mitigation in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosviel, Nicolas; Samulyak, Roman; Parks, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Numerical studies of the ablation of neon pellets in tokamaks in the plasma disruption mitigation parameter space have been performed using a time-dependent pellet ablation model based on the front tracking code FronTier-MHD. The main features of the model include the explicit tracking of the solid pellet/ablated gas interface, a self-consistent evolving potential distribution in the ablation cloud, JxB forces, atomic processes, and an improved electrical conductivity model. The equation of state model accounts for atomic processes in the ablation cloud as well as deviations from the ideal gas law in the dense, cold layers of neon gas near the pellet surface. Simulations predict processes in the ablation cloud and pellet ablation rates and address the sensitivity of pellet ablation processes to details of physics models, in particular the equation of state.

  11. Influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties of LTE and non-LTE SF6-Cu mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhexin; Wu, Yi; Yang, Fei; Sun, Hao; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Chunlin

    2017-10-01

    SF6-Cu mixture is frequently formed in high-voltage circuit breakers due to the electrode erosion and metal vapor diffusion. During the interruption process, the multiphase effect and deviation from local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE assumption) can both affect the thermo-physical of the arc plasma and further influence the performance of circuit breaker. In this paper, thermo-physical properties, namely composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated for multiphase SF6-Cu mixture with and without LTE assumption. The composition is confirmed by combining classical two-temperature mass action law with phase equilibrium condition deduced from second law of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated using the multiphase composition result. The influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties is discussed at different temperature, pressure (0.1-10 atm), non-equilibrium degrees (1-10), and copper molar proportions (0-50%). It is found that the multiphase effect has significant influence on specific enthalpy, specific heat and heavy species thermal conductivity in both LTE and non-LTE SF6-Cu system. This paper provides a more accurate database for computational fluid dynamic calculation.

  12. Coherent rho+ production in neutrino-neon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagh, H.C.; Bingham, H.H.; Lawry, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Coherent rho + production on neon nuclei has been observed in charged-current events in a neutrino bubble-chamber experiment. The incident neutrino energy was 10--320 GeV, with a median event energy of 80 GeV. The rate per charged-current event was (0.28 +- 0.10)%. Comparison was made to vector-meson-dominance predictions; agreement with the overall rate, but disagreement at high neutrino energies and at high Q 2 , was found

  13. Biological effects of accelerated boron, carbon, and neon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryev, Yu.G.; Ryzhov, N.I.; Popov, V.I.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of accelerated boron, carbon, and neon ions on various biological materials were determined. The accelerated ions included 10 B, 11 B, 12 C, 20 Ne, 22 Ne, and 40 Ar. Gamma radiation and x radiation were used as references in the experiments. Among the biological materials used were mammalian cells and tissues, yeasts, unicellular algae (chlorella), and hydrogen bacteria. The results of the investigation are given and the biophysical aspects of the problem are discussed

  14. Neon dewar for the X-ray spectrometer onboard Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, R. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara 229-8510 (Japan)]. E-mail: fujimoto@isas.jaxa.jp; Mitsuda, K. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara 229-8510 (Japan); Hirabayashi, M. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI), 5-2 Sobiraki-cho, Niihama 792-8588 (Japan); Narasaki, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI), 5-2 Sobiraki-cho, Niihama 792-8588 (Japan); Breon, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Boyle, R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Di Pirro, M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Volz, S.M. [NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546-0001 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The X-ray spectrometer (XRS) onboard Suzaku is the first X-ray microcalorimeter array in orbit. The sensor array is operated at 60mK, which is attained by an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator and superfluid liquid helium. The neon dewar is a vacuum-insulated container for the XRS. The requirements for the XRS dewar are to maintain the detector and the cryogenic system under the mechanical environment at launch ({approx}15G), and to attain a lifetime of 3 years in a near-earth orbit. It is characterized with adoptions of solid neon as the second cryogen and a mechanical cooler, design optimization of the support straps for the neon tank to reduce the heat load as much as possible, and shock absorbers to mitigate the mechanical environment at launch. Microphonics from the mechanical cooler was one of the concerns for the detector performance, but the ground test results proved that they do not interfere with the detector. After about 1 month in orbit, its thermal performance showed that the dewar potentially achieves its design goals.

  15. NEON's Mobile Deployment Platform: A Resource for Community Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanclements, M.

    2017-12-01

    Here we provide an update on construction of the five NEON Mobile Deployment Platforms (MDPs) as well as a description of the infrastructure and sensors available to researchers in the near future. Additionally, we include information (i.e. timelines and procedures) on requesting MDPs for PI led projects. The MDPs will provide the means to observe stochastic or spatially important events, gradients, or quantities that cannot be reliably observed using fixed location sampling (e.g. fires and floods). Due to the transient temporal and spatial nature of such events, the MDPs are designed to accommodate rapid deployment for time periods up to 1 year. Broadly, the MDPs are comprised of infrastructure and instrumentation capable of functioning individually or in conjunction with one another to support observations of ecological change, as well as education, training and outreach. More specifically, the MDPs include the capability to make tower based measures of ecosystem exchange, radiation, and precipitation in conjunction with baseline soils data such as CO2 flux, and soil temperature and moisture. An aquatics module is also available with the MDP to facilitate research integrating terrestrial and aquatic processes. Ultimately, the NEON MDPs provide a tool for linking PI led research to the continental scale data sets collected by NEON.

  16. Low pressure broadening and shift of the 540.06 nm line of neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielski, A.; Dokurno, W.; Szudy, J.; Wolnikowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    The collision broadening and shift of the 540.06 nm line of neon emitted from a low pressure glow discharge in pure neon and a neon-helium mixture have been measured. The values of the broadening and shift coefficients were determined and compared with the results of calculations based on the Lindholm-Foley impact theory assuming a Lennard-Jones potential. The results for pure neon demonstrate the inadequacy of the Lennard-Jones potential for the Ne-Ne interaction. (orig.)

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet's characterization and surface wettability driven by neon transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfa, R. R.; Nafarizal, N.; Ahmad, M. K.; Sahdan, M. Z.; Soon, C. F.

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma driven by Neon transformer power supply argon is presented in this paper. Atmospheric pressure plasma system has attracted researcher interest over low pressure plasma as it provides a flexibility process, cost-efficient, portable device and vacuum-free device. Besides, another golden key of this system is the wide promising application in the field of work cover from industrial and engineering to medical. However, there are still numbers of fundamental investigation that are necessary such as device configuration, gas configuration and its effect. Dielectric barrier discharge which is also known as atmospheric pressure plasma discharge is created when there is gas ionization process occur which enhance the movement of atom and electron and provide energetic particles. These energetic particles can provide modification and cleaning property to the sample surface due to the bombardment of the high reactive ion and radicals to the sample surface. In order to develop atmospheric pressure plasma discharge, a high voltage and high frequency power supply is needed. In this work, we used a neon transformer power supply as the power supply. The flow of the Ar is feed into 10 mm cylinder quartz tube with different treatment time in order to investigate the effect of the plasma discharge. The analysis of each treatment time is presented by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and water contact angle (WCA) measurement. The increase of gas treatment time shows increases intensity of reactive Ar and reduces the angle of water droplets in water contact angle. Treatment time of 20 s microslide glass surface shows that the plasma needle discharges have modified the sample surface from hydrophilic surface to superhydrophilic surface. Thus, this leads to another interesting application in reducing sample surface adhesion to optimize productivity in the industry of paintings, semiconductor and more.

  18. Analisis Kelayakan Implementasi Teknologi LTE 1.8 GHz Bagi Operator Seluler di Indonesia [Feasibility Analysis of LTE 1.8 GHz for Mobile Operators in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ariyanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan kebutuhan layanan data mendorong operator telekomunikasi berusaha mengimplementasikan jaringan akses broadband yang lebih handal.  Teknologi LTE merupakan salah satu teknologi dengan kecepatan mencapai tiga kali dibanding teknologi HSDPA, sehingga diharapkan dapat memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan data mobile. Refarming frekuensi 1.8 GHz  untuk penerapan teknologi LTE memberikan efisiensi karena tidak perlu membayar BHP lagi untuk menyewa frekuensi baru. Teknologi 2G GSM selama ini juga semakin ditinggalkan, masyarakat di daerah perkotaan cenderung lebih banyak menggunakan layanan data.  Sebelum diterapkannya teknologi LTE pada frekuensi 1.8 GHz perlu adanya kajian untuk mengetahui kelayakan teknologi LTE pada frekuensi 1.8 GHz. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan cost-benefit analysis implementasi LTE pada frekuensi 1.8 GHz.  Metode penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitataif yang didukung dengan data kuantitatif.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa minimal bandiwdth yang diperlukan agar implementasi LTE layak digunakan adalah 15 MHz.  Meskipun tanpa Global Frequency Returning, penggunaan bandwidth 10 MHz tidak layak digunakan untuk implementasi LTE.      *****The incresing of data demand drives mobile operators to implement more reliable broadband access network. LTE technology has downlink peak rate up to three times than HSDPA,  hence it may fulfill the mobile data user requirement. Frequency 1.8 GHz refarming can be implemented to provide efficiency because They do not need to pay licence fee for leasing new frequency. GSM technology will be abandoned since it is not growing anymore. Besides that, dense urban users tend to use data mobile.  Before implementing LTE technology  on 1.8 GHz frequency, It is necessary to analysis the feasibility such technology. This research used qualitative method supported by quantitative  approach.  The result of this research showed that minimum bandwidth to implement 1.8 GHz LTE

  19. Resilience of LTE networks against smart jamming attacks

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan M.

    2014-12-08

    Commercial LTE networks are being studied for mission-critical applications, such as public safety and smart grid communications. In this paper, LTE networks are shown vulnerable to Denial-of-Service (DOS) and loss of service attacks from smart jammers, who may employ simple narrowband jamming techniques to attack without any need to hack the network or its users. We modeled the utilities of jamming and anti-jamming actions played by the jammer and the network under the framework of single-shot and repeated Bayesian games. In a single-shot game formulation the only Nash Equilibria (NE) are pure strategy equilibria at which network utility is severely compromised. We propose a repeated-game learning and strategy algorithm for the network that outperforms single-shot games by a significant margin. Furthermore, all of our proposed actions and algorithms can be implemented with current technology.

  20. Design and optimization of LTE 1800 MIMO antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Huey Shin; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Kibria, Salehin

    2014-01-01

    A multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) antenna that comprises a printed microstrip antenna and a printed double-L sleeve monopole antenna for LTE 1800 wireless application is presented. The printed double-L sleeve monopole antenna is fed by a 50 ohm coplanar waveguide (CPW). A novel T-shaped microstrip feedline printed on the other side of the PCB is used to excite the waveguide's outer shell. Isolation characteristics better than -15 dB can be obtained for the proposed MIMO antenna. The proposed antenna can operate in LTE 1800 (1710 MHz-1880 MHz). This antenna exhibits omnidirectional characteristics. The efficiency of the antenna is greater than 70% and has high gain of 2.18 dBi.

  1. Using LTE Networks for UAV Command and Control Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Wigard, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the ability of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network to provide coverage for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in a rural area, in particular for the Command and Control (C2) downlink. The study takes into consideration the dependency of the large-scale path loss on the hei......In this paper we investigate the ability of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network to provide coverage for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in a rural area, in particular for the Command and Control (C2) downlink. The study takes into consideration the dependency of the large-scale path loss...... on the height of the UAV, which is derived from actual measurements, and a real-world cellular network layout and configuration. The results indicate that interference is the dominant factor limiting the cellular coverage for UAVs in the downlink: outage level increases from 4.2% at 1.5 m height to 51.7% at 120...

  2. Capacity planning for Carrier Ethernet LTE backhaul networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Ellegaard, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2012-01-01

    With the introduction of LTE networks operators need to plan a new, IP-based mobile backhaul. In this paper, we provide recommendation on dimensioning LTE backhaul networks links using three methods: delay-, dimensioning formula- and overbooking factor-based. Results are obtained from OPNET simul...... and verified. Simulation in this work proves that Carrier Ethernet, one of the candidate technologies for mobile backhaul, protects the network from users that want to flood the network with their data and manages to keep the delay experienced by other users low....... simulations with traffic model based on traffic forecast for 2015. A delay-based approach gives recommended bandwidth for expected number of users. A dimensioning formula is proposed to calculate link bandwidth when mean value of aggregated traffic in the network is known. An overbooking factor is calculated...

  3. Self-Optimization of LTE Networks Utilizing Celnet Xplorer

    CERN Document Server

    Buvaneswari, A; Polakos, Paul; Buvaneswari, Arumugam

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet demanding performance objectives in Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks, it is mandatory to implement highly efficient, autonomic self-optimization and configuration processes. Self-optimization processes have already been studied in second generation (2G) and third generation (3G) networks, typically with the objective of improving radio coverage and channel capacity. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standard for LTE self-organization of networks (SON) provides guidelines on self-configuration of physical cell ID and neighbor relation function and self-optimization for mobility robustness, load balancing, and inter-cell interference reduction. While these are very important from an optimization perspective of local phenomenon (i.e., the eNodeB's interaction with its neighbors), it is also essential to architect control algorithms to optimize the network as a whole. In this paper, we propose a Celnet Xplorer-based SON architecture that allows detailed analysis of network performan...

  4. Design, deployment and performance of 4G-LTE networks a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    ElNashar, Ayman; Sherif, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an insight into the key practical aspects and best practice of 4G-LTE network design, performance, and deployment Design, Deployment and Performance of 4G-LTE Networks addresses the key practical aspects and best practice of 4G networks design, performance, and deployment. In addition, the book focuses on the end-to-end aspects of the LTE network architecture and different deployment scenarios of commercial LTE networks. It describes the air interface of LTE focusing on the access stratum protocol layers: PDCP, RLC, MAC, and Physical Layer. The air interface described in this book covers the concepts of LTE frame structure, downlink and uplink scheduling, and detailed illustrations of the data flow across the protocol layers. It describes the details of the optimization process including performance measurements and troubleshooting mechanisms in addition to demonstrating common issues and case studies based on actual field results. The book provides detailed performance analysis of key fe...

  5. Power efficient dynamic resource scheduling algorithms for LTE

    OpenAIRE

    Han, C; Beh, KC; Nicolaou, M; Armour, SMD; Doufexi, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a link level analysis of the rate and energy efficiency performance of the LTE downlink considering the unitary codebook based precoding scheme. In a multi-user environment, appropriate radio resource management strategies can be applied to the system to improve the performance gain by exploiting multi-user diversity in the time, frequency and space domains and the gains can be translated to energy reduction at the base station. Several existing and novel resource scheduli...

  6. Traffic Dimensioning and Performance Modeling of 4G LTE Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    Rapid changes in mobile techniques have always been evolutionary, and the deployment of 4G Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks will be the same. It will be another transition from Third Generation (3G) to Fourth Generation (4G) over a period of several years, as is the case still with the transition from Second Generation (2G) to 3G. As a result,…

  7. Non-LTE models of Titan's upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelle, Roger V.

    1991-01-01

    Models for the thermal structure of Titan's upper atmosphere, between 0.1 mbar and 0.01 nbar are presented. The calculations include non-LTE heating/cooling in the rotation-vibration bands of CH4, C2H2, and C2H6, absorption of solar IR radiation in the near-IR bands of CH4 and subsequent cascading to the nu-4 band of CH4, absorption of solar EUV and UV radiation, thermal conduction and cooling by HCN rotational lines. Unlike earlier models, the calculated exospheric temperature agrees well with observations, because of the importance of HCN cooling. The calculations predict a well-developed mesopause with a temperature of 135-140 K at an altitude of approximately 600 km and pressure of about 0.1 microbar. The mesopause is at a higher pressure than predicted by earlier calculations because non-LTE radiative transfer in the rotation-vibration bands of CH4, C2H2, and C2H6 is treated in an accurate manner. The accuracy of the LTE approximation for source functions and heating rates is discussed.

  8. Improvements to Busquet's Non LTE algorithm in NRL's Hydro code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, M.; Colombant, D.

    1996-11-01

    Implementation of the Non LTE model RADIOM (M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993)) in NRL's RAD2D Hydro code in conservative form was reported previously(M. Klapisch et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 40, 1806 (1995)).While the results were satisfactory, the algorithm was slow and not always converging. We describe here modifications that address the latter two shortcomings. This method is quicker and more stable than the original. It also gives information about the validity of the fitting. It turns out that the number and distribution of groups in the multigroup diffusion opacity tables - a basis for the computation of radiation effects in the ionization balance in RADIOM- has a large influence on the robustness of the algorithm. These modifications give insight about the algorithm, and allow to check that the obtained average charge state is the true average. In addition, code optimization resulted in greatly reduced computing time: The ratio of Non LTE to LTE computing times being now between 1.5 and 2.

  9. Analysis of the LTE Access Reservation Protocol for Real-Time Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2013-01-01

    LTE is increasingly seen as a system for serving real-time Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication needs. The asynchronous M2M user access in LTE is obtained through a two-phase access reservation protocol (contention and data phase). Existing analysis related to these protocols is based...... of the two-phase LTE reservation protocol and asses its performance, when assumptions (1) and (2) do not hold....

  10. Analysis And Augmentation Of Timing Advance Based Geolocation In Lte Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    measurements to validate TA-based positioning approaches in LTE . Their approach did not, however, focus on characterizing the TA. Rather, similar to...UE will measure the time difference of arrival of the LTE Positioning Reference Signal (PRS) from multiple eNBs. This information is then sent to a...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA DISSERTATION ANALYSIS AND AUGMENTATION OF TIMING ADVANCE-BASED GEOLOCATION IN LTE CELLULAR NETWORKS by

  11. Performance of multi-rate equalizer with lte standard turbo code

    OpenAIRE

    Du, D. (Dongyang)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the uplink channel of the 3GPP long term evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) systems, signal carrier frequency-division multiplexing access (SC-FDMA) transmission scheme is employed instead of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). However, compared to OFDM, SC-FDMA has lower channel throughput, since it suffers from inter-symbol interference (ISI...

  12. LTE UE Energy Saving by Applying Carrier Aggregation in a HetNet Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Wang, Hua; Mogensen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    In this work it is examined if downlink Carrier Aggregation (CA) can be used to save UE energy. A dual-receiver LTE release 10 UE is compared with a single-receiver LTE release 8 UE. The models are based on scaling of an existing LTE release 8 UE power model. The energy consumption of the UEs...... is examined in a Heterogeneous Network scenario consisting of macro and small cells. The unexpected conclusion is that CA UEs can save energy, compared to LTE release 8 UEs, if they, depending on cell load, experience a throughput gain of 20%. However if the UE throughput is unaltered the energy consumption...

  13. Collisional-radiative switching - A powerful technique for converging non-LTE calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, D. G.; Voels, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    A very simple technique has been developed to converge statistical equilibrium and model atmospheric calculations in extreme non-LTE conditions when the usual iterative methods fail to converge from an LTE starting model. The proposed technique is based on a smooth transition from a collision-dominated LTE situation to the desired non-LTE conditions in which radiation dominates, at least in the most important transitions. The proposed approach was used to successfully compute stellar models with He abundances of 0.20, 0.30, and 0.50; Teff = 30,000 K, and log g = 2.9.

  14. Understanding LTE with Matlab from mathematical modeling to simulation and prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Zarrinkoub, Houman

    2014-01-01

    An introduction to technical details related to the Physical Layer of the LTE standard with MATLAB® The LTE (Long Term Evolution) and LTE-Advanced are among the latest mobile communications standards, designed to realize the dream of a truly global, fast, all-IP-based, secure broadband mobile access technology. This book examines the Physical Layer (PHY) of the LTE standards by incorporating three conceptual elements: an overview of the theory behind key enabling technologies; a concise discussion regarding standard specifications; and the MATLAB® algorithms needed to simulate the standard.

  15. Computer modeling of a small neon gas-puff pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullschmied, J.

    1996-01-01

    The macroscopic dynamics of a cylindrical gas-puff pinch and conditions of radiation plasma collapse are studied by using a one-dimensional ('mechanical') computer model. Besides the Joule plasma heating, compressional heating, magnetic field freezing in a plasma and recombination losses, also the real temperature- and density-dependences of radiation plasma loss are taken into account. The results of calculations are compared with experimental data taken from a small neon-puff z-pinch experiment operated at the Institute of Plasma Physics in Prague. (author). 7 figs., 11 refs

  16. Optimizing Sampling Efficiency for Biomass Estimation Across NEON Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, H. H.; Meier, C. L.; Spencer, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the course of 30 years, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will measure plant biomass and productivity across the U.S. to enable an understanding of terrestrial carbon cycle responses to ecosystem change drivers. Over the next several years, prior to operational sampling at a site, NEON will complete construction and characterization phases during which a limited amount of sampling will be done at each site to inform sampling designs, and guide standardization of data collection across all sites. Sampling biomass in 60+ sites distributed among 20 different eco-climatic domains poses major logistical and budgetary challenges. Traditional biomass sampling methods such as clip harvesting and direct measurements of Leaf Area Index (LAI) involve collecting and processing plant samples, and are time and labor intensive. Possible alternatives include using indirect sampling methods for estimating LAI such as digital hemispherical photography (DHP) or using a LI-COR 2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer. These LAI estimations can then be used as a proxy for biomass. The biomass estimates calculated can then inform the clip harvest sampling design during NEON operations, optimizing both sample size and number so that standardized uncertainty limits can be achieved with a minimum amount of sampling effort. In 2011, LAI and clip harvest data were collected from co-located sampling points at the Central Plains Experimental Range located in northern Colorado, a short grass steppe ecosystem that is the NEON Domain 10 core site. LAI was measured with a LI-COR 2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer. The layout of the sampling design included four, 300 meter transects, with clip harvests plots spaced every 50m, and LAI sub-transects spaced every 10m. LAI was measured at four points along 6m sub-transects running perpendicular to the 300m transect. Clip harvest plots were co-located 4m from corresponding LAI transects, and had dimensions of 0.1m by 2m. We conducted regression analyses

  17. Multiple pulse traveling wave excitation of neon-like germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, J. C.; Nilsen, J.; Silva, L. B. da

    1995-01-01

    Traveling wave excitation has been shown to significantly increase the output intensity of the neon-like germanium x-ray laser. The driving laser pulse consisted of three 100 ps Gaussian laser pulses separated by 400 ps. Traveling wave excitation was employed by tilting the wave front of the driving laser by 45 degrees to match the propagation speed of the x-ray laser photons along the length of the target. We show results of experiments with the traveling wave, with no traveling wave, and against the traveling wave and comparisons to a numerical model. Gain was inferred from line intensity measurements at two lengths

  18. Heating, Hydrodynamics, and Radiation From a Laser Heated Non-LTE High-Z Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William; Foord, M. E.; Schneider, M. B.; Barrios, M. A.; Brown, G. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Jarrott, L. C.; Liedahl, D. A.; Marley, E. V.; Mauche, C. W.; Widmann, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present 2D R-z simulations that model the hydrodynamics and x-ray output of a laser heated, tamped foil, using the rad-hydro code LASNEX. The foil consists of a thin (2400 A) cylindrical disk of iron/vanadium/gold that is embedded in a thicker Be tamper. The simulations utilize a non-LTE detailed configuration (DCA) model, which generates the emission spectra. Simulated pinhole images are compared with data, finding qualitative agreement with the time-history of the face-on emission profiles, and exhibiting an interesting reduction in emission size over a few ns time period. Furthermore, we find that the simulations recover similar burn through times in both the target and Be tamper as measured by a time-dependent filtered x-ray detector (DANTE). Additional results and characterization of the experimental plasma will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Infrared spectra of small molecular ions trapped in solid neon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacox, Marilyn E. [Optical Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2015-01-22

    The infrared spectrum of a molecular ion provides a unique signature for that species, gives information on its structure, and is amenable to remote sensing. It also serves as a comparison standard for refining ab initio calculations. Experiments in this laboratory trap molecular ions in dilute solid solution in neon at 4.2 K in sufficient concentration for observation of their infrared spectra between 450 and 4000 cm{sup !1}. Discharge-excited neon atoms produce cations by photoionization and/or Penning ionization of the parent molecule. The resulting electrons are captured by other molecules, yielding anions which provide for overall charge neutrality of the deposit. Recent observations of ions produced from C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and BF{sub 3} will be discussed. Because of their relatively large possibility of having low-lying excited electronic states, small, symmetric molecular cations are especially vulnerable to breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Some phenomena which can result from this breakdown will be discussed. Ion-molecule reaction rates are sufficiently high that in some systems absorptions of dimer cations and anions are also observed. When H{sub 2} is introduced into the system, the initially-formed ion may react with it. Among the species resulting from such ion-molecule reactions that have recently been studied are O{sub 4}{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, HOCO{sup +}, and HCO{sub 2}{sup !}.

  20. Atomic kinetics of a neon photoionized plasma experiment at Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Daniel C.; Mancini, Roberto; Bailey, James E.; Loisel, Guillaume; Rochau, Gregory; ZAPP Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    We discuss an experimental effort to study the atomic kinetics in astrophysically relevant photoionized plasmas via K-shell line absorption spectroscopy. The experiment employs the intense x-ray flux emitted at the collapse of a Z-pinch to heat and backlight a photoionized plasma contained within a cm-scale gas cell placed at a variable distance from the Z-pinch and filled with neon gas pressures in the range from 3.5 to 30 Torr. The experimental platform affords an order of magnitude range in the ionization parameter characterizing the photoionized plasma at the peak of the x-ray drive from about 5 to 80 erg*cm/s. Thus, the experiment allows for the study of trends in ionization distribution as a function of the ionization parameter. An x-ray crystal spectrometer capable of time-integrated and/or time-gated configurations is used to collect absorption spectra. The spectra show line absorption by several ionization stages of neon, including Be-, Li-, He-, and H-like ions. Analysis of these spectra yields ion areal densities and charge state distributions, which can be compared with simulation results from atomic kinetics codes. In addition, the electron temperature is extracted from level population ratios of nearby energy levels in Li- and Be-like ions, which can be used to test heating models of photoionized plasmas.

  1. Gold emissivities for hydrocode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, C.; Wagon, F.; Galmiche, D.; Loiseau, P.; Dattolo, E.; Babonneau, D.

    2004-10-01

    The Radiom model [M. Busquet, Phys Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993)] is designed to provide a radiative-hydrodynamic code with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) data efficiently by using LTE tables. Comparison with benchmark data [M. Klapisch and A. Bar-Shalom, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 687 (1997)] has shown Radiom to be inaccurate far from LTE and for heavy ions. In particular, the emissivity was found to be strongly underestimated. A recent algorithm, Gondor [C. Bowen and P. Kaiser, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 81, 85 (2003)], was introduced to improve the gold non-LTE ionization and corresponding opacity. It relies on fitting the collisional ionization rate to reproduce benchmark data given by the Averroès superconfiguration code [O. Peyrusse, J. Phys. B 33, 4303 (2000)]. Gondor is extended here to gold emissivity calculations, with two simple modifications of the two-level atom line source function used by Radiom: (a) a larger collisional excitation rate and (b) the addition of a Planckian source term, fitted to spectrally integrated Averroès emissivity data. This approach improves the agreement between experiments and hydrodynamic simulations.

  2. Gold emissivities for hydrocode applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, C.; Wagon, F.; Galmiche, D.; Loiseau, P.; Dattolo, E.; Babonneau, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Radiom model [M. Busquet, Phys Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993)] is designed to provide a radiative-hydrodynamic code with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) data efficiently by using LTE tables. Comparison with benchmark data [M. Klapisch and A. Bar-Shalom, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 58, 687 (1997)] has shown Radiom to be inaccurate far from LTE and for heavy ions. In particular, the emissivity was found to be strongly underestimated. A recent algorithm, Gondor [C. Bowen and P. Kaiser, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 81, 85 (2003)], was introduced to improve the gold non-LTE ionization and corresponding opacity. It relies on fitting the collisional ionization rate to reproduce benchmark data given by the Averroes superconfiguration code [O. Peyrusse, J. Phys. B 33, 4303 (2000)]. Gondor is extended here to gold emissivity calculations, with two simple modifications of the two-level atom line source function used by Radiom: (a) a larger collisional excitation rate and (b) the addition of a Planckian source term, fitted to spectrally integrated Averroes emissivity data. This approach improves the agreement between experiments and hydrodynamic simulations

  3. NEON, Establishing a Standardized Network for Groundwater Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, M.; Schroeter, N.; Goodman, K. J.; Roehm, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is establishing a standardized set of data collection systems comprised of in-situ sensors and observational sampling to obtain data fundamental to the analysis of environmental change at a continental scale. NEON will be collecting aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric data using Observatory-wide standardized designs and methods via a systems engineering approach. This approach ensures a wealth of high quality data, data algorithms, and models that will be freely accessible to all communities such as academic researchers, policy makers, and the general public. The project is established to provide 30 years of data which will enable prediction and forecasting of drivers and responses of ecological change at scales ranging from localized responses through regional gradients and up to the continental scale. The Observatory is a distributed system of sites spread across the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, which is subdivided into 20 statistically unique domains, based on a set of 18 ecologically important parameters. Each domain contains at least one core aquatic and terrestrial site which are located in unmanaged lands, and up to 2 additional sites selected to study domain specific questions such as nitrogen deposition gradients and responses of land use change activities on the ecosystem. Here, we present the development of NEON's groundwater observation well network design and the timing strategy for sampling groundwater chemistry. Shallow well networks, up to 100 feet in depth, will be installed at NEON aquatic sites and will allow for observation of localized ecohydrologic site conditions, by providing basic spatio-temporal near-real time data on groundwater parameters (level, temperature, conductivity) collected from in situ high-resolution instrumentation positioned in each well; and biannual sampling of geochemical and nutrient (N and P) concentrations in a subset of wells for each

  4. NEON: Transforming Environmental Data into Free, Open Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, B.

    2010-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect data across the United States on the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on natural resources and biodiversity. NEON is a project of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), with many other U.S. agencies and NGOs cooperating. The Observatory’s construction plans call for 60 sites distributed across 20 ecoclimatic Domains. Data will be collected from strategically selected sites within each Domain and synthesized into information products that can be used to describe changes in the nation’s ecosystem through space and time. Sites are arrayed across different land-use types in order to understand large-scale environmental drivers affect biodiversity, ecohydrology, biogeochemistry, and disease ecology across the US continent. NEON is an instrument that listens to the pulse of the US continental ecosystem: infrastructure deployed at these sites will collect an average of over 500 primary measurements at each site, including annual high-resolution airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral data. These primary measurements will be transformed by a state-of-the-art cyberinfrastruture into over 100 higher-order data products. All measurements, data products, algorithms used to compute the data products, and protocols used to collect the primary measurements will be freely available to the public and assessable over the internet. The information products, including selected socio-economic datasets from cooperating Federal agencies, will be served in standard formats, grid-sizes, and geographical projections. This type of information is anticipated to have a wide range of uses, including ecological forecasting, education, public engagement, socio-economic analyses, decision support for climate-change adaptation and mitigation, resource management, and environmental risk management. Open data, interoperability, an open and integrated observation infrastructure, public engagement, and a

  5. Using adaptive antenna array in LTE with MIMO for space-time processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdourahamane Ahmed Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The actual methods of improvement the existent wireless transmission systems are proposed. Mathematical apparatus is considered and proved by models, graph of which are shown, using the adaptive array antenna in LTE with MIMO for space-time processing. The results show that improvements, which are joined with space-time processing, positively reflects on LTE cell size or on throughput

  6. Mobility and Bandwidth prediction in virtualized LTE systems: architecture and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Jamakovic, Almerima; Briggs, Keith; Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Parada, Carlos; Iulian Corici, Marius; Taleb, Tarik; Edmonds, Andy; Bohnert, Thomas Michael

    2014-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) represents the fourth generation (4G) technology which is capable of providing high data rates as well as support of high speed mobility. The EU FP7 Mobile Cloud Networking (MCN) project integrates the use of cloud computing concepts in LTE mobile networks in order to

  7. Utilizing ICN/CCN for service and VM migration support in virtualized LTE systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Satria, Triadimas; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important concepts used in mobile networks, like LTE (Long Term Evolution) is service continuity. A mobile user moving from one network to another network should not lose an on-going service. In cloud-based (virtualized) LTE systems, services are hosted on Virtual Machines (VMs) that

  8. Efficient LTE Access with Collision Resolution for Massive M2M Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    outage. In this work we propose a LTE RACH scheme tailored for delay-sensitive M2M services with synchronous traffic arrivals. The key idea is, upon detection of a RACH overload, to apply a collision resolution algorithm based on splitting trees. The solution is implemented on top of the existing LTE...

