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Sample records for nemosis induces angiogenic

  1. Angiogenic effect induced by mineral fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonari, Damiano; Campopiano, Antonella; Ramires, Deborah; Strafella, Elisabetta; Staffolani, Sara; Tomasetti, Marco; Curini, Roberta; Valentino, Matteo; Santarelli, Lory; Amati, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this study we described the angiogenetic effect of some mineral fibres. → Wollastonite fibres induce blood vessel formation. → The size and shape of the fibres were important factors for the cell signalling. → Wollastonite induce ROS-NFκB activation and EGFR signalling. → Involvement of wollastonite exposure in the development of pathological conditions. -- Abstract: Due to the toxic effect of asbestos, other materials with similar chemical-physical characteristics have been introduced to substitute it. We evaluate the angiogenic effect of certain asbestos substitute fibres such as glass fibres (GFs), ceramic fibres (CFs) and wollastonite fibres (WFs) and then compare angiogenic responses to those induced by crocidolite asbestos fibres (AFs). An in vitro model using human endothelial cells in small islands within a culture matrix of fibroblasts (Angio-Kit) was used to evaluate vessel formation. The release of IL-6, sIL-R6, IL-8, VEGF-A and their soluble receptors, sVEGFR-1, sVEGFR-2, was determined in the conditioning medium of Angio-Kit system after fibre treatment. ROS formation and cell viability were evaluated in cultured endothelial cells (HUVEC). To evaluate the involvement of intracellular mechanisms, EGFR signalling, ROS formation and nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) pathway were then inhibited by incubating HUVEC cells with AG1478, NAC and PDTC respectively, and the cytokine and growth factor release was analyzed in the culture medium after 7 days of fibre incubation. Among the mineral fibres tested, WFs markedly induced blood vessel formation which was associated with release of IL-6 and IL-8, VEGF-A and their soluble receptors. ROS production was observed in HUVEC after WFs treatment which was associated with cell cytotoxicity. The EGFR-induced ERK phosphorylation and ROS-mediated NFκB activation were involved in the cytokine and angiogenic factor release. However, only the EGFR activation was able to induce angiogenesis. The WFs

  2. TNF primes endothelial cells for angiogenic sprouting by inducing a tip cell phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Sainson, Richard C. A.; Johnston, Douglas A.; Chu, Henry C.; Holderfield, Matthew T.; Nakatsu, Martin N.; Crampton, Steven P.; Davis, Jaeger; Conn, Erin; Hughes, Christopher C. W.

    2008-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis associated with wound healing often occurs subsequent to an inflammatory response that includes the secretion of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Controversy exists on the angiogenic actions of TNF, with it being generally proangiogenic in vivo, but antiangiogenic in vitro. We find that whereas continuous administration of TNF in vitro or in vivo inhibits angiogenic sprouting, a 2- to 3-day pulse stimulates angiogenesis by inducing an endothelial “tip c...

  3. Metabolic and hypoxic adaptation to anti-angiogenic therapy: a target for induced essentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alan; Harris, Adrian L

    2015-04-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapy has increased the progression-free survival of many cancer patients but has had little effect on overall survival, even in colon cancer (average 6-8 weeks) due to resistance. The current licensed targeted therapies all inhibit VEGF signalling (Table 1). Many mechanisms of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy have been identified that enable cancers to bypass the angiogenic blockade. In addition, over the last decade, there has been increasing evidence for the role that the hypoxic and metabolic responses play in tumour adaptation to anti-angiogenic therapy. The hypoxic tumour response, through the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), induces major gene expression, metabolic and phenotypic changes, including increased invasion and metastasis. Pre-clinical studies combining anti-angiogenics with inhibitors of tumour hypoxic and metabolic adaptation have shown great promise, and combination clinical trials have been instigated. Understanding individual patient response and the response timing, given the opposing effects of vascular normalisation versus reduced perfusion seen with anti-angiogenics, provides a further hurdle in the paradigm of personalised therapeutic intervention. Additional approaches for targeting the hypoxic tumour microenvironment are being investigated in pre-clinical and clinical studies that have potential for producing synthetic lethality in combination with anti-angiogenic therapy as a future therapeutic strategy. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  4. Nemosis, a novel way of fibroblast activation, in inflammation and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaheri, Antti, E-mail: antti.vaheri@helsinki.fi [Haartman Institute, POB 21, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Enzerink, Anna; Raesaenen, Kati; Salmenperae, Pertteli [Haartman Institute, POB 21, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-06-10

    Malignant cells when grown in suspension, as a rule, proliferate and can form spheroids that have been used as a model of tumor nodules, micrometastases and avascular tumors. In contrast, normal adherent cells cannot be stimulated to grow as multicellular aggregates. Now, recent results show that normal fibroblasts if forced to cluster (spheroid formation) do not grow but undergo a new pathway of cell activation (nemosis) leading to a massive proinflammatory, proteolytic and growth factor response. The clustering and activation are initiated by fibronectin-integrin interaction. The activated fibroblasts are able to modulate the behavior of cancer cells and, furthermore malignant cells boost this activation even further. In this model, the activation of fibroblasts terminates in programmed necrosis-like cell death. Activation of the tumor stroma, especially of fibroblasts, is of critical importance for tumor progression, although mechanisms leading to their activation are still largely uncharacterized. In summary, our results suggest that this kind of fibroblast activation (nemosis) may be involved in pathological conditions such as inflammation and cancer.

  5. Snake venom VEGF Vammin induces a highly efficient angiogenic response in skeletal muscle via VEGFR-2/NRP specific signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, Pyry I; Nieminen, Tiina; Laakkonen, Johanna P; Heikura, Tommi; Kaikkonen, Minna U; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2017-07-17

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs) are promising molecules for the treatment of ischemic diseases by pro-angiogenic therapy. Snake venom VEGFs are a novel subgroup with unique receptor binding profiles and as such are potential new therapeutic agents. We determined the ligand-receptor interactions, gene regulation and angiogenic properties of Vipera ammodytes venom VEGF, Vammin, and compared it to the canonical angiogenic factor VEGF-A to evaluate the use of Vammin for therapeutic angiogenesis. Vammin efficiently induced VEGFR-2 mediated proliferation and expression of genes associated with proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. VEGF-A 165 and especially VEGF-A 109 induced less pronounced effects. Vammin regulates a number of signaling pathways by inducing the expression of NR4A family nuclear receptors and regulators of calcium signaling and MAP kinase pathways. Interestingly, MARC1, which encodes an enzyme discovered to catalyze reduction of nitrate to NO, was identified as a novel VEGFR-2 regulated gene. In rabbit skeletal muscle adenoviral delivery of Vammin induced prominent angiogenic responses. Both the vector dose and the co-receptor binding of the ligand were critical parameters controlling the type of angiogenic response from sprouting angiogenesis to vessel enlargement. Vammin induced VEGFR-2/NRP-1 mediated signaling more effectively than VEGF-A, consequently it is a promising candidate for development of pro-angiogenic therapies.

  6. Silibinin attenuates ionizing radiation-induced pro-angiogenic response and EMT in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambiar, Dhanya K.; Rajamani, Paulraj; Singh, Rana P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Potential model showing mechanism of silibinin-mediated attenuation of IR-induced angiogenic phenotype and EMT in tumor cells. Silibinin counters radiation induced invasive and migratory phenotype of cancer cells by down-regulating mitogenic pathways activated by IR, leading to inhibition of molecules including VEGF, iNOS, MMPs and N-cadherin. Silibinin also reverses IR mediated E-cadherin down-regulation, inhibiting EMT in tumor cells. Silibinin also radiosensitizes endothelial cells, reduces capillary tube formation by targeting various pro-angiogenic molecules. Further, silibinin may inhibit autocrine and paracrine signaling between tumor and endothelial cells by decreasing the levels of VEGF and other signaling molecules activated in response to IR. - Highlights: • Silibinin radiosensitizes endothelial cells. • Silibinin targets ionization radiation (IR)-induced EMT in PCa cells. • Silibinin is in phase II clinical trial in PCa patients, hence clinically relevant. - Abstract: Radiotherapy of is well established and frequently utilized in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. However, recurrence following therapy and distant metastases are commonly encountered problems. Previous studies underline that, in addition to its therapeutic effects, ionizing radiation (IR) increases the vascularity and invasiveness of surviving radioresistant cancer cells. This invasive phenotype of radioresistant cells is an upshot of IR-induced pro-survival and mitogenic signaling in cancer as well as endothelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that a plant flavonoid, silibinin can radiosensitize endothelial cells by inhibiting expression of pro-angiogenic factors. Combining silibinin with IR not only strongly down-regulated endothelial cell proliferation, clonogenicity and tube formation ability rather it strongly (p < 0.001) reduced migratory and invasive properties of PCa cells which were otherwise marginally affected by IR treatment alone. Most of the pro-angiogenic

  7. Silibinin attenuates ionizing radiation-induced pro-angiogenic response and EMT in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambiar, Dhanya K. [Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India); School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India); Rajamani, Paulraj [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India); Singh, Rana P., E-mail: rana_singh@mail.jnu.ac.in [Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India); School of Life Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar (India)

    2015-01-02

    Graphical abstract: Potential model showing mechanism of silibinin-mediated attenuation of IR-induced angiogenic phenotype and EMT in tumor cells. Silibinin counters radiation induced invasive and migratory phenotype of cancer cells by down-regulating mitogenic pathways activated by IR, leading to inhibition of molecules including VEGF, iNOS, MMPs and N-cadherin. Silibinin also reverses IR mediated E-cadherin down-regulation, inhibiting EMT in tumor cells. Silibinin also radiosensitizes endothelial cells, reduces capillary tube formation by targeting various pro-angiogenic molecules. Further, silibinin may inhibit autocrine and paracrine signaling between tumor and endothelial cells by decreasing the levels of VEGF and other signaling molecules activated in response to IR. - Highlights: • Silibinin radiosensitizes endothelial cells. • Silibinin targets ionization radiation (IR)-induced EMT in PCa cells. • Silibinin is in phase II clinical trial in PCa patients, hence clinically relevant. - Abstract: Radiotherapy of is well established and frequently utilized in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. However, recurrence following therapy and distant metastases are commonly encountered problems. Previous studies underline that, in addition to its therapeutic effects, ionizing radiation (IR) increases the vascularity and invasiveness of surviving radioresistant cancer cells. This invasive phenotype of radioresistant cells is an upshot of IR-induced pro-survival and mitogenic signaling in cancer as well as endothelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that a plant flavonoid, silibinin can radiosensitize endothelial cells by inhibiting expression of pro-angiogenic factors. Combining silibinin with IR not only strongly down-regulated endothelial cell proliferation, clonogenicity and tube formation ability rather it strongly (p < 0.001) reduced migratory and invasive properties of PCa cells which were otherwise marginally affected by IR treatment alone. Most of the pro-angiogenic

  8. METHOXYCHLOR-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN THE HISTOLOGICAL EXPRESSION OF ANGIOGENIC FACTORS IN PITUITARY AND UTERUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the reproductive system, estrogenic stimulation of uterine and pituitary tissue typically causes a proliferative response accompanied by an angiogenic induction of new blood vessels from existing ones, thereby providing nutrients and oxygen to the growing tissue. The proes...

  9. Treatment with anti-NAP monoclonal antibody reduces disease severity in murine model of novel angiogenic protein-induced or ovalbumin-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraj, N B; Krishnamurthy, J; Salimath, B P

    2013-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a polyarticular inflammatory, angiogenic disease. Synovial angiogenesis contributes to inflammation in RA. In this study we have developed an arthritic model in rats using a novel angiogenic protein (NAP), isolated from human synovial fluid of RA patients. We produced anti-NAP monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the same in adjuvant-induced or NAP-induced arthritis as a model of human RA. The treatment of arthritic rats with anti-NAP mAbs resulted in effective amelioration of paw oedema, radiological arthritic characteristics, serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and NAP, compared to that of untreated arthritic animals. Further, profiling of angiogenic markers such as synovial microvessel density, angiogenesis, CD31, VEGF and fms-like tyrosine kinase (Flt1) by immunohistochemistry both in arthritic and anti-NAP mAb-treated animals revealed the efficacy of mAb as an anti-angiogenic functional antibody. Therefore, NAP may be an attractive target to design anti-angiogenic and anti-arthritic therapies to control the pathogenesis of arthritis. © 2012 British Society for Immunology.

  10. Irradiation-induced angiosarcoma and anti-angiogenic therapy: A therapeutic hope?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzariti, Amalia, E-mail: a.azzariti@oncologico.bari.it [Clinical and Preclinical Pharmacology Laboratory, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Porcelli, Letizia [Clinical and Preclinical Pharmacology Laboratory, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Mangia, Anita; Saponaro, Concetta [Functional Biomorphology Laboratory, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Quatrale, Anna E. [Clinical and Preclinical Pharmacology Laboratory, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Popescu, Ondina S. [Department of Pathology, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Strippoli, Sabino [Medical Oncology Unit, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Simone, Gianni [Department of Pathology, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Paradiso, Angelo [Experimental Medical Oncology, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy); Guida, Michele [Medical Oncology Unit, National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Viale O. Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Angiosarcomas are rare soft-tissue sarcomas of endothelial cell origin. They can be sporadic or caused by therapeutic radiation, hence secondary breast angiosarcomas are an important subgroup of patients. Assessing the molecular biology of angiosarcomas and identify specific targets for treatment is challenging. There is currently great interest in the role of angiogenesis and of angiogenic factors associated with tumor pathogenesis and as targets for treatment of angiosarcomas. A primary cell line derived from a skin fragment of a irradiation-induced angiosarcoma patient was obtained and utilized to evaluate cell biomarkers CD31, CD34, HIF-1alpha and VEGFRs expression by immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence, drugs cytotoxicity by cell counting and VEGF release by ELISA immunoassay. In addition to previous biomarkers, FVIII and VEGF were also evaluated on tumor specimens by immunohistochemistry to further confirm the diagnosis. We targeted the VEGF–VEGFR-2 axis of tumor angiogenesis with two different class of vascular targeted drugs; caprelsa, the VEGFR-2/EGFR/RET inhibitor and bevacizumab the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody. We found the same biomarkers expression either in tumor specimens and in the cell line derived from tumor. In vitro experiments demonstrated that angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in the progression of this tumor as cells displayed high level of VEGFR-2, HIF-1 alpha strongly accumulated into the nucleus and the pro-angiogenic factor VEGF was released by cells in culture medium. The evaluation of caprelsa and bevacizumab cytotoxicity demonstrated that both drugs were effective in inhibiting tumor proliferation. Due to these results, we started to treat the patient with pazopanib, which was the unique tyrosine kinase inhibitor available in Italy through a compassionate supply program, obtaining a long lasting partial response. Our data suggest that the study of the primary cell line could help physicians in choosing a therapeutic approach

  11. Targeting different angiogenic pathways with combination of curcumin, leflunomide and perindopril inhibits diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Magda; Selima, Eman; Hamed, Omar; Kazem, Amany

    2014-01-15

    No effective chemopreventive agent has been approved against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to date. Since HCC is one of the hypervascular solid tumors, blocking angiogenesis represents an intriguing approach to HCC chemoprevention. The aim of the current study was to examine the combined effect of the anti-angiogenic agents: leflunomide; a disease modifying antirheumatic drug, perindopril; an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and curcumin; the active principle of turmeric, on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC in mice. Eight weeks following DEN administration, there was a significant rise in immunohistochemical staining of CD31-positive endothelial cells and consequently hepatic microvessel density (MVD) as compared to normal liver. DEN treatment was associated with elevation in hepatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level as compared to normal controls (Pcurcumin alone abrogated the DEN-induced increased MVD as well as the elevated expression of VEGF, while only curcumin inhibited HIF-1α hepatic expression. Combination of these agents showed further inhibitory action on neovascularization and synergistic attenuation of hepatic VEGF (1954.27±115pg/ml) when compared to each single agent. Histopathological examination revealed a more beneficial chemopreventive activity in the combination group compared to each monotherapy. In conclusion, the combination treatment of leflunomide, perindopril and curcumin targeting different angiogenic pathways, resulted in synergistic inhibition of angiogenesis and consequently more effective chemoprevention of HCC. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1 Causes Overproduction of IL-8, an Angiogenic Cytokine and Stimulates Neovascularization in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja Haleagrahara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis factors are produced in response to hypoxic or ischemic insult at the site of pathology, which will cause neovascularization. Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 exerts potent proliferative, angiogenic and anti-apoptotic effects in target tissues. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of IGF-1 on circulating level of angiogenic cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, in experimentally-induced myocardial ischemia in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, IGF-1 treated (2 µg/kg/day subcutaneously, for 5 and 10 days, isoproterenol (ISO treated (85 mg/kg, subcutaneously for two days and ISO with IGF-1 treated (for 5 and 10 days. Heart weight, serum IGF-1, IL-8 and cardiac marker enzymes (CK-MB and LDH were recorded after 5 and 10 days of treatment. Histopathological analyses of the myocardium were also done. There was a significant increase in serum cardiac markers with ISO treatment indicating myocardial infarction in rats. IGF-1 level increased significantly in ISO treated groups and the level of IGF-1 was significantly higher after 10 days of treatment. IL-8 level increased significantly after ISO treatment after 5 and 10 days and IGF-1 concurrent treatment to ISO rats had significantly increased IL-8 levels. Histopathologically, myocyte necrosis and nuclear pyknosis were reduced significantly in IGF-1 treated group and there were numerous areas of capillary sprouting suggestive of neovascularization in the myocardium. Thus, IGF-1 protects the ischemic myocardium with increased production of circulating angiogenic cytokine, IL-8 and increased angiogenesis.

  13. Angiogenic properties of adult human thymus fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Julián; Montiel, Mercedes; Jiménez, Eugenio; Valenzuela, Miguel; Valderrama, José Francisco; Castillo, Rafael; González, Sergio; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2009-11-01

    The endogenous proangiogenic properties of adipose tissue are well recognized. Although the adult human thymus has long been known to degenerate into fat tissue, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. We have investigated the expression of diverse angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A and B, angiopoietin 1, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor-2 (an angiopoietin receptor), and then analyzed their physiological role on endothelial cell migration and proliferation, two relevant events in angiogenesis. The detection of the gene and protein expression of the various proteins has been performed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We show, for the first time, that adult thymus fat produces a variety of angiogenic factors and induces the proliferation and migration of human umbilical cord endothelial cells. Based on these findings, we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function that might affect thymic function and ongoing adipogenesis within the thymus.

  14. Angiogenic biomarkers in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lene G; Lykke, Jacob A; Staff, Anne C

    2015-01-01

    We review diagnostic and predictive roles of the angiogenic proteins placental growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, and soluble endoglin in preeclampsia, and their association with future cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and breast cancer. Specific patterns of these proteins repres...... are correlated to HbA1c and fasting glucose. Hence dysregulation in angiogenic proteins may link preeclampsia and cardiovascular diseases, targeting women who could in future benefit from prophylactic programs to possibly prevent, delay or reduce cardiovascular disease....

  15. Identification of a potent endothelium-derived angiogenic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankowski, Vera; Tölle, Markus; Tran, Thi Nguyet Anh

    2013-01-01

    -time comparison. Beside a strong angiogenic effect on the yolk sac membrane and the developing rat embryo itself, Up4U increased the proliferation rate of endothelial cells and, in the presence of PDGF, of vascular smooth muscle cells. Up4U stimulated the migration rate of endothelial cells via P2Y2-receptors......The secretion of angiogenic factors by vascular endothelial cells is one of the key mechanisms of angiogenesis. Here we report on the isolation of a new potent angiogenic factor, diuridine tetraphosphate (Up4U) from the secretome of human endothelial cells. The angiogenic effect of the endothelial...... sufficient to induce angiogenic and proliferative effects (1.34 ± 0.26 nmol L(-1)). In conclusion, Up4U is a novel strong human endothelium-derived angiogenic factor....

  16. Downregulation of Securin by the variant RNF213 R4810K (rs112735431, G>A) reduces angiogenic activity of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived vascular endothelial cells from moyamoya patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitomi, Toshiaki [Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Habu, Toshiyuki [Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Harada, Kouji H. [Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Osafune, Kenji [Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Taura, Daisuke; Sone, Masakatsu [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Asaka, Isao; Ameku, Tomonaga; Watanabe, Akira; Kasahara, Tomoko; Sudo, Tomomi; Shiota, Fumihiko [Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hashikata, Hirokuni; Takagi, Yasushi [Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto University,Kyoto (Japan); Morito, Daisuke [Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto (Japan); Miyamoto, Susumu [Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto University,Kyoto (Japan); Nakao, Kazuwa [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Koizumi, Akio, E-mail: koizumi.akio.5v@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Angiogenic activities were reduced in iPSECs from MMD patients. •Many mitosis-regulated genes were downregulated in iPSECs from MMD patients. •RNF213 R4810K downregulated Securin and inhibited angiogenic activity. •Securin suppression by siRNA reduced angiogenic activities of iPSECs and HUVECs. -- Abstract: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular disease characterized by occlusive lesions in the circle of Willis. The RNF213 R4810K polymorphism increases susceptibility to MMD. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were established from unaffected fibroblast donors with wild-type RNF213 alleles, and from carriers/patients with one or two RNF213 R4810K alleles. Angiogenic activities of iPSC-derived vascular endothelial cells (iPSECs) from patients and carriers were lower (49.0 ± 19.4%) than from wild-type subjects (p < 0.01). Gene expression profiles in iPSECs showed that Securin was down-regulated (p < 0.01) in carriers and patients. Overexpression of RNF213 R4810K downregulated Securin, inhibited angiogenic activity (36.0 ± 16.9%) and proliferation of humanumbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) while overexpression of RNF213 wild type did not. Securin expression was downregulated using RNA interference techniques, which reduced the level of tube formation in iPSECs and HUVECs without inhibition of proliferation. RNF213 R4810K reduced angiogenic activities of iPSECs from patients with MMD, suggesting that it is a promising in vitro model for MMD.

  17. Met receptor tyrosine kinase signaling induces secretion of the angiogenic chemokine interleukin-8/CXCL8 in pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen S Hill

    Full Text Available At diagnosis, the majority of pancreatic cancer patients present with advanced disease when curative resection is no longer feasible and current therapeutic treatments are largely ineffective. An improved understanding of molecular targets for effective intervention of pancreatic cancer is thus urgent. The Met receptor tyrosine kinase is one candidate implicated in pancreatic cancer. Notably, Met is over expressed in up to 80% of invasive pancreatic cancers but not in normal ductal cells correlating with poor overall patient survival and increased recurrence rates following surgical resection. However the functional role of Met signaling in pancreatic cancer remains poorly understood. Here we used RNA interference to directly examine the pathobiological importance of increased Met signaling for pancreatic cancer. We show that Met knockdown in pancreatic tumor cells results in decreased cell survival, cell invasion, and migration on collagen I in vitro. Using an orthotopic model for pancreatic cancer, we provide in vivo evidence that Met knockdown reduced tumor burden correlating with decreased cell survival and tumor angiogenesis, with minimal effect on cell growth. Notably, we report that Met signaling regulates the secretion of the pro-angiogenic chemokine interleukin-8/CXCL8. Our data showing that the interleukin-8 receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 are not expressed on pancreatic tumor cells, suggests a paracrine mechanism by which Met signaling regulates interleukin-8 secretion to remodel the tumor microenvironment, a novel finding that could have important clinical implications for improving the effectiveness of treatments for pancreatic cancer.

  18. 17β-estradiol-linked nitro-L-arginine as simultaneous inducer of apoptosis in melanoma and tumor-angiogenic vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sayantani; Reddy, Bathula Surendar; Sudhakar, Godeshala; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Banerjee, Rajkumar

    2011-04-04

    Aggressive melanoma is commonly associated with rapid angiogenic growth in tumor mass, tumor cells acquiring apoptosis resistance, inhibition of cellular differentiation etc. Designing a single anticancer molecule which will target all these factors simultaneously is challenging. In the pretext of inciting anticancer effect through inhibiting nitric oxide synthase (NOS) via estrogen receptors (ER) in ER-expressing skin cancer cells, we developed an estrogen-linked L-nitro-arginine molecule (ESAr) for inciting anticancer effect in melanoma cells. ESAr showed specific anticancer effect through diminishing aggressiveness and metastatic behavior in melanoma cells and tumor. In comparison, ESAr showed significantly higher antiproliferative effect than parent molecule L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor) through induction of prominent apoptosis in melanoma cells. ESAr-pretreated aggressive melanoma cells could not form tumor possibly because of transformation/differentiation into epithelial-type cells. Furthermore, its antiangiogenic effect was demonstrated through ESAr-induced antiproliferation in HUVEC cells and apoptosis-induction in tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells, thereby significantly restricting severe growth in melanoma tumor. The targeting moiety, estrogen, at the therapeutic concentration of ESAr has apparently no effect in tumor-growth reduction. Albeit, no specific NOS-inhibition was observed, but ESAr could simultaneously induce these three cancer-specific antiaggressiveness factors, which the parent molecule could not induce. Our data rationalize and establish a new use of estrogen as a ligand for potentially targeting multiple cellular factors for treating aggressive cancers.

  19. Stress fracture healing: fatigue loading of the rat ulna induces upregulation in expression of osteogenic and angiogenic genes that mimic the intramembranous portion of fracture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Gregory R; Towler, Dwight A; Silva, Matthew J

    2009-02-01

    Woven bone is formed in response to fatigue-induced stress fractures and is associated with increased local angiogenesis. The molecular mechanisms that regulate this woven bone formation are unknown. Our objective was to measure the temporal and spatial expression of osteo- and angiogenic genes in woven bone formation in response to increasing levels of fatigue-induced damage. We used the rat forelimb compression model to produce four discrete levels of fatigue damage in the right ulna of 115 male Fischer rats. Rats were killed at 0 (1 h), 1, 3 and 7 days after loading. Using qRT-PCR, we quantified gene expression associated with osteogenesis (BMP2, Msx2, Runx2, Osx, BSP, Osc), cell proliferation (Hist4), and angiogenesis (VEGF, PECAM-1) from the central half of the ulna. The spatial distribution of BMP2, BSP and PCNA was assessed by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization in transverse histological sections 1, 4, and 7 mm distal to the ulnar mid-diaphysis. One hour after loading, BMP2 was significantly upregulated in neurovascular structures in the medial ulnar periosteum. Expression of angiogenic markers (VEGF, PECAM-1) increased significantly between Day 0 and 1 and, as with BMP2 expression, remained upregulated through Day 7. While Osx and BSP were upregulated on Day 1, the other osteogenic genes (Msx2, Runx2, Osx, BSP and Osc) were induced on Day 3 in association with the initiation of periosteal woven bone formation and continued through Day 7. The magnitude of osteogenic gene expression, particularly matrix genes (BSP, Osc) was significantly proportional the level of fatigue damage. The woven bone response to fatigue injury is remarkably similar to the "intramembranous" portion of fracture repair - rapid formation of periosteal woven bone characterized by early BMP2 expression, cell proliferation, and upregulation of osteogenic genes. We speculate that woven bone repair of fatigue damage may be an abbreviated fracture response without the requirement

  20. Is human fracture hematoma inherently angiogenic?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Street, J

    2012-02-03

    This study attempts to explain the cellular events characterizing the changes seen in the medullary callus adjacent to the interfragmentary hematoma during the early stages of fracture healing. It also shows that human fracture hematoma contains the angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor and has the inherent capability to induce angiogenesis and thus promote revascularization during bone repair. Patients undergoing emergency surgery for isolated bony injury were studied. Raised circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor were seen in all injured patients, whereas the fracture hematoma contained significantly higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor than did plasma from these injured patients. However, incubation of endothelial cells in fracture hematoma supernatant significantly inhibited the in vitro angiogenic parameters of endothelial cell proliferation and microtubule formation. These phenomena are dependent on a local biochemical milieu that does not support cytokinesis. The hematoma potassium concentration is cytotoxic to endothelial cells and osteoblasts. Subcutaneous transplantation of the fracture hematoma into a murine wound model resulted in new blood vessel formation after hematoma resorption. This angiogenic effect is mediated by the significant concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor found in the hematoma. This study identifies an angiogenic cytokine involved in human fracture healing and shows that fracture hematoma is inherently angiogenic. The differences between the in vitro and in vivo findings may explain the phenomenon of interfragmentary hematoma organization and resorption that precedes fracture revascularization.

  1. hCG stimulates angiogenic signals in lymphatic endothelial and circulating angiogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, Andrea; Lukosz, Margarete; Hess, Alexandra P; Baston-Büst, Dunja M; Krüssel, Jan S; Heiss, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has long been associated with the initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, where angiogenesis plays an important role. However, the function of hCG in angiogenesis and the recruitment of vascular active cells are not fully understood. In this study, the role of hCG and its receptor in circulating angiogenic and human endothelial cells, including lymphatic, uterine microvascular, and umbilical vein endothelial cells, was examined. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis were used to detect LH/hCG receptor expression and the expression of hCG-induced angiogenic molecules. HIF-1α was determined via ELISA and downstream molecules, such as CXCL12 and CXCR4, via real-time PCR. Chemotaxis was analyzed using Boyden chambers. Our results show that the LH/hCG receptor was present in all tested cells. Furthermore, hCG was able to stimulate LH/hCG-receptor-specific migration in a dose-dependent fashion and induce key angiogenic molecules, including HIF-1α, CXCL12, and CXCR4. In conclusion, our findings underscore the importance of hCG as one of the first angiogenic molecules produced by the conceptus. hCG itself alters endothelial motility, recruitment, and expression of pro-angiogenic molecules and may therefore play an important role in vascular adaption during implantation and early placental formation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. The anti-angiogenic herbal extract from Melissa officinalis inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and suppresses adipocyte hypertrophy in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Hong, Yeonhee; Kim, Min-Young; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2016-02-03

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) has been used traditionally and contemporarily as an anti-stress herb. Current hypotheses suggest that not only chronic stress promotes angiogenesis, but angiogenesis also modulates adipogenesis and obesity. Because the herbal extract ALS-L1023 from M. officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) has an anti-angiogenic activity, we hypothesized that ALS-L1023 could inhibit adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy. ALS-L1023 was prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from M. officinalis. The effects of ALS-L1023 on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipocyte hypertrophy in high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice were measured using in vivo and in vitro approaches. ALS-L1023 inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner in the HUVEC tube formation assay in vitro. Treatment of cells with ALS-L1023 inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte-specific gene expression caused by troglitazone or MDI differentiation mix. ALS-L1023 reduced mRNA expression of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in differentiated cells. In contrast, mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) increased. Protease activity, as measured by zymography, showed that activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 decreased in ALS-L1023-treated cells. ALS-L1023 also inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 reporter gene expression in the presence of the MMP inducer phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. An in vivo study showed that ALS-L1023 not only decreased adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size, but also reduced mRNA levels of adipose tissue angiogenic factors and MMPs in HFD-fed obese mice. These results suggest that the anti-angiogenic herbal extract ALS-L1023 suppresses adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy, and this effect may be mediated by inhibiting angiogenesis and MMP activities. Thus, by curbing adipogenesis, anti-angiogenic ALS-L1023 yields a possible therapeutic choice for the prevention and treatment of human obesity and

  3. Senescent peritoneal mesothelium induces a pro-angiogenic phenotype in ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in a mouse xenograft model in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Sosińska, Patrycja; Naumowicz, Eryk; Maksin, Konstantin; Piotrowska, Hanna; Woźniak, Aldona; Szpurek, Dariusz; Książek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that senescent cells contribute to the progression of primary and metastatic tumors, however, the exact mechanisms of this activity remain elusive. In this report we show that senescent human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) alter the secretory profile of ovarian cancer cells (A2780, OVCAR-3, SKOV-3) by increasing the release of four angiogenic agents: CXCL1, CXCL8, HGF, and VEGF. Proliferation and migration of endothelial cells subjected to conditioned medium generated by: cancer cells modified by senescent HPMCs; cancer cells co-cultured with senescent HPMCs; and by early-passage HPMCs from aged donors, were markedly intensified. The same was the case for the vascularization, size and number of tumors that developed in the mouse peritoneum upon injection of ovarian cancer cells with senescent HPMCs. When the identified pro-angiogenic proteins were neutralized in conditioned medium from the cancer cells, both aspects of endothelial cell behavior intensified in vitro in response to senescent HPMCs were markedly reduced. The search for mediators of senescent HPMC activity using specific neutralizing antibodies and recombinant exogenous proteins showed that the intensified angiogenic potential of cancer cells was elicited by IL-6 and TGF-β1. At the transcriptional level, increased proliferation and migration of endothelial cells exposed to cancer cells modified by senescent HPMCs was regulated by HIF-1α, NF-κB/p50 and AP-1/c-Jun. Collectively, our findings indicate that senescent HPMCs may promote the progression of ovarian cancer cells by reprogramming their secretory phenotype towards increased production of pro-angiogenic agents and subsequent increase in the angiogenic capabilities of the vascular endothelium.

  4. Identification of a potent endothelium-derived angiogenic factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Jankowski

    Full Text Available The secretion of angiogenic factors by vascular endothelial cells is one of the key mechanisms of angiogenesis. Here we report on the isolation of a new potent angiogenic factor, diuridine tetraphosphate (Up4U from the secretome of human endothelial cells. The angiogenic effect of the endothelial secretome was partially reduced after incubation with alkaline phosphatase and abolished in the presence of suramin. In one fraction, purified to homogeneity by reversed phase and affinity chromatography, Up4U was identified by MALDI-LIFT-fragment-mass-spectrometry, enzymatic cleavage analysis and retention-time comparison. Beside a strong angiogenic effect on the yolk sac membrane and the developing rat embryo itself, Up4U increased the proliferation rate of endothelial cells and, in the presence of PDGF, of vascular smooth muscle cells. Up4U stimulated the migration rate of endothelial cells via P2Y2-receptors, increased the ability of endothelial cells to form capillary-like tubes and acts as a potent inducer of sprouting angiogenesis originating from gel-embedded EC spheroids. Endothelial cells released Up4U after stimulation with shear stress. Mean total plasma Up4U concentrations of healthy subjects (N=6 were sufficient to induce angiogenic and proliferative effects (1.34 ± 0.26 nmol L(-1. In conclusion, Up4U is a novel strong human endothelium-derived angiogenic factor.

  5. Micro-angiographic system using synchrotron radiation and conventional x-ray source for visualizing angiogenic vessels induced by cardiovascular regeneration therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, H.; Chiku, M.; Nishigami, K.; Tanaka, E.; Kimura, K.; Kawai, T.; Suzuki, K.; Mochizuki, R.; Okawa, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis improved critical limb and myocardial ischemia in human, however, angiogenic vessels were not visualized well by conventional angiography, because of its limited spatial resolution of 200 μm. Recently, synchrotron radiation system characterized by high brightness, monochromatic and collimated nature revealed the micro-vessels of heart and lower limb in situ. We developed also an in-house microangiographic system with a relatively low cost. Limb ischemia models were made by ligature of femoral artery and treated by angiogenic growth factor genes and so on. One month after the treatment, we evaluated collateral micro-vessels by using the conventional and micro-angiographic systems. The approach was left femoral artery, and catheter was located in abdominal aorta. Iodine contrast (300 mg/ml) was injected 5 ml by 3 ml/sec with auto-injection system. The imaging was recorded by digital source in 1000 x 1000 pixels. The micro-angiographic system could detect the micro-vessels more precisely than conventional angiographic system and evaluate their function. (author)

  6. Leptin’s Pro-Angiogenic Signature in Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben Rene; Lanier, Viola; Newman, Gale

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is linked to increased incidence of breast cancer. The precise causes and mechanisms of these morbid relationships are unknown. Contradictory data on leptin angiogenic actions have been published. However, accumulating evidence would suggest that leptin’s pro-angiogenic effects in cancer play an essential role in the disease. Leptin, the main adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, is also abnormally expressed together with its receptor (OB-R) by breast cancer cells. Leptin induces proliferation and angiogenic differentiation of endothelial cells upregulates VEGF/VEGFR2 and transactivates VEGFR2 independent of VEGF. Leptin induces two angiogenic factors: IL-1 and Notch that can increase VEGF expression. Additionally, leptin induces the secretion and synthesis of proteases and adhesion molecules needed for the development of angiogenesis. Leptin’s paracrine actions can further affect stromal cells and tumor associated macrophages, which express OB-R and secrete VEGF and IL-1, respectively. A complex crosstalk between leptin, Notch and IL-1 (NILCO) that induces VEGF/VEGFR2 is found in breast cancer. Leptin actions in tumor angiogenesis could amplify, be redundant and/or compensatory to VEGF signaling. Current failure of breast cancer anti-angiogenic therapies emphasizes the necessity of targeting the contribution of other pro-angiogenic factors in breast cancer. Leptin’s impact on tumor angiogenesis could be a novel target for breast cancer, especially in obese patients. However, more research is needed to establish the importance of leptin in tumor angiogenesis. This review is focused on updated information on how leptin could contribute to tumor angiogenesis

  7. Leptin’s Pro-Angiogenic Signature in Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben Rene, E-mail: rgonzalez@msm.edu; Lanier, Viola; Newman, Gale [Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, 720 Westview Dr. SW., Atlanta, GA 30310 (United States)

    2013-09-06

    Obesity is linked to increased incidence of breast cancer. The precise causes and mechanisms of these morbid relationships are unknown. Contradictory data on leptin angiogenic actions have been published. However, accumulating evidence would suggest that leptin’s pro-angiogenic effects in cancer play an essential role in the disease. Leptin, the main adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, is also abnormally expressed together with its receptor (OB-R) by breast cancer cells. Leptin induces proliferation and angiogenic differentiation of endothelial cells upregulates VEGF/VEGFR2 and transactivates VEGFR2 independent of VEGF. Leptin induces two angiogenic factors: IL-1 and Notch that can increase VEGF expression. Additionally, leptin induces the secretion and synthesis of proteases and adhesion molecules needed for the development of angiogenesis. Leptin’s paracrine actions can further affect stromal cells and tumor associated macrophages, which express OB-R and secrete VEGF and IL-1, respectively. A complex crosstalk between leptin, Notch and IL-1 (NILCO) that induces VEGF/VEGFR2 is found in breast cancer. Leptin actions in tumor angiogenesis could amplify, be redundant and/or compensatory to VEGF signaling. Current failure of breast cancer anti-angiogenic therapies emphasizes the necessity of targeting the contribution of other pro-angiogenic factors in breast cancer. Leptin’s impact on tumor angiogenesis could be a novel target for breast cancer, especially in obese patients. However, more research is needed to establish the importance of leptin in tumor angiogenesis. This review is focused on updated information on how leptin could contribute to tumor angiogenesis.

  8. A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko, E-mail: tukamoto@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi [Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kubota, Yasuo [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Tokuda, Masaaki [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Ashino, Hiromi [The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 1-6 Kamikitazawa2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro [Teikoku Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Sanbonmatsu, Higashikagawa, Kagawa 769-2695 (Japan); Konishi, Ryoji [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. {yields} It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. {yields} 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. {yields} Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. {yields} A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 {mu}M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

  9. Angiogenic profile of uveal melanoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notting, I.C.; Missotten, G.S.; Sijmons, B.; Boonman, Z.F.; Keunen, J.E.E.; Pluijm, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    Uveal melanoma develops in one of the most capillary-rich tissues of the body and is disseminated hematogenously. Knowledge of the nature and the spatiotemporal expression of angiogenic factors in uveal melanoma is essential to the development of new treatment strategies, especially with regard to

  10. Anti-angiogenic activity and phytochemical screening of fruit fractions from Vitex agnus castus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, Giovanna; Costa, Rosaria; D'Angelo, Valeria; Russo, Marina; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Dugo, Giacomo; Germanò, Maria Paola

    2017-12-01

    Although the antitumour activity of Vitex agnus castus fruits has been already addressed, no work has yet assessed their anti-angiogenic potential. To this purpose, several extractive fractions of such fruits were tested on zebrafish embrios by EAP assay, so that only the bioactive fractions could be subsequently tested on the chick chorioallantoic membrane by CAM assay. Bioactive fractions were also phytochemically screened to identify those bioactive compounds responsible for anti-angiogenic activity. A marked inhibition of vessel formation was detected only in zebrafish embryos treated with chloroform or ethyl acetate fractions. Considering CAM assay, chloroform fraction induced a strong reduction of microvasculature and haemoglobin content; while lower anti-angiogenic effects of the ethyl acetate fraction were determined. Phytochemical analyses confirmed the presence of several bioactive anti-angiogenic compounds. Overall, obtained preliminary results highlighted a potential anti-angiogenic activity of V. agnus castus fruits.

  11. Characterizing the angiogenic activity of patients with single ventricle physiology and aortopulmonary collateral vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, Nefthi; Uchida, Yutaka; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; McCarter, Robert; Hanumanthaiah, Sridhar; Bangoura, Aminata; Zhao, Zhen; Oliver-Danna, Jacqueline; Leatherbury, Linda; Kanter, Joshua; Mukouyama, Yoh-Suke

    2016-04-01

    Patients with single ventricle congenital heart disease often form aortopulmonary collateral vessels via an unclear mechanism. To gain insights into the pathogenesis of aortopulmonary collateral vessels, we correlated angiogenic factor levels with in vitro activity and angiographic aortopulmonary collateral assessment and examined whether patients with single ventricle physiology have increased angiogenic factors that can stimulate endothelial cell sprouting in vitro. In patients with single ventricle physiology (n = 27) and biventricular acyanotic control patients (n = 21), hypoxia-inducible angiogenic factor levels were measured in femoral venous and arterial plasma at cardiac catheterization. To assess plasma angiogenic activity, we used a 3-dimensional in vitro cell sprouting assay that recapitulates angiogenic sprouting. Aortopulmonary collateral angiograms were graded using a 4-point scale. Compared with controls, patients with single ventricle physiology had increased vascular endothelial growth factor (artery: 58.7 ± 1.2 pg/mL vs 35.3 ± 1.1 pg/mL, P collateral severity. We are the first to correlate plasma angiogenic factor levels with angiography and in vitro angiogenic activity in patients with single ventricle disease with aortopulmonary collaterals. Patients with single ventricle disease have increased stromal-derived factor 1-alpha and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and their roles in aortopulmonary collateral formation require further investigation. Plasma factors and angiogenic activity correlate poorly with aortopulmonary collateral severity in patients with single ventricles, suggesting complex mechanisms of angiogenesis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Anti-angiogenic effect of triptolide in rheumatoid arthritis by targeting angiogenic cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangying Kong

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is characterized by a pre-vascular seriously inflammatory phase, followed by a vascular phase with high increase in vessel growth. Since angiogenesis has been considered as an essential event in perpetuating inflammatory and immune responses, as well as supporting pannus growth and development of RA, inhibition of angiogenesis has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for RA. Triptolide, a diterpenoid triepoxide from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, has been extensively used in treatment of RA patients. It also acts as a small molecule inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis in several cancer types. However, it is unclear whether triptolide possesses an anti-angiogenic effect in RA. To address this problem, we constructed collagen-induced arthritis (CIA model using DA rats by the injection of bovine type II collagen. Then, CIA rats were treated with triptolide (11-45 µg/kg/day starting on the day 1 after first immunization. The arthritis scores (P<0.05 and the arthritis incidence (P<0.05 of inflamed joints were both significantly decreased in triptolide-treated CIA rats compared to vehicle CIA rats. More interestingly, doses of 11~45 µg/kg triptolide could markedly reduce the capillaries, small, medium and large vessel density in synovial membrane tissues of inflamed joints (all P<0.05. Moreover, triptolide inhibited matrigel-induced cell adhesion of HFLS-RA and HUVEC. It also disrupted tube formation of HUVEC on matrigel and suppressed the VEGF-induced chemotactic migration of HFLS-RA and HUVEC, respectively. Furthermore, triptolide significantly reduced the expression of angiogenic activators including TNF-α, IL-17, VEGF, VEGFR, Ang-1, Ang-2 and Tie2, as well as suppressed the IL1-β-induced phosphorylated of ERK, p38 and JNK at protein levels. In conclusion, our data suggest for the first time that triptolide may possess anti-angiogenic effect in RA both in vivo and in vitro assay systems by downregulating the

  13. The imbalance in expression of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors as candidate predictive biomarker in preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooneh Nikuei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is an important pregnancy disorder with serious maternal and fetal complications which its etiology has not been completely understood yet. Early diagnosis and management of disease could reduce its potential side effects. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family including VEGF-A is the most potent endothelial growth factor which induces angiogenesis and endothelial cell proliferation and has basic role in vasculogenesis. VEGF and its tyrosine kinase receptors (Flt1 and KDR are major factors for fetal and placental angiogenic development. Finding mechanisms involved in expression of angiogenic factors may lead to new prognostic and therapeutic points in management of preeclampsia. Recent researches, has shown capability of some anti-angiogenic factors as potential candidate to be used as early predictors for preeclampsia. Soluble fms-like tyrosin kinase-1 (sFlt1 is a truncated splice variant of the membrane-bound VEGF receptor Flt1, that is produced by the placenta and it can bind to angiogenic growth factors and neutraliz, their effects. It is also observed that the ratio of sFlt1 to placental growth factor is valuable as prognostic marker. In this review, VEGF family member’s role in angiogenesis is evaluated as biomarkers to be used for prediction of preeclampsia.

  14. Regulation of angiogenesis in human skeletal muscle with specific focus on pro- angiogenic and angiostatic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte

    It is well established that acute exercise promotes an angiogenic response and that a period of exercise training results in capillary growth. Skeletal muscle angiogenesis is a complex process that requires a coordinated interplay of multiple factors and compounds to ensure proper vascular functi...... and a concurrent increase in the angiostatic factors occur when capillary growth no longer is required. Thus the balance of pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factors is a determining regulator of exercise-induced angiogenesis in human skeletal muscle....

  15. CXC and CC Chemokines as Angiogenic Modulators in Nonhaematological Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Santoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are a superfamily of structurally homologous heparin-binding proteins that includes potent inducers and inhibitors of angiogenesis. The imbalance between angiogenic and angiostatic chemokine activities can lead to abnormalities, such as chronic inflammation, dysplastic transformation, and even tumor development and spreading. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the role of chemokines as modulators of tumor angiogenesis and their potential role as therapeutic targets in patients with nonhaematological tumors.

  16. Endothelial membrane remodeling is obligate for anti-angiogenic radiosensitization during tumor radiosurgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philip Truman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available While there is significant interest in combining anti-angiogenesis therapy with conventional anti-cancer treatment, clinical trials have as of yet yielded limited therapeutic gain, mainly because mechanisms of anti-angiogenic therapy remain to a large extent unknown. Currently, anti-angiogenic tumor therapy is conceptualized to either "normalize" dysfunctional tumor vasculature, or to prevent recruitment of circulating endothelial precursors into the tumor. An alternative biology, restricted to delivery of anti-angiogenics immediately prior to single dose radiotherapy (radiosurgery, is provided in the present study.Genetic data indicate an acute wave of ceramide-mediated endothelial apoptosis, initiated by acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase, regulates tumor stem cell response to single dose radiotherapy, obligatory for tumor cure. Here we show VEGF prevented radiation-induced ASMase activation in cultured endothelium, occurring within minutes after radiation exposure, consequently repressing apoptosis, an event reversible with exogenous C(16-ceramide. Anti-VEGFR2 acts conversely, enhancing ceramide generation and apoptosis. In vivo, MCA/129 fibrosarcoma tumors were implanted in asmase(+/+ mice or asmase(-/- littermates and irradiated in the presence or absence of anti-VEGFR2 DC101 or anti-VEGF G6-31 antibodies. These anti-angiogenic agents, only if delivered immediately prior to single dose radiotherapy, de-repressed radiation-induced ASMase activation, synergistically increasing the endothelial apoptotic component of tumor response and tumor cure. Anti-angiogenic radiosensitization was abrogated in tumors implanted in asmase(-/- mice that provide apoptosis-resistant vasculature, or in wild-type littermates pre-treated with anti-ceramide antibody, indicating that ceramide is necessary for this effect.These studies show that angiogenic factors fail to suppress apoptosis if ceramide remains elevated while anti-angiogenic therapies fail without ceramide

  17. Key endothelial cell angiogenic mechanisms are stimulated by the circulating milieu in sickle cell disease and attenuated by hydroxyurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Flavia C M; Traina, Fabiola; Almeida, Camila B; Leonardo, Flavia C; Franco-Penteado, Carla F; Garrido, Vanessa T; Colella, Marina P; Soares, Raquel; Olalla-Saad, Sara T; Costa, Fernando F; Conran, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    As hypoxia-induced inflammatory angiogenesis may contribute to the manifestations of sickle cell disease, we compared the angiogenic molecular profiles of plasma from sickle cell disease individuals and correlated these with in vitro endothelial cell-mediated angiogenesis-stimulating activity and in vivo neovascularization. Bioplex demonstrated that plasma from patients with steady-state sickle cell anemia contained elevated concentrations of pro-angiogenic factors (angiopoietin-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-D and placental growth factor) and displayed potent pro-angiogenic activity, significantly increasing endothelial cell proliferation, migration and capillary-like structure formation. In vivo neovascularization of Matrigel plugs was significantly greater in sickle cell disease mice than in non-sickle cell disease mice, consistent with an up-regulation of angiogenesis in the disease. In plasma from patients with hemoglobin SC disease without proliferative retinopathy, anti-angiogenic endostatin and thrombospondin-2 were significantly elevated. In contrast, plasma from hemoglobin SC individuals with proliferative retinopathy had a pro-angiogenic profile and more significant effects on endothelial cell proliferation and capillary formation than plasma from patients without retinopathy. Hydroxyurea therapy was associated with significant reductions in plasma angiogenic factors and inhibition of endothelial cell-mediated angiogenic mechanisms and neovascularization. Thus, individuals with sickle cell anemia or hemoglobin SC disease with retinopathy present a highly angiogenic circulating milieu, capable of stimulating key endothelial cell-mediated angiogenic mechanisms. Combination anti-angiogenic therapy to prevent the progression of unregulated neovascularization and associated manifestations in sickle cell disease, such as pulmonary hypertension, may be indicated; furthermore, the

  18. Characterization of neuritin as a novel angiogenic factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dingding; Qin, Bo; Liu, Guoqing; Liu, Tingting; Ji, Guoqing; Wu, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yu, Long, E-mail: longyu@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuritin protein has no effect on the endothelial cell proliferation and adhesion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuritin protein increases endothelial cell migration. >Neuritin does not increase tumor cell proliferation in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of neuritin induces tumor angiogenesis. >Overexpression of neuritin inhibits tumorigenesis. -- Abstract: Neuritin (NRN1), a neurotrophic factor, plays an important role in neurite growth and neuronal survival. In this study, we identify a new function of neuritin as a novel angiogenic factor in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant neuritin protein had no effect on the proliferation and adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but it dose-dependently increased endothelial cell migration. Furthermore, overexpression of neuritin significantly promoted tumor angiogenesis, and surprisingly, it inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model. Thus, our results indicate that neuritin may act as an important angiogenic factor and serve as a potential target for cancer therapy.

  19. Different angiogenic phenotypes in primary and secondary glioblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Sibylle; Steiner, Hans-Herbert; Ahmadi, Rezvan; Zoubaa, Saida; Vasvari, Gergely; Bauer, Harry; Unterberg, Andreas; Herold-Mende, Christel

    2006-05-01

    Primary and secondary glioblastomas (pGBM, sGBM) are supposed to evolve through different genetic pathways, including EGF receptor and PDGF and its receptor and thus genes that are involved in tumor-induced angiogenesis. However, whether other angiogenic cytokines are also differentially expressed in these glioblastoma subtypes is not known so far, but this knowledge might be important to optimize an antiangiogenic therapy. Therefore, we studied the expression of several angiogenic cytokines, including VEGF-A, HGF, bFGF, PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB, G-CSF and GM-CSF in pGBMs and sGBMs as well as in gliomas WHO III, the precursor lesions of sGBMs. In tumor tissues, expression of all cytokines was observed albeit with marked differences concerning intensity and distribution pattern. Quantification of the cytokines in the supernatant of 30 tissue-corresponding glioma cultures revealed a predominant expression of VEGF-A in pGBMs and significantly higher expression levels of PDGF-AB in sGBMs. HGF and bFGF were determined in nearly all tumor cultures but with no GBM subtype or malignancy-related differences. Interestingly, GM-CSF and especially G-CSF were produced less frequently by tumor cells. However, GM-CSF secretion occurred together with an increased number of simultaneously secreted cytokines and correlated with a worse patient prognosis and may thus represent a more aggressive angiogenic phenotype. Finally, we confirmed an independent contribution of each tumor-derived cytokine analyzed to tumor-induced vascularization. Our data indicate that an optimal antiangiogenic therapy may require targeting of multiple angiogenic pathways that seem to differ markedly in pGBMs and sGBMs. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Lupeol derivative mitigates Echis carinatus venom-induced tissue destruction by neutralizing venom toxins and protecting collagen and angiogenic receptors on inflammatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkar, G D; Sharma, Rachana D; Vishalakshi, G J; Naveenkumar, S K; Madhur, Gaurav; Thushara, R M; Narender, T; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2015-12-01

    Echis carinatus bite is a serious threat in South-Asian countries including India, as it causes highest number of deaths and terrifying long-term tissue destruction at the bitten site. Although venom metalloproteinases and hyaluronidases are the suggested key players, studies on the effect of venom on polymorphonuclear cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and platelets, and their role in long-term tissue destruction are still in infancy. While, the effect of venom on collagen receptors, integrin α2β1/GP VI/DDR1 and CX3CR1 chemokine receptor present on these cells is an untouched area. Lupeol, lupeol acetate, its synthetic derivatives 2-8 were screened for inhibition of E. carinatus venom induced-hemorrhage in mouse model where compound 8 was found to be the most potent. Further, compound 8 efficiently neutralized venom induced hemorrhage, edema, dermonecrosis, myonecrosis, myotoxicity, pro-coagulant, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and cleavage of collagen and CX3CR1 receptors on inflammatory cells in in vivo, in silico, ex vivo and in vitro studies. This study for the first time demonstrated the cleavage of collagen receptors and the receptor for angiogenesis and wound healing by the venom and its inhibition by compound 8, as these are important for firm adhesion of inflammatory cells at the damaged site to resolve inflammation and promote tissue repair. This study provides a lead in venom pharmacology, wherein, compound 8 could be a therapeutic agent for the better management of viper venom-induced long-term tissue destruction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Accelerated Tumor Cell Death by Angiogenic Modifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Leland W. K

    2001-01-01

    Because of the inherent stability of endothelial cells and the importance of this cell type for the proliferation of both localized and disseminated cancers, anti- angiogenic therapy is an attractive...

  2. Pro-angiogenic cytokines in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Robak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a multifactorial connective tissue disease characterized by excessive and progressive fibrosis along with microvasculopathy due to poor vascular formation and repair. Despite a general increase in many potent angiogenic factors, the vasculopathy compensatory angiogenesis and vasculogenesis are impaired. In this review, we discuss the role of proangiogenic factors – VEGF, PlGF, endoglin, PDGF, endothelin-1, angiopoietins, SDF-1, uPAR – and the paradoxical paucity of an inadequate angiogenic response in SSc.

  3. 15, 16-Dihydrotanshinone I Inhibits Hemangiomas through Inducing Pro-apoptotic and Anti-angiogenic Mechanisms in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihong Cai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Infantile hemangioma (IH is a common and benign vascular neoplasms, which has a high incidence in children. Although IH is benign, some patients experience complications such as pain, functional impairment, and permanent disfigurement. Treatment options for IH include corticosteroids, surgery, vincristine, interferon or cyclophosphamide. However, none of these modalities are ideal due to restrictions or potential serious side effects. There is thus a great need to explore novel treatments for IH with less side effects. Angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and tumorigenesis are the main features of IH. Tanshen is mostly used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat hematological abnormalities. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate anti-proliferation and anti-angiogenesis effects on hemangiomas cells by extracted Tanshen compounds compared with propranolol, the first-line treatment for IH currently, both in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability, apoptosis, protein expression and anti-angiogenesis were analyzed by CCK8, Annexin V staining, Western blot and tube formation, respectively. The anti-tumor activity in vivo was evaluated using a mouse xenograft model. Fourteen major compounds extracting from Tanshen were screened for their ability to inhibit hemangiomas cells. Of the 14 compounds investigated, 15,16-Dihydrotanshinone I (DHTS was the most potent modulator of EOMA cell biology. DHTS could significantly decrease EOMA cells proliferation by inducing cell apoptosis, which is much more efficient than propranolol in vitro. DHTS increased the expression of several apoptosis-related proteins, including caspase9, caspase3, PARP, AIF, BAX, cytochrome c, caspase8 and FADD and significantly inhibited angiogenesis, as indicated by reduced tube formation and diminished expression of vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. In nude mice xenograft experiment, DHTS (10 mg/kg could significantly inhibit the tumor

  4. Anti-angiogenic potential of an ethanol extract of Annona atemoya seeds in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jin-Mu; Park, Jong-Shik; Lee, Jun; Hong, Jin Tae; Bang, Ok-Sun; Kim, No Soo

    2014-09-23

    Angiogenesis, which is initiated by certain tumor micro-environmental conditions and diverse protein factors, plays a pivotal role during tumor development and metastasis. Therefore, many efforts have been made to develop effective anti-angiogenic agents as anticancer therapeutics. In the current study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic potential of an ethanol extract of Annona atemoya seeds (EEAA) in vitro and in vivo. The anti-angiogenic potential of EEAA was evaluated using various in vitro/in vivo models, including cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation by human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs); a Matrigel plug assay; and tumor-induced angiogenesis. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunoassays, and western blotting. EEAA was able to significantly inhibit the angiogenic properties of HUVECs in vitro as well as angiogenic factor-induced blood vessel formation in vivo. EEAA down-regulated the expression of VEGF and HIF-1alpha/2alpha at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively, in cancer cells under hypoxic conditions. EEAA shows a strong anti-angiogenic potential in both in vitro and in vivo systems, and we suggest that EEAA may be a valuable herbal source for anticancer drug development.

  5. Angiopoietin-like-4 is a potential angiogenic mediator in arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, L.M.; Pinkerton, M.; Jennings, K.; Yang, L.; Grom, A.; Sowders, D.; Kersten, A.H.; Witte, D.P.; Hirsch, R.; Thornton, S.

    2005-01-01

    Our previous studies of gene expression profiling during collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) indicated that the putative angiogenic factor Angptl4 was one of the most highly expressed mRNAs early in disease. To investigate the potential involvement of Angptl4 in CIA pathogenesis, Angptl4 protein levels

  6. Endothelial membrane remodeling is obligate for anti-angiogenic radiosensitization during tumor radiosurgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philip Truman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While there is significant interest in combining anti-angiogenesis therapy with conventional anti-cancer treatment, clinical trials have as of yet yielded limited therapeutic gain, mainly because mechanisms of anti-angiogenic therapy remain to a large extent unknown. Currently, anti-angiogenic tumor therapy is conceptualized to either “normalize” dysfunctional tumor vasculature, or to prevent recruitment of circulating endothelial precursors into the tumor. An alternative biology, restricted to delivery of anti-angiogenics immediately prior to single dose radiotherapy (radiosurgery, is provided in the present study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic data indicate an acute wave of ceramide-mediated endothelial apoptosis, initiated by acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase, regulates tumor stem cell response to single dose radiotherapy, obligatory for tumor cure. Here we show VEGF prevented radiation-induced ASMase activation in cultured endothelium, occurring within minutes after radiation exposure, consequently repressing apoptosis, an event reversible with exogenous C16-ceramide. Anti-VEGFR2 acts conversely, enhancing ceramide generation and apoptosis. In vivo, MCA/129 fibrosarcoma tumors were implanted in asmase+/+ mice or asmase−/− littermates and irradiated in the presence or absence of anti-VEGFR2 DC101 or anti-VEGF G6-31 antibodies. These anti-angiogenic agents, only if delivered immediately prior to single dose radiotherapy, de-repressed radiation-induced ASMase activation, synergistically increasing the endothelial apoptotic component of tumor response and tumor cure. Anti-angiogenic radiosensitization was abrogated in tumors implanted in asmase−/− mice that provide apoptosis-resistant vasculature, or in wild-type littermates pre-treated with anti-ceramide antibody, indicating that ceramide is necessary for this effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies show that angiogenic factors fail to suppress apoptosis if

  7. Bacterial Toxins: A Hope Towards Angiogenic Ailments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandia, Rekha; Munjal, Ashok; Dhama, Kuldeep; Malik, Yashpal Singh

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential physiological process for growth and maintenance of the body. Especially its role becomes indispendable during the embryonic development stage but lacks in adults with some exceptions like while wound repair and menstrual cycle. It is a tightly regulated process and relies on the cascade of several molecular signaling pathways with the involvement of many effectors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) etc. Related literature/ information were retrieved, analyzed and compiled from the online published resources available in Medline, Pubmed, Pubmed Central, Science Direct and other scientific databases. Excessive angiogenesis leads to disorders like tumor, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetic retinopathy, endometriosis, psoriasis, and adiposity. While, reduced angiogenesis also results in several ailments like cardiac ischemia, low capillary density in brain of Alzheimer's patients and delayed wound healing. Therefore, both angio-proliferative and anti-angiogenic approaches may be of use in developing novel therapeutics. Bacterial toxins are known for modulating the process of angiogenesis by mimicking pro-angiogenic factors and/ or competing with them. Furthermore, they inactivate the receptors or keep them in ON status, hence can be used to treat angiogenic disorders. The ease in handling, cultivation and manipulating the toxins structure has enabled the use of bacteria as an ideal choice for novel therapeutic developments. This review intends to elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which certain bacteria may alter the level of angiogenesis and consequently can work as therapeutics against angiogenic disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Penduliflaworosin, a Diterpenoid from Croton crassifolius, Exerts Anti-Angiogenic Effect via VEGF Receptor-2 Signaling Pathway

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    Yeyin Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenesis targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2 has been considered as an important strategy for cancer therapy. Penduliflaworosin is a diterpenoid isolated from the plant Croton crassifolius. Our previous study showed that this diterpenoid possesses strong anti-angiogenic activity by inhibiting vessel formation in zebrafish. This study was conducted to further investigate the anti-angiogenic activity and mechanism of penduliflaworosin. Results revealed that penduliflaworosin significantly inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis processes including proliferation, invasion, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Moreover, it notably inhibited VEGF-induced sprout formation of aortic rings and blocked VEGF-induced vessel formation in mice. Western blotting studies showed that penduliflaworosin inhibited phosphorylation of the VEGF receptor-2 and its downstream signaling mediators in HUVECs, suggesting that the anti-angiogenic activity was due to an interference with the VEGF/VEGF receptor-2 pathway. In addition, molecular docking simulation indicated that penduliflaworosin could form hydrogen bonds within the ATP-binding region of the VEGF receptor-2 kinase unit. Finally, cytotoxicity assay showed that penduliflaworosin possessed little toxicity toward both cancer and normal cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that penduliflaworosin exerts its anti-angiogenic effect via the VEGF receptor-2 signaling pathway. The anti-angiogenic property and low cytotoxicity of penduliflaworosin suggest that it may be useful in cancer treatments.

  9. Specific recruitment of circulating angiogenic cells using biomaterials as filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlato, Matthew; Molenda, James; Murphy, William L

    2017-07-01

    Endogenous recruitment of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) is an emerging strategy to induce angiogenesis within a defect site, and multiple recent strategies have deployed soluble protein releasing biomaterials for this purpose. However, the way in which the design of biomaterials affects CAC recruitment and invasion are poorly understood. Here we used an enhanced-throughput cell invasion assay to systematically examine the effects of biomaterial design on CAC recruitment. The screens co-optimized hydrogel presentation of a stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) gradient, hydrogel degradability, and hydrogel stiffness for maximal CAC invasion. We also examined the specificity of this invasion by assessing dermal fibroblast, mesenchymal stem cell, and lymphocyte invasion individually and in co-culture with CACs to identify hydrogels specific to CAC invasion. These screens suggested a subset of MMP-degradable hydrogels presenting a specific range of SDF-1α gradient slopes that induced specific invasion of CACs, and we posit that the design parameters of this subset of hydrogels may serve as instructive templates for the future design of biomaterials to specifically recruit CACs. We also posit that this design concept may be applied more broadly in that it may be possible to utilize these specific subsets of biomaterials as "filters" to control which types of cell populations invade into and populate the biomaterial. The recruitment of specific cell types for cell-based therapies in vivo is of great interest to the regenerative medicine community. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), CD133+ cells derived from the blood stream, are of particular interest for induction of angiogenesis in ischemic tissues, and recent studies utilizing soluble-factor releasing biomaterials to recruit these cells in vivo show great promise. However, these studies are largely "proof of concept" and are not systematic in nature. Thus, little is currently known about how biomaterial design

  10. Angiogenic and osteogenic regeneration in rats via calcium phosphate scaffold and endothelial cell co-culture with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), human umbilical cord MSCs, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs and human embryonic stem cell-derived MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenchuan; Liu, Xian; Chen, Qianmin; Bao, Chongyun; Zhao, Liang; Zhu, Zhimin; Xu, Hockin H K

    2017-01-18

    Angiogenesis is a limiting factor in regenerating large bone defects. The objective of this study was to investigate angiogenic and osteogenic effects of co-culture on calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffold using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (hUVECs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from different origins for the first time. hUVECs were co-cultured with four types of cell: human umbilical cord MSCs (hUCMSCs), human bone marrow MSCs (hBMSCs) and MSCs from induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (hESC-MSCs). Constructs were implanted in 8 mm cranial defects of rats for 12 weeks. CPC without cells served as control 1. CPC with hBMSCs served as control 2. Microcapillary-like structures were successfully formed on CPC in vitro in all four co-cultured groups. Microcapillary lengths increased with time (p cells increased with time (p  0.1). Therefore, hUCMSCs, hiPSC-MSCs and hESC-MSCs could serve as alternative cell sources to hBMSCs, which require an invasive procedure to harvest. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that co-cultures of hUVECs with hUCMSCs, hiPSC-MSCs, hESC-MSCs and hBMSCs delivered via CPC scaffold achieved excellent osteogenic and angiogenic capabilities in vivo. The novel co-culture constructs are promising for bone reconstruction with improved angiogenesis for craniofacial/orthopaedic applications. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factor gene transcript level quantitation by quantitative real time PCR in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bal Krishan; Srinivasan, Radhika; Kapil, Shweta; Singla, Bhupesh; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Chakraborti, Anuradha; Saini, Nitin; Duseja, Ajay; Das, Ashim; Kalra, Naveen; Dhiman, Radha Krishan

    2013-10-01

    Tumor angiogenesis, a major requirement for tumor growth and metastasis, is regulated by pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. The aim of this study was to quantify the expression of angiogenic (VEGF, HIF-1α, Angiopiotein-2) and anti-angiogenic (endostatin, angiostatin and Thrombospondin-1) factors and to discern their clinical relevance. A total 90 patients (67 HCC, 9 cirrhosis and 14 chronic hepatitis) were enrolled in the study. Tissue transcript levels of angiogenic (VEGF, HIF-1α, Ang-2) and anti-angiogenic (endostatin, angiostatin and TSP-1) factors were analyzed by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the tissue samples. The tissue transcript levels of VEGF, HIF-1α and endostatin were found to be significantly higher in HCC in comparison to cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis. Although Ang-2, angiostatin and TSP-1 tissue transcript levels were higher in HCC group than the others groups but the difference was not statistically significant. In univariate analysis both VEGF and HIF-1α were found to be associated with poor survival of HCC patients. Multivariate analysis by the cox proportional hazard model revealed only VEGF as an independent factor predicting poor survival of the HCC patients. Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors are all highly expressed in HCC patients. Upregulation of tissue anti-angiogenic factors indicates the urgency for the alternative of anti-angiogenic therapies.

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Investigation of the Angiogenic Effects of Liraglutide during Islet Transplantation.

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    Allan Langlois

    Full Text Available This study investigated the angiogenic properties of liraglutide in vitro and in vivo and the mechanisms involved, with a focus on Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR.Rat pancreatic islets were incubated in vitro with 10 μmol/L of liraglutide (Lira for 12, 24 and 48 h. Islet viability was studied by fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide staining and their function was assessed by glucose stimulation. The angiogenic effect of liraglutide was determined in vitro by the measure of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF secretion using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by the evaluation of VEGF and platelet-derived growth factor-α (PDGFα expression with quantitative polymerase chain reaction technic. Then, in vitro and in vivo, angiogenic property of Lira was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining targeting the cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31. To understand angiogenic mechanisms involved by Lira, HIF-1α and mTOR activation were studied using western blotting. In vivo, islets (1000/kg body-weight were transplanted into diabetic (streptozotocin Lewis rats. Metabolic control was assessed for 1 month by measuring body-weight gain and fasting blood glucose.Islet viability and function were respectively preserved and enhanced (p<0.05 with Lira, versus control. Lira increased CD31-positive cells, expression of VEGF and PDGFα (p<0.05 after 24 h in culture. Increased VEGF secretion versus control was also observed at 48 h (p<0.05. Moreover, Lira activated mTOR (p<0.05 signalling pathway. In vivo, Lira improved vascular density (p<0.01, body-weight gain (p<0.01 and reduced fasting blood glucose in transplanted rats (p<0.001.The beneficial effects of liraglutide on islets appeared to be linked to its angiogenic properties. These findings indicated that glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues could be used to improve transplanted islet revascularisation.

  13. Evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic effects of exendin-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hye-Min [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Biomedical Science Institute, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yujung; Chun, Hyung J. [Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Jeong, Joo-Won [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Biomedical Science Institute, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan, E-mail: psychan@khu.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Biomedical Science Institute, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •We investigated the effects of exendin-4 on the angiogenic process. •Exendin-4 increased migration, sprouting, and tube formation by HUVECs in in vitro. •Exendin-4 increased sprouts in aortic rings and induced new vessels in Matrigel in in vivo. •Exendin-4 may be of potential use for the treatment of vascular complications of diabetes. -- Abstract: Exendin-4, an analog of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, has beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease induced by diabetes mellitus (DM). Recently, exendin-4 was reported to induce the proliferation of endothelial cells. However, its angiogenic effect on endothelial cells has not been clearly evaluated. Therefore, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 on the angiogenic process with respect to migration, sprouting, and neovascularization using in vitro and in vivo assays. Treatment with exendin-4 increased the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in in vitro scratch wound assays, as well as the number of lumenized vessels sprouting from HUVECs in in vitro 3D bead assays. These responses were abolished by co-treatment with exendin (9–39), a GLP-1 receptor antagonist, which suggests that exendin-4 regulates endothelial cell migration and tube formation in a GLP-1 receptor-dependent manner. In an ex vivo assay, treatment of aortic rings with exendin-4 increased the sprouting of endothelial cells. Exendin-4 also significantly increased the number of new vessels and induced blood flow in Matrigel plugs in in vivo assays. Our results provide clear evidence for the angiogenic effect of exendin-4 in in vitro and in vivo assays and provide a mechanism underlying the cardioprotective effects of exendin-4.

  14. Anti-angiogenic treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, J Stuart; Lockhart, A Craig; Berlin, Jordan

    2005-01-01

    The scientific rationale to block angiogenesis as a treatment strategy for human cancer has been developed over the last 30 years, but is only now entering the clinical arena. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the importance of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, and have led to the development of approaches to block its role in tumor angiogenesis. Bevacizumab is an antibody to VEGF and has been shown to prolong survival when given with chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Although this is the first anti-angiogenic treatment to be approved for the treatment of human epithelial malignancy, a number of other approaches currently are in development. Soluble chimeric receptors to sequester serum VEGF and monoclonal antibodies against VEGF receptors have both shown considerable promise in the laboratory and are being brought into clinical investigation. A number of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors that have activity against VEGF receptors also are in clinical trials. Although these novel treatments are being pioneered in CRC, anti-angiogenic approaches also are being tested in the treatment of other gastrointestinal malignancies. Anti-VEGF therapy has shown promise in such traditionally resistant tumors as pancreatic cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. This review will examine the preclinical foundation and then focus on the clinical studies of anti-VEGF therapy in gastrointestinal cancers.

  15. Melanocyte-secreted fibromodulin promotes an angiogenic microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, Irit; Ghosh, Kaustabh; Adini, Avner; Chi, Zai-Long; Yoshimura, Takeru; Benny, Ofra; Connor, Kip M; Rogers, Michael S; Bazinet, Lauren; Birsner, Amy E; Bielenberg, Diane R; D'Amato, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Studies have established that pigmentation can provide strong, protective effects against certain human diseases. For example, angiogenesis-dependent diseases such as wet age-related macular degeneration and infantile hemangioma are more common in light-skinned individuals of mixed European descent than in African-Americans. Here we found that melanocytes from light-skinned humans and albino mice secrete high levels of fibromodulin (FMOD), which we determined to be a potent angiogenic factor. FMOD treatment stimulated angiogenesis in numerous in vivo systems, including laser-induced choroidal neovascularization, growth factor-induced corneal neovascularization, wound healing, and Matrigel plug assays. Additionally, FMOD enhanced vascular sprouting during normal retinal development. Deletion of Fmod in albino mice resulted in a marked reduction in the amount of neovascularization induced by retinal vein occlusion, corneal growth factor pellets, and Matrigel plugs. Our data implicate the melanocyte-secreted factor FMOD as a key regulator of angiogenesis and suggest an underlying mechanism for epidemiological differences between light-skinned individuals of mixed European descent and African-Americans. Furthermore, inhibition of FMOD in humans has potential as a therapeutic strategy for treating angiogenesis-dependent diseases.

  16. The systemic angiogenic response during bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stefan; Zimmermann, Gerald; Pufe, Thomas; Varoga, Deike; Henle, Philipp

    2009-07-01

    Angiogenesis is known to be a critical and closely regulated step during bone formation and fracture healing driven by a complex interaction of various cytokines. Delays in bone healing or even nonunion might therefore be associated with altered concentrations of specific angiogenic factors. These alterations might in turn be reflected by changes in serum concentrations. To determine physiological time courses of angiogenic cytokines during fracture healing as well as possible changes associated with failed consolidation, we prospectively collected serum samples from patients who had sustained surgical treatment for a long bone fracture. Fifteen patients without fracture healing 4 months after surgery (nonunion group) were matched to a collective of 15 patients with successful healing (union group). Serum concentrations of angiogenin (ANG), angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB), pleiotrophin (PTN) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays over a period of 24 weeks. Compared to reference values of healthy uninjured controls serum concentrations of VEGF, bFGF and PDGF were increased in both groups. Peak concentrations of these cytokines were reached during early fracture healing. Serum concentrations of bFGF and PDGF-AB were significantly higher in the union group at 2 and 4 weeks after the injury when compared to the nonunion group. Serum concentrations of ANG and Ang-2 declined steadily from the first measurement in normal healing fractures, while no significant changes over time could be detected for serum concentrations of these factures in nonunion patients. PTN serum levels increased asymptotically over the entire investigation in timely fracture healing while no such increase could be detected during delayed healing. We conclude that fracture healing in human subjects is accompanied by distinct changes in systemic levels of specific

  17. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  18. In vitro and in vivo anti-angiogenic activities of Panduratin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew-Li Lai

    Full Text Available Targeting angiogenesis has emerged as an attractive and promising strategy in anti-cancer therapeutic development. The present study investigates the anti-angiogenic potential of Panduratin A (PA, a natural chalcone isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda by using both in vitro and in vivo assays.PA exerted selective cytotoxicity on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs with IC(50 value of 6.91 ± 0.85 µM when compared to human normal fibroblast and normal liver epithelial cells. Assessment of the growth kinetics by cell impedance-based Real-Time Cell Analyzer showed that PA induced both cytotoxic and cytostatic effects on HUVECs, depending on the concentration used. Results also showed that PA suppressed VEGF-induced survival and proliferation of HUVECs. Furthermore, endothelial cell migration, invasion, and morphogenesis or tube formation demonstrated significant time- and dose-dependent inhibition by PA. PA also suppressed matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 secretion and attenuated its activation to intermediate and active MMP-2. In addition, PA suppressed F-actin stress fiber formation to prevent migration of the endothelial cells. More importantly, anti-angiogenic potential of PA was also evidenced in two in vivo models. PA inhibited neo-vessels formation in murine Matrigel plugs, and angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos.Taken together, our study demonstrated the distinctive anti-angiogenic properties of PA, both in vitro and in vivo. This report thus reveals another biological activity of PA in addition to its reported anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities, suggestive of PA's potential for development as an anti-angiogenic agent for cancer therapy.

  19. Chemopreventive effect and angiogenic activity of punicalagin isolated from leaves of Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Cristiene Costa; da Costa Santos, Suzana; de Souza Lino, Ruy; Bara, Maria Teresa Freitas; Chaibub, Beatriz Abdallah; de Melo Reis, Paulo Roberto; Chaves, Dwight Assis; da Silva, Antônio Jorge Ribeiro; Silva, Luana Santos; de Melo E Silva, Daniela; Chen-Chen, Lee

    2016-11-01

    Punicalagin is the major ellagitannin constituent from leaves of Lafoensia pacari, a Brazilian medicinal plant widely used for the treatment of peptic ulcer and wound healing. Genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic effects of punicalagin were assessed using micronucleus (MN) test and comet assay in mice. Due to the extensive use of L. pacari in the wound healing process, we also assessed the angiogenic activity of punicalagin using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenic assay. The highest dose of punicalagin (50mg/kg) showed significant cytotoxic effect by MN test and in the co-treatment with cyclophosphamide (CPA), this cytotoxicity was enhanced. Co-treatment, pre-treatment and post-treatment of punicalagin with CPA led to a significant reduction in the number of DNA breaks and in the frequency of CPA-induced MN, indicating antigenotoxic effect. Using the CAM model, punicalagin exhibited angiogenic activity in all doses mainly at the lowest concentration (12.5μg/μL). Therefore, these findings indicate an effective chemopreventive role of punicalagin and a high capacity to induce DNA repair. Also, the angiogenic activity presented by punicalagin in this study could contribute for the processes of tissue repairing and wound healing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of anti-HIF and anti-angiogenic properties of honokiol for the treatment of ocular neovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Teja Vavilala

    Full Text Available Pathological activation of the hypoxia-inducible-factor (HIF pathway leading to expression of pro-angiogenic genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, is the fundamental cause of neovascularization in ocular ischemic diseases and cancers. We have shown that pure honokiol inhibits the HIF pathway and hypoxia-mediated expression of pro-angiogenic genes in a number of cancer and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cell lines. The crude extracts, containing honokiol, from Magnolia plants have been used for thousands of years in the traditional oriental medicine for a number of health benefits. We have recently demonstrated that daily intraperitoneal injection of honokiol starting at postnatal day (P 12 in an oxygen induced retinopathy mouse model significantly reduced retinal neovascularization at P17. Here, we evaluate the mechanism of HIF inhibition by honokiol in RPE cells. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, we demonstrate that honokiol inhibits binding of HIF to hypoxia-response elements present on VEGF promoter. We further show using a number of in vitro angiogenesis assays that, in addition to anti-HIF effect, honokiol manifests potent anti-angiogenic effect on human retinal micro vascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that honokiol possesses potent anti-HIF and anti-angiogenic properties. These properties of honokiol make it an ideal therapeutic agent for the treatment of ocular neovascular diseases and solid tumors.

  1. Angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis flowers L. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Brito, Luiz Augusto Batista; Moura, Veridiana Maria Brianezi Dignani de; Miguel, Marina Pacheco; Lino-Júnior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Faustino Manrique; Paula, José Realino de; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

    2011-02-01

    In this work, angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) ethanolic extract and dichloromethane and hexanic fractions were evaluated, considering medicinal properties, especially healing activity, are attributed to this plant. Models using 36 rats and 90 embryonated eggs were used to evaluate healing and angiogenic activities of extracts and fractions of the plant, through the induction of skin wounds and the chorioallantoic membrane, respectively. The effect of vascular proliferation was also tested from the study to verify the intensity of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cutaneous wounds in rats. The angiogenic activity of the extract and the fractions was evidenced in both experimental models. It was verified that this effect is not directly related to the expression of VEGF and it could be associated to other pro-angiogenic factors. The healing activity referred to C. officinalis is related, among other factors, to its positive effect on angiogenesis, characterized by the induction of neovascularization.

  2. Comparison of anti-angiogenic properties of pristine carbon nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta

    2013-01-01

    nanoparticles decreased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. These results provide new insights into the biological activity of carbon nanomaterials and emphasise the potential use of multi-wall nanotubes and diamond nanoparticles in anti-angiogenic tumour therapy.......Angiogenesis is vital for tumour formation, development and metastasis. Recent reports show that carbon nanomaterials inhibit various angiogenic signalling pathways and, therefore, can be potentially used in anti-angiogenic therapy. In the present study, we compared the effect of different carbon...... nanomaterials on blood vessel development. Diamond nanoparticles, graphite nanoparticles, graphene nanosheets, multi-wall nanotubes and C60 fullerenes were evaluated for their angiogenic activities using the in ovo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. Diamond nanoparticles and multi-wall nanotubes...

  3. Angiogenic factors in preeclampsia: potential for diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Arvind; Rana, Sarosh

    2013-11-01

    The review summarizes new observations of key roles for circulating angiogenic factors in diagnosing, managing, and treating preeclampsia. Alterations in circulating angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and placental growth factor) in preeclampsia correlate with the diagnosis and adverse outcomes, particularly when the disease presents prematurely (preeclampsia and its complications from other disorders that present with similar clinical profiles. A ratio of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1/placental growth factor greater than 85 appears ideal as the cut-off for both diagnosis and prognosis. There is also evidence that modulating these factors has therapeutic effects, suggesting a future role for angiogenic factors in treatment and prevention of preeclampsia. Circulating angiogenic biomarkers help in diagnostic and prognostic profiling of preeclampsia and may facilitate better management of these patients.

  4. Ginger inhibits cell growth and modulates angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jennifer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc is a natural dietary component with antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. The ginger component [6]-gingerol has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects through mediation of NF-κB. NF-κB can be constitutively activated in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and may contribute towards increased transcription and translation of angiogenic factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ginger on tumor cell growth and modulation of angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Methods The effect of ginger and the major ginger components on cell growth was determined in a panel of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines. Activation of NF-κB and and production of VEGF and IL-8 was determined in the presence or absence of ginger. Results Ginger treatment of cultured ovarian cancer cells induced profound growth inhibition in all cell lines tested. We found that in vitro, 6-shogaol is the most active of the individual ginger components tested. Ginger treatment resulted in inhibition of NF-kB activation as well as diminished secretion of VEGF and IL-8. Conclusion Ginger inhibits growth and modulates secretion of angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells. The use of dietary agents such as ginger may have potential in the treatment and prevention of ovarian cancer.

  5. Intrinsic pro-angiogenic status of cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaeghe, Catherine; Tabruyn, Sebastien P.; Oury, Cecile; Bours, Vincent; Griffioen, Arjan W.

    2007-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a common genetic disorder characterized by a severe lung inflammation and fibrosis leading to the patient's death. Enhanced angiogenesis in cystic fibrosis (CF) tissue has been suggested, probably caused by the process of inflammation, as similarly described in asthma and chronic bronchitis. The present study demonstrates an intrinsic pro-angiogenic status of cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells. Microarray experiments showed that CF airway epithelial cells expressed several angiogenic factors such as VEGF-A, VEGF-C, bFGF, and PLGF at higher levels than control cells. These data were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR and, at the protein level, by ELISA. Conditioned media of these cystic fibrosis cells were able to induce proliferation, migration and sprouting of cultured primary endothelial cells. This report describes for the first time that cystic fibrosis epithelial cells have an intrinsic angiogenic activity. Since excess of angiogenesis is correlated with more severe pulmonary disease, our results could lead to the development of new therapeutic applications

  6. Clinical Implication of Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Regorafenib in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoojoo Lim

    Full Text Available Regorafenib induces distinct radiological changes that represent its anti-angiogenic effect. However, clinical implication of the changes is unclear.Tumor attenuation as measured by Hounsfield units (HU in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT and cavitary changes of lung metastases were analyzed in association with treatment outcome of metastatic colorectal cancer patients (N = 80 treated with regorafenib in a prospective study.141 lesions in 72 patients were analyzed with HU. After 2 cycles of regorafenib, 87.5% of patients showed decrease of HU (Median change -23.9%, range -61.5%-20.7%. Lesional attenuation change was modestly associated with metabolic changes of 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT (Pearson's r = 0.37, p = 0.002. Among 53 patients with lung metastases, 17 (32.1% developed cavitary changes. There were no differences in disease control rate, progression-free survival, or overall survival according to the radiological changes. At the time of progressive disease (PD according to RECIST 1.1, HU was lower than baseline in 86.0% (43/50 and cavitary change of lung metastasis persisted without refilling in 84.6% (11/13.Regorafenib showed prominent anti-angiogenic effect in colorectal cancer, but the changes were not associated with treatment outcome. However, the anti-angiogenic effects persisted at the time of PD, which suggests that we may need to develop new treatment strategies.

  7. Clinical Implication of Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Regorafenib in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jung Min; Paeng, Jin Chul; Won, Jae-Kyung; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kim, Tae-You

    2015-01-01

    Background Regorafenib induces distinct radiological changes that represent its anti-angiogenic effect. However, clinical implication of the changes is unclear. Methods Tumor attenuation as measured by Hounsfield units (HU) in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and cavitary changes of lung metastases were analyzed in association with treatment outcome of metastatic colorectal cancer patients (N = 80) treated with regorafenib in a prospective study. Results 141 lesions in 72 patients were analyzed with HU. After 2 cycles of regorafenib, 87.5% of patients showed decrease of HU (Median change -23.9%, range -61.5%–20.7%). Lesional attenuation change was modestly associated with metabolic changes of 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT (Pearson’s r = 0.37, p = 0.002). Among 53 patients with lung metastases, 17 (32.1%) developed cavitary changes. There were no differences in disease control rate, progression-free survival, or overall survival according to the radiological changes. At the time of progressive disease (PD) according to RECIST 1.1, HU was lower than baseline in 86.0% (43/50) and cavitary change of lung metastasis persisted without refilling in 84.6% (11/13). Conclusion Regorafenib showed prominent anti-angiogenic effect in colorectal cancer, but the changes were not associated with treatment outcome. However, the anti-angiogenic effects persisted at the time of PD, which suggests that we may need to develop new treatment strategies. PMID:26671465

  8. Vasohibin inhibits angiogenic sprouting in vitro and supports vascular maturation processes in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, Johann; Steurer, Michael; Gastl, Günther; Gunsilius, Eberhard; Untergasser, Gerold

    2009-01-01

    The murine homologue of human vasohibin (mVASH1), a putative antiangiogenic protein, was investigated for its effects on in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis. Cell growth and migration were analyzed in murine fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Angiogenic sprouting was studied in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the spheroid sprouting assay. In vivo effects on blood vessel formation were investigated in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and in the C57BL/6 melanoma xenograft model. Purified murine and human VASH1 protein induced apoptosis of murine fibroblasts in vitro, but not of vascular aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC) or endothelial cells. Adenoviral overexpression of murine and human VASH1 inhibited capillary sprouting of HUVECs in the spheroid assay. Administration of recombinant murine and human VASH1 inhibited growth of large vessels in the CAM assay and promoted the formation of a dense, fine vascular network. Murine VASH1-overexpressing B16F10 melanomas displayed a reduction in large vessels and vascular area. Moreover, tumors showed more microvessels that stained positive for the mural cell markers α-smooth muscle cell actin (ASMA) and proteoglycan (NG2). Our data imply that murine VASH1 causes angiogenic remodelling by inhibiting angiogenic sprouting and large vessel growth, thereby supporting the formation of a vascular bed consisting predominantly of mature microvessels

  9. Hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 is a novel angiogenic factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E LeBlanc

    Full Text Available Hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (Hdgfrp3 or HRP-3 was recently reported as a neurotrophic factor and is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma to promote cancer cell survival. Here we identified HRP-3 as a new endothelial ligand and characterized its in vitro and in vivo functional roles and molecular signaling. We combined open reading frame phage display with multi-round in vivo binding selection to enrich retinal endothelial ligands, which were systematically identified by next generation DNA sequencing. One of the identified endothelial ligands was HRP-3. HRP-3 expression in the retina and brain was characterized by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Cell proliferation assay showed that HRP-3 stimulated the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. HRP-3 induced tube formation of HUVECs in culture. Wound healing assay indicated that HRP-3 promoted endothelial cell migration. HRP-3 was further confirmed for its in vitro angiogenic activity by spheroid sprouting assay. HRP-3 extrinsically activated the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase ½ (ERK1/2 pathway in endothelial cells. The angiogenic activity of HRP-3 was independently verified by mouse cornea pocket assay. Furthermore, in vivo Matrigel plug assay corroborated HRP-3 activity to promote new blood vessel formation. These results demonstrated that HRP-3 is a novel angiogenic factor.

  10. Angiogenic potential of 3-nitro-4-hydroxy benzene arsonic acid (roxarsone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Ghosh, Richik N; Grove, Linnette E; Klei, Linda; Barchowsky, Aaron

    2008-04-01

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxy benzene arsonic acid) is an arsenic compound widely used in the poultry industry as a feed additive to prevent coccidiosis, stimulate growth, and to improve tissue pigmentation. Little is known about the potential human health effects from roxarsone released into the environment from chicken waste or from residual compound in chicken products. The growth potentiation and enhanced tissue pigmentation suggest that low levels of roxarsone exposure may have an angiogenic potential similar to that of inorganic arsenite (As(III)). The goal of this investigation was to test the hypothesis described above using cultured human aortic and lung microvascular endothelial cells in high-content imaging tube-forming assays and begin developing a molecular level understanding of the process. We used a three-dimensional Matrigel assay for probing angiogenesis in cultured human endothelial cells, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array to probe the gene changes as a function of roxarsone or As(III) treatment. In addition, we used Western blot analysis for changes in protein concentration and activation. Roxarsone was found to exhibit a higher angiogenic index than As(III) at lower concentrations. Increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity was observed for roxarsone but not for As(III)-induced angiogenesis. However, As(III) caused more rapid and pronounced phosphorylation of eNOS. Quantitative PCR array on select genes revealed that the two compounds have different and often opposite effects on angiogenic gene expression. The results demonstrate that roxarsone and As(III) promote angiogenic phenotype in human endothelial cells through distinctly different signaling mechanisms.

  11. Biomimetic composite scaffold SIS/MBG exhibits high osteogenic and angiogenic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tingfang; Liu, Man; Yao, Sheng; Ji, Yanhui; Xiong, Zekang; Tang, Kai; Chen, Kaifang; Yang, Hu; Guo, Xiao-Dong

    2018-01-19

    Biomaterials with excellent osteogenic and angiogenic activities are desirable to repair massive bone defects. Decellularized matrix from porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) has attracted particular attention for tissue regeneration because it has strong angiogenic effects and retains plentiful bioactive components. However, it has inferior osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity. In this study, we developed porous composite of SIS combined with mesoporous bioactive glass (SIS/MBG) with the goal of improving the mechanical and biological properties. SIS/MBG scaffolds showed uniform interconnected macropores (~150 μm), high porosity (~76%) and enhanced compressive strength (~0.87 MPa). The proliferation and osteogenic gene expression (Runx2, ALP, Ocn and Col-Iα) of rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) as well as the proliferation, angiogenic gene expression (VEGF, bFGF, and KDR) and tube formation capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in SIS/MBG scaffolds were significantly upregulated compared with non-mesoporous bioactive glass (BG)-modified SIS (SIS/BG) and SIS-only scaffolds. Western blot analysis revealed that SIS/MBG induced rBMSCs to osteogenic differentiation via the activation of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway, and SIS/MBG enhanced angiogenic activity of HUVEC via the activation of PI3k/Akt pathways. The in vivo results demonstrated that SIS/MBG scaffolds significantly enhanced new bone formation and neovascularization simultaneously in critical-sized rat calvarial defects as compared to SIS/BG and SIS. Collectively, the osteostimulative and angiostimulative biomimetic composite scaffold SIS/MBG represents an exciting biomaterial option for bone regeneration.

  12. Modeling tumor-associated edema in gliomas during anti-angiogenic therapy and its impact on imageable tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eHawkins-Daarud

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of primary brain tumor is predominantly assessed with gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted (T1Gd and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Pixel intensity enhancement on the T1Gd image is understood to correspond to the gadolinium contrast agent leaking from the tumor-induced neovasculature, while hyperintensity on the T2/FLAIR images corresponds with edema and infiltrated tumor cells. None of these modalities directly show tumor cells; rather, they capture abnormalities in the microenvironment caused by the presence of tumor cells. Thus, assessing disease response after treatments impacting the microenvironment remains challenging through the obscuring lens of MR imaging. Anti-angiogenic therapies have been used in the treatment of gliomas with spurious results ranging from no apparent response to significant imaging improvement with the potential for extremely diffuse patterns of tumor recurrence on imaging and autopsy. Anti-angiogenic treatment normalizes the vasculature, effectively decreasing vessel permeability and thus reducing tumor-induced edema, drastically altering T2-weighted MRI. We extend a previously developed mathematical model of glioma growth to explicitly incorporate edema formation allowing us to directly characterize and potentially predict the effects of anti-angiogenics on imageable tumor growth. A comparison of simulated glioma growth and imaging enhancement with and without bevacizumab supports the current understanding that anti-angiogenic treatment can serve as a surrogate for steroids and the clinically-driven hypothesis that anti-angiogenic treatment may not have any significant effect on the growth dynamics of the overall tumor-cell populations. However, the simulations do illustrate a potentially large impact on the level of edematous extracellular fluid, and thus on what would be imageable on T2/FLAIR MR for tumors with lower proliferation rates.

  13. Nitric Oxide Mediates Bleomycin-Induced Angiogenesis and Pulmonary Fibrosis via Regulation of VEGF

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Anand Krishnan V.; Ramesh, Vani; Castro, Carlos A.; Kaushik, Vivek; Kulkarni, Yogesh M.; Wright, Clayton A.; Venkatadri, Rajkumar; Rojanasakul, Yon; Azad, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease hallmarked by increased fibroblast proliferation, amplified levels of extracellular matrix deposition and increased angiogenesis. Although dysregulation of angiogenic mediators has been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis, the specific rate-limiting angiogenic markers involved and their role in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis remains unclear. We demonstrate that bleomycin treatment induces angiogenesis, and inhibition of the central angiogen...

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Investigation of the Angiogenic Effects of Liraglutide during Islet Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Allan; Mura, Carole; Bietiger, William; Seyfritz, Elodie; Dollinger, Camille; Peronet, Claude; Maillard, Elisa; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Sigrist, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated the angiogenic properties of liraglutide in vitro and in vivo and the mechanisms involved, with a focus on Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Materials and Methods Rat pancreatic islets were incubated in vitro with 10 μmol/L of liraglutide (Lira) for 12, 24 and 48 h. Islet viability was studied by fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide staining and their function was assessed by glucose stimulation. The angiogenic effect of liraglutide was determined in vitro by the measure of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by the evaluation of VEGF and platelet-derived growth factor-α (PDGFα) expression with quantitative polymerase chain reaction technic. Then, in vitro and in vivo, angiogenic property of Lira was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining targeting the cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31). To understand angiogenic mechanisms involved by Lira, HIF-1α and mTOR activation were studied using western blotting. In vivo, islets (1000/kg body-weight) were transplanted into diabetic (streptozotocin) Lewis rats. Metabolic control was assessed for 1 month by measuring body-weight gain and fasting blood glucose. Results Islet viability and function were respectively preserved and enhanced (p<0.05) with Lira, versus control. Lira increased CD31-positive cells, expression of VEGF and PDGFα (p<0.05) after 24 h in culture. Increased VEGF secretion versus control was also observed at 48 h (p<0.05). Moreover, Lira activated mTOR (p<0.05) signalling pathway. In vivo, Lira improved vascular density (p<0.01), body-weight gain (p<0.01) and reduced fasting blood glucose in transplanted rats (p<0.001). Conclusion The beneficial effects of liraglutide on islets appeared to be linked to its angiogenic properties. These findings indicated that glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues could be used to improve transplanted islet revascularisation

  15. Friends Turned Foes: Angiogenic Growth Factors beyond Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkar, Pratiek N; Ariyagunarajah, Ramya; Leong-Poi, Howard; Singh, Krishna K

    2017-10-02

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones is a biological process that ensures an adequate blood flow is maintained to provide the cells with a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen within the body. Numerous soluble growth factors and inhibitors, cytokines, proteases as well as extracellular matrix proteins and adhesion molecules stringently regulate the multi-factorial process of angiogenesis. The properties and interactions of key angiogenic molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and angiopoietins have been investigated in great detail with respect to their molecular impact on angiogenesis. Since the discovery of angiogenic growth factors, much research has been focused on their biological actions and their potential use as therapeutic targets for angiogenic or anti-angiogenic strategies in a context-dependent manner depending on the pathologies. It is generally accepted that these factors play an indispensable role in angiogenesis. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that this is not their only role and it is likely that the angiogenic factors have important functions in a wider range of biological and pathological processes. The additional roles played by these molecules in numerous pathologies and biological processes beyond angiogenesis are discussed in this review.

  16. Friends Turned Foes: Angiogenic Growth Factors beyond Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiek N. Matkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones is a biological process that ensures an adequate blood flow is maintained to provide the cells with a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen within the body. Numerous soluble growth factors and inhibitors, cytokines, proteases as well as extracellular matrix proteins and adhesion molecules stringently regulate the multi-factorial process of angiogenesis. The properties and interactions of key angiogenic molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs and angiopoietins have been investigated in great detail with respect to their molecular impact on angiogenesis. Since the discovery of angiogenic growth factors, much research has been focused on their biological actions and their potential use as therapeutic targets for angiogenic or anti-angiogenic strategies in a context-dependent manner depending on the pathologies. It is generally accepted that these factors play an indispensable role in angiogenesis. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that this is not their only role and it is likely that the angiogenic factors have important functions in a wider range of biological and pathological processes. The additional roles played by these molecules in numerous pathologies and biological processes beyond angiogenesis are discussed in this review.

  17. Cyr61/CCN1 and CTGF/CCN2 mediate the pro-angiogenic activity of VHL mutant renal carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintalapudi, Mastan R.; Markiewicz, Margaret; Kose, Nurgun; Dammai, Vincent; Champion, Kristen J.; Hoda, Rana S.; Trojanowska, Maria; Hsu, Tien

    2008-01-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein serves as a negative regulator of hypoxia inducible factor-alpha subunit (HIF-α). Since HIF regulates critical angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and lesions in VHL gene are present in a majority of the highly vascularized renal cell carcinoma (RCC), it is believed that deregulation of the VHL-HIF pathway is crucial for the pro-angiogenic activity of RCC. Although VEGF has been confirmed as a critical angiogenic factor up-regulated in VHL mutant cells, the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy specifically targeting VEGF signaling remains modest. In this study we developed a three-dimensional in vitro assay to evaluate the ability of RCC cells to promote cord formation by the primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). Compared to VHL wild-type cells, VHL mutant RCC cells demonstrated a significantly increased pro-angiogenic activity, which correlated with increased secretion of Cyr61/CCN1, CTGF/CCN2 and VEGF in conditioned culture medium. Both CCN proteins are required for HDMEC cord formation as shown by RNAi knock-down experiments. Importantly, the pro-angiogenic activities conferred by the CCN proteins and VEGF are additive, suggesting non-overlapping functions. Expression of the CCN proteins is at least partly dependent on the HIF-2α function, the dominant HIF-α isoform expressed in RCC. Finally, immunohistochemical staining of Cyr61/CCN1 and CTGF/CCN2 in renal cell carcinoma tissue samples showed that increased expression of these proteins correlates with loss of VHL protein expression. These findings strengthened the notion that the hypervascularized phenotype of RCC is afforded by multiple pro-angiogenic factors that function in parallel pathways. PMID:18212329

  18. Evaluation of a Collagen-Chitosan Hydrogel for Potential Use as a Pro-Angiogenic Site for Islet Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBane, Joanne E.; Vulesevic, Branka; Padavan, Donna T.; McEwan, Kimberly A.; Korbutt, Gregory S.; Suuronen, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    Islet transplantation to treat type 1 diabetes (T1D) has shown varied long-term success, due in part to insufficient blood supply to maintain the islets. In the current study, collagen and collagen:chitosan (10:1) hydrogels, +/- circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), were compared for their ability to produce a pro-angiogenic environment in a streptozotocin-induced mouse model of T1D. Initial characterization showed that collagen-chitosan gels were mechanically stronger than the collagen gels (0.7kPa vs. 0.4kPa elastic modulus, respectively), had more cross-links (9.2 vs. 7.4/µm2), and were degraded more slowly by collagenase. After gelation with CACs, live/dead staining showed greater CAC viability in the collagen-chitosan gels after 18h compared to collagen (79% vs. 69%). In vivo, collagen-chitosan gels, subcutaneously implanted for up to 6 weeks in a T1D mouse, showed increased levels of pro-angiogenic cytokines over time. By 6 weeks, anti-islet cytokine levels were decreased in all matrix formulations ± CACs. The 6-week implants demonstrated increased expression of VCAM-1 in collagen-chitosan implants. Despite this, infiltrating vWF+ and CXCR4+ angiogenic cell numbers were not different between the implant types, which may be due to a delayed and reduced cytokine response in a T1D versus non-diabetic setting. The mechanical, degradation and cytokine data all suggest that the collagen-chitosan gel may be a suitable candidate for use as a pro-angiogenic ectopic islet transplant site. PMID:24204863

  19. Evaluation of a collagen-chitosan hydrogel for potential use as a pro-angiogenic site for islet transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne E McBane

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation to treat type 1 diabetes (T1D has shown varied long-term success, due in part to insufficient blood supply to maintain the islets. In the current study, collagen and collagen:chitosan (10:1 hydrogels, +/- circulating angiogenic cells (CACs, were compared for their ability to produce a pro-angiogenic environment in a streptozotocin-induced mouse model of T1D. Initial characterization showed that collagen-chitosan gels were mechanically stronger than the collagen gels (0.7 kPa vs. 0.4 kPa elastic modulus, respectively, had more cross-links (9.2 vs. 7.4/µm(2, and were degraded more slowly by collagenase. After gelation with CACs, live/dead staining showed greater CAC viability in the collagen-chitosan gels after 18 h compared to collagen (79% vs. 69%. In vivo, collagen-chitosan gels, subcutaneously implanted for up to 6 weeks in a T1D mouse, showed increased levels of pro-angiogenic cytokines over time. By 6 weeks, anti-islet cytokine levels were decreased in all matrix formulations ± CACs. The 6-week implants demonstrated increased expression of VCAM-1 in collagen-chitosan implants. Despite this, infiltrating vWF(+ and CXCR4(+ angiogenic cell numbers were not different between the implant types, which may be due to a delayed and reduced cytokine response in a T1D versus non-diabetic setting. The mechanical, degradation and cytokine data all suggest that the collagen-chitosan gel may be a suitable candidate for use as a pro-angiogenic ectopic islet transplant site.

  20. Definition of the "Drug-Angiogenic-Activity-Index" that allows the quantification of the positive and negative angiogenic active drugs: a study based on the chorioallantoic membrane model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Resit; Peros, Georgios; Hohenberger, Werner

    2011-06-01

    Since the introduction of the angiogenic therapy by Folkman et al. in the 1970'ies many antiangiogenic drugs were identified. Only few of them are still now in clinical use. Also the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), the cytokine with the highest angiogenic activity, has been identified. Its antagonist, Bevacizumab, is produced and admitted for the angiogenic therapy in first line for metastatic colorectal cancer. When we look at preclinical studies, they fail of in vivo models that define the "Drug-Angiogenic-Activity-Index" of angiogenic or antiangiogenic drugs. This work proposes a possible standardized procedure to define the "Drug Angiogenic Activity Index" by counting the vascular intersections (VIS) on the Chorioallantoic Membrane after drug application. The equation was defined as follows: {ΔVIS[Drug]-ΔVIS[Control]} / Δ VIS[Control]. For VEGF a Drug-Angiogenic-Activity-Index of 0.92 was found and for Bevacizumab a -1. This means almost that double of the naturally angiogenic activity was achieved by VEGF on the Chorioallantoic membrane. A complete blocking of naturally angiogenic activity was observed after Bevacizumabs application. Establishing the "Drug-Angiogenic-Activity-Index" in the preclinical phase will give us an impact of effectiveness for the new constructed antiangiogenic drugs like the impact of effectiveness in the cortisone family.

  1. Chronic hypoxia attenuates VEGF signaling and angiogenic responses by downregulation of KDR in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska-Pazdrak, Barbara; Hein, Travis W; Olszewska, Paulina; Carney, Darrell H

    2009-05-01

    Coronary artery disease results in progressive vascular stenosis associated with chronic myocardial ischemia. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates endothelial cell angiogenic responses to revascularize ischemic tissues; however, the effect of chronic hypoxia on the responsiveness of endothelial cells to VEGF remains unclear. We, therefore, investigated whether hypoxia alters VEGF-stimulated signaling and angiogenic responses in primary human coronary artery endothelial (HCAE) cells. Exposure of HCAE cells to hypoxia (1% O(2)) for 24 h decreased VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration ( approximately 82%), proliferation ( approximately 30%), and tube formation. Hypoxia attenuated VEGF-stimulated activation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) ( approximately 72%) and reduced NO production in VEGF-stimulated cells from 237 +/- 38.8 to 61.3 +/- 28.4 nmol/l. Moreover, hypoxia also decreased the ratio of phosphorylated eNOS to total eNOS in VEGF-stimulated cells by approximately 50%. This effect was not observed in thrombin-stimulated cells, suggesting that hypoxia specifically inhibited VEGF signaling upstream of eNOS phosphorylation. VEGF-induced activation of Akt, ERK1/2, p38, p70S6 kinases, and S6 ribosomal protein was also attenuated in hypoxic cells. Moreover, VEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 (KDR) at Y996 and Y1175 was decreased by hypoxia. This decrease correlated with a 70 +/- 12% decrease in KDR protein expression. Analysis of mRNA from these cells showed that hypoxia reduced steady-state levels of KDR mRNA by 52 +/- 16% and decreased mRNA stability relative to normoxic cells. Our findings demonstrate that chronic hypoxia attenuates VEGF-stimulated signaling in HCAE cells by specific downregulation of KDR expression. These data provide a novel explanation for the impaired angiogenic responses to VEGF in endothelial cells exposed to chronic hypoxia.

  2. Fibroblasts derived from human pluripotent stem cells activate angiogenic responses in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Shamis

    Full Text Available Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESC/hiPSC are promising cell sources for the derivation of large numbers of specific cell types for tissue engineering and cell therapy applications. We have describe a directed differentiation protocol that generates fibroblasts from both hESC and hiPSC (EDK/iPDK that support the repair and regeneration of epithelial tissue in engineered, 3D skin equivalents. In the current study, we analyzed the secretory profiles of EDK and iPDK cells to investigate the production of factors that activate and promote angiogenesis. Analysis of in vitro secretion profiles from EDK and iPDK cells demonstrated the elevated secretion of pro-angiogenic soluble mediators, including VEGF, HGF, IL-8, PDGF-AA, and Ang-1, that stimulated endothelial cell sprouting in a 3D model of angiogenesis in vitro. Phenotypic analysis of EDK and iPDK cells during the course of differentiation from hESCs and iPSCs revealed that both cell types progressively acquired pericyte lineage markers NG2, PDGFRβ, CD105, and CD73 and demonstrated transient induction of pericyte progenitor markers CD31, CD34, and Flk1/VEGFR2. Furthermore, when co-cultured with endothelial cells in 3D fibrin-based constructs, EDK and iPDK cells promoted self-assembly of vascular networks and vascular basement membrane deposition. Finally, transplantation of EDK cells into mice with hindlimb ischemia significantly reduced tissue necrosis and improved blood perfusion, demonstrating the potential of these cells to stimulate angiogenic responses in vivo. These findings demonstrate that stable populations of pericyte-like angiogenic cells can be generated with high efficiency from hESC and hiPSC using a directed differentiation approach. This provides new cell sources and opportunities for vascular tissue engineering and for the development of novel strategies in regenerative medicine.

  3. Angiogenic factors stimulate growth of adult neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Androutsellis-Theotokis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to grow a uniform cell type from the adult central nervous system (CNS is valuable for developing cell therapies and new strategies for drug discovery. The adult mammalian brain is a source of neural stem cells (NSC found in both neurogenic and non-neurogenic zones but difficulties in culturing these hinders their use as research tools.Here we show that NSCs can be efficiently grown in adherent cell cultures when angiogenic signals are included in the medium. These signals include both anti-angiogenic factors (the soluble form of the Notch receptor ligand, Dll4 and pro-angiogenic factors (the Tie-2 receptor ligand, Angiopoietin 2. These treatments support the self renewal state of cultured NSCs and expression of the transcription factor Hes3, which also identifies the cancer stem cell population in human tumors. In an organotypic slice model, angiogenic factors maintain vascular structure and increase the density of dopamine neuron processes.We demonstrate new properties of adult NSCs and a method to generate efficient adult NSC cultures from various central nervous system areas. These findings will help establish cellular models relevant to cancer and regeneration.

  4. Short-term hypoxia/reoxygenation activates the angiogenic pathway ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-20

    Apr 20, 2013 ... Adult Wistar rats were submitted to acute hypoxia and analysed after 0 h, 24 h and 5 days of reoxygenation. Expression ... angiogenic pathway in the rat caudate putamen as a neuroprotective mechanism to hypoxia that seeks to maintain a ... ical, cardiovascular, and respiratory disorders (Mathur et al. 1999 ...

  5. Study of angiogenic factors: Vascular endothelia growth factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pre-therapeutic serum levels of the angiogenic factors VEGF and bFGF were detected in the sera of HCC patients to find new markers to be used for diagnosis of HCC, and were compared with the routinely used tumor markers used for diagnosis of HCC as AFP, CEA, and CA19.9. The relation between the serum levels ...

  6. Angiogenic monocytes: another colorful blow to endothelial progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrevoets, Anton J. G.

    2009-01-01

    This Commentary provides perspective on a related article by Sun-Jin Kim and coworkers (Am J Pathol: 172 AJP08-0819), who assess the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to tumor angiogenesis in a physiologic, non-myeloablative setting and conclude that the actual angiogenic cell type

  7. Antiretroviral therapy and HIV-associated cancers: Anti- angiogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thalidomide (83 %) (F = 1.000, p = 0.341). Conclusion: Being a first-line drug in both HAART and combination treatment of HIV-1, efavirenz may ... reported for lung cancers [6] in relation to the use of “highly active antiretroviral therapy” .... longer showed angiogenic activity in the CAM but instead, had excessive fibrotic tissue ...

  8. PlGF repairs myocardial ischemia through mechanisms of angiogenesis, cardioprotection and recruitment of myo-angiogenic competent marrow progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Despite preclinical success in regenerating and revascularizing the infarcted heart using angiogenic growth factors or bone marrow (BM cells, recent clinical trials have revealed less benefit from these therapies than expected.We explored the therapeutic potential of myocardial gene therapy of placental growth factor (PlGF, a VEGF-related angiogenic growth factor, with progenitor-mobilizing activity.Myocardial PlGF gene therapy improves cardiac performance after myocardial infarction, by inducing cardiac repair and reparative myoangiogenesis, via upregulation of paracrine anti-apoptotic and angiogenic factors. In addition, PlGF therapy stimulated Sca-1(+/Lin(- (SL BM progenitor proliferation, enhanced their mobilization into peripheral blood, and promoted their recruitment into the peri-infarct borders. Moreover, PlGF enhanced endothelial progenitor colony formation of BM-derived SL cells, and induced a phenotypic switch of BM-SL cells, recruited in the infarct, to the endothelial, smooth muscle and cardiomyocyte lineage.Such pleiotropic effects of PlGF on cardiac repair and regeneration offer novel opportunities in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  9. VEGF121b and VEGF165b are weakly angiogenic isoforms of VEGF-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pio Ruben

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different isoforms of VEGF-A (mainly VEGF121, VEGF165 and VEGF189 have been shown to display particular angiogenic properties in the generation of a functional tumor vasculature. Recently, a novel class of VEGF-A isoforms, designated as VEGFxxxb, generated through alternative splicing, have been described. Previous studies have suggested that these isoforms may inhibit angiogenesis. In the present work we have produced recombinant VEGF121/165b proteins in the yeast Pichia pastoris and constructed vectors to overexpress these isoforms and assess their angiogenic potential. Results Recombinant VEGF121/165b proteins generated either in yeasts or mammalian cells activated VEGFR2 and its downstream effector ERK1/2, although to a lesser extent than VEGF165. Furthermore, treatment of endothelial cells with VEGF121/165b increased cell proliferation compared to untreated cells, although such stimulation was lower than that induced by VEGF165. Moreover, in vivo angiogenesis assays confirmed angiogenesis stimulation by VEGF121/165b isoforms. A549 and PC-3 cells overexpressing VEGF121b or VEGF165b (or carrying the PCDNA3.1 empty vector, as control and xenotransplanted into nude mice showed increased tumor volume and angiogenesis compared to controls. To assess whether the VEGFxxxb isoforms are differentially expressed in tumors compared to healthy tissues, immunohistochemical analysis was conducted on a breast cancer tissue microarray. A significant increase (p xxxb and total VEGF-A protein expression in infiltrating ductal carcinomas compared to normal breasts was observed. A positive significant correlation (r = 0.404, p = 0.033 between VEGFxxxb and total VEGF-A was found. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that VEGF121/165b are not anti-angiogenic, but weakly angiogenic isoforms of VEGF-A. In addition, VEGFxxxb isoforms are up-regulated in breast cancer in comparison with non malignant breast tissues. These results are to be taken

  10. The pro-angiogenic properties of multi-functional bioactive glass composite scaffolds

    KAUST Repository

    Gerhardt, Lutz Christian

    2011-06-01

    The angiogenic properties of micron-sized (m-BG) and nano-sized (n-BG) bioactive glass (BG) filled poly(D,L lactide) (PDLLA) composites were investigated. On the basis of cell culture work investigating the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by human fibroblasts in contact with composite films (0, 5, 10, 20 wt %), porous 3D composite scaffolds, optimised with respect to the BG filler content capable of inducing angiogenic response, were produced. The in vivo vascularisation of the scaffolds was studied in a rat animal model and quantified using stereological analyses. The prepared scaffolds had high porosities (81-93%), permeability (k = 5.4-8.6 × 10-9 m2) and compressive strength values (0.4-1.6 MPa) all in the range of trabecular bone. On composite films containing 20 wt % m-BG or n-BG, human fibroblasts produced 5 times higher VEGF than on pure PDLLA films. After 8 weeks of implantation, m-BG and n-BG containing scaffolds were well-infiltrated with newly formed tissue and demonstrated higher vascularisation and percentage blood vessel to tissue (11.6-15.1%) than PDLLA scaffolds (8.5%). This work thus shows potential for the regeneration of hard-soft tissue defects and increased bone formation arising from enhanced vascularisation of the construct. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. YKL-40 acts as an angiogenic factor to promote tumor angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Rong

    2013-01-01

    A secreted glycoprotein YKL-40 also named chitinase-3-like-1 is normally expressed by multiple cell types such as macrophages, chondrocytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells. However, a prominently high level of YKL-40 was found in a wide spectrum of human diseases including cancers and chronic inflammatory diseases where it was strongly expressed by cancerous cells and infiltrating macrophages. Here, we summarized recent important findings of YKL-40 derived from cancerous cells and smooth muscle cells during tumor angiogenesis and development. YKL-40 is a potent angiogenic factor capable of stimulating tumor vascularization mediated by endothelial cells and maintaining vascular integrity supported by smooth muscle cells. In addition, YKL-40 induces FAK-MAPK signaling and up-regulates VEGF receptor 2 in endothelial cells; but a neutralizing antibody (mAY) against YKL-40 inhibits its angiogenic activity. While YKL-40 is essential for angiogenesis, little is known about its functional role in tumor-associated macrophage (TAM)-mediated tumor development. Therefore, significant efforts are urgently needed to identify pathophysiological function of YKL-40 in the dynamic interaction between tumor cells and TAMs in the tumor microenvironment, which may offer substantial mechanistic insights into tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, and also point to a therapeutic target for treatment of cancers and other diseases. PMID:23755018

  12. Glycer-AGEs-RAGE signaling enhances the angiogenic potential of hepatocellular carcinoma by upregulating VEGF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takino, Junichi; Yamagishi, Shoichi; Takeuchi, Masayoshi

    2012-04-21

    To investigate the effect of glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end-products (Glycer-AGEs) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Two HCC cell lines (Hep3B and HepG2 cells) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used. Cell viability was determined using the WST-8 assay. Western blotting, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions were used to detect protein and mRNA. Angiogenesis was evaluated by assessing the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of HUVEC. The receptor for AGEs (RAGE) protein was detected in Hep3B and HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were not affected by the addition of Glycer-AGEs. Glycer-AGEs markedly increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein expression, which is one of the most potent angiogenic factors. Compared with the control unglycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) treatment, VEGF mRNA expression levels induced by the Glycer-AGEs treatment were 1.00 ± 0.10 vs 1.92 ± 0.09 (P RAGE signaling enhances the angiogenic potential of HCC cells by upregulating VEGF expression.

  13. Inhibition of Lysyl Oxidases Impairs Migration and Angiogenic Properties of Tumor-Associated Pericytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lopes Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericytes are important cellular components of the tumor microenviroment with established roles in angiogenesis and metastasis. These two cancer hallmarks are modulated by enzymes of the LOX family, but thus far, information about LOX relevance in tumor-associated pericytes is lacking. Here, we performed a comparative characterization of normal and tumoral pericytes and report for the first time the modulatory effects of LOX enzymes on activated pericyte properties. Tumoral pericytes isolated from childhood ependymoma and neuroblastoma specimens displayed angiogenic properties in vitro and expressed typical markers, including CD146, NG2, and PDGFRβ. Expression of all LOX family members could be detected in both normal and tumor-associated pericytes. In most pericyte samples, LOXL3 was the family member displaying the highest transcript levels. Inhibition of LOX/LOXL activity with the inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile (βAPN significantly reduced migration of pericytes, while proliferation rates were kept unaltered. Formation of tube-like structures in vitro by pericytes was also significantly impaired upon inhibition of LOX/LOXL activity with βAPN, which induced more prominent effects in tumor-associated pericytes. These findings reveal a novel involvement of the LOX family of enzymes in migration and angiogenic properties of pericytes, with implications in tumor development and in therapeutic targeting tumor microenvironment constituents.

  14. Type 2 diabetes alters mesenchymal stem cell secretome composition and angiogenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Jonathan; Caliaperoumal, Guavri; Paquet, Joseph; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine; Petite, Herve; Anagnostou, Fani

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC) secretome and angiogenic properties. BMMSCs from Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF) (a T2DM model) and Zucker LEAN littermates (control) were cultured. The supernatant conditioned media (CM) from BMMSCs of diabetic and control rats were collected and analysed. Compared to results obtained using CM from LEAN-BMMSCs, the bioactive content of ZDF-BMMSC CM (i) differently affects endothelial cell (HUVEC) functions in vitro by inducing increased (3.5-fold; P CATD, FMOD LTBP1 and LTBP2, which are involved in angiogenesis and/or extracellular matrix composition. Addition of neutralizing antibodies against IGF-1, LTBP1 or LTBP2 in the CM of BMMSCs from diabetic rats decreased its stimulatory effect on HUVEC migration by approximately 60%, 40% or 40%, respectively. These results demonstrate that BMMSCs from T2DM rats have a unique secretome with distinct angiogenic properties and provide new insights into the role of BMMSCs in aberrant angiogenesis in the diabetic milieu. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  15. Multifunction Sr, Co and F co-doped microporous coating on titanium of antibacterial, angiogenic and osteogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianhong; Zhao, Lingzhou

    2016-06-29

    Advanced multifunction titanium (Ti) based bone implant with antibacterial, angiogenic and osteogenic activities is stringently needed in clinic, which may be accomplished via incorporation of proper inorganic bioactive elements. In this work, microporous TiO2/calcium-phosphate coating on Ti doped with strontium, cobalt and fluorine (SCF-TiCP) was developed, which had a hierarchical micro/nano-structure with a microporous structure evenly covered with nano-grains. SCF-TiCP greatly inhibited the colonization and growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. No cytotoxicity appeared for SCF-TiCP. Furthermore, SCF-TiCP stimulated the expression of key angiogenic factors in rat bone marrow stem cells (MSCs) and dramatically enhanced MSC osteogenic differentiation. The in vivo animal test displayed that SCF-TiCP induced more new bone and tighter implant/bone bonding. In conclusion, multifunction SCF-TiCP of antibacterial, angiogenic and osteogenic activities is a promising orthopedic and dental Ti implant coating for improved clinical performance.

  16. Ferulic Acid Exerts Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Tumor Activity by Targeting Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1-Mediated Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Song; Lu, Wei-Qin

    2015-10-12

    Most anti-angiogenic therapies currently being evaluated target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway; however, the tumor vasculature can acquire resistance to VEGF-targeted therapy by shifting to other angiogenesis mechanisms. Therefore, other therapeutic agents that block non-VEGF angiogenic pathways need to be evaluated. Here, we identified ferulic acid as a novel fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) inhibitor and a novel agent with potential anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer activities. Ferulic acid demonstrated inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in response to basic fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). In ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis assays, ferulic acid suppressed FGF1-induced microvessel sprouting of rat aortic rings and angiogenesis. To understand the underlying molecular basis, we examined the effects of ferulic acid on different molecular components and found that ferulic acid suppressed FGF1-triggered activation of FGFR1 and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling. Moreover, ferulic acid directly inhibited proliferation and blocked the PI3K-Akt pathway in melanoma cell. In vivo, using a melanoma xenograft model, ferulic acid showed growth-inhibitory activity associated with inhibition of angiogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate that ferulic acid targets the FGFR1-mediated PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, leading to the suppression of melanoma growth and angiogenesis.

  17. The association between angiogenic markers and fetal sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Jørgensen, J S; Herse, F

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current research suggests sexual dimorphism between the male and female fetoplacental units, but with unknown relevance for preeclampsia. We investigated the association between fetal sex and concentrations of the angiogenic markers soluble Fms-like kinase 1 (sFlt-1), placental growth...... factor (PlGF), and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in first and second-third trimester in women with/without preeclampsia, and the impact of fetal sex on the prognostic value of angiogenic markers for preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study in a prospective, population-based cohort of 2110 singleton...... (preeclampsia cases) associated with fetal sex in adjusted analyses (pfetal sex (all, p=0.028; preeclampsia, p=0.067) In receiver operating curve analysis, prediction of early-onset preeclampsia by sFlt-1/PlGF tended to be superior...

  18. Endothelial cell division in angiogenic sprouts of differing cellular architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Aydogan, Vahap; Lenard, Anna; Denes, Alexandru Stefan; Sauteur, Loic; Belting, Heinz-Georg; Affolter, Markus

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The vasculature of the zebrafish trunk is composed of tubes with different cellular architectures. Unicellular tubes form their lumen through membrane invagination and transcellular cell hollowing, whereas multicellular vessels become lumenized through a chord hollowing process. Endothelial cell proliferation is essential for the subsequent growth and maturation of the blood vessels. However, how cell division, lumen formation and cell rearrangement are coordinated during angiogenic ...

  19. Prevention of the Angiogenic Switch in Human Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    breast cancers, the angiogenic switch can be detected at a microscopic size by a significant increase in bFGF in platelet alpha granules. (5) We have...ang- iogenesis dependent, for example, infantile haemangiomas6, peptic ulcers7, ocular neovascularization8, rheumatoid arthritis9 and...for early detection of tumour recurrence. In tumour-bearing mice, the platelet-ang- iogenesis proteome detects microscopic tumours at a millimetre

  20. Biomarkers in Tumor Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pircher, Andreas; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Heidegger, Isabel; Drevs, Joachim; Tichelli, André; Medinger, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis has been identified to play a critical role in tumor growth and tumor progression, and is regulated by a balance of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic cytokines. Among them VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and its signaling through its receptors are of crucial relevance. Inhibition of VEGF signaling by monoclonal antibodies or small molecules (kinase inhibitors) has already been successfully established for the treatment of different cancer entities and multiple new drugs are being tested in clinical trials. However not all patients are likely to respond to these therapies, but to date there are no reliable biomarkers available to predict therapy response. Many studies integrated biomarker programs in their study protocols, thus several potential biomarkers have been identified which are currently under clinical investigation in prospective randomized studies. This review intends to give an overview of the described potential biomarkers as well as different imaging techniques such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging that can indicate benefit, resistance and toxicity to anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:22072937

  1. A biomimetic collagen derived peptide exhibits anti-angiogenic activity in triple negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Rosca

    Full Text Available We investigated the application of a mimetic 20 amino acid peptide derived from type IV collagen for treatment of breast cancer. We showed that the peptide induced a decrease of proliferation, adhesion, and migration of endothelial and tumor cells in vitro. We also observed an inhibition of triple negative MDA-MB-231 xenograft growth by 75% relative to control when administered intraperitoneally for 27 days at 10 mg/kg. We monitored in vivo the changes in vascular properties throughout the treatment using MRI and found that the vascular volume and permeability surface area product decreased significantly. The treatment also resulted in an increase of caspase-3 activity and in a reduction of microvascular density. The multiple mode of action of this peptide, i.e., anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumorigenic, makes it a viable candidate as a therapeutic agent as a monotherapy or in combination with other compounds.

  2. Extracellular histones reduce survival and angiogenic responses of late outgrowth progenitor and mature endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, H A; Carestia, A; Scotti, L; Parborell, F; Schattner, M; Negrotto, S

    2016-02-01

    ESSENTIALS: Extracellular histones are highly augmented in sites of neovessel formation, such as regeneration tissues. We studied histone effect on survival and angiogenic activity of mature and progenitor endothelial cells. Extracellular histones trigger apoptosis and pyroptosis and reduce angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Histone blockade can be useful as a therapeutic strategy to improve angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. Extracellular histones are highly augmented in sites of neovessel formation, like regeneration tissues. Their cytotoxic effect has been studied in endothelial cells, although the mechanism involved and their action on endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) remain unknown. To study the effect of histones on ECFC survival and angiogenic functions and compare it with mature endothelial cells. Nuclear morphology analysis showed that each human recombinant histone triggered both apoptotic-like and necrotic-like cell deaths in both mature and progenitor endothelial cells. While H1 and H2A exerted a weak toxicity, H2B, H3 and H4 were the most powerful. The percentage of apoptosis correlated with the percentage of ECFCs exhibiting caspase-3 activation and was zeroed by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Necrotic-like cell death was also suppressed by this compound and the caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK, indicating that histones triggered ECFC pyroptosis. All histones, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, reduced migration and H2B, H3 and H4 induced cell cycle arrest and impaired tubulogenesis via p38 activation. Neutrophil-derived histones exerted similar effects. In vivo blood vessel formation in the quail chorioallantoic membrane was also reduced by H2B, H3 and H4. Their cytotoxic and antiangiogenic effects were suppressed by unfractioned and low-molecular-weight heparins and the combination of TLR2 and TLR4 blocking antibodies. Histones trigger both apoptosis and pyroptosis of ECFCs and inhibit their angiogenic functions. Their cytotoxic and

  3. Perforated Gastric Ulcer Associated with Anti-Angiogenic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Libânio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor, is commonly used in metastatic colorectal cancer and is rarely associated with gastrointestinal perforation, perforation being more frequent in the primary tumor site or at the anastomotic level. We present the case of a 64-year-old male with stage IV rectal adenocarcinoma who was on palliative chemotherapy with FOLFOX and bevacizumab. After the 4th chemotherapy cycle, our patient started fever and epigastric pain. He was hemodynamically stable, and signs of peritoneal irritation were absent. There were no alterations in the abdominal X-ray, and C-reactive protein was markedly elevated. A CT scan revealed a de novo thickness in the gastric antrum. Upper digestive endoscopy showed an ulcerated 40-mm lesion in the angulus, with a 20-mm orifice communicating with an exsudative cavity revested by the omentum. A conservative approach was decided including fasting, broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, and proton-pump inhibitors. Subsequent gastroduodenal series showed no contrast extravasation, allowing the resumption of oral nutrition. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy after 8 weeks showed perforation closure. Biopsies did not show neoplastic cells or Heliobacter pylori infection. Although the success in the conservative management of perforation allowing the maintenance of palliative chemotherapy (without bevacizumab, the patient died after 4 months due to liver failure. The reported case shows an uncommon endoscopic finding due to a rare complication of anti-angiogenic therapy. Additionally, it reminds clinicians that a history of gastroduodenal ulcers should be actively sought before starting anti-angiogenic treatment and that suspicion for perforation should be high in these cases.