  9. LTE Micro-cell Deployment for High-Density Railway Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Kassab, Mohamed; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a serious candidate for the future releases of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). LTE offers more capacity and supports new communication-based applications and services for railways. Nevertheless, even with this technology, the classical macro...

  10. Jammer Type Estimation in LTE with a Smart Jammer Repeated Game

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan; Shamma, Jeff S.; Stuber, Gordon L.

    2017-01-01

    LTE/LTE-Advanced networks are known to be vulnerable to denial-of-service (DOS) and loss-of-service attacks from smart jammers. The interaction between the network and the smart jammer has been modeled as an infinite-horizon general-sum (non

  11. A Tractable Model of the LTE Access Reservation Procedure for Machine-Type Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Min Kim, Dong; Madueño, Germán Corrales

    2015-01-01

    A canonical scenario in Machine-Type Communications (MTC) is the one featuring a large number of devices, each of them with sporadic traffic. Hence, the number of served devices in a single LTE cell is not determined by the available aggregate rate, but rather by the limitations of the LTE access...

  12. Non-LTE radiation in laser-disk target couply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Peijun; Fei Weibing; Feng Tinggui; Wu Changshu

    2004-11-01

    The coupling of laser-disk target has been studied by Multi-group radiation transfer code RDMGL. The results show that the X-ray spectra are strongly non-LTE and dependent on the atomic model. The plasma states, laser energy absorption and X-ray conversion rates are almost the same as those simulated by three-temperature model code, which fact shows that the three-temperature model is reasonable to describe the exchange of different kinds of energy and the hydrodynamic phenomena of plasmas in laser-target coupling. (authors)

  13. Multiuser Scheduling on the Downlink of an LTE Cellular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Kwan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of scheduling user transmissions on the downlink of a long-term evolution (LTE cellular communication system is addressed. In particular, a novel optimalmultiuser scheduler is proposed. Numerical results show that the system performance improves with increasing correlation among OFDMA subcarriers. It is found that only a limited amount of feedback information is needed to achieve relatively good performance. A suboptimal reduced-complexity scheduler is also proposed and shown to provide good performance. The suboptimal scheme is especially attractive when the number of users is large, in which case the complexity of the optimal scheme is high.

  14. Evaluation of a Cross Layer Scheduling Algorithm for LTE Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Popovska Avramova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The LTE standard is a leading standard in the wireless broadband market. The Radio Resource Management at the base station plays a major role in satisfying users demand for high data rates and quality of service. This paper evaluates a cross layer scheduling algorithm that aims at minimizing the resource utilization. The algorithm makes decisions based on channel conditions, the size of transmission buffers and different quality of service demands. Simulation results show that the new algorithm improves the resource utilization and provides better guarantees for service quality.

  15. Assessment of general public exposure to LTE and RF sources present in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2010-10-01

    For the first time, in situ electromagnetic field exposure of the general public to fields from long term evolution (LTE) cellular base stations is assessed. Exposure contributions due to different radiofrequency (RF) sources are compared with LTE exposure at 30 locations in Stockholm, Sweden. Total exposures (0.2-2.6 V/m) satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels (from 28 V/m for frequency modulation (FM), up to 61 V/m for LTE) at all locations. LTE exposure levels up to 0.8 V/m were measured, and the average contribution of the LTE signal to the total RF exposure equals 4%.

  16. Isotopic effects in the neon fixed point: uncertainty of the calibration data correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steur, Peter P. M.; Pavese, Franco; Fellmuth, Bernd; Hermier, Yves; Hill, Kenneth D.; Seog Kim, Jin; Lipinski, Leszek; Nagao, Keisuke; Nakano, Tohru; Peruzzi, Andrea; Sparasci, Fernando; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, Anna; Tamura, Osamu; Tew, Weston L.; Valkiers, Staf; van Geel, Jan

    2015-02-01

    The neon triple point is one of the defining fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). Although recognizing that natural neon is a mixture of isotopes, the ITS-90 definition only states that the neon should be of ‘natural isotopic composition’, without any further requirements. A preliminary study in 2005 indicated that most of the observed variability in the realized neon triple point temperatures within a range of about 0.5 mK can be attributed to the variability in isotopic composition among different samples of ‘natural’ neon. Based on the results of an International Project (EUROMET Project No. 770), the Consultative Committee for Thermometry decided to improve the realization of the neon fixed point by assigning the ITS-90 temperature value 24.5561 K to neon with the isotopic composition recommended by IUPAC, accompanied by a quadratic equation to take the deviations from the reference composition into account. In this paper, the uncertainties of the equation are discussed and an uncertainty budget is presented. The resulting standard uncertainty due to the isotopic effect (k = 1) after correction of the calibration data is reduced to (4 to 40) μK when using neon of ‘natural’ isotopic composition or to 30 μK when using 20Ne. For comparison, an uncertainty component of 0.15 mK should be included in the uncertainty budget for the neon triple point if the isotopic composition is unknown, i.e. whenever the correction cannot be applied.

  17. Optimized smart grid energy procurement for LTE networks using evolutionary algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2014-11-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can contribute significantly to reducing worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Moreover, introducing renewable energy as an alternative power source has become a real challenge among network operators. In this paper, we formulate an optimization problem that aims to maximize the profit of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operators and to simultaneously minimize the CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired quality of service (QoS). The BS sleeping strategy lends itself to an interesting implementation using several heuristic approaches, such as the genetic (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms. In this paper, we propose GA-based and PSO-based methods that reduce the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (renewable energy and electricity retailers), as well. A comparison with another previously proposed algorithm is also carried out to evaluate the performance and the computational complexity of the employed methods.

  18. Interchannel interactions in high-energetic radiationless transitions of neon-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Zschornack, G.; Musiol, G.; Soff, G.

    1990-07-01

    Relativistic K-LL Auger transition rates in intermediate coupling including interchannel interactions are presented for nine ions in the neon-isoelectronic sequence up to uranium. For neutral neon a comparison with experimental data is given. We demonstrate for the first time, that intercontinuum interactions result in a remarkable redistribution of individual transition rates even in high-energetic transitions. For instance, channel mixing shifts the K-L 1 L 1 rate by about 4% and the K-L 3 L 3 (J = 0) rate by about 11% in neon-like uranium, while total Auger rates are almost not affected. (orig.)

  19. LTE-advanced a practical systems approach to understanding 3GPP LTE releases 10 and 11 radio access technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Sassan

    2013-01-01

    This book is an in-depth, systematic and structured technical reference on 3GPP's LTE-Advanced (Releases 10 and 11), covering theory, technology and implementation, written by an author who has been involved in the inception and development of these technologies for over 20 years. The book not only describes the operation of individual components, but also shows how they fit into the overall system and operate from a systems perspective. Uniquely, this book gives in-depth information on upper protocol layers, implementation and deployment issues, and services, making it suitable for engine

  20. Color Appearance of the Neon Color Spreading Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Vusić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As a part of this paper, the influence of various parameters within the target process of graphic reproduction on the color appearance of the neon color spreading effect was investigated. The shift in a color appearance qualitatively is determined through the calculation of changes in perceptual attributes of color, i.e. differences in lightness, chroma and hue. The influence of different media (printed images, and LCD display in the “cross-media” system was examined, as well as the role of the inserted segment color choice and background of the primary stimulus as an element of design solutions. These parameters were evaluated in a variety of ambient conditions and under the observation of three CIE standard light sources and illuminants. It was found that it was mostly the changes of the chroma and lightness. The change in the color hue is the lowest.

  1. Spectroscopic data for highly charged neon-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shichang; Sun Yongsheng; Han Guoxiang; Yang Hanyang

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to provide the immense amount of atomic data needed for applications to the ICF and X-ray laser research work in our institute and for the compilation-evaluation work in Chinese Research Association for Atomic and Molecular Data. Using the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock self-consistent field method including the relativistic mass-velocity and Darwin terms in the Hamiltonian (HFR) proposed by Dr.R.Cowan, we have calculated atomic structure data and spectroscopic data for the Neon-like Fe X VII, Ni X IX, Cu XX Ge XX III and Se XX V ions. In the calculations the configuration-interaction effects were taken into account. The centrifugation average energies, 88 energy levels, all possible electric dipole transition wavelengths, oscillator strengths are presented, and in order to discuss the accuracy of the present results we have also compared them with other works

  2. Green's function calculation of the satellite spectrum of neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheifets, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The single-hole Green's function with the lowest-order self-energy part has been used to calculate energies and spectroscopic factors of the neon ion ground and excited states which originated from the removal of the 2s and 2p valence electrons. The simplest two-hole-one-electron ion sates were included explicitly to the self-energy. More complex (m+l)-hole-m-electron states were treated implicitly by using the experimental energy of the two holes in the simplest ion states. The results of the calculation are found to be consistent with experimental satellite line positions and intensities obtained from recent photoionization and electron impact ionization measurements. 20 refs., 5 tabs

  3. NEON's Mobile Deployment Platform: A Resource for Community Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanclements, M.

    2015-12-01

    Here we provide an update on construction and validation of the NEON Mobile Deployment Platforms (MDPs) as well as a description of the infrastructure and sensors available to researchers in the future. The MDPs will provide the means to observe stochastic or spatially important events, gradients, or quantities that cannot be reliably observed using fixed location sampling (e.g. fires and floods). Due to the transient temporal and spatial nature of such events, the MDPs will be designed to accommodate rapid deployment for time periods up to ~ 1 year. Broadly, the MDPs will be comprised of infrastructure and instrumentation capable of functioning individually or in conjunction with one another to support observations of ecological change, as well as education, training and outreach.

  4. Recent results from neutrino interactions in heavy neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltay, C.; Caroumbalis, D.; French, H.

    1978-01-01

    We report recent results from an analysis of 100,000 pictures from the Fermilab 15 ft. bubble chamber filled with heavy neon and exposed to the double horn focused, wideband ν/sub μ/ beam. We have found 164 dilepton (μ - e + ) events with 33 vees, in good agreement with the GIM model of charm production. We have also observed the production of the charmed D 0 meson, followed by the decay D 0 → K 0 π + π - , at a rate of (0.7 +- 0.2)% of all charged current events. We have carried out searches for charm changing neutral current processes and for heavy lepton production, both with negative results; the upper limits obtained in these searches are given

  5. Recent results from neutrino interactions in heavy neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalelkar, M.; Baltay, C.; Caroumbalis, D.

    1978-01-01

    Recent results are reported from an analysis of 100,000 pictures of the Fermilab 15 ft bubble chamber filled with heavy neon and exposed to the double horn focused, wideband ν/sub μ/ beam. There were 164 dilepton (μ - e + ) events with 33 vees, in good agreement with the GIM model of charm production. Also observed were the production of the charmed D 0 meson, followed by the decay D 0 → K 0 π + π - , at a rate of (0.7 +- 0.2)% of all charged current events. From a subsample of film, four events of the purely leptonic neutrino--electron elastic scattering process were found. 3 references

  6. Recent results from neutrino interactions in heavy neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltay, C.; Caroumbalis, D.; French, H.

    1978-01-01

    Recent results are reported from an analysis of 100,000 pictures of the Fermilab 15 ft. bubble chamber filled with heavy neon and exposed to the double horn focused, wideband ν/sub μ/ beam. There were 164 dilepton (μ - e + ) events with 33 vees, in good agreement with the GIM model of charm production. Also the production of the charmed D 0 meson, followed by the decay D 0 → K 0 π + π - , at a rate of (0.7 +- 0.2)% of all charged current events were observed. Searches were carried out for charm changing neutral current processes and for heavy lepton production, both with negative results; the upper limits obtained in these searches are given

  7. Wideband PIFA antenna for higher LTE band applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Suárez-Fajardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una antena plana F invertida (PIFA de b anda ancha con la técnica de excitación capacitiva en U para ap licaciones en la banda alta de LTE. La ante na propuesta se basa en una sim ple PIFA, donde las placas de excitación capacitiva, de radiaci ón y de tierra se modifican a una geometrí a en U de tal manera que la a ntena puede poseer características de ancho de banda amplio. Me diante el uso de la configuración de excitación propuesta, la antena mues tra un ancho de banda amplio de diagrama e impedancia del 81.6 % para un VSWR ≤ 2.0 desde 1.66GHz a 3.95GHz la cual puede cubrir apli caciones en la banda alta de LTE (1.71GHz3.8GHz, DCS 1800, DCS 1900, UCDMA, UMTS, IMT 2000, DMB, WiFi, 2.4GHz, WiMAX (2.3 –2.5 GHz, WiMAX (3.4–3 .5 GHz y Bl uetooth.

  8. Privacy-Enhancing Security Protocol in LTE Initial Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uijin Jang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-Term Evolution (LTE is a fourth-generation mobile communication technology implemented throughout the world. It is the communication means of smartphones that send and receive all of the private date of individuals. M2M, IOT, etc., are the base technologies of mobile communication that will be used in the future cyber world. However, identification parameters, such as International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI, Radio Network Temporary Identities (RNTI, etc., in the initial attach section for accessing the LTE network are presented with the vulnerability of being exposed as clear text. Such vulnerability does not end in a mere identification parameter, but can lead to a secondary attack using the identification parameter, such as replication of the smartphone, illegal use of the mobile communication network, etc. This paper proposes a security protocol to safely transmit identification parameters in different cases of the initial attach. The proposed security protocol solves the exposed vulnerability by encrypting the parameters in transmission. Using an OPNET simulator, it is shown that the average rate of delay and processing ratio are efficient in comparison to the existing process.

  9. X-ray absorption spectra and emission spectra of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yonglun; Yang Li; Wang Minsheng; Li Jiaming

    2002-01-01

    The author reports a theoretical method to calculate the resolved absorption spectra and emission spectra (optically thin) of hot dense plasmas. Due to its fully relativistic treatment incorporated with the quantum defect theory, it calculates the absorption spectra and emission spectra for single element or multi-element plasmas with little computational efforts. The calculated absorption spectra of LTE gold plasmas agree well with the experimental ones. It also calculates the optical thin emission spectra of LTE gold plasmas, which is helpful to diagnose the plasmas of relevant ICF plasmas. It can also provide the relevant parameters such as population density of various ionic stages, precise radiative properties for ICF studies

  10. New spectrometric measurement of atmospheric 60 micron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, K.U.; Barthol, P.; Frings, W.; Hennig, R.; Offermann, D.

    1982-01-01

    Absolute zenith intensities of the atomic oxygen fine structure emission at 63 microns measured above Kiruna, Sweden, on December 9, 1981, in the altitude range of 85 km to 237 km are discussed. The data obtained are compared with theoretical predictions for this emission. For the model intensity calculations, both local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE conditions are assumed. The significance of the 63-micron emission as a cooling mechanism of the thermosphere is briefly discussed. It is noted that the geomagnetic field before and during the flight was very quiet

  11. Fragmentation dynamics of ionized neon trimer inside helium nanodroplets: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhommeau, David; Viel, Alexandra; Halberstadt, Nadine

    2004-06-22

    We report a theoretical study of the fragmentation dynamics of Ne(3) (+) inside helium nanodroplets, following vertical ionization of the neutral neon trimer. The motion of the neon atoms is treated classically, while transitions between the electronic states of the ionic cluster are treated quantum mechanically. A diatomics-in-molecules description of the potential energy surfaces is used, in a minimal basis set consisting of three effective p orbitals on each neon atom for the missing electron. The helium environment is modeled by a friction force acting on the neon atoms when their speed exceeds the Landau velocity. A reasonable range of values for the corresponding friction coefficient is obtained by comparison with existing experimental measurements. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Improved energy confinement with neon injection in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, G.M.; Jackson, G.L.; West, W.P. Groebner, R.J.; Schaffer, M.J.; Allen, S.L.; Whyte, D.G.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper the authors will report the first direct measurements of the fully stripped neon 10 + density profile in a plasma with enhanced energy confinement due to neon injection. This is made with a calibrated charge exchange recombination (CER) system. It is found that the neon 10 + density is peaked like the electron density with a slightly higher concentration towards the edge. The good news is that the neon 10 + fraction is less than 1% (normalized to the electron density). The radial electric field can also be computed from the CER measurements on DIII-D. The shear in the E x B velocity is found to exceed the maximum growth rate of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode over part of the profile, a condition for the suppression of turbulent transport. This agrees with the reduced power balance thermal diffusivities near the magnetic axis

  13. Enabling LTE and WiFi Coexisting in 5 GHz for Efficient Spectrum Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing mobile traffic demands in cellular network, researchers have proposed the coexistence of LTE and WiFi technologies in 5 GHz unlicensed bands. Therefore, how to efficiently utilize the spectrum in 5 GHz becomes extremely important. To avoid the channel access conflicts, current LTE Unlicensed (LTE-U technology introduces the duty cycle of LTE, while License-Assisted Access (LAA technology introduces Listen-Before-Talk (LBT mechanism. While these two technologies improve the spectrum utilization by using time division access schema, we believe that more efficient spectrum utilization can be achieved by enabling simultaneous transmissions from LTE and WiFi. In this paper, we propose a novel method (i.e., Low Amplitude Stream Injection (LASI method to enable the simultaneous transmissions of WiFi and LTE frames in the same channel and recover the data from the conflicts. To further utilize the LASI method, we introduce the Conflict-Tolerant Channel Allocation (CTCA algorithm to optimize the channel allocation and achieve more efficient spectrum utilization in 5 GHz. Extensive simulation results show that our approach achieves lower latency and higher throughput. Compared with the state-of-the-art LTE-U and LAA technologies, our approach can improve the spectrum efficiency 2.9 times.

  14. Laser optogalvanic wavelength calibration with a commercial hollow cathode iron - neon discharge lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinming; Nur, Abdullahi H.; Misra, Prabhakar

    1994-01-01

    351 optogalvanic transitions have been observed in the 337 - 598 nm wavelength region using an iron - neon hollow cathode discharge lamp and a pulsed tunable dye laser. 223 of these have been identified as transitions associated with neon energy levels. These optogalvanic transitions have allowed, in conjunction with interference fringes recorded concomitantly with an etalon, the calibration of the dye laser wavelength with 0.3/cm accuracy.

  15. Coherent production of ρ - mesons in charged current antineutrino-neon interactions in BEBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Allport, P.; Armenise, N.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Burkot, W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Guy, J.; Hamisi, F.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Katz, U. F.; Klein, H.; Matsinos, E.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Schmitz, N.; Simopoulou, E.; Vallée, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.; Wittek, W.

    1987-09-01

    Coherent production of ρ - mesons in charged current antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei is studied in the BEBC bubble chamber exposed to the CERN SPS wide band beam. The cross section is measured to be (95±25)·10-40 cm2 per neon nucleus, averaged over the beam energy spectrum. The distributions of kinematical variables and the absolute value of the cross section are in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the CVC hypothesis and the vector meson dominance model.

  16. Coherent production of ρ- mesons in charged current antineutrino-neon interactions in BEBC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marage, P.; Bertrand, D.; Sacton, J.; Aderholz, M.; Katz, U.F.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Allport, P.; Varvell, K.; Wells, J.; Baton, J.P.; Kasper, P.; Neveu, M.; Clayton, E.F.; Hamisi, F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Matsinos, E.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.

    1987-01-01

    Coherent production of ρ - mesons in charged antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei is studied in the BEBC bubbler chamber exposed to the CERN SPS wide band beam. The cross section is measured to be (95±25).10 -40 cm 2 per neon nucleus, averaged over the beam energy spectrum. The distributions of kinematical variables and the absolute value of the cross section are in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the CVC hypothesis and the vector meson dominance model. (orig.)

  17. Non-LTE profiles of the Al I autoionization lines. [for solar model atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, G. D.; Jefferies, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    A non-LTE formulation is given for the transfer of radiation in the autoionizing lines of neutral aluminum at 1932 and 1936 A through both the Bilderberg and Harvard-Smithsonian model atmospheres. Numerical solutions for the common source function of these lines and their theoretical line profiles are calculated and compared with the corresponding LTE profiles. The results show that the non-LTE profiles provide a better match with the observations. They also indicate that the continuous opacity of the standard solar models should be increased in this wavelength region if the center-limb variations of observed and theoretical profiles of these lines are to be in reasonable agreement.

  18. Uplink multi-cluster scheduling with MU-MIMO for LTE-advanced with carrier aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Nguyen, Hung Tuan; Rosa, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    -Advanced requirements and are being considered as part of LTE Release 10. In this paper, some of the physical layer enhancement techniques for LTE-Advanced have been studied including carrier aggregation (CA), uplink multi-cluster scheduling, and uplink multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) transmission....... A system-level simulation was conducted to investigate the performance gains that can be achieved in uplink CA with multi-cluster scheduling and MU-MIMO. Simulation results show that with proper separation between power-limited and non-power-limited LTE-A users, multi-cluster scheduling with CA has similar...

  19. LTE and the evolution to 4G wireless design and measurement challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Rumney, Moray

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide to LTE design, test and measurement, this new edition has been updated to include the latest developments This book presents the latest details on LTE from a practical and technical perspective. Written by Agilent's measurement experts, it offers a valuable insight into LTE technology and its design and test challenges. Chapters cover the upper layer signaling and system architecture evolution (SAE). Basic concepts such as MIMO and SC-FDMA, the new uplink modulation scheme, are introduced and explained, and the authors look into the challenges of verifying the

  20. LTE, WiMAX and WLAN network design, optimization and performance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Korowajczuk, Leonhard

    2011-01-01

    A technological overview of LTE and WiMAX LTE, WiMAX and WLAN Network Design, Optimization and Performance Analysis provides a practical guide to LTE and WiMAX technologies introducing various tools and concepts used within. In addition, topics such as traffic modelling of IP-centric networks, RF propagation, fading, mobility, and indoor coverage are explored; new techniques which increase throughput such as MIMO and AAS technology are highlighted; and simulation, network design and performance analysis are also examined. Finally, in the latter part of the book Korowajczuk gives a step-by-step

  1. Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft X-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanakis, S.J.; Apruzese, J.P.; Burkhalter, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Resonant photopumping of heliumlike neon by heliumlike sodium is investigated to extend this potentially efficient technique for inversion and lasing to shorter wavelengths. Properties of the sodium-pump plasma and the neon-lasant plasma required to optimize fluorescence and lasing are determined. The implosion of a sodium-bearing plasma with a megampere pulsed-power driver (Gamble II) is used to produce a linear Z-pinch with up to 25 GW of sodium-pump-line radiation. A separate neon plasma, driven by part of the return current form the imploding sodium plasma, is created parallel to the sodium line source at a distance of 5 cm. Implosion requirements for the neon plasma and its dynamics in the Gamble II return-current geometry are described. Evidence for population inversion is indicated by fluorescence enhancement of the 11-A resonance line from the n = 4 level of neon when pumped by sodium. The neon spectra are in qualitative agreement with calculations based on the sodium-pump power. Improvements in the experiment required to achieve lasing are discussed

  2. Voice-Centric LTE Femtocells and Improper Graph Colorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    . The investigation revolves around the sensible definition of the underlying graph, i.e. the network model, rather than focusing on the coloring algorithms and their properties. Ultimately, we posit that improper online graph-coloring suffices and is actually preferable. In short, settling for less......This paper addresses carrier-based inter-cell interference coordination (CB-ICIC) among LTE femtocells operating on a single carrier. CB-ICIC is in many ways linked to the widely investigated dynamic channel assignment problem, which is often studied in the context of graph coloring......-than-optimal configurations avoids uncontrolled service interruptions. Such disruptions tend to raise understandable concerns when it comes to fully autonomous selection of operational CCs. Our results dispel such concerns by showing that conservative methods can achieve most of the benefits of unrestricted off-line coloring...

  3. Non-LTE hydrogen-line formation in moving prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, P.; Rompolt, B.

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of hydrogen-line brightness variations, depending on the prominence-velocity changes were investigated. By solving the NON-Local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) problem for hydrogen researchers determine quantitatively the effect of Doppler brightening and/or Doppler dimming (DBE, DDE) in the lines of Lyman and Balmer series. It is demonstrated that in low-density prominence plasmas, DBE in H alpha and H beta lines can reach a factor of three for velocities around 160 km/sec, while the L alpha line exhibits typical DDE. L beta brightness variations follow from a combined DBE in the H alpha and DDE in L alpha and L beta itself, providing that all relevant multilevel interlocking processes are taken into account.

  4. Simulation of non LTE opacity with incoming radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2009-11-01

    Simulation of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, other laboratory plasmas, and astrophysics. When mid-Z or high-Z elements are involved, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses LTE approximation. This was recently done in interpreting a carefully calibrated experiment on Fe at 160 eV [1]. However some disagreement remains concerning the ion charge distribution. The newest version of HULLAC [2] has the capability to take into account an incoming radiation field in solving the rate equations of the coronal radiative model (CRM). We will show results with different representation of the radiation field.[4pt] [1] J.E. Bailey, G.A. Rochau, C.A. Iglesias, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, (2007) 265002-4.[0pt] [2] M. Klapisch and M. Busquet, High Ener. Dens. Phys. 5, (2009) 105-9.

  5. Dual connectivity for LTE-advanced heterogeneous networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2016-01-01

    Dual connectivity (DC) allows user equipments (UEs) to receive data simultaneously from different eNodeBs (eNBs) in order to boost the performance in a heterogeneous network with dedicated carrier deployment. Yet, how to efficiently operate with DC opens a number of research questions. In this pa......Dual connectivity (DC) allows user equipments (UEs) to receive data simultaneously from different eNodeBs (eNBs) in order to boost the performance in a heterogeneous network with dedicated carrier deployment. Yet, how to efficiently operate with DC opens a number of research questions...... aggregation (CA) and virtually zerolatency fronthaul connections, and in any case it is significantly higher compared to the case without DC. Keywords: Dual connectivity Heterogeneous network LTE-advanced Radio resource management Performance evaluation...

  6. Multicell Cooperation for LTE-Advanced Heterogeneous Network Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Wang, Hua; Rosa, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In this article we present two promising practical use cases for simple multicell cooperation for LTE-Advanced heterogeneous network (HetNet) scenarios with macro and small cells. For co-channel deployment cases, we recommend the use of enhanced inter-cell interference coordination (e......ICIC) to mitigate cross-tier interference and ensure sufficient offload of users from macro to small cells. It is shown how the eICIC benefit is maximized by using a distributed inter-base station control framework for dynamic adjustment of essential parameters. Secondly, for scenarios where macro and small cells...... are deployed at different carriers an efficient use of the fragmented spectrum can be achieved by using collaborative inter-site carrier aggregation. In addition to distributed coordination/collaboration between base station nodes, the importance of explicit terminal assistance is highlighted. Comprehensive...

  7. 5 Watt GaN HEMT Power Amplifier for LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Niotaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design and implementation of a stand-alone linear power amplifier at 2.4 GHz with high output power. A GaN HEMT transistor is selected for the design and implementation of the power amplifier. The device exhibits a gain of 11.7 dB and a drain efficiency of 39% for an output power of 36.7 dBm at 2.4 GHz for an input power of 25dBm. The carrier to intermodulation ratio is better than 25 dB for a two tone input signal of 25 dBm of total power and a spacing of 5 MHz. The fabricated device is also tested with LTE input signals of different bandwidths (5MHz to 20MHz.

  8. Fast Control Channel Decoding for LTE UE Power Saving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Jensen, Anders Riis; Mogensen, Preben

    2012-01-01

    in the current TTI. The cost is that some reference signals are not received leading to a degraded channel estimate. Calculations show that this causes an SINR degradation of approximately 0.5 dB, which will result in maximum 4 % throughput loss. Comparing this with energy saving potentials of 5 %-25...... % it is concluded that the FCCD method is a valuable aid to prolong LTE phones' battery lifetime. The results are generated using a two state Markov chain model to simulate traffic and scheduling, and verified mathematically. The work also includes an examination of various data traffic types' on/off relation...... and an evaluation of how the relation affects power consumption. The FCCD method can complement DRX sleep mode since it is applicable when the signal is too aperiodic or fast switching for DRX....

  9. Multiband Printed Asymmetric Dipole Antenna for LTE/WLAN Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Mei Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a single layer strip fed printed asymmetric dipole antenna, which is composed of top-loading, asymmetric coplanar waveguide (ACPW and stepped-feeding structure, to operate at three wide frequency bands (698~960 MHz, 1710~2620 MHz, and 5150~5850 MHz to cover WLAN and LTE operation has been demonstrated. A prototype of the proposed antenna with 57.5 mm in length, 0.4 mm in thickness, and 5 mm in width is fabricated and experimentally investigated. The experimental results indicate that the VSWR 2.5 : 1 bandwidths achieved were 74.3%, 40.8%, and 18.2% at 700 MHz, 2450 MHz, and 5500 MHz, respectively. Experimental results are shown to verify the validity of theoretical work.

  10. Miniaturized Balanced Antenna with Integrated Balun for Practical LTE Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. E. Elfergani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A design of dual-band balanced antenna structure operating in the 700 and 2600MHz LTE bands is studied and investigated. The overall dimensions of the radiator are 50 × 18 × 7 mm^3 allowing it to be easily concealed within mobile handsets. A broad-band balun is designed and integrated with the antenna handset in order to provide the feeding network and perform the measurements of the antenna radiation performance. Prototypes of proposed antenna with and without balun are fabricated and verified. The simulated and practical results with and without the handheld effects in terms of reflection coefficient, power gain and radiation pattern, are studied and shown reasonable agreement.

  11. Non-LTE model calculations for SN 1987A and the extragalactic distance scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, W.; Abbott, D. C.; Russell, R. S.; Hamann, W.-R.; Wessolowski, U.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents model atmospheres for the first week of SN 1987A, based on the luminosity and density/velocity structure from hydrodynamic models of Woosley (1988). The models account for line blanketing, expansion, sphericity, and departures from LTE in hydrogen and helium and differ from previously published efforts because they represent ab initio calculations, i.e., they contain essentially no free parameters. The formation of the UV spectrum is dominated by the effects of line blanketing. In the absorption troughs, the Balmer line profiles were fit well by these models, but the observed emissions are significantly stronger than predicted, perhaps due to clumping. The generally good agreement between the present synthetic spectra and observations provides independent support for the overall accuracy of the hydrodynamic models of Woosley. The question of the accuracy of the Baade-Wesselink method is addressed in a detailed discussion of its approximations. While the application of the standard method produces a distance within an uncertainty of 20 percent in the case of SN 1987A, systematic errors up to a factor of 2 are possible, particularly if the precursor was a red supergiant.

  12. Non-LTE calculations of Al III line strengths in early-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufton, P.L.; Brown, P.J.F.; Lennon, D.J.; Lynas-Gray, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Non-LTE line formation calculations, based on the 'complete linearization method' are presented for the Al III ion in early-type stars. Equivalent widths, together with the corresponding LTE values, are tabulated for 15 ultraviolet and visible region transitions, for effective temperatures from 20 000 to 35 000 K, logarithmic gravities of 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5, microturbulent velocities of 0 and 5 km s -1 and logarithmic aluminium abundances of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0. The non-LTE line strengths are significantly larger than the LTE values particularly for the visible region transitions and the implications of this are briefly discussed. (author)

  13. Low-cost extrapolation method for maximal LTE radio base station exposure estimation: test and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloock, Leen; Joseph, Wout; Gati, Azeddine; Varsier, Nadège; Flach, Björn; Wiart, Joe; Martens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on downlink band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders.