  4. Sequential plasma angiogenic factors levels in women with suspected preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltajian, Kedak; Bajracharya, Surichhya; Salahuddin, Saira; Berg, Anders H; Geahchan, Carl; Wenger, Julia B; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Rana, Sarosh

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in circulating angiogenic factors are associated with the diagnosis of preeclampsia and correlate with adverse perinatal outcomes during the third trimester. Analysis of the sequential levels of plasma angiogenic factors among patients admitted for evaluation of preeclampsia. We performed an observational study among women with singleton pregnancies admitted to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, for evaluation of preeclampsia at less than 37 weeks of gestation. Plasma samples were collected on admission and daily for the first 3 days and then weekly until delivery. Doppler ultrasound was performed on admission (within 48 hours) and then weekly (within 24 hours of blood collection) to evaluate uteroplacental and umbilical blood flows. Maternal demographics, hospital course, mode of delivery, diagnosis of hypertensive disorder, adverse maternal outcomes (elevated liver function enzymes, low platelet count, pulmonary edema, cerebral hemorrhage, convulsion, acute renal insufficiency, or maternal death), and adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes (small for gestational age, abnormal umbilical artery Doppler, fetal death, and neonatal death) were recorded. Circulating angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase and placental growth factor were measured on automated platform in a single batch after delivery and in a blinded fashion. Data are presented as median (25th to 75th centile), mean, or proportions as appropriate. During the study period, data from 100 women were analyzed for the study, and 43 had adverse outcomes. Women with adverse outcomes had lower gestational age of delivery, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures during hospitalization, and lower birthweight and placental weight (all P preeclampsia, women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes have higher soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase/placental growth factor ratio on admission, which continued to rise until delivery. Women with high soluble fms-like tyrosine

  5. Expression and production of cardiac angiogenic mediators depend on the Trypanosoma cruzi-genetic population in experimental C57BL/6 mice infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Deena; Bajracharya, Bijay; Paula-Costa, Guilherme; Salles, Beatriz C; Leite, Ana Luísa J; Menezes, Ana Paula J; Souza, Débora Ms; Oliveira, Laser Am; Talvani, André

    2017-03-01

    Mammalian cardiac cells are important targets to the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The inflammatory reaction in the host aims at eliminating this parasite, can lead to cell destruction, fibrosis and hypoxia. Local hypoxia is well-defined stimulus to the production of angiogenesis mediators. Assuming that different genetic T. cruzi populations induce distinct inflammation and disease patterns, the current study aims to investigate whether the production of inflammatory and angiogenic mediators is a parasite strain-dependent condition. C57BL/6 mice were infected with the Y and Colombian strains of T. cruzi and euthanized at the 12th and 32nd days, respectively. The blood and heart tissue were processed in immune assays and/or qPCR (TNF, IL-17, IL-10, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCR2, CCR5 and angiogenic factors VEGF, Ang-1, Ang-2) and in histological assays. The T. cruzi increased the inflammatory and angiogenic mediators in the infected mice when they were compared to non-infected animals. However, the Colombian strain has led to higher (i) leukocyte infiltration, (ii) cardiac TNF and CCL5 production/expression, (iii) cardiac tissue parasitism, and to higher (iv) ratio between heart/body weights. On the other hand, the Colombian strain has caused lower production and expression VEGF, Ang-1 and Ang-2, when it was compared to the Y strain of the parasite. The present study highlights that the T. cruzi-genetic population defines the pattern of angiogenic/inflammatory mediators in the heart tissue, and that it may contribute to the magnitude of the cardiac pathogenesis. Besides, such assumption opens windows to the understanding of the angiogenic mediator's role in association with the experimental T. cruzi infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. NI-23BRAIN BREAST METASTASES RESPOND TO ANTI-ANGIOGENIC THERAPY BY MODES OF VASCULAR NORMALIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emblem, Kyrre; Pinho, Marco; Chandra, Vyshak; Gerstner, Elizabeth; Stufflebeam, Steve; Sorenson, Greg; Harris, Gordon; Freedman, Rachel; Sohl, Jessica; Younger, Jerry; Krop, Ian; Winer, Eric; Lin, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As systemic therapy improves, brain metastases are increasingly common in patients with breast cancer. Unfortunately, effective therapy with durable control has remained elusive [1]. Combining bevacizumab and cyototoxic chemotherapy is an appealing approach as the anti-angiogenic effect of bevicizumab may improve delivery of cytotoxic drugs to brain tumors. METHODS: We conducted a Phase II study of patients with parenchymal brain metastasis treated with bevacizumab and carboplatin [2]. Patients could have any hormone receptor status or any number of prior therapies. Patients with HER2+ breast cancer also received trastuzamab. Correlative perfusion MRI scans to look at tumor perfusion, blood volume, vessel calibers and relative oxygen saturation (ΔSO2) levels were performed at baseline, day 1, and after 2 months of therapy [3, 4]. For consistency, the largest contrast-enhancing lesion in each patient visible on all three MR visits was selected for analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in the study of which 32 had, paired evaluable imaging datasets. Compared to baseline, 12/32 patients were identified as responders by a durable increase in ΔSO2 levels at day 1 and at 2 months above a 5% measurement error threshold. The remaining patients were identified by stable (15/32) or reduced (5/32) ΔSO2 levels. Patients responding to therapy showed increased tumor perfusion (Mann-Whitney; P10 µm) were seen across all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to primary brain tumors [2, 3], perfusion MRI demonstrates that anti-angiogenic therapy can induce vascular normalization in a subset of patients with metastatic breast cancer to the brain. Our data indicate that the vascular response may also be associated with improved survival. [1] Lin NU, Lancet Oncol 2013 [2] Sorensen AG, Cancer Res 2012 [3] Emblem KE, Nat Med 2013

  7. Blue-light filtering alters angiogenic signaling in human retinal pigmented epithelial cells culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Natalia; Siblini, Aya; Esposito, Evangelina; Bravo-Filho, Vasco; Zoroquiain, Pablo; Aldrees, Sultan; Logan, Patrick; Arias, Lluis; Burnier, Miguel N

    2017-11-02

    Light exposure and more specifically the spectrum of blue light contribute to the oxidative stress in Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of the study was to establish whether blue light filtering could modify proangiogenic signaling produced by retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells under different conditions simulating risk factors for AMD. Three experiments were carried out in order to expose ARPE-19 cells to white light for 48 h with and without blue light-blocking filters (BLF) in different conditions. In each experiment one group was exposed to light with no BLF protection, a second group was exposed to light with BLF protection, and a control group was not exposed to light. The ARPE-19 cells used in each experiment prior to light exposure were cultured for 24 h as follows: Experiment 1) Normoxia, Experiment 2) Hypoxia, and Experiment 3) Lutein supplemented media in normoxia. The media of all groups was harvested after light exposure for sandwich ELISA-based assays to quantify 10 pro-angiogenic cytokines. A significant decrease in angiogenin secretion levels and a significant increase in bFGF were observed following light exposure, compared to dark conditions, in both normoxia and hypoxia conditions. With the addition of a blue light-blocking filter in normoxia, a significant increase in angiogenin levels was observed. Although statistical significance was not achieved, blue light filters reduce light-induced secretion of bFGF and VEGF to near normal levels. This trend is also observed when ARPE-19 cells are grown under hypoxic conditions and when pre-treated with lutein prior to exposure to experimental conditions. Following light exposure, there is a decrease in angiogenin secretion by ARPE-19 cells, which was abrogated with a blue light - blocking filter. Our findings support the position that blue light filtering affects the secretion of angiogenic factors by retinal pigmented epithelial cells under normoxic, hypoxic, and lutein

  8. Proteomic analysis of exosomes from nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell identifies intercellular transfer of angiogenic proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Yuk-kit

    2015-04-01

    Exosomes, a group of secreted extracellular nanovesicles containing genetic materials and signaling molecules, play a critical role in intercellular communication. During tumorigenesis, exosomes have been demonstrated to promote tumor angiogenesis and metastasis while their biological functions in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of NPC-derived exosomes on angiogenesis. Exosomes derived from the NPC C666-1 cells and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NP69 and NP460) were isolated using ultracentrifugation. The molecular profile and biophysical characteristics of exosomes were verified by Western blotting, sucrose density gradient, and electron microscopy. We showed that the C666-1 exosomes (10 and 20 μg/ml) could significantly increase the tubulogenesis, migration and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequently, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in C666-1 exosomes. Among the 640 identified proteins, 51 and 89 proteins were considered as up- and down-regulated (≥ 1.5-fold variations) in C666-1 exosomes compared to the normal counterparts, respectively. As expected, pro-angiogenic proteins including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and CD44 variant isoform 5 (CD44v5) are among the up-regulated proteins, whereas angio-suppressive protein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) was down-regulated in C666-1 exosomes. Further confocal microscopic study and Western blotting clearly demonstrated that the alteration of ICAM-1, and TSP-1 expressions in recipient HUVECs are due to internalization of exosomes. Taken together, these data strongly indicated the critical roles of identified angiogenic proteins in the involvement of exosomes-induced angiogenesis, which could potentially be developed as therapeutic targets in future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Zinc-chelation contributes to the anti-angiogenic effect of ellagic acid on inhibiting MMP-2 activity, cell migration and tube formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Teng Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ellagic acid (EA, a dietary polyphenolic compound, has been demonstrated to exert anti-angiogenic effect but the detailed mechanism is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the zinc chelating activity of EA contributed to its anti-angiogenic effect. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2 activity, a zinc-required reaction, was directly inhibited by EA as examined by gelatin zymography, which was reversed dose-dependently by adding zinc chloride. In addition, EA was demonstrated to inhibit the secretion of MMP-2 from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs as analyzed by Western blot method, which was also reversed by the addition of zinc chloride. Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK, known to down-regulate the MMP-2 activity, was induced by EA at both the mRNA and protein levels which was correlated well with the inhibition of MMP-2 activity. Interestingly, zinc chloride could also abolish the increase of EA-induced RECK expression. The anti-angiogenic effect of EA was further confirmed to inhibit matrix-induced tube formation of endothelial cells. The migration of endothelial cells as analyzed by transwell filter assay was suppressed markedly by EA dose-dependently as well. Zinc chloride could reverse these two effects of EA also in a dose-dependent manner. Since magnesium chloride or calcium chloride could not reverse the inhibitory effect of EA, zinc was found to be involved in tube formation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together these results demonstrated that the zinc chelation of EA is involved in its anti-angiogenic effects by inhibiting MMP-2 activity, tube formation and cell migration of vascular endothelial cells. The role of zinc was confirmed to be important in the process of angiogenesis.

  10. Tumour vasculature and angiogenic profile of paediatric pilocytic astrocytoma; is it much different from glioblastoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, M.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.; Scherpen, F. J. G.; Hoving, E. W.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Pilocytic astrocytomas are the most frequent brain tumours in children. Because of their high vascularity, this study aimed to obtain insights into potential angiogenic related therapeutic targets in these tumours by characterization of the vasculature and the angiogenic profile. In this study

  11. Angiogenic sprouting is regulated by endothelial cell expression of Slug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch-Reardon, Katrina M; Ehsan, Seema M; Wang, Kehui; Wu, Nan; Newman, Andrew C; Romero-Lopez, Monica; Fong, Ashley H; George, Steven C; Edwards, Robert A; Hughes, Christopher C W

    2014-05-01

    The Snail family of zinc-finger transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved proteins that control processes requiring cell movement. Specifically, they regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) where an epithelial cell severs intercellular junctions, degrades basement membrane and becomes a migratory, mesenchymal-like cell. Interestingly, Slug expression has been observed in angiogenic endothelial cells (EC) in vivo, suggesting that angiogenic sprouting may share common attributes with EMT. Here, we demonstrate that sprouting EC in vitro express both Slug and Snail, and that siRNA-mediated knockdown of either inhibits sprouting and migration in multiple in vitro angiogenesis assays. We find that expression of MT1-MMP, but not of VE-Cadherin, is regulated by Slug and that loss of sprouting as a consequence of reduced Slug expression can be reversed by lentiviral-mediated re-expression of MT1-MMP. Activity of MMP2 and MMP9 are also affected by Slug expression, likely through MT1-MMP. Importantly, we find enhanced expression of Slug in EC in human colorectal cancer samples compared with normal colon tissue, suggesting a role for Slug in pathological angiogenesis. In summary, these data implicate Slug as an important regulator of sprouting angiogenesis, particularly in pathological settings.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and angiogenic activity of polysaccharide extract obtained from Tibetan kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria Rosa Machado; Boller, Christian; Zibetti, Rosiane Guetter Mello; de Souza, Daiany; Pedroso, Luciana Lopes; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    The search for new bioactive molecules is a driving force for research pharmaceutical industries, especially those molecules obtained from fermentation. The molecules possessing angiogenic and anti-inflammatory attributes have attracted attention and are the focus of this study. Angiogenic activity from kefir polysaccharide extract, via chorioallantoic membrane assay, exhibited a pro-angiogenic effect compared with vascular endothelial factor (pro-angiogenic) and hydrocortisone (anti-angiogenic) activity as standards with an EC50 of 192ng/mL. In terms of anti-inflammatory activity determined via hyaluronidase enzyme assay, kefir polysaccharide extract inhibited the enzyme with a minimal activity of 2.08mg/mL and a maximum activity of 2.57mg/mL. For pharmaceutical purposes, kefir polysaccharide extract is considered to be safe because it does not inhibit VERO cells in cytotoxicity assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pro-Angiogenic Effects of Chalcone Derivatives in Zebrafish Embryos in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau-Hung Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate novel chalcones with potent angiogenic activities in vivo. Chalcone-based derivatives were evaluated using a transgenic zebrafish line with fluorescent vessels to real-time monitor the effect on angiogenesis. Results showed that the chalcone analogues did not possess anti-angiogenic effect on zebrafish vasculatures; instead, some of them displayed potent pro-angiogenic effects on the formation of the sub-intestinal vein. Similar pro-angiogenic effects can also be seen on wild type zebrafish embryos. Moreover, the expression of vegfa, the major regulator for angiogenesis, was also upregulated in their treatment. Taken together, we have synthesized and identified a series of novel chalcone-based derivatives as potent in vivo pro-angiogenic compounds. These novel compounds hold potential for therapeutic angiogenesis.

  14. The Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-19 Is Expressed in and Angiogenic for Human Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Surbhi; Gabunia, Khatuna; Kelemen, Sheri E.; Panetti, Tracee S.; Autieri, Michael V.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The expression and effects of anti-inflammatory interleukins on endothelial cell (EC) activation and development of angiogenesis is uncharacterized. The purpose of this study is to characterize the expression and function of Interleukin-19 (IL-19), a recently described Th2 anti-inflammatory interleukin on EC pathophysiology. METHODS and RESULTS We demonstrate by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot that IL-19 is expressed in inflamed, but not normal human coronary endothelium, and can be induced in cultured human EC by serum and bFGF. IL-19 is mitogenic, chemotactic, and promotes cell EC spreading. IL-19 activates the signaling proteins STAT3, p44/42, and Rac1. In functional ex vivo studies, IL-19 promotes cord-like structure formation of cultured EC and also enhances microvessel sprouting in the mouse aortic ring assay. IL-19 induces tube formation in matrigel plugs in vivo. CONCLUSIONS These data are the first to report expression of the anti-inflammatory interleukin IL-19 in EC, and the first to indicate that IL-19 is mitogenic and chemotactic for EC, and can induce the angiogenic potential of EC. PMID:20966397

  15. The induction of pro-angiogenic processes within a collagen scaffold via exogenous estradiol and endometrial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Jacquelyn C; Clancy, Kathryn B H; Harley, Brendan A C

    2015-10-01

    Nutrient transport remains a major limitation in the design of biomaterials. One approach to overcome this constraint is to incorporate features to induce angiogenesis-mediated microvasculature formation. Angiogenesis requires a temporal presentation of both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors to achieve stable vasculature, leading to increasingly complex biomaterial design scheme. The endometrium, the lining of the uterus and site of embryo implantation, exemplifies a non-pathological model of rapid growth, shedding, and re-growth of dense vascular networks regulated by the dynamic actions of estradiol and progesterone. In this study, we examined the individual and combined response of endometrial epithelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells to exogenous estradiol within a three-dimensional collagen scaffold. While endothelial cells did not respond to exogenous estradiol, estradiol directly stimulated endometrial epithelial cell transduction pathways and resulted in dose-dependent increases in endogenous VEGF production. Co-culture experiments using conditioned media demonstrated estradiol stimulation of endometrial epithelial cells can induce functional changes in endothelial cells within the collagen biomaterial. We also report the effect of direct endometrial epithelial and endothelial co-culture as well as covalent immobilization of estradiol within the collagen biomaterial. These efforts establish the suitability of an endometrial-inspired model for promoting pro-angiogenic events within regenerative medicine applications. These results also suggest the potential for developing biomaterial-based models of the endometrium. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Glioblastoma stem-like cells secrete the pro-angiogenic VEGF-A factor in extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treps, Lucas; Perret, Raul; Edmond, Sébastien; Ricard, Damien; Gavard, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are mortifying brain tumours that contain a subpopulation of tumour cells with stem-like properties, termed glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). GSCs largely contribute to tumour initiation, propagation and resistance to current anti-cancer therapies. GSCs are situated in perivascular niches, closely associated with brain microvascular endothelial cells, thereby involved in bidirectional molecular and cellular interactions. Moreover, extracellular vesicles are suspected to carry essential information that can adapt the microenvironment to the tumour's needs, including tumour-induced angiogenesis. In GBM, extracellular vesicles produced by differentiated tumour cells and GSCs were demonstrated to disseminate locally and at distance. Here, we report that the pro-angiogenic pro-permeability factor VEGF-A is carried in extracellular vesicles secreted from ex vivo cultured patient-derived GSCs. Of note, extracellular vesicle-derived VEGF-A contributes to the in vitro elevation of permeability and angiogenic potential in human brain endothelial cells. Indeed, VEGF-A silencing in GSCs compromised in vitro extracellular vesicle-mediated increase in permeability and angiogenesis. From a clinical standpoint, extracellular vesicles isolated from circulating blood of GBM patients present higher levels of VEGF-A, as compared to healthy donors. Overall, our results suggest that extracellular vesicle-harboured VEGF-A targets brain endothelial cells and might impact their ability to form new vessels. Thus, tumour-released EV cargo might emerge as an instrumental part of the tumour-induced angiogenesis and vascular permeability modus operandi in GBM.

  17. Expression of the angiogenic mediator, angiopoietin-like 4, in the eyes of patients with proliferative sickle retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Jee

    Full Text Available The recent success of therapies directly targeting the angiogenic mediator, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, for the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy has encouraged clinicians to extend the use of anti-VEGF therapies for the treatment of another ischemic retinal vascular disease, proliferative sickle cell retinopathy (PSR, the most common cause of irreversible blindness in patients with sickle cell disease. However, results from case reports evaluating anti-VEGF therapies for PSR have been mixed. This highlights the need to identify alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of retinal neovascularization in sickle cell patients. In this regard, angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 is a novel angiogenic factor regulated by the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1, the master regulator of angiogenic mediators (including VEGF in ischemic retinal disease. In an effort to identify alternative targets for the treatment of sickle cell retinopathy, we have explored the expression of ANGPTL4 in the eyes of patients with PSR. To this end, we examined expression and localization of ANGPTL4 by immunohistochemistry in autopsy eyes from patients with known PSR (n = 5 patients. Complementary studies were performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in aqueous (n = 8; 7 patients, 2 samples from one eye of same patient and vitreous (n = 3 patients samples from a second group of patients with active PSR. We detected expression of ANGPTL4 in neovascular tissue and in the ischemic inner retina in PSR, but not control, eyes. We further observed elevated expression of ANGPTL4 in the aqueous and vitreous of PSR patients compared to controls. These results suggest that ANGPTL4 could contribute to the development of retinal neovascularization in sickle cell patients and could therefore be a therapeutic target for the treatment of PSR.

  18. [HPV DNA vaccines expressing recombinant CRT/HPV6bE7 fusion protein inhibit tumor growth and angiogenic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Cheng, Hao; Zhao, Ke-Jia; Zhu, Ke-Jian; Zhang, Xing

    2007-11-01

    This paper was to study the angiogenic inhibitory effect and the potential antitumor effect of the constructed recombinant DNA vaccine CRT/HPV6bE7 in vivo. The C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated respectively with recombinant CRT/HPV6bE7 DNA plamids. The inhibitory effects on angiogenesis of generated vaccines in vivo were evaluated by a bFGF-induced angiogenesis assay using the Matrigel kit. To investigate the potential antitumor effect, the mean tumor weights, sizes and tumor appearing times were measured in C57BL/6 mice treated with HPV6bE7-expressing B16 cells. The results indicated that the recombinants CRT180/HPV6bE7 and CRT180 showed strong anti-angiogenic effects in bFGF-induced angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, CRT180/HPV6bE7 and CRT180 DNA vaccines could significantly inhibit the tumor growth in tumor challenge experiment, and CRT180/HPV6bE7 was superior to other vaccines in delaying tumor formation time, limiting tumor size and weight in tumor protection experiment. In conclusion, recombinant CRT180/HPV6bE7 DNA could elicit a most efficient anti-angiogenic effect and inhibit tumor growth in mice inoculated with DNA vaccines. The antiangiogenic activity of CRT were suggested residing in a domain between CRT 120-180 aa.

  19. Angiogenic potential of human macrophages on electrospun bioresorbable vascular grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, K; Sell, S A; Madurantakam, P; Bowlin, G L, E-mail: glbowlin@vcu.ed [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage interactions with electrospun scaffolds and quantify the expression of key angiogenic growth factors in vitro. This study will further help in evaluating the potential of these electrospun constructs as vascular grafts for tissue repair and regeneration in situ. Human peripheral blood macrophages were seeded in serum free media on electrospun (10 mm) discs of polydioxanone (PDO), elastin and PDO:elastin blends (50:50, 70:30 and 90:10). The growth factor secretion was analyzed by ELISA. Macrophages produced high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and acidic fibroblast growth factor. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) secretion was relatively low and there was negligible production of basic fibroblast growth factor. Therefore, it can be anticipated that these scaffolds will support tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. (communication)

  20. Anti-angiogenic therapy and radioimmunotherapy in colon cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinuya, Seigo; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kanazawa Univ. (Japan); Kawashima, Atsuhiro [Dept. of Pathology (I), Kanazawa Univ. School of Medicine, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Kudo, Miho; Kasahara, Yoshihito [Dept. of Pediatrics, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Watanabe, Naoto [Dept. of Radiology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama (Japan); Shuke, Noriyuki [Dept. of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa (Japan); Bunko, Hisashi [Medical Informatics, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Angiogenesis is critical to the growth and metastatic process of malignant tumors. An endogenous estrogen metabolite, 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), displays anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic effects. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether exogenously administered 2-ME would enhance the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Experimental RIT with 4.63 MBq of {sup 131}I-A7, an IgG1 anti-colorectal monoclonal antibody, was conducted in mice xenografted with LS180 human colon cancer cells. 2-ME suspended in 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose was administered daily at a dose of 75 mg/kg per day. 2-ME administration suppressed tumor growth and improved the efficacy of RIT in comparison to RIT alone. Tumor volumes on day 13, expressed as a ratio relative to the initial volume, were 12.7{+-}2.95 in the nontreated control, 4.73{+-}0.89 with 2-ME, 3.05{+-}0.37 with RIT and 0.97{+-}0.20 with RIT+2-ME. Immunohistochemistry of tumor sections stained with an antibody against factor VIII demonstrated a decrease in microvessel number within tumors treated with 2-ME (7.9{+-}0.8/200 x field) as compared with that in control tumors (29.9{+-}2.5). Cell proliferation assay at increasing concentrations of 2-ME showed direct cytotoxicity of 2-ME in vitro at 5 {mu}M and greater. In conclusion, 2-ME enhanced the efficacy of RIT with {sup 131}I-A7 via inhibition of angiogenesis within the xenografts. The direct cytotoxicity of 2-ME appears to have contributed to this improvement. Anti-angiogenic therapy may prolong the dormancy of microscopic metastases while RIT may exterminate this population of cells. Therefore, the combined treatment may improve the therapeutic outcome of patients with disseminated cancer. (orig.)

  1. Angiogenic and inflammatory biomarkers in the differentiation of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säleby, Joanna; Bouzina, Habib; Lundgren, Jakob; Rådegran, Göran

    2017-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious condition where diagnosis often is delayed due to unspecific symptoms. New methods to diagnose and differentiate PH earlier would therefore be of great value. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the relationship between circulating angiogenic and inflammatory biomarkers and various hemodynamic variables in relation to different causes of PH. Plasma samples from 63 patients at diagnosis were extracted from Lund Cardio Pulmonary Register, separated into pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, n = 22), chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH, n = 15) and left heart disease (LHD) with (n = 21) and without (n = 5) PH. Blood samples from eight control subjects devoid of PH were additionally evaluated. Plasma concentrations of angiogenic (PlGF, Tie2, VEGF-A, VEGF-D, bFGF, sFlt-1) and inflammatory (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) biomarkers were analysed and related to hemodynamic variables. SFlt-1 (p < .004) and VEGF-A (p < .035) were higher in all PH groups compared to controls. TNF-α (p < .030) were elevated in PAH patients in relation to the other PH groups as well as controls. Likewise, plasma VEGF-D (p < .008) were elevated in LHD with PH compared to the other groups with PH and controls. In PAH, higher sFlt-1 concentrations correlated to a worse state of hemodynamics. Our findings indicate that sFlt-1 and VEGF-A may be future tools when discriminating PH from non-PH. Moreover, TNF-α may differentiate PAH and VEGF- D may differentiate LHD with PH, from the other groups with PH, as well as controls. SFlt-1 may furthermore play a role as a future marker of disease severity.

  2. Differential regulation of angiogenic cellular processes and claudin-5 by histamine and VEGF via PI3K-signaling, transcription factor SNAI2 and interleukin-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Johanna P; Lappalainen, Jari P; Theelen, Thomas L; Toivanen, Pyry I; Nieminen, Tiina; Jauhiainen, Suvi; Kaikkonen, Minna U; Sluimer, Judith C; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2017-02-01

    Histamine and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) are central regulators in vascular pathologies. Their gene regulation leading to vascular remodeling has remained obscure. In this study, EC regulation mechanisms of histamine and VEGF were compared by RNA sequencing of primary endothelial cells (ECs), functional in vitro assays and in vivo permeability mice model. By RNA sequencing, similar transcriptional alterations of genes involved in activation of primary ECs, cell proliferation and adhesion were observed between histamine and VEGF. Seventy-six commonly regulated genes were found, representing ~53% of all VEGF-regulated transcripts and ~26% of all histamine-regulated transcripts. Both factors regulated tight junction formation and expression of pro-angiogenic transcription factors (TFs) affecting EC survival, migration and tube formation. Novel claudin-5 upstream regulatory genes were identified. VEGF was demonstrated to regulate expression of SNAI2, whereas pro-angiogenic TFs NR4A1, MYCN and RCAN1 were regulated by both histamine and VEGF. Claudin-5 was shown to be regulated VEGFR2/PI3K-Akt dependently by VEGF and PI3K-Akt independently by histamine. Interleukin-8 was shown to downregulate claudin-5 by histamine. Additionally, SNAI2, NR4A1 and MYCN were shown to mediate EC survival, migration and tube formation and to regulate expression of claudin-5. Further systemic delivery of VEGF and histamine was shown to induce a fast vascular hyperpermeability response in intact vasculature of C57/Bl6 mice followed by regulation of NR4A1 and MYCN. Our study identifies novel claudin-5 upstream regulatory genes of histamine and VEGF that induce cellular angiogenic processes. Our results increase knowledge of angiogenic EC phenotype and provide novel treatment targets for vascular pathologies.

  3. Assessment of the anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of ethyl vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun-Joo; Song, Yun Seon; Kim, Kyunghoon; Lim, Chang-Jin; Park, Eun-Hee

    2010-02-01

    The present work aimed to assess novel pharmacological properties of ethyl vanillin (EVA) which is used as a flavoring agent for cakes, dessert, confectionary, etc. EVA exhibited an inhibitory activity in the chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis. Anti-inflammatory activity of EVA was convinced using the two in vivo models, such as vascular permeability and air pouch models in mice. Antinociceptive activity of EVA was assessed using acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice. EVA suppressed production of nitric oxide and induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. However, EVA could not suppress induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in the LPS-activated macrophages. EVA diminished reactive oxygen species level in the LPS-activated macrophages. EVA also suppressed enhanced matrix metalloproteinase-9 gelatinolytic activity in the LPSactivated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. EVA at the used concentrations couldn't diminish viability of the macrophage cells. Taken together, the anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of EVA are based on its suppressive effect on the production of nitric oxide possibly via decreasing the reactive oxygen species level.

  4. Computational Drug Repositioning for Peripheral Arterial Disease: Prediction of anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Hui eChu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral arterial disease (PAD results from atherosclerosis that leads to blocked arteries and reduced blood flow, most commonly in the arteries of the legs. PAD clinical trials to induce angiogenesis to improve blood flow conducted in the last decade have not succeeded. We have recently constructed PADPIN, protein-protein interaction network (PIN of PAD, and here we combine it with the drug-target relations to identify potential drug targets for PAD. Specifically, the proteins in the PADPIN were classified as belonging to the angiome, immunome, and arteriome, characterizing the processes of angiogenesis, immune response/inflammation, and arteriogenesis, respectively. Using the network-based approach we predict the candidate drugs for repositioning that have potential applications to PAD. By compiling the drug information in two drug databases DrugBank and PharmGKB, we predict FDA-approved drugs whose targets are the proteins annotated as anti-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory, respectively. Examples of pro-angiogenic drugs are carvedilol and urokinase. Examples of anti-inflammatory drugs are ACE inhibitors and maraviroc. This is the first computational drug repositioning study for PAD.

  5. Stromal-Epithelial Interactions and the Angiogenic Phenotype of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rozenberg, Gabriela I

    2005-01-01

    ... upregulation, and a pro-angiogenic phenotype in culture and in vivo. However, only inhibiting alpha5beta1 activity could phenotypically revert these tumors, reduce invasion and impair angiogenesis in culture...

  6. The Impact of Magnesium Sulfate Therapy on Angiogenic Factors in Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    VADNAIS, Mary A.; RANA, Sarosh; QUANT, Hayley S.; SALAHUDDIN, Saira; DODGE, Laura E.; LIM, Kee-Hak; KARUMANCHI, S. Ananth; HACKER, Michele R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective was to evaluate whether intravenous magnesium sulfate (magnesium) alters levels of angiogenic factors in women with preeclampsia. Study Design This was a prospective cohort study comparing women with preeclampsia treated with magnesium for seizure prophylaxis to those who were not. Serum levels of angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, soluble endoglin and placental growth factor, were measured at the time of diagnosis and approximately 24 hours later. Secondary analysis compared women receiving magnesium for preeclampsia to women receiving magnesium for preterm labor. Analysis of covariance was used to compare levels at 24 hours, adjusting for levels at enrollment and potential confounders. Results Angiogenic factor levels did not differ between preeclampsia groups with and without magnesium or between preeclampsia and preterm labor groups treated with magnesium (all P > 0.05). Conclusion Magnesium likely decreases seizure risk in preeclampsia by a mechanism other than altering angiogenic factor levels. PMID:22247820

  7. Targeting Metabolic Symbiosis to Overcome Resistance to Anti-angiogenic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pisarsky

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the approval of several anti-angiogenic therapies, clinical results remain unsatisfactory, and transient benefits are followed by rapid tumor recurrence. Here, we demonstrate potent anti-angiogenic efficacy of the multi-kinase inhibitors nintedanib and sunitinib in a mouse model of breast cancer. However, after an initial regression, tumors resume growth in the absence of active tumor angiogenesis. Gene expression profiling of tumor cells reveals metabolic reprogramming toward anaerobic glycolysis. Indeed, combinatorial treatment with a glycolysis inhibitor (3PO efficiently inhibits tumor growth. Moreover, tumors establish metabolic symbiosis, illustrated by the differential expression of MCT1 and MCT4, monocarboxylate transporters active in lactate exchange in glycolytic tumors. Accordingly, genetic ablation of MCT4 expression overcomes adaptive resistance against anti-angiogenic therapy. Hence, targeting metabolic symbiosis may be an attractive avenue to avoid resistance development to anti-angiogenic therapy in patients.

  8. Angiogenic endothelium shows lactadherin-dependent phagocytosis of aged erythrocytes and apoptotic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fens, Marcel H. A. M.; Mastrobattista, Enrico; De Graaff, Anko M.; Flesch, Frits M.; Ultee, Anton; Rasmussen, Jan T.; Molema, Grietje; Storm, Gert; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenic endothelium plays a crucial role in tumor growth. During angiogenesis, complex alterations in the microenvironment occur. In response, the endothelium undergoes phenotypic changes, for example overexpression of alpha(v)-integrins. Here, we show that the overexpression of

  9. Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, T.F.; Anastopoulos, A.D.; Garrett, M.E.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Franke, B.; Oades, R.D.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Asherson, P.; Gill, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Sergeant, J.A.; Kollins, S.H.; Faraone, S.V.; Ashley-Koch, A.; Consortium, I.

    2014-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related

  10. Anti-angiogenic activity of the methanol extract and its fractions of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun-Joo; Jeon, Hye-Jin; Lim, Eun-Ju; Ahn, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Yun Seon; Lee, Sanghyun; Shin, Kuk Hyun; Lim, Chang-Jin; Park, Eun-Hee

    2007-06-13

    This study aimed to elucidate anti-angiogenic activity of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica that has been widely used in folk medicine. The methanol extract (UDE) of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica concentration-dependently displayed a strong inhibition in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis. The n-butanol fraction of UDE and subsequent 30% MeOH subfraction were identified to be most responsible for the anti-angiogenic activity.

  11. Targeting Metabolic Symbiosis to Overcome Resistance to Anti-angiogenic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Pisarsky Laura; Bill Ruben; Fagiani Ernesta; Dimeloe Sarah; Goosen Ryan William; Hagmann Jorg; Hess Christoph; Christofori Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Summary Despite the approval of several anti-angiogenic therapies, clinical results remain unsatisfactory, and transient benefits are followed by rapid tumor recurrence. Here, we demonstrate potent anti-angiogenic efficacy of the multi-kinase inhibitors nintedanib and?sunitinib in a mouse model of breast cancer. However, after an initial regression, tumors resume growth in the absence of active tumor angiogenesis. Gene expression profiling of tumor cells reveals metabolic reprogramming toward...

  12. Screening for angiogenic inhibitors in zebrafish to evaluate a predictive model for developmental vascular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tamara; Kilty, Claire; Smith, Andrew; LaLone, Carlie; Kennedy, Brendán; Tennant, Alan; McCollum, Catherine W; Bondesson, Maria; Knudsen, Thomas; Padilla, Stephanie; Kleinstreuer, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    Chemically-induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development may cause a wide range of adverse effects. To identify putative vascular disrupting chemicals (pVDCs), a predictive pVDC signature was constructed from 124 U.S. EPA ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) assays and used to rank 1060 chemicals for their potential to disrupt vascular development. Thirty-seven compounds were selected for targeted testing in transgenic Tg(kdrl:EGFP) and Tg(fli1:EGFP) zebrafish embryos to identify chemicals that impair developmental angiogenesis. We hypothesized that zebrafish angiogenesis toxicity data would correlate with human cell-based and cell-free in vitro HTS ToxCast data. Univariate statistical associations used to filter HTS data based on correlations with zebrafish angiogenic inhibition in vivo revealed 132 total significant associations, 33 of which were already captured in the pVDC signature, and 689 non-significant assay associations. Correlated assays were enriched in cytokine and extracellular matrix pathways. Taken together, the findings indicate the utility of zebrafish assays to evaluate an HTS-based predictive toxicity signature and also provide an experimental basis for expansion of the pVDC signature with novel HTS assays. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Changes of plasma angiogenic factors during chronic resistance exercise in type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfahani, S.P.; Gharakhanlou, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Exercise has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. However, the exact mechanism is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic resistance exercise on some plasma angiogenic factors in type 1 diabetic rats. Methodology: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of control, diabetic and diabetic trained (n = 10 each). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats in the trained group undertook one training session per day, 3 days/week, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken and the concentrations of plasma glucose, lipid profile, nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble form of VEGF receptor-1 (sFlt-1) were determined. Results: We found a significant reduction in plasma NO concentrations in diabetic rats compared to the controls (p 0.05). There were no significant differences in plasma VEGF and sFlt-1 concentrations between diabetic sedentary and trained groups (p > 0.05). Moreover, VEGF/sFlt-1 ratios in diabetic animals were lower than the control group and resistance exercise could not increase this ratio in diabetic animals (p > 0.05) Conclusion: Resistance exercise could not change plasma VEGF, sFlt-1 and VEGF/sFlt-1 ratio. However, it increased plasma NO concentrations in diabetic animals. More studies are needed to determine the effects of this type of exercise on the angiogenesis process. (author)

  14. URG4/URGCP enhances the angiogenic capacity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro via activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Sizhong; Zhang, Bing; Hua, Ruixi; Tai, William Chi-shing; Zeng, Zhirong; Xie, Binhui; Huang, Chenghui; Xue, Jisu; Xiong, Shiqiu; Yang, Jianyong; Liu, Side; Li, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by hypervascularity; high levels of angiogenesis are associated with poor prognosis and a highly invasive phenotype in HCC. Up-regulated gene-4 (URG4), also known as upregulator of cell proliferation (URGCP), is overexpressed in multiple tumor types and has been suggested to act as an oncogene. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of URG4/URGCP on the angiogenic capacity of HCC cells in vitro. Expression of URG4/URGCP in HCC cell lines and normal liver epithelial cell lines was examined by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. URG4/URGCP was stably overexpressed or transiently knocked down using a shRNA in two HCC cell lines. The human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tubule formation and Transwell migration assays and chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay were used to examine the angiogenic capacity of conditioned media from URG4/URGCP-overexpressing and knockdown cells. A luciferase reporter assay was used to examine the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor kappa – light – chain - enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). NF-κB was inhibited by overexpressing degradation-resistant mutant inhibitor of κB (IκB)-α. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) were examined by quantitative real-time PCR; VEGFC protein expression was analyzed using an ELISA. URG4/URGCP protein and mRNA expression were significantly upregulated in HCC cell lines. Overexpressing URG4/URGCP enhanced - while silencing URG4/URGCP decreased - the capacity of HCC cell conditioned media to induce HUVEC tubule formation and migration and neovascularization in the CAM assay. Furthermore, overexpressing URG4/URGCP increased - whereas knockdown of URG4/URGCP decreased - VEGFC expression, NF-κB transcriptional activity, the levels

  15. Angiogenic effects of borate glass microfibers in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yinan; Brown, Roger F; Jung, Steven B; Day, Delbert E

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the use of bioactive borate-based glass microfibers for angiogenesis in soft tissue repair applications. The effect of these fibers on growth of capillaries and small blood vessels was compared to that of 45S5 silica glass microfibers and sham implant controls. Compressed mats of three types of glass microfibers were implanted subcutaneously in rats and tissues surrounding the implant sites histologically evaluated 2-4 weeks post surgery. Bioactive borate glass 13-93B3 supplemented with 0.4 wt % copper promoted extensive angiogenesis as compared to silica glass microfibers and sham control tissues. The angiogenic responses suggest the copper-containing 13-93B3 microfibers may be effective for treating chronic soft tissue wounds. A second objective was to assess the possible systemic cytotoxicity of dissolved borate ions and other materials released from implanted borate glass microfibers. Cytotoxicity was assessed via histological evaluation of kidney tissue collected from animals 4 weeks after subcutaneously implanting high amounts of the borate glass microfibers. The evaluation of the kidney tissue from these animals showed no evidence of chronic histopathological changes in the kidney. The overall results indicate the borate glass microfibers are safe and effective for soft tissue applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Exogenous and endogenous angiogenic stimuli do not augment splenic autotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Richard E; Kay, Elaine W; Bouchier-Hayes, David

    2002-01-01

    To find out if angiogenic stimulation improves the ability of the spleen to regenerate. Experimental study. Teaching hospital, Republic of Ireland. 27 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Each spleen was removed and half was reimplanted in the greater omentum. The rats were randomised into three groups of 9 each: the first (control) group was given no stimulation; the second had the implanted spleen sutured into the omentum with 6/0 polypropylene; and in the third group the implanted spleen was injected with human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 500 microg. Clearance of Howell-Jolly bodies, and the weight and histological appearance of the splenic remnant at 3 months. The splenic remnant was significantly larger at 3 months in the control group (p = 0.0006). Histological examination of the tissue from the control group showed that it was architecturally similar to that of normal functioning spleen, whereas the tissue from the two treated groups contained less lymphoid tissue and showed widespread acute and chronic inflammatory changes. There was a significantly greater clearance of Howell-Jolly bodies (an index of splenic function) from the peripheral blood of the control group (p = 0.0009). The excellent recovery of the splenic remnant in the control group suggests that the procedure of splenic autotransplantation might warrant further consideration and study.

  17. Angiogenic Effect of Leptin in the Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Výboh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, the product of ob gene, beside its key role in the control of body weight and food consumption, can be involved in the control of embryonic development. Leptin administration in ovo accelerated the embryonic and post-embryonic development in Japanese quail. Although the mechanisms of leptin effects on growth and development acceleration are not clear, stimulation of angiogenesis represents one of plausible explanations. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the pro-angiogenic effect of leptin in vivo in the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM. The recombinant murine leptin (10, 100, and 1000 ng was applied either ex ovo on the CAM surface of ex ovo incubated embryos at embryonic day 7 (ED7 or in ovo into the egg albumen at ED5. Changes in blood vessels were quantified by the fractal analysis providing the fractal dimension (Df estimate. Leptin administered in ovo was more efficient in stimulation of angiogenesis than the ex ovo treatment, since 10 ng dose elicited significantly higher (P ex ovo cultivation. Our study confirmed that exogenously applied leptin was able to stimulate angiogenesis in CAM. Leptin-mediated stimulation of angiogenesis may improve nutrient utilization from the yolk and explain at least partially the accelerating effect of leptin on avian embryo growth and development.

  18. The induction of an angiogenic response in corneal myofibroblasts by platelet-activating factor (PAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiucheng; Eastlack, Jason P; Bazan, Haydee E P

    2010-12-01

    Although the exact mechanisms underlying corneal neovascularization remain unclear, cytokines and growth factors play an important role in their development. We have shown previously that the inflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent inducer of corneal neovascularization in vivo. In this study, we investigate the role of stromal myofibroblasts in neovascularization and the effect of PAF on this process. Myofibroblasts were obtained from rabbit corneal keratocytes and identified with anti-α-SMA antibody. Cells were treated with PAF (100 nM) for 24 hr. In some experiments, cells were pre-treated with the PAF antagonist LAU-0901 (150 nM). Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) was examined by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. To study the effect of myofibroblasts on vessel formation in vitro, Vybrant(®) CM-DiI labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured on myofibroblasts in a thin layer of collagen gel. CD31 was used as the cell marker of HUVEC. VEGF and TSP-1 were not detectable in keratocytes, but they were positively stained in myofibroblasts. PAF induced a significant increase in VEGF expression and a decrease in TSP-1 expression. These changes were inhibited in the presence of LAU-0901. HUVECs co-cultured with corneal myofibroblasts formed a typical structure of vessel-like tubes within 1 week. The addition of PAF to the medium increased HUVEC-induced vessel-like tube formation, which was abolished by LAU-0901. Addition of anti-VEGF antibody to the medium completely prevented the formation of vessel-like tubes. We provide evidence for the role of stromal myofibroblasts in the corneal neovascularization process. By enhancing VEGF production and decreasing TSP-1 production in myofibroblasts, PAF augments the angiogenic response. The PAF antagonist LAU-0901 could represent a new therapeutic venue for inhibiting corneal neovascularization.

  19. Melanoma exosome induction of endothelial cell GM-CSF in pre-metastatic lymph nodes may result in different M1 and M2 macrophage mediated angiogenic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joshua L

    2016-09-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process in the preparation of lymph nodes for melanoma metastasis. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) in M1 or HIF-2α in M2 polarized macrophages. HIF-1α promotes neoangiogenesis while HIF-2α facilitates morphogenic normalization of neovasculature. Melanoma exosomes induce GM-CSF expression by endothelial cells in vitro and HIF-1α expression in pre-metastatic lymph nodes in vivo. This suggest a relationship between melanoma exosome induced endothelial GM-CSF and macrophage mediated angiogenesis in lymph nodes. Theoretically, induction of endothelial cell derived GM-CSF by melanoma exosomes mediates different angiogenic functions in pre-metastatic lymph nodes depending on subcapsular sinus (SCS) macrophage polarity. To explore this hypothesis, experiments utilizing melanoma exosomes in a lymph node model are outlined. Despite their opposing immune functions, indirect melanoma exosome stimulation of M1 or M2 SCS macrophages via endothelial derived GM-CSF in lymph nodes may induce different although complementary pro-tumor angiogenic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Capillary growth in human skeletal muscle: physiological factors and the balance between pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Hoier, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    In human skeletal muscle, the capillary net readily adapts according to the level of muscular activity to allow for optimal diffusion conditions for oxygen from the blood to the muscle. Animal studies have demonstrated that stimulation of capillary growth in skeletal muscle can occur either...... by mechanical or by chemical signalling. Mechanical signals originate from shear stress forces on the endothelial cell layer induced by the blood flowing through the vessel, but include also mechanical stretch and compression of the vascular structures and the surrounding tissue, as the muscle contracts....... Depending on the mechanical signal provided, capillary growth may occur either by longitudinal splitting (shear stress) or by sprouting (passive stretch). The mechanical signals initiate angiogenic processes by up-regulation or release of angioregulatory proteins that either promote, modulate or inhibit...

  1. The Safety Evaluation of a Potent Angiogenic Activator, Synthetic Peptide (SFKLRY-NH2) for the Skin Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Lim, Yun Young; Kim, Hyeong Mi; Kim, So Young; Park, Sung-Gil; Lee, Taehoon

    2012-01-01

    A novel synthetic hexapeptide (SFKLRY-NH2) that displays angiogenic activity has been identified by positional scanning of a synthetic peptide combinatorial library (PS-SPCL). This study was carried out to investigate the irritation of the SFKLRY-NH2 on the skin. The tests were performed on the basis of Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) guidelines. In results, cell toxicity is not appeared for SFKLRY-NH2 in HaCaT cells and B16F10 cells. SFKLRY-NH2 induced no skin irritation at low concentration (10 μM), mild irritation at high concentration (10mM). We consider that this result is helpful for saying about the safety of SFKLRY-NH2 in clinical use. PMID:24278589

  2. Prolonged hypoxic culture and trypsinization increase the pro-angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Pilgaard, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), including adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), is a promising option in the treatment of vascular disease. Short-term hypoxic culture of MSC augments secretion of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines. We hypothesized that prolonged hypoxic...... (1% and 5% oxygen) culture and trypsinization would augment ASC expression of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines and increase the angiogenic potential of ASC-conditioned media....

  3. C5a enhances dysregulated inflammatory and angiogenic responses to malaria in vitro: potential implications for placental malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Conroy

    Full Text Available Placental malaria (PM is a leading cause of maternal and infant mortality. Although the accumulation of parasitized erythrocytes (PEs and monocytes within the placenta is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of PM, the molecular mechanisms underlying PM remain unclear. Based on the hypothesis that excessive complement activation may contribute to PM, in particular generation of the potent inflammatory peptide C5a, we investigated the role of C5a in the pathogenesis of PM in vitro and in vivo.Using primary human monocytes, the interaction between C5a and malaria in vitro was assessed. CSA- and CD36-binding PEs induced activation of C5 in the presence of human serum. Plasmodium falciparum GPI (pfGPI enhanced C5a receptor expression (CD88 on monocytes, and the co-incubation of monocytes with C5a and pfGPI resulted in the synergistic induction of cytokines (IL-6, TNF, IL-1beta, and IL-10, chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1, MIP1alpha, MIP1beta and the anti-angiogenic factor sFlt-1 in a time and dose-dependent manner. This dysregulated response was abrogated by C5a receptor blockade. To assess the potential role of C5a in PM, C5a plasma levels were measured in malaria-exposed primigravid women in western Kenya. Compared to pregnant women without malaria, C5a levels were significantly elevated in women with PM.These results suggest that C5a may contribute to the pathogenesis of PM by inducing dysregulated inflammatory and angiogenic responses that impair placental function.

  4. Dimethyl sulfoxide-caused changes in pro- and anti-angiogenic factor levels could contribute to an anti-angiogenic response in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Ece; Aydemir, Esra Arslan; İmir, Nilüfer; Koçak, Orhan; Kuruoğlu, Aykut; Fışkın, Kayahan

    2015-10-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is widely used in biological research as a general solvent. While it has been previously demonstrated that DMSO possesses a wide range of pharmacological effects, there is no published work regarding the effects of DMSO on pro-angiogenic factor levels. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of DMSO on the levels of three pro-angiogenic factors released from HeLa cells in vitro. Cells were treated with two different and previously determined concentrations of DMSO. The cytotoxic effects of DMSO concentrations on HeLa cells were determined via MTT. Survival rates of DMSO-treated cells were determined by Invitrogen live/dead viability/cytotoxicity kit and trypan blue exclusion assay. Changes in the pro-angiogenic levels in media were evaluated by Cayman's Substance P Enzyme Immunoassay ELISA kit. Vascular endothelial growth factor ELISA kit and interferon gamma ELISA kit for substance P, VEGF and IFNγ respectively. Changes in substance P levels were corrected by standard western blotting. Changes in VEGF and IFNγ levels were corrected both by western blot and real time PCR. Treatment with 1.4 μM DMSO caused a time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation at 24, 48 and 72 h. 1.4 μM DMSO caused a significant reduction in VEGF levels at 72 h of incubation and sharp increases in IFNγ levels at both 48 and 72 h of incubation. According to real time PCR analyses, DMSO (1.4 μM) exhibited an inhibitory effect on VEGF but acted as an augmenter of IFNγ release on HeLa cells in vitro. This is the first report showing that the general solvent DMSO suppressed HeLa cell proliferation, decreased the levels of two pro-angiogenic factors (substance P and VEGF) and increased the release of an anti-angiogenic factor IFNγ in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Angiogenic CXC chemokine expression during differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells towards the osteoblastic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, D S; Zhu, J H; Makhijani, N S; Kumar, A; Yamaguchi, D T

    2008-02-15

    The potential role of ELR(+) CXC chemokines in early events in bone repair was studied using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Inflammation, which occurs in the initial phase of tissue healing in general, is critical to bone repair. Release of cytokines from infiltrating immune cells and injured bone can lead to recruitment of MSCs to the region of repair. CXC chemokines bearing the Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif are also released by inflammatory cells and serve as angiogenic factors stimulating chemotaxis and proliferation of endothelial cells. hMSCs, induced to differentiate with osteogenic medium (OGM) containing ascorbate, beta-glycerophosphate (beta-GP), and dexamethasone (DEX), showed an increase in mRNA and protein secretion of the ELR(+) CXC chemokines CXCL8 and CXCL1. CXCL8 mRNA half-life studies reveal an increase in mRNA stability upon OGM stimulation. Increased expression and secretion is a result of DEX in OGM and is dose-dependent. Inhibition of the glucocorticoid receptor with mifepristone only partially inhibits DEX-stimulated CXCL8 expression indicating both glucocorticoid receptor dependent and independent pathways. Treatment with signal transduction inhibitors demonstrate that this expression is due to activation of the ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and is mediated through the G(alphai)-coupled receptors. Angiogenesis assays demonstrate that OGM-stimulated conditioned media containing secreted CXCL8 and CXCL1 can induce angiogenesis of human microvascular endothelial cells in an in vitro Matrigel assay. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of anti-angiogenic effect of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaj, Anupama E; Belakavadi, Madesh; Venkatesh, Deepak A; Marmé, Dieter; Salimath, Bharathi P

    2002-10-04

    Modulation of pathological angiogenesis by curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the active principle of turmeric, seems to be an important possibility meriting mechanistic investigations. In this report, we have studied the effect of curcumin on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Further, regulation of tumor angiogenesis by modulation of angiogenic ligands and their receptor gene expression in tumor and endothelial cells, respectively, by curcumin was investigated. Curcumin, when injected intraperitoneally (i.p) into mice, effectively decreased the formation of ascites fluid by 66% in EAT bearing mice in vivo. Reduction in the number of EAT cells and human umbelical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro by curcumin, without being cytotoxic to these cells, is attributed to induction of apoptosis by curcumin, as is evident by an increase in cells with fractional DNA content seen in our results on FACS analysis. However, curcumin had no effect on the growth of NIH3T3 cells. Curcumin proved to be a potent angioinhibitory compound, as demonstrated by inhibition of angiogenesis in two in vivo angiogenesis assay systems, viz. peritoneal angiogenesis and chorioallantoic membrane assay. The angioinhibitory effect of curcumin in vivo was corroborated by the results on down-regulation of the expression of proangiogenic genes, in EAT, NIH3T3, and endothelial cells by curcumin. Our results on Northern blot analysis clearly indicated a time-dependent (0-24h) inhibition by curcumin of VEGF, angiopoietin 1 and 2 gene expression in EAT cells, VEGF and angiopoietin 1 gene expression in NIH3T3 cells, and KDR gene expression in HUVECs. Further, decreased VEGF levels in conditioned media from cells treated with various doses of curcumin (1 microM-1mM) for various time periods (0-24h) confirm its angioinhibitory action at the level of gene expression. Because of its non-toxic nature, curcumin could be further developed to treat chronic diseases that

  7. Anti-angiogenic activity of a new andrographolide derivative in zebrafish and HUVECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Peng, Yuran; Li, Shang; Sun, Yicheng; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Cui, Guozhen; Wang, Decai; Zhou, Guo-Chun; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2016-10-15

    Andrographolide is among the most promising anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic components in Andrographis paniculata but its poor bioavailability and limited efficacy pose difficulties for its therapeutic development. Therefore, improving its pharmaceutical features and potency, by modifying its chemical structure, is desirable. In the present study, a new andrographolide derivative (AGP-40) was synthesized and characterized for its anti-angiogenic properties. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and zebrafish models were used to identify the anti-angiogenic activity of AGP-40. AGP-40 significantly suppressed the formation of blood vessels in zebrafish and inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro. The anti-angiogenic effects of AGP-40 are at least partially mediated via the PI3K/Akt and MEK/Erk(1/2) signaling pathways. Furthermore, AGP-40 exhibited stronger anti-proliferative effects than andrographolide against A549, HepG2, Hela cancer cell lines. This study is the first to demonstrate the promising anti-angiogenic activity of the new andrographolide derivative AGP-40. Our results indicate that AGP-40 could serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of diseases associated with excessive angiogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal plasma angiogenic and inflammatory factor profiling in foetal Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Zbucka-Kretowska

    Full Text Available Angiogenic factors are proteins that are related to certain foetal chromosomal abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of 60 angiogenic factors in the plasma of women with offspring possessing trisomy 21/Down syndrome (DS.After analysing karyotyping results, we selected 20 patients with foetuses possessing DS, and for the control group, we selected 28 healthy patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who delivered healthy newborns at term (i.e., 15-18 weeks of gestation. To assess the concentration of proteins in the blood plasma, we used a protein macroarray which enabled simultaneous determination of 60 angiogenic factors per sample.We observed a statistically significant increase in the concentration of these five angiogenic and inflammatory factors: TGFb1 (p = 0.039, angiostatin (p = 0.0142, I-309 (p = 0.0476, TGFb3 (p = 0.0395, and VEGF-D (p = 0.0173-compared to concentrations in patients with healthy foetuses.Our findings suggest that angiogenic factors may play role in DS pathogenesis.

  9. Anti-angiogenic effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts in human umbilical vein endothelial cells with antioxidant potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Suk Lee

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nymphaeaceae has long been used as a traditional herb in Chinese, Japanese, Indian, and Korean medicinal practices since prehistoric times and flourishes today as the primary form of medicine. This study reports for the first time the potent ability of N. nucifera leaf extracts to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, as well as their antioxidant efficacy in various scavenging models and an analysis of their chemical composition. In vivo anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM model using fertilized chicken eggs, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs by using cell viability, cell proliferation and tube formation assays, and by determining intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in vitro. The antioxidant efficacy of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined in various scavenging models, including total phenolic and flavonoid content. The chemical composition of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined by GC-MS analysis, which revealed the presence of different phytochemicals. The IC50 values for the DPPH radical scavenging activities of water and methanol extracts were found to be 1699.47 and 514.36 μg ml(-1, and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 85.01 ± 2.32 and 147.63 ± 2.23 mg GAE g dry mass(-1 and 35.38 ± 1.32 and 41.86 ± 1.07 mg QA g dry mass(-1, respectively. N. nucifera leaf extracts (10-100 μg ml(-1 exhibited significant dose-dependent inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis, as well as VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation in HUVECs. In this study, N. nucifera leaf extracts displayed potent antioxidant and inhibitory effects on VEGF-induced angiogenesis. N. nucifera exerted an inhibitory effect on VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation, as well as CAM angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, N. nucifera leaf extracts significantly blocked VEGF-induced ROS production in HUVECs

  10. Anti-angiogenic effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts in human umbilical vein endothelial cells with antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Suk; Shukla, Shruti; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kim, Myunghee

    2015-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nymphaeaceae) has long been used as a traditional herb in Chinese, Japanese, Indian, and Korean medicinal practices since prehistoric times and flourishes today as the primary form of medicine. This study reports for the first time the potent ability of N. nucifera leaf extracts to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, as well as their antioxidant efficacy in various scavenging models and an analysis of their chemical composition. In vivo anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model using fertilized chicken eggs, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by using cell viability, cell proliferation and tube formation assays, and by determining intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. The antioxidant efficacy of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined in various scavenging models, including total phenolic and flavonoid content. The chemical composition of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined by GC-MS analysis, which revealed the presence of different phytochemicals. The IC50 values for the DPPH radical scavenging activities of water and methanol extracts were found to be 1699.47 and 514.36 μg ml(-1), and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 85.01 ± 2.32 and 147.63 ± 2.23 mg GAE g dry mass(-1) and 35.38 ± 1.32 and 41.86 ± 1.07 mg QA g dry mass(-1), respectively. N. nucifera leaf extracts (10-100 μg ml(-1)) exhibited significant dose-dependent inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis, as well as VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation in HUVECs. In this study, N. nucifera leaf extracts displayed potent antioxidant and inhibitory effects on VEGF-induced angiogenesis. N. nucifera exerted an inhibitory effect on VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation, as well as CAM angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, N. nucifera leaf extracts significantly blocked VEGF-induced ROS production in HUVECs, confirming

  11. Vixapatin (VP12, a C-Type Lectin-Protein from Vipera xantina palestinae Venom: Characterization as a Novel Anti-angiogenic Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Lazarovici

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A C-type lectin-like protein (CTL, originally identified as VP12 and lately named Vixapatin, was isolated and characterized from Israeli viper Vipera xantina palestinae snake venom. This CTL was characterized as a selective α2β1 integrin inhibitor with anti-melanoma metastatic activity. The major aim of the present study was to prove the possibility that this protein is also a potent novel anti-angiogenic compound. Using an adhesion assay, we demonstrated that Vixapatin selectively and potently inhibited the α2 mediated adhesion of K562 over-expressing cells, with IC50 of 3 nM. 3 nM Vixapatin blocked proliferation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC; 25 nM inhibited collagen I induced migration of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells; and 50 nM rat C6 glioma and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. 1 µM Vixapatin reduced HDMEC tube formation by 75% in a Matrigel assay. Furthermore, 1 µM Vixapatin decreased by 70% bFGF-induced physiological angiogenesis, and by 94% C6 glioma-induced pathological angiogenesis, in shell-less embryonic quail chorioallantoic membrane assay. Vixapatin’s ability to inhibit all steps of the angiogenesis process suggest that it is a novel pharmacological tool for studying α2β1 integrin mediated angiogenesis and a lead compound for the development of a novel anti-angiogenic/angiostatic/anti-cancer drug.

  12. A Novel Natural Product-Derived Compound, Vestaine A1, Exerts both Pro-Angiogenic and Anti-Permeability Activity via a Different Pathway from VEGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Ishimoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key molecule in the regulation of both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. However, it is known that overproduction of VEGF induces abnormal blood vessel formation and these vessels cause several disease pathologies, such as diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to find novel vasoactive compounds which have different properties from VEGF. Methods/Results: We screened a natural product library using a co-culture angiogenic assay of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. By focusing on morphological changes of endothelial cells, we isolated the novel compounds vestaine A1 and vestaine B1 from the cultured broth of an actinomycete strain, Streptomyces sp. SANK 63697. Vestaine A1 enhanced tube formation of endothelial cells in Matrigel and suppressed cell death induced by serum deprivation. Vestaine A1 activated both MEK1/2 and PI-3 kinase pathways independently of the VEGF pathway in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Finally, vestaine A1 potently suppressed VEGF-induced vascular permeability both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: Vestaine A1 has the potential to exhibit both pro-angiogenic and anti-permeability properties, and would therefore be useful for therapeutic treatment for abnormal vascular permeability-related diseases.

  13. Regulation of angiogenesis in human skeletal muscle with specific focus on pro- angiogenic and angiostatic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte

    It is well established that acute exercise promotes an angiogenic response and that a period of exercise training results in capillary growth. Skeletal muscle angiogenesis is a complex process that requires a coordinated interplay of multiple factors and compounds to ensure proper vascular function...... was investigated. This was achieved by investigating the response of pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factors during acute passive movement and active exercise and during passive and active training. In addition, the response of pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factors during acute passive movement and active exercise...... exercise and passive movement before and after training which appears to be independent of exercise intensity at sub-maximal levels whereas high intensity exercise results in a lower increase in the interstitial VEGF protein concentration. The reason for a lower increase in interstitial VEGF with high...

  14. The role of tumor microenvironment in resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shaolin; Pradeep, Sunila; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Dikai; Coleman, Robert; Sood, Anil

    2018-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapy has been demonstrated to increase progression-free survival in patients with many different solid cancers. Unfortunately, the benefit in overall survival is modest and the rapid emergence of drug resistance is a significant clinical problem. Over the last decade, several mechanisms have been identified to decipher the emergence of resistance. There is a multitude of changes within the tumor microenvironment (TME) in response to anti-angiogenic therapy that offers new therapeutic opportunities. In this review, we compile results from contemporary studies related to adaptive changes in the TME in the development of resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy. These include preclinical models of emerging resistance, dynamic changes in hypoxia signaling and stromal cells during treatment, and novel strategies to overcome resistance by targeting the TME. PMID:29560266

  15. On dynamic tumor eradication conditions under combined chemical/anti-angiogenic therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Konstantin E.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper ultimate dynamics of the five-dimensional cancer tumor growth model at the angiogenesis phase is studied. This model elaborated by Pinho et al. in 2014 describes interactions between normal/cancer/endothelial cells under chemotherapy/anti-angiogenic agents in tumor growth process. The author derives ultimate upper bounds for normal/tumor/endothelial cells concentrations and ultimate upper and lower bounds for chemical/anti-angiogenic concentrations. Global asymptotic tumor clearance conditions are obtained for two versions: the use of only chemotherapy and the combined application of chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic therapy. These conditions are established as the attraction conditions to the maximum invariant set in the tumor free plane, and furthermore, the case is examined when this set consists only of tumor free equilibrium points.

  16. Angiogenic activity in patients with psoriasis is significantly decreased by Goeckerman's therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrys, C.; Borska, L.; Pohl, D.; Fiala, Z.; Hamakova, K.; Krejsek, J. [Faculty Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Dept. of Clinical Immunology & Allergy

    2007-03-15

    Goeckerman's therapy (GT) of psoriasis is based on daily application of pharmacy grade coal tar on affected skin with subsequent exposure to UV light. Goeckerman's therapy is still the first line therapy of psoriasis in the Czech Republic because of its low cost and long-term efficacy. Disturbances in angiogenic activity are characteristic for the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. An abnormal spectrum of cytokines, growth factors and proangiogenic mediators is produced by keratinocytes and inflammatory cells in patients suffering from the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of GT of psoriasis on angiogenic activities by comparing serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in 44 patients with psoriasis in peripheral blood samples collected before and after therapy. It was found that the angiogenic potential which is abnormally increased in patients with psoriasis is significantly alleviated by GT.

  17. Effects of Ellagic Acid on Angiogenic Factors in Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanella, Luca; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Cardile, Venera; Abraham, Nader G.; Sorrenti, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several natural antioxidants, including ellagic acid (EA), have been reported to have chemotherapeutic activity in vivo and in vitro settings. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and synthesis of both epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), together with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heme oxygenase system (HO) have emerged as important modulators of tumor growth and metastasis. Methods: The anti-angiogenic effects of EA were investigated in the human prostatic cancer cell line LnCap. HO-1, HO-2, CYP2J2 and soluble epoxyde hydrolase (sEH) expressions were evaluated by western blotting. Levels of VEGF and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined in the culture supernatant using an ELISA assay, while CYP mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. Results: EA treatment induced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in HO-1, HO-2 and CYP2J2 expression, and in VEGF and OPG levels. Similarly CYP2J2, CYP4F2 and CYPA22 mRNAs were significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated by EA treatment. The decrease in CYP2J2 mRNA was associated with an increase in sEH expression. Conclusions: Results reported in the present study highlighted the ability of EA to modulate a new pathway, in addition to anti-proliferative and pro-differentiation properties, via a mechanism that involves a decrease in eicosanoid synthesis and a down-regulation of the HO system in prostate cancer

  18. Effects of Ellagic Acid on Angiogenic Factors in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanella, Luca; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Li Volti, Giovanni [Department of Drug Science, Section of Biochemistry, University of Catania, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Cardile, Venera [Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, Section of Physiology, University of Catania, I-95125, Catania (Italy); Abraham, Nader G. [Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25701 (United States); Sorrenti, Valeria, E-mail: sorrenti@unict.it [Department of Drug Science, Section of Biochemistry, University of Catania, I-95125 Catania (Italy)

    2013-06-19

    Background: Several natural antioxidants, including ellagic acid (EA), have been reported to have chemotherapeutic activity in vivo and in vitro settings. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and synthesis of both epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), together with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heme oxygenase system (HO) have emerged as important modulators of tumor growth and metastasis. Methods: The anti-angiogenic effects of EA were investigated in the human prostatic cancer cell line LnCap. HO-1, HO-2, CYP2J2 and soluble epoxyde hydrolase (sEH) expressions were evaluated by western blotting. Levels of VEGF and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined in the culture supernatant using an ELISA assay, while CYP mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. Results: EA treatment induced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in HO-1, HO-2 and CYP2J2 expression, and in VEGF and OPG levels. Similarly CYP2J2, CYP4F2 and CYPA22 mRNAs were significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated by EA treatment. The decrease in CYP2J2 mRNA was associated with an increase in sEH expression. Conclusions: Results reported in the present study highlighted the ability of EA to modulate a new pathway, in addition to anti-proliferative and pro-differentiation properties, via a mechanism that involves a decrease in eicosanoid synthesis and a down-regulation of the HO system in prostate cancer.

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 couples cyclo-oxygenase-2 with pro-angiogenic actions of leptin on human endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Garonna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin influences the behaviour of a wide range of cell types and is now recognised as a pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory factor. In the vasculature, these effects are mediated in part through its direct leptin receptor (ObRb-driven actions on endothelial cells (ECs but the mechanisms responsible for these activities have not been established. In this study we sought to more fully define the molecular links between inflammatory and angiogenic responses of leptin-stimulated human ECs.Immunoblotting studies showed that leptin increased cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression (but not COX-1 in cultured human umbilical vein ECs (HUVEC through pathways that depend upon activation of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38(MAPK and Akt, and stimulated rapid phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 on Tyr(1175. Phosphorylation of VEGFR2, p38(MAPK and Akt, and COX-2 induction in cells challenged with leptin were blocked by a specific leptin peptide receptor antagonist. Pharmacological inhibitors of COX-2, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway and p38(MAPK abrogated leptin-induced EC proliferation (assessed by quantifying 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, calcein fluorescence and propidium iodide staining, slowed the increased migration rate of leptin-stimulated cells (in vitro wound healing assay and inhibited leptin-induced capillary-like tube formation by HUVEC on Matrigel. Inhibition of VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase activity reduced leptin-stimulated p38(MAPK and Akt activation, COX-2 induction, and pro-angiogenic EC responses, and blockade of VEGFR2 or COX-2 activities abolished leptin-driven neo-angiogenesis in a chick chorioallantoic membrane vascularisation assay in vivo.We conclude that a functional endothelial p38(MAPK/Akt/COX-2 signalling axis is required for leptin's pro-angiogenic actions and that this is regulated upstream by ObRb-dependent activation of VEGFR2

  20. Cardioprotective effect of valsartan in mice with short-term high-salt diet by regulating cardiac aquaporin 1 and angiogenic factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Wang, Hui-Yan; Zheng, Sheng; Mu, Shang-Qiang; Ma, Meng-Ni; Xie, Xin; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Chun-Xue; Cai, Jian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common risk factor for various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases that affects approximately 61 million, or 25% of the population in United States. The dietary salt intake is one of the most important but modifiable factors for hypertension. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the role of aquaporin 1 in high-salt-induced hypertension and cardiac injuries and whether angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan could ameliorate the effect of high salt on blood pressure. Mice were fed with normal diet, high-salt diet in the presence or absence of valsartan for 4 weeks. The body weight gain, feeding behavior, blood pressure, and cardiac pathology changes were monitored after 4 weeks. The expression of aquaporin 1, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor β1, and basic fibroblast growth factor were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical staining. Valsartan partially reversed the effects of high-salt diet on hypertension, cardiac injuries such as fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration, and inhibition of aquaporin 1 and angiogenic factors; valsartan alone did not exert such effects. The current data demonstrated that the reduction of cardiac aquaporin 1 and angiogenic factor expression level might be associated with high-salt-induced hypertension and cardiac injuries in mice, which could be ameliorated by angiotensin II receptor blocker treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Resistance to cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic anticancer agents: similarities and differences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broxterman, H.J.; Lankelma, J.; Hoekman, K.

    2003-01-01

    Intrinsic resistance to anticancer drugs, or resistance developed during chemotherapy, remains a major obstacle to successful treatment. This is the case both for resistance to cytotoxic agents, directed at malignant cells, and for resistance to anti-angiogenic agents, directed at non-malignant

  2. Syndecan-1 and angiogenic cytokines in multiple myeloma: correlation with bone marrow angiogenesis and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Frost; Standal, Therese; Nielsen, Johan Lanng

    2005-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex process involved in the proliferation and metastasis of malignant tumours, and partly triggered by the secretion of various angiogenic factors by tumour cells or cells in the stromal environment. We investigated the correlation between bone marrow angiogenesis, estimated...

  3. Pilot study of angiogenic response to yttrium-90 radioembolization with resin microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpizo, Darren R; Gensure, Rebekah H; Yu, Xin; Gendel, Vyacheslav M; Greene, Samuel J; Moore, Dirk F; Jabbour, Salma K; Nosher, John L

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the impact of radioembolization with yttrium-90 resin microspheres on the regulation of angiogenesis through observation of serial changes in a spectrum of angiogenic markers and other cytokines after therapy. This prospective pilot study enrolled 22 patients with liver-dominant disease deriving from biopsy-proven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 7) or metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) (n = 15). Circulating angiogenic markers were measured from serum samples drawn at baseline and at time points after therapy ranging from 6 hours to 120 days. Using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, several classic angiogenesis factors (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], angiopoietin-2 [Ang-2], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF], platelet-derived growth factor subunit BB [PDGF-BB], thrombospondin-1 [Tsp-1]) and nonclassic factors (follistatin, leptin, interleukin [IL]-8) were evaluated. Increases in cytokine levels ≥ 50% over baseline were observed in more than half of all patients studied for many cytokines, including classic angiogenic factors such as VEGF, Ang-2, and Tsp-1 as well as nonclassic factors IL-8 and follistatin (range, 36%-82% for all cytokines). Baseline cytokine levels in patients with overall survival (OS) 6 months. Radioembolization is associated with early transient increases in many angiogenic cytokines. In this small sample size, some of these changes were associated with worse OS. This research has important implications for future studies of radioembolization with antiangiogenic therapy performed during and after the procedure. © 2014 SIR Published by SIR All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro and in vivo anti-angiogenic activity of girinimbine isolated from Murraya koenigii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman V

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Venoos Iman,1 Hamed Karimian,1 Syam Mohan,2 Yahya Hasan Hobani,2 Mohamed Ibrahim Noordin,1 Mohd Rais Mustafa,3 Suzita Mohd Noor41Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Medical Research Center, University of Jazan, Jazan, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Pharmacology, Centre for Natural Products and Drug Discovery (CENAR, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Girinimbine is a carbazole alkaloid isolated from the stem bark and root of Murraya koenigii. Here we report that girinimbine is an inhibitor of angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. MTT results showed that girinimbine inhibited proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, while results from endothelial cell invasion, migration, tube formation, and wound healing assays demonstrated significant time- and dose-dependent inhibition by girinimbine. A proteome profiler array done on girinimbine-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed that girinimbine had mediated regulation of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic proteins. The anti-angiogenic potential of girinimbine was also evidenced in vivo in the zebrafish embryo model wherein girinimbine inhibited neo vessel formation in zebrafish embryos following 24 hours of exposure. Together, these results showed that girinimbine could effectively suppress angiogenesis, suggestive of its therapeutic potential as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. Keywords: angiogenesis, inhibitor, carbazole alkaloid, zebrafish

  5. Multi-parametric assessment of the anti-angiogenic effects of liposomal glucocorticoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluza, Ewelina; Heisen, Marieke; Schmid, Sophie; van der Schaft, Daisy W. J.; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; Storm, Gert; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation plays a prominent role in tumor growth. Anti-inflammatory drugs have therefore been proposed as anti-cancer therapeutics. In this study, we determined the anti-angiogenic activity of a single dose of liposomal prednisolone phosphate (PLP-L), by monitoring tumor vascular function and

  6. The anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effect of the methanol extract from brittle star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Mousavi, Marzieh

    2015-04-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapy is a crucial step in cancer treatment. The discovery of new anti-angiogenic compounds from marine organisms has become an attractive concept in anti-cancer therapy. Because little data correlated to the pro- and anti-angiogenic efficacies of Ophiuroidea, which include brittle star, the current study was designed to explore the anti-angiogenic potential of brittle star methanol extract in vitro and in vivo. The anti-proliferative effect of brittle star extract on A2780cp cells was examined by MTT assays, and transcriptional expression of VEGF and b-FGF was evaluated by RT-PCR. In an in vivo model, 40 fertilized Ross eggs were divided into control and three experimental groups. The experimental groups were incubated with brittle star extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml, and photographed by photo-stereomicroscopy. Ultimately, numbers and lengths of vessels were measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (pstar extract exerted a dose- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effect on A2780cp cancer cells. In addition, VEGF and b-FGF expression decreased with brittle star methanol extract treatment. Macroscopic evaluations revealed significant changes in the second and third experimental group compared to controls (pstar methanol extract in vitro and in vivo confer novel insight into the application of natural marine products in angiogenesis-related pathologies.

  7. Angiogenic output in viral hepatitis, C and B, and HCV-associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Angiogenesis is known to play a pivotal role in most of malignancy, including HCC, and in chronic inflammation. Aim: To investigate the angiogenic output in HCV and HBV infection and its implication in the development of HCV associated HCC. Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected and ...

  8. A PEGylated Fibrin-Based Wound Dressing with Antimicrobial and Angiogenic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    from a fresh overnight culture plate in trypticase soy broth (Tekno- va) for S. aureus or Mueller–Hinton broth (Teknova) for P. aerugin- osa. The...matrix. Acta Biomater 2010;6(9):3395–403. [42] Ozerdem U, Stallcup WB. Early contribution of pericytes to angiogenic sprouting and tube formation

  9. Association of first-trimester angiogenic factors with placental histological findings in late-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triunfo, Stefania; Crovetto, Francesca; Crispi, Fatima; Rodriguez-Sureda, Victor; Dominguez, Carmen; Nadal, Alfons; Peguero, Anna; Gratacos, Eduard; Figueras, Francesc

    2016-06-01

    To explore in women with late-onset preeclampsia (PE) the association between maternal levels of angiogenic/antiangiogenic factors in the first trimester of pregnancy and histological findings attributable to placental underperfusion (PUP). A nested case-control cohort study was conducted in 73 women with pregnancies complicated by late-onset PE (>34 weeks at delivery) matched with controls. First trimester uterine artery Doppler (UtA); maternal levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) were retrieved. Placentas were histologically evaluated using a hierarchical and standardized classification system. One-way ANOVA with linear polynomial contrast or linear-by-linear association test was performed to test the hypothesis of a linear association across study groups (controls, PE without PUP and PE with PUP). In 54 (74%) placentas, 89 placental histological findings qualifying for PUP were found. Across study groups, significant values were observed in maternal levels of decreased PlGF (MoM values: 1.53, 1.41 and 1.37; p UtA Doppler (MoM values: 1, 1.26 and 1.32; p < 0.001), and worse perinatal outcomes in terms of gestational age at delivery, cesarean section for not reassuring fetal status, birth weight and neonatal acidosis. In late-onset PE an imbalance of circulating angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors already present at 8-10 weeks of pregnancy was associated with histological findings reflecting placental insufficiency. An early first trimester screening by angiogenic factors might help to identify patients with placental involvement among late-onset PE cases. In late-onset preeclampsia, first-trimester uterine Doppler and circulating levels of angiogenic/antiangiogenic factors are associated with placental underperfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes of serum angiogenic factors concentrations in patients with diabetes and unstable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Chun; Li, Shi-kang; Nong, Qin-ling; Du, Fang; Zhu, Li-guang; Zeng, Zhi-yu

    2013-02-19

    Diabetic microvascular changes are considered to be influenced by angiogenic factors. As a compensatory mechanism, the expression of some angiogenic factors are elevated in ischemic myocardium. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of serum angiogenic factors, and the association among these angiogenic factors, the severity of coronary artery stenosis and collateral vessels form in patients with diabetes and unstable angina pectoris (UAP). 42 patients with diabetes (diabetes group), 57 patients with UAP (UAP group), and 36 age-matched healthy people (control group) were selected. Serum concentrations of angiogenic factors were measured using cytokine array technology. The severity of coronary artery stenosis was scored using the angiographic Gensini score. Coronary collateral vessels were scored according to Rentrop's classification. No significant differences in the serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), angiogenin, angiostatin, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) were detected between control group and diabetes group. But in patients with diabetes complicated with UAP and in patients with UAP without diabetes, serum concentrations of VEGF and Ang-2 were elevated (p < 0.01, p < 0.01). Only serum Ang-2 concentrations were significantly correlated with Gensini score (r=0.585, p < 0.001), left ventricular end diastolic diameter (r=0.501, p < 0.001), left ventricular end systolic diameter (r=0.563, p < 0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.523, p < 0.001). Serum concentrations of VEGF and Ang-2 were increased, and diabetes didn't affect this increases in patients with UAP. Serum Ang-2 concentrations were correlated with the severity of coronary artery stenosis.

  11. Tissue factor is an angiogenic-specific receptor for factor VII-targeted immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiwei; Cheng, Jijun; Xu, Jie; Ruf, Wolfram; Lockwood, Charles J

    2017-02-01

    Identification of target molecules specific for angiogenic vascular endothelial cells (VEC), the inner layer of pathological neovasculature, is critical for discovery and development of neovascular-targeting therapy for angiogenesis-dependent human diseases, notably cancer, macular degeneration and endometriosis, in which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central pathophysiological role. Using VEGF-stimulated vascular endothelial cells (VECs) isolated from microvessels, venous and arterial blood vessels as in vitro angiogenic models and unstimulated VECs as a quiescent VEC model, we examined the expression of tissue factor (TF), a membrane-bound receptor on the angiogenic VEC models compared with quiescent VEC controls. We found that TF is specifically expressed on angiogenic VECs in a time-dependent manner in microvessels, venous and arterial vessels. TF-targeted therapeutic agents, including factor VII (fVII)-IgG1 Fc and fVII-conjugated photosensitizer, can selectively bind angiogenic VECs, but not the quiescent VECs. Moreover, fVII-targeted photodynamic therapy can selectively and completely eradicate angiogenic VECs. We conclude that TF is an angiogenic-specific receptor and the target molecule for fVII-targeted therapeutics. This study supports clinical trials of TF-targeted therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases such as cancer, macular degeneration and endometriosis.

  12. 16 K Prolactin as an Angiogenic Inhibitor in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liby, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Tumors must induce the formation of new blood vessels to grow and metastasize. Prolactin (PRL) is a 23 kDa hormone that has mitogenic, morphogenic, and lactogenic actions on the breast, but its role in breast cancer is unclear...

  13. Regulation of angiogenesis by vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 in the rat aorta model: distinct temporal patterns of intracellular signaling correlate with induction of angiogenic sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Hui; MacIntyre, Angela; Nicosia, Roberto Francesco

    2002-09-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) promote the spontaneous angiogenic response of freshly cut rat aortic rings. When VEGF and Ang-1 were tested in cultures of 14-day-old rings, which are quiescent and unable to spontaneously produce neovessels, only VEGF was capable of inducing an angiogenic response. Ang-1 failed to initiate angiogenesis in this system, but significantly potentiated VEGF-induced neovessel sprouting. Potential differences in cell signaling triggered by VEGF and Ang-1 were evaluated in cultures of quiescent rings. VEGF induced biphasic and prolonged (15 minutes and 4 to 24 hours) phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK and Akt, while the effect of Ang-1 was transient and monophasic (15 minutes). Both VEGF and Ang-1 induced rapid, monophasic (15 minutes) phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. When VEGF and Ang-1 were administered together, the second peak of VEGF-induced p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation was markedly reduced. The effect of the VEGF/Ang-1 combination on AKT phosphorylation was, instead, additive over time, and sustained over a 24-hour period. The VEGF/Ang-1 combination caused an additive effect also on p38 MAPK phosphorylation at 1 hour. Confocal microscopy of VEGF-, Ang-1, or VEGF/Ang-1-stimulated aortic rings double stained at time points of maximal phosphorylation for cell markers and signal transduction proteins demonstrated phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and Akt predominantly in endothelial cells. Experiments with specific inhibitors demonstrated that p44/42 MAPK and Akt, but not p38 MAPK, are necessary for neovessel sprouting. These results identify p44/42 MAPK and Akt as critical intracellular mediators of angiogenesis, whose transient phosphorylation is, however, not sufficient for the initiation of this process. The observation that sustained phosphorylation of these signaling pathways, particularly of Akt, correlates with induction of angiogenesis suggests that the duration of phosphorylation signals

  14. Nitric Oxide Mediates Bleomycin-Induced Angiogenesis and Pulmonary Fibrosis via Regulation of VEGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Anand Krishnan V.; Ramesh, Vani; Castro, Carlos A.; Kaushik, Vivek; Kulkarni, Yogesh M.; Wright, Clayton A.; Venkatadri, Rajkumar; Rojanasakul, Yon; Azad, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease hallmarked by increased fibroblast proliferation, amplified levels of extracellular matrix deposition and increased angiogenesis. Although dysregulation of angiogenic mediators has been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis, the specific rate-limiting angiogenic markers involved and their role in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis remains unclear. We demonstrate that bleomycin treatment induces angiogenesis, and inhibition of the central angiogenic mediator VEGF using anti-VEGF antibody CBO-P11 significantly attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Bleomycin-induced nitric oxide (NO) was observed to be the key upstream regulator of VEGF via the PI3k/Akt pathway. VEGF regulated other important angiogenic proteins including PAI-1 and IL-8 in response to bleomycin exposure. Inhibition of NO and VEGF activity significantly mitigated bleomycin-induced angiogenic and fibrogenic responses. NO and VEGF are key mediators of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and could serve as important targets against this debilitating disease. Overall, our data suggests an important role for angiogenic mediators in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25919965

  15. Date syrup-derived polyphenols attenuate angiogenic responses and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, Hajer; Morris, R Keith; Withycombe, Cathryn E; Maddocks, Sarah E; Kanekanian, Ara D

    2016-07-01

    Bioactive components such as polyphenols, present in many plants, are purported to have anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. Date syrup, produced from date fruit of the date palm tree, has traditionally been used to treat a wide range of diseases with etiologies involving angiogenesis and inflammation. It was hypothesized that polyphenols in date syrup reduce angiogenic responses such as cell migration, tube formation, and matrix metalloproteinase activity in an inflammatory model by exhibiting anti-inflammatory activity mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the prostaglandin enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in endothelial cells. Date syrup polyphenols at 60 and 600μg/mL reduced inflammation and suppressed several stages of angiogenesis, including endothelial cell migration, invasion, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and tube formation, without evidence of cytotoxicity. VEGF and COX-2 expression induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha at both gene expression and protein level was significantly reduced by date syrup polyphenols in comparison to untreated cells. In conclusion, polyphenols in date syrup attenuated angiogenic responses and exhibited anti-inflammatory activity mediated by VEGF and COX-2 expression in endothelial cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface modification of strontium-doped porous bioactive ceramic scaffolds via poly(DOPA) coating and immobilizing silk fibroin for excellent angiogenic and osteogenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Gu, Zhipeng; Jiang, Bo; Li, Li; Yu, Xixun

    2016-04-01

    For bioceramic scaffolds employed in clinical applications, excellent bioactivity and tenacity were of great importance. Modifying inorganic SCPP scaffolds with biological macromolecules could obviously improve its bioactivity and eliminate its palpable brittleness. However, it was hard to execute directly due to extremely bad interfacial compatibility between them. In this research, dopamine (DOPA) was introduced onto strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) scaffolds, subsequently the preliminary material was successfully further modified by silk fibroin (SF). SCPP/D/SF possessed suitable biomechanical properties, ability to stimulate angiogenic factor secretion and excellent biocompatibility. Biomechanical examination demonstrated that SCPP/D/SF scaffolds yielded better compressive strength because of improved interfacial compatibility. MTT assay and CLSM observation showed that SCPP/D/SF scaffolds had good cytocompatibility and presented better inducing-cell-migration potential than pure SCPP scaffolds. Meanwhile, its ability to stimulate angiogenic factor secretion was measured through the ELISA assay and immunohistological analysis in vitro and in vivo respectively. The results revealed, superior to SCPP, SCPP/D/SF could effectively promote VEGF and bFGF expression, possibly leading to enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis. In a word, SCPP/D/SF could serve as a potential bone tissue engineering scaffold for comparable biomechanical properties and excellent bioactivity. It provided a novel idea for modification of inorganic materials to prepare promising bone tissue engineering scaffolds with the ability to accelerate bone regeneration and vascularization.

  17. Decidual stromal cell response to paracrine signals from the trophoblast: amplification of immune and angiogenic modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A P; Hamilton, A E; Talbi, S; Dosiou, C; Nyegaard, M; Nayak, N; Genbecev-Krtolica, O; Mavrogianis, P; Ferrer, K; Kruessel, J; Fazleabas, A T; Fisher, S J; Giudice, L C

    2007-01-01

    During the invasive phase of implantation, trophoblasts and maternal decidual stromal cells secrete products that regulate trophoblast differentiation and migration into the maternal endometrium. Paracrine interactions between the extravillous trophoblast and the maternal decidua are important for successful embryonic implantation, including establishing the placental vasculature, anchoring the placenta to the uterine wall, and promoting the immunoacceptance of the fetal allograph. To our knowledge, global crosstalk between the trophoblast and the decidua has not been elucidated to date, and the present study used a functional genomics approach to investigate these paracrine interactions. Human endometrial stromal cells were decidualized with progesterone and further treated with conditioned media from human trophoblasts (TCM) or, as a control, with control conditioned media (CCM) from nondecidualized stromal cells for 0, 3, and 12 h. Total RNA was isolated and processed for analysis on whole-genome, high-density oligonucleotide arrays containing 54,600 genes. We found that 1374 genes were significantly upregulated and that 3443 genes were significantly downregulated after 12 h of coincubation of stromal cells with TCM, compared to CCM. Among the most upregulated genes were the chemokines CXCL1 (GRO1) and IL8,CXCR4, and other genes involved in the immune response (CCL8 [SCYA8], pentraxin 3 (PTX3), IL6, and interferon-regulated and -related genes) as well as TNFAIP6 (tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6) and metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP10, and MMP14). Among the downregulated genes were growth factors, e.g., IGF1, FGF1, TGFB1, and angiopoietin-1, and genes involved in Wnt signaling (WNT4 and FZD). Real-time RT-PCR and ELISAs, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of human placental bed specimens, confirmed these data for representative genes of both up- and downregulated groups. The data demonstrate a significant induction of proinflammatory cytokines and

  18. Effects of TiO₂ and Co₃O₄ nanoparticles on circulating angiogenic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Spigoni

    Full Text Available Sparse evidence suggests a possible link between exposure to airborne nanoparticles (NPs and cardiovascular (CV risk, perhaps through mechanisms involving oxidative stress and inflammation. We assessed the effects of TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs in human circulating angiogenic cells (CACs, which take part in vascular endothelium repair/replacement.CACs were isolated from healthy donors' buffy coats after culturing lymphomonocytes on fibronectin-coated dishes in endothelial medium for 7 days. CACs were pre-incubated with increasing concentration of TiO2 and Co3O4 (from 1 to 100 μg/ml to test the effects of NP – characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy – on CAC viability, apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activation, function (fibronectin adhesion assay, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine gene expression.Neither oxidative stress nor cell death were associated with exposure to TiO2 NP (except at the highest concentration tested, which, however, induced a higher pro-inflammatory effect compared to Co3O4 NPs (p<0.01. Exposure to Co3O4 NPs significantly reduced cell viability (p<0.01 and increased caspase activity (p<0.01, lipid peroxidation end-products (p<0.05 and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression (p<0.05 or lower. Notably, CAC functional activity was impaired after exposure to both TiO2 (p<0.05 or lower and Co3O4 (p<0.01 NPs.In vitro exposure to TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs exerts detrimental effects on CAC viability and function, possibly mediated by accelerated apoptosis, increased oxidant stress (Co3O4 NPs only and enhancement of inflammatory pathways (both TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs. Such adverse effects may be relevant for a potential role of exposure to TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs in enhancing CV risk in humans.

  19. Effects of TiO2 and Co3O4 Nanoparticles on Circulating Angiogenic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigoni, Valentina; Cito, Monia; Alinovi, Rossella; Pinelli, Silvana; Passeri, Giovanni; Zavaroni, Ivana; Goldoni, Matteo; Campanini, Marco; Aliatis, Irene; Mutti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Sparse evidence suggests a possible link between exposure to airborne nanoparticles (NPs) and cardiovascular (CV) risk, perhaps through mechanisms involving oxidative stress and inflammation. We assessed the effects of TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs in human circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), which take part in vascular endothelium repair/replacement. Methods CACs were isolated from healthy donors’ buffy coats after culturing lymphomonocytes on fibronectin-coated dishes in endothelial medium for 7 days. CACs were pre-incubated with increasing concentration of TiO2 and Co3O4 (from 1 to 100 μg/ml) to test the effects of NP – characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy – on CAC viability, apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activation), function (fibronectin adhesion assay), oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Results Neither oxidative stress nor cell death were associated with exposure to TiO2 NP (except at the highest concentration tested), which, however, induced a higher pro-inflammatory effect compared to Co3O4 NPs (p<0.01). Exposure to Co3O4 NPs significantly reduced cell viability (p<0.01) and increased caspase activity (p<0.01), lipid peroxidation end-products (p<0.05) and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression (p<0.05 or lower). Notably, CAC functional activity was impaired after exposure to both TiO2 (p<0.05 or lower) and Co3O4 (p<0.01) NPs. Conclusions In vitro exposure to TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs exerts detrimental effects on CAC viability and function, possibly mediated by accelerated apoptosis, increased oxidant stress (Co3O4 NPs only) and enhancement of inflammatory pathways (both TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs). Such adverse effects may be relevant for a potential role of exposure to TiO2 and Co3O4 NPs in enhancing CV risk in humans. PMID:25803285

  20. NADPH oxidase- generated ROS are required for SDF-1α-stimulated angiogenesis Short title: NOX is an angiogenic regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Xinchun; Xie, Liang; Portbury, Andrea L.; Kumar, Sarayu; Lockyer, Pamela; Li, Xi; Patterson, Cam

    2014-01-01

    Objective Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signaling molecules during angiogenesis, however, the mechanisms used for such signaling events remain unclear. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is one of the most potent angiogenic chemokines. Here we examined the role of ROS in the regulation of SDF-1α-dependent angiogenesis. Approach and results Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were treated with SDF-1α and intracellular ROS generation was monitored. SDF-1α treatment induced BAEC migration and ROS generation, with the majority of ROS generated by BAECs at the leading edge of the migratory cells. Antioxidants and NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitors blocked SDF-1α-induced endothelial migration. Furthermore, knockdown of either NOX5 or p22phox (a requisite subunit for NOX1/2/4 activation) significantly impaired endothelial motility and tube formation, suggesting that multiple NOXs regulate SDF-1α-dependent angiogenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that JNK3 activity is essential for SDF-1α-dependent angiogenesis. Here, we identified that NOX5 is the dominant NOX required for SDF-1α-induced JNK3 activation and that NOX5 and MKP7 (the JNK3 phosphatase) associate with one another but decrease this interaction upon SDF-1α treatment. Furthermore, MKP7 activity was inhibited by SDF-1α and this inhibition was relieved by NOX5 knockdown, indicating that NOX5 promotes JNK3 activation by blocking MKP7 activity. Conclusions We conclude that NOX is required for SDF-1α signaling and that intracellular redox balance is critical for SDF-1α-induced endothelial migration and angiogenesis. PMID:24990230

  1. Characterization and Angiogenic Potential of Human Neonatal and Infant Thymus Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyun; Mundada, Lakshmi; Johnson, Sean; Wong, Joshua; Witt, Russell; Ohye, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Resident mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are involved in angiogenesis during thymus regeneration. We have previously shown that MSCs can be isolated from enzymatically digested human neonatal and infant thymus tissue that is normally discarded during pediatric cardiac surgical procedures. In this paper, we demonstrate that thymus MSCs can also be isolated by explant culture of discarded thymus tissue and that these cells share many of the characteristics of bone marrow MSCs. Human neonatal thymus MSCs are clonogenic, demonstrate exponential growth in nearly 30 population doublings, have a characteristic surface marker profile, and express pluripotency genes. Furthermore, thymus MSCs have potent proangiogenic behavior in vitro with sprout formation and angiogenic growth factor production. Thymus MSCs promote neoangiogenesis and cooperate with endothelial cells to form functional human blood vessels in vivo. These characteristics make thymus MSCs a potential candidate for use as an angiogenic cell therapeutic agent and for vascularizing engineered tissues in vitro. PMID:25713463

  2. Characterization and angiogenic potential of human neonatal and infant thymus mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyun; Mundada, Lakshmi; Johnson, Sean; Wong, Joshua; Witt, Russell; Ohye, Richard G; Si, Ming-Sing

    2015-04-01

    Resident mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are involved in angiogenesis during thymus regeneration. We have previously shown that MSCs can be isolated from enzymatically digested human neonatal and infant thymus tissue that is normally discarded during pediatric cardiac surgical procedures. In this paper, we demonstrate that thymus MSCs can also be isolated by explant culture of discarded thymus tissue and that these cells share many of the characteristics of bone marrow MSCs. Human neonatal thymus MSCs are clonogenic, demonstrate exponential growth in nearly 30 population doublings, have a characteristic surface marker profile, and express pluripotency genes. Furthermore, thymus MSCs have potent proangiogenic behavior in vitro with sprout formation and angiogenic growth factor production. Thymus MSCs promote neoangiogenesis and cooperate with endothelial cells to form functional human blood vessels in vivo. These characteristics make thymus MSCs a potential candidate for use as an angiogenic cell therapeutic agent and for vascularizing engineered tissues in vitro. ©AlphaMed Press.

  3. Protein kinase D1 signaling in angiogenic gene expression and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eRen MD, Phd, FAHA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase D 1 (PKD-1 is a signaling kinase important in fundamental cell functions including migration, proliferation and differentiation. PKD-1 is also a key regulator of gene expression and angiogenesis that is essential for cardiovascular development and tumor progression. Further understanding molecular aspects of PKD-1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis may have translational implications in obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The author will summarize and provide the insights into molecular mechanisms by which PKD-1 regulates transcriptional expression of angiogenic genes, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of CD36 by PKD-1-FoxO1 signaling axis along with the potential implications of this axis in arterial differentiation and morphogenesis. He will also discuss a new concept of dynamic balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic signaling in determining angiogenic switch, and stress how PKD-1 signaling regulates VEGF signaling-mediated angiogenesis.

  4. Physicochemical/photophysical characterization and angiogenic properties of Curcuma longa essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Lilhian A; Araújo, Rafael G M; Gomes, Flávia O; Lemes, Susy R; Almeida, Luciane M; Maia, Lauro J Q; Gonçalves, Pablo J; Mrué, Fátima; Silva-Junior, Nelson J; Melo-Reis, Paulo R DE

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the physicochemical and photophysical properties of essential oil of Curcuma longa and its angiogenic potential. The results showed that curcumin is the main fluorescent component present in the oil, although the amount is relatively small. The experimental chorioallantoic membrane model was used to evaluate angiogenic activity, showing a significant increase in the vascular network of Curcuma longa and positive control groups when compared to the neutral and inhibitor controls (P Curcuma longa essential oil and the positive control (P >0.05). Histological analysis showed extensive neovascularization, hyperemia and inflammation in the positive control group and Curcuma longa when compared to other controls (P Curcuma longa oil showed considerable proangiogenic activity and could be a potential compound in medical applications.

  5. NO-synthase expression and functional response to NO are both important modulators of circulating angiogenic cell response to angiogenic stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Christian; Schanz, Andrea; Amabile, Nicolas; Jahn, Sarah; Chen, Qiumei; Wong, Maelene L.; Rassaf, Tienush; Heinen, Yvonne; Cortese-Krott, Miriam; Grossman, William; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Springer, Matthew L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), also termed endothelial progenitor cells, play an integral role in vascular repair and are functionally impaired in coronary artery disease (CAD). The role of nitric oxide (NO) in CAC function is poorly understood. We hypothesized that CAC migration toward angiogenic signals is modulated by both NO synthase (NOS) expression and functional response to NO. Methods and Results Similar to endothelial cells, CAC chemotaxis to VEGF was blocked by inhibition of NOS, phosphoinositide-3 kinase, or guanylyl cyclase, or by treatment with an NO scavenger. Addition of a NO donor (SNAP) and the NOS-substrate L-arginine increased random cell migration (chemokinesis) and enhanced VEGF-dependent chemotaxis. Healthy CACs expressed eNOS, but eNOS was not detected in CAD patient CACs. Both chemokinesis and chemotaxis to VEGF of patient CACs were decreased compared to healthy CACs, but were restored to healthy values by SNAP. In parallel, CAD patients exhibited lower flow-mediated vasodilation and plasma NO source nitrite than young healthy subjects, indicating endothelial dysfunction with reduced NO bioavailability. Conclusions NOS activity is required for CAC chemotaxis. In CAD patients, impairment of NOS expression and NO bioavailability, rather than response to NO, may contribute to CAC dysfunction and limit their regenerative capacity. PMID:20705916

  6. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Chorostowska-Wynimko

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in

  7. Anti-angiogenic effect of curcumin, curcumin ethylenediamine derivative and curcumin ethylenediamine manganese complex

    OpenAIRE

    SUNTORNSUK, Leena; Koizumi, Keiichi; Saitoh, Yurika; Nakamura, ElianeShizuka; KAMMASUD, Naparat; VAJARAGUPTA, Opa; Saiki, Ikuo

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the anti-angiogenic effect of curcumin, curcumin ethylenediamine derivative (curcumin ED) and curcumin ethylenediamine manganese complex (curcumin EDMn) through the inhibition of the formation of tube-like structures by human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). Curcumin, curcumin ED, curcumin EDMn did not show cytotoxicity to HUVEC at concentrations equal and lower than 10 μM. At the concentration of 10 μM,curcumin, curcumin ED and curcumin EDMn inhibited the tube fo...

  8. Osteogenic and Angiogenic Response to Calcium Silicate-based Endodontic Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fábio; Sousa Gomes, Pedro; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2016-01-01

    Calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers are reported to favor the regeneration of periradicular tissues, a process requiring concerted osteogenic and angiogenic events. This study compared 4 calcium silicate-based sealers for the effects of their extracts on osteogenic and angiogenic cell behavior. Extracts from ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK), MTA Plus (Prevest Denpro Limited, Jammu City, India), MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil), and Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France) were prepared from freshly mixed sealers (0.1 g/cm(2)/mL extraction medium) and diluted (1:2-1:20). The sealers were compared for the dose- and time-dependent effects on the proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). An ex vivo osteogenic assay (regeneration of neonatal mice parietal bone defects) and an in vivo angiogenesis assay (chorioallantoic membrane assay) were performed. Diluted extracts from MTA ProRoot and MTA Plus had evident stimulatory effects on the proliferation of hMSCs, alkaline phosphatase activity, and ex vivo regeneration of bone defects. They also increased HUVEC growth; allowed normal tubularlike network organization; and, in vivo, did not affect angiogenesis. Comparatively, Biodentine also elicited a favorable response on hMSCs and HUVECs, but the overall osteogenic and angiogenic outcome was slightly lower. MTA Fillapex exhibited the highest toxicity in hMSCs and HUVECs and, unlike the other sealers, only allowed a partial regeneration of bone defects. The sealers caused dose- and time-dependent effects on the osteoblastic and endothelial response, eliciting similar cytocompatibility profiles. Results suggest that the induction of both osteogenic and angiogenic events may contribute to the sealers' regenerative outcome. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Angiogenic response to passive movement and active exercise in individuals with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Walker, Meegan; Passos, Madla

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is caused by atherosclerosis and is associated with microcirculatory impairments in skeletal muscle. The present study evaluated the angiogenic response to exercise and passive movement in skeletal muscle of PAD patients compared to healthy control subjects. Twen...... increased in response to either passive movement or active exercise in both subject groups. The basal muscle dialysate level of the angiostatic factor trombospondin-1 protein (TSP-1) was markedly higher (P...

  10. An in vitro cord formation assay identifies unique vascular phenotypes associated with angiogenic growth factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly L Falcon

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF plays a dominant role in angiogenesis. While inhibitors of the VEGF pathway are approved for the treatment of a number of tumor types, the effectiveness is limited and evasive resistance is common. One mechanism of evasive resistance to inhibition of the VEGF pathway is upregulation of other pro-angiogenic factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF and epidermal growth factor (EGF. Numerous in vitro assays examine angiogenesis, but many of these assays are performed in media or matrix with multiple growth factors or are driven by VEGF. In order to study angiogenesis driven by other growth factors, we developed a basal medium to use on a co-culture cord formation system of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs and endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs. We found that cord formation driven by different angiogenic factors led to unique phenotypes that could be differentiated and combination studies indicate dominant phenotypes elicited by some growth factors. VEGF-driven cords were highly covered by smooth muscle actin, and bFGF-driven cords had thicker nodes, while EGF-driven cords were highly branched. Multiparametric analysis indicated that when combined EGF has a dominant phenotype. In addition, because this assay system is run in minimal medium, potential proangiogenic molecules can be screened. Using this assay we identified an inhibitor that promoted cord formation, which was translated into in vivo tumor models. Together this study illustrates the unique roles of multiple anti-angiogenic agents, which may lead to improvements in therapeutic angiogenesis efforts and better rational for anti-angiogenic therapy.

  11. An ex vivo model for anti-angiogenic drug testing on intact microvascular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S Azimi

    Full Text Available New models of angiogenesis that mimic the complexity of real microvascular networks are needed. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that cultured rat mesentery tissues contain viable microvascular networks and could be used to probe pericyte-endothelial cell interactions. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of the rat mesentery culture model for anti-angiogenic drug testing by time-lapse quantification of network growth. Mesenteric windows were harvested from adult rats, secured in place with an insert, and cultured for 3 days according to 3 experimental groups: 1 10% serum (angiogenesis control, 2 10% serum + sunitinib (SU11248, and 3 10% serum + bevacizumab. Labeling with FITC conjugated BSI-lectin on Day 0 and 3 identified endothelial cells along blood and lymphatic microvascular networks. Comparison between day 0 (before and 3 (after in networks stimulated by 10% serum demonstrated a dramatic increase in vascular density and capillary sprouting. Growing networks contained proliferating endothelial cells and NG2+ vascular pericytes. Media supplementation with sunitinib (SU11248 or bevacizumab both inhibited the network angiogenic responses. The comparison of the same networks before and after treatment enabled the identification of tissue specific responses. Our results establish, for the first time, the ability to evaluate an anti-angiogenic drug based on time-lapse imaging on an intact microvascular network in an ex vivo scenario.

  12. Tenascin-C Orchestrates Glioblastoma Angiogenesis by Modulation of Pro- and Anti-angiogenic Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Tristan; Langlois, Benoit; Koczorowska, Maria M; Radwanska, Agata; Sun, Zhen; Hussenet, Thomas; Lefebvre, Olivier; Murdamoothoo, Devadarssen; Arnold, Christiane; Klein, Annick; Biniossek, Martin L; Hyenne, Vincent; Naudin, Elise; Velazquez-Quesada, Ines; Schilling, Oliver; Van Obberghen-Schilling, Ellen; Orend, Gertraud

    2016-12-06

    High expression of the extracellular matrix component tenascin-C in the tumor microenvironment correlates with decreased patient survival. Tenascin-C promotes cancer progression and a disrupted tumor vasculature through an unclear mechanism. Here, we examine the angiomodulatory role of tenascin-C. We find that direct contact of endothelial cells with tenascin-C disrupts actin polymerization, resulting in cytoplasmic retention of the transcriptional coactivator YAP. Tenascin-C also downregulates YAP pro-angiogenic target genes, thus reducing endothelial cell survival, proliferation, and tubulogenesis. Glioblastoma cells exposed to tenascin-C secrete pro-angiogenic factors that promote endothelial cell survival and tubulogenesis. Proteomic analysis of their secretome reveals a signature, including ephrin-B2, that predicts decreased survival of glioma patients. We find that ephrin-B2 is an important pro-angiogenic tenascin-C effector. Thus, we demonstrate dual activities for tenascin-C in glioblastoma angiogenesis and uncover potential targeting and prediction opportunities. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hancornia speciosa latex for biomedical applications: physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luciane Madureira; Floriano, Juliana Ferreira; Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Magno, Lais Nogueira; da Mota, Lígia Souza Lima Silveira; Peixoto, Nei; Mrué, Fátima; Melo-Reis, Paulo; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Pablo José

    2014-09-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa is used in folk medicine for treatment of several diseases, such as acne, warts, diabetes, gastritis and inflammation. In this work, we describe the biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic properties of H. speciosa latex and its potential application in medicine. The physical-chemical characterization was carried out following different methodologies (CHN elemental analyses; thermogravimetric analyses and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The biocompatibility was evaluated through cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests in fibroblast mouse cells and the angiogenic properties were evaluated using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay model. The physical-chemical results showed that the structure of Hancornia speciosa latex biomembrane is very similar to that of Hevea brasiliensis (commercially available product). Moreover, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that H. speciosa latex is biocompatible with life systems and can be a good biomaterial for medical applications. The CAM test showed the efficient ability of H. speciosa latex in neovascularization of tissues. The histological analysis was in accordance with the results obtained in the CAM assay. Our data indicate that the latex obtained from H. speciosa and eluted in water showed significant angiogenic activity without any cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on life systems. The same did not occur with H. speciosa latex stabilized with ammonia. Addition of ammonia does not have significant effects on the structure of biomembranes, but showed a smaller cell survival and a significant genotoxicity effect. This study contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of H. speciosa latex as a source of new phytomedicines.

  14. Combination of PDT and topical angiogenic inhibitor for treatment of port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks: a novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kaihua; Huang, Qiaobing; Huang, Zheng

    2009-06-01

    Port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks are a congenital cutaneous vascular malformation involving ecstatic post-capillary venules. Current standard treatment for PWS is the pulsed dye laser (PDL). Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used for the treatment of PWS in China since the early 1990's. Both can achieve a certain degree of color blanching in various types of PWS lesions. However, the majority of PWS lesions require multiple treatments. Some PWS lesions can recur or become darker after successful treatment. Recently, it has been proposed that this phenomenon might be initiated by neoangiogenesis that can be caused by treatment via wound healing response. The combined use of photothermolysis and a topical application of an angiogenic inhibitor such as Imiquimod and Rapamycin, were evaluated in several pilot studies. It is well-known that PDT can induce various host immune responses VEGF overexpression. Recent clinical data also show that improved clinical outcomes are obtained through the combination of ocular PDT and anti-VEGF therapy. This article will discuss rationales and implications of using such a combination modality and highlight recent progress based on our clinical experience and published data.

  15. Coordination of lapachol to bismuth(III) improves its anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilha, Gabrieli L; Vieira, Rafael P; Campos, Paula P; Silva, Grácia Divina F; Duarte, Lucienir P; Andrade, Silvia P; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2012-02-01

    Complex [Bi(Lp)(2)]Cl was obtained with 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)naphthalene-1,2-dione, "lapachol" (HLp). Lapachol, [Bi(Lp)(2)]Cl and BiCl(3) were evaluated in a murine model of inflammatory angiogenesis induced by subcutaneous implantation of polyether polyurethane sponge discs. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lapachol or [Bi(Lp)(2)]Cl reduced the hemoglobin content in the implants suggesting that reduction of neo-vascularization was caused by lapachol. In the per os treatment only [Bi(Lp)(2)]Cl decreased the hemoglobin content in the implants. Likewise, N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activity decreased in the implants of the groups i.p. treated with lapachol and [Bi(Lp)(2)]Cl while in the per os treatment inhibition was observed only for [Bi(Lp)(2)]Cl. Histological analysis showed that the components of the fibro-vascular tissue (vascularization and inflammatory cell population) were decreased in lapachol- and complex-treated groups. Our results suggest that both lapachol and [Bi(Lp)(2)]Cl exhibit anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities which have been attributed to the presence of the lapachol ligand. However, coordination to bismuth(III) could be an interesting strategy for improvement of lapachol's therapeutic properties.

  16. Post-immobilization eccentric training promotes greater hypertrophic and angiogenic responses than passive stretching in muscles of weanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedini-Elias, Priscila Cação Oliveira; Morgan, Mariana Calvente; Cornachione, Anabelle Silva; Martinez, Edson Z; Mattiello-Sverzut, Ana Claudia

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated how different types of remobilization after hind limb immobilization, eccentric exercise and passive static stretching, influenced the adaptive responses of muscles with similar function and fascicle size, but differing in their contractile characteristics. Female Wistar weanling rats (21 days old) were divided into 8 groups: immobilized for 10 days, maintaining the ankle in maximum plantar flexion; immobilized and submitted to eccentric training for 10 or 21 days on a declining treadmill for 40min; immobilized and submitted to passive stretching for 10 or 21 days for 40min by maintaining the ankle in maximum dorsiflexion; control of immobilized; and control of 10 or 21 days. The soleus and plantaris muscles were analyzed using fiber distribution, lesser diameter, capillary/fiber ratio, and morphology. Results showed that the immobilization reduced the diameter of all fiber types, caused changes in fiber distribution and decreased the number of transverse capillaries in both muscles. The recovery period of the soleus muscle is longer than that of the plantaris after detraining. Moreover, eccentric training induced greater hypertrophic and angiogenic responses than passive stretching, especially after 21 days of rehabilitation. Both techniques demonstrated positive effects for muscle rehabilitation with the eccentric exercise being more effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro anti-angiogenic properties of LGD1069, a selective retinoid X-receptor agonist through down-regulating Runx2 expression on Human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianjiang; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yu-Hui; Lu, Hong; Luo, Yongming

    2011-01-01

    LGD1069 (Targretin ® ) is a selective retinoid X receptor (RXR) ligand, which is used in patients for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Our published study reported that LGD1069 inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer. In present study, we found that LGD1069 suppressed the proliferation, adhesion, invasion and migration of endothelial cells directly, and affected the expression of vegf and some matrix genes. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used for in vitro study. MTT assay and Sulforhodamine B assay were used for cell viability assay; the tube formation assay was used to investigate the effect of LGD1069 on angiogenesis in vitro. In vitro adhesion, migration and invasion of HUVEC cells were analyzed by Matrigel adhesion, migration and invasion assay. Gene expressions were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Our data showed here that LGD1069 inhibited the activation of TGF-β/Smad pathway significantly. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that expression of Runx2 was suppressed pronouncedly during incubation with LGD1069. Runx2 is a DNA-binding transcription factor which plays a master role in tumor-induced angiogenesis and cancer cells metastasis by interaction with the TGF-β/Smad pathway of transcriptional modulators. Our results suggested that LGD1069 may impair angiogenic and metastatic potential induced by tumor cells through suppressing expression of Runx2 directly on human endothelial cells, which may point out new pathway through which LGD1069 display anti-angiogenic properties, and provide new molecular evidence to support LGD1069 as a potent anti-metastatic agent in cancer therapy

  18. An antimicrobial peptide with angiogenic properties, AG-30/5C, activates human mast cells through the MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Kazo; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Niyonsaba, François

    2016-04-01

    Apart from their direct antimicrobial activities against invading pathogens, antimicrobial peptides exhibit additional protective functions that have led to their being named host defense peptides (HDPs). These functions include the stimulation of the production of cytokines/chemokines, the promotion of chemotaxis and cell proliferation and the induction of angiogenesis and wound healing. AG-30/5C is a novel angiogenic HDP that in addition to its antimicrobial activity also activates fibroblasts and endothelial cells and promotes angiogenesis and wound healing. Given that mast cells are found primarily in the vicinity of vessels, where they are intimately involved in wound healing, we hypothesized that AG-30/5C may activate mast cells. We demonstrated that AG-30/5C activated LAD2 human mast cells to degranulate and produce lipid mediators including leukotriene C4, prostaglandin D2 and E2. Moreover, AG-30/5C increased mast cell chemotaxis and induced the production of the cytokines GM-CSF and TNF-α and various chemokines, such as IL-8, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1α and MIP-1β. The chemotaxis and cytokine/chemokine production induced by AG-30/5C were suppressed by both pertussis toxin and U-73122, suggesting the involvement of the G protein and phospholipase C pathways in AG-30/5C-induced mast cell activation. Furthermore, these pathways were activated downstream of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling molecules, as demonstrated by the inhibitory effects of ERK-, JNK-, p38- and NF-κB-specific inhibitors on cytokine/chemokine production. Interestingly, AG-30/5C caused the phosphorylation of MAPKs and IκB. We suggest that the angiogenic and antimicrobial peptide AG-30/5C plays a key role in the recruitment and activation of human mast cells at inflammation and wound sites.

  19. MiRNA-486 regulates angiogenic activity and survival of mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxia through modulating Akt signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xue-Feng [High Altitude Medicine of Ministry of Chinese Education and Research Center for High Altitude Medicine, Qinghai University, Xining 810001 (China); Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Department of Respiration, Qinghai Provincial People' s Hospital, Xining (China); Wang, Hua; Xiao, Feng-Jun [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Yin, Yue [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Department of Hematology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing (China); Xu, Qin-Qin [High Altitude Medicine of Ministry of Chinese Education and Research Center for High Altitude Medicine, Qinghai University, Xining 810001 (China); Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Ge, Ri-Li, E-mail: geriligao@hotmail.com [High Altitude Medicine of Ministry of Chinese Education and Research Center for High Altitude Medicine, Qinghai University, Xining 810001 (China); Wang, Li-Sheng, E-mail: wangls@bmi.ac.cn [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2016-02-12

    MicroRNA-486 (miR-486) was first identified from human fetal liver cDNA library and validated as a regulator of hematopoiesis. Its roles in regulating the biological function of bone marrow-derived mesnechymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) under hypoxia have not been explored yet. In this study, we demonstrated that exposure to hypoxia upregulates miR-486 expression in BM-MSCs. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of miR-486 resulted in increase of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in both mRNA and protein levels. MiR-486 expression also promotes proliferation and reduces apoptosis of BM-MSCs. Whereas MiR-486 knockdown downregulated the secretion of HGF and VEGF and induced apoptosis of BM-MSCs. Furthermore, PTEN-PI3K/AKT signaling was validated to be involved in changes of BM-MSC biological functions regulated by miR-486. These results suggested that MiR-486 mediated the hypoxia-induced angiogenic activity and promoted the proliferation and survival of BM-MSCs through regulating PTEN-PI3K/AKT signaling. These findings might provide a novel understanding of effective therapeutic strategy for hypoxic-ischemic diseases. - Highlights: • miR-486 is a hypoxia-induced miRNA. • miR-486 regulates the secretion of HGF and VEGF, promotes proliferation, and inhibits apoptosis of BM-MSCs. • miR-486 enhances PI3K/AKT activity signaling by targeting PTEN molecule.

  20. MiRNA-486 regulates angiogenic activity and survival of mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxia through modulating Akt signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xue-Feng; Wang, Hua; Xiao, Feng-Jun; Yin, Yue; Xu, Qin-Qin; Ge, Ri-Li; Wang, Li-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-486 (miR-486) was first identified from human fetal liver cDNA library and validated as a regulator of hematopoiesis. Its roles in regulating the biological function of bone marrow-derived mesnechymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) under hypoxia have not been explored yet. In this study, we demonstrated that exposure to hypoxia upregulates miR-486 expression in BM-MSCs. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of miR-486 resulted in increase of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in both mRNA and protein levels. MiR-486 expression also promotes proliferation and reduces apoptosis of BM-MSCs. Whereas MiR-486 knockdown downregulated the secretion of HGF and VEGF and induced apoptosis of BM-MSCs. Furthermore, PTEN-PI3K/AKT signaling was validated to be involved in changes of BM-MSC biological functions regulated by miR-486. These results suggested that MiR-486 mediated the hypoxia-induced angiogenic activity and promoted the proliferation and survival of BM-MSCs through regulating PTEN-PI3K/AKT signaling. These findings might provide a novel understanding of effective therapeutic strategy for hypoxic-ischemic diseases. - Highlights: • miR-486 is a hypoxia-induced miRNA. • miR-486 regulates the secretion of HGF and VEGF, promotes proliferation, and inhibits apoptosis of BM-MSCs. • miR-486 enhances PI3K/AKT activity signaling by targeting PTEN molecule.

  1. The interplay between surfaces and soluble factors define the immunologic and angiogenic properties of myeloid dendritic cells

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    Mansfield Kristen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs are antigen presenting cells capable of inducing specific immune responses against microbial infections, transplant antigens, or tumors. Interestingly, microenvironment conditions such as those present in tumor settings might induce a DC phenotype that is poorly immunogenic and with the capability of promoting angiogenesis. We hypothesize that this plasticity may be caused not only by the action of specific cytokines or growth factors but also by the properties of the surfaces with which they interact, such as extracellular matrix (ECM components. Results Herewith we studied the effect of different surfaces and soluble factors on the biology of DCs. To accomplish this, we cultured murine myeloid(m DCs on surfaces coated with fibronectin, collagen I, gelatin, and Matrigel using poly-D-lysine and polystyrene as non-biological surfaces. Further, we cultured these cells in the presence of regular DC medium (RPMI 10% FBS or commercially available endothelial medium (EGM-2. We determined that mDCs could be kept in culture up to 3 weeks in these conditions, but only in the presence of GM-CSF. We were able to determine that long-term DC cultures produce an array of angiogenic factors, and that some of these cultures still retain the capability to induce T cell responses. Conclusions Altogether these data indicate that in order to design DC-based vaccines or treatments focused on changing the phenotype of DCs associated with diseases such as cancer or atherosclerosis, it becomes necessary to fully investigate the microenvironment in which these cells are present or will be delivered.

  2. Angiogenic peptide nanofibers repair cardiac tissue defect after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufaihah, Abdul Jalil; Yasa, I Ceren; Ramanujam, Vaibavi Srirangam; Arularasu, Suganya Cheyyatraivendran; Kofidis, Theo; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2017-08-01

    Myocardial infarction remains one of the top leading causes of death in the world and the damage sustained in the heart eventually develops into heart failure. Limited conventional treatment options due to the inability of the myocardium to regenerate after injury and shortage of organ donors require the development of alternative therapies to repair the damaged myocardium. Current efforts in repairing damage after myocardial infarction concentrates on using biologically derived molecules such as growth factors or stem cells, which carry risks of serious side effects including the formation of teratomas. Here, we demonstrate that synthetic glycosaminoglycan (GAG) mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffolds induce neovascularization in cardiovascular tissue after myocardial infarction, without the addition of any biologically derived factors or stem cells. When the GAG mimetic nanofiber gels were injected in the infarct site of rodent myocardial infarct model, increased VEGF-A expression and recruitment of vascular cells was observed. This was accompanied with significant degree of neovascularization and better cardiac performance when compared to the control saline group. The results demonstrate the potential of future clinical applications of these bioactive peptide nanofibers as a promising strategy for cardiovascular repair. We present a synthetic bioactive peptide nanofiber system can enhance cardiac function and enhance cardiovascular regeneration after myocardial infarction (MI) without the addition of growth factors, stem cells or other biologically derived molecules. Current state of the art in cardiac repair after MI utilize at least one of the above mentioned biologically derived molecules, thus our approach is ground-breaking for cardiovascular therapy after MI. In this work, we showed that synthetic glycosaminoglycan (GAG) mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffolds induce neovascularization and cardiomyocyte differentiation for the regeneration of cardiovascular

  3. Angiotensin II Evokes Angiogenic Signals within Skeletal Muscle through Co-ordinated Effects on Skeletal Myocytes and Endothelial Cells

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    Gorman, Jennifer L.; Liu, Sammy T. K.; Slopack, Dara; Shariati, Khashayar; Hasanee, Adam; Olenich, Sara; Olfert, I. Mark; Haas, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle overload induces the expression of angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, leading to new capillary growth. We found that the overload-induced increase in angiogenesis, as well as increases in VEGF, MMP-2 and MT1-MMP transcripts were abrogated in muscle VEGF KO mice, highlighting the critical role of myocyte-derived VEGF in controlling this process. The upstream mediators that contribute to overload-induced expression of VEGF have yet to be ascertained. We found that muscle overload increased angiotensinogen expression, a precursor of angiotensin (Ang) II, and that Ang II signaling played an important role in basal VEGF production in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, matrix-bound VEGF released from myoblasts induced the activation of endothelial cells, as evidenced by elevated endothelial cell phospho-p38 levels. We also found that exogenous Ang II elevates VEGF expression, as well as MMP-2 transcript levels in C2C12 myotubes. Interestingly, these responses also were observed in skeletal muscle endothelial cells in response to Ang II treatment, indicating that these cells also can respond directly to the stimulus. The involvement of Ang II in muscle overload-induced angiogenesis was assessed. We found that blockade of AT1R-dependent Ang II signaling using losartan did not attenuate capillary growth. Surprisingly, increased levels of VEGF protein were detected in overloaded muscle from losartan-treated rats. Similarly, we observed elevated VEGF production in cultured endothelial cells treated with losartan alone or in combination with Ang II. These studies conclusively establish the requirement for muscle derived VEGF in overload-induced angiogenesis and highlight a role for Ang II in basal VEGF production in skeletal muscle. However, while Ang II signaling is activated following overload and plays a role in muscle VEGF production, inhibition of this pathway is not sufficient to halt overload-induced

  4. Vicrostatin - an anti-invasive multi-integrin targeting chimeric disintegrin with tumor anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic activities.

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    Radu O Minea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other integrin-targeting strategies, disintegrins have previously shown good efficacy in animal cancer models with favorable pharmacological attributes and translational potential. Nonetheless, these polypeptides are notoriously difficult to produce recombinantly due to their particular structure requiring the correct pairing of multiple disulfide bonds for biological activity. Here, we show that a sequence-engineered disintegrin (called vicrostatin or VCN can be reliably produced in large scale amounts directly in the oxidative cytoplasm of Origami B E. coli. Through multiple integrin ligation (i.e., alphavbeta3, alphavbeta5, and alpha5beta1, VCN targets both endothelial and cancer cells significantly inhibiting their motility through a reconstituted basement membrane. Interestingly, in a manner distinct from other integrin ligands but reminiscent of some ECM-derived endogenous anti-angiogenic fragments previously described in the literature, VCN profoundly disrupts the actin cytoskeleton of endothelial cells (EC inducing a rapid disassembly of stress fibers and actin reorganization, ultimately interfering with EC's ability to invade and form tubes (tubulogenesis. Moreover, here we show for the first time that the addition of a disintegrin to tubulogenic EC sandwiched in vitro between two Matrigel layers negatively impacts their survival despite the presence of abundant haptotactic cues. A liposomal formulation of VCN (LVCN was further evaluated in vivo in two animal cancer models with different growth characteristics. Our data demonstrate that LVCN is well tolerated while exerting a significant delay in tumor growth and an increase in the survival of treated animals. These results can be partially explained by potent tumor anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects induced by LVCN.

  5. mAngiogenin-3, a target gene of oncoprotein E2a-Pbx1, encodes a new angiogenic member of the angiogenin family.

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    Fu, X; Roberts, W G; Nobile, V; Shapiro, R; Kamps, M P

    1999-01-01

    Angiogenins are proteins in the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily that utilize their ribonuclease activity to induce formation of new blood vessels. Recently we identified a new member of the angiogenin gene family, mouse angiogenin-3, by virtue of its transcriptional activation in NIH3T3 fibroblasts coincident with transformation by the chimeric leukemia oncogene, E2a-Pbx1. Here we have isolated the cDNA encoding mouse angiogenin-3 and used it to produce the protein in E. coli. We demonstrate that mouse angiogenin-3 is a ribonuclease whose activity and specificity towards tRNA and dinucleotide substrates differ from those of mouse angiogenin or of mouse angiogenin-related protein, a non-angiogenic factor. Mouse angiogenin-3 induced angiogenesis in both the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay and the rat cremaster muscle. Electron microscopy revealed that endothelial cells within vessels induced by both mouse angiogenin-3 and mouse angiogenin contain fenestrations similar to those observed in endothelial cells from neovasculature induced by vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Mouse angiogenin-3 also induced other molecular events typical of rapidly proliferating endothelial cells, such as increases in rough endoplasmic reticulum, polysomes, and mitochondria.

  6. Analysis of GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and angiogenic index in syndromic and non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors

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    Rafaella Bastos LEITE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of glucose transporters 1 (GLUT-1 and 3 (GLUT-3 in keratocystic odontogenic tumors associated with Gorlin syndrome (SKOTs and non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors (NSKOTs, and to establish correlations with the angiogenic index. Seventeen primary NSKOTs, seven recurrent NSKOTs, and 17 SKOTs were selected for the study. The percentage of immunopositive cells for GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 in the epithelial component of the tumors was assessed. The angiogenic index was determined by microvessel count. The results were analyzed statistically using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman’s correlation test. High epithelial immunoexpression of GLUT-1 was observed in most tumors (p = 0.360. There was a higher frequency of negative cases for GLUT-3 in all groups. The few GLUT-3-positive tumors exhibited low expression of this protein in epithelial cells. No significant difference in the angiogenic index was observed between groups (p = 0.778. GLUT-1 expression did not correlate significantly with the angiogenic index (p > 0.05. The results suggest that the more aggressive biological behavior of SKOTs when compared to NSKOTs may not be related to GLUT-1 or GLUT-3 expression. GLUT-1 may play an important role in glucose uptake by epithelial cells of KOTs and this process is unlikely related to the angiogenic index. GLUT-1 could be a potential target for future development of therapeutic strategies for KOTs.

  7. Analysis of GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and angiogenic index in syndromic and non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Rafaella Bastos; Cavalcante, Roberta Barroso; Nogueira, Renato Luiz Maia; Souza, Lélia Batista de; Pereira Pinto, Leão; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege

    2017-04-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of glucose transporters 1 (GLUT-1) and 3 (GLUT-3) in keratocystic odontogenic tumors associated with Gorlin syndrome (SKOTs) and non-syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors (NSKOTs), and to establish correlations with the angiogenic index. Seventeen primary NSKOTs, seven recurrent NSKOTs, and 17 SKOTs were selected for the study. The percentage of immunopositive cells for GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 in the epithelial component of the tumors was assessed. The angiogenic index was determined by microvessel count. The results were analyzed statistically using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's correlation test. High epithelial immunoexpression of GLUT-1 was observed in most tumors (p = 0.360). There was a higher frequency of negative cases for GLUT-3 in all groups. The few GLUT-3-positive tumors exhibited low expression of this protein in epithelial cells. No significant difference in the angiogenic index was observed between groups (p = 0.778). GLUT-1 expression did not correlate significantly with the angiogenic index (p > 0.05). The results suggest that the more aggressive biological behavior of SKOTs when compared to NSKOTs may not be related to GLUT-1 or GLUT-3 expression. GLUT-1 may play an important role in glucose uptake by epithelial cells of KOTs and this process is unlikely related to the angiogenic index. GLUT-1 could be a potential target for future development of therapeutic strategies for KOTs.

  8. K20E, an oxidative-coupling compound of methyl caffeate, exhibits anti-angiogenic activities through down-regulations of VEGF and VEGF receptor-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Chun-Hsu [Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wen-Hsin; Chien, Yi-Chung; Liu, Fon-Chang; Sheu, Ming-Jyh [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung, E-mail: kuoyh@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Tsuzuki Institute for Traditional Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chieh-Hsi, E-mail: chhswu@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-15

    Anti-angiogenesis is one of the most popular clinical interventions for cancer chemotherapy. A series of synthesized derivative of methyl caffeate were used to evaluate the anti-angiogenic activity and to investigate possible pharmacological mechanisms in the present study. The most potent anti-angiogenic compound was evaluated in the experiments of murine allograft tumor model and Matrigel plug assay as well as cell models in the human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the LLC1 lung cancer cells. Our results suggested that K20E suppressed the tumor growth in the allograft tumor model and exhibited anti-angiogenic activity in Matrigel plug assay. Besides, HUVEC viability was found to be significantly reduced by arresting cell cycle at G{sub 2}/M phase and apoptosis. Cell migration, invasion, and tube formation of the HUVECs were also markedly suppressed by K20E treatment. K20E largely down-regulated the intracellular and secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the LLC1 cancer cells. Besides, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and its downstream signaling cascades (AKT-mTOR and MEK1/2-ERK1/2) as well as gelatinases were all evidently reduced in the HUVECs treated with K20E. Inversely, K20E can up-regulate the expression levels of p53 and p21 proteins in the HUVECs. Based on these results, our study suggested that K20E possessed inhibiting angiogenesis through regulation of VEGF/VEGFR-2 and its downstream signaling cascades in the vascular endothelial cells (VECs). - Highlights: • K20E is an oxidative-coupling compound of methyl caffeate. • K20E exhibits anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis effects. • K20E suppresses the expressions of VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) proteins. • K20E deactivates VEGFR-2-mediated downstream signaling pathways to inhibit angiogenesis. • K20E up-regulates p53-p21 pathway to induce apoptosis and cell arrest at G2/M phase.

  9. HET0016, a selective inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis, decreases pro-angiogenic factors and inhibits growth of triple negative breast cancer in mice.

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    Thaiz Ferraz Borin

    Full Text Available A selective inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis, HET0016, has been reported to inhibit angiogenesis. 20-HETE has been known as a second mitogenic messenger of angiogenesis inducing growth factors. HET0016 effects were analyzed on MDA-MB-231 derived breast cancer in mouse and in vitro cell line. MDA-MB-231 tumor cells were implanted in animals' right flank and randomly assigned to early (1 and 2, starting treatments on day 0, or delayed groups (3 and 4 on day 8 after implantation of tumor. Animals received HET0016 (10 mg/kg treatment via intraperitoneal injection for 5 days/week for either 3 or 4 weeks. Control group received vehicle treatment. Tumor sizes were measured on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 and the animals were euthanized on day 22 and 29. Proteins were extracted from the whole tumor and from cells treated with 10 µM HET0016 for 4 and 24 hrs. Protein array kits of 20 different cytokines/factors were used. ELISA was performed to observe the HIF-1α and MMP-2 protein expression. Other markers were confirmed by IHC. HET0016 significantly inhibited tumor growth in all treatment groups at all-time points compared to control (p<0.05. Tumor growth was completely inhibited on three of ten animals on early treatment group. Treatment groups showed significantly lower expression of pro-angiogenic factors compared to control at 21 days; however, there was no significant difference in HIF-1α expression after treatments. Similar results were found in vitro at 24 hrs of HET0016 treatment. After 28 days, significant increase of angiogenin, angiopoietin-1/2, EGF-R and IGF-1 pro-angiogenic factors were found (p<0.05 compared to control, as well as an higher intensity of all factors were found when compared to that of 21 day's data, suggesting a treatment resistance. HET0016 inhibited tumor growth by reducing expression of different set of pro-angiogenic factors; however, a resistance to treatment seemed to happen after 21 days.

  10. Pericyte chemomechanics and the angiogenic switch: insights into the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jennifer T; Dulmovits, Brian M; Cronk, Stephen M; Sheets, Anthony R; Herman, Ira M

    2015-06-01

    To establish the regulatory roles that pericytes have in coordinating retinal endothelial cell (EC) growth and angiogenic potential. Pericytes were derived from donor diabetic (DHuRP) or normal (NHuRP) human retinae, and characterized using vascular markers, coculture, contraction, morphogenesis, and proliferation assays. To investigate capillary "cross-talk," pericyte-endothelial coculture growth, and connexin-43 (Cx43) expression assays were performed. Paracrine effects were examined via treating EC with pericyte-derived conditioned media (CM) in proliferation, angiogenesis, and angiocrine assays. The effects of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) were assessed using receptor antagonists. The DHuRP exhibit unique proliferative and morphologic properties, reflecting distinctive cytoskeletal and isoactin expression patterns. Unlike NHuRP, DHuRP are unable to sustain EC growth arrest in coculture and display reduced Cx43 expression. Further, CM from DHuRP (DPCM) markedly stimulates EC proliferation and tube formation. Treatment with S1P receptor antagonists mitigates DPCM growth-promotion in EC and S1P-mediated pericyte contraction. Angiocrine assays on normal and diabetic pericyte secretomes reveal factors involved in angiogenic control, inflammation, and metabolism. Effects from the diabetic microenvironment appear sustainable in cell culture: pericytes derived from diabetic donor eyes seemingly possess a "metabolic memory" in vitro, which may be linked to original donor health status. Diabetes- and pericyte-dependent effects on EC growth and angiogenesis may reflect alterations in bioactive lipid, angiocrine, and chemomechanical signaling. Altogether, our results suggest that diabetes alters pericyte contractile phenotype and cytoskeletal signaling, which ultimately may serve as a key, initiating event required for retinal endothelial reproliferation, angiogenic activation, and the pathological neovascularization accompanying proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  11. Anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties of kahweol, a coffee diterpene.