  14. Optimized LTE cell planning for multiple user density subareas using meta-heuristic algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    Base station deployment in cellular networks is one of the most fundamental problems in network design. This paper proposes a novel method for the cell planning problem for the fourth generation 4G-LTE cellular networks using meta heuristic

  15. Low-cost extrapolation method for maximal lte radio base station exposure estimation: Test and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verloock, L.; Joseph, W.; Gati, A.; Varsier, N.; Flach, B.; Wiart, J.; Martens, L.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on down-link band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders. (authors)

  16. An Empirical LTE Smartphone Power Model with a View to Energy Efficiency Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Noël, Laurent; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2014-01-01

    measurements made on state-of-the-art LTE smartphones. Discontinuous Reception (DRX) sleep mode is also modeled, because it is one of the most effective methods to improve smartphone battery life. Energy efficiency has generally improved with each Radio Access Technology (RAT) generation, and to see......Smartphone users struggle with short battery life, and this affects their device satisfaction level and usage of the network. To evaluate how chipset manufacturers and mobile network operators can improve the battery life, we propose a Long Term Evolution (LTE) smartphone power model. The idea...... this evolution, we compare the energy efficiency of the latest LTE devices with devices based on Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), High Speed Packet Access (HSPA), and Wi-Fi*. With further generations of RAT systems we expect further improvements. To this end, we discuss the new LTE features, Carrier...

  17. An Efficient Live TV Scheduling System for 4G LTE Broadcast

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong; Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Shihada, Basem

    2016-01-01

    Traditional live television (TV) broadcasting systems are proven to be spectrum inefficient. Therefore, researchers propose to provide TV services on fourth-generation (4G) long-term evolution (LTE) networks. However, static broadcast, a typical

  18. Quantum scattering of neon from a nanotextured surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, A C; Huang, C; Allison, W; MacLaren, D A

    2009-01-01

    Phonon exchange is the usual cause of decoherence in atom-surface scattering. By including quantum effects in the treatment of Debye-Waller scattering, we show that phonon exchange becomes ineffective when the relevant phonon frequencies are high. The result explains the surprising observation of strong elastic scattering of Ne from a Cu(100) surface nanotextured with a c(2 x 2) Li adsorbate structure. We extend a previous model to describe the phonon spectra by an Einstein oscillator component with an admixture of a Debye spectrum. The Einstein oscillator represents the dominant, high frequency vibration of the adsorbate, normal to the surface, while the Debye spectrum represents the substrate contribution. Neon scattering is so slow that exciting the adsorbate mode has a low probability and is impossible if the incident energy is below the threshold. Thus, adsorbate vibrations are averaged out. A theoretical discussion and calculation shows that under such circumstances the vibrations of a light adsorbate do not contribute to the Debye-Waller effect, with the result that Ne scattering at thermal energies is quantum mechanical and largely elastic, explaining the high reflectivity and the diffraction peaks observed experimentally.

  19. Strange particle production in ν and anti ν neon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, P.; Fritze, P.; Graessler, H.; Schulte, R.; Schultze, K.; Mermikides, M.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Butterworth, I.; Chima, J.S.; Clayton, E.; Iaselli, G.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Petrides, A.; Albajar, C.; Wells, J.

    1982-01-01

    The inclusive production of K 0 's and ν's has been investigated in neutrino and antineutrino interactions in BEBC, filled with a neon-hydrogen mixture. The inclusive rates for the 3083 (1022) ν(anti ν) induced charged current events are (23.0 +- 1.7)% ((21.9 +- 2.8)%) for K 0 's and (5.7 +- 0.7)% ((6.5 +- 1.2)%) for ν's. The general behaviour of the K 0 's and ν's is found to be similar to that in νp interactions and π + p interactions at lower . In the hadronic c.m.s. K 0 's are produced mostly forwards. ν's predominantly in the backward hemisphere. The data indicate that the K 0 's produced in anti ν interactions on average carry a larger fraction of the total available momentum than those in ν induced reactions. The dependences of the average transverse momentum on the variables Q 2 , W 2 and Bjorken x are presented. (orig.)

  20. The influence of electron collisions on non-LTE Li line formation in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Yeisson; Barklem, Paul; Lind, Karin; Asplund, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the uncertainties in the rate coefficient data for electron-impact excitation and ionization on non-LTE Li line formation in cool stellar atmospheres is investigated. We examine the electron collision data used in previous non-LTE calculations and compare them to our own calculations using the R-matrix with pseudostates (RMPS) method and to other calculations found in the literature.

  1. NonLTE ANALYSIS OF THE NaI LINES IN THE SOLAR SPECTRUM

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, D. V.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Solar spectrum of Nal lines by method of the nonLTE analysis is investigated. It shown, that in atmosphere of the Sun the Nal is in moderate ”overrecombination”. The analysis of influence of atomic data, models of atmospheres and damping constants for nonLTE deviation and sodium abundances is made. Observational solar spectrum of strong lines Nal has been synthesized in good approximation. On summary data of 15 lines the sodium abundance is determined:-5.78dex.

  2. Coordinated Dynamic Spectrum Management of LTE-U and Wi-Fi Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sagari, Shweta; Baysting, Samuel; Saha, Dola; Seskar, Ivan; Trappe, Wade; Raychaudhuri, Dipankar

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the co-existence of Wi-Fi and LTE in emerging unlicensed frequency bands which are intended to accommodate multiple radio access technologies. Wi-Fi and LTE are the two most prominent access technologies being deployed today, motivating further study of the inter-system interference arising in such shared spectrum scenarios as well as possible techniques for enabling improved co-existence. An analytical model for evaluating the baseline performance of co-existing Wi-Fi...

  3. Primordial atmosphere incorporation in planetary embryos and the origin of Neon in terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaupart, Etienne; Charnoz, Sebatien; Moreira, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    The presence of Neon in terrestrial planet mantles may be attributed to the implantation of solar wind in planetary precursors or to the dissolution of primordial solar gases captured from the accretionary disk into an early magma ocean. This is suggested by the Neon isotopic ratio similar to those of the Sun observed in the Earth mantle. Here, we evaluate the second hypothesis. We use general considerations of planetary accretion and atmospheric science. Using current models of terrestrial planet formation, we study the evolution of standard planetary embryos with masses in a range of 0.1-0.2 MEarth, where MEarth is the Earth's mass, in an annular region at distances between 0.5 and 1.5 Astronomical Units from the star. We determine the characteristics of atmospheres that can be captured by such embryos for a wide range of parameters and calculate the maximum amount of Neon that can be dissolved in the planet. Our calculations may be directly transposed to any other planet. However, we only know of the amount of Neon in the Earth's solid mantle. Thus we use Earth to discuss our results. We find that the amount of dissolved Neon is too small to account for the present-day Neon contents of the Earth's mantle, if the nebular gas disk completely disappears before the largest planetary embryos grow to be ∼0.2 MEarth. This leaves solar irradiation as the most likely source of Neon in terrestrial planets for the most standard case of planetary formation models.

  4. In situ LTE exposure of the general public: Characterization and extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2012-09-01

    In situ radiofrequency (RF) exposure of the different RF sources is characterized in Reading, United Kingdom, and an extrapolation method to estimate worst-case long-term evolution (LTE) exposure is proposed. All electric field levels satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels with a maximal total electric field value of 4.5 V/m. The total values are dominated by frequency modulation (FM). Exposure levels for LTE of 0.2 V/m on average and 0.5 V/m maximally are obtained. Contributions of LTE to the total exposure are limited to 0.4% on average. Exposure ratios from 0.8% (LTE) to 12.5% (FM) are obtained. An extrapolation method is proposed and validated to assess the worst-case LTE exposure. For this method, the reference signal (RS) and secondary synchronization signal (S-SYNC) are measured and extrapolated to the worst-case value using an extrapolation factor. The influence of the traffic load and output power of the base station on in situ RS and S-SYNC signals are lower than 1 dB for all power and traffic load settings, showing that these signals can be used for the extrapolation method. The maximal extrapolated field value for LTE exposure equals 1.9 V/m, which is 32 times below the ICNIRP reference levels for electric fields. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Kajian Implementasi Standar Long-Term Evolution (LTE pada Sistem Komunikasi Taktis Militer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Pradana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sistem komunikasi taktis memungkinkan banyak pengguna dengan mobilitas tinggi, memiliki kemampuan network recovery dan network entry yang baik, serta diperkuat dengan sistem keamanan transmisi yang tahan terhadap jamming. Di sisi lain kemajuan telekomunikasi mendorong dikembangkannya LTE (Long-Term Evolution. LTE meningkatkan kapasitas sistem, cakupan area, high peak data rates, didukung dengan sistem keamanan yang baik guna mewujudkan pelayanan komunikasi menjadi lebih baik. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan simulasi dan pengkajian penggunaan standar teknologi LTE agar mampu mendukung dan meningkatkan kualitas sistem komunikasi taktis militer. Simulasi dilakukan untuk menguji kemampuan LTE terhadap jamming. Dari hasil simulasi dan pengkajian didapatkan bahwa sistem uplink LTE, dengan penambahan convolutional coding dan interleaver 8×8, memiliki ketahanan terhadap jamming dengan amplitudo di bawah 2,5 V, serta lebih tahan terhadap multitone-jamming pada sub-carrier yang berbeda daripada multitone-jamming pada sub-carrier yang sama. Arsitektur LTE dengan dukungan teknik AMC, AAA server, dan fast cell selection mampu mendukung sistem super network, network entry, dan network recovery pada sistem komunikasi taktis.

  6. Study of reverse Brayton cryocooler with Helium-Neon mixture for HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, A. K.; Ghosh, P.

    2017-12-01

    As observed in the earlier studies, helium is more efficient than neon as a refrigerant in a reverse Brayton cryocooler (RBC) from the thermodynamic point of view. However, the lower molecular weight of helium leads to higher refrigerant inventory as compared to neon. Thus, helium is suitable to realize the high thermodynamic efficiency of RBC whereas neon is appropriate for the compactness of the RBC. A binary mixture of helium and neon can be used to achieve high thermodynamic efficiency in the compact reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) based cryocooler. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the thermodynamic performance of the RBC with a binary mixture of helium and neon as the working fluid to provide 1 kW cooling load for high temperature superconductor (HTS) power cables working with a temperature range of 50 K to 70 K. The basic RBC is simulated using Aspen HYSYS V8.6®, a commercial process simulator. Sizing of each component based on the optimized process parameters for each refrigerant is performed based on a computer code developed using Engineering Equation Solver (EES-V9.1). The recommendation is provided for the optimum mixture composition of the refrigerant based on the trade-off factors like thermodynamic efficiency such as the exergy efficiency and equipment considerations. The outcome of this study may be useful for recommending a suitable refrigerant for the RBC operating at a temperature level of 50 K to 70 K.

  7. Effect of combined misonidazole and accelerated neon ions on a human melanoma transplanted into nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichard, M.; Tenforde, T.; Curtis, S.; Malaise, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    The response to accelerated neon ions of human Nall melanomas growing in nude mice was measured by an in vitro colony-forming assay following in situ tumor irradiation in the midposition of a 10-cm extended-peak ionization region. Values of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for peak neon ions compared with 60 Coγ radiation were 3.2 and 3.4, respectively, at the 1% and 10% survival levels. Following irradiation with peak neon ions, the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) was comparable to that observed after γ irradiation. When misonidazole (1 mg/g intraperitoneal dose) was administered in combination with extended-peak neon ions, the drug enhancement ratio (ER) at the 1% survival level was 1.5 if the tumors were removed and plated in vitro immediately following irradiation, and 1.9 if tumor excision and plating were delayed for greater than or equal to 6 hours. Administration of misonidazole completely inhibited PLD repair following either γ irradiation or extended peak neon-ion irradiation

  8. Dew Frequency across the NEON Network from Infrared Radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, F.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Beysens, D.

    2017-12-01

    The surface energy budget is more difficult to close at night because of the absence of strong atmospheric turbulence, central in the eddy-covariance calculations. One approach to assessing the direction of the nocturnal latent heat flux is through studying the frequency and magnitude of dew formation in different ecosystems. However, most former dew studies on dew dynamics utilized artificial surfaces to collect dew, and did not have access to the surface temperature of natural surfaces in an ecosystem to provide a continuous whole-plot approach to constrain dew formation. Hourly in-situ measurements recently made available by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) of the radiometric surface temperature and the meteorological variables provide a unique opportunity to make continuous estimates of dew formation across 19 ecosystems (9 grasslands and 10 forests) at the plot-scale. Here, dew duration was calculated for each night based on the difference between the surface temperature and the dew point temperature of the air. The results from this analysis show that dew duration is limited by wind speed during the night, with a maximum dew yield at 1.1 m/s and no dew occurrence when the wind speed exceeds 7 m/s. This observation is consistent with previous studies but has been expanded here across multiple biomes to produce a well-defined turbulent limit on dew formation. The sensitivity of dew to wind speed arises because of the exhaustion of the water vapor supply close to the surface of the leaf at very low wind speed, and because the enhanced thermal exchange between the air and the surface counteracts dewfall at high wind speed. This well-defined wind speed limit that persists across sites and seasons could help to estimate the surface energy budget at night by constraining the latent heat flux.

  9. Non-LTE line formation of Fe in late-type stars - III. 3D non-LTE analysis of metal-poor stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarsi, A. M.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most important elements in astronomy, iron abundance determinations need to be as accurate as possible. We investigate the accuracy of spectroscopic iron abundance analyses using archetypal metal-poor stars. We perform detailed 3D non-LTE radiative transfer calculations based on 3D...

  10. Influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties of LTE and non-LTE SF6–Cu mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhexin; Wu, Yi; Yang, Fei; Sun, Hao; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Chunlin

    2017-01-01

    SF 6 –Cu mixture is frequently formed in high-voltage circuit breakers due to the electrode erosion and metal vapor diffusion. During the interruption process, the multiphase effect and deviation from local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE assumption) can both affect the thermo-physical of the arc plasma and further influence the performance of circuit breaker. In this paper, thermo-physical properties, namely composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated for multiphase SF 6 –Cu mixture with and without LTE assumption. The composition is confirmed by combining classical two-temperature mass action law with phase equilibrium condition deduced from second law of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated using the multiphase composition result. The influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties is discussed at different temperature, pressure (0.1–10 atm), non-equilibrium degrees (1–10), and copper molar proportions (0–50%). It is found that the multiphase effect has significant influence on specific enthalpy, specific heat and heavy species thermal conductivity in both LTE and non-LTE SF 6 –Cu system. This paper provides a more accurate database for computational fluid dynamic calculation. (paper)

  11. Challenges of fabricating plasmonic and photonic structures with Neon ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Fiutowski, Jacek; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    -established electron beam lithography and focussed ion beam milling (FIB) using Gallium ions. These techniques, however, are to some extend limited in their resolution, and in addition Gallium and Carbon are implanted and deposited into the plasmonic structures during FIB process, potentially changing plasmonic...... properties. We are currently studying the capabilities of focussed Helium and Neon ion beam milling for the fabricating of plasmonic and photonic devices. We found that Neon ion beam milling enables us to prepare plasmonic structures, such as trenches (see Fig. 1) and V-grooves without doping and alloying...... effects specific to Galium FIB. Neon FIB milling is superior to Helium FIB milling in terms of the processing speed and smaller levels of implanted ions. From our perspective it is the most promising technique for the fabrication of individual plasmonic devices with a few nanometers precision. The main...

  12. Photochemistry of the ozone-water complex in cryogenic neon, argon, and krypton matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Masashi; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Kawai, Akio; Shibuya, Kazuhiko

    2013-12-12

    The photochemistry of ozone-water complexes and the wavelength dependence of the reactions were studied by matrix isolation FTIR spectrometry in neon, argon, and krypton matrixes. Hydrogen peroxide was formed upon the irradiation of UV light below 355 nm. Quantitative analyses of the reactant and product were performed to evaluate the matrix cage effect of the photoreaction. In argon and krypton matrixes, a bimolecular O((1)D) + H2O → H2O2 reaction was found to occur to form hydrogen peroxide, where the O((1)D) atom generated by the photolysis of ozone diffused in the cryogenic solids to encounter water. In a neon matrix, hydrogen peroxide was generated through intracage photoreaction of the ozone-water complex, indicating that a neon matrix medium is most appropriate to study the photochemistry of the ozone-water complex.

  13. Non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of Nova Cygni 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschildt, P. H.; Starrfield, S.; Austin, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Shore, S. N.; Sonneborn, G.

    1994-01-01

    We use spherically symmetric non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), line-blanketed, expanding model atmospheres to analyze the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and optical spectra of Nova Cygni 1992 during the early phases of its outburst. We find that the first IUE spectrum obtained just after discovery on 1992 February 20, is best reproduced by a model atmosphere with a steep density gradient and homologous expansion, whereas the IUE and optical spectra obtained on February 24 show an extended, optically thick, wind structure. Therefore, we distinguish two phases of the early evolution of the nova photosphere: the initial, rapid, 'fireball' phase and the subsequent, much longer, optically thick 'wind' phase. The importance of line-blanketing in nova spectra is demonstrated. Our preliminary abundance analysis implies that hydrogen is depeleted in the ejecta, corresponding to abundance enhancements of Fe by a factor of approximately 2 and of CNO by more than a factor of 10 when compared to solar abundances. The synthetic spectra reproduce both the observed pseudo-continua as well as most of the observed features from the UV to the optical spectral range and demonstrate the importance of obtaining nearly simultaneous UV and optical spectra for performing accurate analyses of expanding stellar atmospheres (for both novae and supernovae).

  14. Recent advances in non-LTE stellar atmosphere models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Andreas A. C.

    2017-11-01

    In the last decades, stellar atmosphere models have become a key tool in understanding massive stars. Applied for spectroscopic analysis, these models provide quantitative information on stellar wind properties as well as fundamental stellar parameters. The intricate non-LTE conditions in stellar winds dictate the development of adequate sophisticated model atmosphere codes. The increase in both, the computational power and our understanding of physical processes in stellar atmospheres, led to an increasing complexity in the models. As a result, codes emerged that can tackle a wide range of stellar and wind parameters. After a brief address of the fundamentals of stellar atmosphere modeling, the current stage of clumped and line-blanketed model atmospheres will be discussed. Finally, the path for the next generation of stellar atmosphere models will be outlined. Apart from discussing multi-dimensional approaches, I will emphasize on the coupling of hydrodynamics with a sophisticated treatment of the radiative transfer. This next generation of models will be able to predict wind parameters from first principles, which could open new doors for our understanding of the various facets of massive star physics, evolution, and death.

  15. Performance analysis of IMS based LTE and WIMAX integration architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bagubali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current networking field many research works are going on regarding the integration of different wireless technologies, with the aim of providing uninterrupted connectivity to the user anywhere, with high data rates due to increased demand. However, the number of objects like smart devices, industrial machines, smart homes, connected by wireless interface is dramatically increasing due to the evolution of cloud computing and internet of things technology. This Paper begins with the challenges involved in such integrations and then explains the role of different couplings and different architectures. This paper also gives further improvement in the LTE and Wimax integration architectures to provide seamless vertical handover and flexible quality of service for supporting voice, video, multimedia services over IP network and mobility management with the help of IMS networks. Evaluation of various parameters like handover delay, cost of signalling, packet loss,, is done and the performance of the interworking architecture is analysed from the simulation results. Finally, it concludes that the cross layer scenario is better than the non cross layer scenario.

  16. A high linearity downconverter for SAW-less LTE receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Peichen; Guan Rui; Wang Wufeng; Chen Dongpo; Zhou Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a high linearity downconverter implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process for long term evolution (LTE) receivers without a surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter. The proposed downconverter is composed of a transconductance (G m ) stage, a passive mixer, a current buffer, a transimpedance (TIA) stage, and a DC-offset cancellation (DCOC) loop. The current buffer is utilized to provide very low load impedance for the passive mixer at high frequencies and reduce the output voltage swing induced by out-of-band blockers. This technique improves the input referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) and second-order intercept point (IIP2) of the down-converter by 4.5 dB and 11 dB, respectively. The measured results show that the proposed downconverter achieves a voltage conversion gain of 29.5 dB, double sideband noise figure of 12.7 dB, out-of-band IIP3 of 13 dBm and IIP2 of more than 62 dBm.

  17. A New Non-LTE Model based on Super Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.

    1996-11-01

    Non-LTE effects are vital for the simulation of radiation in hot plasmas involving even medium Z materials. However, the exceedingly large number of atomic energy levels forbids using a detailed collisional radiative model on-line in the hydrodynamic simulations. For this purpose, greatly simplified models are required. We implemented recently Busquet's model(M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993)) in NRL's RAD2D Hydro code in conservative form (M. Klapisch et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 40, 1806 (1995), and poster at this meeting.). This model is quick and the results make sense, but in the absence of precisely defined experiments, it is difficult to asses its accuracy. We present here a new collisional radiative model based on superconfigurations( A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg, J. F. Seely, U. Feldman, C. M. Brown, B. A. Hammel, R. W. Lee and C. A. Back, Phys. Rev. E, 52, 6686 (1995).), intended to be a benchmark for approximate models used in hydro-codes. It uses accurate rates from the HULLAC Code. Results for various elements will be presented and compared with RADIOM.

  18. Highly Compact MIMO Antenna System for LTE/ISM Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingsheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Planar monopole antenna is proposed as the antenna element to form a compact dual-element multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO antenna system for LTE2300 (used in Asia and Africa and ISM band operation. The system can cover a 310 MHz (2.20–2.51 GHz operating bandwidth, with the total size of 15.5 mm × 18 mm × 1.6 mm. Measured isolation higher than 16 dB is obtained without any specially designed decoupling structures, while the edge-to-edge element spacing is only 7.8 mm (0.08λ at 2.20 GHz. Radiation characteristics, correlation coefficient, and the performance of the whole system with a metal sheet and a plastic housing show this system is competitive for practical MIMO applications. The antenna element is further used to build an eight-element MIMO antenna system; also good results are achieved.

  19. NEON: the first continental-scale ecological observatory with airborne remote sensing of vegetation canopy biochemistry and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas U. Kampe; Brian R. Johnson; Michele Kuester; Michael. Keller

    2010-01-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ecological observation platform for discovering, understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecology. NEON will operate for 30 years and gather long-term data on ecological response changes and on feedbacks with the geosphere, hydrosphere...

  20. Enhancing continental-scale understanding of agriculture: Integrating the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) with existing research networks to address global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, G.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a resurgence of interest in the sustainability of the world's food system and its contributions to feeding the world's population as well as to ensuring environmental sustainability of the planet. The elements of this grand challenge are by now well known. Analysis of agricultural sustainability is made more challenging by the fact that the local responses to these global drivers of change are extremely variable in space and time due to the biophysical and geopolitical heterogeneity across the United States, and the world. Utilizing research networks allows the scientific community to leverage existing knowledge, models and data to develop a framework for understanding the interplay between global change drivers, regional, and continental sustainability of US agriculture. For example, well-established instrumented and calibrated research networks will allow for the examination of the potential tradeoffs between: 1) crop production, 2) land use and carbon emissions and sequestration, 3) groundwater depletion, and 4) nitrogen dynamics. NEON represents a major investment in scientific infrastructure in support of ecological research at a continental scale and is intended to address multiple ecological grand challenges. NEON will collect data from automated sensors and sample organisms and ecological variables in 20 eco-climatic domains. We will provide examples of how NEON's full potential can be realized when these data are combined with long term experimental results and other sensor networks [e.g., Ameriflux, Fluxnet, the Long-term Ecological Research Program (LTER), the Long-term Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR)], Critical Zone Observatory (CZO).

  1. Nuclear effect study on nucleon structure functions, in comparison with antineutrino interactions on neon and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, C.

    1984-03-01

    We have studied the nuclear effects on high energy antineutrino charged current interactions by comparing the data which were taken in the Bubble Chamber BEBC filled with Neon and Deuterium. On the one hand, the study of nuclear reinteractions gave us the possibility to estimate the formation time of hadrons. On the other hand, the comparison of structure functions does not show any significant difference between Neon and Deuterium. Though this result does not contradict the effects observed with charged leptons by the EMC and SLAC experiments, it is strongly incompatible with certain theoretical interpretations which implied a stronger effect in antineutrino interactions [fr

  2. Resonant photopumping of a neon lasant plasma by a sodium pump plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, F.C.; Apruzese, J.P.; Burkhalter, P.G.; Cooperstein, G.; Davis, J.; Mosher, D.; Ottinger, P.F.; Scherrer, V.E.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Mehlman, C.; Welch, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    Resonant photopumping of heliumlike neon by helium like sodium is being investigated to extend this pumping technique to the soft x-ray region. In the Na-pump/Ne-lasant system, the 1s 2 -1s2p 1 P 1 line of Na X at 11.0027 A differs by 2 parts in 10 4 from the 1s 2 -1s 4 p 1 P 1 line of Ne 1X at 11.0003 A. This wavelength difference corresponds to about one Doppler width at the sodium plasma temperatures (200-500 eV) required for strong Na X pump radiation. Sodium line radiation of sufficient power irradiating a properly prepared neon plasma will cause overpopulation of the Ne 1X n = 4 singlet level leading to lasing in the 4-3, 4-2, and possibly 3-2 singlet transitions. Experimentally, the current pulse from the NRL Gamble-II generator is used to produce side-by-side z-pinch plasmas of sodium fluoride (NaF) and neon. The discharges are viewed radially with x-ray diagnostics including time-integrated pinhole cameras, time-resolved x-ray diodes, and a time-integrated curved-crystal spectrograph. Measurements of the neon plasma indicate that a discharge current of about 200 kA is required to produce a neon lasant with a dominant heliumlike ground-state population. For fluorescence experiments, appropriate neon lasant conditions (density of about 10 18 cm -3 and temperature of 50-100 eV) must be produced at the time of the intense sodium pump-line radiation. Fluorescence is demonstrated by observing enhancement of the 4-1 line (He-γ) from the neon plasma relative to the 3-1 line (He-γ) when the neon is pumped by sodium. An increase in this γ-to-β ratio of 25% has been observed when the sodium pump radiation is present. The results of recent experiments are reported, and their implications for future experiments are discussed

  3. LCLS in—photon out: fluorescence measurement of neon using soft x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Razib; Buth, Christian; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Beerwerth, Randolf; Holmes, Michael; Aldrich, Jeff; Lin, Ming-Fu; Minitti, Michael; Osipov, Timur; Schlotter, William; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Fritzsche, Stephan; Berrah, Nora

    2018-02-01

    We measured the fluorescence photon yield of neon upon soft x-ray ionization (∼1200 eV) from the x-ray free-electron laser at Linac Coherent Light Source, and demonstrated the usage of a grazing incidence spectrometer with a variable line spacing grating to perform x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy on a gas phase system. Our measurements also allowed us to estimate the focal size of the beam from the theoretical description developed, in terms of the rate equation approximation accounting for photoionization shake off of neutral neon and double auger decay of single core holes.

  4. Isotopic composition of neon in the galactic cosmic rays: a high resolution measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.E.; Wiedenbeck, M.E.; Bieser, F.S.; Crawford, H.J.; Heckman, H.H.; Lindstrom, P.J.

    1979-06-01

    A measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray neon in the energy range 70 to 260 MeV/amu has been made using the U.C. Berkeley HKH instrument aboard ISEE-3. A combination of high resolution and good statistical accuracy makes possible a precise determination of the local interplanetary neon composition. We find 22 Ne/ 20 Ne = 0.64 +- 0.07 and 21 Ne/ 20 Ne < 0.30 in local interplanetary space. These ratios, when interpreted in using standard galactic propagation and solar modulation models, yield cosmic ray source abundances which are inconsistent with a solar-like source composition

  5. Polarizability of Helium, Neon, and Argon: New Perspectives for Gas Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiser, Christof; Fellmuth, Bernd

    2018-03-01

    With dielectric-constant gas thermometry, the molar polarizability of helium, neon, and argon has been determined with relative standard uncertainties of about 2 parts per million. A series of isotherms measured with the three noble gases and two different experimental setups led to this unprecedented level of uncertainty. These data are crucial for scientists in the field of gas metrology, working on pressure and temperature standards. Furthermore, with the new benchmark values for neon and argon, theoretical calculations, today about 3 orders of magnitude larger in uncertainty, can be checked and improved.

  6. EXTRAPOLATION METHOD FOR MAXIMAL AND 24-H AVERAGE LTE TDD EXPOSURE ESTIMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, D; Grillo, E; Pavoncello, S; Coltellacci, S; Buccella, C; Aureli, T

    2018-01-01

    The Long-Term Evolution (LTE) system represents the evolution of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System technology. This technology introduces two duplex modes: Frequency Division Duplex and Time Division Duplex (TDD). Despite having experienced a limited expansion in the European countries since the debut of the LTE technology, a renewed commercial interest for LTE TDD technology has recently been shown. Therefore, the development of extrapolation procedures optimised for TDD systems becomes crucial, especially for the regulatory authorities. This article presents an extrapolation method aimed to assess the exposure to LTE TDD sources, based on the detection of the Cell-Specific Reference Signal power level. The method introduces a βTDD parameter intended to quantify the fraction of the LTE TDD frame duration reserved for downlink transmission. The method has been validated by experimental measurements performed on signals generated by both a vector signal generator and a test Base Transceiver Station installed at Linkem S.p.A facility in Rome. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Adaptive Antenna System for Both 4G LTE and 5G Cellular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kendrick Q. T.

    Given the steep increase in the use of mobile communication systems, the current 4G/LTE (Long Term Evolution), cellular system will not be able to handle the increase in data. It is estimated that by 2020 the bandwidth requirements will be 10 times greater than what LTE can sustain. A new 5th generation (5G) communication system has been proposed to meet this demand. The physical layer or the antenna is the most critical part of any wireless communication systems as it is the interface between the free space medium and an electrical circuit. It sets the margin for almost all design parameters in the system such as the system noise and bandwidth. Several interactions of antennas have been proposed over the years for cellular services. These antennas are of various geometries, bandwidths, and radiation patterns with almost all having linear polarization. This thesis attempts to solve the multiple LTE antenna problem by creating a simple antenna that covers most of the LTE bands (850-2700 MHz) as well as introducing an antenna system at the 28 GHz 5G band. This allows for a greater educated hypothesis into what 5G can offer at the physical layer. The proposed concept will provide a solution to the co-existence problem of upcoming 5G wireless systems to be interoperable with existing 4G/LTE system.

  8. CBRS Spectrum Sharing between LTE-U and WiFi: A Multiarmed Bandit Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Parvez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surge of mobile devices such as smartphone and tablets requires additional capacity. To achieve ubiquitous and high data rate Internet connectivity, effective spectrum sharing and utilization of the wireless spectrum carry critical importance. In this paper, we consider the use of unlicensed LTE (LTE-U technology in the 3.5 GHz Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS band and develop a multiarmed bandit (MAB based spectrum sharing technique for a smooth coexistence with WiFi. In particular, we consider LTE-U to operate as a General Authorized Access (GAA user; hereby MAB is used to adaptively optimize the transmission duty cycle of LTE-U transmissions. Additionally, we incorporate downlink power control which yields a high energy efficiency and interference suppression. Simulation results demonstrate a significant improvement in the aggregate capacity (approximately 33% and cell-edge throughput of coexisting LTE-U and WiFi networks for different base station densities and user densities.

  9. Systematic investigation of NLTE phenomena in the limit of small departures from LTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, S. B.; Graziani, F. R.; More, R. M.; Kato, T.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, we begin a systematic study of Non-Local Thermal Equilibrium (NLTE) phenomena in near equilibrium (LTE) high energy density, highly radiative plasmas. It is shown that the principle of minimum entropy production rate characterizes NLTE steady states for average atom rate equations in the case of small departures form LTE. With the aid of a novel hohlraum-reaction box thought experiment, we use the principles of minimum entropy production and detailed balance to derive Onsager reciprocity relations for the NLTE responses of a near equilibrium sample to non-Planckian perturbations in different frequency groups. This result is a significant symmetry constraint on the linear corrections to Kirchoff's law. We envisage applying our strategy to a number of test problems which include: the NLTE corrections to the ionization state of an ion located near the edge of an otherwise LTE medium; the effect of a monochromatic radiation field perturbation on an LTE medium; the deviation of Rydberg state populations from LTE in recombining or ionizing plasmas; multi-electron temperature models such as that of Busquet; and finally, the effect of NLTE population shifts on opacity models.

  10. Systematic investigation of NLTE phenomena in the limit of small departures from LTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, S.B.; Graziani, F.R.; More, R.M.; Kato, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we begin a systematic study of Non-Local Thermal Equilibrium (NLTE) phenomena in near equilibrium (LTE) high energy density, highly radiative plasmas. It is shown that the principle of minimum entropy production rate characterizes NLTE steady states for average atom rate equations in the case of small departures form LTE. With the aid of a novel hohlraum-reaction box thought experiment, we use the principles of minimum entropy production and detailed balance to derive Onsager reciprocity relations for the NLTE responses of a near equilibrium sample to non-Planckian perturbations in different frequency groups. This result is a significant symmetry constraint on the linear corrections to Kirchoff close-quote s law. We envisage applying our strategy to a number of test problems which include: the NLTE corrections to the ionization state of an ion located near the edge of an otherwise LTE medium; the effect of a monochromatic radiation field perturbation on an LTE medium; the deviation of Rydberg state populations from LTE in recombining or ionizing plasmas; multi-electron temperature models such as that of Busquet; and finally, the effect of NLTE population shifts on opacity models. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Systematic investigation of NLTE phenomena in the limit of small departures from LTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, S. B.; Graziani, F. R.; More, R. M.; Kato, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we begin a systematic study of Non-Local Thermal Equilibrium (NLTE) phenomena in near equilibrium (LTE) high energy density, highly radiative plasmas. It is shown that the principle of minimum entropy production rate characterizes NLTE steady states for average atom rate equations in the case of small departures form LTE. With the aid of a novel hohlraum-reaction box thought experiment, we use the principles of minimum entropy production and detailed balance to derive Onsager reciprocity relations for the NLTE responses of a near equilibrium sample to non-Planckian perturbations in different frequency groups. This result is a significant symmetry constraint on the linear corrections to Kirchoff's law. We envisage applying our strategy to a number of test problems which include: the NLTE corrections to the ionization state of an ion located near the edge of an otherwise LTE medium; the effect of a monochromatic radiation field perturbation on an LTE medium; the deviation of Rydberg state populations from LTE in recombining or ionizing plasmas; multi-electron temperature models such as that of Busquet; and finally, the effect of NLTE population shifts on opacity models

  12. A Multistage Control Mechanism for Group-Based Machine-Type Communications in an LTE System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chien Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When machine-type communication (MTC devices perform the long-term evolution (LTE attach procedure without bit rate limitations, they may produce congestion in the core network. To prevent this congestion, the LTE standard suggests using group-based policing to regulate the maximum bit rate of all traffic generated by a group of MTC devices. However, previous studies on the access point name-aggregate maximum bit rate based on group-based policing are relatively limited. This study proposes a multistage control (MSC mechanism to process the operations of maximum bit rate allocation based on resource-use information. For performance evaluation, this study uses a Markov chain with to analyze MTC application in a 3GPP network. Traffic flow simulations in an LTE system indicate that the MSC mechanism is an effective bandwidth allocation method in an LTE system with MTC devices. Experimental results show that the MSC mechanism achieves a throughput 22.5% higher than that of the LTE standard model using the group-based policing, and it achieves a lower delay time and greater long-term fairness as well.

  13. Analisis Performansi Algoritma Penjadwalan Log Rule dan Frame Level Schedule Skenario Multicell Pada Layer Mac LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile telecommunications technology gradually evolved to support better services such as voice, data, and video to users of telecommunications services. LTE (Long Term Evolution is a network based on Internet Protocol (IP standardized by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP. To support it, LTE requires a mechanism that can support. One of them by applying methods of scheduling packets in each service. Scheduling is a different treatment to packets that come in accordance with the priorities of the scheduling algorithm. In this research, to analyze the performance of LTE with paramater delay, packet loss ratio, throughput and fairness index uses a scheduling algorithms Frame Level Schedule (FLS and Log Rule on LTE-Simulator with scenarios using Voip traffic, Video and Best Effort (BE. The results is scheduling algorithms FLS is better than log rule in term of throughput values, while of scheduling algorithms log rule is better than FLS in terms of delay based on the number and speed of the users. This indicates that both scheduling algorithms suitable for use in LTE networks within conditions of traffic real time services, but not for non real time services such as BE.

  14. Scheduler-dependent inter-cell interference and its impact on LTE uplink performance at flow level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Heijenk, Geert; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Yankov, S.; Masip Bruin, Xavier; Verchere, Dominique; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Yannuzzi, Marcelo

    The Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular technology is ex- pected to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. Among the key mechanisms in LTE responsible for traffic management is the packet scheduler, which handles the al- location of resources to active flows

  15. Scheduler-dependent inter-cell interference and its impact on LTE uplink performance at flow level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Heijenk, G.; Berg, J.L. van den; Yankov, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular technology is expected to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. Among the key mechanisms in LTE responsible for traffic management is the packet scheduler, which handles the allocation of resources to active flows in

  16. Heterogeneous LTE/802.11a mobile relays for data rate enhancement and energy-efficiency in high speed trains

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    (LTE) long range links and with the mobile terminals (MTs) inside the train cars using IEEE 802.11a short range links. Scenarios with unicasting and multicasting from the BS are studied, both in the presence and absence of the relays. In addition, LTE

  17. Spectrum Sensing Experimentation for LTE and WiFi Unlicensed Band Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Milošević

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available If several different systems operate in the same frequency band, a coordination between them is needed for effective use of the available spectrum. The coordination is especially important if the systems are not designed to operate in such an environment. The very important initial phase of the coordination process is acquiring of the spectrum usage map or spectrum sensing. The paper describes the spectrum sensing experimentation in the unlicensed 5 GHz band during the WiFi or LTE transmission. It describes the experiment workflow and depicts the obtained results. The experiments were performed at NITOS testbed at the University of Thessaly, Greece, and show that it is possible to determine whether WiFi or LTE transmission is sensed. Therefore, based on spectrum sensing it will be possible to coordinate a shared access of WiFi and LTE users in the unlicensed 5 GHz band.

  18. Impact of the traffic load on performance of an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    communication infrastructure supporting railway signaling. This work is based on OPNET realistic network simulations, which show the relation between the traffic load (the number of trains transmitting and receiving data in an LTE cell) and the delay performance of the European Train Control System (ETCS......Although many countries only now begin to invest in deployment of GSM-Railways (GSM-R) networks, this technology is already obsolete and reveals its significant shortcomings. The most troublesome one is the insufficient number of communication channels offered by GSM-R. This is a major problem...... obstructing railway operations at big train stations and junctions. Hence, other technologies, such as Long Term Evolution (LTE), need to be considered as an alternative to GSM-R. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the capacity increase that railways can expect, from the introduction of LTE as internal...

  19. LTE Radiated Data Throughput Measurements, Adopting MIMO 2x2 Reference Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szini, Istvan Janos; Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del

    2012-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) requires Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna systems. Consequently a new over-the-air (OTA) test methodology need to be created to make proper assessment of LTE devices radiated performance. The antenna specific parameters i.e. total antenna efficiency, gain...... imbalance and correlation coefficient, are essential for a proper MIMO antenna system design. However it can't be use directly to assess the LTE device system performance, since a multiplicity of other factors are involved, e.g. power amplifier load- pull, low noise amplifier source-pull, self interference...... noise, baseband algorithm and other factors. Several standard organizations are working towards a consensus over the proper OTA MIMO test method, however so far results of measurement campaigns have ambiguous results not allowing a desirable progress [1]. Initially presented at one of several MIMO OTA...

  20. Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for Deca-Band 5 G/LTE/WWAN Mobile Terminal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingsheng; Cheng, Biyu; Jia, Hongting

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a frequency reconfigurable antenna for 5 G/LTE/WWAN mobile terminal applications is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a radiation element which is folded on a dielectric cuboid. Four PIN diodes located on the antenna element are used for frequency reconfigration. By controlling the states of four PIN diodes with an 8-bit microcontroller, a broad band which can cover deca-band as LTE700/2300/2500, GSM850/900/1800/1900, UMTS 2100, WLAN2400 and the future 5 G or LTE3600 is obtained with a compacted size of 40×8×5mm3. The antenna gain, efficiency and radiation characteristics are also shown.

  1. Cellular and molecular effects for mutation induction in normal human cells irradiated with accelerated neon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masao; Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kato, Takeshi; Yatagai, Fumio; Watanabe, Masami

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of mutation induction on the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus in normal human fibroblast-like cells irradiated with accelerated neon-ion beams. The cells were irradiated with neon-ion beams at various LETs ranging from 63 to 335 keV/μm. Neon-ion beams were accelerated by the Riken Ring Cyclotron at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Japan. Mutation induction at the HPRT locus was detected to measure 6-thioguanine-resistant clones. The mutation spectrum of the deletion pattern of exons of mutants was analyzed using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The dose-response curves increased steeply up to 0.5 Gy and leveled off or decreased between 0.5 and 1.0 Gy, compared to the response to 137 Cs γ-rays. The mutation frequency increased up to 105 keV/μm and then there was a downward trend with increasing LET values. The deletion pattern of exons was non-specific. About 75-100% of the mutants produced using LETs ranging from 63 to 335 keV/μm showed all or partial deletions of exons, while among γ-ray-induced mutants 30% showed no deletions, 30% partial deletions and 40% complete deletions. These results suggested that the dose-response curves of neon-ion-induced mutations were dependent upon LET values, but the deletion pattern of DNA was not

  2. Neon Abundances from a Spitzer/IRS Survey of Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignace, R.; Cassinelli, J.P.; Tracy, G.; Churchwell, E.B.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    We report on neon abundances derived from Spitzer high resolution spectral data of eight Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars using the forbidden line of [Ne III] 15.56 μm. Our targets include four WN stars of subtypes 4-7, and four WC stars of subtypes 4-7. We derive ion fraction abundances γ of Ne2+ for the

  3. Comparison of boron and neon damage effects in boron ion-implanted resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIver, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    Boron and neon damage implants were used in fabricating integrated-circuit resistors in silicon. Resistor properties were studied as functions of damaging ion species and dose. Sheet resistances in the 10 000 Ω/square range were obtained with low temperature and voltage sensitivities and d.c. isolation. (author)

  4. Improved discovery of NEON data and samples though vocabularies, workflows, and web tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, C. M.; Elmendorf, S.; Flagg, C.; Harris, T.; Lunch, C. K.; Gulbransen, T.

    2017-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale ecological observation facility sponsored by the National Science Foundation and operated by Battelle. NEON supports research on the impacts of invasive species, land use change, and environmental change on natural resources and ecosystems by gathering and disseminating a full suite of observational, instrumented, and airborne datasets from field sites across the U.S. NEON also collects thousands of samples from soil, water, and organisms every year, and partners with numerous institutions to analyze and archive samples. We have developed numerous new technologies to support processing and discovery of this highly diverse collection of data. These technologies include applications for data collection and sample management, processing pipelines specific to each collection system (field observations, installed sensors, and airborne instruments), and publication pipelines. NEON data and metadata are discoverable and downloadable via both a public API and data portal. We solicit continued engagement and advice from the informatics and environmental research communities, particularly in the areas of data versioning, usability, and visualization.

  5. Thomson scattering in a low-pressure neon mercury positive column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2001-01-01

    The electron density and the electron temperature in a low-pressure neon mercury positive column are determined using Thomson scattering. Special attention has been given to the stray light reduction in the Thomson scattering setup. The results are obtained in a discharge tube with a 26 mm diam, 10

  6. Feasibility of evaluating possible 85Kr environmental contamination from neon lamp production line to be installed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangzuo

    1989-01-01

    Using a simplified method, the concentrations of 85 Kr leaking into the air of a workshop and its surroundings, where a neon lamp production line was to be installed, were calculated. The doses to the workers and inhabitants nearby were also estimated. Thus, the evaluation of 85 Kr enviromental contamination caused by imported equipments was made feasible

  7. Non-LTE treatment of beryllium lines: Misidentification of the solar Be I feature at 2650 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipman, H.L.; Auer, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    We investigated the formation of beryllium lines, with particular reference to the solar Be spectrum, in a non-LTE context with a 25-level model atom in which 15 levels were allowed to depart from LTE. In some transitions, particularly the Be I lambda2650 line, the non-LTE effects can be quite dramatic, changing the deduced abundances by a factor of 4. Based on our non-LTE calculations and Copernicus observations of other stars, we find that a solar spectral feature at 2650 A, previously identified by numerous investigators as a Be I line, cannot be produced by Be I. Non-LTE effects on the Be II lambda3131 A line, used for most Be abundance determinations in the literature, are small by comparison

  8. A non-LTE treatment of beryllium lines - Misidentification of the solar Be I feature at 2650 A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, H. L.; Auer, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of beryllium lines, with particular reference to the solar Be spectrum, is investigated in a non-LTE context with a 25-level model atom in which 15 levels are allowed to depart from LTE. In some transitions, particularly the Be I 2650-A line, the non-LTE effects can be quite dramatic, changing the deduced abundances by a factor of 4. Based on the non-LTE calculations and Copernicus observations of other stars, it is found that a solar spectral feature at 2650 A, previously identified by numerous investigators as a Be I line, cannot be produced by Be I. Non-LTE effects on the Be II 3131-A line, used for most Be abundance determinations in the literature, are small by comparison.

  9. NEON Collaborative Data Collection Campaign at Pacific South West Site in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Musinsky, J.; Petroy, S. B.; Wasser, L. A.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Serbin, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale observatory that will collect biological, chemical and geophysical data over the continental United States in order to study biodiversity, landcover change, climate change and invasive species. In June 2013, a large-scale data collection took place over NEON's Pacific South West (PSW) site 17 in CA, USA. Data were collected in the San Joaquin Experimental Range and the Sierra National Forest. NEON's AOP (Airborne Observation Platform) acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral data (~1m pixels), waveform lidar, discrete lidar, and RGB imagery over all three sites. A field team simultaneously collected atmospheric and vegetation inventory data, including tree locations, height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), species, and spectral data. The NEON collect was centered within a collaboration of multiple research entities, including NASA, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), University of Massachusetts (Boston; UMB, and Lowell; UML), Boston University (BU), and the University of Wisconsin, Madison (UWM). NASA's AVIRIS and MASTER sensors were flown over a wider area encompassing the NEON sites, with AVIRIS acquiring hyperspectral data (224 bands) at approximately 30m spatial resolution, and MASTER acquiring multispectral thermal data (50 bands) at approximately 50m spatial resolution. These data will be downscaled to approximate theoretical HyspIRI data (60m spatial resolution) as part of a large collection of preparatory research. Concurrently, a variety of university teams were active in the field: RIT collected ground-based lidar, leaf area index (LAI), herbaceous biomass measurements, wide-angle photographs, and spectral measurements. Data were collected over 20 80x80m sites, centered on existing 20x20m NEON sites. This data set will be used to inform synthetic scene design and to study the impact of sub-pixel structural variation on pixel-level spectral response; The BU, UMB, and UML

  10. RBE of heavy ions (carbon, neon, helium, proton) for acute cell death of pancreatic islet cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubouchi, Susumu; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Itsukaichi, Hiromi

    2003-01-01

    At this fiscal year, only two times irradiation experiments with neon and helium beams were performed to obtain relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of heavy ions (carbon, neon, helium, proton) for acute cell death of pancreatic islet cells in vivo. First of all this project was designed to obtain RBE of 290 MeV carbon and 400 MeV neon beams in the high linear energy transfer (LET) region for acute cell death of pancreatic islets of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in the condition of in both in vivo and in vitro systems. As mentioned in previous report, in vitro system, however, resulted in ill success. This in vitro experiment was tentatively shelved for the time being. In return in vivo experiments for low LET region of neon beams (32.5 KeV/u), carbon beams (15.0 KeV/u) and helium beams (2 KeV/u) were performed in these two years. Last year these results together with those previously obtained for 200 KeV X-ray, 70 MeV proton, 290 MeV carbon (60 KeV/u), and neon (100 KeV/u) beams were reconsidered. At this year dose response relations (25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 Gy respectively) in acute cell death of pancreatic islets studied histologically after whole body irradiation of 3 weeks young male golden hamster with lower LET helium beams (2 KeV/u) and neon beams (32.5 KeV/u). Results indicated that mean cell lethal dose (Do) of helium beams (2 KeV/u) and neon beams (32.5 KeV/u) were 38 Gy and 49 Gy, respectively. Previously obtained Do data for 200 KeV x-ray, 70 MeV proton, 290 MeV carbon (15 KeV/u), 400 MeV neon (32.5 KeV/u), 290 MeV carbon (60 KeV/u), and 400 MeV neon (100 KeV/u) beams were 37 Gy, 38 Gy, 38 Gy, 49 Gy, 75 Gy, and 200 Gy, respectively. From these data estimated RBE of neon (100 KeV/u and 32.5 KeV/u), carbon (60 KeV/u and 15.0 KeV/u), 70 MeV proton and 150 MeV helium (2 KeV/u) beams were 0.19, 0.76, 0.49, 0.97, 0.97, 0.97, respectively. Therefore the order of RBE (or radiosensitivities) of islets cells with these various heavy ion beams was

  11. Observed departures from LTE ionization equilibrium in late-type giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    Photoelectric scans of the Ca I line at 6572 A and the forbidden Ca II transition at 7323 A are studied in the K giant α Tau, the M supergiant α Ori, and the M giants β And, α Cet, μ Gem, and β Peg. The relative strengths of these lines are shown to be indicative of the ratio of the relative number densities of the neutral and ionized species in the photosphere. The analysis indicates an overionization relative to LTE in qualitative agreement with the theoretical calculations of Auman and Woodrow for the K and M giants. The M supergiant α Ori exhibits a large over-ionization relative to LTE

  12. In-Band Interference Effects on UTRA LTE Uplink Resource Block Allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priyanto, Basuki Endah; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Jensen, Ole Kiel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the impact of in-band interference on the uplink multiple access of UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access, long term evolution (UTRA LTE). In- band and out-of-band interference arise as a result of transmitter imperfections. Out-of- band, or adjacent channel, interference can......, and when the interfering signal is received at higher power spectral density (PSD). The effect of frequency offset and different PSD level from the UE interferers to a victim UE is studied. The impact on different UE resource block size allocation is also investigated. The results are obtained from an LTE...

  13. Characterization of dual-polarization LTE radio over a free-space optical turbulence channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohata, J; Zvanovec, S; Korinek, T; Mansour Abadi, M; Ghassemlooy, Z

    2015-08-10

    A dual polarization (DP) radio over a free-space optical (FSO) communication link using a long-term evolution (LTE) radio signal is proposed and analyzed under different turbulence channel conditions. Radio signal transmission over the DP FSO channel is experimentally verified by means of error vector magnitude (EVM) statistics. We demonstrate that such a system, employing a 64 quadrature amplitude modulation at the frequency bands of 800 MHz and 2.6 GHz, evinces reliability with LTE signal over the FSO channel is a potential solution for last-mile access or backbone networks, when using multiple-input multiple-output based DP signals.

  14. Influence of external radiation on non-LTE opacities of Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2010-11-01

    In Laboratory Astrophysics, where astrophysics phenomena are scaled down to the laboratory, Xenon is commonly used. In most cases, astrophysical plasmas are not dense enough to warrant LTE. However, they are surrounded by radiation fields. Extensive detailed level computations of non-LTE Xe around Te = 100eV were performed with HULLAC [1], with different radiation temperatures and/or dilution factors. Generally, the effects are very important, even with small dilution factors. [4pt] [1] M. Klapisch and M. Busquet, High Ener. Dens. Phys.5, (2009) 105-9; Bull. Am. Phys. Soc.54, (2009) 210.

  15. Channelization Issues with Fairness Considerations for MU-MIMO Precoding Based UTRA-LTE/TDD Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Wang, Yuanye; Das, Suvra

    2008-01-01

    resource allocation point of view, choice of any technique will require different fairness conditions among users. In this paper, we have studied these different fairness conditions when combined with basic or joint access schemes mentioned above, while applied in a MU-MIMO based UTRA-LTE system. We have...... evaluated the resource allocation fairness issue when two well-known linear MU-MIMO precoding is used on a UTRA-LTE system. User grouping issue is dealt with when SDMA component is considered in the system. The results in this work provides an indicative analysis of the usability of different channelization...

  16. 3D Multi-Level Non-LTE Radiative Transfer for the CO Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkner, A.; Schweitzer, A.; Hauschildt, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    The photospheres of cool stars are both rich in molecules and an environment where the assumption of LTE can not be upheld under all circumstances. Unfortunately, detailed 3D non-LTE calculations involving molecules are hardly feasible with current computers. For this reason, we present our implementation of the super level technique, in which molecular levels are combined into super levels, to reduce the number of unknowns in the rate equations and, thus, the computational effort and memory requirements involved, and show the results of our first tests against the 1D implementation of the same method.

  17. Access for Internet of Things using Smartphone as a Gateway utilizing LTE and WiFi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2016-01-01

    Communicating the Internet of Things (IoT) data relying on Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and WiFi has been been presented in the relevant literature. However, this necessitates devices to have LTE/WiFi capability of their own, that has limitations in the form of power consumption, and radio access...... the data to the Internet. In this paper we present a system model wherein the smartphone functions as a gateway for the IoT devices operating on NFC, ZigBee and Bluetooth. The smartphone functioning as a gateway for transferring IoT data. The system modelled in the form of a Markov Chain based...

  18. Dual Connectivity in LTE HetNets with Split Control- and User-Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna; López-Pérez, David; Kucera, Stepan

    2013-01-01

    a detailed description of our dual connectivity framework based on the latest LTE-Advanced enhancements, in which macrocellassisted (MA) small cells use different channel state informationreference signals (CSI-RS) to differentiate among each other and allow User Equipment (UE) to take adequate measurements......Recently, a new network architecture with split control-plane and user-plane has been proposed and gained a lot of momentum in the standardisation of Long Term Evolution (LTE) Release 12. In this new network architecture, the controlplane, which transmits system information and handles user...

  19. Interference analysis for UAV connectivity over LTE using aerial radio measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan; Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2017-01-01

    . In this paper, we use empirical measurements in live rural LTE networks to assess the impact of uplink and downlink radio interference on the UAV radio connectivity performance. Further, we provide a baseline analysis on the potential of interference mitigation schemes, needed to provide a reliable radio...... for these services is that the radio communication link must reliably cover a wide(er) area, when compared to the visual-line-of-sight range radio links currently used. Standardized cellular systems such as Long Term Evolution UMTS (LTE), are an obvious candidate to provide the radio communication link to UAVs...

  20. Relationship between the induction frequency and LTE in inductively coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaghimi, J.; Boulos, M.I.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of the induction frequency on the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions in an inductively coupled plasma is investigated. Using generators with frequencies ranging from 5 to 56 MHz, a previous study investigated demonstrated the importance of this effect. Their measurements of the excitation temperatures of the iron atomic lines showed a sharp decrease in this temperature as a result of the increase in frequency. Another conclusion was that, all other parameters constant, increase in frequency will help the promotion of non-LTE effects

  1. Method for Detection of Airborne UEs based on LTE Radio Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigard, Jeroen; Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2017-01-01

    management can be optimized for UAVs separately from terrestrial UEs. In this paper, we present a classification algorithm using existing LTE UE radio measurements to identify whether a UE is airborne or terrestrial. The method is verified with LTE measurements made in a rural area at different heights......, including terrestrial measurements and it is shown that the method in 3 out of the 4 different measurement cases can detect a UE to be airborne with 99% likelihood, while the fourth case still can classify a UE correctly in 95% of the cases. The right classification can further be improved by taking...

  2. Empirical LTE Smartphone Power Model with DRX Operation for System Level Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Noël, Laurent; Mogensen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    An LTE smartphone power model is presented to enable academia and industry to evaluate users’ battery life on system level. The model is based on empirical measurements on a smartphone using a second generation LTE chipset, and the model includes functions of receive and transmit data rates...... and power levels. The first comprehensive Discontinuous Reception (DRX) power consumption measurements are reported together with cell bandwidth, screen and CPU power consumption. The transmit power level and to some extent the receive data rate constitute the overall power consumption, while DRX proves...

  3. Novel wideband MIMO antennas that can cover the whole LTE spectrum in handsets and portable computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanad, Mohamed; Hassan, Noha

    2014-01-01

    A dual resonant antenna configuration is developed for multistandard multifunction mobile handsets and portable computers. Only two wideband resonant antennas can cover most of the LTE spectrums in portable communication equipment. The bandwidth that can be covered by each antenna exceeds 70% without using any matching or tuning circuits, with efficiencies that reach 80%. Thus, a dual configuration of them is capable of covering up to 39 LTE (4G) bands besides the existing 2G and 3G bands. 2×2 MIMO configurations have been also developed for the two wideband antennas with a maximum isolation and a minimum correlation coefficient between the primary and the diversity antennas.

  4. Novel Wideband MIMO Antennas That Can Cover the Whole LTE Spectrum in Handsets and Portable Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sanad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual resonant antenna configuration is developed for multistandard multifunction mobile handsets and portable computers. Only two wideband resonant antennas can cover most of the LTE spectrums in portable communication equipment. The bandwidth that can be covered by each antenna exceeds 70% without using any matching or tuning circuits, with efficiencies that reach 80%. Thus, a dual configuration of them is capable of covering up to 39 LTE (4G bands besides the existing 2G and 3G bands. 2×2 MIMO configurations have been also developed for the two wideband antennas with a maximum isolation and a minimum correlation coefficient between the primary and the diversity antennas.

  5. Positron annihilation in low-temperature rare gases. II. Argon and neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, K.F.; Roellig, L.O.

    1975-01-01

    Lifetime measurements of slow-positron and ortho-positronium (o-Ps) annihilation were made in argon and neon gases at room temperature and below. The argon experiments cover the temperature range 115 to 300 0 K and the density range 0.0356 to 0.0726 g/cm 3 (approximately equal to 20 to 40 amagat). The slow-positron spectra in argon exhibit a departure from free-positron annihilation below 200 0 K. The departure becomes more marked as the temperature is lowered. No deviation from free o-Ps pickoff annihilation is observed in argon at low temperatures. The neon measurements cover the temperature range 30 to 300 0 K and the density range 0.032 to 0.89 g/cm 3 (approximately equal to 35 to 980 amagat). No effect of temperature on the slow-positron spectra throughout the temperature and density ranges investigated in neon is observed. The spectra are very exponential with a corresponding decay rate which is temperature as well as time independent and is directly proportional to density over the ranges investigated. The o-Ps data are more eventful in that the o-Ps lifetime at near-liquid densities is approximately 20 nsec, a factor of nearly 4 greater than the value obtained using the pickoff-annihilation coefficient obtained at lower densities. This is evidence for positronium-induced cavities in low-temperature neon. A brief discussion of the argon and neon results is given in the context of the explanations offered for the low-temperature effects observed in helium gas

  6. NEON's eddy-covariance: interoperable flux data products, software and services for you, now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, S.; Desai, A. R.; Durden, D.; Hartmann, J.; Li, J.; Luo, H.; Durden, N. P.; Sachs, T.; Serafimovich, A.; Sturtevant, C.; Xu, K.

    2017-12-01

    Networks of eddy-covariance (EC) towers such as AmeriFlux, ICOS and NEON are vital for providing the necessary distributed observations to address interactions at the soil-vegetation-atmosphere interface. NEON, close to full operation with 47 tower sites, will represent the largest single-provider EC network globally. Its standardized observation and data processing suite is designed specifically for inter-site comparability and analysis of feedbacks across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, NEON coordinates EC with rich contextual observations such as airborne remote sensing and in-situ sampling bouts. In January 2018 NEON enters its operational phase, and EC data products, software and services become fully available to the science community at large. These resources strive to incorporate lessons-learned through collaborations with AmeriFlux, ICOS, LTER and others, to suggest novel systemic solutions, and to synergize ongoing research efforts across science communities. Here, we present an overview of the ongoing product release, alongside efforts to integrate and collaborate with existing infrastructures, networks and communities. Near-real-time heat, water and carbon cycle observations in "basic" and "expanded", self-describing HDF5 formats become accessible from the NEON Data Portal, including an Application Program Interface. Subsequently, they are ingested into the AmeriFlux processing pipeline, together with inclusion in FLUXNET globally harmonized data releases. Software for reproducible, extensible and portable data analysis and science operations management also becomes available. This includes the eddy4R family of R-packages underlying the data product generation, together with the ability to directly participate in open development via GitHub version control and DockerHub image hosting. In addition, templates for science operations management include a web-based field maintenance application and a graphical user interface to simplify

  7. Kinetic Requirements for the Measurement of Mesospheric Water Vapor at 6.8 (microns) under Non-LTE Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Russell, James M., III

    1999-01-01

    We present accuracy requirements for specific kinetic parameters used to calculate the populations and vibrational temperatures of the H2O(010) and H2O(020) states in the terrestrial mesosphere. The requirements are based on rigorous simulations of the retrieval of mesospheric water vapor profiles from measurements of water vapor infrared emission made by limb scanning instruments on orbiting satellites. Major improvements in the rate constants that describe vibration-to- vibration exchange between the H2O(010) and 02(1) states are required in addition to improved specification of the rate of quenching Of O2(1) by atomic oxygen (0). It is also necessary to more accurately determine the yield of vibrationally excited O2(l) resulting from ozone photolysis. A contemporary measurement of the rate of quenching of H2O(010) by N2 and O2 is also desirable. These rates are either highly uncertain or have never before been measured at atmospheric temperatures. The suggested improvements are necessary for the interpretation of water vapor emission measurements at 6.8 microns to be made from a new spaceflight experiment in less than 2 years. The approach to retrieving water vapor under non-LTE conditions is also presented.

  8. Measurement of Stark width of some Ar I transitions and the investigation of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in an atmospheric d.c. argon plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakshi, V.

    1988-01-01

    The Stark widths of seven Ar I transitions are reported. Axial line shape data from an atmospheric d.c. argon plasma jet were Abel-inverted to obtain radial line shapes. The electron-density was determined by Stark width measurements of the hydrogen H β transition. In the electron-density region of ≤6 x 10 22 m -3 the experimental Ar I Stark widths are fitted to a linear dependence on the electron-density. Values of Stark width extrapolated to other electron densities are compared to measurements reported in the literature on the 4s-4p array. Experimental values are up to 45% smaller than those predicted by Griem's theory of Stark broadening. Conditions for local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) to exist in an atmospheric argon plasma jet were studied. The experiment measures the emission coefficient of seven Ar I transitions and the line shape of the hydrogen H beta transition. After transforming the side-on data into radial space the excited neutral argon atom-density and the electron-density are determined. It is found LTE does not exist below an electron-density of 6 x 10 33 m -3 in the experimental conditions

  9. Mobility Analysis for Inter-Site Carrier Aggregation in LTE Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbera, Simone; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Michaelsen, Per Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the mobility performance for an LTE Heterogeneous Network with macro and pico cells deployed on different carriers. Cases with/without downlink inter-site carrier aggregation are investigated. Extensive system level simulations are exploited to quantify the performance...

  10. Improving SC-FDMA performance by Turbo Equalization in UTRA LTE Uplink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardinelli, Gilberto; Priyanto, Basuki Endah; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2008-01-01

    of UTRA Long Term Evolution (LTE) Uplink. The performance is evaluated for 1x2 Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) antenna configuration in a 6 paths Typical Urban (TU-06) channel profile. For assessment purpose, the results are compared with SC-FDMA MMSE and OFDMA schemes. Simulation results show...