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    Casimiro Cárdenas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown that unfiltered coffee consumption is associated with a low incidence of cancer. This study aims to identify the effects of kahweol, an antioxidant diterpene contained in unfiltered coffee, on angiogenesis and key inflammatory molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experimental procedures included in vivo angiogenesis assays (both the chicken and quail choriallantoic membrane assay and the angiogenesis assay with fluorescent zebrafish, the ex vivo mouse aortic ring assay and the in vitro analysis of the effects of treatment of human endothelial cells with kahweol in cell growth, cell viability, cell migration and zymographic assays, as well as the tube formation assay on Matrigel. Additionally, two inflammation markers were determined, namely, the expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 and the levels of secreted monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. We show for the first time that kahweol is an anti-angiogenic compound with inhibitory effects in two in vivo and one ex vivo angiogenesis models, with effects on specific steps of the angiogenic process: endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation on Matrigel. We also demonstrate the inhibitory effect of kahweol on the endothelial cell potential to remodel extracellular matrix by targeting two key molecules involved in the process, MMP-2 and uPA. Finally, the anti-inflammatory potential of this compound is demonstrated by its inhibition of both COX-2 expression and MCP-1 secretion in endothelial cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our data indicate that, indeed, kahweol behaves as an anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic compound with potential use in antitumoral therapies. These data may contribute to the explanation of the reported antitumoral effects of kahweol, including the recent epidemiological meta-analysis showing that drinking coffee could decrease the risk of certain cancers.

  12. Consensus micro RNAs governing the switch of dormant tumors to the fast-growing angiogenic phenotype.

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    Nava Almog

    Full Text Available Tumor dormancy refers to a critical stage in cancer development in which tumor cells remain occult for a prolonged period of time until they eventually progress and become clinically apparent. We previously showed that the switch of dormant tumors to fast-growth is angiogenesis dependent and requires a stable transcriptional reprogramming in tumor cells. Considering microRNAs (miRs as master regulators of transcriptome, we sought to investigate their role in the control of tumor dormancy. We report here the identification of a consensus set of 19 miRs that govern the phenotypic switch of human dormant breast carcinoma, glioblastoma, osteosarcoma, and liposarcoma tumors to fast-growth. Loss of expression of dormancy-associated miRs (DmiRs, 16/19 was the prevailing regulation pattern correlating with the switch of dormant tumors to fast-growth. The expression pattern of two DmiRs (miR-580 and 190 was confirmed to correlate with disease stage in human glioma specimens. Reconstitution of a single DmiR (miR-580, 588 or 190 led to phenotypic reversal of fast-growing angiogenic tumors towards prolonged tumor dormancy. Of note, 60% of angiogenic glioblastoma and 100% of angiogenic osteosarcoma over-expressing miR190 remained dormant during the entire observation period of ∼ 120 days. Next, the ability of DmiRs to regulate angiogenesis and dormancy-associated genes was evaluated. Transcriptional reprogramming of tumors via DmiR-580, 588 or 190 over-expression resulted in downregulation of pro-angiogenic factors such as TIMP-3, bFGF and TGFalpha. In addition, a G-CSF independent downregulation of Bv8 was found as a common target of all three DmiRs and correlated with decreased tumor recruitment of bone marrow-derived CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid cells. In contrast, antiangiogenic and dormancy promoting pathways such as EphA5 and Angiomotin were upregulated in DmiR over-expressing tumors. This work suggests novel means to reverse the malignant tumor phenotype

  13. Comprehensive study of angiogenic factors in women with endometriosis compared to women without endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerlikaya, Gülen; Balendran, Sukirthini; Pröstling, Katharina; Reischer, Theresa; Birner, Peter; Wenzl, Rene; Kuessel, Lorenz; Streubel, Berthold; Husslein, Heinrich

    2016-09-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynaecological disease, affecting women during their reproductive years. Angiogenesis represents a crucial step in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, because endometriotic lesions require neovascularization. In this study several angiogenesis-related genes have been studied in the context of endometriosis. Some of the analyzed angiogenic factors as well as their interactions were studied the first time regarding a possible association with endometriosis. This case-control study consisted of 205 biopsies of 114 patients comprising 61 endometriosis patients and 53 control patients. Among them in 29 cases paired samples were obtained. VEGFA, VEGFR2, HIF1A, HGF, NRP1, PDGFB, FGF18, TNFα, TGFB2, EPHB4, EPO and ANG mRNA expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR in ectopic tissue samples, in eutopic endometrium of women with and without endometriosis, and in unaffected peritoneum of women with and without endometriosis. VEGFR2, HIF1A, HGF, PDGFB, NRP1 and EPHB4 are overexpressed in ectopic lesions compared to eutopic tissues. VEGFR2, HGF, PDGFB, NRP1, and EPHB4 showed highest mRNA levels in peritoneal implants, in contrast HIF1A showed the highest expression in ovarian endometriomas. Correlation analyses of angiogenic factors in ectopic lesions revealed the strongest associations between VEGFR2, PDGFB, and EPHB4. We further showed a significant upregulation of VEGFR2, HIF1A and EPHB4 in eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis compared to that of controls and a trend towards upregulation of HGF. Additionally, a significant downregulation for HIF1A, HGF and EPHB4 was observed in unaffected peritoneal tissues of women with endometriosis compared to controls. We identified new genes (EPHB4 and NRP1) that may contribute to angiogenesis in endometriosis beside known factors (VEGFA, VEGFR2, HIF1A, HGF, and PDGFB). Correlation studies revealed the putative importance of EBHB4 in association with endometriosis. Our analyses support preliminary reports

  14. Effect of smoking on circulating angiogenic factors in high risk pregnancies.

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    Arun Jeyabalan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Changes in maternal concentrations of the anti-angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1 and soluble endoglin (sEng, and the pro-angiogenic placental growth factor (PlGF precede the development of preeclampsia in healthy women. The risk of preeclampsia is reduced in women who smoke during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether smoking affects concentrations of angiogenic factors (sFlt1, PlGF, and sEng in women at high risk for developing preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a secondary analysis of serum samples from 993 high-risk women (chronic hypertension, diabetes, multifetal gestation, and previous preeclampsia in a preeclampsia prevention trial. sFlt1, sEng and PlGF were measured in serum samples obtained at study entry, which was prior to initiation of aspirin (median 19.0 weeks' [interquartile range of 16.0-22.6 weeks']. Smoking status was determined by self-report. RESULTS: sFlt1 was not significantly different in smokers from any high-risk groups compared to their nonsmoking counterparts. PlGF was higher among smokers compared to nonsmokers among diabetic women (142.7 [77.4-337.3] vs 95.9 [48.5-180.7] pg/ml, p = 0.005 and women with a history of preeclampsia (252.2 [137.1-486.0] vs 152.2 [73.6-253.7] pg/ml, p = 0.001. sEng was lower in smokers with multifetal gestations (5.8 [4.6-6.5] vs 6.8 [5.5-8.7] ng/ml, p = 0.002 and trended lower among smokers with diabetes (4.9 [3.8-5.6] vs 5.3 [4.3-6.3] ng/ml, p = 0.05. Smoking was not associated with a lower incidence of preeclampsia in any of these groups. CONCLUSIONS: In certain high-risk groups, smoking is associated with changes in the concentrations of these factors towards a pro-angiogenic direction during early pregnancy; however, there was no apparent association between smoking and the development of preeclampsia in our cohort.

  15. New Anti-angiogenic Leading Structure Discovered in the Fruit of Cimicifuga yunnanensis

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    Nian, Yin; Yang, Jing; Liu, Tong-Yang; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2015-03-01

    Cimyunnins A-C (1-3), characterized with an unusual fused cyclopentenone ring G, together with cimyunnin D (4), possessing a highly rearranged γ-lactone ring F, were characterized from the fruit of Cimicifuga yunnanensis. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction, and density functional theory calculations. In addition, cimyunnin A exhibited comparable anti-angiogenic activities to those of sunitinib, a clinically-used first-line angiogenesis inhibitor, in the in vitro and ex vivo studies.

  16. [Comparative experimental study of the influence of drugs that improve brain metabolism (angiogen, cytoflavin) on neuronal apoptosis and function of cerebral cortex during aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhanova, E D; Anisimov, V N; Sukhanov, D S; Teplyĭ, D L

    2015-01-01

    The safety of cortical neurons and their functional activity is essential for organism at all stages of ontogenesis. However, aging changes leading to an increase in apoptosis level may cause considerable damage to cerebral cortex function, including sensorimotor. We have studied the role of exogenous neurometabolites (angiogen, cytoflavin) in apoptosis regulation and correction of age-related motor and behavioral disturbances. To study the regulation of neuronal morphofunctional activity, we used accelerate-senescent transgenic HER2 mice in comparison to wild type FBV mice. Functional changes in cerebral cortex were studied by the Suok test and open field test, the level of neuronal apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL method, the expression of apoptosis-modulating proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. We have revealed differences in psycho-emotional and locomotor activity of these strains of mice. In addition, results of our study showed morphological differences: increase in the apoptosis level of cortical neurons in aged FBV type mice, but no changes in aged HER2 mice. The investigated drugs induce cell death of cortical neurons in transgenic mice of both ages and in young wild-type mice by p53-dependent pathway. Increased apoptosis in the cortex of old transgenic mice has important clinical implications, because reduced apoptosis during aging is one of the causes of cancer. The treatment of old wild-type animals reduces elevated neuronal apoptosis, which decreases risk of age neurodegeneration. Thus, revealed morphological changes in the cerebral cortex are the basis for involutional disabilities (including reduced locomotor activity and increased anxiety level). The use of angiogen and cytoflavin treatment improves functional activity of the cortex and protects normal structure of nervous tissue.

  17. The PR-1 domain accounts for the anti-angiogenic activity of a cysteine-rich secretory protein member from the buccal glands of Lampetra japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dandan; Wang, Hongyan; Zhou, Rong; Jiang, Qi; Xiao, Rong

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that cysteine-rich buccal gland protein (CRBGP) from buccal glands of Lampetra japonica could suppress angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane models. As CRBGP is composed of a pathogenesis-related group 1 (PR-1) domain and a cysteine-rich domain (CRD), which domain accounts for the effects of CRBGP on anti-angiogenesis? In the present study, recombinant PR-1 and CRD (rL-PR-1 and rL-CRD) were obtained. MTT assays showed rL-PR-1 inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs significantly in a dose-dependent manner with an IC 50 of 2μM, while rL-CRD had no obviously inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HUVECs, suggested that PR-1 is the main function domain on the anti-angiogenic activity of CRBGP. Similar to CRBGP, rL-PR-1 induced apoptosis in HUVECs in a mitochondrial-dependent pathway by affecting the level of BAX, BCL2 and caspase 3. Also, the cytotoxic property of rL-PR-1 might be one of the factors which suppressed the proliferation of HUVECs. Furthermore, rL-PR-1 blocked the adhesion, migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs by disturbing the cytoskeleton arrangement and down-regulating the level of matrix metallo-peptidase 2. In summary, rL-PR-1 has the anti-angiogenic activity which would provide the information on the functions and mechanisms of cysteine-rich secretory protein family members. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in circulating angiogenic factors after an acute training bout before and after resistance training with or without whole-body-vibration training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; May, Francisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Joern; Rosenberger, Andre

    2012-07-01

    Both Resistance Exercise and Whole-Body-Vibration training are currently considered as countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Here we investigated the effects of whole-body vibration superimposed upon resistance exercise. Within this context, the present study focuses on changes in circulating angiogenic factors as indicators of skeletal muscle adaption. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male subjects (25.2 ± 4.2 yr) were included in this two-group parallel-designed study and randomly assigned to one of the training interventions: either resistance exercise (RE) or resistance vibration exercise (RVE). Participants trained 2-3 times per week for 6 weeks (completing 16 training sessions), where one session took 9 ± 1 min. Participants trained with weights on a guided barbell. The individual training load was set at 80% of their 1-Repetition-Maximum. Each training session consisted of three sets with 8 squats and 12 heel raises, following an incremental training design with regards to weight (RE and RVE) and vibration frequency (RVE only). The vibration frequency was increased from 20 Hz in the first week till 40 Hz during the last two weeks with 5-Hz weekly increments. At the first and 16 ^{th} training session, six blood samples (pre training and 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 35 min and 75 min post training) were taken. Circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Endostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMPs) were determined in serum using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Results: MMP-2 levels increased by 7.0% (SE = 2.7%, P resistance exercise, both with and without superimposed vibration, leads to a transient rise in circulating angiogenic factors, 2) which is not altered after a period of resistance exercise with or without vibration.

  19. Tasquinimod (ABR-215050, a quinoline-3-carboxamide anti-angiogenic agent, modulates the expression of thrombospondin-1 in human prostate tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaacs John T

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The orally active quinoline-3-carboxamide tasquinimod [ABR-215050; CAS number 254964-60-8, which currently is in a phase II-clinical trial in patients against metastatic prostate cancer, exhibits anti-tumor activity via inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in human and rodent tumors. To further explore the mode of action of tasquinimod, in vitro and in vivo experiments with gene microarray analysis were performed using LNCaP prostate tumor cells. The array data were validated by real-time semiquantitative reversed transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (sqRT-PCR and protein expression techniques. Results One of the most significant differentially expressed genes both in vitro and in vivo after exposure to tasquinimod, was thrombospondin-1 (TSP1. The up-regulation of TSP1 mRNA in LNCaP tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo correlated with an increased expression and extra cellular secretion of TSP1 protein. When nude mice bearing CWR-22RH human prostate tumors were treated with oral tasquinimod, there was a profound growth inhibition, associated with an up-regulation of TSP1 and a down- regulation of HIF-1 alpha protein, androgen receptor protein (AR and glucose transporter-1 protein within the tumor tissue. Changes in TSP1 expression were paralleled by an anti-angiogenic response, as documented by decreased or unchanged tumor tissue levels of VEGF (a HIF-1 alpha down stream target in the tumors from tasquinimod treated mice. Conclusions We conclude that tasquinimod-induced up-regulation of TSP1 is part of a mechanism involving down-regulation of HIF1α and VEGF, which in turn leads to reduced angiogenesis via inhibition of the "angiogenic switch", that could explain tasquinimods therapeutic potential.

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha but not interleukin-1 beta or interleukin-8 concentrations correlate with angiogenic activity of peritoneal fluid from patients with minimal to mild endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J. W.; Calhaz-Jorge, C.; ter Riet, G.; Dunselman, G. A.; de Goeij, A. F.; Struijker-Boudier, H. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the angiogenic activity of peritoneal fluid in women with minimal to mild endometriosis and to investigate the relationship between this activity and the concentration of macrophage-derived angiogenic factors and clinical variables, such as phase of menstrual cycle, type of

  1. Nanoceria: a rare-earth nanoparticle as a novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic agent in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Shailendra; Karakoti, Ajay; Graham, Rondell P; Maguire, Jacie L; Reilly, Christopher M; Seal, Sudipta; Rattan, Ramandeep; Shridhar, Viji

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is the fifth most common cause of death from all cancers among women in United Sates and the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. While most OvCa patients initially respond to surgical debulking and chemotherapy, 75% of patients later succumb to the disease. Thus, there is an urgent need to test novel therapeutic agents to counteract the high mortality rate associated with OvCa. In this context, we have developed and engineered Nanoceria (NCe), nanoparticles of cerium oxide, possessing anti-oxidant properties, to be used as a therapeutic agent in OvCa. We show for the first time that NCe significantly inhibited production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A2780 cells, attenuated growth factor (SDF1, HB-EGF, VEGF(165) and HGF) mediated cell migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells, without affecting the cell proliferation. NCe treatment also inhibited VEGF(165) induced proliferation, capillary tube formation, activation of VEGFR2 and MMP2 in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). NCe (0.1 mg/kg body weigh) treatment of A2780 ovarian cancer cells injected intra-peritoneally in nude mice showed significant reduction (p<0.002) in tumor growth accompanied by decreased tumor cell proliferation as evident from reduced tumor size and Ki67 staining. Accumulation of NCe was found in tumors isolated from treated group using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Reduction of the tumor mass was accompanied by attenuation of angiogenesis, as observed by reduced CD31 staining and specific apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. Collectively, these results indicate that cerium oxide based NCe is a novel nanoparticle that can potentially be used as an anti-angiogenic therapeutic agent in ovarian cancer.

  2. Nanoceria: a rare-earth nanoparticle as a novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic agent in ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Giri

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer (OvCa is the fifth most common cause of death from all cancers among women in United Sates and the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies. While most OvCa patients initially respond to surgical debulking and chemotherapy, 75% of patients later succumb to the disease. Thus, there is an urgent need to test novel therapeutic agents to counteract the high mortality rate associated with OvCa. In this context, we have developed and engineered Nanoceria (NCe, nanoparticles of cerium oxide, possessing anti-oxidant properties, to be used as a therapeutic agent in OvCa. We show for the first time that NCe significantly inhibited production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in A2780 cells, attenuated growth factor (SDF1, HB-EGF, VEGF(165 and HGF mediated cell migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells, without affecting the cell proliferation. NCe treatment also inhibited VEGF(165 induced proliferation, capillary tube formation, activation of VEGFR2 and MMP2 in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC. NCe (0.1 mg/kg body weigh treatment of A2780 ovarian cancer cells injected intra-peritoneally in nude mice showed significant reduction (p<0.002 in tumor growth accompanied by decreased tumor cell proliferation as evident from reduced tumor size and Ki67 staining. Accumulation of NCe was found in tumors isolated from treated group using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS. Reduction of the tumor mass was accompanied by attenuation of angiogenesis, as observed by reduced CD31 staining and specific apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells. Collectively, these results indicate that cerium oxide based NCe is a novel nanoparticle that can potentially be used as an anti-angiogenic therapeutic agent in ovarian cancer.

  3. Sprouting strategies and dead ends in anti-angiogenic targeting of NETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Patricia; Zuazo-Gaztelu, Iratxe; Casanovas, Oriol

    2017-07-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that arise from cells of the neuroendocrine system. NETs are characterized by being highly vascularized tumors that produce large amounts of proangiogenic factors. Due to their complexity and heterogeneity, progress in the development of successful therapeutic approaches has been limited. For instance, standard chemotherapy-based therapies have proven to be poorly selective for tumor cells and toxic for normal tissues. Considering the urge to develop an efficient therapy to treat NET patients, vascular targeting has been proposed as a new approach to block tumor growth. This review provides an update of the mechanisms regulating different components of vessels and their contribution to tumor progression in order to develop new therapeutic drugs. Following the description of classical anti-angiogenic therapies that target VEGF pathway, new angiogenic targets such as PDGFs, EGFs, FGFs and semaphorins are further explored. Based on recent research in the field, the combination of therapies that target multiple and different components of vessel formation would be the best approach to specifically target NETs and inhibit tumor growth. © 2017 The authors.

  4. Angiogenic/lymphangiogenic factors and adaptation to extreme altitudes during an expedition to Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, M; Lugrin, D; Pagès, G

    2009-06-01

    To analyse the correlation between production of angiogenic [vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and interleukin 8 (IL-8)] and lymphangiogenic factors (VEGF-C and D) and adaptation to high altitude (>8000 m). Erythropoietin (EPO) served as a positive control. We analysed the percentage of oxygen saturation and the plasmatic contents of VEGF-A, C, D, IL-8 and EPO in seven mountaineers and four Sherpas during an expedition to Mount Everest. Acute mountain sickness was also evaluated using the Lake Louise score. Whereas VEGF-A, IL-8, VEGF-C and EPO were transiently up-regulated at 5000 m and decreased at the highest altitudes, VEGF-D remained elevated throughout the ascent. Sherpas had increased basal levels of VEGF-A, C, IL-8 and EPO and up-regulation of all the tested factors when they passed the altitude at which they lived. Our data suggest that expression of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors is up-regulated directly or indirectly by altitude-dependent hypoxia. Both factors could be involved in a mechanism of adaptation to high altitudes.

  5. Angiogenic Capacity of Dental Pulp Stem Cell Regulated by SDF-1α-CXCR4 Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyun; Kim, Gee-Hye; Bae, Yoon-Kyung; Jeong, Da-Eun

    2017-01-01

    Previously, the perivascular characteristics of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were reported, which suggested the potential application of DPSCs as perivascular cell source. In this study, we investigated whether DPSCs had angiogenic capacity by coinjection with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vivo; in addition, we determined the role of stromal cell-derived factor 1-α (SDF-1α) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) axis in the mutual interaction between DPSCs and HUVECs. Primarily isolated DPSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC-) like characteristics. Moreover, DPSCs expressed perivascular markers such as NG2, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ), and CD146. In vivo angiogenic capacity of DPSCs was demonstrated by in vivo Matrigel plug assay. We could observe microvessel-like structures in the coinjection of DPSCs and HUVECs at 7 days postinjection. To block SDF-1α and CXCR4 axis between DPSCs and HUVECs, AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, was added into Matrigel plug. No significant microvessel-like structures were observed at 7 days postinjection. In conclusion, DPSCs have perivascular characteristics that contribute to in vivo angiogenesis. The findings of this study have potential applications in neovascularization of engineered tissues and vascular diseases. PMID:28588623

  6. Angiogenic imbalance as a contributor to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia among black African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeme, Allen; Buga, Geoffrey A; Mammen, MaryKutty; Namugowa, Ambrose V

    2017-06-01

    The pathogenesis of preeclampsia remains unclear despite extensive research. Altered angiogenic balance has been hypothesized to play a significant role in the clinical manifestations of this syndrome. However this imbalance has not been investigated extensively among black African women. The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal levels of the angiogenic factors soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFLT1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) among black African women with preeclampsia. A case control study was conducted in the Mthatha hospital complex in South Africa including 51 women with preeclampsia and 82 women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Blood samples were drawn from participants and serum was used to assess sFLT1, and PlGF levels quantified using specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Non- parametric statistics were used for analysis. Black African women with preeclampsia were found to have significantly lower levels of PlGF (90.3 ± 8.9 pg/ml versus 172.8 ± 20.2 pg/ml; p preeclampsia among black African women as reported in other populations.

  7. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Associated With Increased Levels of AC133+ Circulating Angiogenic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnett, Natasha; Yeager, Ray; Conklin, Daniel J; Lee, Jongmin; O'Toole, Timothy E; McCracken, James; Abplanalp, Wes; Srivastava, Sanjay; Riggs, Daniel W; Hamzeh, Ihab; Wagner, Stephen; Chugh, Atul; DeFilippis, Andrew; Ciszewski, Tiffany; Wyatt, Brad; Becher, Carrie; Higdon, Deirdre; Ramos, Kenneth S; Tollerud, David J; Myers, John A; Rai, Shesh N; Shah, Jasmit; Zafar, Nagma; Krishnasamy, Sathya S; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that residential proximity to a roadway is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Yet, the nature of this association remains unclear, and its effect on individual cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to determine whether residential proximity to roadways influences systemic inflammation and the levels of circulating angiogenic cells. In a cross-sectional study, cardiovascular disease risk factors, blood levels of C-reactive protein, and 15 antigenically defined circulating angiogenic cell populations were measured in participants (n=316) with moderate-to-high cardiovascular disease risk. Attributes of roadways surrounding residential locations were assessed using geographic information systems. Associations between road proximity and cardiovascular indices were analyzed using generalized linear models. Close proximity (proximity to a major roadway (CD31(+)/AC133(+), AC133(+), CD34(+)/AC133(+), and CD34(+)/45(dim)/AC133(+) cells) and positively associated with road segment distance (CD31(+)/AC133(+), AC133(+), and CD34(+)/AC133(+) cells), traffic intensity (CD31(+)/AC133(+) and AC133(+) cells), and distance-weighted traffic intensity (CD31(+)/34(+)/45(+)/AC133(+) cells). Living close to a major roadway is associated with elevated levels of circulating cells positive for the early stem marker AC133(+). This may reflect an increased need for vascular repair. Levels of these cells in peripheral blood may be a sensitive index of cardiovascular injury because of residential proximity to roadways. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Angiogenic Capacity of Dental Pulp Stem Cell Regulated by SDF-1α-CXCR4 Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Nam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, the perivascular characteristics of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs were reported, which suggested the potential application of DPSCs as perivascular cell source. In this study, we investigated whether DPSCs had angiogenic capacity by coinjection with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs in vivo; in addition, we determined the role of stromal cell-derived factor 1-α (SDF-1α and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4 axis in the mutual interaction between DPSCs and HUVECs. Primarily isolated DPSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC- like characteristics. Moreover, DPSCs expressed perivascular markers such as NG2, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ, and CD146. In vivo angiogenic capacity of DPSCs was demonstrated by in vivo Matrigel plug assay. We could observe microvessel-like structures in the coinjection of DPSCs and HUVECs at 7 days postinjection. To block SDF-1α and CXCR4 axis between DPSCs and HUVECs, AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, was added into Matrigel plug. No significant microvessel-like structures were observed at 7 days postinjection. In conclusion, DPSCs have perivascular characteristics that contribute to in vivo angiogenesis. The findings of this study have potential applications in neovascularization of engineered tissues and vascular diseases.

  9. The Angiogenic Potential of DPSCs and SCAPs in an In Vivo Model of Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hilkens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate vascularization, a restricting factor for the survival of engineered tissues, is often promoted by the addition of stem cells or the appropriate angiogenic growth factors. In this study, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs were applied in an in vivo model of dental pulp regeneration in order to compare their regenerative potential and confirm their previously demonstrated paracrine angiogenic properties. 3D-printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds containing DPSCs and/or SCAPs were subcutaneously transplanted into immunocompromised mice. After twelve weeks, histological and ultrastructural analysis demonstrated the regeneration of vascularized pulp-like tissue as well as mineralized tissue formation in all stem cell constructs. Despite the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro, the stem cell constructs did not display a higher vascularization rate in comparison to control conditions. Similar results were found after eight weeks, which suggests both osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of the transplanted stem cells and the promotion of angiogenesis in this particular setting. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate the successful formation of vascularized pulp-like tissue in 3D-printed scaffolds containing dental stem cells, emphasizing the promising role of this approach in dental tissue engineering.

  10. Anti-angiogenic activity in metastasis of human breast cancer cells irradiated by a proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyu-Shik; Shin, Jin-Sun; Nam, Kyung-Soo [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Shon, Yun-Hee [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Angiogenesis is an essential process of metastasis in human breast cancer. We investigated the effects of proton beam irradiation on angiogenic enzyme activities and their expressions in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The regulation of angiogenic regulating factors, of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and of vesicular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in breast cancer cells irradiated with a proton beam was studied. Aromatase activity and mRNA expression, which is correlated with metastasis, were significantly decreased by irradiation with a proton beam in a dose-dependent manner. TGF-β and VEGF transcriptions were also diminished by proton beam irradiation. In contrast, transcription of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), also known as biological inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), was dose-dependently enhanced. Furthermore, an increase in the expression of TIMPs caused the MMP-9 activity to be diminished and the MMP-9 and the MMP-2 expressions to be decreased. These results suggest that inhibition of angiogenesis by proton beam irradiation in breast cancer cells is closely related to inhibitions of aromatase activity and transcription and to down-regulation of TGF-β and VEGF transcription.

  11. A ternary-complex of a suicide gene, a RAGE-binding peptide, and polyethylenimine as a gene delivery system with anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic dual effects in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunji; Oh, Jungju; Lee, Dahee; Lee, Jaewon; Tan, Xiaonan; Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Gyeungyun; Piao, Chunxian; Lee, Minhyung

    2018-04-13

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is involved in tumor angiogenesis. Inhibition of RAGE might be an effective anti-angiogenic therapy for cancer. In this study, a cationic RAGE-binding peptide (RBP) was produced as an antagonist of RAGE, and a ternary-complex consisting of RBP, polyethylenimine (2 kDa, PEI2k), and a suicide gene (pHSVtk) was developed as a gene delivery system with dual functions: the anti-tumor effect of pHSVtk and anti-angiogenic effect of RBP. As an antagonist of RAGE, RBP decreased the secretion of vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in activated macrophages and reduced the tube-formation of endothelial cells in vitro. In in vitro transfection assays, the RBP/PEI2k/plasmid DNA (pDNA) ternary-complex had higher transfection efficiency than the PEI2k/pDNA binary-complex. In an intracranial glioblastoma animal model, the RBP/PEI2k/pHSVtk ternary-complex reduced α-smooth muscle actin expression, suggesting that the complex has an anti-angiogenic effect. In addition, the ternary-complex had higher pHSVtk delivery efficiency than the PEI2k/pHSVtk and PEI25k/pHSVtk binary-complexes in an animal model. As a result, the ternary-complex induced apoptosis and reduced tumor volume more effectively than the PEI2k/pHSVtk and PEI25k/pHSVtk binary-complexes. In conclusion, due to its dual anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis effects, the RBP/PEI2k/pHSVtk ternary-complex might be an efficient gene delivery system for the treatment of glioblastoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and anti-angiogenic effect of conjugates between serum albumin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, B; Struve, C; Friis, T

    2010-01-01

    of investigating the anti-angiogenic efficiency of NSAID-HSA conjugates in vitro, three NSAIDs, aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen were conjugated to HSA using different concentrations of their N-hydroxysuccinimide esters. Conjugation ratios from 10 to 50 were achieved and the conjugates retained a growth inhibitory...

  13. Mechanical stretch endows mesenchymal stem cells stronger angiogenic and anti-apoptotic capacities via NFκB activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhuoli; Gan, Xueqi; Fan, Hongyi; Yu, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been broadly used for tissue regeneration and repair due to their broad differentiation potential and potent paracrine properties such as angiogenic capacity. Strategies to increase their survival rate after transplantation and the angiogenic ability are of priority for the utility of MSCs. In this study, we found that mechanical stretch (10% extension, 30 cycles/min cyclic stretch) preconditioning increase the angiogenic capacity via VEGFA induction. In addition, mechanical stretch also increases the survival rate of mesenchymal stem cells under nutrients deprivation. Consistent with the increase VEGFA expression and resistance to apoptosis, nuclear localization of NFκB activity p65 increased upon mechanical stretch. Inhibition of NFκB activity by BAY 11-708 blocks the pro-angiogenesis and anti-apoptosis function of mechanical stretch. Taken together, our findings here raise the possibility that mechanical stretch preconditioning might enhance the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells. - Highlights: • Mechanical stretch increases the angiogenic capacity via VEGFA induction in MSCs. • Mechanical stretch increases the survival rate of MSCs under nutrients deprivation. • Mechanical stretch manipulates MSCs via the activation of NFκB.

  14. P53 mutation analysis of colorectal liver metastases : Relation to actual survival, angiogenic status, and p53 overexpression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, KP; Gouw, ASH; Peeters, PMJG; Bulthuis, M; Menkema, L; Porte, RJ; Slooff, MJH; van Goor, H; van den Berg, Anke

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate TP53 mutations with angiogenic status of the tumor and prognosis after liver surgery in patients with colorectal liver metastases and to correlate immunohistochemical staining of p53 protein with TP53 gene mutations. Experimental Design: Tumors of 44 patients with surgically

  15. Prolonged hypoxic culture and trypsinization increase the pro-angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Pilgaard, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), including adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), is a promising option in the treatment of vascular disease. Short-term hypoxic culture of MSC augments secretion of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines. We hypothesized that prolonged hypoxic...

  16. Image-guided pro-angiogenic therapy in diabetic stroke mouse models using a multi-modal nanoprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ying-Ying; Gao, Xihui; Wang, Yuan-Cheng; Peng, Xin-Gui; Chang, Di; Zheng, Shuyan; Li, Cong; Ju, Shenghong

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of pro-angiogenic therapy is difficult to evaluate with current diagnostic modalities. The objectives were to develop a non-invasive imaging strategy to define the temporal characteristics of angiogenesis and to evaluate the response to pro-angiogenic therapy in diabetic stroke mouse models. A home-made ανβ3 integrin-targeted multi-modal nanoprobe was intravenously injected into mouse models at set time points after photothrombotic stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging were carried out at 24 h post-injection. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were infused into the mouse models of ischemic stroke to stimulate angiogenesis. The peak signal intensity in the ischemic-angiogenic area of diabetic and wild-type mouse models was achieved on day 10, with significantly lower signal enhancement observed in the diabetic models. Although the signal intensity was significantly higher after EPC treatment in both models, the enhancement was less pronounced in the diabetic animals compared with the wild-type controls. Histological analysis revealed that the microvessel density and expression of β3 integrin were correlated with the signal intensity assessed with MRI and NIRF imaging. The non-invasive imaging method could be used for early and accurate evaluation of the response to pro-angiogenic therapy in diabetic stroke models.

  17. Mechanical stretch endows mesenchymal stem cells stronger angiogenic and anti-apoptotic capacities via NFκB activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhuoli; Gan, Xueqi [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Fan, Hongyi [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Applied Mechanics, College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yu, Haiyang, E-mail: yhyang6812@foxmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-12-25

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been broadly used for tissue regeneration and repair due to their broad differentiation potential and potent paracrine properties such as angiogenic capacity. Strategies to increase their survival rate after transplantation and the angiogenic ability are of priority for the utility of MSCs. In this study, we found that mechanical stretch (10% extension, 30 cycles/min cyclic stretch) preconditioning increase the angiogenic capacity via VEGFA induction. In addition, mechanical stretch also increases the survival rate of mesenchymal stem cells under nutrients deprivation. Consistent with the increase VEGFA expression and resistance to apoptosis, nuclear localization of NFκB activity p65 increased upon mechanical stretch. Inhibition of NFκB activity by BAY 11-708 blocks the pro-angiogenesis and anti-apoptosis function of mechanical stretch. Taken together, our findings here raise the possibility that mechanical stretch preconditioning might enhance the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells. - Highlights: • Mechanical stretch increases the angiogenic capacity via VEGFA induction in MSCs. • Mechanical stretch increases the survival rate of MSCs under nutrients deprivation. • Mechanical stretch manipulates MSCs via the activation of NFκB.

  18. Prospective evaluation of angiogenic, hypoxic and EGFR-related biomarkers in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme treated with cetuximab, bevacizumab and irinotecan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Benedikte; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Broholm, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a beneficial effect of anti-angiogenic treatment with the vascular endothelial growth factor-neutralizing antibody bevacizumab in recurrent high-grade glioma. In the current study, immunohistochemical evaluation of biomarkers involved in angiogenesis, hypo...

  19. Immunoexpression of GLUT-1 and angiogenic index in pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, and mucoepidermoid carcinomas of the salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lélia Batista; de Oliveira, Lucileide Castro; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Lopes, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa; Pinto, Leão Pereira; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and compare the immunoexpression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and angiogenic index between pleomorphic adenomas (PAs), adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs), and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs) of the salivary glands, and establish associations with the respective subtype/histological grade. Twenty PAs, 20 ACCs, and 10 MECs were submitted to morphological and immunohistochemical analysis. GLUT-1 expression was semi-quantitatively evaluated and angiogenic index was assessed by microvessel counts using anti-CD34 antibody. Higher GLUT-1 immunoexpression was observed in the MECs compared to PAs and ACCs (p = 0.022). Mean number of microvessels was 66.5 in MECs, 40.4 in PAs, and 21.2 in ACCs (p GLUT-1 expression and angiogenic index showed no significant correlation in the tumors studied. Results suggest that differences in biological behavior of the studied tumors are related to GLUT-1. Benign and malignant salivary gland tumors differ in the angiogenic index; however, angiogenesis may be independent of the tumor cell's metabolic demand.

  20. VEGFR2 heterogeneity and response to anti-angiogenic low dose metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skowronski Karolina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeting tumor vasculature is a strategy with great promise in the treatment of many cancers. However, anti-angiogenic reagents that target VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling have met with variable results clinically. Among the possible reasons for this may be heterogeneous expression of the target protein. Methods Double immunofluorescent staining was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded sections of treated and control SW480 (colorectal and WM239 (melanoma xenografts, and tissue microarrays of human colorectal carcinoma and melanoma. Xenografts were developed using RAG1-/- mice by injection with WM239 or SW480 cells and mice were treated with 20 mg/kg/day of cyclophosphamide in their drinking water for up to 18 days. Treated and control tissues were characterized by double immunofluorescence using the mural cell marker α-SMA and CD31, while the ratio of desmin/CD31 was also determined by western blot. Hypoxia in treated and control tissues were quantified using both western blotting for HIF-1α and immunohistochemistry of CA-IX. Results VEGFR2 is heterogeneously expressed in tumor vasculature in both malignant melanoma and colorectal carcinoma. We observed a significant decrease in microvascular density (MVD in response to low dose metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in both malignant melanoma (with higher proportion VEGFR2 positive blood vessels; 93% and colorectal carcinoma (with lower proportion VEGFR2 positive blood vessels; 60% xenografts. This reduction in MVD occurred in the absence of a significant anti-tumor effect. We also observed less hypoxia in treated melanoma xenografts, despite successful anti-angiogenic blockade, but no change in hypoxia of colorectal xenografts, suggesting that decreases in tumor hypoxia reflect a complex relationship with vascular density. Based on α-SMA staining and the ratio of desmin to CD31 expression as markers of tumor blood vessel functionality, we found evidence for increased

  1. VEGFR2 heterogeneity and response to anti-angiogenic low dose metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patten, Steven G; Adamcic, Una; Lacombe, Kristen; Minhas, Kanwal; Skowronski, Karolina; Coomber, Brenda L

    2010-01-01

    Targeting tumor vasculature is a strategy with great promise in the treatment of many cancers. However, anti-angiogenic reagents that target VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling have met with variable results clinically. Among the possible reasons for this may be heterogeneous expression of the target protein. Double immunofluorescent staining was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded sections of treated and control SW480 (colorectal) and WM239 (melanoma) xenografts, and tissue microarrays of human colorectal carcinoma and melanoma. Xenografts were developed using RAG1 -/- mice by injection with WM239 or SW480 cells and mice were treated with 20 mg/kg/day of cyclophosphamide in their drinking water for up to 18 days. Treated and control tissues were characterized by double immunofluorescence using the mural cell marker α-SMA and CD31, while the ratio of desmin/CD31 was also determined by western blot. Hypoxia in treated and control tissues were quantified using both western blotting for HIF-1α and immunohistochemistry of CA-IX. VEGFR2 is heterogeneously expressed in tumor vasculature in both malignant melanoma and colorectal carcinoma. We observed a significant decrease in microvascular density (MVD) in response to low dose metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in both malignant melanoma (with higher proportion VEGFR2 positive blood vessels; 93%) and colorectal carcinoma (with lower proportion VEGFR2 positive blood vessels; 60%) xenografts. This reduction in MVD occurred in the absence of a significant anti-tumor effect. We also observed less hypoxia in treated melanoma xenografts, despite successful anti-angiogenic blockade, but no change in hypoxia of colorectal xenografts, suggesting that decreases in tumor hypoxia reflect a complex relationship with vascular density. Based on α-SMA staining and the ratio of desmin to CD31 expression as markers of tumor blood vessel functionality, we found evidence for increased stabilization of colorectal microvessels, but no

  2. Do anti-angiogenic VEGF (VEGFxxxb isoforms exist? A cautionary tale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Harris

    Full Text Available Splicing of the human vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A gene has been reported to generate angiogenic (VEGFxxx and anti-angiogenic (VEGFxxxb isoforms. Corresponding VEGFxxxb isoforms have also been reported in rat and mouse. We examined VEGFxxxb expression in mouse fibrosarcoma cell lines expressing all or individual VEGF isoforms (VEGF120, 164 or 188, grown in vitro and in vivo, and compared results with those from normal mouse and human tissues. Importantly, genetic construction of VEGF164 and VEGF188 expressing fibrosarcomas, in which exon 7 is fused to the conventional exon 8, precludes VEGFxxxb splicing from occurring. Thus, these two fibrosarcoma cell lines provided endogenous negative controls. Using RT-PCR we show that primers designed to simultaneously amplify VEGFxxx and VEGFxxxb isoforms amplified only VEGFxxx variants in both species. Moreover, only VEGFxxx species were generated when mouse podocytes were treated with TGFβ-1, a reported activator of VEGFxxxb splice selection in human podocytes. A VEGF164/120 heteroduplex species was identified as a PCR artefact, specifically in mouse. VEGFxxxb isoform-specific PCR did amplify putative VEGFxxxb species in mouse and human tissues, but unexpectedly also in VEGF188 and VEGF164 fibrosarcoma cells and tumours, where splicing to produce true VEGFxxxb isoforms cannot occur. Moreover, these products were only consistently generated using reverse primers spanning more than 5 bases across the 8b/7 or 8b/5 splice junctions. Primer annealing to VEGFxxx transcripts and amplification of exon 8b primer 'tails' explained the artefactual generation of VEGFxxxb products, since the same products were generated when the PCR reactions were performed with cDNA from VEGF164/VEGF188 'knock-in' vectors used in the generation of single VEGF isoform-expressing transgenic mice from which the fibrosarcoma lines were developed. Collectively, our results highlight important pitfalls in data

  3. Bone regeneration using coculture of mesenchymal stem cells and angiogenic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Ling; van den Beucken, Jeroen J. J. P.; Pan, Ju-Li; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Chen, Su

    2014-03-01

    Cellular strategies remain a crucial component in bone tissue engineering (BTE). So far, the outcome of cell-based strategies from initial clinical trials is far behind compared to animal studies, which is suggested to be related to insufficient nutrient and oxygen supply inside the tissue-engineered constructs. Cocultures, by introducing angiogenic cells into osteogenic cell cultures, might provide a solution for improving vascularization and hence increasing bone formation for cell-based constructs. So far, pre-clinical studies demonstrated that cocultures enhance vascularization and bone formation compared to monocultures. However, there has been no report on the application of cocultures in clinics. Therefore, this mini-review aims to provide an overview regarding (i) critical parameters in cocultures and the outcomes of cocultures compared to monocultures in the currently available pre-clinical studies using human mesenchymal stem cells implanted in orthotopic animal models; and (ii) the usage of monocultures in clinical application in BTE.

  4. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw (BRONJ: an anti-angiogenic side-effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcu Eugen B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bisphosphonates are recommended in the treatment of osteoporosis and some cancers, in which case they prevent the appearance of bone metastasis. The patients taking bisphosphonates are at increased risk of developing bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw (BRONJ which is characterised by the presence of an un-healing wound after dental surgery. BRONJ might represent an anti-angiogenic side effect. However, the real number of patients with BRONJ might be higher than currently recorded. Considering the differential diagnosis which includes various primary and secondary cancers, a correct histopathological diagnosis is very important. The morphological criteria for diagnosis of BRONJ are highlighted in this material. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1813972972323288

  5. Aminopeptidase N inhibition could be involved in the anti-angiogenic effect of dobesilates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farsa Oldřich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium, magnesium and zinc 2,5-dihydroxybenzenesulfonates (dobesilates were synthesized by sulfonation of hydroquinone with sulfuric acid under mild conditions. To form the salts, neutralization with calcium carbonate followed by cation exchange by means of magnesium or zinc sulfates was performed. The dobesilates were characterized by standard spectral methods and by AAS for metal content and then tested for inhibitory activity against aminopeptidase N. Calcium and magnesium 2,5-dihydroxybenzene sulfonates exhibited rather weak inhibitory activity to aminopeptidase N as demonstrated by IC50 values of 978.0 and 832.1 mmol l-1 respectively while zinc 2,5-dihydroxybenzene sulfonate reached the more significant inhibitory activity characterized by IC50 77.4 mmol l-1. The inhibitory activity results suggest that the inhibition of aminopeptidase N could play a role in the anti-angiogenic activity of 2,5-dihydroxybenzenesulfonates.

  6. Resveratrol modulates the angiogenic response to exercise training in skeletal muscle of aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse; Olesen, Jesper; Biensø, Rasmus S

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The polyphenol resveratrol has in animal studies been shown to influence several pathways of importance for angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. The aim was to examine the angiogenic effect of resveratrol supplementation with parallel exercise training in aged men. Methods: Forty-three healthy...... physically inactive aged men (65±1 years) were divided into A) a training group that conducted 8 weeks of intense exercise training where half of the subjects received a daily intake of either 250 mg trans resveratrol (n=14) and the other half received placebo (n=13); and B) a non-training group...... that received either 250 mg trans resveratrol (n=9) or placebo (n=7). Results: The group that trained with placebo showed a ~20% increase in capillary to fiber (C:F) ratio, an increase in the muscle protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix...

  7. The effect of passive movement training on angiogenic factors and capillary growth in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Rufener, Nora; Bojsen-Møller, Jens

    2010-01-01

    legs. Acute passive movement increased (P effect, determined in vitro, of the muscle interstitial fluid ~16-fold compared to perfusate. These increases were similar for active exercise. The results demonstrate......Abstract The effect of a period of passive movement training on angiogenic factors and capillarization in skeletal muscle was examined. Seven young males were subjected to passive training for 90 min, four times/week in a motor-driven knee extensor device that extended one knee passively at 80...... cycles/min. The other leg was used as control. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. v. lateralis of both legs before as well as after 2 and 4 weeks of training. After the training period, passive movement and active exercise were performed with both legs and muscle interstitial fluid was sampled from...

  8. [Concentration of selected angiogenic factors in serum and peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogacz, Marek; Gałczyński, Krzysztof; Romanek-Piva, Katarzyna; Winkler, Izabela; Rechberger, Tomasz; Adamiak-Godlewska, Aneta

    2015-03-01

    Endometriosis is a sex hormone-dependent and successively progressing gynecological disease, characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus. The etiology of endometriosis is known to be multifactorial, and its growth depends on immunological, hormonal, genetic and environmental factors. Angiogenesis plays a key role in implantation and growth of endometriotic lesions, as well as in adhesion formation. Physiologically angiogenesis is responsible for neoangiogenesis and recruitment of new capillaries from the already existing capillaries. It is well-documented that altered angiogenesis provokes improper follicular maturation, infertility recurrent miscarriages, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and carcinogenesis. Factors stimulating angionesis include angiogenin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). The aim of the study was to analyze angiogenic factor concentration (angiogenin, VEGF, FGF) in blood serum and peritoneal fluid in patients with diagnosed endometriosis and idiopathic infertility. A total of 39 patients were recruited for the study including 19 patients (study group) diagnosed with endometriosis during the laparoscopic procedure and 20 patients (control group) with idiopathic infertility and no morphologic changes within the pelvis revealed during the laparoscopic procedure. All patients underwent laparoscopy during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Vein blood sample was obtained before the procedure and during laparoscopy the entire peritoneal fluid was aspirated for further measurement of VEGF, FGF and angiogenin concentrations. Angiogenin concentration in peritoneal fluid was statistically higher in patient with idiopathic infertility in comparison to endometriosis (pendometriosis, but no statistical significance was found. VEGF and FGF concentration in blood serum and peritoneal fluid was similar in both groups (p>0.05). There were no significant differences between serum

  9. Thoracic aortas from multiorgan donors are suitable for obtaining resident angiogenic mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Tazzari, Pier Luigi; Vaselli, Cristiana; Foroni, Laura; Buzzi, Marina; Storci, Gianluca; Alviano, Francesco; Ricci, Francesca; Bonafè, Massimiliano; Orrico, Catia; Bagnara, Gian Paolo; Stella, Andrea; Conte, Roberto

    2007-07-01

    The clinical use of endothelial progenitor cells is hampered by difficulties in obtaining an adequate number of functional progenitors. This study aimed to establish whether human thoracic aortas harvested from healthy multiorgan donors can be a valuable source of angiogenic progenitors. Immunohistochemical tissue studies showed that two distinct cell populations with putative stem cell capabilities, one composed of CD34+ cells and the other of c-kit+ cells, are present in between the media and adventitia of human thoracic aortas. Ki-67+ cells with high growth potential were located in an area corresponding to the site of CD34+ and c-kit+ cell residence. We thus isolated cells (0.5 approximately 2.0 x 10(4) aortic progenitors per 25 cm2) which, upon culturing, coexpressed molecules of mesenchymal stromal cells (i.e., CD44+, CD90+, CD105+) and showed a transcript expression of stem cell markers (e.g., OCT4, c-kit, BCRP-1, Interleukin-6) and BMI-1. Cell expansion was adequate for use in a clinical setting. A subset of cultured cells acquired the phenotype of endothelial cells in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (e.g., increased expression of KDR and von Willebrand factor positivity), as documented by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. An in vitro angiogenesis test kit revealed that cells were able to form capillary-like structures within 6 hours of seeding. This study demonstrates that thoracic aortas from multiorgan donors yield mesenchymal stromal cells with the ability to differentiate in vitro into endothelial cells. These cells can be used for the creation of an allogenic bank of angiogenic progenitors, thus providing new options for restoring vascularization at ischemic sites. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  10. Interleukin-1β augments angiogenic responses of murine endothelial progenitor cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Anna; Arai, Ken; Lok, Josephine; He, Tongrong; Guo, Shuzhen; Navarro, Miriam; Montaner, Joan; Katusic, Zvonimir S; Lo, Eng H

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may provide novel opportunities for therapeutic angiogenesis after ischemic diseases. However, it is unclear how the angiogenic potential of EPCs might be affected by an inflammatory environment. We examine how the potent cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) affects angiovasculogenic responses in EPCs in culture. Mononuclear cells isolated from mouse spleen were plated on fibronectin-coated wells and grown in EGM-2MV media. Endothelial progenitor cells were phenotyped using multiple markers (UEA-Lectin, ac-LDL, CD133, CD34, vWillebrand Factor, Flk-1) and to identify the IL-1 Receptor-I. We quantified cell and colony counts and performed MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) and Matrigel assays, in vitro, under control and IL-1β (10 ng/mL) conditions. Endothelial progenitor cells exposed to IL-1β increased in the number of cells and colonies compared with untreated cells, without any effect on cell metabolic integrity. Furthermore, IL-1β treatment augmented EPC angiogenic function, significantly increasing the number of vessel-like structures in the Matrigel assay. An early phosphorylation of ERK1/2 occurred after IL-1β stimulation, and this pathway was inhibited if IL-1 Receptor-I was blocked. Our results suggest that IL-1β is a potent stimulator of in vitro angiogenesis through ERK signaling in mouse EPCs. Further studies are warranted to assess how interactions between proinflammatory environments and EPC responses may be leveraged to enhance therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:19240740

  11. Circulating Angiogenic Factors and the Risk of Preeclampsia in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaños-Miranda, Alfredo; Campos-Galicia, Inova; Berumen-Lechuga, María Guadalupe; Molina-Pérez, Carlos José; García-Paleta, Yolanda; Isordia-Salas, Irma; Ramírez-Valenzuela, Karla Leticia

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether angiogenic factors are associated with risk of developing preeclampsia in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We performed a nested case-control study within a cohort of SLE women with singleton pregnancies. The study included 42 patients with SLE who eventually developed preeclampsia and 75 normal SLE pregnancies. Serum samples were collected at 4-week intervals (from weeks 12 to 36). Serum samples were analyzed for soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble endoglin (sEng). Women destined to develop preeclampsia had lower PlGF levels and higher sFlt-1 and sEng levels, and a higher sFlt-1/PlGF ratio than normal pregnancies. These changes became significant at 12 weeks in patients destined to develop either early onset (risk to develop preeclampsia was higher among patients with PlGF concentration values in the lowest quartile or with sFlt-1 and sEng levels, and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio, in the highest quartile of the normal SLE pregnancies distribution. The OR were higher and appeared earlier in patients destined to develop early onset preeclampsia (OR ≥ 16.2, from Week 12 onward) than in patients who presented preeclampsia later (OR ≥ 8.9, from Week 24 onward). Changes in circulating concentrations of sFlt-1, PlGF, sEng, and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio precede the onset of preeclampsia in SLE pregnancies. The risk profile of circulating angiogenic factors for developing preeclampsia distinctly evolves depending on whether this condition is manifested earlier or later.

  12. Screening of hypoxia-inducible genes in sporadic ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Simon

    2008-10-01

    Genetic variations in two hypoxia-inducible angiogenic genes, VEGF and ANG, have been linked with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). Common variations in these genes may reduce the levels or functioning of their products. VEGF and ANG belong to a larger group of angiogenic genes that are up-regulated under hypoxic conditions. We hypothesized that common genetic variation across other members of this group may also predispose to sporadic ALS. To screen other hypoxia-inducible angiogenic genes for association with SALS, we selected 112 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tgSNPs) that captured the common genetic variation across 16 VEGF-like and eight ANG-like hypoxia-inducible genes. Screening for association was performed in 270 Irish individuals with typical SALS and 272 ethnically matched unrelated controls. SNPs showing association in the Irish phase were genotyped in a replication sample of 281 Swedish sporadic ALS patients and 286 Swedish controls. Seven markers showed association in the Irish. The one modest replication signal observed in the Swedish replication sample, at rs3801158 in the gene inhibin beta A, was for the opposite allele vs. the Irish cohort. We failed to detect association of common variation across 24 candidate hypoxia-inducible angiogenic genes with SALS.

  13. Exploring the role of anti-angiogenic therapies in prostate cancer: results from the phase 3 trial of sunitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himisha Beltran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in men. Despite recent advances in our understanding and treatment of advanced disease, no systemic therapy is curative and new therapies are needed. Targeting angiogenesis is an attractive therapeutic strategy, as angiogenic pathways are upregulated in prostate tumors similar to other malignancies due to imbalance of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors secreted by tumor, endothelial and stromal cells and increased neovasculature. [1] Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is the most well-characterized pro-angiogenenic factor, with several small molecule inhibitors (sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, axitinib, others, antibodies (bevacizumab and other drugs that target the VEGF pathway approved and/or in development for the treatment of a wide range of tumor types.

  14. The effect of crude drugs on the angiogenic property and dynamic viscoelasticity of PEMA-based soft polymer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qi; Hong, Guang; Han, Jian-Min; Murata, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2017-11-29

    This study aimed to determine the effect of crude drugs on the dynamic viscoelasticity and angiogenic property of soft polymer materials, in vitro. Two kinds of polyethyl methacrylates, and crude drugs (Astragalus membranaceus Bunge [HQ] and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge [DS]) were used in their powdered forms. And, acetyl tributyl citrate and ethyl alcohol were used in the liquid form. The dynamic viscoelasticity of each specimen was measured after 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days of immersion in distilled water. The CellPlayer angiogenesis PrimeKit assay was used to test angiogenesis. Significant differences in dynamic viscoelasticity were observed among the materials. Specimens containing 1 wt% HQ showed higher angiogenic activity than those containing 5 wt% and 10 wt% HQ, and DS. Our results suggest that the addition of low amounts of crude drugs to soft polymer materials may promote angiogenesis in human tissues.

  15. MiRNA-directed regulation of VEGF and other angiogenic factors under hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Hua

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of 20-24 nt non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression primarily through post-transcriptional repression or mRNA degradation in a sequence-specific manner. The roles of miRNAs are just beginning to be understood, but the study of miRNA function has been limited by poor understanding of the general principles of gene regulation by miRNAs. Here we used CNE cells from a human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line as a cellular system to investigate miRNA-directed regulation of VEGF and other angiogenic factors under hypoxia, and to explore the principles of gene regulation by miRNAs. Through computational analysis, 96 miRNAs were predicted as putative regulators of VEGF. But when we analyzed the miRNA expression profile of CNE and four other VEGF-expressing cell lines, we found that only some of these miRNAs could be involved in VEGF regulation, and that VEGF may be regulated by different miRNAs that were differentially chosen from 96 putative regulatory miRNAs of VEGF in different cells. Some of these miRNAs also co-regulate other angiogenic factors (differential regulation and co-regulation principle. We also found that VEGF was regulated by multiple miRNAs using different combinations, including both coordinate and competitive interactions. The coordinate principle states that miRNAs with independent binding sites in a gene can produce coordinate action to increase the repressive effect of miRNAs on this gene. By contrast, the competitive principle states when multiple miRNAs compete with each other for a common binding site, or when a functional miRNA competes with a false positive miRNA for the same binding site, the repressive effects of miRNAs may be decreased. Through the competitive principle, false positive miRNAs, which cannot directly repress gene expression, can sometimes play a role in miRNA-mediated gene regulation. The competitive principle, differential regulation, multi-miRNA binding sites, and false

  16. Multifunction Sr, Co and F co-doped microporous coating on titanium of antibacterial, angiogenic and osteogenic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jianhong; Zhao, Lingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Advanced multifunction titanium (Ti) based bone implant with antibacterial, angiogenic and osteogenic activities is stringently needed in clinic, which may be accomplished via incorporation of proper inorganic bioactive elements. In this work, microporous TiO2/calcium-phosphate coating on Ti doped with strontium, cobalt and fluorine (SCF-TiCP) was developed, which had a hierarchical micro/nano-structure with a microporous structure evenly covered with nano-grains. SCF-TiCP greatly inhibited t...

  17. Perfusion CT allows prediction of therapy response in non-small cell lung cancer treated with conventional and anti-angiogenic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacelli, Nunzia; Santangelo, Teresa; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Duhamel, Alain; Deken, Valérie; Klotz, Ernst; Cortot, Alexis; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Wallyn, Frédéric; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether CT can depict early perfusion changes in lung cancer treated by anti-angiogenic drugs, allowing prediction of response. Patients with non-small cell lung cancer, treated by conventional chemotherapy with (Group 1; n = 17) or without (Group 2; n = 23) anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drug (bevacizumab) underwent CT perfusion before (TIME 0) and after 1 (TIME 1), 3 (TIME 2) and 6 (TIME 3) cycles of chemotherapy. The CT parameters evaluated included: (1) total tumour vascular volume (TVV) and total tumour extravascular flow (TEF); (2) RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours) measurements. Tumour response was also assessed on the basis of the clinicians' overall evaluation. In Group 1, significant reduction in perfusion was identified between baseline and: (1) TIME 1 (TVV, P = 0.0395; TEF, P = 0.015); (2) TIME 2 (TVV, P = 0.0043; TEF, P Perfusion CT demonstrates early changes in lung cancer vascularity under anti-angiogenic chemotherapy that may help predict therapeutic response. • Perfusion CT has the potential of providing in vivo information about tumour vasculature. • CT depicts early and specific perfusion changes in NSCLC under anti-angiogenic drugs. • Specific therapeutic effects of anti-angiogenic drugs can be detected before tumour shrinkage. • Early perfusion changes can help predict therapeutic response to anti-angiogenic treatment. • Perfusion CT could be a non-invasive tool to monitor anti-angiogenic treatment.

  18. Strontium- and cobalt-substituted bioactive glasses seeded with human umbilical cord perivascular cells to promote bone regeneration via enhanced osteogenic and angiogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargozar, Saeid; Lotfibakhshaiesh, Nasrin; Ai, Jafar; Mozafari, Masoud; Brouki Milan, Peiman; Hamzehlou, Sepideh; Barati, Mahmood; Baino, Francesco; Hill, Robert G; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2017-08-01

    field that may induce hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis. In this study, the osteogenic potential of the strontium- and cobalt-substituted bioactive glasses in granule form seeded with human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, the main goal of this study was to improve the osteogenenic and angiogenic properties of bioactive glasses through the incorporation of strontium and cobalt ions in the glass composition. Although some researches have been conducted on this subject, the influence of the simultaneous use of strontium and cobalt ions on the improvement of bone healing in vivo has been not yet well understood and, therefore, deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The angiogenic related functions of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are promoted by CBDL rat serum via the Akt/Nrf2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Cheng-Cheng; Chen, Bing; Gu, Jian-Teng; Ning, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Lin; Zeng, Jing; Yi, Bin, E-mail: yibin1974@163.com; Lu, Kai-Zhi, E-mail: lukaizhi2010@163.com

    2016-05-15

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a complication of severe liver disease. It is characterized by an arterial oxygenation defect. Recent studies have demonstrated that pulmonary angiogenesis contributes to the abnormal gas exchange found in HPS. Additionally, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered the stable source of VEGF-producing cells and have the potential to differentiate into multiple cell types. However, it has not been determined whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are mobilized and involved in the pulmonary angiogenesis in HPS. In this study, a CFU-F assay showed that the number of peripheral blood MSCs was increased in common bile duct ligation (CBDL) rats; however, there was no significant difference found in the number of BM-MSCs. In vitro, CBDL rat serum induced the overexpression of CXCR4 and PCNA in BM-MSCs. Consistently, the directional migration as well as the proliferation ability of BM-MSCs were enhanced by CBDL rat serum, as determined by a transwell migration and MTT assays. Moreover, the secretion of VEGF by BM-MSCs increased after treatment with CBDL rat serum. We also found that the expression of phospho-Akt, phospho-ERK, and Nrf2 in BM-MSCs was significantly up-regulated by CBDL rat serum in a time dependent manner, and the blockage of the Akt/Nrf2 signalling pathway with an Akt Inhibitor or Nrf2 siRNA, instead of an ERK inhibitor, attenuated the migration, proliferation and paracrine capacity of BM-MSCs. In conclusion, these findings indicated that the number of MSCs increased in the peripheral blood of CBDL rats, and the Akt/Nrf2 pathway plays a vital role in promoting the angiogenic related functions of BM-MSCs, which could be a potent contributor to pulmonary angiogenesis in HPS. - Highlights: • Peripheral blood MSCs was increased in CBDL rats; however, the difference found for the number of BM-MSCs was not significant. • The directional migration, proliferation and ability to secrete VEGF of BM-MSCs were

  20. Evaluation of antibacterial, angiogenic, and osteogenic activities of green synthesized gap-bridging copper-doped nanocomposite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dan; Ma, Kena; Cai, Xinjie; Yang, Xu; Hu, Yinghui; Huang, Pin; Wang, Fushi; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yining

    2017-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been widely used in clinics for years. However, their bio-inert surface challenges application in patients with compromised surgical conditions. Numerous studies were conducted to modify the surface topography and chemical composition of Ti substrates, for the purpose of obtaining antibacterial, angiogenic, and osteogenic activities. In this study, using green electrophoretic deposition method, we fabricated gap-bridging chitosan-gelatin (CSG) nanocomposite coatings incorporated with different amounts of copper (Cu; 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mM for Cu I, II, III, and IV groups, respectively) on the Ti substrates. Physicochemical characterization of these coatings confirmed that Cu ions were successfully deposited into the coatings in a metallic status. After rehydration, the coatings swelled by 850% in weight. Mechanical tests verified the excellent tensile bond strength between Ti substrates and deposited coatings. All Cu-containing CSG coatings showed antibacterial property against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus . The antibacterial property was positively correlated with the Cu concentration. In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation demonstrated that activities of bone marrow stromal cells were not impaired on Cu-doped coatings except for the Cu IV group. Moreover, enhanced angiogenic and osteogenic activities were observed on Cu II and Cu III groups. Overall, our results suggested that Cu-doped CSG nanocomposite coating is a promising candidate to functionalize Ti materials with antibacterial, angiogenic, and osteogenic properties.

  1. Angiogenic response pattern during normal and impaired skin flap re-integration in mice: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürmann, Christoph; Schmidt, Nadine; Seitz, Oliver; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Frank, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Distal skin flap necrosis represents a severe complication in surgery. This study investigated angiogenic responses in healthy and impaired pedicled skin flap tissue in normal and diabetic mice. Histologic, qRT-PCR, ELISA and immunoblot techniques determined expression and localization of angiogenesis-related growth factors, receptors and cell types upon skin flap re-integration. Skin flap tissue re-integration was severely disturbed in diabetic mice. Impaired skin flap tissue lost early VEGF expression from wound margin keratinocytes and markedly reduced expression of endothelium-specific receptors Tie-2 and FLT-1. Numbers of blood vessels were reduced in impaired flaps. In addition, HIF-1α protein was absent from disturbed skin flap tissue. Reduced VEGF expression and the loss of epithelium in disturbed skin flaps were paralleled by the appearance of VEGF expressing inflammatory infiltrate. In summary, our data show a dysregulated spatial and temporal pattern of angiogenic processes during skin flap re-integration in diabetic mice. Our data suggest that reduced expression of angiogenic receptors in skin flap tissue might contribute to a loss of VEGF function in impaired tissue. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Quercetin on the Osteogenesic Differentiation and Angiogenic Factor Expression of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuning Zhou

    Full Text Available Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are widely used in regenerative medicine in light of their ability to differentiate along the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. As a type of traditional Chinese medicine, quercetin has been preliminarily reported to promote osteogenic differentiation in osteoblasts. In the present study, the effects of quercetin on the proliferation, viability, cellular morphology, osteogenic differentiation and angiogenic factor secretion of rat BMSCs (rBMSCs were examined by MTT assay, fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS analysis, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR analysis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and calcium deposition assays, and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Moreover, whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways were involved in these processes was also explored. The results showed that quercetin significantly enhanced the cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and angiogenic factor secretion of rBMSCs in a dose-dependent manner, with a concentration of 2 μM achieving the greatest stimulatory effect. Moreover, the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK and p38 pathways was observed in quercetin-treated rBMSCs. Furthermore, these induction effects could be repressed by either the ERK inhibitor PD98059 or the p38 inhibitor SB202190, respectively. These data indicated that quercetin could promote the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and angiogenic factor secretion of rBMSCs in vitro, partially through the ERK and p38 signaling pathways.

  3. Phosphorylated human prolactin (S179D-hPRL) is a potent anti-angiogenic hormone in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Eric Kinnosuke Martins

    2006-01-01

    previously shown, S179D-hPRL blocked extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in response to bFGF, but, in addition, continued co-incubation showed a delayed and prolonged activation of ERK. PD98059 [a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPkinase) inhibitor] inhibited this delayed activation of ERK and the effects of S179D-hPRL on all parameters except p53, or activity of the Bax promoter. We conclude that low doses of S179D-hPRL block bFGF-induced ERK signaling and yet activates ERK in a different time frame to elevate p21, and activate the extrinsic pathway. Longer incubations and higher concentrations, however, additionally activate the intrinsic pathway using an alternate intracellular signal. These findings suggest that circulating levels of phosphorylated hPRL may reduce the progression of cancer and, furthermore, that S179D-hPRL may be a useful anti-angiogenic therapeutic. (author)

  4. ICAM-1-Targeted, Lcn2 siRNA-Encapsulating Liposomes are Potent Anti-angiogenic Agents for Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Yang, Jiang; Jia, Di; Moses, Marsha A; Auguste, Debra T

    2016-01-01

    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is a promising therapeutic target as well as a potential diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer. It has been previously shown to promote breast cancer progression by inducing the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells as well as by enhancing angiogenesis. Lcn2 levels in urine and tissue samples of breast cancer patients has also been correlated with breast cancer status and poor patient prognosis. In this study, we have engineered a novel liposomal small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system to target triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) via a recently identified molecular target, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This ICAM-1-targeted, Lcn2 siRNA- encapsulating liposome (ICAM-Lcn2-LP) binds human TNBC MDA-MB-231cells significantly stronger than non-neoplastic MCF-10A cells. Efficient Lcn2 knockdown by ICAM-Lcn2-LPs led to a significant reduction in the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from MDA-MB-231 cells, which, in turn, led to reduced angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Angiogenesis (neovascularization) is a requirement for solid tumor growth and progression, and its inhibition is an important therapeutic strategy for human cancers. Our results indicate that a tumor-specific strategy such as the TNBC-targeted, anti-angiogenic therapeutic approach developed here, may be clinically useful in inhibiting TNBC progression.