  11. Demonstration of digital fronthaul over self-seeded WDM-PON in commercial LTE environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiran; Xu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Chengliang; Lin, Huafeng; Wang, Qing; Zhou, Min; Wang, Heng; Yu, Jingwen; Wang, Xiaomu

    2015-05-04

    CPRI between BBU and RRU equipment is carried by self-seeded WDM-PON prototype system within commercial LTE end-to-end environment. Delay and jitter meets CPRI requirements while services demonstrated show the same performance as bare fiber.

  12. Sensitivity of the optimal parameter settings for a LTE packet scheduler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Diaz, I.; Litjens, R.; van den Berg, C.A.; Dimitrova, D.C.; Spaey, K.

    Advanced packet scheduling schemes in 3G/3G+ mobile networks provide one or more parameters to optimise the trade-off between QoS and resource efficiency. In this paper we study the sensitivity of the optimal parameter setting for packet scheduling in LTE radio networks with respect to various

  13. Performance evaluation of ICN/CCN based service migration approach in virtualized LTE systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satria, Triadimas; Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    The continuous growth in using mobile devices (e.g. smart phones, tablets, etc.) has increased the complexity in provisioning cellular network resources. Applying the cloud computing model in LTE (Long Term Evolution) systems could be a good solution to increase LTE’s performance by building a

  14. Exploring the physical layer frontiers of cellular uplink: The Vienna LTE-A Uplink Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöchmann, Erich; Schwarz, Stefan; Pratschner, Stefan; Nagel, Lukas; Lerch, Martin; Rupp, Markus

    Communication systems in practice are subject to many technical/technological constraints and restrictions. Multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) processing in current wireless communications, as an example, mostly employs codebook-based pre-coding to save computational complexity at the transmitters and receivers. In such cases, closed form expressions for capacity or bit-error probability are often unattainable; effects of realistic signal processing algorithms on the performance of practical communication systems rather have to be studied in simulation environments. The Vienna LTE-A Uplink Simulator is a 3GPP LTE-A standard compliant MATLAB-based link level simulator that is publicly available under an academic use license, facilitating reproducible evaluations of signal processing algorithms and transceiver designs in wireless communications. This paper reviews research results that have been obtained by means of the Vienna LTE-A Uplink Simulator, highlights the effects of single-carrier frequency-division multiplexing (as the distinguishing feature to LTE-A downlink), extends known link adaptation concepts to uplink transmission, shows the implications of the uplink pilot pattern for gathering channel state information at the receiver and completes with possible future research directions.

  15. Non-LTE radiating acoustic shocks and Ca II K2V bright points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Mats; Stein, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    We present, for the first time, a self-consistent solution of the time-dependent 1D equations of non-LTE radiation hydrodynamics in solar chromospheric conditions. The vertical propagation of sinusoidal acoustic waves with periods of 30, 180, and 300 s is calculated. We find that departures from LTE and ionization recombination determine the temperature profiles of the shocks that develop. In LTE almost all the thermal energy goes into ionization, so the temperature rise is very small. In non-LTE, the finite transition rates delay the ionization to behind the shock front. The compression thus goes into thermal energy at the shock front leading to a high temperature amplitude. Further behind the shock front, the delayed ionization removes energy from the thermal pool, which reduces the temperature, producing a temperature spike. The 180 s waves reproduce the observed temporal changes in the calcium K line profiles quite well. The observed wing brightening pattern, the violet/red peak asymmetry and the observed line center behavior are all well reproduced. The short-period waves and the 5 minute period waves fail especially in reproducing the observed behavior of the wings.

  16. New solar carbon abundance based on non-LTE CN molecular spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, G.H.; Linsky, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed non-LTE analysis of solar CN spectra strongly suggests a revised carbon abundance for the Sun. A value of log A/subc/=8.35plus-or-minus0.15 which is significantly lower than the presently accepted value of log A/subc/=8.55 is suggested. This revision may have important consequences in astrophysics

  17. On the Conductive Loss of High-Q Frequency Reconfigurable Antennas for LTE Frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del

    2018-01-01

    Intrinsically narrowband and highly tunable systems are a promising way to address the bandwidth challenge of LTE. However, narrowband antennas exhibit low efficiencies. This paper details the loss mechanism of narrowband antennas by investigating the contribution of the resistance of the tuner...

  18. User Acceptance of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) Services: An Application of Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunil; Kim, Ki Joon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated path model in order to explore user acceptance of long-term evolution (LTE) services by examining potential causal relationships between key psychological factors and user intention to use the services. Design/methodology/approach: Online survey data collected from 1,344 users are analysed…

  19. Impact of relay station positioning on LTE uplink performance at flow level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennepe, D.H. te; Berg, J.L. van den; Karagiannis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the latest cellular system that is being standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and is expected to substantially improve end-user throughput and reduce user plane latency, while at the same time significantly improve user experience with full

  20. Multi-Layer Mobility Load Balancing in a Heterogeneous LTE Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Laselva, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the behavior of a distributed Mobility Load Balancing (MLB) scheme in a multi-layer 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) Long Term Evolution (LTE) deployment with different User Equipment (UE) densities in certain network areas covered with pico cells. Target of the study...

  1. Modeling a content-aware LTE MAC downlink scheduler with heterogeneous traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artuso, Matteo; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2013-01-01

    The scheduling policy adopted in the LTE (Long Term Evolution) MAC layer is the most valuable degree of freedom left from the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) consortium to the industry and the research community . This paper presents an OPNET model of the downlink scheduling in a one...

  2. Cooperation Techniques between LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum and Wi-Fi towards Fair Spectral Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglogiannis, Vasilis; Naudts, Dries; Shahid, Adnan; Giannoulis, Spilios; Laermans, Eric; Moerman, Ingrid

    2017-08-31

    On the road towards 5G, a proliferation of Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) is expected. Sensor networks are of great importance in this new wireless era, as they allow interaction with the environment. Additionally, the establishment of the Internet of Things (IoT) has incredibly increased the number of interconnected devices and consequently the already massive wirelessly transmitted traffic. The exponential growth of wireless traffic is pushing the wireless community to investigate solutions that maximally exploit the available spectrum. Recently, 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) announced standards that permit the operation of Long Term Evolution (LTE) in the unlicensed spectrum in addition to the exclusive use of the licensed spectrum owned by a mobile operator. Alternatively, leading wireless technology developers examine standalone LTE operation in the unlicensed spectrum without any involvement of a mobile operator. In this article, we present a classification of different techniques that can be applied on co-located LTE and Wi-Fi networks. Up to today, Wi-Fi is the most widely-used wireless technology in the unlicensed spectrum. A review of the current state of the art further reveals the lack of cooperation schemes among co-located networks that can lead to more optimal usage of the available spectrum. This article fills this gap in the literature by conceptually describing different classes of cooperation between LTE and Wi-Fi. For each class, we provide a detailed presentation of possible cooperation techniques that can provide spectral efficiency in a fair manner.

  3. A genetic algorithm solution for the operation of green LTE networks with energy and environment considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    , as additional power sources in smart grids, becomes a real challenge to network operators to reduce power costs. In this paper, we propose a method based on genetic algorithms that decreases the energy consumption of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular network

  4. Assessment of LTE Wireless Access for Monitoring of Energy Distribution in the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Min Kim, Dong

    2016-01-01

    While LTE is becoming widely rolled out for human-type services, it is also a promising solution for cost-efficient connectivity of the smart grid monitoring equipment. This is a type of machine-to-machine (M2M) traffic that consists mainly of sporadic uplink transmissions. In such a setting...

  5. Delay efficient cooperation in public safety vehicular networks using LTE and IEEE 802.11p

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Filali, Fethi

    2012-01-01

    (LTE) is used for long range communications with the base station (BS) and 802.11p is considered for inter-vehicle collaboration on the short range. A high mobility environment with correlated shadowing is adopted. Both schemes are shown to outperform

  6. Impact of Relay Station Positioning on LTE Uplink Performance at Flow Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Hennepe, D.H.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the latest cellular system that is being standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and is expected to substantially improve end-user throughput and reduce user plane latency, while at the same time significantly improve user experience with full

  7. LTE delay assessment for real-time management of future smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorguseski, L.; Zhang, H.; Chrysalos, M.; Golinski, M.; Toh, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using Long Term Evolution (LTE), for the real-time state estimation of the smart grids. This enables monitoring and control of future smart grids. The smart grid state estimation requires measurement reports from different nodes in the smart grid and

  8. Applying SDN/OpenFlow in Virtualized LTE to support Distributed Mobility Management (DMM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Valtulina, Luca; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Mobility Management (DMM) is a mobility management solution, where the mobility anchors are distributed instead of being centralized. The use of DMM can be applied in cloud-based (virtualized) Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobile network environments to (1) provide session continuity to

  9. A MU-MIMO CQI estimation method for MU-MIMO UEs in LTE systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan; Kovacs, Istvan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract—This paper addresses a method to estimate the multi user channel quality indicator (CQI) from the reported rank 1 single user CQI in LTE systems. We investigate the relationship between the multi user CQI and the channel condition. Based on that, we propose an updating mechanism where th...

  10. The Effects of a Dynamic Spectrum Access Overlay in LTE-Advanced Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton; Ryan E. lrwin; Luiz A. DaSilva

    2011-05-01

    As early as 2014, wireless network operators spectral capacity will be overwhelmed by a data tsunami brought on by new devices and applications. To augment spectral capacity, operators could deploy a Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) overlay. In the light of the many planned Long Term Evolution (LTE) network deployments, the affects of a DSA overlay have not been fully considered into the existing LTE standards. Coalescing many different aspects of DSA, this paper develops the Spectrum Accountability (SA) framework. The SA framework defines specific network element functionality, protocol interfaces, and signaling flow diagrams for LTE to support service requests and enforce rights of responsibilities of primary and secondary users, respectively. We also include a network simulation to quantify the benefits of using DSA channels to augment capacity. Based on our simulation we show that, network operators can benefit up to %40 increase in operating capacity when sharing DSA bands to augment spectral capacity. With our framework, this paper could serve as an guide in developing future LTE network standards that include DSA.

  11. A spatiotemporal model for the LTE uplink: Spatially interacting tandem queues approach

    KAUST Repository

    Gharbieh, Mohammad; Elsawy, Hesham; Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    With the proliferation of the Internet-of-things (IoT), there is an undeniable consensus that cellular LTE networks will have to support a dramatically larger number of uplink connections. This is true since most of the devices to be added incur

  12. Tuning Range Optimization of a Planar Inverted F Antenna for LTE Low Frequency Bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pelosi, Mauro; Franek, Ondrej

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) tuned with a fixed capacitor to the low frequency bands supported by the Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology. The tuning range is investigated and optimized with respect to the bandwidth and the efficiency of the resulting antenna. Simulatio...... and mock-ups are presented....

  13. Machine-Learning Identification of Airborne UAV-UEs Based on LTE Radio Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Wigard, Jeroen; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2017-01-01

    , which use standard LTE measurements from the UE as input, for detecting the presence of airborne users in the network. The algorithms are evaluated based on measurements done with mobile phones attached under a flying drone and on a car. Results are discussed showing the advantages and drawbacks...

  14. The Vienna LTE-advanced simulators up and downlink, link and system level simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rupp, Markus; Taranetz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the Vienna Simulator Suite for 3rd-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)-compatible Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) simulators and presents applications to demonstrate their uses for describing, designing, and optimizing wireless cellular LTE-A networks. Part One addresses LTE and LTE-A link level techniques. As there has been high demand for the downlink (DL) simulator, it constitutes the central focus of the majority of the chapters. This part of the book reports on relevant highlights, including single-user (SU), multi-user (MU) and single-input-single-output (SISO) as well as multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) transmissions. Furthermore, it summarizes the optimal pilot pattern for high-speed communications as well as different synchronization issues. One chapter is devoted to experiments that show how the link level simulator can provide input to a testbed. This section also uses measurements to present and validate fundamental results on orthogonal frequency division multiple...

  15. Non-LTE equivalent widths for Si II, III and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.R.; Butler, K.

    1990-01-01

    Equivalent widths for a set of Si II, III and IV lines reliable for the determination of temperatures in the B star parameter range are given. They are calculated on a fine grid of LTE line blanketed model atmospheres and lie in the wavelength region from 4070 A to 5070 A

  16. Analisa Performansi Algoritma Penjadwalan Proportional Fairness Dan Log Rule Dengan Skenario Multicell Pada Sistem 3GPP LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dimas Arfianto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi Long Term Evolution (LTE dikembangkan dengan tujuan untuk mengurangi biaya yang dikeluarkan oleh pengguna maupun operator jasa telekomunikasi, memperluas daerah jangkauan, menambah kapasitas sistem, dan mengurangi delay. Dengan spesifikasi yang tinggi, LTE diharapkan mampu memberikan kemudahan pelanggan dalam mengakses layanan Voice over IP, Streaming, dan Video Conference. LTE diharapkan mampu memberikan layanan dengan besar throughput yang tinggi dan delay yang rendah. Padahal tidak semua user membutuhkan throughput yang sama besar namun yang dibutuhkan adalah kesesuaian pengendalian delay dan fairness index untuk setiap user dengan tetap memperhatikan batasan throughput. Untuk mendapatkan kinerja dan hasil yang maksimal tersebut pada LTE diperlukan sistem algoritma penjadwalan yang baik. Pada penelitian ini, dianalisis performansi LTE dengan parameter Delay, Packet loss, Throughput, dan Fairness Index menggunakan algoritma penjadwalan Proportional Fairness dan Log Rule pada LTE-Simulator dengan skenario menggunakan trafik VoIP, Video dan Best Effort. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa penjadwalan algoritma Proportional Fairness lebih baik dalam menangani layanan VoIP, sedangkan algoritma Log Rule lebih baik dalam menangani layanan Video. Hal ini menandakan kedua algoritma ini sangat cocok digunakan untuk jaringan LTE dengan kondisi trafik layanan real-time, tetapi tidak untuk layanan non real-time seperti layanan Best Effort

  17. NEON: Contributing continental-scale long-term environmental data for the benefit of society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, B.; Aulenbach, S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a NSF funded national investment in physical and information infrastructure. Large-scale environmental changes pose challenges that straddle environmental, economic, and social boundaries. As we develop climate adaptation strategies at the Federal, state, local, and tribal levels, accessible and usable data are essential for implementing actions that are informed by the best available information. NEON's goal is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on continental-scale ecology by providing physical and information infrastructure. The NEON framework will take standardized, long-term, coordinated measurements of related environmental variables at each of its 62 sites across the nation. These observations, collected by automated instruments, field crews, and airborne instruments, will be processed into more than 700 data products that are provided freely over the web to support research, education, and environmental management. NEON is envisioned to be an integral component of an interoperable ecosystem of credible data and information sources. Other members of this information ecosystem include Federal, commercial, and non-profit entities. NEON is actively involved with the interoperability community via forums like the Foundation for Earth Science Information Partners and the USGS Community for Data Integration in a collective effort to identify the technical standards, best practices, and organizational principles that enable the emergence of such an information ecosystem. These forums have proven to be effective innovation engines for the experimentation of new techniques that evolve into emergent standards. These standards are, for the most part, discipline agnostic. It is becoming increasingly evident that we need to include socio-economic and public health data sources in interoperability initiatives, because the dynamics of coupled

  18. NEON's Eddy-Covariance Storage Exchange: from Tower to Data Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, N. P.; Luo, H.; Xu, K.; Metzger, S.; Durden, D.

    2017-12-01

    NEON's eddy-covariance storage exchange system (ECSE) consists of a suite of sensors including temperature sensors, a CO2 and H2O gas analyzer, and isotopic CO2 and H2O analyzers. NEON's ECSE was developed to provide the vertical profile measurements of temperature, CO2 and H2O concentrations, the stable isotope ratios in CO2 (δ13C) and H2O (δ18O and δ2H) in the atmosphere. The profiles of temperature and concentrations of CO2 and H2O are key to calculate storage fluxes for eddy-covariance tower sites. Storage fluxes have a strong diurnal cycle and can be large in magnitude, especially at temporal scales less than one day. However, the storage term is often neglected in flux computations. To obtian accurate eddy-covariance fluxes, the storage fluxes are calculated and incorporated into the calculations of net surface-atmosphere ecosystem exchange of heat, CO2, and H2O for each NEON tower site. Once the ECSE raw data (Level 0, or L0) is retrieved at NEON's headquarters, it is preconditioned through a sequence of unit conversion, time regularization, and plausibility tests. By utilizing NEON's eddy4R framework (Metzger et al., 2017), higher-level data products are generated including: Level 1 (L1): Measurement-level specific averages of temperature and concentrations of CO2 and H2O. Level 2 (L2): Time rate of change of temperature and concentrations of CO2 and H2O over 30 min at each measurement level along the vertical tower profile. Level 3 (L3): Time rate of change of temperature and concentrations of CO2 and H2O over 30 min (L2), spatially interpolated along the vertical tower profile. Level 4 (L4): Storage fluxes of heat, CO2, and H2O calculated from the integrated time rate of change spatially interpolated profile (L3). The L4 storage fluxes are combined with turbulent fluxes to calculate the net surface-atmosphere ecosystem exchange of heat, CO2, and H2O. Moreover, a final quality flag and uncertainty budget are produced individually for each data stream

  19. Transformational principles for NEON sampling of mammalian parasites and pathogens: a response to Springer et al. (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Environmental Observatory Network (NEON) has recently released a series of protocols presented with apparently broad community support for studies of small mammals and parasites. Sampling designs were outlined outlined, collectively aimed at understanding how changing environmental cond...

  20. New determination of the vapour pressures of the isotopes of neon; Nouvelles determinations des tensions de vapeur des isotopes du neon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-03-15

    We have undertaken an experimental reinvestigation of the vapor pressures of the neon isotopes over the temperature range 16.30-30.1 deg. K. Measurements were made by differential manometry in a Giauque-Johnston type cryostat modified for temperature stability. The New sample contained 99.9 % Ne{sup 20} and the Ne{sup 22} sample contained 72,2 % Ne{sup 22}. Extrapolation to pure Ne{sup 20} and Ne{sup 22} can be made with sufficient accuracy by the use of Raoult's law. Our results are in substantial agreement with those of Keesom and Haantjes. At 20 deg. K, where the scatter in our data is an order of magnitude smaller than in the data of Keesom and Haantjes, we find In P{sub Ne{sup 2}{sup 0}}/P{sub Ne{sup 2}{sup 2}} is 6 % larger than the smoothed line given by them. For solid neon, our data can be represented to a high accuracy by a Debye harmonic lattice with {theta}{sub D} (Ne{sup 20}) = 74.6 deg. K. The result may be compared with the value obtained by Henshaw from the Debye-Waller temperature factor, {theta}{sub D} = 73 deg. K, and with the recent calculation of the zero point energy of Ne by Bernardes, from which he obtains {theta}{sub D} 8E{sub {theta}}/9R = 73 deg.. K. (author) [French] On a construit un appareillage dont le principe est derive de celui des instruments decrits par GIAUQUE et EGAN ou par H.L. JOHNSTON qui a permis d'etendre le domaine des mesures de tension de vapeur des isotopes du Neon entre 16,30 et 32 deg. K environ. Le rapport des pressions extremes atteintes est ainsi multiplie par plus de 40 pour le neon ordinaire qui servait de reference et de thermometre. L'appareil, adapte en particulier au travail sous pressions elevees, permet, de plus, de travailler sur de relativement petites quantites totales de gaz - environ 500 cm{sup 3} suffisent dans l'intervalle de pression evoque. La stabilite de temperature obtenue peut etre tres bonne surtout lorsque l'on travaille dans la phase liquide; dans ce cas, les variations totales de

  1. New determination of the vapour pressures of the isotopes of neon; Nouvelles determinations des tensions de vapeur des isotopes du neon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-03-15

    We have undertaken an experimental reinvestigation of the vapor pressures of the neon isotopes over the temperature range 16.30-30.1 deg. K. Measurements were made by differential manometry in a Giauque-Johnston type cryostat modified for temperature stability. The New sample contained 99.9 % Ne{sup 20} and the Ne{sup 22} sample contained 72,2 % Ne{sup 22}. Extrapolation to pure Ne{sup 20} and Ne{sup 22} can be made with sufficient accuracy by the use of Raoult's law. Our results are in substantial agreement with those of Keesom and Haantjes. At 20 deg. K, where the scatter in our data is an order of magnitude smaller than in the data of Keesom and Haantjes, we find In P{sub Ne{sup 2}{sup 0}}/P{sub Ne{sup 2}{sup 2}} is 6 % larger than the smoothed line given by them. For solid neon, our data can be represented to a high accuracy by a Debye harmonic lattice with {theta}{sub D} (Ne{sup 20}) = 74.6 deg. K. The result may be compared with the value obtained by Henshaw from the Debye-Waller temperature factor, {theta}{sub D} = 73 deg. K, and with the recent calculation of the zero point energy of Ne by Bernardes, from which he obtains {theta}{sub D} 8E{sub {theta}}/9R = 73 deg.. K. (author) [French] On a construit un appareillage dont le principe est derive de celui des instruments decrits par GIAUQUE et EGAN ou par H.L. JOHNSTON qui a permis d'etendre le domaine des mesures de tension de vapeur des isotopes du Neon entre 16,30 et 32 deg. K environ. Le rapport des pressions extremes atteintes est ainsi multiplie par plus de 40 pour le neon ordinaire qui servait de reference et de thermometre. L'appareil, adapte en particulier au travail sous pressions elevees, permet, de plus, de travailler sur de relativement petites quantites totales de gaz - environ 500 cm{sup 3} suffisent dans l'intervalle de pression evoque. La stabilite de temperature obtenue peut etre tres bonne surtout lorsque l'on travaille dans la phase liquide; dans ce cas, les

  2. Inelastic collisions of neon-22 nuclei with nuclei in photoemulsion at 90 GeV/c momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokalova, A.; Krasnov, S.A.; Tolstov, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data obtained according to the analysis of 4303 inelastic interactions of the relativistic neon-22 nuclei with the nuclei in photoemulsion are presented. The multiplicities and angular distributions are shown as the functions of the disintegration degree of the colliding nuclei. It is shown that the same number of interacting nucleons of the projectile neon and carbon nuclei are connected with the different impact parameters with the target nucleus

  3. Determination of electron density and temperature in a capacitively coupled RF discharge in neon by OES complemented with a CR model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, Z; Dvorak, P; Trunec, D [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Brzobohaty, O, E-mail: zdenek@physics.muni.c [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, 612 64 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-12-22

    A method of determination of electron temperature and electron density in plasmas based on optical emission spectroscopy complemented with collisional-radiative modelling (OES/CRM) was studied in this work. A radiofrequency (13.56 MHz) capacitively coupled discharge in neon at 10 Pa was investigated by intensity calibrated optical emission spectroscopy. The absolute intensities of neon transitions between 3p and 3s states were fitted with a collisional-radiative (CR) model in order to determine the electron temperature and electron density. Measuring techniques such as imaging with an ICCD camera were adopted for supplementary diagnostics. The obtained results were compared with the results of compensated Langmuir probe measurement and one-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo (PIC/MC) simulation. The results of OES/CRM and PIC/MC method were in close agreement in the case of electron temperature in the vicinity of a driven electrode. The determined value of electron temperature was about 8 eV. In bulk plasma, the measured spectra were not satisfactorily fitted. In the case of electron density only relative agreement was obtained between OES/CRM and Langmuir probe measurement; the absolute values differed by a factor of 5. The axial dependence of electron density calculated by PIC/MC was distinct from them, reaching the maximum values between the results of the other two methods. The investigation of power dependence of plasma parameters close to the driven electrode showed a decrease in electron temperature and an increase in electron density together with increasing incoming RF power. The calculated spectra fitted very well the measured spectra in this discharge region.

  4. Abrupt changes in neon discharge plasma detected via the optogalvanic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xianming L., E-mail: xhan@butler.edu [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN 46208 (United States); Blosser, Michael C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN 46208 (United States); Misra, Prabhakar [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Howard University, Washington DC 20059 (United States); Chandran, Haridass [Dept. of Physical Science, Belfry School, Belfry, KY 41514 (United States)

    2012-10-30

    When a laser is tuned between two excited energy levels of a gas in a Direct Current discharge lamp, the discharge current will experience a temporary disturbance lasting tens or hundreds of microseconds known as the optogalvanic effect. We have carried out extensive studies of optogalvanic effects in neon discharge plasmas for transitions at 621.7 nm, 630.5 nm, 638.3 nm, 650.7 nm and 659.9 nm. A nonlinear least-squares Monte Carlo technique has been used to determine the relevant amplitude coefficients, decay rates and the instrumental time constant. We discovered an abrupt change in the neon discharge plasma at a discharge current of about 6 mA.

  5. Study of neon adsorption on carbon nanocones using molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, R.; Ghafoori Tabrizi, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulation to study Ne adsorption on carbon nanocones. Adsorption isotherms were obtained at several temperatures between 22.67 and 49.82 K. Adsorption coverage, isosteric heat, and binding energy were calculated. Adsorption was observed both inside and outside of an individual carbon nanocone. The results indicate that the saturation coverage and saturation pressure depend on temperature. At saturation conditions, the maximum values of interior and exterior coverages are 0.17 and 0.39 neon per carbon, respectively. The results are compared to Ne adsorption on open-ended single-walled carbon nanotubes. It is found that adsorption coverages on carbon nanocones are greater than those on carbon nanotubes. The isosteric heat and binding energy of neon adsorption on nanocones indicate that nanocones and nanotubes have highly desirable characteristics as an adsorbent.

  6. Study of neon adsorption on carbon nanocones using molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, R. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghafoori Tabrizi, K., E-mail: k-tabrizi@sbu.ac.i [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    We have used molecular dynamics simulation to study Ne adsorption on carbon nanocones. Adsorption isotherms were obtained at several temperatures between 22.67 and 49.82 K. Adsorption coverage, isosteric heat, and binding energy were calculated. Adsorption was observed both inside and outside of an individual carbon nanocone. The results indicate that the saturation coverage and saturation pressure depend on temperature. At saturation conditions, the maximum values of interior and exterior coverages are 0.17 and 0.39 neon per carbon, respectively. The results are compared to Ne adsorption on open-ended single-walled carbon nanotubes. It is found that adsorption coverages on carbon nanocones are greater than those on carbon nanotubes. The isosteric heat and binding energy of neon adsorption on nanocones indicate that nanocones and nanotubes have highly desirable characteristics as an adsorbent.

  7. Beam-foil study of neon in the EUV with foils of carbon, silver and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarest, J.A.; Watson, R.L.; Texas A and M Univ., College Station

    1988-01-01

    A beam-foil study of 40 MeV neon was conducted in the EUV with a 1-meter grazing incidence spectrometer configured with a position sensitive microchannel plate detector. A number of new lines of Ne IX, mainly from transitions to n = 3 levels, were detected in the wavelength region covering 50-350 A. Comparison of the spectra obtained using the different foils revealed that the average charge state of the neon projectiles was nearly one unit higher with carbon than with either of the two metals. Measurements of line intensities versus distance from the foils showed that cascade contributions were greatly reduced for the metals. It was also found that n = 3 states of low l were overpopulated relative to a statistical distribution, irrespective of the foil material. (orig.)

  8. Trapping hydrogen atoms from a neon-gas matrix: a theoretical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, S; Zhang, P; Kharchenko, V; Dalgarno, A

    2009-08-07

    Hydrogen is of critical importance in atomic and molecular physics and the development of a simple and efficient technique for trapping cold and ultracold hydrogen atoms would be a significant advance. In this study we simulate a recently proposed trap-loading mechanism for trapping hydrogen atoms released from a neon matrix. Accurate ab initio quantum calculations are reported of the neon-hydrogen interaction potential and the energy- and angular-dependent elastic scattering cross sections that control the energy transfer of initially cold atoms are obtained. They are then used to construct the Boltzmann kinetic equation, describing the energy relaxation process. Numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation predict the time evolution of the hydrogen energy distribution function. Based on the simulations we discuss the prospects of the technique.

  9. Neutrino results from the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber using neon-hydrogen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, T.H.

    1977-01-01

    Neutrino results from the FNAL 15-foot bubble chamber, using two different neon-hydrogen mixtures are reviewed. Included are the measurements from four different experiments of the dilepton, or μe rate, which appear to be consistent with the charm production interpretation for this process. Also mentioned is a study of the scaling variable distributions for antineutrinos, which shows no anomalous threshold, consistent with the usual four-quark model, but indicates a slight scale breaking. The ratio of anti νn to anti νp cross sections has been extracted from the same data and is also consistent with the quark model. A study of the hadronic state produced by electron (anti)neutrinos in neon is summarized, with the conclusion that nuclear rescattering effects are the same as for hadron interactions. (orig.) [de

  10. A study of the EMC effect using neutrino and antineutrino interactions in neon and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Venus, W.; Apeldoorn, G. van; Jongejans, B.; Tenner, A.; Eijndhoven, N. van; Berggren, M.; Hulth, P.O.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Bobisut, F.; Sconza, A.; Brisson, V.; Petiau, P.; Vallee, C.; Capiluppi, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Rossi, A.M.; Cirio, R.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Romero, A.; Clayton, E.F.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Coghen, T.; Frodesen, A.G.; Gerbier, G.; Kasper, P.; Neveu, M.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Faccini-Turluer, M.L.; Vignaud, D.

    1987-01-01

    Nearly 40000 neutrino and antineutrino interactions in BEBC are compared to measure the differences between neon and deuterium in the quark and antiquark distributions and in the nucleon structure functions. The ratio of Ne to D cross sections indicates some decrease between x ≅ 0.2 and x ≅ 0.6. The y distributions show there is no significant increase in the neon sea, but prefer a small decrease. Taken altogether the x and y distributions and the measured total cross-sections indicate some change in the shape of the valence distributions. No significant dependence on A is observed for either the shape of the sea or the ratio of longitudinal to transverse cross-sections. (orig.)

  11. A study of the EMC effect using neutrino and antineutrino interactions in neon and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, J.; Saitta, B.; van Apeldoorn, G.; Allport, P.; Angelini, C.; Armenise, N.; Baldini, A.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Bobisut, F.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F.; Calicchio, M.; Capiluppi, P.; Cirio, R.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Faccini-Turluer, M. L.; Fitch, P.; Frodesen, A. G.; Gerbier, G.; Giacomelli, G.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Jongejans, B.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Mandrioli, G.; Marage, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D. B.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Mobayyen, M. M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Neveu, M.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Romero, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, A.; Sconza, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Schmitz, N.; Tenner, A.; Vallee, C.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Vignaud, D.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wittek, W.

    1987-09-01

    Nearly 40000 neutrino and antineutrino interactions in BEBC are compared to measure the differences between neon and deuterium in the quark and antiquark distributions and in the nucleon structure functions. The ratio of Ne to D cross sections indicates some decrease between x˜0.2 and x˜0.6. The y distributions show there is no significant increase in the neon sea, but prefer a small decrease. Taken altogether, the x and y distributions and the measured total cross-sections indicate some change in the shape of the valence distributions. No significant dependence on A is observed for either the shape of the sea or the ratio of longitudinal to transverse cross-sections.

  12. Experimentation in the teaching of Modern Physics: Photoelectric Effect with neon lamp and LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Eberhardt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an experiment aimed at the teaching of Physics in High School, specifically the Photoelectric Effect, and it aims to support the teacher or serve as an inspiration for the proposition of other didactic activities. The experimentation consists on the exposure of a neon lamp to the lights of different wavelengths emitted by varied LEDs. The photoelectric current is measured on electrodes of the neon lamp, verifying that it has definite direction; the effect occurs when the wavelength of the applied light is less than a certain limit, and; the intensity of the photoelectric current depends on the intensity of the light applied, in agreement with the current scientific model of the phenomenon. This text also includes many decisive moments of the history of the Photoelectric Effect, characteristics of similar experiments using ultraviolet light, the electron work function of the metals of the electrodes and the ionization energy of the gases inside the lamp.