  5. The Transcription Factor Nrf2 Protects Angiogenic Capacity of Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells in High-Oxygen Radical Stress Conditions

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    Hendrik Gremmels

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs have shown a promise in tissue engineering of vascular constructs, where they act as endothelial progenitor cells. After implantation, ECFCs are likely to be subjected to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS. The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes in response to ROS. Methods. Stable knockdown of Nrf2 and Keap1 was achieved by transduction with lentiviral shRNAs; activation of Nrf2 was induced by incubation with sulforaphane (SFN. Expression of Nrf2 target genes was assessed by qPCR, oxidative stress was assessed using CM-DCFDA, and angiogenesis was quantified by scratch-wound and tubule-formation assays. Results. Nrf2 knockdown led to a reduction of antioxidant gene expression and increased ROS. Angiogenesis was disturbed after Nrf2 knockdown even in the absence of ROS. Conversely, angiogenesis was preserved in high ROS conditions after knockdown of Keap1. Preincubation of ECFCs with SFN reduced intracellular ROS in the presence of H2O2 and preserved scratch-wound closure and tubule-formation. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that Nrf2 plays an important role in the angiogenic capacity of ECFCs, particularly under conditions of increased oxidative stress. Pretreatment of ECFCs with SFN prior to implantation may be a protective strategy for tissue-engineered constructs or cell therapies.

  6. Combination of HIF-1α gene transfection and HIF-1-activated bone marrow-derived angiogenic cell infusion improves burn wound healing in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Liu, L; Lay, F; Wang, Q; Dou, C; Zhang, X; Hosseini, S M; Simon, A; Rees, D J; Ahmed, A K; Sebastian, R; Sarkar, K; Milner, S; Marti, G P; Semenza, G L; Harmon, J W

    2013-11-01

    Impaired burn wound healing in the elderly represents a major clinical problem. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional activator that orchestrates the cellular response to hypoxia. Its actions in dermal wounds promote angiogenesis and improve healing. In a murine burn wound model, aged mice had impaired wound healing associated with reduced levels of HIF-1. When gene therapy with HIF-1 alone did not correct these deficits, we explored the potential benefit of HIF-1 gene therapy combined with the intravenous infusion of bone marrow-derived angiogenic cells (BMDACs) cultured with dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG). DMOG is known to reduce oxidative degradation of HIF-1. The mice treated with a plasmid DNA construct expressing a stabilized mutant form of HIF-1α (CA5-HIF-1α)+BMDACs had more rapid wound closure. By day 17, there were more mice with completely closed wounds in the treated group (χ(2), P=0.05). The dermal blood flow measured by laser Doppler showed significantly increased wound perfusion on day 11. Homing of BMDACs to the burn wound was dramatically enhanced by CA5-HIF-1α gene therapy. HIF-1α mRNA expression in the burn wound was increased after transfection with CA5-HIF-1α plasmid. Our findings offer insight into the pathophysiology of burns in the elderly and point to potential targets for developing new therapeutic strategies.

  7. Blood-Based Biomarkers for the Optimization of Anti-Angiogenic Therapies

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    Cristina Rabascio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of tumor growth and metastasis on blood vessels makes tumor angiogenesis a rational target for therapy. Strategies have been pursued to inhibit neovascularization and to destroy existing tumor vessels, or both. These include direct targeting of endothelial cells, and indirect targeting by inhibiting the release of proangiogenic growth factors by cancer or stromal cells. Many patients benefit from antiangiogenic therapies; thus, development of noninvasive biomarkers of disease response and relapse is a crucial objective to aid in their management. A number of non-invasive tools are described with their potential benefits and limitations. We review currently available candidate biomarkers of anti-angiogenic agent effect. Including these markers into clinical trials may provide insight into appropriate dosing for desired biological effects, appropriate timing of additional therapy, and prediction of individual response. This has important consequences for the clinical use of angiogenesis inhibitors and for drug discovery, not only for optimizing the treatment of cancer, but possibly also for developing therapeutic approaches for various other diseases.

  8. Response to Plasmapheresis Measured by Angiogenic Factors in a Woman with Antiphospholipid Syndrome in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Mayer-Pickel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance of angiogenic and antiangiogenic placental factors such as endoglin and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 has been implicated in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Extraction of these substances by plasmapheresis might be a therapeutical approach in cases of severe early-onset preeclampsia. Case Report. A 21-year-old primigravida with antiphospholipid syndrome developed early-onset preeclampsia at 18 weeks’ gestation. She was treated successfully with plasmapheresis in order to prolong pregnancy. Endoglin and sflt-1-levels were measured by ELISA before and after treatment. Endoglin levels decreased significantly after treatment (p < 0.05 and showed a significant decrease throughout pregnancy. A rerise of endoglin and sflt-1 preceded placental abruption 4 weeks before onset of incident. Conclusion. Due to the limited long-term therapeutical possibilities for pregnancies complicated by PE, plasmapheresis seems to be a therapeutical option. This consideration refers especially to pregnancies with early-onset preeclampsia, in which, after first conventional treatment of PE, prolongation of pregnancy should be above all.

  9. Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Biopolymer Delivered Circulating Angiogenic Cells in Hibernating Myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Celine

    Vasculogenic cell-based therapy combined with tissue engineering is a promising revascularization strategy for patients with hibernating myocardium, a common clinical condition. We used a clinically relevant swine model of hibernating myocardium to examine the benefits of biopolymer-supported delivery of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) in this context. Twenty-five swine underwent placement of an ameroid constrictor on the left circumflex artery (LCx). After 2 weeks, positron emission tomography measures of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) were reduced in the affected region (both pstress MBF and MFR were increased only in the cells+matrix group (panimals (p=0.02) compared to controls. Similar results were found using microsphere-measured MBF. Wall motion abnormalities and ejection fraction improved only in the cells+matrix group. This preclinical swine model demonstrated ischemia and hibernation, which was improved by the combined delivery of CACs and a collagen-based matrix. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the mechanisms and effects of combining progenitor cells and biopolymers in the setting of myocardial hibernation, a common clinical condition in patients with advanced coronary artery disease.

  10. Angiogenic squamous dysplasia-like phenomenon in oral epithelial precursor lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siar, Chong Huat; Oo, V P A; Nagatsuka, H; Nakano, K; Ng, K H; Kawakami, T

    2009-07-22

    Dysplasia, the morphological yardstick of epithelial precursor lesions, is the collective term for a variety of architectural and cytological changes within the altered oral epithelium. Angiogenic squamous dysplasia (ASD), a distinct morphological characteristic in pre-invasive bronchial lesions, describes the presence of capillary tufts that are closely juxtaposed to and projecting into the dysplastic bronchial epithelium. To determine whether ASD-like phenomenon occurs in oral epithelial precursor lesions, and to speculate on its relevance. Twenty cases each of mild, moderate and severe oral dysplasia (inclusive of carcinoma-in-situ), and 10 normal oral mucosa (normal controls) were serial sectioned for H and E staining, and for microvessel density (MVD) scoring with CD31, CD34 and CD105. Microcapillary pattern images were digitally captured for 3-D reconstruction. Oral ASD foci consisting of CD31- and CD34-positive capillary loops abutting onto the overlying dysplastic oral epithelium (and causing it to assume an irregular or papillary surface configuration) were identified in moderate (3/20; 15%) and severe dysplasia (13/20; 65%), but not in normal oral mucosa and mild dysplasia. MVD score demonstrated increasing vascularity as epithelium progressed from normal to severe dysplasia (poral precursor lesions; and 2. architectural alterations of the entire disturbed mucosa may be a more useful pre-malignancy index.

  11. Angiogenic squamous dysplasia-like phenomenon in oral epithelial precursor lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siar CH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Statement of the problem Dysplasia, the morphological yardstick of epithelial precursor lesions, is the collective term for a variety of architectural and cytological changes within the altered oral epithelium. Angiogenic squamous dysplasia (ASD, a distinct morphological characteristic in pre-invasive bronchial lesions, describes the presence of capillary tufts that are closely juxtaposed to and projecting into the dysplastic bronchial epithelium. Objective To determine whether ASD-like phenomenon occurs in oral epithelial precursor lesions, and to speculate on its relevance. Methods Twenty cases each of mild, moderate and severe oral dysplasia (inclusive of carcinoma-in-situ, and 10 normal oral mucosa (normal controls were serial sectioned for H and E staining, and for microvessel density (MVD scoring with CD31, CD34 and CD105. Microcapillary pattern images were digitally captured for 3-D reconstruction. Results Oral ASD foci consisting of CD31-and CD34-positive capillary loops abutting onto the overlying dysplastic oral epithelium (and causing it to assume an irregular or papillary surface configuration were identified in moderate (3/20; 15% and severe dysplasia (13/20; 65%, but not in normal oral mucosa and mild dysplasia. MVD score demonstrated increasing vascularity as epithelium progressed from normal to severe dysplasia (p Conclusions These preliminary findings taken together suggest that: 1. ASD-like phenomenon may be an important intermediary biomarker in oral precursor lesions; and 2. architectural alterations of the entire disturbed mucosa may be a more useful pre-malignancy index.

  12. Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Angiogenic Properties of Resveratrol in Ocular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lançon, Allan; Frazzi, Raffaele; Latruffe, Norbert

    2016-03-02

    Resveratrol (3,4',5 trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is one of the best known phytophenols with pleiotropic properties. It is a phytoalexin produced by vine and it leads to the stimulation of natural plant defenses but also exhibits many beneficial effects in animals and humans by acting on a wide range of organs and tissues. These include the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, anti-cancer potential, neuroprotective effects, homeostasia maintenance, aging delay and a decrease in inflammation. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main causes of deterioration of vision in adults in developed countries This review deals with resveratrol and ophthalmology by focusing on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic effects of this molecule. The literature reports that resveratrol is able to act on various cell types of the eye by increasing the level of natural antioxidant enzymatic and molecular defenses. Resveratrol anti-inflammatory effects are due to its capacity to limit the expression of pro-inflammatory factors, such as interleukins and prostaglandins, and also to decrease the chemo-attraction and recruitment of immune cells to the inflammatory site. In addition to this, resveratrol was shown to possess anti-VEGF effects and to inhibit the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. Resveratrol has the potential to be used in a range of human ocular diseases and conditions, based on animal models and in vitro experiments.

  13. [THE ROLE OF ANGIOGENIC FACTORS IN THE DIAGNOSTICS OF PREGNANCY COMPLICATED WITH PREECLAMPSIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagiyeva, I; Aliyeva, S; Bagirova, S; Shamsadinskaya, N; Agaeva, K

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of preeclampsia remains largely unknown. It has been hypothesized that placental ischemia is an early event, leading to placental production of a soluble factor or factors that cause maternal endothelial dysfunction, resulting in the clinical findings of hypertension, proteinuria, and edema. Here, we confirm that placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), an antagonist of vascular growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PIGF), is upregulated in preeclampsia, leading to increased systemic levels of sFlt1. Our research demonstrate that increased circulating sFlt1 in III trimester in patients with preeclampsia is associated with decreased circulating levels of free VEGF and PIGF, resulting in endothelial dysfunction, comparing with control group. These observations suggest that excess circulating sFlt1 contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. 45 pregnant women with preeclampsia of different severity degrees were under observation. Control group included 20 healthy pregnant. Pregnant women with preeclampsia were subdivided into 2 groups. There were 11 (24,4%) pregnant with severe degree of preeclamsia (I group), the II group included 34 pregnant with mild degree of preeclampsia. Increased expression of soluble tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), together with decreased PIGF and VEGF signaling, were first abnormalities described. Thus, determination of levels angiogenic factors: PIGF, VEGF and sFlt-1 is very important for prediction severity of preeclampsia.

  14. Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Angiogenic Properties of Resveratrol in Ocular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Lançon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (3,4′,5 trihydroxy-trans-stilbene is one of the best known phytophenols with pleiotropic properties. It is a phytoalexin produced by vine and it leads to the stimulation of natural plant defenses but also exhibits many beneficial effects in animals and humans by acting on a wide range of organs and tissues. These include the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, anti-cancer potential, neuroprotective effects, homeostasia maintenance, aging delay and a decrease in inflammation. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is one of the main causes of deterioration of vision in adults in developed countries This review deals with resveratrol and ophthalmology by focusing on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic effects of this molecule. The literature reports that resveratrol is able to act on various cell types of the eye by increasing the level of natural antioxidant enzymatic and molecular defenses. Resveratrol anti-inflammatory effects are due to its capacity to limit the expression of pro-inflammatory factors, such as interleukins and prostaglandins, and also to decrease the chemo-attraction and recruitment of immune cells to the inflammatory site. In addition to this, resveratrol was shown to possess anti-VEGF effects and to inhibit the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. Resveratrol has the potential to be used in a range of human ocular diseases and conditions, based on animal models and in vitro experiments.

  15. Fibrocyte-like cells mediate acquired resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Atsushi; Goto, Hisatsugu; Saijo, Atsuro; Trung, Van The; Aono, Yoshinori; Ogino, Hirokazu; Kuramoto, Takuya; Tabata, Sho; Uehara, Hisanori; Izumi, Keisuke; Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hidefusa; Gotoh, Masashi; Kakiuchi, Soji; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Yano, Seiji; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Sakiyama, Shoji; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Bevacizumab exerts anti-angiogenic effects in cancer patients by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, its use is still limited due to the development of resistance to the treatment. Such resistance can be regulated by various factors, although the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we show that bone marrow-derived fibrocyte-like cells, defined as alpha-1 type I collagen-positive and CXCR4-positive cells, contribute to the acquired resistance to bevacizumab. In mouse models of malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer, fibrocyte-like cells mediate the resistance to bevacizumab as the main producer of fibroblast growth factor 2. In clinical specimens of lung cancer, the number of fibrocyte-like cells is significantly increased in bevacizumab-treated tumours, and correlates with the number of treatment cycles, as well as CD31-positive vessels. Our results identify fibrocyte-like cells as a promising cell biomarker and a potential therapeutic target to overcome resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. PMID:26635184

  16. Angiogenic potential of early and late outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells is dependent on the time of emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Yoshiyasu; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Ikutomi, Masayasu; Morita, Toshihiro; Komuro, Issei; Sata, Masataka; Sahara, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that late-outgrowth endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMNCs) might have higher angiogenic potential than classically-defined early-outgrowth EPCs (EOCs). However, it still remains unclear which of "so-called" EPC subpopulations defined in a variety of ways has the highest angiogenic potential. We classified hPBMNC-derived EPC subpopulations by the time of their emergence in culture. EOCs were defined as attached cells on culture days 3-7. Late-outgrowth EPCs, defined as the cell forming colonies with cobblestone appearance since day 10, were further classified as follows: "moderate"-outgrowth EPCs (MOCs) emerging on days 10-16, "late"-outgrowth EPCs (LOCs) on days 17-23, and "very late"-outgrowth EPCs (VOCs) on days 24-30. Flow cytometry analyses showed the clear differences of hematopoietic/endothelial markers between EOC (CD31(+)VE-cadherin(-)CD34(-)CD14(+)CD45(+)) and LOC (CD31(+)VE-cadherin(+)CD34(+)CD14(-)CD45(-)). We found that LOCs had the highest proliferation and tube formation capabilities in vitro along with the highest expression of angiogenic genes including KDR and eNOS. To investigate the in vivo therapeutic efficacies, each EPC subpopulation was intravenously transplanted into immunocompromised mice (total 4 × 10(5) cells) after unilateral hindlimb ischemia surgery. The LOC-treated mice exhibited significantly-enhanced blood flow recovery (flow ratios of ischemic/non-ischemic leg: 0.99±0.02 [LOC group] versus 0.67 ± 0.07 to 0.78 ± 0.09 [other groups]; P capillary collateral formation in ischemic leg, which were attributable to their direct engraftment into host angiogenic vessels (approximately 10%) and paracrine effects. hPBMNC-derived late-outgrowth EPCs emerging on culture days 17-23 are superior to other EPC subpopulations with regard to therapeutic angiogenic potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvements in progression-free and overall survival due to the use of anti-angiogenic agents in gynecologic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Bernd C; Oehler, Martin K

    2015-01-01

    In ovarian cancer (OC), the best established anti-angiogenic drug, bevacizumab, has demonstrated only modest prolonged progression free survival (PFS) and no increased overall survival (OS). The unanswered question is in which clinical situation bevacizumab might benefit ovarian cancer patients most. The cost-benefit analysis in the primary treatment was found not to be favorable but the use in the recurrent OC setting might be more compelling. Multi-targeted anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as cediranib and pazopanib have shown some therapeutic benefits with improvements of PFS and OS in patients with platinum-sensitive as well as resistant OC, in whom there is a major need for novel therapies. Very promising is also the observed improvement of PFS in recurrent OC in patients when combining cediranib with the PARP inhibitor olaparib without giving additional chemotherapy. The anti-angiogenic agent trebananib has achieved similar results like TKI, but has a favorable toxicity profile which does not overlap with those of VEGF inhibitors. In cervical cancer the addition of bevacizumab to combination chemotherapy in patients with recurrent, persistent or metastatic chemotherapy-naive disease results in a significant increase in OS. Considering the lack of therapeutic options in this difficult clinical setting, the inclusion of bevacizumab most likely will become a new standard for recurrent cervical cancer. In uterine sarcomas as very aggressive malignancies with a substantial need for better therapies the observed improved PFS with sorafenib warrants further investigation. No data showing a convincing improvement of survival in endometrial cancer have been presented yet. In view of the limited PFS and OS benefit observed with anti-angiogenics in gynecologic oncology, increased morbidity due to side effects of this treatment resulting in loss of quality of life and also substantial costs have to be taken into consideration. Thorough case selection

  18. Epidermal Growth Factor and Estrogen Act by Independent Pathways to Additively Promote the Release of the Angiogenic Chemokine CXCL8 by Breast Tumor Cells

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    Karin Haim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment contains multiple cancer-supporting factors, whose joint activities promote malignancy. Here, we show that epidermal growth factor (EGF and estrogen upregulate in an additive manner the transcription and the secretion of the angiogenic chemokine CXCL8 (interleukin 8 [IL-8] in breast tumor cells. In view of published findings on cross-regulatory interactions between EGF receptors and estrogen receptors in breast tumor cells, we asked whether the additive effects of EGF and estrogen were due to their ability to (1 induce intracellular cross talk and amplify shared regulatory pathways or (2 act in independent mechanisms, which complement each other. We found that stimulation by EGF alone induced the release of CXCL8 through signaling pathways involving ErbB2, ErbB1, Erk, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K. ErbB2 and Erk were also involved in estrogen activities on CXCL8 but to a lower extent than with EGF. However, in the joint stimulatory setup, the addition of estrogen to EGF has led to partial (ErbB2, ErbB1, Erk or complete (PI3K shutoff of the involvement of these activation pathways in CXCL8 up-regulation. Furthermore, when costimulation by EGF + estrogen was applied, the effects of estrogen were channeled to regulation of CXCL8 at the transcription level, acting through the transcription factor estrogen receptor α (ERα. In parallel, in the joint stimulation, EGF acted independently at the transcription level through AP-1, to upregulate CXCL8 expression. The independent activities of EGF and estrogen on CXCL8 transcription reinforce the need to introduce simultaneous targeting of ErbBs and ERα to achieve effective therapy in breast cancer.

  19. Deregulated unfolded protein response in chronic wounds of diabetic ob/ob mice: a potential connection to inflammatory and angiogenic disorders in diabetes-impaired wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürmann, Christoph; Goren, Itamar; Linke, Andreas; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Frank, Stefan

    2014-03-28

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) represents an important metabolic disorder, firmly connected to obesity and low level of chronic inflammation caused by deregulation of fat metabolism. The convergence of chronic inflammatory signals and nutrient overloading at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to activation of ER-specific stress responses, the unfolded protein response (UPR). As obesity and T2D are often associated with impaired wound healing, we investigated the role of UPR in the pathologic of diabetic-impaired cutaneuos wound healing. We determined the expression patterns of the three UPR branches during normal and diabetes-impaired skin repair. In healthy and diabetic mice, injury led to a strong induction of BiP (BiP/Grp78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and splicing of X-box-binding protein (XBP)1. Diabetic-impaired wounds showed gross and sustained induction of UPR associated with increased expression of the pro-inflammatory chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)2 as compared to normal healing wounds. In vitro, treatment of RAW264.7 macrophages with tunicamycin, and subsequently stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon (IFN)-γ enhances MIP2 mRNA und protein expression compared to proinflammatory stimulation alone. However, LPS/IFNγ induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production was blunted by tunicamycin induced-ER stress. Hence, UPR is activated following skin injury, and functionally connected to the production of proinflammatory mediators. In addition, prolongation of UPR in diabetic non-healing wounds aggravates ER stress and weakens the angiogenic phenotype of wound macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between Placental Lesions, Cytokines and Angiogenic Factors in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia.

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    Ingrid C Weel

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is considered the leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The placenta seems to play an essential role in this disease, probably due to factors involved in its formation and development. The present study aimed to investigate the association between placental lesions, cytokines and angiogenic factors in pregnant women with preeclampsia (PE. We evaluated 20 normotensive pregnant women, 40 with early-onset PE and 80 with late-onset PE. Placental samples were analyzed for histopathology, immunohistochemistry and determination of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, interleukin-10 (IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, placental growth factor (PlGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, fms-like tyrosine-kinase-1 (Flt-1 and endoglin (Eng levels. Higher percentages of increased syncytial knots and increased perivillous fibrin deposits, and greater levels of TNF-α, TGF-β1and Flt-1 were detected in placentas from early-onset PE. Levels of IL-10, VEGF and PlGF were decreased in PE versus normotensive placentas. Both the TNF-α/IL-10 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratios were higher in placental homogenate of early-onset PE than late-onset PE and control groups. The more severe lesions and the imbalance between TNF-α/IL-10 and PlGF/sFlt-1 in placentas from early-onset PE allows differentiation of early and late-onset PE and suggests higher placental impairment in early-onset PE.

  1. Matrix metalloproteinase-10 promotes tumor progression through regulation of angiogenic and apoptotic pathways in cervical tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ge; Miyake, Makito; Lawton, Adrienne; Goodison, Steve; Rosser, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    Cancer invasion and metastasis develops through a series of steps that involve the loss of cell to cell and cell to matrix adhesion, degradation of extracellular matrix and induction of angiogenesis. Different protease systems (e.g., matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs) are involved in these steps. MMP-10, one of the lesser studied MMPs, is limited to epithelial cells and can facilitate tumor cell invasion by targeting collagen, elastin and laminin. Enhanced MMP-10 expression has been linked to poor clinical prognosis in some cancers, however, mechanisms underlying a role for MMP-10 in tumorigenesis and progression remain largely unknown. Here, we report that MMP-10 expression is positively correlated with the invasiveness of human cervical and bladder cancers. Using commercial tissue microarray (TMA) of cervical and bladder tissues, MMP-10 immunohistochemical staining was performed. Furthermore using a panel of human cells (HeLa and UROtsa), in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed in which MMP-10 was overexpressed or silenced and we noted phenotypic and genotypic changes. Experimentally, we showed that MMP-10 can regulate tumor cell migration and invasion, and endothelial cell tube formation, and that MMP-10 effects are associated with a resistance to apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that increasing MMP-10 expression stimulates the expression of HIF-1α and MMP-2 (pro-angiogenic factors) and PAI-1 and CXCR2 (pro-metastatic factors), and accordingly, targeting MMP-10 with siRNA in vivo resulted in diminution of xenograft tumor growth with a concomitant reduction of angiogenesis and a stimulation of apoptosis. Taken together, our findings show that MMP-10 can play a significant role in tumor growth and progression, and that MMP-10 perturbation may represent a rational strategy for cancer treatment

  2. Sparstolonin B inhibits pro-angiogenic functions and blocks cell cycle progression in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Henry R; Liang, Qiaoli; Fan, Daping; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Lessner, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Sparstolonin B (SsnB) is a novel bioactive compound isolated from Sparganium stoloniferum, an herb historically used in Traditional Chinese Medicine as an anti-tumor agent. Angiogenesis, the process of new capillary formation from existing blood vessels, is dysregulated in many pathological disorders, including diabetic retinopathy, tumor growth, and atherosclerosis. In functional assays, SsnB inhibited endothelial cell tube formation (Matrigel method) and cell migration (Transwell method) in a dose-dependent manner. Microarray experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) demonstrated differential expression of several hundred genes in response to SsnB exposure (916 and 356 genes, respectively, with fold change ≥2, pcell types showed significant overlap, including genes associated with cell proliferation and cell cycle. Flow cytometric cell cycle analysis of HUVECs treated with SsnB showed an increase of cells in the G1 phase and a decrease of cells in the S phase. Cyclin E2 (CCNE2) and Cell division cycle 6 (CDC6) are regulatory proteins that control cell cycle progression through the G1/S checkpoint. Both CCNE2 and CDC6 were downregulated in the microarray data. Real Time quantitative PCR confirmed that gene expression of CCNE2 and CDC6 in HUVECs was downregulated after SsnB exposure, to 64% and 35% of controls, respectively. The data suggest that SsnB may exert its anti-angiogenic properties in part by downregulating CCNE2 and CDC6, halting progression through the G1/S checkpoint. In the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, SsnB caused significant reduction in capillary length and branching number relative to the vehicle control group. Overall, SsnB caused a significant reduction in angiogenesis (ANOVA, p<0.05), demonstrating its ex vivo efficacy.

  3. Angiogenic T cell expansion correlates with severity of peripheral vascular damage in systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Manetti

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying endothelial cell injury and defective vascular repair in systemic sclerosis (SSc remain unclear. Since the recently discovered angiogenic T cells (Tang may have an important role in the repair of damaged endothelium, this study aimed to analyze the Tang population in relation to disease-related peripheral vascular features in SSc patients. Tang (CD3+CD31+CXCR4+ were quantified by flow cytometry in peripheral blood samples from 39 SSc patients and 18 healthy controls (HC. Circulating levels of the CXCR4 ligand stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1α and proangiogenic factors were assessed in paired serum samples by immunoassay. Serial skin sections from SSc patients and HC were subjected to CD3/CD31 and CD3/CXCR4 double immunofluorescence. Circulating Tang were significantly increased in SSc patients with digital ulcers (DU compared either with SSc patients without DU or with HC. Tang levels were significantly higher in SSc patients with late nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC pattern than in those with early/active NVC patterns and in HC. No difference in circulating Tang was found when comparing either SSc patients without DU or patients with early/active NVC patterns and HC. In SSc peripheral blood, Tang percentage was inversely correlated to levels of SDF-1α and CD34+CD133+VEGFR-2+ endothelial progenitor cells (EPC, and positively correlated to levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Tang were frequently detected in SSc dermal perivascular inflammatory infiltrates. In summary, our findings demonstrate for the first time that Tang cells are selectively expanded in the circulation of SSc patients displaying severe peripheral vascular complications like DU. In SSc, Tang may represent a potentially useful biomarker reflecting peripheral vascular damage severity. Tang expansion may be an ineffective attempt to compensate the need for increased angiogenesis and EPC function. Further

  4. Coronary angiogenic effect of long-term administration of Nigella sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Asoom, Lubna I

    2017-06-13

    Coronary angiogenesis is one of the preferable adaptive responses of aerobic training. Previous studies found inotropic and hypertrophic cardiac effects for long-term administration of Nigella sativa (NS), but no studies have explored its coronary angiogenic effect. The present study compared the effect of long-term NS- administration and exercise training on the induction of coronary angiogenesis. Fifteen adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, NS-fed, and exercise-trained (Ex). The NS-fed rats were administered 800 mg/Kg NS orally for eight weeks. The (Ex) rats were trained on a five-lane treadmill at a speed of 18 m/min and a grade of 32° for two hour/day for eight weeks. After the experiment, the hearts were extracted and immunohistological slides were prepared using rat vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), Von Willebrand factor (VWF) and nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2) antibodies (Ab). Photomicrographs were analysed using ImageJ software, and the % of the immunostained-area of 10 fields per specimen was recorded. VEGF was significantly higher in the NS- (2.59±1.37%) and Ex rats (2.51±1.86%) compared to the control group (1.58±0.78%) with PNigella-fed and exercise-trained rats. This might indicate the potentiality for induction of coronary angiogenesis via long-term administration of NS and exercise training. NS effect on coronary angiogenesis needs to be explored further as it might lead to a new promising preventive and therapeutic agent of the ischemic heart disease.

  5. Angiogenic competency of biodegradable hydrogels fabricated from polyethylene glycol-crosslinked tyrosine-derived polycarbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HJ Sung

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biomaterials can be used as instructive biological milieus to guide cellular behaviour and function. To further realize this application, we synthesized a series of structurally similar hydrogels and tested their ability to modulate angiogenesis. Hydrogels were synthesized from poly(DTE-co-x% DT carbonate crosslinked by y% poly(ethylene glycol (PEG. Hydrogel desaminotyrosyl tyrosine (DT contents (x% ranged from 10-100%, and crosslink densities (y% PEG-crosslinker ranged from 5-80%. The hydrogels were fashioned into porous scaffolds with highly interconnected macro- and micro-pore (>100 and <10 mm in diameter, respectively architecture using poly(DTE-co-10%DT carbonate crosslinked with 8% PEG. Under physiological conditions (in vitro, the hydrogels degraded into three major products: desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester (DTE, desaminotyrosyl tyrosine (DT, and poly(ethylene glycol-di-DT-hydrazide (PEG-di-DT hydrazide. Increasing either DT content or crosslink density brought quickened degradation. Because DT and DTE, two of the three major degradation products, have not demonstrated any noticeable cytotoxicity or angiogenic effect in previous studies, we measured the cytotoxicity of PEG-di-DT hydrazide, the third major degradation product. We found that PEG-di-DT hydrazide only displayed significant cytotoxicity at the high concentration of 100 mg/mL. Interestingly, PEG-di-DT hydrazide and its further degradation product PEG-dihydrazide stimulated in vitro endothelial cell migration and tubulogenesis, which is comparable to results found with FGF-beta treatment. Subcutaneous implantation of the PEG-crosslinked poly(DTE-co-10%DT carbonate scaffolds into the backs of rats elicited greater tissue growth over time and superior vascularization than poly(DTE carbonate implantation. These results show that this new class of biomaterials has a strong potential to modulate angiogenesis.

  6. Human chorionic gonadotropin, angiogenic factors, and preeclampsia risk: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvold, Bjørn O; Eskild, Anne; Vatten, Lars J

    2014-05-01

    To study whether human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations during pregnancy or combinations of human chorionic gonadotropin and other angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and placental growth factor (PlGF), are associated with preeclampsia risk. Nested case-control study. Population cohort of pregnant women. A total of 121 cases of preterm (cases of term preeclampsia (≥37 weeks of gestation) and 356 women without preeclampsia (controls). Women with preeclampsia were identified by linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and PlGF were measured in maternal serum samples collected in each trimester of pregnancy. Odds ratios of preterm and term preeclampsia. High human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations (highest quartile) in the first trimester were associated with reduced risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9), compared with low human chorionic gonadotropin (lowest quartile), whereas high human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in the second trimester were associated with increased risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.8-8.9). High human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in the third trimester were associated with increased risk for term preeclampsia (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.8-13.3). Concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin above the median value combined with PlGF below the median in the second trimester were associated with very high risk for preterm preeclampsia (OR 36.9, 95% CI 8.2-165.8). The results suggest an important role of human chorionic gonadotropin in the pathophysiological processes that lead to preeclampsia. The combined association of human chorionic gonadotropin and PlGF indicates a possible synergism between underlying biological pathways. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Up-regulated basigin-2 in microglia induced by hypoxia promotes retinal angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Xu, Wen-Qin; Ye, Ming-Xiang; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Jian; Li, Yu; Wang, Yu-Sheng

    2017-12-01

    Retinal microglia cells contribute to vascular angiogenesis and vasculopathy induced by relative hypoxia. However, its concrete molecular mechanisms in shaping retinal angiogenesis have not been elucidated. Basigin, being involved in tumour neovasculogenesis, is explored to exert positive effects on retinal angiogenesis induced by microglia. Therefore, we set out to investigate the expression of basigin using a well-characterized mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, which recapitulated hypoxia-induced aberrant neovessel growth. Our results elucidate that basigin is overexpressed in microglia, which accumulating in retinal angiogenic sprouts. In vitro, conditioned media from microglia BV2 under hypoxia treatment increase migration and tube formation of retinal capillary endothelia cells, compared with media from normoxic condition. The angiogenic capacity of BV2 is inhibited after basigin knockdown by small interfering RNAs. A new molecular mechanism for high angiogenic capacity, whereby microglia cells release basigin via up-regulation of PI3K-AKT and IGF-1 pathway to induce angiogenesis is unveiled. Collectively, our results demonstrate that basigin from hypoxic microglia plays a pivotal pro-angiogenic role, providing new insights into microglia-promoting retinal angiogenesis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  8. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II modulates endothelial cell responses by degrading hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha through interaction with PSMA7, a component of the proteasome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandle, Anita T. [Tumor Angiogenesis Section, Surgery Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Calvani, Maura; Uranchimeg, Badarch [DTP-Tumor Hypoxia Laboratory, SAIC Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702 (United States); Zahavi, David [Tumor Angiogenesis Section, Surgery Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Melillo, Giovanni [DTP-Tumor Hypoxia Laboratory, SAIC Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702 (United States); Libutti, Steven K., E-mail: slibutti@montefiore.org [Department of Surgery, Montefiore-Einstein Center for Cancer Care, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Greene Medical Arts Pavilion, 4th Floor 3400, Bainbridge Avenue, Bronx, New York 10467 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The majority of human tumors are angiogenesis dependent. Understanding the specific mechanisms that contribute to angiogenesis may offer the best approach to develop therapies to inhibit angiogenesis in cancer. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is an anti-angiogenic cytokine with potent effects on endothelial cells (ECs). It inhibits EC proliferation and cord formation, and it suppresses primary and metastatic tumor growth in-vivo. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-angiogenic activity of EMAP-II. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanism behind the anti-angiogenic activity exerted by this protein on ECs. Our results demonstrate that EMAP-II binds to the cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin receptor. The cell surface binding of EMAP-II results in its internalization into the cytoplasmic compartment where it interacts with its cytoplasmic partner PSMA7, a component of the proteasome degradation pathway. This interaction increases hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) degradation under hypoxic conditions. The degradation results in the inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} mediated transcriptional activity as well as HIF-1{alpha} mediated angiogenic sprouting of ECs. HIF-1{alpha} plays a critical role in angiogenesis by activating a variety of angiogenic growth factors. Our results suggest that one of the major anti-angiogenic functions of EMAP-II is exerted through its inhibition of the HIF-1{alpha} activities.

  9. Increased expression of fibronectin and the α5β1 integrin in angiogenic cerebral blood vessels of mice subject to hypobaric hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Richard; Hung, Stephanie; Erokwu, Bernadette; Dore-Duffy, Paula; LaManna, Joseph C.; del Zoppo, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. We showed previously that angiogenic capillaries in the developing CNS express high levels of fibronectin and its receptor α5β1 integrin, and that this expression is developmentally downregulated. As cerebral hypoxia leads to an angiogenic response, we sought to determine whether angiogenic vessels in the adult CNS re-express fibronectin and the α5β1 integrin. Ten-week old mice were subject to hypobaric hypoxia for 0, 4, 7 and 14 days, and fibronectin/integrin expression examined. Fibronectin and the α5 integrin subunit were strongly upregulated on capillaries in the hypoxic CNS, with the effect maximal at the earliest time point examined (4 days). Immunofluorescent studies demonstrated that the α5 integrin was expressed by angiogenic endothelial cells. In light of the defined angiogenic role for fibronectin in other systems, this work suggests that induction of fibronectin-α5β1 integrin expression may be an important molecular switch driving angiogenesis in the hypoxic CNS. PMID:18343155

  10. Late acute graft-versus-host disease: a prospective analysis of clinical outcomes and circulating angiogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtan, Shernan G; Khera, Nandita; Levine, John E; Chai, Xiaoyu; Storer, Barry; Liu, Hien D; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Chen, George L; Mayer, Sebastian; Arora, Mukta; Palmer, Jeanne; Flowers, Mary E D; Cutler, Corey S; Lukez, Alexander; Arai, Sally; Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Newell, Laura F; Krupski, Christa; Jagasia, Madan H; Pusic, Iskra; Wood, William; Renteria, Anne S; Yanik, Gregory; Hogan, William J; Hexner, Elizabeth; Ayuk, Francis; Holler, Ernst; Watanaboonyongcharoen, Phandee; Efebera, Yvonne A; Ferrara, James L M; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Weisdorf, Daniel; Lee, Stephanie J; Pidala, Joseph

    2016-11-10

    Late acute (LA) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is persistent, recurrent, or new-onset acute GVHD symptoms occurring >100 days after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The aim of this analysis is to describe the onset, course, morbidity, and mortality of and examine angiogenic factors associated with LA GVHD. A prospective cohort of patients (n = 909) was enrolled as part of an observational study within the Chronic GVHD Consortium. Eighty-three patients (11%) developed LA GVHD at a median of 160 (interquartile range, 128-204) days after HCT. Although 51 out of 83 (61%) achieved complete or partial response to initial therapy by 28 days, median failure-free survival was only 7.1 months (95% confidence interval, 3.4-19.1 months), and estimated overall survival (OS) at 2 years was 56%. Given recently described alterations of circulating angiogenic factors in classic acute GVHD, we examined whether alterations in such factors could be identified in LA GVHD. We first tested cases (n = 55) and controls (n = 50) from the Chronic GVHD Consortium and then validated the findings in 37 cases from Mount Sinai Acute GVHD International Consortium. Plasma amphiregulin (AREG; an epidermal growth factor [EGF] receptor ligand) was elevated, and an AREG/EGF ratio at or above the median was associated with inferior OS and increased nonrelapse mortality in both cohorts. Elevation of AREG was detected in classic acute GVHD, but not chronic GVHD. These prospective data characterize the clinical course of LA GVHD and demonstrate alterations in angiogenic factors that make LA GVHD biologically distinct from chronic GVHD. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Prognostic value of bone marrow microvessel density and angiogenic cytokines in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing autologous stem cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucak, Gülsan Türköz; Aki, Sahika Zeynep; Yüzbaşioğlu, Bilgehan; Akyürek, Nalân; Yağci, Münci; Bağriaçik, Umit; Haznedar, Rauf

    2011-07-01

    Angiogenesis is important for the proliferation and metastasis of most malignant neoplasms including multiple myeloma (MM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of bone marrow angiogenesis and angiogenic cytokines in patients with MM prior to and after autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). Twenty-nine patients with MM who underwent ASCT had serial samples of serum and bone marrow biopsies at diagnosis, prior to ASCT, and at the 3rd and 6th months post-transplant. Besides bone marrow microvessel density (MVD), serum angiogenic cytokines including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and markers of disease activity such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, C-reactive protein (CRP), β(2)-microglobulin, and bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) were also determined. Bone marrow MVD, serum levels of IL-6, CRP, and β(2)-microglobulin, and BMPCs decreased significantly from diagnosis to the 6th month post-transplant (p transplant, however lost this significance at the 6th month. Serum VEGF levels did not vary significantly during follow-up. MVD, serum angiogenic cytokine levels, and parameters reflecting disease activity were similar in responders and non-responders to induction chemotherapy. Cytokines and MVD both at diagnosis and prior to transplant did not show any correlation with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) after a median follow-up of 55 months after transplant (p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that bone marrow MVD decreases significantly with ASCT in MM, however without an impact on OS and PFS.

  12. Identification of pro-angiogenic markers in blood vessels from stroked-affected brain tissue using laser-capture microdissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldellou Maribel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis correlates with patient survival following acute ischaemic stroke, and survival of neurons is greatest in tissue undergoing angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is critical for the development of new microvessels and leads to re-formation of collateral circulation, reperfusion, enhanced neuronal survival and improved recovery. Results Here, we have isolated active (CD105/Flt-1 positive and inactive (CD105/Flt-1 minus (n=5 micro-vessel rich-regions from stroke-affected and contralateral tissue of patients using laser-capture micro-dissection. Areas were compared for pro- and anti-angiogenic gene expression using targeted TaqMan microfluidity cards containing 46 genes and real-time PCR. Further analysis of key gene de-regulation was performed by immunohistochemistry to define localization and expression patterns of identified markers and de novo synthesis by human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC was examined following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. Our data revealed that seven pro-angiogenic genes were notably up-regulated in CD105 positive microvessel rich regions. These were, beta-catenin, neural cell adhesion molecule (NRCAM, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1, hepatocyte growth factor-alpha (HGF-alpha, monocyte chemottractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and and Tie-2 as well as c-kit. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated strong staining of MMP-2, HGF-alpha, MCP-1 and Tie-2 in stroke-associated regions of active remodeling in association with CD105 positive staining. In vitro, OGD stimulated production of Tie-2, MCP-1 and MMP-2 in HBMEC, demonstrated a de novo response to hypoxia. Conclusion In this work we have identified concurrent activation of key angiogenic molecules associated with endothelial cell migration, differentiation and tube-formation, vessel stabilization and stem cell homing mechanisms in areas of revascularization. Therapeutic stimulation of these

  13. Angiogenic Response following Radioembolization: Results from a Randomized Pilot Study of Yttrium-90 with or without Sorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Robert J; Andreoli, Jessica M; Hickey, Ryan; Kallini, Joseph R; Gabr, Ahmed; Baker, Talia; Kircher, Sheetal; Salem, Riad; Kulik, Laura

    2016-09-01

    To compare the regulation of serum angiogenic factors in patients with unresectable early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization alone vs with sorafenib. In a single-center pilot study, 23 patients with unresectable HCC awaiting orthotopic liver transplantation were prospectively randomized to receive radioembolization alone (n = 12) or radioembolization with sorafenib (n = 11). Serum angiogenic markers (angiopoietin-2 [Ang-2], hepatocyte growth factor, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, c-reactive protein, platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF], and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) were assayed at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks after radioembolization ((90)Y alone, n = 6; (90)Y plus sorafenib, n = 7). In the (90)Y-alone group, all growth factors were elevated above baseline levels at 2 and 4 weeks: VEGF increased 36% vs baseline at 2 weeks and 22% at 4 weeks, and PDGF increased 24% at 2 weeks and 3% at 4 weeks. In the (90)Y/sorafenib arm, Ang-2 and PDGF decreased at 2 weeks and the remainder increased. By 4 weeks, only PDGF remained below baseline levels. VEGF increased 49% at 2 weeks and 28% at 4 weeks, and PDGF decreased 31% at 2 weeks and 39% at 4 weeks. Differences were statistically significant for hepatocyte growth factor (P = .03) and PDGF (P = .02) at 2 weeks and for IL-6 (P = .05) at 4 weeks. Radioembolization is associated with a mild increase in angiogenic markers. The addition of sorafenib blunts PDGF response; other factors such as VEGF remain unaffected. The predominant effect of sorafenib may be through downregulation of PDGF and not VEGF. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Longitudinal analysis of osteogenic and angiogenic signaling factors in healing models mimicking atrophic and hypertrophic non-unions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkwitz, Susann; Faßbender, Mirja; Kronbach, Zienab; Wildemann, Britt

    2015-01-01

    Impaired bone healing can have devastating consequences for the patient. Clinically relevant animal models are necessary to understand the pathology of impaired bone healing. In this study, two impaired healing models, a hypertrophic and an atrophic non-union, were compared to physiological bone healing in rats. The aim was to provide detailed information about differences in gene expression, vascularization and histology during the healing process. The change from a closed fracture (healing control group) to an open osteotomy (hypertrophy group) led to prolonged healing with reduced mineralized bridging after 42 days. RT-PCR data revealed higher gene expression of most tested osteogenic and angiogenic factors in the hypertrophy group at day 14. After 42 days a significant reduction of gene expression was seen for Bmp4 and Bambi in this group. The inhibition of angiogenesis by Fumagillin (atrophy group) decreased the formation of new blood vessels and led to a non-healing situation with diminished chondrogenesis. RT-PCR results showed an attempt towards overcoming the early perturbance by significant up regulation of the angiogenic regulators Vegfa, Angiopoietin 2 and Fgf1 at day 7 and a further continuous increase of Fgf1, -2 and Angiopoietin 2 over time. However µCT angiograms showed incomplete recovery after 42 days. Furthermore, lower expression values were detected for the Bmps at day 14 and 21. The Bmp antagonists Dan and Twsg1 tended to be higher expressed in the atrophy group at day 42. In conclusion, the investigated animal models are suitable models to mimic human fracture healing complications and can be used for longitudinal studies. Analyzing osteogenic and angiogenic signaling patterns, clear changes in expression were identified between these three healing models, revealing the importance of a coordinated interplay of different factors to allow successful bone healing.

  15. Molecular features of interaction between VEGFA and anti-angiogenic drugs used in retinal diseases: a computational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bianca Maria Platania

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenic agents are biological drugs used for treatment of retinal neovascular degenerative diseases. In this study, we aimed at in-silico analysis of interaction of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, the main mediator of angiogenesis, with binding domains of anti-angiogenic agents used for treatment of retinal diseases, such as ranibizumab, bevacizumab and aflibercept. The analysis of anti-VEGF/VEGFA complexes was carried out by means of protein-protein docking and molecular dynamics (MD coupled to molecular mechanics-Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA calculation. Molecular dynamics simulation was further analyzed by protein contact networks. Rough energetic evaluation with protein-protein docking scores revealed that aflibercept/VEGFA complex was characterized by electrostatic stabilization, whereas ranibizumab and bevacizumab complexes were stabilized by Van der Waals (VdW energy term; these results were confirmed by MM-PBSA. Comparison of MM-PBSA predicted energy terms with experimental binding parameters reported in literature indicated that the high association rate (Kon of aflibercept to VEGFA was consistent with high stabilizing electrostatic energy. On the other hand, the relatively low experimental dissociation rate (Koff of ranibizumab may be attributed to lower conformational fluctuations of the ranibizumab/VEGFA complex, higher number of contacts and hydrogen bonds in comparison to bevacizumab and aflibercept. Thus, the anti-angiogenic agents have been found to be considerably different both in terms of molecular interactions and stabilizing energy. Characterization of such features can improve the design of novel biological drugs potentially useful in clinical practice.

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor attachment to hydroxyapatite via self-assembled monolayers promotes angiogenic activity of endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Kimberly D.; Ong, Joo L.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, tissue engineered constructs for critical sized bone defects are non-vascularized. There are many strategies used in order to promote vascularization, including delivery of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, hydroxyapatite (HA) was coated with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The SAMs were in turn used to covalently bind VEGF to the surface of HA. The different SAM chain length ratios (phosphonoundecanoic acid (11-PUDA):16-phosphonohexadecanoic acid (16-PHDA) utilized in this study were 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0. Surfaces were characterized by contact angle (CA) and atomic force microscopy, and an in vitro VEGF release study was performed. It was observed that CA and root-mean-squared roughness were not significantly affected by the addition of SAMs, but that CA was significantly lowered with the addition of VEGF. VEGF release profiles of bound VEGF groups all demonstrated less initial burst release than adsorbed control, indicating that VEGF was retained on the HA surface when bound by SAMs. An in vitro study using human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) demonstrated that bound VEGF increased metabolic activity and caused sustained production of angiopoietin-2, an angiogenic marker, over 28 days. In conclusion, SAMs provide a feasible option for growth factor delivery from HA surfaces, enhancing angiogenic activity of HAECs in vitro. - Highlights: • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is attached to hydroxyapatite (HA). • Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) delay the release of VEGF from hydroxyapatite. • SAM chain length ratio affects the total mass of VEGF released. • VEGF on HA up-regulates proliferation and angiogenic activity of endothelial cells

  17. PSA-PSMA profiles and their impact on sera PSA levels and angiogenic activity in hyperplasia and human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jemaa, A; Bouraoui, Y; Sallami, S; Banasr, A; Nouira, Y; Oueslati, R

    2014-06-01

    The relevance of prostate specific antigen (PSA)-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) profiles in pathologic prostate (hyperplasia and cancer) has not been fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of PSA-PSMA profiles on sera PSA levels and angiogenic activity in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PC). The study has been carried out in 6 normal prostate (NP), 29 BPH and 33 PC with dominant Gleason grade>8. Immunohistochemical analysis has been performed. Monoclonal antibodies 3E6 and ER-PR8 have been used to assess PSMA and PSA expression respectively. The evaluation of angiogenesis has been made by CD34 immune marker. Serum levels of PSA have been assayed by Immulite autoanalyser. The study of each protein separately among sera PSA levels showed that PSMA expression and angiogenic activity have the highest intensity in PC patients with serum PSA levels>20 ng/mL. Nevertheless, the lowest tissue PSA expression was found in PC patients with this latter sera PSA group. The most relevant results showed that in PC patients (PSA+, PSMA+) and (PSA-, PSMA+) profile were found to be inversely related to sera PSA levels. In PC patients, a high immunoexpression of (PSA+, PSMA+) profile has detected in the sera PSA group>20 ng/mL; whereas a high immunoexpression of (PSA-, PSMA+) profile was detected in the sera PSA group between 0 and 4 ng/mL. The highest angiogenic activity was found in PC patients with (PSA+, PSMA+) profile. Our findings clearly have supported the feasibility of PSA-PSMA profiles to improve in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in prostate cancer patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. Longitudinal analysis of osteogenic and angiogenic signaling factors in healing models mimicking atrophic and hypertrophic non-unions in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Minkwitz

    Full Text Available Impaired bone healing can have devastating consequences for the patient. Clinically relevant animal models are necessary to understand the pathology of impaired bone healing. In this study, two impaired healing models, a hypertrophic and an atrophic non-union, were compared to physiological bone healing in rats. The aim was to provide detailed information about differences in gene expression, vascularization and histology during the healing process. The change from a closed fracture (healing control group to an open osteotomy (hypertrophy group led to prolonged healing with reduced mineralized bridging after 42 days. RT-PCR data revealed higher gene expression of most tested osteogenic and angiogenic factors in the hypertrophy group at day 14. After 42 days a significant reduction of gene expression was seen for Bmp4 and Bambi in this group. The inhibition of angiogenesis by Fumagillin (atrophy group decreased the formation of new blood vessels and led to a non-healing situation with diminished chondrogenesis. RT-PCR results showed an attempt towards overcoming the early perturbance by significant up regulation of the angiogenic regulators Vegfa, Angiopoietin 2 and Fgf1 at day 7 and a further continuous increase of Fgf1, -2 and Angiopoietin 2 over time. However µCT angiograms showed incomplete recovery after 42 days. Furthermore, lower expression values were detected for the Bmps at day 14 and 21. The Bmp antagonists Dan and Twsg1 tended to be higher expressed in the atrophy group at day 42. In conclusion, the investigated animal models are suitable models to mimic human fracture healing complications and can be used for longitudinal studies. Analyzing osteogenic and angiogenic signaling patterns, clear changes in expression were identified between these three healing models, revealing the importance of a coordinated interplay of different factors to allow successful bone healing.

  19. Rôle des protéines matricielles dans l’hypoxie et l’angiogenèse

    OpenAIRE

    Germain, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

        Responsable : Stéphane Germain Recherche : hypoxie, angiogenèse et intégrité vasculaire en pathologie cardiovasculaire et tumorale L’hypoxie, ou diminution de la pression partielle d’oxygène, est une caractéristique des tumeurs et des maladies cardiovasculaires ischémiques. Cette altération du microenvironnement hypoxique provoque une reprogrammation de l’expression de gènes codant pour des protéines impliquées dans la régulation de l’intégrité vasculaire et la reperfusion tissulaire. Not...

  20. Incorporation of osteogenic and angiogenic small interfering RNAs into chitosan sponge for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia S

    2014-11-01

    angiogenic siRNAs may be used as a scaffold for bone regeneration. The dual siRNA concept may also be useful in the biofunctionalization of other materials. Keywords: chitosan sponge, osteogenesis, angiogenesis, small interfering RNA 

  1. The vascular permeabilizing factors histamine and serotonin induce angiogenesis through TR3/Nur77 and subsequently truncate it through thrombospondin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Liuliang; Zhao, Dezheng; Xu, Jianfeng; Ren, Xianghui; Terwilliger, Ernest F.; Parangi, Sareh; Lawler, Jack; Dvorak, Harold F.

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in cancer and in many other human diseases. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), the best known angiogenic factor, was originally discovered as a potent vascular permeability factor (VPF), suggesting that other vascular permeabilizing agents, such as histamine and serotonin, might also have angiogenic activity. We recently demonstrated that, like VEGF-A, histamine and serotonin up-regulate the orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor TR3 (mouse homolog Nur77) and that TR3/Nur77 is essential for their vascular permeabilizing activities. We now report that histamine and serotonin are also angiogenic factors that, at low micromolar concentrations, induce endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo. All of these responses are mediated through specific histamine and serotonin receptors, are independent of VEGF-A, and are directly dependent on TR3/Nur77. Initially, the angiogenic response closely resembled that induced by VEGF-A, with generation of “mother” vessels. However, after ∼10 days, mother vessels began to regress as histamine and serotonin, unlike VEGF-A, up-regulated the potent angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1, thereby triggering a negative feedback loop. Thus, histamine and serotonin induce an angiogenic response that fits the time scale of acute inflammation. PMID:23315169

  2. Expression of Angiogenic Factors in Invasive Retinoblastoma Tumors Is Associated With Increase in Tumor Cells Expressing Stem Cell Marker Sox2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jesús R; Gombos, Dan S; Prospero, Claudia M; Ganapathy, Aravindh; Penland, Rebecca L; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Progression of retinoblastoma is associated with increased tumor angiogenesis. However, a clear relationship between the expression of angiogenic markers in specific regions of the tumor and tumor progression has not been established. This study investigates the association between angiogenic factors in retinoblastomas with choroidal and/or optic nerve invasion (high-risk/invasive retinoblastoma) and expression of Sox2, a stem cell marker. To investigate the association between the expression of angiogenic factors and markers of tumor invasiveness, such as the stem cell marker Sox2, in retinoblastoma tissues. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate coexpression of the angiogenic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), and endoglin (CD105); markers of glial differentiation (vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein); and a neural stem cell marker (Sox2). Expression was assessed in nonneoplastic and neoplastic ocular tissues collected from enucleated eyes of patients with retinoblastoma. During qualitative data interpretation, evaluating pathologists were masked to patient grouping. Expression of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 in noninvasive (non-high-risk feature) retinoblastoma tumors was lower than in the invasive, or high-risk feature tumors. Moreover, our data indicate that the tumor cells, and not the surrounding stroma, secrete VEGF-A and that angiogenesis is mostly localized to the iris. Finally, our data showed that the expression of the neural stem cell marker Sox2 is associated with eyes with increased VEGF-A expression and tumor invasiveness. Increased expression of angiogenic factors, with a concomitant increase in expression of the stem cell marker Sox2 observed in retinoblastoma tissues, may partially explain the aggressiveness of these tumors. The complex interaction of angiogenic and stem cell-related pathways in these tumors, especially in high-risk feature retinoblastoma, suggests that targeting tumor cells

  3. Anti-Microbial Dendrimers against Multidrug-Resistant P. aeruginosa Enhance the Angiogenic Effect of Biological Burn-wound Bandages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Sayed, Philippe; Kaeppeli, Ariane; Kaeppli, Ariane; Siriwardena, Thissa; Darbre, Tamis; Perron, Karl; Jafari, Paris; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Pioletti, Dominique P; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2016-02-25

    Multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has increased progressively and impedes further regression in mortality in burn patients. Such wound infections serve as bacterial reservoir for nosocomial infections and are associated with significant morbidity and costs. Anti-microbial polycationic dendrimers G3KL and G3RL, able to kill multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa, have been previously developed. The combination of these dendrimers with a class of biological bandages made of progenitor skin cells, which secrete growth factors, could positively impact wound-healing processes. However, polycations are known to be used as anti-angiogenic agents for tumor suppression. Since, neovascularization is pivotal in the healing of deep burn-wounds, the use of anti-microbial dendrimers may thus hinder the healing processes. Surprisingly, we have seen in this study that G3KL and G3RL dendrimers can have angiogenic effects. Moreover, we have shown that a dendrimer concentration ranging between 50 and 100 μg/mL in combination with the biological bandages can suppress bacterial growth without altering cell viability up to 5 days. These results show that antimicrobial dendrimers can be used in combination with biological bandages and could potentially improve the healing process with an enhanced angiogenesis.

  4. Local regulation of corpus luteum development and regression in the cow: Impact of angiogenic and vasoactive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, A; Shirasuna, K; Sasahara, K

    2009-10-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) of the estrous cycle in the cow is a dynamic organ which has a life time of approximately 17-18 days. The main function of the CL is to secrete a large amount of progesterone (P) thereby supporting the achievement of pregnancy. As the CL matures, the steroidogenic cells establish contact with many capillaries and the matured CL is composed of many vascular endothelial cells that account for up to 50% of all CL cells. The bovine CL produces several major angiogenic and vasoactive foctors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), angiopoietin-1 and -2 (ANPT-1 and -2), prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)), endothelin-1 (EDN1), angiotensin II (Ang II) and nitric oxide (NO). These factors regulate P secretion directly and/or indirectly within the CL. Moreover, different actions of PGF(2alpha) in the early cycle CL (non-luteolytic) and the mid cycle CL (luteolytic) may provide insight into the luteolysis cascade in the cow. The aim of the present review is to describe the current concepts of the local mechanisms for the cascade of development and regression of the bovine CL as regulated by luteal angiogenic and vasoactive factors.

  5. Amniotic mesenchymal stem cells enhance wound healing in diabetic NOD/SCID mice through high angiogenic and engraftment capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Whan; Zhang, Hong-Zhe; Guo, Longzhe; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Moo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Although human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMMs) have been recognised as a promising stem cell resource, their therapeutic potential for wound healing has not been widely investigated. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of AMMs using a diabetic mouse wound model. Quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA results revealed that the angiogenic factors, IGF-1, EGF and IL-8 were markedly upregulated in AMMs when compared with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMs) and dermal fibroblasts. In vitro scratch wound assays also showed that AMM-derived conditioned media (CM) significantly accelerated wound closure. Diabetic mice were generated using streptozotocin and wounds were created by skin excision, followed by AMM transplantation. AMM transplantation significantly promoted wound healing and increased re-epithelialization and cellularity. Notably, transplanted AMMs exhibited high engraftment rates and expressed keratinocyte-specific proteins and cytokeratin in the wound area, indicating a direct contribution to cutaneous closure. Taken together, these data suggest that AMMs possess considerable therapeutic potential for chronic wounds through the secretion of angiogenic factors and enhanced engraftment/differentiation capabilities.

  6. Adipose Extracellular Matrix/Stromal Vascular Fraction Gel Secretes Angiogenic Factors and Enhances Skin Wound Healing in a Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells are an attractive cell type for cytotherapy in wound healing. The authors recently developed a novel, adipose-tissue-derived, injectable extracellular matrix/stromal vascular fraction gel (ECM/SVF-gel for stem cell therapy. This study was designed to assess the therapeutic effects of ECM/SVF-gel on wound healing and potential mechanisms. ECM/SVF-gel was prepared for use in nude mouse excisional wound healing model. An SVF cell suspension and phosphate-buffered saline injection served as the control. The expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 in ECM/SVF-gel were analyzed at different time points. Angiogenesis (tube formation assays of ECM/SVF-gel extracts were evaluated, and vessels density in skin was determined. The ECM/SVF-gel extract promoted tube formation in vitro and increased the expression of the angiogenic factors VEGF and bFGF compared with those in the control. The expression of the inflammatory chemoattractant MCP-1 was high in ECM/SVF-gel at the early stage and decreased sharply during the late stage of wound healing. The potent angiogenic effects exerted by ECM/SVF-gel may contribute to the improvement of wound healing, and these effects could be related to the enhanced inflammatory response in ECM/SVF-gel during the early stage of wound healing.

  7. Seasonal Changes in Testes Vascularisation in the Domestic Cat (Felis domesticus: Evaluation of Microvasculature, Angiogenic Activity, and Endothelial Cell Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Alexandre-Pires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some male seasonal breeders undergo testicular growth and regression throughout the year. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of seasonality on: (i microvasculature of cat testes; (ii angiogenic activity in testicular tissue in vitro; and (iii testicular endothelial cells expression throughout the year. Testicular vascular areas increased in March and April, June and July, being the highest in November and December. Testes tissue differently stimulated in vitro angiogenic activity, according to seasonality, being more evident in February, and November and December. Even though CD143 expression was higher in December, smaller peaks were present in April and July. As changes in angiogenesis may play a role on testes vascular growth and regression during the breeding and non-breeding seasons, data suggest that testicular vascularisation in cats is increased in three photoperiod windows of time, November/December, March/April and June/July. This increase in testicular vascularisation might be related to higher seasonal sexual activity in cats, which is in agreement with the fact that most queens give birth at the beginning of the year, between May and July, and in September.

  8. The influence of occupational chronic lead exposure on the levels of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machoń-Grecka, A; Dobrakowski, M; Boroń, M; Lisowska, G; Kasperczyk, A; Kasperczyk, S

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and selected factors that influence angiogenesis. The study population was divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 56 male workers chronically exposed to lead. The second group (control) was comprised of 24 male administrative workers. The serum levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were significantly higher in the group of workers chronically exposed to lead compared to control values by 38%, 68%, and 57%, respectively. Similarly, the values of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and fibroblast growth factor-basic (FGF-basic) were higher by 19% and 63%, respectively. In the group of workers chronically exposed to lead, there were positive correlations between the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and angiogenic factors (VEGF, FGF-basic, sVEGFR-1, and soluble angiopoietin receptor). In the control group, there were no correlations between the levels of the abovementioned parameters. Results of the present study indicate that chronic occupational lead exposure promotes inflammatory processes via induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, modulates angiogenesis, and elicits interdependencies between the immune response and angiogenic factors.

  9. Cationic peptides from peptic hydrolysates of rice endosperm protein exhibit antimicrobial, LPS-neutralizing, and angiogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masayuki; Kawabe, Junya; Toyoda, Ryu; Namae, Toshiki; Ochiai, Akihito; Saitoh, Eiichi; Tanaka, Takaaki

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we hydrolyzed rice endosperm protein (REP) with pepsin and generated 20 fractions containing multifunctional cationic peptides with varying isoelectric point (pI) values using ampholyte-free isoelectric focusing (autofocusing). Subsequently, we determined antimicrobial activities of each fraction against the pathogens Prophyromonas gingivalis, Propionibacterium acnes, Streptocossus mutans, and Candida albicans. Fractions 18, 19, and 20 had pI values greater than 12 and exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis, P. acnes, and C. albicans, but not against S. mutans. In further experiments, we purified and identified cationic peptides from fractions 18, 19, and 20 using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. We also chemically synthesized five identified peptides (RSVSKSR, RRVIEPR, ERFQPMFRRPG, RVRQNIDNPNRADTYNPRAG, and VVRRVIEPRGLL) with pI values greater than 10.5 and evaluated antimicrobial, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-neutralizing, and angiogenic activities. Among these synthetic peptides, only VVRRVIEPRGLL exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis, with an IC 50 value of 87μM. However, all five cationic peptides exhibited LPS-neutralizing and angiogenic activities with little or no hemolytic activity against mammalian red blood cells at functional concentrations. These present data show dual or multiple functions of the five identified cationic peptides with little or no hemolytic activity. Therefore, fractions containing cationic peptides from REP hydrolysates have the potential to be used as dietary supplements and functional ingredients in food products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Blood Flow in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Correlations of Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging and Circulating Angiogenic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Pin Chou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a highly vascular tumor through the process of angiogenesis. To evaluate more non-invasive techniques for assessment of blood flow (BF in HCC, this study examined the relationships between BF of HCC measured by computer tomography (CT perfusion imaging and four circulating angiogenic factors in HCC patients. Interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 8 (IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF in plasma were measured using Bio-Plex multiplex immunoassay in 21 HCC patients and eight healthy controls. Circulating IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF showed higher concentrations in HCC patients than in controls (p < 0.05, and predicted HCC occurrence better than chance (p < 0.01. Twenty-one patients with HCC received 21-phase liver imaging using a 64-slice CT. Total BF, arterial BF, portal BF, arterial fraction (arterial BF/total BF of the HCC and surrounding liver parenchyma, and HCC-parenchyma ratio were measured using a dual-vessel model. After analyzing the correlations between BF in HCC and four circulating angiogenic factors, we found that the HCC-parenchyma ratio of arterial BF showed a significantly positive correlation with the level of circulating IL-8 (p < 0.05. This circulating biomarker, IL-8, provides a non-invasive tool for assessment of BF in HCC.