  13. Ab-initio modeling of an iron laser-induced plasma: Comparison between theoretical and experimental atomic emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, J.; Judge, E.J.; Kilcrease, D.P.; Barefield, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    We report on efforts to model the Fe emission spectrum generated from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements on samples of pure iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ). Our modeling efforts consist of several components. We begin with ab-initio atomic structure calculations performed by solving the Hartree–Fock equations for the neutral and singly ionized stages of Fe. Our energy levels are then adjusted to their experimentally known values. The atomic transition probabilities and atomic collision quantities are also computed in an ab-initio manner. We perform LTE or non-LTE calculations that generate level populations and, subsequently, an emission spectrum for the iron plasma for a range of electron temperatures and electron densities. Such calculations are then compared to the experimental spectrum. We regard our work as a preliminary modeling effort that ultimately strives towards the modeling of emission spectra from even more complex samples where less atomic data are available. - Highlights: • LIBS plasma of iron oxide • Ab-initio theoretical Modeling • Discussion of LTE versus non-LTE criteria and assessment • Boltzmann plots for Fe—determination of when LTE is a valid assumption • Emission spectra for Fe—comparison of theoretical modeling and measurement: good agreement obtained

  14. Destruction of fast H(2S) atoms in collisions with neon, krypton, xenon, and molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, F.; Pradel, P.; Spiess, G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements are reported for the total quenching of metastable hydrogen atoms by neon, krypton, xenon, and molecular hydrogen, in the energy range 0.052--3 keV. The cross sections are found to be on the order of 5 x 10 -15 cm 2 at the lowest energies, and decrease to approximately 2 x 10 -15 cm 2 at the highest energies. The data at low energy are analyzed using a simple theoretical model

  15. A Monte Carlo simulation of neon isotope separation in a DC discharge through a narrow capillary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroshi Akatsuka; Masaaki Suzuki

    1999-01-01

    A numerical simulation was undertaken on the neon isotope separation in a DC arc discharge through a narrow capillary. The mass transport phenomenon of neutral particles as well as ions was treated by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The numerical results qualitatively agreed with existing experimental ones concerning not only the isotope separation phenomena, but also the pressure difference between the region of the anode and that of the cathode [ru

  16. Effect of helium-neon laser radiation on conventionally - pathogenous microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shesterina, M.V.; Kalyuk, A.N.; Maliev, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported of single and multiple irradiation with low-energy helium-neon lasers (different doses and regimens) on growth and properties of conventionally-pathogenous microflora isolated from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and cultures of standard microorganisms. The above mentioned laser radiation produced an inhibitory effect on some strains of conventionally-pathogenous microflora manifested in inhibition of the growth properties of cultures as the energy dose increased

  17. Peculiarities of spectroscopic determination of the isotopic hydrogen composition in a mixture with neon and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemets, V.M.; Petrov, A.A.; Solov'ev, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of the relative intensity of atomic lines of hydrogen isotopes in the mixture with neon and argon during excitation in a high-frequency discharge under medium and high pressures is investigated. A physical model is suggested for processes determining the isotopic effects in the atomic hydrogen spectrum due to isotopic differences in velocity constants of dissociation-association, transfer and ionic-molecular reactions in a gas discharge plasma

  18. Translating the Science of Measuring Ecosystems at a National Scale: NEON's Online Learning Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    "Big Data" are becoming increasingly common in many fields. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect data over the 30 years, using consistent, standardized methods across the United States. These freely available new data provide an opportunity for increased understanding of continental- and global scale processes such as changes in vegetation structure and condition, biodiversity and landuse. However, while "big data" are becoming more accessible and available, working with big data is challenging. New and potentially unfamiliar data types and associated processing methods, required to work with a growing diversity of available data take time and resources to learn. Analysis of these big datasets may further present a challenge given large file sizes, and uncertainty regarding best methods to properly statistically summarize and analyze results. Finally, resources that support learning these concepts and approaches, are distributed widely across multiple online spaces and may take time to find. This presentation will overview the development of NEON's collaborative University-focused online education portal. It will also cover content testing, community feedback and results from workshops using online content. Portal content is hosted in github to facilitate community input, accessibility version control. Content includes 1) videos and supporting graphics that explain key concepts related to NEON and related big spatio-temporal and 2) data tutorials that include subsets of spatio-temporal data that can be used to learn key big data skills in a self-paced approach, or that can be used as a teaching tool in the classroom or in a workshop. All resources utilize free and open data processing, visualization and analysis tools, techniques and scripts. All NEON materials are being developed in collaboration with the scientific community and are being tested via in-person workshops. Visit the portal online: www.neondataskills.org.

  19. Translating the Science of Measuring Ecosystems at a National Scale: Developing NEON's Online Learning Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.; Gram, W.; Goehring, L.

    2014-12-01

    "Big Data" are becoming increasingly common in many fields. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be collecting data over the 30 years, using consistent, standardized methods across the United States. These freely available new data provide an opportunity for increased understanding of continental- and global scale processes such as changes in vegetation structure and condition, biodiversity and landuse. However, while "big data" are becoming more accessible and available, integrating big data into the university courses is challenging. New and potentially unfamiliar data types and associated processing methods, required to work with a growing diversity of available data, may warrant time and resources that present a barrier to classroom integration. Analysis of these big datasets may further present a challenge given large file sizes, and uncertainty regarding best methods to properly statistically summarize and analyze results. Finally, teaching resources, in the form of demonstrative illustrations, and other supporting media that might help teach key data concepts, take time to find and more time to develop. Available resources are often spread widely across multi-online spaces. This presentation will overview the development of NEON's collaborative University-focused online education portal. Portal content will include 1) videos and supporting graphics that explain key concepts related to NEON data products including collection methods, key metadata to consider and consideration of potential error and uncertainty surrounding data analysis; and 2) packaged "lab" activities that include supporting data to be used in an ecology, biology or earth science classroom. To facilitate broad use in classrooms, lab activities will take advantage of freely and commonly available processing tools, techniques and scripts. All NEON materials are being developed in collaboration with existing labs and organizations.

  20. Numerical Analysis of Amirkabir Plasma Focus (APF) Device for Neon and Argon Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam Sharak, M.; Goudarzi, S.; Raeisdana, A.; Jafarabadi, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper the experimental results in different working conditions in Amirkabir Plasma Focus (APF) Device have been compared with the numerical results of a two-dimensional simulation code based on Lee's model. The experiments were done with pure Neon and Argon as operating gases over a wide range of working conditions (gas pressures and discharge voltages). It is observed that by a proper choice for values of the efficiency factors, comparison between numerical and experimental results shows a good agreement.

  1. Some characteristics of the digitization pulses from high pressure neon-helium flash tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, D.S.K.; Leung, S.K.; Ng, L.K.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of the digitization output pulses from high pressure neon-helium flash tubes were studied under various operation conditions using square ultra-high voltage pulses. Properties reported by previous workers were compared. Two discharge mechanisms, the Townsend avalanche discharge and the streamer discharge, were observed to occur in sequence in some events. The output waveforms for both discharge mechanisms were studied in detail. The charge induced on a detecting probe was also estimated from the measured data. (Auth.)

  2. Observation of coherent diffractive charged current interactions of antineutrinos on neon nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Armenise, N.; Azemoon, T.; Barnham, K. W. J.; Bartley, J. H.; Baton, J. P.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Calicchio, M.; Cooper, A. M.; Chwastowski, J.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Kochowski, C.; Leighton-Davies, S.; Middleton, R. P.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; Nuzzo, S.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Ruggieri, F.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Simopoulou, E.; Talebzadeh, M.; Vallee, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wells, J.; Wernhard, K. L.; Wittek, W.; Zevgolatakos, E.; WA59 Collaboration

    1984-05-01

    First observation is reported of semi-inclusive coherent diffractive charged current interactions of antineutrinos on neon nuclei. A sharp peaking towards zero is observed in the | t| distribution of interactions for which the final state charge is 0 and from which only one negative hadron is emitted, unaccompanied by any evidence of nuclear fragmentation or reinteraction. This peak is correlated with high momentum of the outgoing charged hadron and with small values of Q2 and x.

  3. Observation of coherent diffractive charged current interactions of antineutrino on neon nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marage, P.; Sacton, J.; Bertrand, D.; Aderholz, M.; Wernhard, K.L.; Wittek, W.; Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Nuzzo, S.; Ruggieri, F.; Azemoon, T.; Bartley, J.H.; Bullock, F.W.; Fitch, P.J.; Leighton-Davies, S.; Sansum, R.A.; Baton, J.P.; Gerbier, G.; Kochowski, C.; Neveu, M.; Brisson, V.; Petiau, P.; Vallee, C.; Chwastowski, J.; Coghen, T.; Guy, J.; Kasper, P.; Venus, W.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Varvell, K.; Wells, J.

    1984-01-01

    First observation is reported of semi-inclusive coherent diffractive charged current interactions of antineutrinos on neon nuclei. A sharp peaking towards zero is observed in the vertical stroketvertical stroke distribution of interactions for which the final state charge is 0 and from which only one negative hadron is emitted, unaccompanied by any evidence of nuclear fragmentation or reinteraction. This peak is correlated with high momentum of the outgoing charged hadron and with small values of Q 2 and chi. (orig.)

  4. Coherent production of a1- mesons and (ρπ)- systems by antineutrinos on neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marage, P.; Sacton, J.; Willocq, S.; Aderholz, M.; Wittek, W.; Allport, P.P.; Baton, J.P.; Neveu, M.; Burtovoy, V.; Clayton, E.F.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Jones, G.T.; O'Neale, S.; Varvell, K.; Matsinos, E.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Wachsmuth, H.; Sansum, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The coherent production of 3π systems by charged current antineutrino interactions on neon nuclei is studied in the bubble chamber BEBC exposed to the CERN SPS wide band beam. The coherent signal is attributed mainly to (ρπ) production, where the (ρπ) system is either non-resonant or comes from the decay of a 1 mesons. The kinematical variables and the total cross section are compared with the predictions of the meson dominance model. (orig.)

  5. Photoelectron and ICD electron angular distributions from fixed-in-space neon dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, T; Czasch, A; Schoeffler, M; Schoessler, S; Kaesz, M; Titze, J; Kreidi, K; Grisenti, R E; Staudte, A; Jagutzki, O; Schmidt, L Ph H; Semenov, S K; Cherepkov, N A; Schmidt-Boecking, H; Doerner, R

    2007-01-01

    We report on molecular frame angular distributions of 2s photoelectrons and electrons emitted by interatomic Coulombic decay from neon dimers. We found that the measured angular distribution of the photoelectron strongly depends on the environment of the cluster. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with frozen core Hartree-Fock calculations. The ICD electrons show slight variations in their angular distribution for different kinetic energies

  6. A MAUT APPROACH FOR REUSING DOMAIN ONTOLOGIES ON THE BASIS OF THE NeOn METHODOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    A. JIMÉNEZ; M. C. SUÁREZ-FIGUEROA; A. MATEOS; A. GÓMEZ-PÉREZ; M. FERNÁNDEZ-LÓPEZ

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge resource reuse is becoming a widespread approach in the ontology engineering field because it can speed up the ontology development process. In this context, the NeOn Methodology specifies some guidelines for reusing different types of knowledge resources (ontologies, nonontological resources, and ontology design patterns). These guidelines prescribe how to perform the different activities involved in any of the diverse types of reuse processes. One such activity is to select the be...

  7. Working gas effects on the X-ray emission of a plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengher, M; Presura, R; Zoita, V [Inst. of Physics and Technology of Radiation Devices, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    Experiments on the plasma focus device IPF-2/20 operating with argon, neon and mixtures of argon with deuterium were performed and some X-ray emission parameters measured. The time evolution of the X-ray emission and dependence of the X-ray yield on the working gas composition was analyzed. The softer X radiation was measured with time resolution in the energy bands from 4 to 40 keV, and the hard X-rays for energies above 200 keV. In deuterium-argon mixtures the soft X-ray yield increases both with pressure (for the same ratio of argon) and with the quantity of argon added to deuterium at the same total pressure. For argon or neon the hard X-ray yield is lower than for deuterium-heavy gas mixtures. The softer X-ray yield decreases with pressure both for neon and for argon. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  8. Photobiological effects of helium neon laser on hematologic and biochemical factors of rabbit blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rahmani Kahnamoei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level helium neon laser has many applications due to its photobiostimulatory effects. Although the therapeutic effects of low-level laser radiation of different wavelengths and doses are well known, but the exact mechanism of action of the laser radiation on living cells is not yet determined. The present study is designed to evaluate the photobiological effects of 2 mw helium neon laser with wavelength of 632.8 nm on hematologic and biochemical factors of rabbit blood for this purpose, 30 male New Zealand white rabbits with the body weight of 1/5-2 kg were randomly allocated into two groups of control and laser treatment. Animals of both groups were anesthetized and those of laser treatment group were subjected to irradiation with helium neon laser at a                        wavelength of 632.8 nm and output 2 mw for 30 minutes. Finally blood samples were collected from all animals and the biochemical and hematologic factors evaluated. Significant difference (p

  9. NEON's Mobile Deployment Platform: A research tool for integrating ecological processes across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanclements, M.

    2016-12-01

    Here we provide an update on construction of the five NEON Mobile Deployment Platforms (MDPs) as well as a description of the infrastructure and sensors available to researchers in the near future. Additionally, we include information (i.e. timelines and procedures) on requesting MDPs for PI led projects. The MDPs will provide the means to observe stochastic or spatially important events, gradients, or quantities that cannot be reliably observed using fixed location sampling (e.g. fires and floods). Due to the transient temporal and spatial nature of such events, the MDPs are designed to accommodate rapid deployment for time periods up to 1 year. Broadly, the MDPs are comprised of infrastructure and instrumentation capable of functioning individually or in conjunction with one another to support observations of ecological change, as well as education, training and outreach. More specifically, the MDPs include the capability to make tower based measures of ecosystem exchange, radiation, and precipitation in conjunction with baseline soils data such as CO2 flux, and soil temperature and moisture. An aquatics module is also available with the MDP to facilitate research integrating terrestrial and aquatic processes. Ultimately, the NEON MDPs provides a tool for linking PI led research to the continental scale data sets collected by NEON.

  10. Data Collection, Access and Presentation Technologies in the National Ecological Observatory (NEON) Design (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulenbach, S. M.; Berukoff, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect data across the United States on the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on ecosystem functions and biodiversity. In-situ sampling and distributed sensor networks, linked by an advanced cyberinfrastructure, will collect site-based data on a variety of organisms, soils, aquatic systems, atmosphere and climate. Targeted airborne remote sensing observations made by NEON as well as geographical data sets and satellite resources produced by Federal agencies will provide data at regional and national scales. The resulting data streams, collected over a 30-year period, will be synthesized into fully traceable information products that are freely and openly accessible to all users. We provide an overview of several collection, access and presentation technologies evaluated for use by observatory systems throughout the data product life cycle. Specifically, we discuss smart phone applications for citizen scientists as well as the use of handheld devices for sample collection and reporting from the field. Protocols for storing, queuing, and retrieving data from observatory sites located throughout the nation are highlighted as are the application of standards throughout the pipelined production of data products. We discuss the automated incorporation of provenance information and digital object identifiers for published data products. The use of widgets and personalized user portals for the discovery and dissemination of NEON data products are also presented.

  11. Development of a Buried Layer Platform at the OMEGA laser to Study Coronal (nonLTE) Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M. B.; Marley, E. V.; Brown, G. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Barrios, M. A.; Foord, M. E.; Gray, W. J.; Jarrott, L. C.; Liedahl, D. A.; Mauche, C. W.; Widmann, K.

    2016-10-01

    A buried layer platform is being developed at the OMEGA laser to study the radiative properties of coronal (non-LTE) plasmas (ne few 1021 /cm3 , Te 1 - 2 keV) of mid to high Z materials. In the current study, the target was a 200 μm square with equal atomic mixes of gold/iron/vanadium in the center of a 600 μm diameter, 10 μm thick beryllium tamper. The thickness of the buried layer was either 1200 A or 1800 A. Lasers heat the target from both sides for up to 4 ns. The size of the microdot vs time was measured with x-ray imaging (face-on) and x- ray spectroscopy (side-on). The radiant x-ray power was measured with a low-resolution absolutely calibrated x-ray spectrometer (DANTE). The temperature was measured from the Fe and V helium-beta complexes. The use of these measurements to deduce emissivity of the target in the 2-3 keV x-ray range and improvements for future experiments are discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNS, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Assessing the existence of non-LTE behavior in aluminum K-shell diagnostic lines from dynamic hohlraum driven experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrill, M E

    2015-01-01

    We describe in this work a study designed to obtain insight into the sensitivity of foil targets driven out of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) by an idealized dynamic hohlraum during its brightest phase. This work is motivated by a perceived over-prediction of the plasma temperature by current LTE spectral modeling of opacity experiments performed by Bailey et al at the Sandia Z facility. Although several aspects of this modeling study parallel the SNL/LANL opacity experiments, this work is primarily intended to gain insight into radiatively over-driven systems. The results from this idealized study suggest that a non-LTE population distribution with qualities similar to an LTE distribution at higher material temperatures are possible, and therefore support a further theoretical investigation with experimental parameters. (special issue paper)

  13. TD-LTE产业发展策略之我见%Analysis of TD-LTE Industry Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨骅; 吴慧敏

    2013-01-01

    In view of the TD-LTE industry development status, the leading role of market demand for TD-LTE industry is analyzed. Based on the development experiences of mobile communication industry over the world, the development strategy of TD-LTE single market in the early stage is expounded, in the meantime, the TD-LTE spectrum planning is analyzed.%  结合TD-LTE产业发展现状,分析了市场需求对TD-LTE产业规模发展的拉动作用,基于国际国内移动通信产业的发展经验,阐述了产业发展初期采用单一TD-LTE市场模式的发展策略,并对TD-LTE频段规划使用进行分析。

  14. An arc facility for investigating non-LTE thermodynamic and transport phenomena in low and high pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedghinisab, A.; Eddy, T.L.; Murray, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a high pressure arc facility modified for computerized control and data acquisition to simplify measurements of non-LTE plasmas. The non-LTE methods have shown that numerous spectral lines and continuum must be accurately, precisely and quickly measured.The instrumentation uses a 1-m monochrometer with programmed wavelength slews and scans; oplasma scans; and monitoring of chamber pressure, current, voltages, and location. Multiple flows of various gases can be provided simultaneously. Plasma self absorption is determined via a concave back mirror and shutter with final alignment via computer plots. The raw data is corrected for absorption, zeroed, centered and smoothed. The net line intensity is then determined and Abeled prior to feeding into LTE or non-LTE analysis methods. Sample results are presented at 0.1,1 and 10 atm

  15. Assessment of general public exposure to lte signals compared to other cellular networks present in Thessaloniki, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gkonis, Fotios; Boursianis, Achilles; Samaras, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    To assess general public exposure to electromagnetic fields from Long Term Evolution (LTE) base stations, measurements at 10 sites in Thessaloniki, Greece were performed. Results are compared with other mobile cellular networks currently in use. All exposure values satisfy the guidelines for general public exposure of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), as well as the reference levels by the Greek legislation at all sites. LTE electric field measurements were recorded up to 0.645 V/m. By applying the ICNIRP guidelines, the exposure ratio for all LTE signals is between 2.9 x 10"-"5 and 2.8 x 10"-"2. From the measurements results it is concluded that the average and maximum power density contribution of LTE down-link signals to the overall cellular networks signals are 7.8% and 36.7%, respectively. (authors)

  16. On the impact of D2D traffic offloading on energy efficiency in green LTE-A HetNets

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2014-01-01

    multiple access-based state-of-the-art LTE cellular networks, while taking resource allocation and intercell interference into account. Results show that the proposed approach leads to energy savings for both the operator and the MTs, while leading

  17. X-ray emission from hydrodynamical simulations in non-LTE wind models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krtička, J.; Feldmeier, A.; Oskinova, L.M.; Kubát, Jiří; Hamann, W.-R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 508, č. 2 (2009), s. 841-848 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : stars * winds * outflows Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.179, year: 2009

  18. Absolute transition probabilities of 5s-5p transitions of Kr I from interferometric measurements in LTE-plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaschek, K.; Ernst, G.K.; Boetticher, W.

    1984-01-01

    Absolute transition probabilities of nine 5s-5p transitions of Kr I have been evaluated by using the hook method. The plasma was produced in a shock tube. The population density of the 5s-levels was calculated, under the assumption of LTE, from the electron density and the ground state number measured by means of a dual wavelength interferometer. An evaluation is given which proves the validity of the LTE assumption. (orig.)

  19. Physical Layer Multi-Core Prototyping A Dataflow-Based Approach for LTE eNodeB

    CERN Document Server

    Pelcat, Maxime; Piat, Jonathan; Nezan, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Base stations developed according to the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard require unprecedented processing power. 3GPP LTE enables data rates beyond hundreds of Mbits/s by using advanced technologies, necessitating a highly complex LTE physical layer. The operating power of base stations is a significant cost for operators, and is currently optimized using state-of-the-art hardware solutions, such as heterogeneous distributed systems. The traditional system design method of porting algorithms to heterogeneous distributed systems based on test-and-refine methods is a manual, thus time-expensive, task.   Physical Layer Multi-Core Prototyping: A Dataflow-Based Approach for LTE eNodeB provides a clear introduction to the 3GPP LTE physical layer and to dataflow-based prototyping and programming. The difficulties in the process of 3GPP LTE physical layer porting are outlined, with particular focus on automatic partitioning and scheduling, load balancing and computation latency reduction, specifically in sys...

  20. Modelling of synchronisation and energy performance of FBE- and LBE-based standalone LTE-U networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamin Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Without the aid of licensed channel, deploying long-term evolution (LTE networks over unlicensed spectrum (named standalone LTE-U networks faces the difficulty of establishing and maintaining synchronisation between user equipments and base stations. In this work, considering the two modes of listen-before-talk-based channel access scheme, frame-based equipment (FBE and load-based equipment (LBE, the authors propose analytical frameworks to study the successful probability of synchronisation and the energy consumption of synchronisation in a standalone LTE-U network. Specifically, for the LBE mode, the authors also propose a Lattice-Poisson algorithm-based approach to derive the distribution of the channel non-occupancy period of a standalone LTE-U network. Furthermore, the authors explore the impact of diverse protocol parameters of both FBE and LBE modes on the two studied performance metrics. Simulation results demonstrate the accuracy of the analysis, and shed some light on the selection of FBE and LBE for standalone LTE-U networks, in terms of synchronisation, energy consumption, and throughput of standalone LTE-U and Wi-Fi networks.

  1. Perancangan dan Implementasi Duplexer Mikrostrip untuk Frekuensi LTE pada band ke-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENCENG SULAEMAN

    2013-07-01

    The necessary of mobile communication has increased in technology, now it released the new of technology is Long Term Evolution (LTE. Type of duplex is Frequency Division Duplex (FDD, designed a duplexer which it is capable for transmitting and receiving process at the same time with the different of frequency between uplink and downlink. Research of designed and implemented a duplexer using Hybrid Coupler and Bandstop filters based on Split Ring Resonators for the frequency band 7th on LTE technology at Base Transceiver Station (BTS. Duplexer is made by combining two coupler and two bandstop filter. The results of duplexer measurements, when Tx port transmit the signal to antenna port with attenuation at the downlink frequency center at 3.168 dB. Attenuation from antenna port to Rx port about 6 dB. Isolation between Tx port and Rx port about 15 dB. Keywords: Duplexer, Bandstop Filter, Split Ring Resonator, Hybrid Coupler, and Long Term Evolution.

  2. Limb-darkening coefficients from line-blanketed non-LTE hot-star model atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, D. C.; Howarth, I. D.

    2016-02-01

    We present grids of limb-darkening coefficients computed from non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), line-blanketed TLUSTY model atmospheres, covering effective-temperature and surface-gravity ranges of 15-55 kK and 4.75 dex (cgs) down to the effective Eddington limit, at 2×, 1×, 0.5× (Large Magellanic Cloud), 0.2× (Small Magellanic Cloud), and 0.1× solar. Results are given for the Bessell UBVRICJKHL, Sloan ugriz, Strömgren ubvy, WFCAM ZYJHK, Hipparcos, Kepler, and Tycho passbands, in each case characterized by several different limb-darkening `laws'. We examine the sensitivity of limb darkening to temperature, gravity, metallicity, microturbulent velocity, and wavelength, and make a comparison with LTE models. The dependence on metallicity is very weak, but limb darkening is a moderately strong function of log g in this temperature regime.

  3. Achieving energy efficiency in LTE with joint D2D communications and green networking techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the joint operation of cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green cellular communications is investigated. An efficient approach for grouping mobile terminals (MTs) into cooperative clusters is described. In each cluster, MTs cooperate via D2D communications to share content of common interest. Furthermore, an energy-efficient technique for putting BSs in sleep mode in an LTE cellular network is presented. Finally, both methods are combined in order to ensure green communications for both the users\\' MTs and the operator\\'s BSs. The studied methods are investigated in the framework of OFDMA-based state-of-the-art LTE cellular networks, while taking into account intercell interference and resource allocation. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Interference Coordination for E-MBMS Transmissions in LTE-Advanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interference coordination methods for Evolved-Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (E-MBMS in Long-Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A are presented. In addition, we consider signal space diversity based on Rotation Matrices (RM known to provide good performance gains over uncorrelated Rayleigh fading channels. OFDM/OFDMA systems can make the use of RM very attractive both for single and multiple antenna transmissions. In this paper, OFDM/OFDMA signals based on LTE parameters are combined with RM, MIMO, Turbo, or LDPC codes. We have considered different types of receivers, namely, we used an MMSE (Minimum Mean Squared Error equalizer and a Maximum Likelihood Soft Output criterion (MLSO. Frequency, signal, and space diversity gains are evaluated for different spatial channel models (SCM based on ITU multipath propagation channels. Different adaptive frequency reuse and schedulers are considered to evaluate the E-MBMS spectral efficiency at the cell borders.

  5. An Efficient Live TV Scheduling System for 4G LTE Broadcast

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2016-01-01

    Traditional live television (TV) broadcasting systems are proven to be spectrum inefficient. Therefore, researchers propose to provide TV services on fourth-generation (4G) long-term evolution (LTE) networks. However, static broadcast, a typical broadcasting method over cellular network, is inefficient in terms of radio resource usage. To solve this problem, the audience-driven live TV scheduling (ADTVS) framework is proposed, to maximize radio resource usage when providing TV broadcasting services over LTE networks. ADTVS, a system-level scheduling framework, considers both available radio resources and audience preferences, in order to dynamically schedule TV channels for broadcasting at various time and locations. By conducting a simulation using real-life data and scenarios, it is shown that ADTVS significantly outperforms the static broadcast method. Numerical results indicate that, on average, ADTVS enables substantial improvement to broadcast efficiency and conserves considerable amount of radio resources, while forgoing less than 5% of user services compared to the benchmark system.

  6. Non-LTE model atmospheres for supersoft X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.

    2010-02-01

    In the last decade, X-ray observations of hot stellar objects became available with unprecedented resolution and S/N ratio. For an adequate interpretation, fully metal-line blanketed Non-LTE model-atmospheres are necessary. The Tübingen Non-LTE Model Atmosphere Package (TMAP) can calculate such model atmospheres at a high level of sophistication. Although TMAP is not especially designed for the calculation of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at extreme photospheric parameters, it can be employed for the spectral analysis of burst spectra of novae like V4743 Sgr or line identifications in observations of neutron stars with low magnetic fields in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) like EXO 0748-676.

  7. Feedback Compression Schemes for Downlink Carrier Aggregation in LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan; Kovac, Istvan; Wang, Yuanye

    2011-01-01

    With full channel state information (CSI) available, it has been shown that carrier aggregation (CA) in the downlink can significantly improve the data rate experienced at the user equipments (UE) [1], [2], [3], [4]. However, full CSI feedback in all component carriers (CCs) requires a large...... portion of the uplink bandwidth and the feedback information increases linearly with the number of CCs. Therefore, the performance gain brought by deploying CA could be easily hindered if the amount of CSI feedback is not thoroughly controlled. In this paper we analyze several feedback overhead...... compression schemes in CA systems. To avoid a major re-design of the feedback schemes, only CSI compression schemes closely related to the ones specified in LTE-Release 8 and LTE-Release 9 are considered. Extensive simulations at system level were carried out to evaluate the performance of these feedback...

  8. Investigation of Diagonal Antenna-Chassis Mode in Mobile Terminal LTE MIMO Antennas for Bandwidth Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhao, Kun; Ying, Zhinong

    2015-01-01

    mechanism of the mismatch of these three bandwidth ranges is also explained. Furthermore, the diagonal antenna-chassis mode is also studied for MIMO elements in the adjacent and diagonal corner locations. As a practical example, a wideband collocated LTE MIMO antenna is proposed and measured. It covers......A diagonal antenna-chassis mode is investigated in long-term evolution multiple-input-multiple-output (LTE MIMO) antennas. The MIMO bandwidth is defined in this paper as the overlap range of the low-envelope correlation coefficient, high total efficiency, and -6-dB impedance matching bandwidths...... the bands of 740960 and 1700-2700 MHz, where the total efficiencies are better than -3.4 and -1.8 dB, with lower than 0.5 and 0.1, respectively. The measurements agree well with the simulations. Since the proposed method only needs to modify the excitation locations of the MIMO elements on the chassis...

  9. Body Loss Study of Beamforming Mode in LTE MIMO Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhao, Kun; Ying, Zhinong

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the investigation of the body loss of beamforming mode in LTE MIMO mobile terminals with CTIA user effects. The research of the body loss and radiation efficiency is carried out over different phase differences between two ports of each MIMO antenna. During studies......, four kinds of typical LTE MIMO antennas are used, namely, collocated ground free (GF), parallel GF, parallel on ground (OG) and orthogonal OG MIMO antennas, under four mobile terminal lengths at low and high frequencies. Two kinds of CTIA user effects are included in the research. From the studies......, the parallel GF MIMO antenna type exhibits the best beamforming performance in the four MIMO antenna types. In order to verify the simulations, envelope correlation coefficients of two MIMO antenna prototypes are measured. All the measured results agree well with the simulated....

  10. Eight-Element Antenna Array for LTE 3.4-3.8 GHz Mobile Handset Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingsheng; Ji, Ming; Cheng, Biyu; Ni, Bo

    2017-05-01

    In this letter, an eight-element Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system for LTE mobile handset applications is proposed. The antenna array consists of eight 3D inverted F-shaped antennas (3D-IFA), and the measured -10 dB impedance bandwidth is 3.2-3.9 GHz which can cover the LTE bands 42 and 43 (3.4-3.8 GHz). By controlling the rotation of the antenna elements, no less than 10 dB isolation between antenna elements can be obtained. After using the specially designed meandered slots on the ground as decoupling structures, the measured isolation can be further improved to higher than 13 dB between the antenna elements at the whole operating band.

  11. Mobility Performance in Slow- and High-Speed LTE Real Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Cascino, Maria Carmela; Stefan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Mobility performance and handover data interruption times in real scenarios are studied by means of field measurements in an operational LTE network. Both slow- and high-speed scenarios are analyzed by collecting results from two different areas: Aalborg downtown and the highway which encircles...... in the city center as cells on the same site often cover different non-crossing street canyons. Moreover, no handover failures are experienced in the measurements which confirms robust LTE mobility performance. The average interruption time, which is at least equal to the handover execution time, lays within...... the same city. Measurements reveal that the terminal is configured by the network with different handover parametrization depending on the serving cell, which indicates the use of mobility robustness optimization. Although the network is dominated by three sector sites, no intra-site handovers are observed...