  11. Continuous representation of tumor microvessel density and detection of angiogenic hotspots in histological whole-slide images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kather, Jakob Nikolas; Marx, Alexander; Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos; Schad, Lothar R.; Zöllner, Frank Gerrit; Weis, Cleo-Aron

    2015-01-01

    Blood vessels in solid tumors are not randomly distributed, but are clustered in angiogenic hotspots. Tumor microvessel density (MVD) within these hotspots correlates with patient survival and is widely used both in diagnostic routine and in clinical trials. Still, these hotspots are usually subjectively defined. There is no unbiased, continuous and explicit representation of tumor vessel distribution in histological whole slide images. This shortcoming distorts angiogenesis measurements and may account for ambiguous results in the literature. In the present study, we describe and evaluate a new method that eliminates this bias and makes angiogenesis quantification more objective and more efficient. Our approach involves automatic slide scanning, automatic image analysis and spatial statistical analysis. By comparing a continuous MVD function of the actual sample to random point patterns, we introduce an objective criterion for hotspot detection: An angiogenic hotspot is defined as a clustering of blood vessels that is very unlikely to occur randomly. We evaluate the proposed method in N=11 images of human colorectal carcinoma samples and compare the results to a blinded human observer. For the first time, we demonstrate the existence of statistically significant hotspots in tumor images and provide a tool to accurately detect these hotspots. PMID:26061817

  12. Chemical characterisation and the anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and antibacterial properties of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, Hajer; Maddocks, Sarah E; Morris, R Keith; Kanekanian, Ara D

    2016-12-24

    Date fruit, Phoenix dactylifera L. has traditionally been used as a medicine in many cultures for the treatment of a range of ailments such as stomach and intestinal disorders, fever, oedema, bronchitis and wound healing. The present review aims to summarise the traditional use and application of P. dactylifera date fruit in different ethnomedical systems, additionally the botany and phytochemistry are identified. Critical evaluation of in vitro and in vitro studies examining date fruit in relation to anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and antimicrobial activities are outlined. The ethnomedical use of P. dactylifera in the treatment of inflammatory disease has been previously identified and reported. Furthermore, date fruit and date fruit co-products such as date syrup are rich sources of polyphenols, anthocyanins, sterols and carotenoids. In vitro studies have demonstrated that date fruit exhibits antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activity. The recent interest in the identification of the numerous health benefits of dates using in vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed that date fruit and date syrup have beneficial health effects that can be attributed to the presence of natural bioactive compounds. Date fruit and date syrup have therapeutic properties, which have the potential to be beneficial to health. However, more investigations are needed to quantify and validate these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Angiogenic properties of sustained release platelet-rich plasma: characterization in-vitro and in the ischemic hind limb of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Esaki, Jiro; Marui, Akira; Yamahara, Kenichi; Tsubota, Hideki; Ikeda, Tadashi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2009-10-01

    While single growth factor has limitation to induce optimal neovascularization, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous reserver of various growth factors. However, little is known about the mechanism of PRP-related neovascularization.The objective of this investigation was to characterize the angiogenic and growth factor content of PRP and to determine, in vitro, its effect on endothelial cell proliferation. Additionally, this experiment sought to determine the effectiveness of different compositions of PRP (solution versus sustained release) on perfusion and neovascularization in a murine model of hind limb ischemia. Different growth factors were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In vivo study, we used gelatin hydrogel as a sustained release carrier for growth factors in PRP. We induced hind limb ischemia by excising right femoral artery in wild type C57BL6 mice. After surgery, mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups; control (C), 100 muL of sustained release form of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), 100 muL of solution form of PRP (PRP-sol), 100 muL of sustained release form of PRP (PRP-sr); each formulation was administered via an intramuscular injection to the ischemic hind limb. Endpoint evaluations were blood perfusion by laser Doppler perfusion image, vascular density by anti Von Willebrand factor (vWF), and mature vessel density by anti smooth muscle actin (SMA) antibody. Green fluorescent protein (GFP+) transgenic mice were generated by transplantation of bone marrow derived mononuclear cells to wild type C57BL6 mice, and finally CD34+ cell in the ischemic site of transgenic mice was detected by staining with anti-CD34 antibody. In vitro study showed that PRP containing different growth factors induces endothelial cell proliferation and capillary tube formation. In vivo study demonstrated that sustained release of PRP increased perfusion of ischemic tissue as measured by laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) (57 +/- 12

  14. Differential expression of anti-angiogenic factors and guidance genes in the developing macula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozulin, Peter; Natoli, Riccardo; O'Brien, Keely M Bumsted; Madigan, Michele C; Provis, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    The primate retina contains a specialized, cone-rich macula, which mediates high acuity and color vision. The spatial resolution provided by the neural retina at the macula is optimized by stereotyped retinal blood vessel and ganglion cell axon patterning, which radiate away from the macula and reduce shadowing of macular photoreceptors. However, the genes that mediate these specializations, and the reasons for the vulnerability of the macula to degenerative disease, remain obscure. The aim of this study was to identify novel genes that may influence retinal vascular patterning and definition of the foveal avascular area. We used RNA from human fetal retinas at 19-20 weeks of gestation (WG; n=4) to measure differential gene expression in the macula, a region nasal to disc (nasal) and in the surrounding retina (surround) by hybridization to 12 GeneChip microarrays (HG-U133 Plus 2.0). The raw data was subjected to quality control assessment and preprocessing, using GC-RMA. We then used ANOVA analysis (Partek) Genomic Suite 6.3) and clustering (DAVID website) to identify the most highly represented genes clustered according to "biological process." The neural retina is fully differentiated at the macula at 19-20 WG, while neuronal progenitor cells are present throughout the rest of the retina. We therefore excluded genes associated with the cell cycle, and markers of differentiated neurons, from further analyses. Significantly regulated genes (pmacula versus surround" and "macula versus nasal." KEGG pathway clustering of the filtered gene lists identified 25 axon guidance-related genes that are differentially regulated in the macula. Furthermore, we found significant upregulation of three anti-angiogenic factors in the macula: pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF), natriuretic peptide precurusor B (NPPB), and collagen type IValpha2. Differential expression of several members of the ephrin and semaphorin axon guidance gene families, PEDF, and NPPB was verified by

  15. The endothelial adaptor molecule TSAd is required for VEGF-induced angiogenic sprouting through junctional c-Src activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, Emma J; Fukuhara, Daisuke; Weström, Simone; Padhan, Narendra; Sjöström, Elisabet O; van Meeteren, Laurens; He, Liqun; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Dejana, Elisabetta; Bentley, Katie; Spurkland, Anne; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by VEGF binding is critical for vascular morphogenesis. In addition, VEGF disrupts the endothelial barrier by triggering the phosphorylation and turnover of the junctional molecule VE-cadherin, a process mediated by the

  16. YBX1/YB-1 induces partial EMT and tumourigenicity through secretion of angiogenic factors into the extracellular microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Shashi K.; Greening, David W.; Mathias, Rommel A.; Ji, Hong; Rai, Alin; Chen, Maoshan; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Simpson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes a morphogenetic program which confers mesenchymal cell properties, such as reduced cell-cell contact and increased cell migration and invasion, to epithelial cells. Here we investigate the role of the pleiotropic transcription/splicing factor and RNA-binding protein nuclease-sensitive element-binding protein 1 (YBX1/YB-1) in increasing the oncogenic potential of epithelial MDCK cells. Characterization of MDCK cells expressing YBX1 (MDCKYBX1 cells) revealed a partial EMT phenotype, including cytosolic relocalization of E-cadherin, increased cell scattering, and anchorage-independent growth. Subcutaneous injection of parental MDCK cells into NOD/SCID mice did not form tumours. Critically, MDCKYBX1 cells established viable tumour xenografts, and immuno-histochemical staining indicated murine vascularization by CD31+ endothelial cells. We analysed the total secretome (containing soluble and extracellular vesicles) of MDCKYBX1 cells to investigate regulation of the tumour microenvironment. YBX1 expression elevated release of secreted factors known to enhance angiogenesis (TGF-β, CSF-1, NGF, VGF, ADAM9 and ADAM17), compared to MDCK cells. Importantly, treatment with MDCKYBX1 cell-derived secretome increased recipient 2F-2B endothelial cell motility. This defines YBX1 as an oncogenic enhancer that can regulate tumour angiogenesis via release of secreted modulators into the extracellular microenvironment. PMID:25980435

  17. Inhibition of colon cancer growth by methylselenocysteine-induced angiogenic chemomodulation is influenced by histologic characteristics of the tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Arup; Tóth, Károly; Sen, Arindam; Seshadri, Mukund; Cao, Shousong; Durrani, Farukh A; Faber, Erik; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Rustum, Youcef M

    2009-07-01

    Despite an armamentarium that is wide in range, scope of action, and target, chemotherapy has limited success in colorectal cancer (CRC). Novel approaches are needed to overcome tumor barriers to chemotherapy that includes an abnormal tumor vasculature constituting a poor drug delivery system. We have previously shown that 5-methylselenocysteine (MSC) enhances therapeutic efficacy of irinotecan in various human tumor xenografts. We have recently demonstrated that MSC through vascular normalization leads to better tumor vascular function in vivo. In this study, we examined the role of MSC on tumor vasculature, interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and drug delivery in 2 histologically distinct CRC xenografts, HCT-8 (uniformly poorly differentiated) and HT-29 (moderately differentiated tumor with avascular glandular regions). The presence of specific histologic structures as a barrier to therapy in these xenografts and their clinical relevance was studied using tissue microarray of human surgical samples of CRC. MSC led to a significant tumor growth inhibition, a reduced microvessel density, and a more normalized vasculature in both colorectal xenografts. While IFP was found to be significantly improved in HCT-8, an improved intratumoral doxorubicin delivery seen in both xenografts could explain the observed increase in therapeutic efficacy. Differentiated, glandular, avascular and hypoxic regions that contribute to tumor heterogeneity in HT-29 were also evident in the majority of surgical samples of CRC. Such regions constitute a physical barrier to chemotherapy and can confer drug resistance. Our results indicate that MSC could enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy in human CRC, especially in CRC with few or no hypoxic regions.

  18. The homeodomain transcription factor PITX2 is required for specifying correct cell fates and establishing angiogenic privilege in the developing cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Philip J; Kuang, Chen; Zacharias, Amanda L

    2014-11-01

    Correct specification of cell lineages and establishing angiogenic privilege within the developing cornea are essential for normal vision but the mechanisms controlling these processes are poorly understood. We show that the homeodomain transcription factor PItX2 is expressed in mesenchymal cells of the developing and mature cornea and use a temporal gene knockout approach to demonstrate that PITX2 is required for corneal morphogenesis and the specification of cell fates within the surface ectoderm and mesenchymal primordia. PITX2 is also required to establish angiogenic privilege in the developing cornea. Further, the expression of Dkk2 and suppression of canonical Wnt signaling activity levels are key mechanisms by which PITX2 specifies ocular surface ectoderm as cornea. In contrast, specifying the underlying mesenchyme to corneal fates and establishing angiogenic privilege in the cornea are less sensitive to DKK2 activity. Finally, the cellular expression patterns of FOXC2, PITX1, and BARX2 in Pitx2 and Dkk2 mutants suggest that these transcription factors may be involved in specifying cell fate and establishing angiogenic privilege within the corneal mesenchyme. However, they are unlikely to play a role in specifying cell fate within the corneal ectoderm. Together, these data provide important insights into the mechanisms regulating cornea development. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Realizing the Potential of Vascular Targeted Therapy: The Rationale for Combining Vascular Disrupting Agents and Anti-Angiogenic Agents to Treat Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemann, D W; Chaplin, D J; Horsman, M R

    2017-01-01

    Vascular targeted therapies (VTTs) are agents that target tumor vasculature and can be classified into two categories: those that inhibit angiogenesis and those that directly interfere with established tumor vasculature. Although both the anti-angiogenic agents (AAs) and the vascular disrupting a...

  20. Synergistic effect of anti-angiogenic herbal composition (Meta-X) in combination with radiotherapy on the inhibition of tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young Soo; Song, Jie Young; Yoon, Yeon Sook; Kim, Joon Sik; Park, Byung Young; Lee, Hee Suk; Kim, Min Yung

    2004-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic composition called Meta-X was made from herbal medicines that are currently used oral drugs for other indications. We examined biochemical properties of Meta-X, and synergistic effect of Meta-X combined with irradiation on the inhibition of tumor growth

  1. Time until initiation of tumor growth is an effective measure of the anti-angiogenic effect of TNP-470 on human glioblastoma in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, M; Spang-Thomsen, M; Kristjansen, P E

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effect of the anti-angiogenic compound TNP-470 on early tumor growth characteristics following subcutaneous implantation of 1 mm3 tissue blocks of human glioblastoma U87, in nude mice. The mice received daily injections with TNP-470, 7 mg/kg, from one day before until either 3, 7...

  2. Priming of mononuclear cells with a combination of growth factors enhances wound healing via high angiogenic and engraftment capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Enze; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Sung-Whan

    2013-12-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that a specific combination of growth factors enhances the survival, adhesion and angiogenic potential of mononuclear cells (MNCs). In this study, we sought to investigate the changes of the angiogenic potential of MNCs after short-time priming with a specific combination of growth factors. MNCs were isolated using density gradient centrifugation and incubated with a priming cocktail containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FMS-like tyrosine kinase (Flt)-3L , Angiopoietin (Ang)-1, granulocyte chemotactic protein (GCP)-2 and thrombopoietin (TPO) (all 400 ng/ml) for 15, 30 and 60 min. Wounds in nonobese diabetic-severe combined immune deficiency (NOD-SCID) mice were created by skin excision followed by cell transplantation. We performed a qRT-PCR analysis on the growth factor-primed cells. The angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, FGF-2, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and interleukin (IL)-8 and the anti-apoptotic factors IGF-1 and transforming growth factor-β1 were significantly elevated in the MNCs primed for 30 min. (T30) compared with the non-primed MNCs (T0). The scratch wound assay revealed that T30- conditioned media (CM) significantly increased the rate of fibroblast-mediated wound closure compared with the rates from T0-CM and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)-CM at 20 hrs. In vivo wound healing results revealed that the T30-treated wounds demonstrated accelerated wound healing at days 7 and 14 compared with those treated with T0. The histological analyses demonstrated that the number of engrafted cells and transdifferentiated keratinocytes in the wounds were significantly higher in the T30-transplanted group than in the T0-transplanted group. In conclusion, this study suggests that short-term priming of MNCs with growth factors might be alternative therapeutic option for cell

  3. N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe (BOC2) inhibits the angiogenic activity of heparin-binding growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Imtiaz M; Chiodelli, Paola; Rezzola, Sara; Paganini, Giuseppe; Corsini, Michela; Lodola, Alessio; Di Ianni, Alessio; Mor, Marco; Presta, Marco

    2018-02-01

    The peptides N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe (BOC2) and BOC-Met-Leu-Phe (BOC1) are widely used antagonists of formyl peptide receptors (FPRs), BOC2 acting as an FPR1/FPR2 antagonist whereas BOC1 inhibits FPR1 only. Extensive investigations have been performed by using these FPR antagonists as a tool to assess the role of FPRs in physiological and pathological conditions. Based on previous observations from our laboratory, we assessed the possibility that BOC2 may exert also a direct inhibitory effect on the angiogenic activity of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Our data demonstrate that BOC2, but not BOC1, inhibits the angiogenic activity of heparin-binding VEGF-A 165 with no effect on the activity of the non-heparin-binding VEGF-A 121 isoform. Endothelial cell-based bioassays, surface plasmon resonance analysis, and computer modeling indicate that BOC2 may interact with the heparin-binding domain of VEGF-A 165 , thus competing for heparin interaction and preventing the binding of VEGF-A 165 to tyrosine kinase receptor VEGFR2, its phosphorylation and downstream signaling. In addition, BOC2 inhibits the interaction of a variety of heparin-binding angiogenic growth factors with heparin, including fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) whose angiogenic activity is blocked by the compound. Accordingly, BOC2 suppresses the angiogenic potential of human tumor cell lines that co-express VEGF-A and FGF2. Thus, BOC2 appears to act as a novel multi-heparin-binding growth factor antagonist. These findings caution about the interpretation of FPR-focusing experimental data obtained with this compound and set the basis for the design of novel BOC2-derived, FPR independent multi-target angiogenesis inhibitors.

  4. Prospective evaluation of angiogenic, hypoxic and EGFR-related biomarkers in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme treated with cetuximab, bevacizumab and irinotecan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Benedikte; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Broholm, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a beneficial effect of anti-angiogenic treatment with the vascular endothelial growth factor-neutralizing antibody bevacizumab in recurrent high-grade glioma. In the current study, immunohistochemical evaluation of biomarkers involved in angiogenesis......, hypoxia and mediators of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway were investigated. Tumor tissue was obtained from a previous phase II study, treating recurrent primary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients with the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab in combination with bevacizumab and irinotecan....... Of the 37 patients with available tumor tissue, 29 were evaluable for response. We concurrently performed immunohistochemical stainings on tumor tissue from 21 GBM patients treated with bevacizumab and irinotecan. We found a tendency of correlation between the hypoxia-related markers, indicating...

  5. Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a common public health problem, causing early loss of dental pulp and resultant tooth loss. Dental pulp has important functions to sustain teeth providing nutrient and oxygen supply, innervation, reactionary/reparative dentin formation and immune response. Regeneration of pulp is an unmet need in endodontic therapy, and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and neurogenesis are critical for pulp regeneration. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. In this review, we introduce some stem cell subfractions, CD31(-)/CD146(-) SP cells and CD105(+) cells with high angiogenic and neurogenic potential, derived from human adult dental pulp tissue. Potential utility of these cells is addressed as a source of cells for treatment of cerebral and limb ischemia and pulp inflammation complete with angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

  6. Anti-angiogenic-specific adverse events in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with nintedanib and docetaxel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Martin; Mellemgaard, Anders; von Pawel, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: LUME-Lung 1 was a randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase III trial investigating nintedanib+docetaxel versus placebo+docetaxel in patients with advanced NSCLC progressing after first-line chemotherapy. Progression-free survival was significantly improved with nintedanib...... between arms for all grades (5.1% vs 4.6%) and Grade ≥3 (2.1% vs 3.1%). Safety evaluation of the LUME-Lung 1 study showed that the frequency of AEs commonly associated with other anti-angiogenic agents was lower with nintedanib+docetaxel. Survival benefits from addition of nintedanib to docetaxel...... in patients with adenocarcinoma after first-line therapy can be achieved alongside a manageable safety profile....

  7. The native structure of annexin A2 peptides in hydrophilic environment determines their anti-angiogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddum, Aase M; Hollås, Hanne; Shumilin, Igor A; Henklein, Petra; Kretsinger, Robert; Fossen, Torgils; Vedeler, Anni

    2015-05-01

    The progression of aggressive cancer occurs via angiogenesis and metastasis makes these processes important targets for the development of anti-cancer agents. However, recent studies have raised the concern that selective inhibition of angiogenesis results in a switch towards increased tumour growth and metastasis. Since Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is involved in both angiogenesis and metastasis, it may serve as an ideal target for the simultaneous inhibition of both processes. Based on the discovery that domains I (D(I)) and IV (D(IV)) of AnxA2 are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis, we designed seven peptides derived from these domains based on AnxA2 crystal structures. The peptides were expressed as fusion peptides to increase their folding and solubility. Light scattering, far-UV circular dichroism and thermal transition analyses were employed to investigate their aggregation tendencies, α-helical propensity and stability, respectively. 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (50%) increased the α-helical propensities of all peptides, indicating that they may favour a hydrophobic environment, but did not enhance their thermal stability. D(I)-P2 appears to be the most stable and folded peptide in a hydrophilic environment. The secondary structure of D(I)-P2 was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The effect of the seven AnxA2 peptides on the formation and integrity of capillary-like networks was studied in a co-culture system mimicking many of the angiogenesis-related processes. Notably, D(I)-P2 inhibited significantly network formation in this system, indicating that the folded D(I)-P2 peptide interferes with vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent pro-angiogenic processes. Thus, this peptide has the potential of being developed further as an anti-angiogenic drug. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypoxic Preconditioning Increases Survival and Pro-Angiogenic Capacity of Human Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stromal Cells In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Matthäus Bader

    Full Text Available Hypoxic preconditioning was shown to improve the therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs upon transplantation in ischemic tissue. Given the interest in clinical applications of umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs, we developed a specific hypoxic preconditioning protocol and investigated its anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic effects on cord blood MSCs undergoing simulated ischemia in vitro by subjecting them to hypoxia and nutrient deprivation with or without preceding hypoxic preconditioning. Cell number, metabolic activity, surface marker expression, chromosomal stability, apoptosis (caspases-3/7 activity and necrosis were determined, and phosphorylation, mRNA expression and protein secretion of selected apoptosis and angiogenesis-regulating factors were quantified. Then, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC were subjected to simulated ischemia in co-culture with hypoxically preconditioned or naïve cord blood MSCs, and HUVEC proliferation was measured. Migration, proliferation and nitric oxide production of HUVECs were determined in presence of cord blood MSC-conditioned medium. Cord blood MSCs proved least sensitive to simulated ischemia when they were preconditioned for 24 h, while their basic behavior, immunophenotype and karyotype in culture remained unchanged. Here, "post-ischemic" cell number and metabolic activity were enhanced and caspase-3/7 activity and lactate dehydrogenase release were reduced as compared to non-preconditioned cells. Phosphorylation of AKT and BAD, mRNA expression of BCL-XL, BAG1 and VEGF, and VEGF protein secretion were higher in preconditioned cells. Hypoxically preconditioned cord blood MSCs enhanced HUVEC proliferation and migration, while nitric oxide production remained unchanged. We conclude that hypoxic preconditioning protects cord blood MSCs by activation of anti-apoptotic signaling mechanisms and enhances their angiogenic potential. Hence, hypoxic

  9. ADC histograms predict response to anti-angiogenic therapy in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowosielski, Martha; Tinkhauser, Gerd; Stockhammer, Guenther [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Recheis, Wolfgang; Schocke, Michael; Gotwald, Thaddaeus [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Goebel, Georg [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria); Gueler, Oezguer [Innsbruck Medical University, 4D Visualization Laboratory, University Clinic of Oto-, Rhino- and Laryngology, Innsbruck (Austria); Kostron, Herwig [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Innsbruck (Austria); Hutterer, Markus [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg-Christian Doppler Hospital, Department of Neurology, Salzburg (Austria)

    2011-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps to distinguish anti-vascular and anti-tumor effects in the course of anti-angiogenic treatment of recurrent high-grade gliomas (rHGG) as compared to standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study analyzed ADC maps from diffusion-weighted MRI in 14 rHGG patients during bevacizumab/irinotecan (B/I) therapy. Applying image segmentation, volumes of contrast-enhanced lesions in T1 sequences and of hyperintense T2 lesions (hT2) were calculated. hT2 were defined as regions of interest (ROI) and registered to corresponding ADC maps (hT2-ADC). Histograms were calculated from hT2-ADC ROIs. Thereafter, histogram asymmetry termed ''skewness'' was calculated and compared to progression-free survival (PFS) as defined by the Response Assessment Neuro-Oncology (RANO) Working Group criteria. At 8-12 weeks follow-up, seven (50%) patients showed a partial response, three (21.4%) patients were stable, and four (28.6%) patients progressed according to RANO criteria. hT2-ADC histograms demonstrated statistically significant changes in skewness in relation to PFS at 6 months. Patients with increasing skewness (n = 11) following B/I therapy had significantly shorter PFS than did patients with decreasing or stable skewness values (n = 3, median percentage change in skewness 54% versus -3%, p = 0.04). In rHGG patients, the change in ADC histogram skewness may be predictive for treatment response early in the course of anti-angiogenic therapy and more sensitive than treatment assessment based solely on RANO criteria. (orig.)

  10. Early response assessment in patients with multiple myeloma during anti-angiogenic therapy using arterial spin labelling: first clinical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenchel, Michael [Eberhard-Karls University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Eberhard-Karls University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Konaktchieva, Marina [Eberhard-Karls University, Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology, Tuebingen (Germany); Weisel, Katja; Kraus, Sabina [Eberhard-Karls University, Department of Internal Medicine, Hematology, Tuebingen (Germany); Brodoefel, Harald; Claussen, Claus D.; Horger, Marius [Eberhard-Karls University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    To determine if arterial-spin-labelling (ASL) MRI can reliably detect early response to anti-angiogenic therapy in patients with multiple myeloma by comparison with clinical/haematological response. Nineteen consecutive patients (10 men; mean age 63.5 {+-} 9.1 years) were included in the present study. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of stage III multiple myeloma and clinical indication for therapeutical administration of bortezomib or lenalidomide. We performed MRI on 3.0T MR in the baseline setting, 3 weeks after onset of therapy and after 8 weeks. Clinical responses were determined on the basis of international uniform response criteria in correlation with haematological parameters and medium-term patient outcome. MRI studies were performed after approval by the local institutional review board. Fifteen patients responded to anti-myeloma therapy; 4/19 patients were non-responders to therapy. Mean tumour perfusion assessed by ASL-MRI in a reference lesion was 220.7 {+-} 132.5 ml min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1} at baseline, and decreased to 125.7 {+-} 86.3 (134.5 {+-} 150.9) ml min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1} 3 (8) weeks after onset of therapy (P < 0.02). The mean decrease in paraproteinaemia at week 3 (8) was 52.3 {+-} 47.7% (58.2 {+-} 58.7%), whereas {beta}2-microglobulinaemia decreased by 20.3 {+-} 53.1% (23.3 {+-} 57.0%). Correlation of ASL perfusion with outcome was significant (P = 0.0037). ASL tumour perfusion measurements are a valuable surrogate parameter for early assessment of response to novel anti-angiogenic therapy. (orig.)

  11. Glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are essential for purinergic receptor-mediated angiogenic responses in vasa vasorum endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapel, Martin; Weston, Philip; Strassheim, Derek; Karoor, Vijaya; Burns, Nana; Lyubchenko, Taras; Paucek, Petr; Stenmark, Kurt R; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an energy-demanding process; however, the role of cellular energy pathways and their regulation by extracellular stimuli, especially extracellular nucleotides, remain largely unexplored. Using metabolic inhibitors of glycolysis (2-deoxyglucose) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) (oligomycin, rotenone, and FCCP), we demonstrate that glycolysis and OXPHOS are both essential for angiogenic responses of vasa vasorum endothelial cell (VVEC). Treatment with P2R agonists, ATP, and 2-methylthioadenosine diphosphate trisodium salt (MeSADP), but not P1 receptor agonist, adenosine, increased glycolytic activity in VVEC (measured by extracellular acidification rate and lactate production). Stimulation of glycolysis was accompanied by increased levels of phospho-phosphofructokinase B3, hexokinase (HK), and GLUT-1, but not lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, extracellular ATP and MeSADP, and to a lesser extent adenosine, increased basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates in VVEC. These effects were potentiated when the cells were cultured in 20 mM galactose and 5 mM glucose compared with 25 mM glucose. Treatment with P2R agonists decreased phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)-E1α and increased succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase IV, and β-subunit of F 1 F 0 ATP synthase expression. In addition, P2R stimulation transiently elevated mitochondrial Ca 2+ concentration, implying involvement of mitochondria in VVEC angiogenic activation. We also demonstrated a critical role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt pathways in lactate production, PDH-E1α phosphorylation, and the expression of HK, SDH, and GLUT-1 in ATP-stimulated VVEC. Together, our findings suggest that purinergic and metabolic regulation of VVEC energy pathways is essential for VV angiogenesis and may contribute to pathologic vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Microvascular function in pre-eclampsia is influenced by insulin resistance and an imbalance of angiogenic mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anshuman; Freestone, Nicholas S; Anim-Nyame, Nicholas; Arrigoni, Francesca I F

    2017-04-01

    In preeclampsia, maternal microvascular function is disrupted and angiogenesis is dysfunctional. Insulin resistance that occurs in some pregnancies also pathologically affects microvascular function. We wished to examine the relationship of angiogenic mediators and insulin resistance on microvascular health in pregnancy. We performed a nested, case-control study of 16 women who developed preeclampsia with 17 normal pregnant controls. We hypothesized that the impaired microvascular blood flow in preeclamptic women associated with an increased ratio of the antiangiogenic factors; (s-endoglin [sEng] and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 [sFlt-1]) and proangiogenic molecule (placental growth factor [PlGF]) could be influenced by insulin resistance. Serum samples taken after 28 weeks of gestation were measured for the angiogenic factors, insulin, and glucose alongside the inflammatory marker; tumor necrosis factor-α and endothelial activation, namely; soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and e-selectin. Maternal microvascular blood flow, measured by strain gauge plethysmography, correlated with ratios of pro- and antiangiogenic mediators independently of preeclampsia. Decreased microvascular function measured in preeclampsia strongly correlated with both the antiangiogenic factor (sFlt-1 + sEng): PlGF ratio and high levels of insulin resistance, and combining insulin resistance with antiangiogenic factor ratios further strengthened this relationship. In pregnancy, microvascular blood flow is strongly associated with perturbations in pro- and antiangiogenic mediators. In preeclampsia, the relationship of maternal microvascular dysfunction with antiangiogenic mediators is strengthened when combined with insulin resistance. © 2017 Kingston University. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  13. A temporal study of ultrasound contrast agent-induced changes in capillary density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chenara A; Sarwate, Sandhya; Miller, Rita J; O'Brien, William D

    2010-09-01

    The ability of ultrasound (US) and ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) to induce angiogenesis has been explored as a means of restoring blood flow to ischemic muscle. Because UCAs demonstrate an increasing percentage of collapse cavitation with increasing US pressure (Pr), this study sought to explore the effects of a US Pr that produces 100% collapse cavitation, determine the capillary density changes, and determine the time point of angiogenic rebound in a normal animal model. Using a 1-MHz focused transducer and a peak rarefactional US Pr of 3.8 MPa, rat gracilis muscles were exposed to US, and bioeffects were assessed. Capillary density, as a measure of angiogenesis, was examined. As an additional measure, inflammatory cells were quantified via a color threshold analysis to detect the presence of CD31 and CD34 as a percentage of the total section on stained slides. Six groups (0, 3, 6, 13, 20, and 27 days postexposure [DPE]; n = 3 each) and 5 cage controls were used to characterize the angiogenic response. Ultrasound-UCA treatment caused the capillary density to decrease acutely (0 DPE) by 70% and inflammatory cells to increase by up to 250%. The angiogenic rebound was observed at 3 DPE but did not return to control levels by 27 DPE, suggesting an incomplete healing response. Capillary destruction and inflammation played an important role in the angiogenic response induced by US-UCA. Exposure that causes 100% collapse cavitation causes capillary destruction from which normal rats are unable to recover and suggests a nontherapeutic effect.

  14. Screening for angiogenic inhibitors in zebrafish to evaluate a predictive model for developmental vascular toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemically-induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development may cause a wide range of adverse effects. To identify putative vascular disrupting chemicals (pVDCs), a predictive signature was constructed from U.S. EPA ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) assays that map to...

  15. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor augments Tie2-expressing monocyte differentiation, angiogenic function, and recruitment in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A Forget

    Full Text Available Reports demonstrate the role of M-CSF (CSF1 in tumor progression in mouse models as well as the prognostic value of macrophage numbers in breast cancer patients. Recently, a subset of CD14+ monocytes expressing the Tie2 receptor, once thought to be predominantly expressed on endothelial cells, has been characterized. We hypothesized that increased levels of CSF1 in breast tumors can regulate differentiation of Tie2- monocytes to a Tie2+ phenotype. We treated CD14+ human monocytes with CSF1 and found a significant increase in CD14+/Tie2+ positivity. To understand if CSF1-induced Tie2 expression on these cells improved their migratory ability, we pre-treated CD14+ monocytes with CSF1 and used Boyden chemotaxis chambers to observe enhanced response to angiopoietin-2 (ANG2, the chemotactic ligand for the Tie2 receptor. We found that CSF1 pre-treatment significantly augmented chemotaxis and that Tie2 receptor upregulation was responsible as siRNA targeting Tie2 receptor abrogated this effect. To understand any augmented angiogenic effect produced by treating these cells with CSF1, we cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs with conditioned supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated CD14+ monocytes for a tube formation assay. While supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated TEMs increased HUVEC branching, a neutralizing antibody against the CSF1R abrogated this activity, as did siRNA against the Tie2 receptor. To test our hypothesis in vivo, we treated PyMT tumor-bearing mice with CSF1 and observed an expansion in the TEM population relative to total F4/80+ cells, which resulted in increased angiogenesis. Investigation into the mechanism of Tie2 receptor upregulation on CD14+ monocytes by CSF1 revealed a synergistic contribution from the PI3 kinase and HIF pathways as the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, as well as HIF-1α-deficient macrophages differentiated from the bone marrow of HIF-1αfl/fl/LysMcre mice, diminished CSF1-stimulated Tie2 receptor

  16. Angiogenic peptide (AG)-30/5C activates human keratinocytes to produce cytokines/chemokines and to migrate and proliferate via MrgX receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatsurayanon, Chanisa; Niyonsaba, François; Chieosilapatham, Panjit; Okumura, Ko; Ikeda, Shigaku; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2016-09-01

    In addition to their antimicrobial activities, antimicrobial peptides, also known as host defense peptides (HDPs) activate keratinocytes; promote wound healing; and improve the skin barrier. AG-30/5C is a novel angiogenic HDP that activates various functions of fibroblasts and endothelial cells, including cytokine/chemokine production and wound healing. To investigate whether AG-30/5C activates human keratinocytes and to examine the underlying mechanisms. Production of cytokines/chemokines was assessed by ELISA. Expression of Mas-related G-protein coupled receptors X (MrgXs) in keratinocytes was determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. MAPK and NF-κB activation was analysed by Western blot. Cell migration was assessed by chemotaxis microchamber and in vitro wound closure assay, whereas cell proliferation was analysed using an XTT assay. We found that AG-30/5C was more efficient than its parent peptide AG-30 in increasing the production of various cytokines/chemokines and promoting keratinocyte migration and proliferation. Furthermore, MrgX3 and MrgX4 receptors were constitutively expressed in keratinocytes at higher levels than MrgX1 and MrgX2, and were up-regulated upon stimulation with TLR ligands. Because MrgX3 and MrgX4 siRNAs suppressed AG-30/5C-mediated cytokine/chemokine production, keratinocyte migration and proliferation, we propose that AG-30/5C utilizes these MrgXs to stimulate keratinocytes. In addition, AG-30/5C-induced activation of keratinocytes was controlled by MAPK and NF-κB pathways, as evidenced by the inhibitory effects of ERK-, JNK-, p38- and NF-κB-specific inhibitors. Indeed, we confirmed that AG-30/5C enhanced phosphorylation of MAPKs and IκB. Our findings provide novel evidence that AG-30/5C may be a useful therapeutic agent for wound healing by activating human keratinocytes. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanistic Insights into the Anti-angiogenic Activity of Trypanosoma cruzi Protein 21 and its Potential Impact on the Onset of Chagasic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Samuel Cota; Lopes, Daiana Silva; Gimenes, Sarah Natalie Cirilo; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; da Silva, Marcelo Santos; Brígido, Rebecca Tavares E Silva; da Luz, Felipe Andrés Cordero; da Silva, Aline Alves; Silva, Makswell Almeida; Florentino, Pilar Veras; Tavares, Paula Cristina Brígido; Dos Santos, Marlus Alves; Ávila, Veridiana de Melo Rodrigues; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa; Elias, Maria Carolina; Mortara, Renato Arruda; da Silva, Claudio Vieira

    2017-03-21

    Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is arguably the most important form of the Chagas Disease, caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi; it is estimated that 10-30% of chronic patients develop this clinical manifestation. The most common and severe form of CCC can be related to ventricular abnormalities, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, heart blocks, thromboembolic events and sudden death. Therefore, in this study, we proposed to evaluate the anti-angiogenic activity of a recombinant protein from T. cruzi named P21 (rP21) and the potential impact of the native protein on CCC. Our data suggest that the anti-angiogenic activity of rP21 depends on the protein's direct interaction with the CXCR4 receptor. This capacity is likely related to the modulation of the expression of actin and angiogenesis-associated genes. Thus, our results indicate that T. cruzi P21 is an attractive target for the development of innovative therapeutic agents against CCC.

  18. Acidic pH reduces VEGF-mediated endothelial cell responses by downregulation of VEGFR-2; relevance for anti-angiogenic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Seraina; Uldry, Emilie; Planche, Anne; Santoro, Tania; Pythoud, Catherine; Demartines, Nicolas; Dormond, Olivier

    2016-12-27

    Anti-angiogenic treatments targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor or its receptors have shown clinical benefits. However, impact on long-term survival remains limited. Solid tumors display an acidic microenvironment that profoundly influences their biology. Consequences of acidity on endothelial cells and anti-angiogenic therapies remain poorly characterized and hence are the focus of this study. We found that exposing endothelial cells to acidic extracellular pH resulted in reduced cell proliferation and migration. Also, whereas VEGF increased endothelial cell proliferation and survival at pH 7.4, it had no effect at pH 6.4. Furthermore, in acidic conditions, stimulation of endothelial cells with VEGF did not result in activation of downstream signaling pathways such as AKT. At a molecular level, acidity significantly decreased the expression of VEGFR-2 by endothelial cells. Consequently, anti-angiogenic therapies that target VEGFR-2 such as sunitinib and sorafenib failed to block endothelial cell proliferation in acidic conditions. In vivo, neutralizing tumor acidity with sodium bicarbonate increased the percentage of endothelial cells expressing VEGFR-2 in tumor xenografts. Furthermore, combining sodium bicarbonate with sunitinib provided stronger anti-cancer activity than either treatment alone. Histological analysis showed that sunitinib had a stronger anti-angiogenic effect when combined with sodium bicarbonate. Overall, our results show that endothelial cells prosper independently of VEGF in acidic conditions partly as a consequence of decreased VEGFR-2 expression. They further suggest that strategies aiming to raise intratumoral pH can improve the efficacy of anti-VEGF treatments.

  19. Mechanistic Insights into the Anti-angiogenic Activity of Trypanosoma cruzi Protein 21 and its Potential Impact on the Onset of Chagasic Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Cota Teixeira; Daiana Silva Lopes; Sarah Natalie Cirilo Gimenes; Thaise Lara Teixeira; Marcelo Santos da Silva; Rebecca Tavares e Silva Brígido; Felipe Andrés Cordero da Luz; Aline Alves da Silva; Makswell Almeida Silva; Pilar Veras Florentino; Paula Cristina Brígido Tavares; Marlus Alves dos Santos; Veridiana de Melo Rodrigues Ávila; Marcelo José Barbosa Silva; Maria Carolina Elias

    2017-01-01

    Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is arguably the most important form of the Chagas Disease, caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi; it is estimated that 10?30% of chronic patients develop this clinical manifestation. The most common and severe form of CCC can be related to ventricular abnormalities, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, heart blocks, thromboembolic events and sudden death. Therefore, in this study, we proposed to evaluate the anti-angiogenic activity of a ...

  20. Mechanisms of action and resistance to anti-angiogenic small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors in preclinical breast cancer and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    Bill, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    „Cancer“ – this one term is used to name a large spectrum of different syndromes, ranging from the relatively indolent chronic lymphocytic leukemia to highly lethal cancer types such as glioblastoma multiforme with a median survival of about 15 months even when treated with upfront treatment schedules. Based on the notion that tumors critically rely on their own blood supply, targeting the tumor blood vasculature by anti-angiogenic therapeutics has been implemented as an important treatment m...

  1. Molecularly characterized solvent extracts and saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L show high anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, brine shrimp and fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad eAyaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum hydropiper is used as anti-cancer and anti-rheumatic agent in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor and cytotoxic potentials of different solvent extracts and isolated saponins. Samples were analyzed using GC, GC-MS to identify major and bioactive compounds. Quantitation of antiangiogenesis for the plant's samples including methanolic extract (Ph.Cr, its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ph.Hex, chloroform (Ph.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc, n-Butanol (Ph.Bt, aqueous (Ph.Aq, saponins (Ph.Sp were performed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay. Potato disc anti-tumor assay was performed on Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tumor inducing plasmid. Cytotoxicity was performed on Artemia salina and mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line using brine shrimps and MTT cells viability assays. The GC-MS analysis of Ph.Cr, Ph.Hex, Ph.Chf, Ph.Bt and Ph.EtAc identified 126, 124, 153, 131 and 164 compounds respectively. In anti-angiogenic assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.Sp, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr exhibited highest activity with IC50 of 28.65, 19.21, 88.75 and 461.53 µg/ml respectively. In anti-tumor assay, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr were most potent with IC50 of 18.39, 73.81, 217.19 and 342.53 µg/ml respectively. In MTT cells viability assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, Ph.Sp were most active causing 79.00, 72.50 and 71.50% cytotoxicity respectively at 1000 µg/ml with the LD50 of 140, 160 and 175 µg/ml respectively. In overall study, Ph.Chf and Ph.Sp have shown overwhelming results which signifies their potentials as sources of therapeutic agents against cancer.

  2. Angelica sinensis Exerts Angiogenic and Anti-apoptotic Effects Against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating p38MAPK/HIF-1[Formula: see text]/VEGF-A Signaling in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Yi; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Tang, Nou-Ying; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Kao, Shung-Te; Lee, Yu-Chen

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Angelica sinensis extract [Dang Gui (DG)] administered before 60[Formula: see text]min of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 3[Formula: see text]d of reperfusion and investigated the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1[Formula: see text] signaling in the cortical ischemic penumbra. DG was intraperitoneally administered at a dose of 0.25[Formula: see text]g/kg (DG-0.25g), 0.5[Formula: see text]g/kg (DG-0.5g), or 1[Formula: see text]g/kg (DG-1g) 30[Formula: see text]min before the onset of cerebral ischemia. Our study results revealed that DG-0.5g and DG-1g pretreatment effectively attenuated cerebral infarct and improved neurological deficits. DG-0.5g and DG-1g pretreatment significantly downregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 expression and upregulated phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK)/p38 MAPK, phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB)/CREB, cytosolic and mitochondrial phospho-Bad (p-Bad)/Bad ratios, and HIF-1[Formula: see text], vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), phospho-90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p-p90RSK), and von Willebrand factor (vWF) expression in the cortical ischemic penumbra. Pretreatment with SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, dramatically abrogated the upregulating effects of DG-1g on p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK, p-CREB/CREB, and p-Bad/Bad ratios and HIF-1[Formula: see text], VEGF-A, and vWF expression and the downregulating effects of DG-1g on GFAP, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, and cerebral infarction. DG-0.5g and DG-1g pretreatment provided neuroprotective effects against astrocyte-mediated cerebral infarction by activating angiogenic and anti-apoptotic signaling. Moreover, the angiogenic and anti-apoptotic effects of DG pretreatment can be attributed to the activation of p38 MAPK/HIF-1[Formula: see text]/VEGF-A/vWF signaling and p38 MAPK/HIF-1[Formula: see text

  3. Dual-Energy CT in Patients Treated with Anti-Angiogenic Agents for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: New Method of Monitoring Tumor Response?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Na; Lee, Ho Yun; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin; Ahn, Myung Ju; Park, Keun Chil; Kim, Tae Sung; Yi, Chin A [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon Beom [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To evaluate tumor responses in patients treated with anti-angiogenic agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by assessing intratumoral changes using a dual-energy CT (DECT) (based on Choi's criteria) and to compare it to traditional Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. Ten NSCLC patients treated with bevacizumab underwent DECT. Tumor responses to anti-angiogenic therapy were assessed and compared with the baseline CT results using both RECIST (size changes only) and Choi's criteria (reflecting net tumor enhancement). Kappa statistics was used to evaluate agreements between tumor responses assessed by RECIST and Choi's criteria. The weighted {kappa} value for the comparison of tumor responses between the RECIST and Choi's criteria was 0.72. Of 31 target lesions (21 solid nodules, 8 lymph nodes, and two ground-glass opacity nodules [GGNs]), five lesions (16%) showed discordant responses between RECIST and Choi's criteria. Iodine-enhanced images allowed for a distinction between tumor enhancement and hemorrhagic response (detected in 14% [4 of 29, excluding GGNs] of target lesions on virtual nonenhanced images). DECT may serve as a useful tool for response evaluation after anti-angiogenic treatment in NSCLC patients by providing information on the net enhancement of target lesions without obtaining non-enhanced images.

  4. Immunological, anti-angiogenic and clinical effects of intratumoral interleukin 12 electrogene therapy combined with metronomic cyclophosphamide in dogs with spontaneous cancer: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchelero, Laetitia; Denies, Sofie; Vanderperren, Katrien; Stock, Emmelie; Van Brantegem, Leen; de Rooster, Hilde; Sanders, Niek N

    2017-08-01

    The immunological, anti-angiogenic and clinical effects of metronomic cyclophosphamide and 3 consecutive intratumoral interleukin (IL)-12 gene therapy (electrogene therapy (EGT)) treatments were evaluated in 6 dogs with spontaneous cancer. In all dogs, a decrease in peripheral leukocytes 2 days after IL-12 EGT coincided with erythema and swelling of the tumor. In the tumor, a transient increase in IL-12 levels was measured, whereas a continuous increase in interferon γ (IFNγ) and thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) were determined in contrast to a continuous decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In the serum, a transient increase in IL-12 and IL-10 levels were noted in contrast to a transient decrease in VEGF and TSP-1. The treatment resulted in a significant anti-angiogenic effect. Although all primary tumors continued to progress in time, this progression was slower than before treatment according to the contrast-enhanced ultrasound data. Besides the encouraging immunostimulatory and anti-angiogenic effects observed in all dogs we also noticed in 4 out of 6 dogs clinically relevant improvements in quality of life and weight. These results hold great promise for combinatorial strategies of IL-12 EGT and metronomic chemotherapy with conventional antitumor (immuno)therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. THE ABERRANT PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION PATTERN OF THE ANTI - ANGIOGENIC TSP1 GENE IN EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CARCINOMA: AN INDIAN STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The promoter hypermethylation patterns of Thrombospodin - 1 gene in 50 EOC patients were studied and the methylation pattern was correlated with various clinic pathological parameters. METHODS: The promoter hypermethylation pattern of the TSP - 1 gene was assessed using nested PCR and Methylation specific PCR. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: All the available data was statistically analyzed using the Chi square test or Fisher Exact Test on the SPSS software version 22.0 and a value <0.0 5 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Forty of the fifty ovarian carcinoma samples reported positive for methylation corresponding to a methylation frequency of 80%. A methylation frequency of 89.2%, 83.3% and 42.8% was observed in malignant , Low malignant potential (borderline and benign sample cohorts. CONCLUSION: From the results drawn from this study, it clearly shows that the anti angiogenic protein TSP - 1 is extensively hypermethylated in ovarian carcinoma and that it accumulates over t he progression of the disease from benign to malignant. As previous reports suggest that there is no evidence of mutation of this gene, promoter hypermethylation may be a crucial factor for the down regulation of the gene. Further by clubbing together the promoter hypermethylation pattern of TSP - 1 gene with hypermethylation patterns of other TSG may provide a better insight into the application of using methylation profiles of TSG as a biomarker in the detection of ovarian carcinoma.

  6. Orthotopic animal model of pseudomyxoma peritonei: An in vivo model to test anti-angiogenic drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, Anthony; Lousquy, Ruben; Eveno, Clarisse; Goere, Diane; Broqueres-You, Dong; Kaci, Rachid; Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline; Launay, Jean-Marie; Soyer, Philippe; Bonnin, Philippe; Pocard, Marc

    2014-07-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is an uncommon peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis confined to the peritoneal cavity. The rarity of PMP in humans makes evaluation of the disease biological features and new therapeutic strategies difficult. Accordingly, there is a need for animal models of PMP. Human PMP tissue was i.p. grafted and grown into nude mice, then constituted into reliable and reproducible orthotopic models. Histological and immunostaining analysis was performed. Bevacizumab was injected twice a week either during tumor growth or after cytoreductive surgery. In vivo imaging of tumor angiogenesis was performed using barium sulfate or isolectin microangiography and Doppler ultrasonography of the superior mesenteric artery. Tumor angiogenesis was confirmed by the presence of tortuous vascular networks with high levels of expression of CD31, vascular endothelial cadherin, and desmin. Doppler ultrasonography of the superior mesenteric artery revealed a twofold increase in blood flow velocity compared with tumor-free mice (P preclinical studies, the efficacy of new therapeutic strategies and anti-angiogenic therapies. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dual expression of hTERT and VEGF prolongs life span and enhances angiogenic ability of aged BMSCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hao [Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Bayi Brain Hospital, The Military General Hospital of Beijing PLA, Beijing (China); Xiang, Yongsheng [Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Jiang, Xiaodan; Ke, Yiquan; Xiao, Zongyu; Guo, Yang; Wang, Qiujing; Du, Mouxuan; Qin, Linsha; Zou, Yuxi; Cai, Yingqian [Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Zhenzhou, E-mail: czz1020@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Ruxiang, E-mail: zjxuruxiang@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Bayi Brain Hospital, The Military General Hospital of Beijing PLA, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Expression of hTERT and VEGF changed the lifespan and morphology of hBMSCs. •The expression of VEGF and hTRET promoted angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. •The expression of VEGF and hTRET in hBMSCs had few effects on tumorigenicity. -- Abstract: Previous studies have confirmed the therapeutic effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transplantation on cerebral ischemia. However, the proliferative, differentiative, and homing capacity of BMSC from the elderly are significantly reduced, especially after several passages expansion in vitro. In this study, by introducing lentivirus-mediated hTERT and VEGF genes to modify human BMSCs from aged donors, we observed extended lifespan, promoted angiogenic capacity while less enhanced tumorigenicity of the genetically engineering BMSCs. These results therefore suggest that the modification of aged BMSCs by dual expression of hTERT and VEGF may be used for autologous cell replacement for ischemic cerebrovascular disease in elderly patients.

  8. Oral Mucosa Harbors a High Frequency of Endothelial Cells: A Novel Postnatal Cell Source for Angiogenic Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Rogers, Jason H; Lee, Scott H; Sun, DongMing; Yao, Hai; Mao, Jeremy J; Kong, Kimi Y

    2017-01-15

    Endothelial progenitor cells/endothelial cells (EPCs/ECs) have great potential to treat pathological conditions such as cardiac infarction, muscle ischemia, and bone fractures, but isolation of EPC/ECs from existing cell sources is challenging due to their low EC frequency. We have isolated endothelial progenitor (EP)-like cells from rat oral mucosa and characterized their yield, immunophenotype, growth, and in vivo angiogenic potential. The frequency of EP-like cells derived from oral mucosa is thousands of folds higher than EPCs derived from donor-match bone marrow samples. EP-like cells from oral mucosa were positive for EC markers CD31, VE-Cadherin, and VEGFR2. Oral mucosa-derived EP-like cells displayed robust uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein and formed stable capillary networks in Matrigel. Subcutaneously implanted oral mucosa-derived EP-like cells anastomosed with host blood vessels, implicating their ability to elicit angiogenesis. Similar to endothelial colony-forming cells, EP-like cells from oral mucosa have a significantly higher proliferative rate than human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These findings identify a putative EPC source that is easily accessible in the oral cavity, potentially from discarded tissue specimens, and yet with robust yield and potency for angiogenesis in tissue and organ regeneration.

  9. Contribution of tumor endothelial cells to drug resistance: anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors act as p-glycoprotein antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, MariaRosa; Decio, Alessandra; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Ghilardi, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    Tumor endothelial cells (TEC) differ from the normal counterpart, in both gene expression and functionality. TEC may acquire drug resistance, a characteristic that is maintained in vitro. There is evidence that TEC are more resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, substrates of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. TEC express p-glycoprotein (encoded by ABCB1), while no difference in other ABC transporters was revealed compared to normal endothelia. A class of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), used as angiostatic compounds, interferes with the ATPase activity of p-glycoprotein, thus impairing its functionality. The exposure of ovarian adenocarcinoma TEC to the TKIs sunitinib or sorafenib was found to abrogate resistance (proliferation and motility) to doxorubicin and paclitaxel in vitro, increasing intracellular drug accumulation. A similar effect has been reported by the p-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil. No beneficial effect was observed in combination with cytotoxic drugs that are not p-glycoprotein substrates. The current paper reviews the mechanisms of TEC chemoresistance and shows the role of p-glycoprotein in mediating such resistance. Inhibition of p-glycoprotein by anti-angiogenic TKI might contribute to the beneficial effect of these small molecules, when combined with chemotherapy, in counteracting acquired drug resistance.

  10. Dual expression of hTERT and VEGF prolongs life span and enhances angiogenic ability of aged BMSCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Hao; Xiang, Yongsheng; Jiang, Xiaodan; Ke, Yiquan; Xiao, Zongyu; Guo, Yang; Wang, Qiujing; Du, Mouxuan; Qin, Linsha; Zou, Yuxi; Cai, Yingqian; Chen, Zhenzhou; Xu, Ruxiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Expression of hTERT and VEGF changed the lifespan and morphology of hBMSCs. •The expression of VEGF and hTRET promoted angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. •The expression of VEGF and hTRET in hBMSCs had few effects on tumorigenicity. -- Abstract: Previous studies have confirmed the therapeutic effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transplantation on cerebral ischemia. However, the proliferative, differentiative, and homing capacity of BMSC from the elderly are significantly reduced, especially after several passages expansion in vitro. In this study, by introducing lentivirus-mediated hTERT and VEGF genes to modify human BMSCs from aged donors, we observed extended lifespan, promoted angiogenic capacity while less enhanced tumorigenicity of the genetically engineering BMSCs. These results therefore suggest that the modification of aged BMSCs by dual expression of hTERT and VEGF may be used for autologous cell replacement for ischemic cerebrovascular disease in elderly patients

  11. Blood outgrowth endothelial cells reduce hypoxia-mediated fibroblast to myofibroblast conversion by decreasing pro-angiogenic cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Evelyn Nieves; Yang, Binxia; Brahmbhatt, Akshaar; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Misra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hypoxic conditions cause fibroblasts to differentiate to a smooth muscle cell actin (α -SMA) positive cells (myofibroblasts), which is a hallmark of venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) associated with hemodialysis vascular access. The purpose of the present study was to determine if BOEC may reduce fibroblast to myofibroblast conversion under hypoxic conditions and what are the potential mechanisms. Methods An experimental model was used in which fibroblasts and BOEC were subjected to hypoxia under contact and transwell conditions to determine if BOEC reduce the conversion of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts under hypoxic conditions. Gene expression under different conditions was performed. In addition, functional assays including cell proliferation and migration were determined. Results This study demonstrates that contact needs to occur between BOEC and fibroblast for the reduction in hypoxia driven conversion of fibroblast to α-SMA. This is associated with a decrease in several pro-angiogenic genes including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in fibroblasts in contact with BOEC when compared to fibroblasts alone. In addition, migration is significantly reduced while proliferation remains unchanged. Conclusion This study helps provide rationale for using BOEC delivered to the adventitia of the outflow vein of hemodialysis vascular access to reduce VNH. PMID:25677750

  12. Soluble melanoma cell adhesion molecule (sMCAM/sCD146) promotes angiogenic effects on endothelial progenitor cells through angiomotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, Jimmy; Harhouri, Karim; Hubert, Lucas; Subrini, Caroline; Lafitte, Daniel; Lissitzky, Jean-Claude; Elganfoud, Nadia; Robert, Stéphane; Foucault-Bertaud, Alexandrine; Kaspi, Elise; Sabatier, Florence; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Bardin, Nathalie; Holmgren, Lars; Dignat-George, Françoise; Blot-Chabaud, Marcel

    2013-03-29

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule (CD146) contains a circulating proteolytic variant (sCD146), which is involved in inflammation and angiogenesis. Its circulating level is modulated in different pathologies, but its intracellular transduction pathways are still largely unknown. Using peptide pulldown and mass spectrometry, we identified angiomotin as a sCD146-associated protein in endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Interaction between angiomotin and sCD146 was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence, and binding of sCD146 on both immobilized recombinant angiomotin and angiomotin-transfected cells. Silencing angiomotin in EPC inhibited sCD146 angiogenic effects, i.e. EPC migration, proliferation, and capacity to form capillary-like structures in Matrigel. In addition, sCD146 effects were inhibited by the angiomotin inhibitor angiostatin and competition with recombinant angiomotin. Finally, binding of sCD146 on angiomotin triggered the activation of several transduction pathways that were identified by antibody array. These results delineate a novel signaling pathway where sCD146 binds to angiomotin to stimulate a proangiogenic response. This result is important to find novel target cells of sCD146 and for the development of therapeutic strategies based on EPC in the treatment of ischemic diseases.

  13. Soluble Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule (sMCAM/sCD146) Promotes Angiogenic Effects on Endothelial Progenitor Cells through Angiomotin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, Jimmy; Harhouri, Karim; Hubert, Lucas; Subrini, Caroline; Lafitte, Daniel; Lissitzky, Jean-Claude; Elganfoud, Nadia; Robert, Stéphane; Foucault-Bertaud, Alexandrine; Kaspi, Elise; Sabatier, Florence; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Bardin, Nathalie; Holmgren, Lars; Dignat-George, Françoise; Blot-Chabaud, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule (CD146) contains a circulating proteolytic variant (sCD146), which is involved in inflammation and angiogenesis. Its circulating level is modulated in different pathologies, but its intracellular transduction pathways are still largely unknown. Using peptide pulldown and mass spectrometry, we identified angiomotin as a sCD146-associated protein in endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Interaction between angiomotin and sCD146 was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence, and binding of sCD146 on both immobilized recombinant angiomotin and angiomotin-transfected cells. Silencing angiomotin in EPC inhibited sCD146 angiogenic effects, i.e. EPC migration, proliferation, and capacity to form capillary-like structures in Matrigel. In addition, sCD146 effects were inhibited by the angiomotin inhibitor angiostatin and competition with recombinant angiomotin. Finally, binding of sCD146 on angiomotin triggered the activation of several transduction pathways that were identified by antibody array. These results delineate a novel signaling pathway where sCD146 binds to angiomotin to stimulate a proangiogenic response. This result is important to find novel target cells of sCD146 and for the development of therapeutic strategies based on EPC in the treatment of ischemic diseases. PMID:23389031

  14. Angiogenic imbalance and diminished matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 underlie regional decreases in uteroplacental vascularization and feto-placental growth in hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Junior, Carlos A; Chen, Juanjuan; Cui, Ning; Chiang, Charles L; Zhu, Minglin; Ren, Zongli; Possomato-Vieira, Jose S; Khalil, Raouf A

    2017-12-15

    Preeclampsia is a form of hypertension-in-pregnancy (HTN-Preg) with unclear mechanism. Generalized reduction of uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) could be an initiating event leading to uteroplacental ischemia, angiogenic imbalance, and HTN-Preg. Additional regional differences in uteroplacental blood flow could further affect the pregnancy outcome and increase the risk of preeclampsia in twin or multiple pregnancy, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. To test the hypothesis that regional differences in angiogenic balance and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) underlie regional uteroplacental vascularization and feto-placental development, we compared fetal and placental growth, and placental and myoendometrial vascularization in the proximal, middle and distal regions of the uterus (in relation to the iliac bifurcation) in normal pregnant (Preg) and RUPP rats. Maternal blood pressure and plasma anti-angiogenic soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1)/placenta growth factor (PIGF) ratio were higher, and average placentae number, placenta weight, litter size, and pup weight were less in RUPP than Preg rats. The placenta and pup number and weight were reduced, while the number and diameter of placental and adjacent myoendometrial arteries, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels/activity were increased, and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was decreased in distal vs proximal uterus of Preg rats. In RUPP rats, the placenta and pup number and weight, the number and diameter of placental and myoendometrial arteries, and MMP-2 and -9 levels/activity were decreased, and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was increased in distal vs proximal uterus. Treatment with sFlt-1 or RUPP placenta extract decreased MMP-2 and MMP-9 in distal segments of Preg uterus, and treatment with PIGF or Preg placenta extract restored MMP levels in distal segments of RUPP uterus. Thus, in addition to the general reduction in placental and fetal growth during uteroplacental ischemia, localized angiogenic imbalance and diminished MMP-2

  15. Intravital monitoring of microcirculatory and angiogenic response to lactocapromer terpolymer matrix in a wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Andrej; Tilkorn, Daniel; Ottomann, Christian; Geomelas, Menedimos; Steinstraesser, Lars; Langer, Stefan; Goertz, Ole

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an epidermal substitute, a lactocapromer terpolymer matrix, on microcirculation in wounds. Lactocapromer terpolymer matrices were placed into the dorsal skinfold chamber of mice (n = 10). Untreated chamber preparations served as controls (n = 10). The microcirculation in tissue adjacent to the implant was observed by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Alongside the stable microhaemodynamics, a strong induction of angiogenesis adjacent to the implants was observed. A progressive increase in the functional vessel density was detected throughout the observation time of 10 days. Additionally, a stable and increasing perfusion within the newly developed vascular network in the outer circumference of the matrix was noted. The lactocapromer terpolymer matrix showed no adverse effect on the microcirculation in the host tissue. In contrast, as detected by intravital microscopy, the biomaterial protected the microcirculation and induced angiogenesis. © 2011 The Authors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  16. Microtumor growth initiates angiogenic sprouting with simultaneous expression of VEGF, VEGF receptor-2, and angiopoietin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajkoczy, Peter; Farhadi, Mohammad; Gaumann, Andreas; Heidenreich, Regina; Erber, Ralf; Wunder, Andreas; Tonn, Jörg C; Menger, Michael D; Breier, Georg

    2002-03-01

    Tumors have been thought to initiate as avascular aggregates of malignant cells that only later induce vascularization. Recently, this classic concept of tumor angiogenesis has been challenged by the suggestion that tumor cells grow by co-opting preexisting host vessels and thus initiate as well-vascularized tumors without triggering angiogenesis. To discriminate between these two mechanisms, we have used intravital epifluorescence microscopy and multi-photon laser scanning confocal microscopy to visualize C6 microglioma vascularization and tumor cell behavior. To address the mechanisms underlying tumor initiation, we assessed the expression of VEGF, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), as well as endothelial cell proliferation. We show that multicellular aggregates (new concept of vascular tumor initiation that may have important implications for the clinical application of antiangiogenic strategies.

  17. Analysis of angiogenic factors and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cartilaginous tumors: clinical and histological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fontes Cintra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study the role of angiogenesis and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cartilaginous tumors and correlate these factors with prognosis. INTRODUCTION: For chondrosarcoma, the histological grade is the current standard for predicting tumor outcome. However, a low-grade chondrosarcoma can follow an aggressive course-as monitored by sequential imaging techniques-even when it is histologically indistinguishable from an enchondroma. Therefore, additional tools are needed to help identify the biological potential of these tumors. The degree of angiogenesis that is induced by the tumor could assist in this task. Angiogenesis can be quantified by measuring the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34, and cyclooxygenase-2 can induce angiogenesis by stimulating the production of proangiogenic factors. METHODS: In total, 21 enchondromas and 58 conventional chondrosarcomas were studied by examining the clinical and histopathological findings in conjunction with the immunostaining markers of angiogenesis and cyclooxygenase- 2 expression. RESULTS: The significant variables that were associated with poor outcome were 1 higher-grade chondrosarcomas, 2 tumors that developed in flat bones, and 3 over-expression of CD34 (with a median count that was higher than 5.9 vessels in 5 high power fields. Moreover, CD34 expression (measured using the Chalkley method revealed significantly higher microvessel density in flat bone chondrosarcomas. DISCUSSION: Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between Chalkley microvessel density and histological grade; however, in our sample, we found that the former is predictive of the outcome. Chondrosarcomas in flat bones have been shown to correlate with a poor prognosis. We also found that CD34 microvessel density values were significantly higher in flat-bone chondrosarcomas. This could explain-at least in part-the more aggressive biological course that is taken by these tumors. CONCLUSIONS

  18. The decrease of mineralcorticoid receptor drives angiogenic pathways in colorectal cancer.

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    Laura Tiberio

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in tumor growth and progression. Low expression of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR in several malignant tumors correlates with disease recurrence and overall survival. Previous studies have shown that MR expression is decreased in colorectal cancer (CRC. Here we hypothesize that decreased MR expression can contribute to angiogenesis and poor patient survival in colorectal malignancies. In a cohort of CRC patients, we analyzed tumor MR expression, its correlation with tumor microvascular density and its impact on survival. Subsequently, we interrogated the role of MR in angiogenesis in an in vitro model, based on the colon cancer cell line HCT116, ingenierized to re-express a physiologically controlled MR. In CRC, decreased MR expression was associated with increased microvascular density and poor patient survival. In pchMR transfected HCT116, aldosterone or natural serum steroids largely inhibited mRNA expression levels of both VEGFA and its receptor 2/KDR. In CRC, MR activation may significantly decrease angiogenesis by directly inhibiting dysregulated VEGFA and hypoxia-induced VEGFA mRNA expression. In addition, MR activation attenuates the expression of the VEGF receptor 2/KDR, possibly dampening the activation of a VEGFA/KDR dependent signaling pathway important for the survival of tumor cells under hypoxic conditions.

  19. CD47-dependent immunomodulatory and angiogenic activities of extracellular vesicles produced by T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Singh, Satya P; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Wu, Weiwei; Abu-Asab, Mones S; Roberts, David D

    2014-07-01

    Intercellular communication is critical for integrating complex signals in multicellular eukaryotes. Vascular endothelial cells and T lymphocytes closely interact during the recirculation and trans-endothelial migration of T cells. In addition to direct cell-cell contact, we show that T cell derived extracellular vesicles can interact with endothelial cells and modulate their cellular functions. Thrombospondin-1 and its receptor CD47 are expressed on exosomes/ectosomes derived from T cells, and these extracellular vesicles are internalized and modulate signaling in both T cells and endothelial cells. Extracellular vesicles released from cells expressing or lacking CD47 differentially regulate activation of T cells induced by engaging the T cell receptor. Similarly, T cell-derived extracellular vesicles modulate endothelial cell responses to vascular endothelial growth factor and tube formation in a CD47-dependent manner. Uptake of T cell derived extracellular vesicles by recipient endothelial cells globally alters gene expression in a CD47-dependent manner. CD47 also regulates the mRNA content of extracellular vesicles in a manner consistent with some of the resulting alterations in target endothelial cell gene expression. Therefore, the thrombospondin-1 receptor CD47 directly or indirectly regulates intercellular communication mediated by the transfer of extracellular vesicles between vascular cells. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic impact of anti-angiogenic agents on U87 glioma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mesti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioma cells not only secrete high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF but also express VEGF receptors (VEGFR, supporting the existence of an autocrine loop. The direct impact on glioma cells metabolism of drugs targeting the VEGF pathway, such as Bevacizumab (Bev or VEGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI, is poorly known. MATERIAL AND METHODS: U87 cells were treated with Bev or SU1498, a selective VEGFR2 TKI. VEGFR expression was checked with FACS flow cytometry and Quantitative Real-Time PCR. VEGF secretion into the medium was assessed with an ELISA kit. Metabolomic studies on cells were performed using High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Spectroscopy (HR-MAS. RESULTS: U87 cells secreted VEGF and expressed low level of VEGFR2, but no detectable VEGFR1. Exposure to SU1498, but not Bev, significantly impacted cell proliferation and apoptosis. Metabolomic studies with HR MAS showed that Bev had no significant effect on cell metabolism, while SU1498 induced a marked increase in lipids and a decrease in glycerophosphocholine. Accordingly, accumulation of lipid droplets was seen in the cytoplasm of SU1498-treated U87 cells. CONCLUSION: Although both drugs target the VEGF pathway, only SU1498 showed a clear impact on cell proliferation, cell morphology and metabolism. Bevacizumab is thus less likely to modify glioma cells phenotype due to a direct therapeutic pressure on the VEGF autocrine loop. In patients treated with VEGFR TKI, monitoring lipids with magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS might be a valuable marker to assess drug cytotoxicity.