  12. Performance Evaluation of Received Signal Strength Based Hard Handover for UTRAN LTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anas, Mohmmad; Calabrese, Francesco Davide; Mogensen, Preben

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the hard handover performance for UTRAN LTE system. The focus is on the impact that received signal strength based hard handover algorithm have on the system performance measured in terms of number of handovers, time between two consecutive handovers and uplink SINR for a user...... about to experience a handover. A handover algorithm based on received signal strength measurements has been designed and implemented in a dynamic system level simulator and has been studied for different parameter sets in a 3GPP UTRAN LTE recommended simulation scenario. The results suggest...... that a downlink measurement bandwidth of 1.25 MHz and a handover margin of 2 dB to 6 dB are the parameters that will lead to the best compromise between average number of handovers and average uplink SINR for user speeds of 3 kmph to 120 kmph....

  13. Energy-efficient two-hop LTE resource allocation in high speed trains with moving relays

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-05-01

    High-speed railway system equipped with moving relay stations placed on the middle of the ceiling of each train wagon is investigated. The users inside the train are served in two hops via the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) technology. The objective of this work is to maximize the number of served users by respecting a specific quality-of-service constraint while minimizing the total power consumption of the eNodeB and the moving relays. We propose an efficient algorithm based on the Hungarian method to find the optimal resource allocation over the LTE resource blocks in order to serve the maximum number of users with the minimum power consumption. Moreover, we derive a closed-form expression for the power allocation problem. Our simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme and compare it with various previously developed algorithms as well as with the direct transmission scenario. © 2014 IFIP.

  14. TD-LTE Wireless Private Network QoS Transmission Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianming; Cheng, Chao; Wu, Zanhong

    With the commencement of construction of the smart grid, the demand power business for reliability and security continues to improve, the reliability transmission of power TD-LTE Wireless Private Network are more and more attention. For TD-LTE power private network, it can provide different QoS services according to the user's business type, to protect the reliable transmission of business. This article describes in detail the AF module of PCC in the EPC network, specifically introduces set up AF module station and QoS mechanisms in the EPS load, fully considers the business characteristics of the special power network, establishing a suitable architecture for mapping QoS parameters, ensuring the implementation of each QoS business. Through using radio bearer management, we can achieve the reliable transmission of each business on physical channel.

  15. Investigation of local thermodynamic equilibrium of laser induced Al2O3–TiC plasma in argon by spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Alnama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma plume of Al2O3–TiC is generated by third harmonic Q-switched Nd:YAG nanosecond laser. It is characterized using Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES at different argon background gas pressures 10, 102, 103, 104 and 105 Pa. Spatial evolution of excitation and ionic temperatures is deduced from spectral data analysis. Temporal evolution of Ti I emission originated from different energy states is probed. The correlation between the temporal behavior and the spatial temperature evolution are investigated under LTE condition for the possibility to use the temporal profile of Ti I emission as an indicator for LTE validity in the plasma.

  16. Joint time-frequency domain proportional fair scheduler with HARQ for 3GPP LTE systems

    OpenAIRE

    Beh, KC; Doufexi, A; Armour, SMD

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the potential gain of joint diversity in both frequency domain and time domain which can be exploited to achieve spectral efficiency gains whilst simultaneously facilitating QoS/ fairness in an OFDMA system particularly in 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)). The performance of several joint time-frequency schedulers is investigated. Simulation results show that joint time frequency schedulers achieve significantly superior performance compared to a more conventional time doma...

  17. Data Aggregation and Packet Bundling of Uplink Small Packets for Monitoring Applications in LTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Dong Min; Sørensen, René Brandborg; Mahmood, Kashif

    2017-01-01

    topic. In this article we analyze the deployment scenarios in which aggregators can perform cellular access on behalf of multiple MTC devices. We study the effect of packet bundling at the aggregator, which alleviates overhead and resource waste when sending small packets. The aggregators give rise...... of aggregators and packet bundle size. Our results show that, in general, data aggregation can benefit the uplink massive MTC in LTE by reducing the signaling overhead....

  18. Implementation of LTE SC-FDMA on the USRP2 Software Defined Radio Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn; Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the implementation of a Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) transceiver running over the Universal Software Radio Peripheral 2 (USRP2). SC-FDMA is the air interface which has been selected for the uplink in the latest Long Term Evolution (LTE....../s. Experimental results on the Bit Error Rate (BER) versus Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) are presented and compared to theoretical and simulated performance....

  19. New Configuration of Handset MIMO Antenna for LTE 700 Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeonggwi Mun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact handset multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO antenna for long-term evolution (LTE 700 band (746~787 MHz applications is proposed. The proposed antenna consists of two symmetrical PIFAs. Without the usage of any additional coupling elements between closely mounted antennas, a high isolation (>15 dB and a low enveloped correlation coefficient (ECC<0.35 are achieved by the optimum location and arrangement of MIMO antenna elements.

  20. An Empirical LTE Smartphone Power Model with a View to Energy Efficiency Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lauridsen, Mads; Noël, Laurent; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Smartphone users struggle with short battery life, and this affects their device satisfaction level and usage of the network. To evaluate how chipset manufacturers and mobile network operators can improve the battery life, we propose a Long Term Evolution (LTE) smartphone power model. The idea is to provide a model that makes it possible to evaluate the effect of different terminal and network settings to the overall user equipment energy consumption. It is primarily intended as an instrument...

  1. Cooperation Techniques between LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum and Wi-Fi towards Fair Spectral Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Maglogiannis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On the road towards 5G, a proliferation of Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets is expected. Sensor networks are of great importance in this new wireless era, as they allow interaction with the environment. Additionally, the establishment of the Internet of Things (IoT has incredibly increased the number of interconnected devices and consequently the already massive wirelessly transmitted traffic. The exponential growth of wireless traffic is pushing the wireless community to investigate solutions that maximally exploit the available spectrum. Recently, 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP announced standards that permit the operation of Long Term Evolution (LTE in the unlicensed spectrum in addition to the exclusive use of the licensed spectrum owned by a mobile operator. Alternatively, leading wireless technology developers examine standalone LTE operation in the unlicensed spectrum without any involvement of a mobile operator. In this article, we present a classification of different techniques that can be applied on co-located LTE and Wi-Fi networks. Up to today, Wi-Fi is the most widely-used wireless technology in the unlicensed spectrum. A review of the current state of the art further reveals the lack of cooperation schemes among co-located networks that can lead to more optimal usage of the available spectrum. This article fills this gap in the literature by conceptually describing different classes of cooperation between LTE and Wi-Fi. For each class, we provide a detailed presentation of possible cooperation techniques that can provide spectral efficiency in a fair manner.

  2. MCS and sub-band selection for downlink interference coordination in LTE-A Femtocells

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Medina, Olga; Agustín de Dios, Adrián; Vidal Manzano, José

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a decentralized algorithm for interference coordination in LTE-A networks, based on the exchange of information (pricing) at control plane level. In our approach, every user equipment (UE) report the maximum modulation and coding scheme (MCS) that can be used within several sets (sub-bands) of available resource blocks, along with a parameter (cost) that measures the MCS degradation due to the transmission from an interfering neighbor. Through the e...

  3. QoE Power-Efficient Multimedia Delivery Method for LTE-A

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, M. Sajid; Mellouk, Abdelhamid; Augustin, Brice; Fowler, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The fastest growing of multimedia services overfuture wireless communication system demand more networkresources, efficient delivery of multimedia service with highusers satisfaction, and power optimization of User Equipments(UEs). The resources and power optimization are significant infuture mobile computing systems, because emerging multimediaservices consume more resources and power. The 4G standard ofLTE-A wireless system has adopted the Discontinuous Reception(DRX) method to extend and o...

  4. Test Setup for Anechoic Room based MIMO OTA Testing of LTE Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carreño, Xavier; Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2013-01-01

    introduced into, for example, LTE andWiMAX systems. The main purpose of this testing is to validate that the user equipment will have a good performance in real use. CTIA, 3GPP and COST are spending a big effort in standardizing the OTA testing procedure which is much more complex than similar SISO OTA...... the activities related to the MIMO OTA lab being built at Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark and the testing being performed....

  5. Throughput Measurement of a Dual-Band MIMO Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna for LTE Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Jamal; Jamaluddin, Mohd Haizal; Ahmad Khan, Aftab; Kamarudin, Muhammad Ramlee; Yen, Bruce Leow Chee; Owais, Owais

    2017-01-13

    An L-shaped dual-band multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (RDRA) for long term evolution (LTE) applications is proposed. The presented antenna can transmit and receive information independently using fundamental TE 111 and higher order TE 121 modes of the DRA. TE 111 degenerate mode covers LTE band 2 (1.85-1.99 GHz), 3 (1.71-1.88 GHz), and 9 (1.7499-1.7849 GHz) at f r = 1.8 GHz whereas TE 121 covers LTE band 7 (2.5-2.69 GHz) at f r = 2.6 GHz, respectively. An efficient design method has been used to reduce mutual coupling between ports by changing the effective permittivity values of DRA by introducing a cylindrical air-gap at an optimal position in the dielectric resonator. This air-gap along with matching strips at the corners of the dielectric resonator keeps the isolation at a value more than 17 dB at both the bands. The diversity performance has also been evaluated by calculating the envelope correlation coefficient, diversity gain, and mean effective gain of the proposed design. MIMO performance has been evaluated by measuring the throughput of the proposed MIMO antenna. Experimental results successfully validate the presented design methodology in this work.

  6. Optimized scheduling technique of null subcarriers for peak power control in 3GPP LTE downlink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soobum; Park, Sang Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) is a key multiple access technique for the long term evolution (LTE) downlink. However, high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) can cause the degradation of power efficiency. The well-known PAPR reduction technique, dummy sequence insertion (DSI), can be a realistic solution because of its structural simplicity. However, the large usage of subcarriers for the dummy sequences may decrease the transmitted data rate in the DSI scheme. In this paper, a novel DSI scheme is applied to the LTE system. Firstly, we obtain the null subcarriers in single-input single-output (SISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, respectively; then, optimized dummy sequences are inserted into the obtained null subcarrier. Simulation results show that Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) sequence is the best for the dummy sequence and the ratio of 16 to 20 for the WHT and randomly generated sequences has the maximum PAPR reduction performance. The number of near optimal iteration is derived to prevent exhausted iterations. It is also shown that there is no bit error rate (BER) degradation with the proposed technique in LTE downlink system.

  7. Investigation of a new handover approach in LTE and WiMAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most important challenges in heterogeneous networks is the connection consistency between the mobile station and the base stations. Furthermore, along the roaming process between the mobile station and the base station, the system performance degrades significantly due to the interferences from neighboring base stations, handovers to inaccurate base station and inappropriate technology selection. In this paper, several algorithms are proposed to improve mobile station performance and seamless mobility across the long-term evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) technologies, along with a minimum number of redundant handovers. Firstly, the enhanced global positioning system (GPS) and the novel received signal strength (RSS) prediction approaches are suggested to predict the target base station accurately. Then, the multiple criteria with two thresholds algorithm is proposed to prioritize the selection between LTE and WiMAX as the target technology. In addition, this study also covers the intercell and cochannel interference reduction by adjusting the frequency reuse ratio 3 (FRR3) to work with LTE and WiMAX. The obtained results demonstrate high next base station prediction efficiency and high accuracy for both horizontal and vertical handovers. Moreover, the received signal strength is kept at levels higher than the threshold, while maintaining low connection cost and delay within acceptable levels. In order to highlight the combination of the proposed algorithms' performance, it is compared with the existing RSS and multiple criteria handover decision algorithms.

  8. Non-LTE population probabilities of the excited ionic levels in a steady state plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzmann, D.

    1982-01-01

    A Complete-Staedy-State (CSS) model for the charge state distribution and the ionic levels population probabilities of ions in hot non-LTE plasmas is described. The following properties of this model are described: (i) it is shown that CSS covers LTE and Corona Equilibrium (CE) in the high and low electron density regimes respectively, (ii) an explicit expression is found for the low electron density asymptotic behaviour of the population probabilities, (iii) it is shown that at intermediate density regions the CSS model predicts results similar to that of the Quasi-Steady-State model, (iv) new validity limits are derived for LTE and CE, (v) the population distribution of the excited levels is revised, (vi) an analytical expression is found for the high electron density asymptotic behaviour of the population distribution, (vii) the influence of the radiation reabsorption in a spherically symmetric CSS plasma is briefly described, and (viii) the effect of the inaccuracies in the rate-coefficients on the results of CSS calculations is evaluated. (author)

  9. Multi-Group Reductions of LTE Air Plasma Radiative Transfer in Cylindrical Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoggins, James; Magin, Thierry Edouard Bertran; Wray, Alan; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2013-01-01

    Air plasma radiation in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) within cylindrical geometries is studied with an application towards modeling the radiative transfer inside arc-constrictors, a central component of constricted-arc arc jets. A detailed database of spectral absorption coefficients for LTE air is formulated using the NEQAIR code developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The database stores calculated absorption coefficients for 1,051,755 wavelengths between 0.04 µm and 200 µm over a wide temperature (500K to 15 000K) and pressure (0.1 atm to 10.0 atm) range. The multi-group method for spectral reduction is studied by generating a range of reductions including pure binning and banding reductions from the detailed absorption coefficient database. The accuracy of each reduction is compared to line-by-line calculations for cylindrical temperature profiles resembling typical profiles found in arc-constrictors. It is found that a reduction of only 1000 groups is sufficient to accurately model the LTE air radiation over a large temperature and pressure range. In addition to the reduction comparison, the cylindrical-slab formulation is compared with the finite-volume method for the numerical integration of the radiative flux inside cylinders with varying length. It is determined that cylindrical-slabs can be used to accurately model most arc-constrictors due to their high length to radius ratios.

  10. LTE-A cellular networks multi-hop relay for coverage, capacity and performance enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Yahya, Abid

    2017-01-01

    In this book, three different methods are presented to enhance the capacity and coverage area in LTE-A cellular networks. The scope involves the evaluation of the effect of the RN location in terms of capacity and the determination of the optimum location of the relay that provides maximum achievable data rate for users with limited interference at the cell boundaries. This book presents a new model to enhance both capacity and coverage area in LTE-A cellular network by determining the optimum location for the RN with limited interference. The new model is designed to enhance the capacity of the relay link by employing two antennas in RN. This design enables the relay link to absorb more users at cell edge regions. An algorithm called the Balance Power Algorithm (BPA) is developed to reduce MR power consumption. The book pertains to postgraduate students and researchers in wireless & mobile communications. Provides a variety of methods for enhancing capacity and coverage in LTE-A cellular networks Develop...

  11. Wideband LTE power amplifier with integrated novel analog pre-distorter linearizer for mobile wireless communications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswaran Uthirajoo

    Full Text Available For the first time, a new circuit to extend the linear operation bandwidth of a LTE (Long Term Evolution power amplifier, while delivering a high efficiency is implemented in less than 1 mm2 chip area. The 950 µm × 900 µm monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC power amplifier (PA is fabricated in a 2 µm InGaP/GaAs process. An on-chip analog pre-distorter (APD is designed to improve the linearity of the PA, up to 20 MHz channel bandwidth. Intended for 1.95 GHz Band 1 LTE application, the PA satisfies adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR and error vector magnitude (EVM specifications for a wide LTE channel bandwidth of 20 MHz at a linear output power of 28 dBm with corresponding power added efficiency (PAE of 52.3%. With a respective input and output return loss of 30 dB and 14 dB, the PA's power gain is measured to be 32.5 dB while exhibiting an unconditional stability characteristic from DC up to 5 GHz. The proposed APD technique serves to be a good solution to improve linearity of a PA without sacrificing other critical performance metrics.

  12. Wideband LTE power amplifier with integrated novel analog pre-distorter linearizer for mobile wireless communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthirajoo, Eswaran; Ramiah, Harikrishnan; Kanesan, Jeevan; Reza, Ahmed Wasif

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a new circuit to extend the linear operation bandwidth of a LTE (Long Term Evolution) power amplifier, while delivering a high efficiency is implemented in less than 1 mm2 chip area. The 950 µm × 900 µm monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier (PA) is fabricated in a 2 µm InGaP/GaAs process. An on-chip analog pre-distorter (APD) is designed to improve the linearity of the PA, up to 20 MHz channel bandwidth. Intended for 1.95 GHz Band 1 LTE application, the PA satisfies adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) and error vector magnitude (EVM) specifications for a wide LTE channel bandwidth of 20 MHz at a linear output power of 28 dBm with corresponding power added efficiency (PAE) of 52.3%. With a respective input and output return loss of 30 dB and 14 dB, the PA's power gain is measured to be 32.5 dB while exhibiting an unconditional stability characteristic from DC up to 5 GHz. The proposed APD technique serves to be a good solution to improve linearity of a PA without sacrificing other critical performance metrics.

  13. Wideband LTE Power Amplifier with Integrated Novel Analog Pre-Distorter Linearizer for Mobile Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthirajoo, Eswaran; Ramiah, Harikrishnan; Kanesan, Jeevan; Reza, Ahmed Wasif

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a new circuit to extend the linear operation bandwidth of a LTE (Long Term Evolution) power amplifier, while delivering a high efficiency is implemented in less than 1 mm2 chip area. The 950 µm × 900 µm monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier (PA) is fabricated in a 2 µm InGaP/GaAs process. An on-chip analog pre-distorter (APD) is designed to improve the linearity of the PA, up to 20 MHz channel bandwidth. Intended for 1.95 GHz Band 1 LTE application, the PA satisfies adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) and error vector magnitude (EVM) specifications for a wide LTE channel bandwidth of 20 MHz at a linear output power of 28 dBm with corresponding power added efficiency (PAE) of 52.3%. With a respective input and output return loss of 30 dB and 14 dB, the PA’s power gain is measured to be 32.5 dB while exhibiting an unconditional stability characteristic from DC up to 5 GHz. The proposed APD technique serves to be a good solution to improve linearity of a PA without sacrificing other critical performance metrics. PMID:25033049

  14. Quantum density fluctuations in liquid neon from linearized path-integral calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage; Scheers, Johan; Nyman, Gunnar; Rossky, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    The Feynman-Kleinert linearized path-integral [J. A. Poulsen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 119, 12179 (2003)] representation of quantum correlation functions is applied to compute the spectrum of density fluctuations for liquid neon at T=27.6 K, p=1.4 bar, and Q vector 1.55 Aa -1 . The calculated spectrum as well as the kinetic energy of the liquid are in excellent agreement with the experiment of Cunsolo et al. [Phys. Rev. B 67, 024507 (2003)

  15. Results of presowing helium-neon-laser irradiation of sunflower seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetanova, K.

    1989-01-01

    In the period of 1983-1985 under non-irrigation, on calcareous chernozem a trial was carried out with the Start hybrid through single-, double-and triple irradiation of the seeds being stored for 1.8 and 16 days prior to sowing. It is found that the presowing helium-neon-laser irradiation of the sunflower seeds of the Start hybrid exerts a negative effect on the seed yield. Laser use does not stimulate the following: emerged seeds and percentage of the plants being in blossom in the beginning of the phase and after 7 days, seed moisture in harvesting and oil content in them

  16. Photo-stimulated desorption from water and methane clusters on the surface of solid neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa Ichiri; Matsumoto Dairo; Takekuma Shinichi; Tamura Reimi; Miura Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Photo-stimulated desorption of ions from methane and water heterocluster on the surface of solid neon was studied. The desorption yields of the variety of photo-desorbed species showed strong dependence on the composition and the size of the mother cluster. It was found that the presence of a water molecule in the cluster significantly enhanced, or was almost essential for, the desorption of any species observed. Systematic investigation of the correlation between the cluster size and the desorption yield of each ion has revealed the mother cluster which yields the each desorbed ion.

  17. Spatial distribution of fluorescent light emitted from neon and nitrogen excited by low energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.; Kruecken, R.; Ulrich, A.; Wieser, J.

    2006-01-01

    Side-view intensity profiles of fluorescent light were measured for neon and nitrogen excited with 12 keV electron beams at gas pressures from 250 to 1400 hPa. The intensity profiles were compared with theoretical profiles calculated using the CASINO program which performs Monte Carlo simulations of electron scattering. It was assumed that the spatial distribution of fluorescent intensity is directly proportional to the spatial distribution of energy loss by primary electrons. The comparison shows good correlation of experimental data and the results of numeric simulations

  18. Experimental study of the effects of helium-neon laser radiation on repair of injured tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Qing; Li, Zhu-Yi; Weng, Long-Jiang; An, Mei; Li, Kai-Yun; Chen, Shao-Rong; Wang, Jian-Xin; Lu, Yu

    1993-03-01

    Despite extensive research into the biology of tendon healing, predictably restoring normal function to a digit after a flexor tendon laceration remains one of the most difficult problems facing the hand surgeon. The challenge of simultaneously achieving tendon healing while minimizing the peritendinous scar formation, which limits tendon gliding, has captured the attention of investigators for many years. It has been said that low-power density helium-neon laser radiation had effects on anti-inflammation, detumescence, progressive wound healing, and reducing intestinal adhesions. This experimental study aims at whether helium-neon laser can reduce injured tendon adhesions and improve functional recovery of the injured tendon. Fifty white Leghorn hens were used. Ten were randomly assigned as a normal control group, the other forty were used in the operation. After anesthetizing them with Amytal, a half of the profundus tendons of the second and third foretoes on both sides of the feet were cut. Postoperatively, the hens moved freely in the cages. One side of the toes operated on were randomly chosen as a treatment group, the other side served as an untreated control group. The injured tendon toes in the treatment group were irradiated for twenty minutes daily with a fiber light needle of helium-neon laser therapeutic apparatus (wavelength, 6328 angstroms) at a constant power density of 12.74 mW/cm2, the first exposure taking place 24 hours after the operation. The longest course of treatment was 3 weeks. The control group was not irradiated. At 3 days, 1, 2, 3, and 5 weeks after surgery, 8 hens were sacrificed and their tendons were examined. The experimental results: (1) active, passive flexion and tendon gliding functional recovery were significantly better in the treatment group (p < 0.01); (2) width and thickness of the tendon at the cut site were significantly smaller in the treatment group (p < 0.01); (3) degrees of tendon adhesions were significantly lighter

  19. Finite-temperature random-phase approximation for spectroscopic properties of neon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, J.; Collins, L. A.; Fontes, C. J.; Csanak, G.

    2007-01-01

    A finite-temperature random-phase approximation (FTRPA) is applied to calculate oscillator strengths for excitations in hot and dense plasmas. Application of the FTRPA provides a convenient, self-consistent method with which to explore coupled-channel effects of excited electrons in a dense plasma. We present FTRPA calculations that include coupled-channel effects. The inclusion of these effects is shown to cause significant differences in the oscillator strength for a prototypical case of 1 P excitation in neon when compared with single-channel and with average-atom calculations. Trends as a function of temperature and density are also discussed

  20. Helium-neon laser used to stimulate regeneration of the skeletal muscle damaged by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, M.F.; Bulyakova, N.V.; Azarova, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the therapeutic effects of transplantation of the regenerating muscular tissue and helium-neon lazer rays on the skeletal muscle received 20 Gy x radiation. The results of four series of experiments showed that the effect of lazer rays on the irradiated transversely cut musculus gastrocnemius is simular to that of transplantation of the minced muscular tissue to the defect of the muscle. Regeneration of the muscle in both cases is normalized so that the regenerating muscular organ slightly differs from the control regenerate of unirradiated muscle

  1. Spin alignment of ρ0 mesons produced in antineutrino and neutrino neon charged-current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, W.; Guy, J.; Adeholz, M.; Allport, P.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Bullock, F. W.; Burkot, W.; Calicchio, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Coghen, T.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fitch, P. J.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M. T.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Kasper, P.; Klein, H.; Marage, P.; Middleton, R. P.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S. W.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Schmitz, N.; Simopoulou, E.; Vallee, C.; Varvell, K.; Vayaki, A.; Venus, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wells, J.

    1987-03-01

    In a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC the spin alignment parameter η=1/2 (2ϱ00 - ϱ11 - ϱ-1-1) is measured for ϱ0 mesons produced in deep inelastic charged-current antineutrino and neutrono interactions on neon. In the current fragmentation region η is found to be ηv=0.48+/-0.27 (stat.)+/-0.15 (syst.) for vNe and ηv=0.12+/-0.20 (stat.)+/-0.10 (syst.) for vNe interactions Present address: University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

  2. Spin alignment of ρ0 mesons produced in antineutrino and neutrino neon charged-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittek, W.; Aderholz, M.; Schmitz, N.; Guy, J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Venus, W.; Brisson, V.; Petiau, P.; Vallee, C.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M.T.; Jones, G.T.; Middleton, R.P.; O'Neale, S.W.; Varvell, K.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Parker, M.A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Vayaki, A.

    1987-01-01

    In a bubble chamber experiment with BEBC the spin alignment parameter η=1/2(2ρ 00 -ρ 11 -ρ -1-1 ) is measured for ρ 0 mesons produced in deep inelastic charged-current antineutrino and neutrino interactions on neon. In the current fragmentation region η is found to be η ν =0.48±0.27(stat.)±0.15(syst.) for anti νNe and η ν =0.12±0.20(stat.)±0.10(syst.) for νNe interactions. (orig.)

  3. Utilizing Neon Ion Microscope for GaSb nanopatterning studies: Nanostructure formation and comparison with low energy nanopatterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Atwani, Osman; Huynh, Chuong; Norris, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Carl Zeiss-neon ion microscope was used to irradiated GaSb surfaces with 5 keV neon. • In-situ imaging using helium beam and ex-situ imaging using an electron beam were performed. • Differences in imaging output between the helium and the electron beam were observed. • Transition occurred in the nanostructure type and formation mechanism as the energy is changed from 2 to 5 keV. • Collision cascade simulations suggested a transition toward bulk-driven mechanisms. - Abstract: Low energy irradiation of GaSb surfaces has been shown to lead to nanopillar formation. Being performed ex-situ, controlling the parameters of the ion beam for controlled nanopattern formation is challenging. While mainly utilized for imaging and cutting purposes, the development of multibeam (helium/neon) ion microscopes has opened the path towards the use of these microscopes for in-situ ion irradiation and nanopatterning studies. In this study, in-situ irradiation (neon ions)/imaging (helium ions) of GaSb surfaces is performed using Carl Zeiss-neon ion microscope at low energies (5 and 10 keV). Imaging with helium ions, nanodots were shown to form at particular fluences after which are smoothed. Ex-situ imaging with SEM showed nanopore formation of size controlled by the ion energy and fluence. Compared to lower energy ex-situ neon ion irradiation at similar fluxes, where nanopillars are formed, the results demonstrated a transition in the nanostructure type and formation mechanism as the energy is changed from 2 to 5 keV. Simulations show an increase in the ballistic diffusion and a decrease in the strength of phase separation as a function of ion energy in agreement with the suppression of nanopillar formation at higher energies. Collision cascade simulations suggest a transition toward bulk-driven mechanisms.

  4. Utilizing Neon Ion Microscope for GaSb nanopatterning studies: Nanostructure formation and comparison with low energy nanopatterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Atwani, Osman, E-mail: oelatwan25@gmail.com [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Huynh, Chuong [Carl Zeiss Microscopy, LLC, One Corporation Way, Peabody, MA 01960 (United States); Norris, Scott [Department of Mathematics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Carl Zeiss-neon ion microscope was used to irradiated GaSb surfaces with 5 keV neon. • In-situ imaging using helium beam and ex-situ imaging using an electron beam were performed. • Differences in imaging output between the helium and the electron beam were observed. • Transition occurred in the nanostructure type and formation mechanism as the energy is changed from 2 to 5 keV. • Collision cascade simulations suggested a transition toward bulk-driven mechanisms. - Abstract: Low energy irradiation of GaSb surfaces has been shown to lead to nanopillar formation. Being performed ex-situ, controlling the parameters of the ion beam for controlled nanopattern formation is challenging. While mainly utilized for imaging and cutting purposes, the development of multibeam (helium/neon) ion microscopes has opened the path towards the use of these microscopes for in-situ ion irradiation and nanopatterning studies. In this study, in-situ irradiation (neon ions)/imaging (helium ions) of GaSb surfaces is performed using Carl Zeiss-neon ion microscope at low energies (5 and 10 keV). Imaging with helium ions, nanodots were shown to form at particular fluences after which are smoothed. Ex-situ imaging with SEM showed nanopore formation of size controlled by the ion energy and fluence. Compared to lower energy ex-situ neon ion irradiation at similar fluxes, where nanopillars are formed, the results demonstrated a transition in the nanostructure type and formation mechanism as the energy is changed from 2 to 5 keV. Simulations show an increase in the ballistic diffusion and a decrease in the strength of phase separation as a function of ion energy in agreement with the suppression of nanopillar formation at higher energies. Collision cascade simulations suggest a transition toward bulk-driven mechanisms.

  5. Effects of filling ratio and condenser temperature on the thermal performance of a neon cryogenic oscillating heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qing; Li, Yi; Wang, Qiuliang

    2018-01-01

    A cryogenic oscillating heat pipe (OHP) made of a bended copper capillary tube is manufactured. The lengths of the condenser section, adiabatic section and evaporator section are 100, 280 and 100 mm, respectively. Neon is used as the working fluid. Effects of liquid filling ratio and condenser temperature on the thermal performance of the OHP are studied. A correlation based on the available experimental data sets is proposed to predict the thermal performance of the neon cryogenic OHP with different filling ratios and condenser temperature. Compared with the experimental data, the average standard deviation of the correlation is about 15.0%, and approximately 92.4% of deviations are within ±30%.

  6. DSRC versus 4G-LTE for Connected Vehicle Applications: A Study on Field Experiments of Vehicular Communication Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC and 4G-LTE are two widely used candidate schemes for Connected Vehicle (CV applications. It is thus of great necessity to compare these two most viable communication standards and clarify which one can meet the requirements of most V2X scenarios with respect to road safety, traffic efficiency, and infotainment. To the best of our knowledge, almost all the existing studies on comparing the feasibility of DRSC or LTE in V2X applications use software-based simulations, which may not represent realistic constraints. In this paper, a Connected Vehicle test-bed is established, which integrates the DSRC roadside units, 4G-LTE cellular communication stations, and vehicular on-board terminals. Three Connected Vehicle application scenarios are set as Collision Avoidance, Traffic Text Message Broadcast, and Multimedia File Download, respectively. A software tool is developed to record GPS positions/velocities of the test vehicles and record certain wireless communication performance indicators. The experiments have been carried out under different conditions. According to our results, 4G-LTE is more preferred for the nonsafety applications, such as traffic information transmission, file download, or Internet accessing, which does not necessarily require the high-speed real-time communication, while for the safety applications, such as Collision Avoidance or electronic traffic sign, DSRC outperforms the 4G-LTE.

  7. On the impact of D2D traffic offloading on energy efficiency in green LTE-A HetNets

    KAUST Repository

    Yaacoub, Elias E.

    2014-08-11

    In this paper, the interplay between cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communications and green cellular communications in the long term evolution (LTE) and LTE-advanced (LTE-A) cellular systems is investigated. An efficient approach for grouping mobile terminals (MTs) into cooperative clusters is described. In each cluster, MTs cooperate via D2D communications to share content of common interest. In addition, an energy-efficient approach for putting base stations in sleep mode in an LTE-A heterogeneous network is presented. Finally, both methods are combined in order to ensure green communications for both the users\\' MTs and the operator\\'s base stations. The presented techniques are investigated in the framework of orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based state-of-the-art LTE cellular networks, while taking resource allocation and intercell interference into account. Results show that the proposed approach leads to energy savings for both the operator and the MTs, while leading to enhanced quality of service for mobile users. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Non-LTE Equation of State for ICF simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Bar-Shalom, Avraham; Colombant, Denis

    2002-11-01

    SCROLL is a collisional radiative model able to deal with complex spectra[1]. It is used to generate opacity/emissivity databases [2] compatible with the hydrocode FAST[3] for all elements of interest in the simulation of ICF targets, including high-Z. It is now modified to yield tables of EOS data for FAST, in the whole range of interest (T=1 to 25000eV, rho=10-6 to 100g/cc). SCROLL contributes the electronic -free and bound- part of the EOS, replacing Busquet's model of an ionization temperature. Ionization energies include contributions of all excited states. Energies and Z* go smoothly to the high density regime, where a "jellium" model is assumed. The free electrons are self consistent with the bound electrons. Examples of runs will be shown. Supported by USDOE through a contract with the Naval Research Laboratory. [1] A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg, and M. Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 43 (2000). [2] A. Bar-shalom, M. Klapisch, J. Oreg, and D. Colombant, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46, 295 (2001). [3] J. H. Gardner, A. J. Schmitt, J. P. Dahlburg, et al, Phys. Plasmas 5, 1935 (1998).

  9. Experiments on the Scaling of Ionization Balance vs. Electron and Radiation Temperature in Non-LTE Gold Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, R.F.; Hansen, S.B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Foord, M.E.; Fournier, K.B.; Froula, D.H.; Mackinnon, A.J.; May, M.J.; Schneider, M.B.; Young, B.K.F.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding and predicting the behavior of high-Z non-LTE plasmas is important for developing indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion. Extending earlier work from the Nova laser, we present results from experiments using the Omega laser to study the ionization balance of gold as a function of electron and radiation temperature. In these experiments, gold samples embedded in Be disks expand under direct laser heating to ne ≅ 1021cm-3, with Te varying from 0.8 to 2.5 keV. An additional finite radiation field with effective temperature Tr up to 150 eV is provided by placing the gold Be disks inside truncated 1.2 mm diameter tungsten-coated cylindrical hohlraums with full laser entrance holes. Densities are measured by imaging of plasma expansion. Electron temperatures are diagnosed with either 2ω or 4ω Thomson scattering, and also K-shell spectroscopy of KCl tracers co-mixed with the gold. Hohlraum flux and effective radiation temperature are measured using an absolutely-calibrated multichannel filtered diode array. Spectroscopic measurements of the M-shell gold emission in the 2.9-4 keV spectral range provide ionization balance and charge state distribution information. The spectra show strong variation with Te, strong variation with the applied Tr, at Te below 1.6 keV, and relatively little variation with Tr at higher Te (upwards of 2 keV). We summarize our most recent spectral analyses and discuss emerging and outstanding issues

  10. First principles study of inert-gas (helium, neon, and argon) interactions with hydrogen in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiang-Shan [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Hou, Jie [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Li, Xiang-Yan [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Xuebang, E-mail: xbwu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, C.S., E-mail: csliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen, Jun-Ling; Luo, G.-N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-04-15

    We have systematically evaluated binding energies of hydrogen with inert-gas (helium, neon, and argon) defects, including interstitial clusters and vacancy-inert-gas complexes, and their stable configurations using first-principles calculations. Our calculations show that these inert-gas defects have large positive binding energies with hydrogen, 0.4–1.1 eV, 0.7–1.0 eV, and 0.6–0.8 eV for helium, neon, and argon, respectively. This indicates that these inert-gas defects can act as traps for hydrogen in tungsten, and impede or interrupt the diffusion of hydrogen in tungsten, which supports the discussion on the influence of inert-gas on hydrogen retention in recent experimental literature. The interaction between these inert-gas defects and hydrogen can be understood by the attractive interaction due to the distortion of the lattice structure induced by inert-gas defects, the intrinsic repulsive interaction between inert-gas atoms and hydrogen, and the hydrogen-hydrogen repelling in tungsten lattice.

  11. The solar wind neon abundance observed with ACE/SWICS and ULYSSES/SWICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Paul; Raines, Jim M.; Lepri, Susan T.; Thomas, Jonathan W.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Landi, Enrico; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Von Steiger, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Using in situ ion spectrometry data from ACE/SWICS, we determine the solar wind Ne/O elemental abundance ratio and examine its dependence on wind speed and evolution with the solar cycle. We find that Ne/O is inversely correlated with wind speed, is nearly constant in the fast wind, and correlates strongly with solar activity in the slow wind. In fast wind streams with speeds above 600 km s –1 , we find Ne/O = 0.10 ± 0.02, in good agreement with the extensive polar observations by Ulysses/SWICS. In slow wind streams with speeds below 400 km s –1 , Ne/O ranges from a low of 0.12 ± 0.02 at solar maximum to a high of 0.17 ± 0.03 at solar minimum. These measurements place new and significant empirical constraints on the fractionation mechanisms governing solar wind composition and have implications for the coronal and photospheric abundances of neon and oxygen. The results are made possible by a new data analysis method that robustly identifies rare elements in the measured ion spectra. The method is also applied to Ulysses/SWICS data, which confirms the ACE observations and extends our view of solar wind neon into the three-dimensional heliosphere.

  12. The solar wind neon abundance observed with ACE/SWICS and ULYSSES/SWICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, Paul; Raines, Jim M.; Lepri, Susan T.; Thomas, Jonathan W.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Landi, Enrico; Zurbuchen, Thomas H. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Von Steiger, Rudolf [International Space Science Institute, Hallerstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Using in situ ion spectrometry data from ACE/SWICS, we determine the solar wind Ne/O elemental abundance ratio and examine its dependence on wind speed and evolution with the solar cycle. We find that Ne/O is inversely correlated with wind speed, is nearly constant in the fast wind, and correlates strongly with solar activity in the slow wind. In fast wind streams with speeds above 600 km s{sup –1}, we find Ne/O = 0.10 ± 0.02, in good agreement with the extensive polar observations by Ulysses/SWICS. In slow wind streams with speeds below 400 km s{sup –1}, Ne/O ranges from a low of 0.12 ± 0.02 at solar maximum to a high of 0.17 ± 0.03 at solar minimum. These measurements place new and significant empirical constraints on the fractionation mechanisms governing solar wind composition and have implications for the coronal and photospheric abundances of neon and oxygen. The results are made possible by a new data analysis method that robustly identifies rare elements in the measured ion spectra. The method is also applied to Ulysses/SWICS data, which confirms the ACE observations and extends our view of solar wind neon into the three-dimensional heliosphere.

  13. Disalignment rate coefficient of neon excited atoms due to helium atom collisions at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, M; Shimamura, T; Furutani, T; Hasuo, M; Bahrim, C; Fujimoto, T

    2003-01-01

    Disalignment of neon excited atoms in the fine-structure 2p i levels (in Paschen notation) of the 2p 5 3p configuration is investigated in a helium-neon glow discharge at temperatures between 15 and 77 K. At several temperatures, we plot the disalignment rate as a function of the helium atom density for Ne* (2p 2 or 2p 7 ) + He(1s 2 ) collisions. The slope of this dependence gives the disalignment rate coefficient. For both collisions, the experimental data for the disalignment rate coefficient show a more rapid decrease with the decrease in temperature below 40 K than our quantum close-coupling calculations based on the model potential of Hennecart and Masnou-Seeuws (1985 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 18 657). This finding suggests that the disalignment cross section rapidly decreases below a few millielectronvolts, in disagreement with our theoretical quantum calculations which predict a strong increase below 1 meV. The disagreement suggests that the long-range electrostatic potentials are significantly more repulsive than in the aforementioned model

  14. Positive column of a glow discharge in neon with charged dust grains (a review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, D. N., E-mail: cryolab@ihed.ras.ru; Shumova, V. V.; Vasilyak, L. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The effect of charged micron-size dust grains (microparticles) on the electric parameters of the positive column of a low-pressure dc glow discharge in neon has been studied experimentally and numerically. Numerical analysis is carried out in the diffusion-drift approximation with allowance for the interaction of dust grains with metastable neon atoms. In a discharge with a dust grain cloud, the longitudinal electric field increases. As the number density of dust grains in an axisymmetric cylindrical dust cloud rises, the growth of the electric field saturates. It is shown that the contribution of metastable atoms to ionization is higher in a discharge with dust grains, in spite of the quenching of metastable atoms on dust grains. The processes of charging of dust grains and the dust cloud are considered. As the number density of dust grains rises, their charge decreases, while the space charge of the dust cloud increases. The results obtained can be used in plasma technologies involving microparticles.

  15. Positive column of a glow discharge in neon with charged dust grains (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, D. N.; Shumova, V. V.; Vasilyak, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of charged micron-size dust grains (microparticles) on the electric parameters of the positive column of a low-pressure dc glow discharge in neon has been studied experimentally and numerically. Numerical analysis is carried out in the diffusion-drift approximation with allowance for the interaction of dust grains with metastable neon atoms. In a discharge with a dust grain cloud, the longitudinal electric field increases. As the number density of dust grains in an axisymmetric cylindrical dust cloud rises, the growth of the electric field saturates. It is shown that the contribution of metastable atoms to ionization is higher in a discharge with dust grains, in spite of the quenching of metastable atoms on dust grains. The processes of charging of dust grains and the dust cloud are considered. As the number density of dust grains rises, their charge decreases, while the space charge of the dust cloud increases. The results obtained can be used in plasma technologies involving microparticles.

  16. Microscopic distribution functions, structure, and kinetic energy of liquid and solid neon: Quantum Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Martin; Zoppi, Marco

    2002-01-01

    We have performed extensive path integral Monte Carlo simulations of liquid and solid neon, in order to derive the kinetic energy as well as the single-particle and pair distribution functions of neon atoms in the condensed phases. From the single-particle distribution function n(r) one can derive the momentum distribution and thus obtain an independent estimate of the kinetic energy. The simulations have been carried out using mostly the semiempirical HFD-C2 pair potential by Aziz et al. [R. A. Aziz, W. J. Meath, and A. R. Allnatt, Chem. Phys. 79, 295 (1983)], but, in a few cases, we have also used the Lennard-Jones potential. The differences between the potentials, as measured by the properties investigated, are not very large, especially when compared with the actual precision of the experimental data. The simulation results have been compared with all the experimental information that is available from neutron scattering. The overall agreement with the experiments is very good

  17. Experimental investigation of neon seeding in the snowflake configuration in TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimerdes, H., E-mail: holger.reimerdes@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Canal, G.P.; Duval, B.P.; Labit, B. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Lunt, T. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, Garching (Germany); Nespoli, F.; Vijvers, W.A.J. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Lowry, C. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Morgan, T.W. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Tal, B. [WIGNER RCP, RMKI, Budapest (Hungary); Wischmeier, M. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, Garching (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Recent TCV experiments have examined the effect of the poloidal field strength in the vicinity of the x-point of diverted configurations on their ability to radiate a large fraction of the exhaust power. A larger region of low poloidal field is a key characteristic of the “snowflake” configuration, which has been proposed as an alternative divertor solution that decreases the power flux to the targets in a DEMO-size tokamak. In the investigated Ohmic discharges, increasing the plasma density and seeding neon both increased the radiated exhaust fraction up to 60–70%. In all cases, the highest radiation fraction was determined by the onset of MHD rather than a radiation instability. The experiments indicate that, while the conventional single-null configuration leads to more radiation (+10%) at higher densities, the snowflake configuration radiates more when seeding neon impurities (+15%). Extrapolation of these modest, but systematic, dependencies on the divertor geometry to reactor-relevant higher heating power and larger device size must be based on a physics model.

  18. Chromosome aberrations induced by 135 MeV of carbon and neon beams by PRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Hiroshi; Minamihisamatu, Masako; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Itsukaichi, Hiromi; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Yatagai, Fumio; Sato, Kohki.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation-induced chromosome aberration can be an indicator of the radiation lesions in irradiated cells. Many studies on chromosome aberration induced by X-ray and γ - ray have indicated that the dose response of the aberration can be fitted to a quadratic equation, Y = αD + βD 2 , and it becomes linear as the LET of beams increases. The main subject of this study was some quantification of chromosomal aberration induced by 135 MeV/n carbon and neon beams produced by the RRC, the operation of which increasingly became useful for the studies on heavy ion biology. The results will meet with some of the radiobiological features connected to the specific action of charged particles. The materials used, the experimental method and the results are reported. Four curves of the dose response for the production of dicentric and ring types of aberration induced by carbon and neon beams and four different dose average LETs are given. Aberration production rate became higher as LET increased. Chromosome aberration can be quantified as an indicator of radiation lesions in the case of high LET particle radiation. (K.I.)

  19. New determination of the vapour pressures of the isotopes of neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.

    1960-03-01

    We have undertaken an experimental reinvestigation of the vapor pressures of the neon isotopes over the temperature range 16.30-30.1 deg. K. Measurements were made by differential manometry in a Giauque-Johnston type cryostat modified for temperature stability. The New sample contained 99.9 % Ne 20 and the Ne 22 sample contained 72,2 % Ne 22 . Extrapolation to pure Ne 20 and Ne 22 can be made with sufficient accuracy by the use of Raoult's law. Our results are in substantial agreement with those of Keesom and Haantjes. At 20 deg. K, where the scatter in our data is an order of magnitude smaller than in the data of Keesom and Haantjes, we find In P Ne 20 /P Ne 22 is 6 % larger than the smoothed line given by them. For solid neon, our data can be represented to a high accuracy by a Debye harmonic lattice with θ D (Ne 20 ) = 74.6 deg. K. The result may be compared with the value obtained by Henshaw from the Debye-Waller temperature factor, θ D = 73 deg. K, and with the recent calculation of the zero point energy of Ne by Bernardes, from which he obtains θ D 8E θ /9R = 73 deg.. K. (author) [fr

  20. Anonymous authentication and location privacy preserving schemes for LTE-A networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Jabr Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Long Term Evaluation Advanced (LTE-A is the third generation partnership project for cellular network that allows subscribers to roam into networks (i.e., the Internet and wireless connections using spacial purpose base-stations, such as wireless access points and home node B. In such LTE-A based networks, neither base-stations, nor the Internet and wireless connections are trusted because base-stations are operated by un-trusted subscribers. Attackers may exploit these vulnerabilities to violate the privacy of the LTE-A subscribers. On the other hand, the tradeoff between privacy and authentication is another challenge in such networks. Therefore, in this paper, we propose two anonymous authentication schemes based on one-time pseudonymes and Schnorr Zero Knowledge Protocols. Instead of the international mobile subscriber identity, these schemes enable the user equipment, base-stations and mobility management entity to mutually authenticate each others and update the location of the user equipment without evolving the home subscriber server. The security analysis demonstrate that the proposed schemes thwart security and privacy attacks, such as malicious, international mobile subscriber identity catching, and tracking attacks. Additionally, our proposed schemes preserve the location privacy of user equipment since no entity except the mobility management entity and Gate-Way Mobile Location Center can link between the pseudonymes and the international mobile subscriber identity. Also attackers have no knowledge about international mobile subscriber identity. Hence, the proposed schemes achieve backward/forward secrecy. Furthermore, the performance evaluation shows that the proposed handover schemes impose a small overhead on the mobile nodes and it has smaller computation and communication overheads than those in other schemes.

  1. Base Station Placement Algorithm for Large-Scale LTE Heterogeneous Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungseob; Lee, SuKyoung; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Data traffic demands in cellular networks today are increasing at an exponential rate, giving rise to the development of heterogeneous networks (HetNets), in which small cells complement traditional macro cells by extending coverage to indoor areas. However, the deployment of small cells as parts of HetNets creates a key challenge for operators' careful network planning. In particular, massive and unplanned deployment of base stations can cause high interference, resulting in highly degrading network performance. Although different mathematical modeling and optimization methods have been used to approach various problems related to this issue, most traditional network planning models are ill-equipped to deal with HetNet-specific characteristics due to their focus on classical cellular network designs. Furthermore, increased wireless data demands have driven mobile operators to roll out large-scale networks of small long term evolution (LTE) cells. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to derive an optimum network planning algorithm for large-scale LTE HetNets. Recently, attempts have been made to apply evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to the field of radio network planning, since they are characterized as global optimization methods. Yet, EA performance often deteriorates rapidly with the growth of search space dimensionality. To overcome this limitation when designing optimum network deployments for large-scale LTE HetNets, we attempt to decompose the problem and tackle its subcomponents individually. Particularly noting that some HetNet cells have strong correlations due to inter-cell interference, we propose a correlation grouping approach in which cells are grouped together according to their mutual interference. Both the simulation and analytical results indicate that the proposed solution outperforms the random-grouping based EA as well as an EA that detects interacting variables by monitoring the changes in the objective function algorithm in terms of system

  2. Perancangan Dan Analisis Antena Mikrostrip Mimo Circular Pada Frekuensi 2.35 GHz Untuk Aplikasi LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam M.P Budi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available LTE (long Term Evolution merupakan teknologi komunikasi wireless generasi keempat yang saat ini sedang mengalami perkembangan. Salah satu perangkat yang sangat dibutuhkan pada teknologi tersebut adalah antenna. Teknik yang digunakan adalah teknik MIMO. Teknik MIMO menggunakan multiantena baik di sisi transmitter maupun di sisi receiver dengan koefisien korelasi di bawah 0.2. Untuk menghasilkan nilai koefisien korelasi di bawah 0.2, antena menggunakan ?/2 untuk jarak antar dua antena. Perancangan dan realisasi antena pada skripsi ini dipergunakan untuk aplikasi LTE yang bekerja pada frekuensi 2.3 GHz sampai 2.4 GHz. Simulasi antena menunjukkan frekuensi kerja yang direncanakan yaitu antara 2.3 GHz – 2.4 GHz, memiliki Return Loss -38.582 dB dan VSWR 1.0238 pada frekuensi tengah 2.350 MHz, gain sebesar 4.332 dBi. Hasil pengukuran antena satu terdapat pergeseran frekuensi dari 2.300 MHz - 2.400 MHz menjadi 2.310 - 2.384 MHz, antena  ini memiliki  Return  Loss -35.476 dB dan VSWR 1.034. Bandwidth 74 Mhz. Untuk antena dua terdapat pergeseran frekuensi menjadi 2.310 - 2.382 MHz, dengan Return  Loss -33.637 dB  dan VSWR  1.042. Bandwidth 72 MHz. Pada frekuensi 2.35 GHz gain sebesar 8 dBi dengan pola radiasi unidirectional dan polarisasi elips. Dari perancangan dan analisis tersebut, maka antena ini dapat digunakan sebagai antena teknologi LTE

  3. An investigation of interference coordination in heterogeneous network for LTE-Advanced systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M. K.; Ismail, A. F.; H, Aisha-Hassan A.; Abdullah, Khaizuran; Ramli, H. A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The novel "femtocell" in Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) for LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) set-up will allow Malaysian wireless telecommunication operators (Maxis, Celcom, Digi, U-Mobile, P1, YTL and etc2.) to extend connectivity coverage where access would otherwise be limited or unavailable, particularly indoors of large building complexes. A femtocell is a small-sized cellular base station that encompasses all the functionality of a typical station. It therefore allows a simpler and self-contained deployment including private residences. For the Malaysian service providers, the main attractions of femtocell usage are the improvements to both coverage and capacity. The operators can provide a better service to end-users in turn reduce much of the agitations and complaints. There will be opportunity for new services at reduced cost. In addition, the operator not only benefits from the improved capacity and coverage but also can reduce both capital expenditure and operating expense i.e. alternative to brand new base station or macrocell installation. Interference is a key issue associated with femtocell development. There are a large number of issues associated with interference all of which need to be investigated, identified, quantified and solved. This is to ensure that the deployment of any femtocells will take place successfully. Among the most critical challenges in femtocell deployment is the interference between femtocell-to-macrocell and femtocell-to-femtocell in HetNets. In this paper, all proposed methods and algorithms will be investigated in the OFDMA femtocell system considering HetNet scenarios for LTE-A.

  4. An investigation of interference coordination in heterogeneous network for LTE-Advanced systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M K; Ismail, A F; Aisha-Hassan A H; Abdullah, Khaizuran; Ramli, H A M

    2013-01-01

    The novel ''femtocell'' in Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) for LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) set-up will allow Malaysian wireless telecommunication operators (Maxis, Celcom, Digi, U-Mobile, P1, YTL and etc2.) to extend connectivity coverage where access would otherwise be limited or unavailable, particularly indoors of large building complexes. A femtocell is a small-sized cellular base station that encompasses all the functionality of a typical station. It therefore allows a simpler and self-contained deployment including private residences. For the Malaysian service providers, the main attractions of femtocell usage are the improvements to both coverage and capacity. The operators can provide a better service to end-users in turn reduce much of the agitations and complaints. There will be opportunity for new services at reduced cost. In addition, the operator not only benefits from the improved capacity and coverage but also can reduce both capital expenditure and operating expense i.e. alternative to brand new base station or macrocell installation. Interference is a key issue associated with femtocell development. There are a large number of issues associated with interference all of which need to be investigated, identified, quantified and solved. This is to ensure that the deployment of any femtocells will take place successfully. Among the most critical challenges in femtocell deployment is the interference between femtocell-to-macrocell and femtocell-to-femtocell in HetNets. In this paper, all proposed methods and algorithms will be investigated in the OFDMA femtocell system considering HetNet scenarios for LTE-A

  5. The Study of Indoor and Field Trials on 2×8 MIMO Architecture in TD-LTE Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    the networks are based on frequency division duplexing (FDD. In this paper, measurement methods of four MIMO transmission modes (TMs in time division-LTE (TD-LTE are studied and analyzed. Link level simulation is carried out to evaluate the downlink throughput for different signal-to-noise ratios and parameter settings. Furthermore, indoor and field tests are also presented in the paper to investigate how real-world propagation affects the capacity and the error performance of MIMO transmission scheme. For the indoor test, radio channel emulators are applied to generate realistic wireless fading channel, while in the field trials, a live TD-LTE experiment cellular network is built, which contains several evolved nodeBs (eNBs and a precommercial user equipment (UE. It is shown from both simulation and tests results that MIMO deployment gives a substantial performance improvement compared with the third generation wireless networks.

  6. Perancangan dan Implementasi Duplexer Mikrostrip untuk Frekuensi LTE pada band ke-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENCENG SULAEMAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kebutuhan akan komunikasi bergerak semakin mengalami peningkatan dalam dunia teknologi yang ada saat ini, maka hadirlah teknologi terbaru yaitu Long Term Evolution (LTE. Dengan teknik duplex jenis Frequency Division Duplex (FDD, dirancanglah duplexer yang mampu melakukan proses pengiriman dan penerimaan dalam satu waktu dengan frekuensi yang berbeda antara uplink dan downlink. Pada penelitian ini dirancang dan diimplementasikan sebuah duplekser dengan menggunakan metoda Hybrid Coupler dan Bandstop Filter berbasis Split Ring Resonator untuk band frekuensi ke-7 pada teknologi LTE di sisi Base Transceiver Station (BTS. Duplekser dibuat dengan menggabungkan dua buah hybrid Coupler dan dua buah Bandstop Filter. Hasil pengukuran duplexer saat port Tx mengirimkan sinyal ke antena dengan nilai redaman pada frekuensi tengah downlink sebesar 3.168 dB. Lalu pada saat antena menerima sinyal untuk diteruskan ke Rx terdapat redaman di frekuensi tengah uplink sebesar 6 dB. Sedangkan untuk isolasi dari port Tx-port Rx dihasilkan sebesar 15 dB. Kata kunci: Duplexer, Bandstop Filter, Split Ring Resonator, Hybrid Coupler, dan Long Term Evolution. ABSTRACT The necessary of mobile communication has increased in technology, now it released the new of technology is Long Term Evolution (LTE. Type of duplex is Frequency Division Duplex (FDD, designed a duplexer which it is capable for transmitting and receiving process at the same time with the different of frequency between uplink and downlink. Research of designed and implemented a duplexer using Hybrid Coupler and Bandstop filters based on Split Ring Resonators for the frequency band 7th on LTE technology at Base Transceiver Station (BTS. Duplexer is made by combining two coupler and two bandstop filter. The results of duplexer measurements, when Tx port transmit the signal to antenna port with attenuation at the downlink frequency center at 3.168 dB. Attenuation from antenna port to Rx port about 6 d

  7. Frame Allocation and Scheduling for Relay Networks in the LTE Advanced Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The use of relays is seen as a promising way to extend cell coverage and increase rates in LTE Advanced networks. Instead of increasing the number of base stations (BS), relays with lower cost could provide similar gains. A relay will have a wireless link to the closest BS as only connection to the core network and will cover areas close to the cell edge or other areas with limited rates. Performing transmissions in several hops (BS-relay & relay-user) requires more radio resources than u...

  8. LTE modeling of inhomogeneous chromospheric structure using high-resolution limb observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, C.

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses considerations relevant to LTE modeling of rough atmospheres. Particular attention is given to the application of recent high-resolution observations of the solar limb in the far-infrared and radio continuum to the modeling of chromospheric spicules. It is explained how the continuum limb observations can be combined with morphological knowledge of spicule structure to model the physical conditions in chromospheric spicules. This discussion forms the basis for a chromospheric model presented in a parallel publication based on observations ranging from 100 microns to 2.6 mm.

  9. A fully blanketed early B star LTE model atmosphere using an opacity sampling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A.P.; Wright, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    A fully blanketed LTE model of a stellar atmosphere with Tsub(e) = 21914 K (thetasub(e) = 0.23), log g = 4 is presented. The model includes an explicit representation of the opacity due to the strongest lines, and uses a statistical opacity sampling technique to represent the weaker line opacity. The sampling technique is subjected to several tests and the model is compared with an atmosphere calculated using the line-distribution function method. The limitations of the distribution function method and the particular opacity sampling method used here are discussed in the light of the results obtained. (author)

  10. Performance Evaluation of Multicast Video Distribution using LTE-A in Vehicular Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Thota, Jayashree; Bulut, Berna; Doufexi, Angela; Armour, Simon; Nix, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Application Layer Forward Error Correction (AL-FEC) based on Raptor codes has been employed in Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Services (MBMS) to improve reliability. This paper considers a cross-layer system based on the latest Raptor Q codes for transmitting high data rate video. Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) channels in a realistic outdoor environment for a user moving at 50kmph in an LTE-A system is considered. A link adaptation model with optimized cross-layer parameters is propos...

  11. Next Phase of Mobile Communications – LTE: The End of Fixed Broadband?

    OpenAIRE

    Eylert, Bernd; Eras, Martin; Zeh, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of the Internet in the early 90th years of the last century, broadband demand has increased tremendously. As ISDN was the modern technology at that time, which has had its correspondence in the mobile world in the GSM technology, DSL and its evolution has its correspondence in UMTS/3G and its evolution into HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) and soon in LTE (Long Term Evolution). With the globalisation of our industries business has changed during the last 15 years. Employe...

  12. Time-dependent ionization balance model for non-LTE plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Bailey, D.S.; Dickson, D.; Kim, D.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a detailed configuration-accounting kinetic model for calculating time-dependent ionization-balance and ion-level populations in non-local thermal-equilibrium (non-LTE) plasmas. We use these population estimates in computing spectral line intensities, line ratios, and synthetic spectra, and in fitting these calculated values to experimental measurements. The model is also used to design laboratory x-ray laser experiments. For this purpose, it is self-consistently coupled to the hydrodynamics code LASNEX. 20 refs., 14 figs

  13. Indoor Radio Planning A Practical Guide for GSM, DCS, UMTS, HSPA and LTE

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstrup, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Why is indoor coverage needed, and how it is best implemented? As the challenge of providing higher data speeds and quality for mobile applications intensifies, ensuring adequate in-building and tunnel coverage and capacity is increasingly important. A unique, single-source reference on the theoretical and practical knowledge behind indoor and tunnel radio planning, Indoor Radio Planning, Second Edition provides an overview of mobile networks systems and coverage solutions with GSM, UMTS, HSPA and LTE cellular systems technologies as a backdrop. All of the available solutions, from basic passi

  14. Abstract Radio Resource Management Framework for System Level Simulations in LTE-A Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Viering, Ingo; Zanier, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a simple mathematical model of different packet scheduling policies in Long Term Evolution- Advanced (LTE-A) systems, by investigating the performance of Proportional Fair (PF) and the generalized cross-Component Carrier scheduler from a theoretical perspective. For that purpose......, an abstract Radio Resource Management (RRM) framework has been developed and tested for different ratios of users with Carrier Aggregation (CA) capabilities. The conducted system level simulations confirm that the proposed model can satisfactorily capture the main properties of the aforementioned scheduling...

  15. eICIC functionality and performance for LTE HetNet co-channel deployments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus Ingemann; Wang, Yuanye; Soret, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    . The network controlled time-domain enhanced inter-cell interference coordination (eICIC) concept is outlined by explaining the benefits and characteristics of this solution. Extensive system level performance results are presented with bursty and non-bursty traffic to demonstrate the eICIC concepts ability......Different technical solutions are enabling the move from macro-only scenarios towards heterogeneous networks with a mixture of different base station types. In this paper we focus on multi-layer LTE-Advanced networks, and especially address aspects related to co-channel interference management...... to dynamically adapt according to the traffic conditions....

  16. Integrated Power Saving for Multiple Relays and UEs in LTE-TDD

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Chuan Yang; Jeng-Yueng Chen; Yi-Ting Mai; Chen-Ming Yang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the design of integrated sleep scheduling for relay nodes and user equipments under a Donor eNB (DeNB) in the mode of Time Division Duplex (TDD) in LTE-A is presented. The idea of virtual time is proposed to deal with the discontinuous pattern of the available radio resource in TDD, and based on the estimation of the traffic load, three power saving schemes in the top-down strategy are presented. Associated mechanisms in each scheme including calculation of the virtual subframe...

  17. A genetic algorithm solution for the operation of green LTE networks with energy and environment considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2012-01-01

    The Base Station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings in cellular networks by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, the exploitation of renewable energies, as additional power sources in smart grids, becomes a real challenge to network operators to reduce power costs. In this paper, we propose a method based on genetic algorithms that decreases the energy consumption of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular network by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from the smart grid without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Perancangan Antena Mikrostrip Frekuensi 2,6 GHz untuk Aplikasi LTE (Long Term Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herudin Herudin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antena mikrostrip memiliki beberapa keuntungan, di antaranya bentuk kompak, dimensi kecil, mudah untuk difabrikasi, mudah dikoneksikan dan diintegrasikan dengan divais elektronik lain. Salah satu aplikasi antena mikrostrip adalah untuk komunikasi data. Pada penelitian ini dirancang suatu antena mikrostrip yang bekerja pada frekuensi 2,6 GHz untuk aplikasi LTE(Long Term Evolution. Perancangan antena ini menggunakan software AWR Microwave Office 2009. Setelah dilakukan simulasi diperoleh beberapa parameter antena yaitu: return loss sebesar -22,16 dB, VSWR sebesar 1,169 dB. Dari hasil simulasi juga diperoleh bahwa pola radiasi antena bersifat omni directional dan impedansi masukan antena mendekati 50 Ohm.

  19. Designs of precoding for LTE TDD using cell specific reference signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan; Lu, Lu; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2010-01-01

    We design non-codebook-based Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) precoding schemes using multiple cell-specific reference signals patterns for the time division duplex (TDD) mode of LTE, where channel reciprocity can be exploited. Previously proposed non-codebookbased precoding schemes typically...... use UE specific reference signals for demodulation. Cell specific reference signals are however always allocated for the transmission of common control signalling, mobility measurements and downlink channel quality measurements. In order to save the resources occupied by UE specific reference signals...

  20. Uplink Performance of Dynamic Interference Coordination under Fractional Power Control for LTE-Advanced Femtocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    It has been identified in numerous contributions that dynamic interference coordination is very appealing in case of dense and uncoordinated deployments of home eNBs (eNBs), also known as femtocells. One of the proposed schemes for LTE-Advanced is known as Autonomous Component Carrier Selection...... when applied to femtocells is significantly different from that seen on macrocells. In addition we demonstrate that ACCS is equally attractive and applicable to the uplink even though most decisions are based on UE downlink measurements....