  1. Gene expression profile and angiogenic marker correlates with response to neoadjuvant bevacizumab followed by bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sherry X; Steinberg, Seth M; Nguyen, Dat; Wu, Thomas D; Modrusan, Zora; Swain, Sandra M

    2008-09-15

    To identify biomarkers and gene expression profile signatures to distinguish patients with partial response (PR) from those with stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). Twenty patients with inflammatory breast cancer and one patient with locally advanced breast cancer received one cycle of bevacizumab followed by six cycles of bevacizumab plus docetaxel-doxorubicin before surgery. Baseline angiogenic/tumor markers were examined by immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiles were measured by Agilent Whole Human Genome arrays. All were assessed for clinical response. Fourteen patients (67%, 95% confidence interval, 43-85.4%) had PR, five had SD, and two had PD. Expression of CD31 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-beta) in the tumor vasculature by immunohistochemistry was significantly associated with response (PR versus SD/PD; CD31 median, 33.5 versus 13.2; P = 0.0004; PDGFR-beta median, 5.9 versus 0.6; P = 0.01). Tumor VEGF-A showed a trend towards association with response (2.65 versus 0.25; P = 0.04). pVEGFR2(Y996), pVEGFR2(Y951), MVD, Ki67, apoptosis, grade, ER, HER-2/neu, and p53 were not associated with response. Twenty-six of 1,339 Gene Ontology (GO) classes at the gene transcriptional level were differentially expressed between patients with PR and SD/PD (P < 0.005). Representative significant GO classes include spindle (11 genes; P = 0.001), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor activity including PDGFR-beta (5 genes; P = 0.002), and cell motility including CD31 (80 genes; P = 0.005). Baseline CD31, PDGFR-beta, and GO classes for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor activity and mitosis were significantly associated with response to bevacizumab followed by bevacizumab plus chemotherapy.

  2. Comparison of the crystal structures of the potent anticancer and anti-angiogenic agent regorafenib and its monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng Ying; Wu, Su Xiang; Zhou, Xin Bo; Gu, Jian Ming; Hu, Xiu Rong

    2016-04-01

    Regorafenib {systematic name: 4-[4-({[4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethy)phenyl]carbamoyl}amino)-3-fluorophenoxy]-1-methylpyridine-2-carboxamide}, C21H15ClF4N4O3, is a potent anticancer and anti-angiogenic agent that possesses various activities on the VEGFR, PDGFR, raf and/or flt-3 kinase signaling molecules. The compound has been crystallized as polymorphic form I and as the monohydrate, C21H15ClF4N4O3·H2O. The regorafenib molecule consists of biarylurea and pyridine-2-carboxamide units linked by an ether group. A comparison of both forms shows that they differ in the relative orientation of the biarylurea and pyridine-2-carboxamide units, due to different rotations around the ether group, as measured by the C-O-C bond angles [119.5 (3)° in regorafenib and 116.10 (15)° in the monohydrate]. Meanwhile, the conformational differences are reflected in different hydrogen-bond networks. Polymorphic form I contains two intermolecular N-H...O hydrogen bonds, which link the regorafenib molecules into an infinite molecular chain along the b axis. In the monohydrate, the presence of the solvent water molecule results in more abundant hydrogen bonds. The water molecules act as donors and acceptors, forming N-H...O and O-H...O hydrogen-bond interactions. Thus, R4(2)(28) ring motifs are formed, which are fused to form continuous spiral ring motifs along the a axis. The (trifluoromethyl)phenyl rings protrude on the outside of these motifs and interdigitate with those of adjacent ring motifs, thereby forming columns populated by halogen atoms.

  3. Computational model of vascular endothelial growth factor spatial distribution in muscle and pro-angiogenic cell therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilim Mac Gabhann

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family of proteins are critical regulators of angiogenesis. VEGF concentration gradients are important for activation and chemotactic guidance of capillary sprouting, but measurement of these gradients in vivo is not currently possible. We have constructed a biophysically and molecularly detailed computational model to study microenvironmental transport of two isoforms of VEGF in rat extensor digitorum longus skeletal muscle under in vivo conditions. Using parameters based on experimental measurements, the model includes: VEGF secretion from muscle fibers; binding to the extracellular matrix; binding to and activation of endothelial cell surface VEGF receptors; and internalization. For 2-D cross sections of tissue, we analyzed predicted VEGF distributions, gradients, and receptor binding. Significant VEGF gradients (up to 12% change in VEGF concentration over 10 mum were predicted in resting skeletal muscle with uniform VEGF secretion, due to non-uniform capillary distribution. These relative VEGF gradients were not sensitive to extracellular matrix composition, or to the overall VEGF expression level, but were dependent on VEGF receptor density and affinity, and internalization rate parameters. VEGF upregulation in a subset of fibers increased VEGF gradients, simulating transplantation of pro-angiogenic myoblasts, a possible therapy for ischemic diseases. The number and relative position of overexpressing fibers determined the VEGF gradients and distribution of VEGF receptor activation. With total VEGF expression level in the tissue unchanged, concentrating overexpression into a small number of adjacent fibers can increase the number of capillaries activated. The VEGF concentration gradients predicted for resting muscle (average 3% VEGF/10 mum is sufficient for cellular sensing; the tip cell of a vessel sprout is approximately 50 mum long. The VEGF gradients also result in heterogeneity in

  4. Mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapeutic and anti-angiogenic drugs as novel targets for pancreatic cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrino, Anna; Piro, Geny; Carbone, Carmine; Tortora, Giampaolo; Melisi, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most lethal and poorly understood human malignancies and will continue to be a major unsolved health problem in the 21st century. Despite efforts over the past three decades to improve diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer is extremely poor with or without treatment, and incidence rates are virtually identical to mortality rates. Although advances have been made through the identification of relevant molecular pathways in pancreatic cancer, there is still a critical, unmet need for the translation of these findings into effective therapeutic strategies that could reduce the intrinsic drug resistance of this disease and for the integration of these molecularly targeted agents into established combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens in order to improve patients’ survival. Tumors are heterogeneous cellular entities whose growth and progression depend on reciprocal interactions between genetically altered neoplastic cells and a non-neoplastic microenvironment. To date, most of the mechanisms of resistance studied have been related to tumor cell-autonomous signaling pathways. However, recent data suggest a putative important role of tumor microenvironment in the development and maintenance of resistance to classic chemotherapeutic and targeted therapies. This present review is meant to describe and discuss some of the most important advances in the comprehension of the tumor cell-autonomous and tumor microenvironment-related molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistance of pancreatic cancer to the proapoptotic activity of the classic chemotherapeutic agents and to the most novel anti-angiogenic drugs. We present some of the emerging therapeutic targets for the modulation of this resistant phenotype. PMID:23641216

  5. Pilot study to relate clinical outcome in pancreatic carcinoma and angiogenic plasma factors/circulating mature/progenitor endothelial cells: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizio, Barbara; Novarino, Anna; Giacobino, Alice; Cristiano, Carmen; Prati, Adriana; Brondino, Gabriele; Ciuffreda, Libero; Bellone, Graziella

    2010-11-01

    Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) and bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitors (ECP) play important roles in tumor growth and have been proposed as non-invasive markers of angiogenesis. However, CEC and ECP levels have not been investigated in pancreatic carcinoma patients. Using four-color flow cytometry procedures, we evaluated the count of resting (rCEC) and activated (aCEC) endothelial cells and ECP in the peripheral blood of pancreatic carcinoma patients before and after chemotherapy, consisting of gemcitabine (GEM) alone or in combination with oxaliplatin (OX), or with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We also correlated CEC and ECP levels with plasma levels of relevant angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-D, angiopoietin (Angio)-1, and chemokine C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL)12, measured by ELISA, and with clinical features of pancreatic cancer. The aCEC, rCEC, ECP, and VEGF-A plasma levels were significantly higher in locally-advanced and metastatic patients than controls. Both ECP and VEGF-A levels correlated positively with disease stage and inversely with patient's overall survival. Measurements after the treatment course showed that VEGF-A plasma concentrations and ECP counts had decreased significantly. In particular, VEGF-A and rCEC were significantly down after treatment with GEM alone or in combination with OX. No significant differences in terms of circulating angiogenic factor or endothelial cell subtype levels were found between responders (patients entering partial remission or with stable disease) and non-responders (patients with progressive disease). The study provides insights into angiogenesis mechanisms in pancreatic carcinoma, for which anti-angiogenic targeting of VEGF-A and ECP could be of interest. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. An immature B cell population from peripheral blood serves as surrogate marker for monitoring tumor angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapy in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiani, Ernesta; Bill, Ruben; Pisarsky, Laura; Ivanek, Robert; Rüegg, Curzio; Christofori, Gerhard

    2015-07-01

    Tumor growth depends on the formation of new blood vessels (tumor angiogenesis) either from preexisting vessels or by the recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells. Despite encouraging results obtained with preclinical cancer models, the therapeutic targeting of tumor angiogenesis has thus far failed to deliver an enduring clinical response in cancer patients. One major obstacle for improving anti-angiogenic therapy is the lack of validated biomarkers, which allow patient stratification for suitable treatment and a rapid assessment of therapy response. Toward these goals, we have employed several mouse models of tumor angiogenesis to identify cell populations circulating in their blood that correlated with the extent of tumor angiogenesis and therapy response. Flow cytometry analyses of different combinations of cell surface markers that define subsets of bone marrow-derived cells were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from tumor-bearing and healthy mice. We identified one cell population, CD45(dim)VEGFR1(-)CD31(low), that was increased in levels during active tumor angiogenesis in a variety of transgenic and syngeneic transplantation mouse models of cancer. Treatment with various anti-angiogenic drugs did not affect CD45(dim)VEGFR1(-)CD31(low) cells in healthy mice, whereas in tumor-bearing mice, a consistent reduction in their levels was observed. Gene expression profiling of CD45(dim)VEGFR1(-)CD31(low) cells characterized these cells as an immature B cell population. These immature B cells were then directly validated as surrogate marker for tumor angiogenesis and of pharmacologic responses to anti-angiogenic therapies in various mouse models of cancer.

  7. Biological and Pro-Angiogenic Properties of Genetically Modified Human Primary Myoblasts Overexpressing Placental Growth Factor in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimna, Agnieszka; Wiernicki, Bartosz; Kolanowski, Tomasz; Rozwadowska, Natalia; Malcher, Agnieszka; Labedz, Wojciech; Trzeciak, Tomasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Bednarek-Rajewska, Katarzyna; Majewski, Przemyslaw; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2018-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a growing problem in developing countries; therefore, there is an ongoing intensive search for new approaches to treat these disorders. Currently, cellular therapies are focused on healing the damaged heart by implanting stem cells modified with pro-angiogenic factors. This approach ensures that the introduced cells are capable of fulfilling the complex requirements of the environment, including the replacement of the post-infarction scar with cells that are able to contract and promote the formation of new blood vessels that can supply the ischaemic region with nutrients and oxygen. This study focused on the genetic modification of human skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs). We chose myoblast cells due to their close biological resemblance to cardiomyocytes and the placental growth factor (PlGF) gene due to its pro-angiogenic potential. In our in vitro studies, we transfected SkMCs with the PlGF gene using electroporation, which has previously been proven to be efficient and generate robust overexpression of the PlGF gene and elevate PlGF protein secretion. Moreover, the functionality of the secreted pro-angiogenic proteins was confirmed using an in vitro capillary development assay. We have also examined the influence of PlGF overexpression on VEGF-A and VEGF-B, which are well-known factors described in the literature as the most potent activators of blood vessel formation. We were able to confirm the overexpression of VEGF-A in myoblasts transfected with the PlGF gene. The results obtained in this study were further verified in an animal model. These data were able to confirm the potential therapeutic effects of the applied treatments.

  8. HL-217, a new topical anti-angiogenic agent, inhibits retinal vascular leakage and pathogenic subretinal neovascularization in Vldlr−/− mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junghyun; Kim, Chan-Sik; Jo, Kyuhyung; Cho, Yun-Seok; Kim, Hyun-Gyu; Lee, Geun-Hyeog; Lee, Yun Mi; Sohn, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Sook

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • HL-217 is a new synthetic topical anti-angiogenic agent. • HL-217 attenuated subretinal neovascularization in Vldlr −/− mice. • HL-217 blocked the binding of PDGF-BB to PDGFRβ. - Abstract: HL-217 is a new synthetic angiogenesis inhibitor. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) is a vasoactive factor and has been implicated in proliferative retinopathies. In this study, we examined the mechanism of action and efficacy of topical application of HL-217 on subretinal neovascularization in very low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Vldlr −/− ) mice. In three-week-old male Vldlr −/− mice, HL-217 (1.5 or 3 mg/ml) was administered twice per day for 4 weeks by topical eye drop instillation. Neovascular areas were then measured. We used a protein array to evaluate the expression levels of angiogenic factors. The inhibitory effect of HL-217 on the PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction was evaluated in vitro. The neovascular area in the Vldlr −/− mice was significantly reduced by HL-217. Additionally, HL-217 decreased the expression levels of PDGF-BB protein and VEGF mRNA. Moreover, HL-217 dose-dependently inhibited the PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction (IC 50 = 38.9 ± 0.7 μM). These results suggest that HL-217 is a potent inhibitor of PDGF-BB. HL-217, when applied topically, is an effective inhibitor of subretinal neovascularization due to its ability to inhibit the pro-angiogenic effects of PDGF-BB

  9. HL-217, a new topical anti-angiogenic agent, inhibits retinal vascular leakage and pathogenic subretinal neovascularization in Vldlr{sup −/−} mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junghyun; Kim, Chan-Sik; Jo, Kyuhyung [Korean Medicine Based Herbal Drug Development Group, Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yun-Seok; Kim, Hyun-Gyu; Lee, Geun-Hyeog [Research and Development Center, Hanlim Pharm. Co. Ltd., 1656-10, Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Mi; Sohn, Eunjin [Korean Medicine Based Herbal Drug Development Group, Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Sook, E-mail: jskim@kiom.re.kr [Korean Medicine Based Herbal Drug Development Group, Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • HL-217 is a new synthetic topical anti-angiogenic agent. • HL-217 attenuated subretinal neovascularization in Vldlr{sup −/−} mice. • HL-217 blocked the binding of PDGF-BB to PDGFRβ. - Abstract: HL-217 is a new synthetic angiogenesis inhibitor. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) is a vasoactive factor and has been implicated in proliferative retinopathies. In this study, we examined the mechanism of action and efficacy of topical application of HL-217 on subretinal neovascularization in very low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Vldlr{sup −/−}) mice. In three-week-old male Vldlr{sup −/−} mice, HL-217 (1.5 or 3 mg/ml) was administered twice per day for 4 weeks by topical eye drop instillation. Neovascular areas were then measured. We used a protein array to evaluate the expression levels of angiogenic factors. The inhibitory effect of HL-217 on the PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction was evaluated in vitro. The neovascular area in the Vldlr{sup −/−} mice was significantly reduced by HL-217. Additionally, HL-217 decreased the expression levels of PDGF-BB protein and VEGF mRNA. Moreover, HL-217 dose-dependently inhibited the PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction (IC{sub 50} = 38.9 ± 0.7 μM). These results suggest that HL-217 is a potent inhibitor of PDGF-BB. HL-217, when applied topically, is an effective inhibitor of subretinal neovascularization due to its ability to inhibit the pro-angiogenic effects of PDGF-BB.

  10. Using the angiogenic factors sFlt-1 and PlGF with Doppler ultrasound of the uterine artery for confirming preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Franz; Al Naimi, Ammar

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the value of the angiogenic factors for diagnosing preeclampsia and predicting the severity of manifestation. A secondary aim is assessing the combination of the uterine artery Doppler with the angiogenic factors for improving the diagnostic power. This is a prospective single center study in a tertiary referral hospital. This study includes 728 individual patients. Inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancies, a referral to the hospital with suspicion of preeclampsia and any one or combination of the following symptoms: headache, upper abdominal pain, edema, and hypertension. Patients with complications that would affect the course of the pregnancy, such as placenta praevia, premature preterm rupture of membranes, breech presentation, and fetal chromosomal or structural anomalies, were excluded from the study. Blood samples collection and uterine artery Doppler ultrasound were performed at time of recruitment. The differences in sFlt-1, PlGF, and their quotient among normal collective and patients with preeclampsia were analyzed. Doppler ultrasound was performed by one of four highly qualified sonographers. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's rank correlation, receiver operating characteristic curves, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were used in the analysis. A total of 1003 individual samples for the angiogenic factors were included in the analysis. 584 out of the recruited 728 patients had follow-up data with delivery information at the study hospital. Patients with preeclampsia show a significant increase in sFlt-1, which directly correlate with the increased severity of manifestation (Spearman's ρ 0.49). The sFlt-1 cut-off value of 5424 pg/ml confirms preeclampsia with 83.7 % sensitivity, 68.1 % specificity, and 24 % misclassification rate. Preeclampsia patients also show a significant decrease in PlGF, which negatively correlates with the increased severity of manifestation (Spearman's ρ -0.39). A Pl

  11. Immuno-Expression of Endoglin and Smooth Muscle Actin in the Vessels of Brain Metastases. Is There a Rational for Anti-Angiogenic Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Barresi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite ongoing clinical trials, the efficacy of anti-angiogenic drugs for the treatment of brain metastases (BM is still questionable. The lower response rate to anti-angiogenic therapy in the presence of BM than in metastatic disease involving other sites suggests that BM may be insensitive to these drugs, although the biological reasons underlining this phenomenon are still to be clarified. With the aim of assessing whether the targets of anti-angiogenic therapies are actually present in BM, in the present study, we analyzed the microvessel density (MVD, a measure of neo-angiogenesis, and the vascular phenotype (mature vs. immature in the tumor tissue of a series of BM derived from different primary tumors. By using immunohistochemistry against endoglin, a specific marker for newly formed vessels, we found that neo-angiogenesis widely varies in BM depending on the site of the primary tumor, as well as on its histotype. According to our results, BM from lung cancer displayed the highest MVD counts, while those from renal carcinoma had the lowest. Then, among BM from lung cancer, those from large cell and adenocarcinoma histotypes had significantly higher MVD counts than those originating from squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0043; p = 0.0063. Of note, MVD counts were inversely correlated with the maturation index of the endoglin-stained vessels, reflected by the coverage of smooth muscle actin (SMA positive pericytes (r = −0.693; p < 0.0001. Accordingly, all the endoglin-positive vessels in BM from pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and renal carcinoma, displayed a mature phenotype, while vessels with an immature phenotype were found in highly vascularized BM from pulmonary large cell and adenocarcinoma. The low MVD and mature phenotype observed in BM from some primary tumors may account for their low sensitivity to anti-angiogenic therapies. Although our findings need to be validated in correlative studies with a clinical response, this should

  12. Angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis flowers L. in rats Atividade angiogênica das flores da Calendula officinalis L. em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria Leal Parente

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this work, angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae ethanolic extract and dichloromethane and hexanic fractions were evaluated, considering medicinal properties, especially healing activity, are attributed to this plant. Methods: Models using 36 rats and 90 embryonated eggs were used to evaluate healing and angiogenic activities of extracts and fractions of the plant, through the induction of skin wounds and the chorioallantoic membrane, respectively. The effect of vascular proliferation was also tested from the study to verify the intensity of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in cutaneous wounds in rats. Results: The angiogenic activity of the extract and the fractions was evidenced in both experimental models. It was verified that this effect is not directly related to the expression of VEGF and it could be associated to other pro-angiogenic factors. Conclusion: The healing activity referred to C. officinalis is related, among other factors, to its positive effect on angiogenesis, characterized by the induction of neovascularization.Objetivo: Neste trabalho a atividade sobre a angiogênese do extrato etanólico (EEC e das frações diclorometano e hexânica das flores de Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae cultivada no Brasil foram avaliados, visto que propriedades medicinais têm sido atribuídas às flores da planta, destacando-se a atividade cicatrizante. Métodos: Modelos utilizando 36 ratos e 90 ovos embrionados foram usados para avaliar as atividades cicatrizante e angiogênica dos extratos e frações da planta, por meio da indução de feridas cutâneas e da membrana corioalantóide, respectivamente. O efeito proliferativo vascular foi também testado a partir do estudo imunoistoquímico, realizado para verificar a intensidade da expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular (VEGF na derme de ratos. Resultados: A atividade angiogênica do extrato e das frações foi

  13. Dextran-shelled oxygen-loaded nanodroplets reestablish a normoxia-like pro-angiogenic phenotype and behavior in hypoxic human dermal microvascular endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilico, Nicoletta; Magnetto, Chiara; D'Alessandro, Sarah; Panariti, Alice; Rivolta, Ilaria; Genova, Tullio; Khadjavi, Amina; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; Argenziano, Monica; Soster, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In chronic wounds, hypoxia seriously undermines tissue repair processes by altering the balances between pro-angiogenic proteolytic enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs) and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, TIMPs) released from surrounding cells. Recently, we have shown that in human monocytes hypoxia reduces MMP-9 and increases TIMP-1 without affecting TIMP-2 secretion, whereas in human keratinocytes it reduces MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-2, without affecting TIMP-1 release. Provided that the phenotype of the cellular environment is better understood, chronic wounds might be targeted by new oxygenating compounds such as chitosan- or dextran-shelled and 2H,3H-decafluoropentane-cored oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs). Here, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and dextran-shelled OLNs on the pro-angiogenic phenotype and behavior of human dermal microvascular endothelium (HMEC-1 cell line), another cell population playing key roles during wound healing. Normoxic HMEC-1 constitutively released MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 proteins, but not MMP-9. Hypoxia enhanced MMP-2 and reduced TIMP-1 secretion, without affecting TIMP-2 levels, and compromised cell ability to migrate and invade the extracellular matrix. When taken up by HMEC-1, nontoxic OLNs abrogated the effects of hypoxia, restoring normoxic MMP/TIMP levels and promoting cell migration, matrix invasion, and formation of microvessels. These effects were specifically dependent on time-sustained oxygen diffusion from OLN core, since they were not achieved by oxygen-free nanodroplets or oxygen-saturated solution. Collectively, these data provide new information on the effects of hypoxia on dermal endothelium and support the hypothesis that OLNs might be used as effective adjuvant tools to promote chronic wound healing processes. - Highlights: • Hypoxia enhances MMP-2 and reduces TIMP-1 secretion by dermal HMEC-1 cell line. • Hypoxia compromises migration and matrix invasion abilities of

  14. Growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and efficacy of anti-angiogenic agents in a hydroxyethyl chitosan/glycidyl methacrylate hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hejing; Qian, Junmin; Zhang, Yaping; Xu, Weijun; Xiao, Juxiang; Suo, Aili

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer negatively affects women's health worldwide. The tumour microenvironment plays a critical role in tumour initiation, proliferation, and metastasis. Cancer cells are traditionally grown in two-dimensional (2D) cultures as monolayers on a flat solid surface lacking cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. These experimental conditions deviate from the clinical situation. Improved experimental systems that can mimic the in vivo situation are required to discover new therapies, particularly for anti-angiogenic agents that mainly target intercellular factors and play an essential role in treating some cancers. Chitosan can be modified to construct three-dimensional (3D) tumour models. Here, we report an in vitro 3D tumour model using a hydroxyethyl chitosan/glycidyl methacrylate (HECS-GMA) hydrogel produced by a series of chitosan modifications. Parameters relating to cell morphology, viability, proliferation, and migration were analysed using breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In a xenograft model, secretion of angiogenesis-related growth factors and the anti-angiogenic efficacy of Endostar and Bevacizumab in cells grown in HECS-GMA hydrogels were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Hydroxyethyl chitosan/glycidyl methacrylate hydrogels had a highly porous microstructure, mechanical properties, swelling ratio, and morphology consistent with a 3D tumour model. Compared with a 2D monolayer culture, breast cancer MCF-7 cells residing in the HECS-GMA hydrogels grew as tumour-like clusters in a 3D formation. In a xenograft model, MCF-7 cells cultured in the HECS-GMA hydrogels had increased secretion of angiogenesis-related growth factors. Recombinant human endostatin (Endostar), but not Bevacizumab (Avastin), was an effective anti-angiogenic agent in HECS-GMA hydrogels. The HECS-GMA hydrogel provided a 3D tumour model that mimicked the in vivo cancer microenvironment and supported the growth of MCF7 cells better than traditional tissue culture plates. The HECS

  15. Induced thyme product prevents VEGF-induced migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, Diane; Madden, John; Huncik, Kevin; Moeller, Peter D

    2010-12-17

    Compounds with anti-angiogenic properties are useful in combating cancer by preventing new blood vessel formation to support the tumor. In this report we introduce a rapid method for screening potential anti-angiogenic compounds in a model system that stimulates the production of secondary defense chemicals in plants. This methodology identified an inducible vascular factor (IVF3), which was found to be inhibitory in all of the model systems tested. Thyme plants were exposed to highly vascular mint plants and the methanol extracts were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. The thyme compounds induced by the invading mint tissue, and not present in the thyme plants grown alone, were tested in a vertical plate assay measuring root length as a quantitative assay for drug sensitivity. The HPLC-purified extract, referred to as IVF3, reduced the growth of root vascular tissue compared to the control and vehicle control, and 50% as well as known angiogenesis inhibitors, VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and amiloride hydrochloride. Extracted compounds that were effective inhibitors of plant roots were assayed in Madin Darby canine kidney epithelial cells (MDCK) for toxicity, and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) for their effect on migration. IVF3 was effective at limiting HUVEC migration in VEGF-stimulated cultures. In vivo video capture of intersegmental vessel circulation between 48 and 72 h post fertilization in the developing vasculature of zebrafish embryos showed IVF3 also significantly reduced ISV functional circulation. This report demonstrates the anti-angiogenic effects of IVF3 extract in endothelial cells and in an intact vertebrate model for angiogenesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fast-degrading PLA/ORMOGLASS fibrous composite scaffold leads to a calcium-rich angiogenic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachot N

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nadège Sachot,1,2 Agata Roguska,3 Josep Anton Planell,1,2 Malgorzata Lewandowska,3 Elisabeth Engel,1,2,4 Oscar Castaño1,2,5,6 1Biomaterials for Regenerative Therapies, Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC, Barcelona, 2CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza, Spain; 3Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland; 4Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC, 5Department of Materials Science and Physical Chemistry, Universitat de Barcelona (UB, 6Department of Engineerings: Electronics, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: The success of scaffold implantation in acellular tissue engineering approaches relies on the ability of the material to interact properly with the biological environment. This behavior mainly depends on the design of the graft surface and, more precisely, on its capacity to biodegrade in a well-defined manner (nature of ions released, surface-to-volume ratio, dissolution profile of this release, rate of material resorption, and preservation of mechanical properties. The assessment of the biological behavior of temporary templates is therefore very important in tissue engineering, especially for composites, which usually exhibit complicated degradation behavior. Here, blended polylactic acid (PLA calcium phosphate ORMOGLASS (organically modified glass nanofibrous mats have been incubated up to 4 weeks in physiological simulated conditions, and their morphological, topographical, and chemical changes have been investigated. The results showed that a significant loss of inorganic phase occurred at the beginning of the immersion and the ORMOGLASS maintained a stable composition afterward throughout the degradation period. As a whole, the nanostructured scaffolds underwent fast and heterogeneous degradation. This study reveals that an angiogenic calcium

  17. Development of a surrogate potency assay to determine the angiogenic activity of Stempeucel®, a pooled, ex-vivo expanded, allogeneic human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thej, Charan; Ramadasse, Balamurugan; Walvekar, Ankita; Majumdar, Anish S; Balasubramanian, Sudha

    2017-02-28

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have emerged as a more beneficial alternative to conventional therapy and may offer a potential cure for unmet medical needs. MSCs are known to possess strong immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, they promote angiogenesis and tissue regeneration through the secretion of trophic factors. For these reasons, the past decade witnessed a sharp increase in the number of clinical trials conducted with stem cells for various vascular diseases requiring angiogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro angiogenic potency of Stempeucel®, which is an allogeneic pooled human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (phBMMSC) product. We previously established the safety of Stempeucel® in our pre-clinical studies, and clinical trials conducted for critical limb ischaemia and acute myocardial infarction. Because the proposed mechanism of action of phBMMSCs is mainly through the secretion of pro-angiogenic cytokines, we developed a surrogate potency assay by screening various batches of large-scale expanded phBMMSCs for the expression of angiogenic factors and cytokines through gene expression and growth factor analyses, followed by in vitro functional assays. The well characterized angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was selected and quantified in twenty six manufactured batches of phBMMSCs to establish consistency following the United States Food and Drug Administration recommendations. According to recommendations 21 CFR 211.165(e) and 211.194(a)(2), we also established and documented the specificity and reproducibility of the test methods employed through validation. Moreover, we also attempted to elucidate the mechanism of action of the cell population to ensure appropriate biological activity. The functional role of VEGF has been established through in vitro angiogenic assays and a dose-dependent correlation was observed with in vitro functional results. The data generated from this study

  18. Thrombin induces rapid PAR1-mediated non-classical FGF1 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Maria; Kolev, Vihren; Soldi, Raffaella; Kirov, Alexander; Graziani, Irene; Oliveira, Silvia Marta; Kacer, Doreen; Friesel, Robert; Maciag, Thomas; Prudovsky, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Thrombin induces cell proliferation and migration during vascular injury. We report that thrombin rapidly stimulated expression and release of the pro-angiogenic polypeptide fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). Thrombin failed to induce FGF1 release from protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) null fibroblasts, indicating that this effect was dependent on PAR1. Similarly to thrombin, FGF1 expression and release were induced by TRAP, a specific oligopeptide agonist of PAR1. These results identify a novel aspect of the crosstalk between FGF and thrombin signaling pathways which both play important roles in tissue repair and angiogenesis

  19. Next generation metronomic chemotherapy-report from the Fifth Biennial International Metronomic and Anti-angiogenic Therapy Meeting, 6-8 May 2016, Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantziarka, Pan; Hutchinson, Lisa; André, Nicolas; Benzekry, Sébastien; Bertolini, Francesco; Bhattacharjee, Atanu; Chiplunkar, Shubhada; Duda, Dan G; Gota, Vikram; Gupta, Sudeep; Joshi, Amit; Kannan, Sadhana; Kerbel, Robert; Kieran, Mark; Palazzo, Antonella; Parikh, Aparna; Pasquier, Eddy; Patil, Vijay; Prabhash, Kumar; Shaked, Yuval; Sholler, Giselle Saulnier; Sterba, Jaroslav; Waxman, David J; Banavali, Shripad

    2016-01-01

    The 5 th Biennial Metronomic and Anti-angiogenic Therapy Meeting was held on 6 th - 8 th May in the Indian city of Mumbai. The meeting brought together a wide range of clinicians and researchers interested in metronomic chemotherapy, anti-angiogenics, drug repurposing and combinations thereof. Clinical experiences, including many from India, were reported and discussed in three symposia covering breast cancer, head and neck cancers and paediatrics. On the pre-clinical side research into putative mechanisms of action, and the interactions between low dose metronomic chemotherapy and angiogenesis and immune responses, were discussed in a number of presentations. Drug repurposing was discussed both in terms of clinical results, particularly with respect to angiosarcoma and high-risk neuroblastoma, and in pre-clinical settings, particularly the potential for peri-operative interventions. However, it was clear that there remain a number of key areas of challenge, particularly in terms of definitions, perceptions in the wider oncological community, mechanisms of action and predictive biomarkers. While the potential for metronomics and drug repurposing in low and middle income countries remains a key theme, it is clear that there is also considerable potential for clinically relevant improvements in patient outcomes even in high income economies.

  20. Perfusion CT allows prediction of therapy response in non-small cell lung cancer treated with conventional and anti-angiogenic chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacelli, Nunzia; Santangelo, Teresa; Remy, Jacques [University of Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), Lille (France); University of Lille Nord de France, Faculty of Medicine, Henri Warembourg, Lille (France); Scherpereel, Arnaud; Cortot, Alexis; Wallyn, Frederic [University of Lille Nord de France, Faculty of Medicine, Henri Warembourg, Lille (France); University of Lille Nord de France, Department of Pulmonary and Thoracic Oncology, Lille (France); Duhamel, Alain; Deken, Valerie [University of Lille Nord de France, Faculty of Medicine, Henri Warembourg, Lille (France); University of Lille Nord de France, Department of Medical Statistics, Lille (France); Klotz, Ernst [Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography Division, Forchheim (Germany); Lafitte, Jean-Jacques [University of Lille Nord de France, Faculty of Medicine, Henri Warembourg, Lille (France); University of Lille Nord de France, Department of Pulmonary and Thoracic Oncology, Lille (France); Pasteur Institute of Lille, INSERM unit 1019, CIIL, Lille (France); Remy-Jardin, Martine [University of Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), Lille (France); University of Lille Nord de France, Faculty of Medicine, Henri Warembourg, Lille (France); Hospital Calmette, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Lille cedex (France)

    2013-08-15

    To determine whether CT can depict early perfusion changes in lung cancer treated by anti-angiogenic drugs, allowing prediction of response. Patients with non-small cell lung cancer, treated by conventional chemotherapy with (Group 1; n = 17) or without (Group 2; n = 23) anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drug (bevacizumab) underwent CT perfusion before (TIME 0) and after 1 (TIME 1), 3 (TIME 2) and 6 (TIME 3) cycles of chemotherapy. The CT parameters evaluated included: (1) total tumour vascular volume (TVV) and total tumour extravascular flow (TEF); (2) RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours) measurements. Tumour response was also assessed on the basis of the clinicians' overall evaluation. In Group 1, significant reduction in perfusion was identified between baseline and: (1) TIME 1 (TVV, P = 0.0395; TEF, P = 0.015); (2) TIME 2 (TVV, P = 0.0043; TEF, P < 0.0001); (3) TIME 3 (TVV, P = 0.0034; TEF, P = 0.0005) without any significant change in Group 2. In Group 1: (1) the reduction in TVV at TIME 1 was significantly higher in responders versus non-responders at TIME 2 according to RECIST (P = 0.0128) and overall clinicians' evaluation (P = 0.0079); (2) all responders at TIME 2 had a concurrent decrease in TVV and TEF at TIME 1. Perfusion CT demonstrates early changes in lung cancer vascularity under anti-angiogenic chemotherapy that may help predict therapeutic response. (orig.)

  1. Amniotic liquid derived stem cells as reservoir of secreted angiogenic factors capable of stimulating neo-arteriogenesis in an ischemic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, Teodelinda; Teodelinda, Mirabella; Cilli, Michele; Michele, Cilli; Carlone, Sebastiano; Sebastiano, Carlone; Cancedda, Ranieri; Ranieri, Cancedda; Gentili, Chiara; Chiara, Gentili

    2011-05-01

    Most urgent health problems are related to a blood vessel formation failure. The use of stem cells from different sources or species for both in vitro and in vivo engineering of endothelium does not necessarily imply their direct commitment towards a vascular phenotype. In the present study, we used human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) to evoke a strong angiogenic response in murine recipients, in terms of host guided-regeneration of new vessels, and we demonstrated that the AFSC secretome is responsible for the vascularising properties of these cells. We indentified in AFSC conditioned media (ACM) pro-angiogenic soluble factors, such as MCP-1, IL-8, SDF-1, VEGF. Our in vitro results suggest that ACM are cytoprotective, pro-differentiative and chemoattractive for endothelial cells. We also tested ACM on a pre-clinical model of hind-limb ischemic mouse, concluding that ACM contain mediators that promote the neo-arteriogenesis, as remodelling of pre-existing collateral arteries to conductance vessels, thus preventing the capillary loss and the tissue necrosis of distal muscles. In line with the current regenerative medicine trend, in the present study we assert the concept that stem cell-secreted mediators can guide the tissue repair by stimulating or recruiting host reparative cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The β3-Integrin Binding Protein β3-Endonexin Is a Novel Negative Regulator of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kračun, Damir; Rieß, Florian; Kanchev, Ivan; Gawaz, Meinrad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Integrins are multifunctional heterodimeric adhesion receptors that mediate the attachment between a cell and the extracellular matrix or other surrounding cells. In endothelial cells, integrins can modulate cell migration and motility. In particular, β3-integrin is expressed in angiogenic vessels. Signal transduction by β3-integrins requires the recruitment of intracellular signaling molecules. β3-endonexin is a highly spliced molecule that has been identified as a β3-integrin binding protein. β3-endonexin isoforms are expressed in endothelial cells and have been suggested to act as shuttle proteins between the membrane and the nucleus. However, their functional role in angiogenesis is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether β3-endonexin isoforms are involved in endothelial angiogenic processes under hypoxia. Results: The overexpression of β3-endonexin isoforms decreased endothelial proliferation and tube formation under hypoxia, while the depletion of β3-endonexin by RNAi promoted angiogenic responses in vitro and in vivo. In hypoxia, β3-endonexin accumulated in the nucleus, and prevention of this response by depletion of β3-endonexin increased hypoxic activation and induction of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and its target genes VEGF and PAI-1. β3-endonexin diminished nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation and decreased NFκB binding to the HIF-1α promoter under hypoxia, subsequently diminishing NFκB-dependent transcription of HIF-1α under hypoxia. Innovation: Our results indicate for the first time that the overexpression of β3-endonexin can decrease hypoxic induction and activation of HIF-1α and can prevent hypoxic endothelial proliferation and angiogenic responses. Conclusion: β3-endonexin can act as a novel anti-angiogenic factor specifically in the response to hypoxia due to its negative impact on the activation of HIF-1. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1964–1976. PMID:24386901

  3. Brain Tumor Tropism of Transplanted Human Neural Stem Cells Is Induced by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Ole Schmidt

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs offers a new potential therapeutic approach as a cell-based delivery system for gene therapy in brain tumors. This is based on the unique capacity of NSCs to migrate throughout the brain and to target invading tumor cells. However, the signals controlling the targeted migration of transplanted NSCs are poorly defined. We analyzed the in vitro and in vivo effects of angiogenic growth factors and protein extracts from surgical specimens of brain tumor patients on NSC migration. Here, we demonstrate that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is able to induce a long-range attraction of transplanted human NSCs from distant sites in the adult brain. Our results indicate that tumorupregulated VEGF and angiogenic-activated microvasculature are relevant guidance signals for NSC tropism toward brain tumors.

  4. Oxidative stress, gene expression, and protein changes induced in the human placenta during labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cindrova-Davies, Tereza; Yung, Hong-Wa; Johns, Jemma; Spasic-Boskovic, Olivera; Korolchuk, Svitlana; Jauniaux, Eric; Burton, Graham J; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen

    2007-10-01

    Malperfusion of the placenta has been implicated as a cause of oxidative stress in complications of human pregnancy, leading to release of proinflammatory cytokines and anti-angiogenic factors into the maternal circulation. Uterine contractions during labor are known to be associated with intermittent utero-placental perfusion. We therefore tested whether oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines, and angiogenic regulators were increased in placentas subjected to short (15 hours) labor compared with nonlabored controls delivered by cesarean section. In addition, broader changes in gene transcripts were assessed by microarray analysis. Oxidative stress, activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1beta all increased in placental tissues after labor. Stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and increased vascular endothelial growth factor soluble receptor-1 were also observed. By contrast, tissue levels of placenta growth factor decreased. Apoptosis was also activated in labored placentas. The magnitude of these changes related to the duration of labor. After labor, 55 gene transcripts were up-regulated and 35 down-regulated, and many of these changes were reflected at the protein level. In conclusion, labor is a powerful inducer of placental oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and angiogenic regulators. Our findings are consistent with intermittent perfusion being the initiating cause. Placentas subjected to labor do not reflect the normal in vivo state at the molecular level.

  5. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha DNA induced angiogenesis in a rat cerebral ischemia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeshi; Abe, Tatsuya; Wu, Jian Liang; Fujiki, Minoru; Kobayashi, Hidenori

    2005-07-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that regulates the adaptive response to hypoxia in mammalian cells. It consists of a regulatory subunit HIF-1alpha, which accumulates under hypoxic conditions, and a constitutively expressed subunit, HIF-1beta. In this study, we investigated HIF-1alpha naked DNA-induced angiogenesis in a cerebral ischemic model in vivo. We utilized a rat encephalo-myo-synangiosis (EMS) model and inoculated HIF-1alpha DNA into the brain surface or the temporal muscle. We analysed whether HIF-1alpha induced angiogenic factors and collateral circulation. A histological section treated with HIF-1alpha DNA showed an increased expression of HIF1 a and VEGF with collateral circulation, in comparison with control DNA (p angiogenesis development. These results suggest the feasibility of a novel approach for therapeutic collateral circulation of cerebral ischemia in which neovascularization may be achieved indirectly using a transcriptional regulatory strategy.

  6. LF-15 & T7, synthetic peptides derived from tumstatin, attenuate aspects of airway remodelling in a murine model of chronic OVA-induced allergic airway disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karryn T Grafton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumstatin is a segment of the collagen-IV protein that is markedly reduced in the airways of asthmatics. Tumstatin can play an important role in the development of airway remodelling associated with asthma due to its anti-angiogenic properties. This study assessed the anti-angiogenic properties of smaller peptides derived from tumstatin, which contain the interface tumstatin uses to interact with the αVβ3 integrin. METHODS: Primary human lung endothelial cells were exposed to the LF-15, T3 and T7 tumstatin-derived peptides and assessed for cell viability and tube formation in vitro. The impact of the anti-angiogenic properties on airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR was then examined using a murine model of chronic OVA-induced allergic airways disease. RESULTS: The LF-15 and T7 peptides significantly reduced endothelial cell viability and attenuated tube formation in vitro. Mice exposed to OVA+ LF-15 or OVA+T7 also had reduced total lung vascularity and AHR was attenuated compared to mice exposed to OVA alone. T3 peptides reduced cell viability but had no effect on any other parameters. CONCLUSION: The LF-15 and T7 peptides may be appropriate candidates for use as novel pharmacotherapies due to their small size and anti-angiogenic properties observed in vitro and in vivo.

  7. High viral load and elevated angiogenic markers associated with increased risk of preeclampsia among women initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy in the Mma Bana study, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Kathleen M; McElrath, Thomas F; Hughes, Michael D; Ogwu, Anthony; Souda, Sajini; Datwyler, Saul A; von Widenfelt, Erik; Moyo, Sikhulile; Nádas, Marisa; Makhema, Joseph; Machakaire, Esther; Lockman, Shahin; Essex, Max; Shapiro, Roger L

    2013-04-15

    Risk factors associated with preeclampsia in HIV-infected women remain largely unknown. Systemic angiogenic imbalance contributes to preeclampsia in HIV-uninfected women, but changes in angiogenic markers after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation have not been studied. The Mma Bana study randomized 560 HIV-infected, HAART-naive pregnant women with CD4 counts ≥ 200 cells per cubic millimeter between 26 and 34 weeks gestation to lopinavir/ritonavir/zidovudine/lamivudine or abacavir/zidovudine/lamivudine. Another 170 participants with CD4 counts less than 200 cells per cubic millimeter initiated nevirapine/zidovudine/lamivudine between 18 and 34 weeks gestation. Characteristics of 11 women who developed preeclampsia were compared with the remaining 722 Mma Bana participants who delivered using logistic regression. Plasma samples drawn at HAART initiation and 1 month later from 60 women without preeclampsia and at HAART initiation for all 11 preeclamptic women were assayed for placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble FMS toll-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1). Pre-HAART viral load greater than 100,000 copies per milliliter was associated with preeclampsia (odds ratio: 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.8 to 19.4, P = 0.004). Median pre-HAART PlGF level was lower and sFlt-1 was higher in women who developed preeclampsia vs those who did not (130 vs 992 pg/mL, P = 0.001; 17.5 vs 9.4 pg/mL, P = 0.03, respectively). In multivariate analysis, PlGF and viral load remained significantly associated with preeclampsia. No significant changes in angiogenic factors were noted after 1 month of HAART treatment among non-preeclamptic women. Pre-HAART viral load greater than 100,000 copies per milliliter and PlGF predicted preeclampsia among women starting HAART in pregnancy. Among non-preeclamptic women, HAART treatment did not significantly alter levels of PlGF or sFlt-1 after 1 month of treatment.

  8. UVA-mediated down-regulation of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP coincides with impaired angiogenic phenotype of human dermal endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauchard, Jean-Hubert; Robinet, Arnaud; Poitevin, Stephane; Bobichon, Helene; Maziere, Jean-Claude; Bellon, Georges; Hornebeck, William

    2006-01-01

    UVA irradiation, dose-dependently (5-20 J/cm 2 ), was shown to impair the morphogenic differentiation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) on Matrigel. Parallely, UVA down-regulated the expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. On the contrary, the production of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 by HMECs increased following UVA treatment. The inhibitory effect of UVA on MMP expression and pseudotubes formation was mediated by UVA-generated singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ). The contribution of MT1-MMP, but not TIMP-1, to the regulation of HMECs' angiogenic phenotype following UVA irradiation was suggested using elastin-derived peptides and TIMP-1 blocking antibody, respectively

  9. AP-2β Is a Downstream Effector of PITX2 Required to Specify Endothelium and Establish Angiogenic Privilege During Corneal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lisheng; Martino, Vanessa; Dombkowski, Alan; Williams, Trevor; West-Mays, Judith; Gage, Philip J

    2016-03-01

    The homeodomain transcription factor, PITX2, is at the apex of a genetic pathway required for corneal development, but the critical effector genes regulated by the PITX2 remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to discover and validate PITX2-dependent mechanisms required for specifying cell lineages and establishing angiogenic privilege within the developing cornea. Microarrays were used to compare gene expression in corneas isolated from temporal Pitx2 knockout embryos and control littermates. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry was used to further validate Tfap2b expression differences in Pitx2 knockout versus control corneas. In situ hybridization and protein immunohistochemistry were used to assay eyes of a Tfap2b allelic series of embryos to identify differentiated cellular lineages in the cornea, blood vessel endothelium, or lymphatic vessel endothelium. We show that PITX2 is required for the expression of Tfap2b, encoding the AP-2β transcription factor, in the neural crest during corneal development. Markers of differentiated corneal epithelium and stroma are expressed in the absence of AP-2β. In contrast, markers of differentiated corneal endothelium are not expressed in the absence of AP-2β. Endomucin+ blood vessels are present throughout the developing corneal stroma in the absence of AP-2β, whereas LYVE1+ lymphatic vessels are not found. The AP-2β transcription factor is an important effector of PITX2 function during corneal development, required for differentiation of corneal endothelium and establishment of angiogenic privilege. Unlike PITX2, AP-2β is not required for the early expression of available lineage specific markers for the corneal epithelium and stroma during embryogenesis, nor establishment of lymphangiogenic privilege. Therefore, additional PITX2-dependent factors likely regulate these latter processes during embryonic development. These results extend our understanding of the genetic mechanisms regulating cornea

  10. Assessment of angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, serum and urine level changes in superficial bladder tumor immunotherapy by intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerigh Behzad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bladder tumor is one of the most common genitourinary tumors. Management of non-muscle invasive (NMI bladder tumors is primarily by transurethral resection (TURBT followed by intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is the most effective adjuvant therapy in NMI bladder tumor. Since angiogenesis is an essential factor in solid tumor progression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is an important factor in angiogenesis, the aim of this study is the assessment of angiogenic factor, VEGF, serum and urine level changes in superficial bladder tumor immunotherapy by intravesical BCG. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC in stage Ta/T1 or carcinoma insitu (CIS, low or high grade, which passed a 2-4 week period from TURBT participated in this study. Blood and urine samples were obtained at first and sixth sessions before instillation of BCG. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method was used to obtain VEGF level in samples. Results: Urine and serum VEGF levels did not change significantly before and after BCG therapy. Changes in VEGF level were significantly different neither in low grade against high grade tumors nor in stage T1 against stage Ta tumors. A significant difference in VEGF level was seen between low grade and high grade tumors in serum after BCG therapy (P=0.007; but not in urine samples. Conclusion: Although intravesical BCG possesses anti-angiogenic activity, it seems that it exerts its effect through pathways other than VEGF, especially in low grade tumors.

  11. In-vitro study of the effect of anti-hypertensive drugs on placental hormones and angiogenic proteins synthesis in pre-eclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Gangooly

    Full Text Available Antihypertensive drugs lower the maternal blood pressure in pre-eclampsia (PE by direct or central vasodilatory mechanisms but little is known about the direct effects of these drugs on placental functions.The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of labetolol, hydralazine, α-methyldopa and pravastatin on the synthesis of placental hormonal and angiogenic proteins know to be altered in PE.Placental villous explants from late onset PE (n = 3 and normotensive controls (n = 6 were cultured for 3 days at 10 and 20% oxygen (O2 with variable doses anti-hypertensive drugs. The levels of activin A, inhibin A, human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 and soluble endoglin (sEng were measured in explant culture media on day 1, 2 and 3 using standard immunoassays. Data at day 1 and day 3 were compared.Spontaneous secretion of sEndoglin and sFlt-1 were higher (p < 0.05 in villous explants from PE pregnancies compared to controls. There was a significant time dependent decrease in the secretion of sFlt-1 and sEndoglin in PE cases, which was seen only for sFlt-1 in controls. In both PE cases and controls the placental protein secretions were not affected by varying doses of anti-hypertensive drugs or the different O2 concentration cultures, except for Activin, A which was significantly (p < 0.05 higher in controls at 10% O2.Our findings suggest that the changes previously observed in maternal serum hormones and angiogenic proteins level after anti-hypertensive treatment in PE could be due to a systemic effect of the drugs on maternal blood pressure and circulation rather than a direct effect of these drugs on placental biosynthesis and/or secretion.

  12. Imaging anti-angiogenic treatment response with DCE-VCT, DCE-MRI and DWI in an animal model of breast cancer bone metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuerle, Tobias [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: t.baeuerle@dkfz-heidelberg.de; Bartling, Soenke [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: s.bartling@dkfz-heidelberg.de; Berger, Martin [Unit of Chemotherapy and Toxicology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: m.berger@dkfz-heidelberg.de; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette [Institute of Pathology, University of Freiburg, Postfach 214, 79002 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: annette.schmitt-graeff@uniklinik-freiburg.de; Hilbig, Heidegard [Institute of Anatomy, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 13, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: Heidegard.Hilbig@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Radiologische Klinik, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: hans-ulrich.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: s.delorme@dkfz-heidelberg.de; Kiessling, Fabian [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 20, 52074 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: fkiessling@ukaachen.de

    2010-02-15

    As current classification systems for the assessment of treatment response in bone metastasis do not meet the needs of oncologists, new imaging biomarkers are desirable. Therefore, the diagnostic impact of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-volumetric computed tomography (VCT) (descriptive analysis), DCE-MRI (two-compartment model) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for monitoring anti-angiogenic therapy effects of the VEGF antibody bevacizumab in breast cancer bone metastases in rats was studied. Nude rats (n = 8 animals treated with bevacizumab and n = 9 untreated control rats) with site-specific osteolytic bone metastasis of the hind leg were imaged with a 1.5 T clinical MRI-scanner in an animal coil as well as in a volumetric CT-scanner at days 30, 40, 50 and 60 after inoculation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. From these data, osteolytic lesion size (OLS), peak enhancement (PE), area under the curve (AUC), amplitude (A), exchange rate constant (k{sub ep}) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were determined in bone metastases. Prior to changes in OLS (p {<=} 0.05 at days 50 and 60) there was already a significant decrease in PE, AUC and A (p {<=} 0.05 at days 40-60) in treated animals compared to controls. However, for k{sub ep} and ADC there were no significant differences between the groups at any time point (p > 0.05 at days 40-60). In conclusion, anti-angiogenic treatment response in osteolytic breast cancer bone metastases can be assessed early with surrogate markers of vascularization, while DWI appears to be insensitive.

  13. The Significance of SDF-1α-CXCR4 Axis in in vivo Angiogenic Ability of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yoon-Kyung; Kim, Gee-Hye; Lee, Jae Cheoun; Seo, Byoung-Moo; Joo, Kyeung-Min; Lee, Gene; Nam, Hyun

    2017-06-30

    Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are multipotent stem cells derived from periodontium and have mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics. Recently, the perivascular region was recognized as the developmental origin of MSCs, which suggests the in vivo angiogenic potential of PDLSCs. In this study, we investigated whether PDLSCs could be a potential source of perivascular cells, which could contribute to in vivo angiogenesis. PDLSCs exhibited typical MSC-like characteristics such as the expression pattern of surface markers (CD29, CD44, CD73, and CD105) and differentiation potentials (osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation). Moreover, PDLSCs expressed perivascular cell markers such as NG2, αsmooth muscle actin, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, and CD146. We conducted an in vivo Matrigel plug assay to confirm the in vivo angiogenic potential of PDLSCs. We could not observe significant vessel-like structures with PDLSCs alone or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HU-VECs) alone at day 7 after injection. However, when PDLSCs and HUVECs were co-injected, there were vessel-like structures containing red blood cells in the lumens, which suggested that anastomosis occurred between newly formed vessels and host circulatory system. To block the SDF-1α and CXCR4 axis between PDLSCs and HUVECs, AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, was added into the Matrigel plug. After day 3 and day 7 after injection, there were no significant vessel-like structures. In conclusion, we demonstrated the peri-vascular characteristics of PDLSCs and their contribution to in vivo angiogenesis, which might imply potential application of PDLSCs into the neovascularization of tissue engineering and vascular diseases.

  14. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) facilitates retinal angiogenesis in a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anupam; Menicucci, Gina; Maestas, Joann; Das, Arup; McGuire, Paul

    2009-10-01

    Angiogenesis, or the formation of new retinal blood vessels, is a key feature of many proliferative retinal diseases including diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and retinopathy of prematurity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the serine proteinase inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) in facilitating retinal angiogenesis. The temporal expression of PAI-1 was examined by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry in retinal tissues from mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy. The requirement for PAI-1 in facilitating the retinal angiogenic response in this model was examined by quantitating the angiogenic response with wild-type and PAI-1 null mice. The mechanism by which PAI-1 mediates angiogenesis was further investigated with isolated human retinal vascular endothelial cells. PAI-1 expression was upregulated in the retinas of mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy, which coincided with a significant increase in the expression of vitronectin in the retina of the experimental mice. There was significant reduction in the angiogenic response of PAI-1(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. PAI-1 promotes endothelial cell migration in vitro and facilitates the migration of cells on a vitronectin substrate by regulating alpha v integrin cell surface expression. These observations suggest a role for PAI-1 during retinal angiogenesis and point to a potential new therapeutic target in the prevention or treatment of retinal neovascularization seen in many ocular diseases.

  15. Antioxidant and angiostatic effect of Spirulina platensis suspension in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A I Ali

    Full Text Available Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many degenerative diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis. Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and curative properties and is also competent of acting as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and recently anti-angiogenic agent. In the present study, the antioxidant and the immunomodulatory effect of Spirulina platensis as well as its anti-angiogenic effect against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA in rat model were tested.We found that the development of arthritis was concealed; moreover it successfully inhibited the development of macroscopic as well as microscopic and histopathological lesions in AIA rats when compared to control. Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group.The present study concluded that Spirulina is able to restrain the changes produced through adjuvant-induced arthritis. The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties.

  16. Antioxidant and angiostatic effect of Spirulina platensis suspension in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eman A I; Barakat, Bassant M; Hassan, Ranya

    2015-01-01

    Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many degenerative diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis. Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and curative properties and is also competent of acting as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and recently anti-angiogenic agent. In the present study, the antioxidant and the immunomodulatory effect of Spirulina platensis as well as its anti-angiogenic effect against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat model were tested. We found that the development of arthritis was concealed; moreover it successfully inhibited the development of macroscopic as well as microscopic and histopathological lesions in AIA rats when compared to control. Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group. The present study concluded that Spirulina is able to restrain the changes produced through adjuvant-induced arthritis. The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties.

  17. Antioxidant and Angiostatic Effect of Spirulina platensis Suspension in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eman A. I.; Barakat, Bassant M.; Hassan, Ranya

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, natural products have built a well-recognized role in the management of many degenerative diseases, mainly rheumatoid arthritis. Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and curative properties and is also competent of acting as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and recently anti-angiogenic agent. In the present study, the antioxidant and the immunomodulatory effect of Spirulina platensis as well as its anti-angiogenic effect against complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat model were tested. Results We found that the development of arthritis was concealed; moreover it successfully inhibited the development of macroscopic as well as microscopic and histopathological lesions in AIA rats when compared to control. Spirulina treated group showed a higher survival rate and moreover, it reduced the clinical score of RA in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased serum levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, TBARS, VEGF and increased serum levels of GSH compared to the RA non-treated group. Conclusions The present study concluded that Spirulina is able to restrain the changes produced through adjuvant-induced arthritis. The suppressing effect of Spirulina could be attributed, at least in part, to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties. PMID:25853428

  18. Monitoring and Targeting Anti-VEGF Induced Hypoxia within the Viable Tumor by 19F–MRI and Multispectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Shi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of anti-angiogenic agents on tumor oxygenation has been in question for a number of years, where both increases and decreases in tumor pO2 have been observed. This dichotomy in results may be explained by the role of vessel normalization in the response of tumors to anti-angiogenic therapy, where anti-angiogenic therapies may initially improve both the structure and the function of tumor vessels, but more sustained or potent anti-angiogenic treatments will produce an anti-vascular response, producing a more hypoxic environment. The first goal of this study was to employ multispectral (MS 19F–MRI to noninvasively quantify viable tumor pO2 and evaluate the ability of a high dose of an antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF to produce a strong and prolonged anti-vascular response that results in significant tumor hypoxia. The second goal of this study was to target the anti-VEGF induced hypoxic tumor micro-environment with an agent, tirapazamine (TPZ, which has been designed to target hypoxic regions of tumors. These goals have been successfully met, where an antibody that blocks both murine and human VEGF-A (B20.4.1.1 was found by MS 19F–MRI to produce a strong anti-vascular response and reduce viable tumor pO2 in an HM-7 xenograft model. TPZ was then employed to target the anti-VEGF-induced hypoxic region. The combination of anti-VEGF and TPZ strongly suppressed HM-7 tumor growth and was superior to control and both monotherapies. This study provides evidence that clinical trials combining anti-vascular agents with hypoxia-activated prodrugs should be considered to improved efficacy in cancer patients.

  19. Swimming-induced exercise promotes hypertrophy and vascularization of fast skeletal muscle fibres and activation of myogenic and angiogenic transcriptional programs in adult zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Rovira, M.; Rizo-Roca, D.; Torrella, J.R.; Spaink, H.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    Background The adult skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue with a remarkable ability to adapt to different levels of activity by altering its excitability, its contractile and metabolic phenotype and its mass. We previously reported on the potential of adult zebrafish as a tractable experimental model

  20. Tumor cells secrete an angiogenic factor that stimulates basic fibroblast growth factor and urokinase expression in vascular endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peverali, F.A.; Mandriota, S.J.; Ciana, P.; Marelli, R.; Quax, P.; Rifkin, D.B.; Della Valle, G.; Mignatti, P.

    1994-01-01

    Culture medium conditioned by human SK-Hep1 hepatoma cells or mouse S180 sarcoma cells rapidly up-regulates endothelial cell expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and induces formation of capillary-like structures by vascular endothelial cells grown on three-dimensional fibrin gels (in

  1. Placental Induced Growth Factor (PIGf) in Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Carabello, Blaise; Mehta, Satish; Schlegel, Todd; Pellis, Neal; Ott, Mark; Pierson, Duane

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies on normal human lymphocytes have shown a five-fold increase (p less than 0.001) in angiogenic inducers such as Placental Induced Growth Factor (PIGf) in physiologically stressful environments such as modeled microgravity, a space analog. This suggests de-regulation of cardiovascular signalling pathways indicated by upregulation of PIGf. In the current study, we measured PIGf in the plasma of 33 patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) to investigate whether such disease is associated with increased levels of PIGf. A control consisting of 31 sex matched apparently healthy subjects was also included in the study. We observed that the levels of PIGf in CAD patients were significantly increased compared to those in healthy control subjects (p less than 0.001) and usually increased beyond the clinical threshold level (greater than 27ng/L). The mechanisms leading to up-regulation of angiogenic factors and the adaptation of organisms to stressful environments such as isolation, high altitude, hypoxia, ischemia, microgravity, increased radiation, etc are presently unknown and require further investigation in spaceflight and these other physiologically stressed environments.

  2. In vivo anti-angiogenic effects further support the promise of the antineoplasic activity of methyl jasmonate Efeitos antiangiogênicos in vivo convalidam a atividade antineoplásica potencial do metiljasmonato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEF. Pereira Lopes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular plant components have long been aimed at the angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis pathways, and have been tested as sources for antineoplasic drugs with promising success. The present work deals with the anti-angiogenic effects of Methyl Jasmonate. Jasmonate derivatives were demonstrated to selectively damage the mitochondria of cancer cells. In vitro, 1-10 mM Methyl Jasmonate induced the cell death of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC and the Murine melanoma cells (B16F10, while micromolar concentrations were ineffective. In vivo, comparable concentrations were toxic and reduced the vessel density of the Chorioallantoic Membrane of the Chicken Embryo (CAM. However, 1-10 µM concentrations produced a complex effect. There was increased capillary budding, but the new vessels were leakier and less organised than corresponding controls. It is suggested that not only direct toxicity, but also the drug effects upon angiogenesis are relevant to the antineoplasic effects of Methyl Jasmonate.Moléculas de origem vegetal são, há muito, conhecidas como substâncias ativas sobre as vias de angiogênese e antiangiogênese e foram testadas como fonte de drogas antineoplásicas com sucesso promissor. Este trabalho trata dos efeitos antiangiogênicos do Metiljasmonato, um protótipo da família dos derivados do ácido jasmônico, que danificam seletivamente a mitocôndria de células neoplásicas. In vitro, metiljasmonato 1-10 mM promoveu a morte celular de células endoteliais humanas de cordão umbilical (HUVEC e de melanoma murino (B16F10; concentrações micromolares foram inócuas. In vivo, concentrações equivalentes foram tóxicas e reduziram a densidade de vasos em membranas corioalantoicas de embrião de galinha (CAM. Entretanto, concentrações entre 1-10 µM produziram um efeito complexo. Ocorreu aumento no brotamento capilar, mas os novos vasos apresentaram-se frágeis e menos organizados que os controles correspondentes

  3. Rac1 and Cdc42 are regulators of HRasV12-transformation and angiogenic factors in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appledorn, Daniel M; Dao, Kim-Hien T; O'Reilly, Sandra; Maher, Veronica M; McCormick, J Justin

    2010-01-01

    The activities of Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for HRas-induced transformation of rodent fibroblasts. What is more, expression of constitutively activated mutants of Rac1 and/or Cdc42 is sufficient for their malignant transformation. The role for these two Rho GTPases in HRas-mediated transformation of human fibroblasts has not been studied. Here we evaluated the contribution of Rac1 and Cdc42 to maintaining HRas-induced transformation of human fibroblasts, and determined the ability of constitutively activated mutants of Rac1 or Cdc42 to induce malignant transformation of a human fibroblast cell strain. Under the control of a tetracycline regulatable promoter, dominant negative mutants of Rac1 and Cdc42 were expressed in a human HRas-transformed, tumor derived fibroblast cell line. These cells were used to determine the roles of Rac1 and/or Cdc42 proteins in maintaining HRas-induced transformed phenotypes. Similarly, constitutively active mutants were expressed in a non-transformed human fibroblast cell strain to evaluate their potential to induce malignant transformation. Affymetrix GeneChip arrays were used for transcriptome analyses, and observed expression differences were subsequently validated using protein assays. Expression of dominant negative Rac1 and/or Cdc42 significantly altered transformed phenotypes of HRas malignantly transformed human fibroblasts. In contrast, expression of constitutively active mutants of Rac1 or Cdc42 was not sufficient to induce malignant transformation. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of 29 genes was dependent on Rac1 and Cdc42, many of which are known to play a role in cancer. The dependence of two such genes, uPA and VEGF was further validated in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The results presented here indicate that expression of both Rac1 and Cdc42 is necessary for maintaining several transformed phenotypes in oncogenic HRas transformed human cells, including their ability to form tumors in athymic

  4. Rac1 and Cdc42 are regulators of HRasV12-transformation and angiogenic factors in human fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Kim-Hien T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activities of Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for HRas-induced transformation of rodent fibroblasts. What is more, expression of constitutively activated mutants of Rac1 and/or Cdc42 is sufficient for their malignant transformation. The role for these two Rho GTPases in HRas-mediated transformation of human fibroblasts has not been studied. Here we evaluated the contribution of Rac1 and Cdc42 to maintaining HRas-induced transformation of human fibroblasts, and determined the ability of constitutively activated mutants of Rac1 or Cdc42 to induce malignant transformation of a human fibroblast cell strain. Methods Under the control of a tetracycline regulatable promoter, dominant negative mutants of Rac1 and Cdc42 were expressed in a human HRas-transformed, tumor derived fibroblast cell line. These cells were used to determine the roles of Rac1 and/or Cdc42 proteins in maintaining HRas-induced transformed phenotypes. Similarly, constitutively active mutants were expressed in a non-transformed human fibroblast cell strain to evaluate their potential to induce malignant transformation. Affymetrix GeneChip arrays were used for transcriptome analyses, and observed expression differences were subsequently validated using protein assays. Results Expression of dominant negative Rac1 and/or Cdc42 significantly altered transformed phenotypes of HRas malignantly transformed human fibroblasts. In contrast, expression of constitutively active mutants of Rac1 or Cdc42 was not sufficient to induce malignant transformation. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of 29 genes was dependent on Rac1 and Cdc42, many of which are known to play a role in cancer. The dependence of two such genes, uPA and VEGF was further validated in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conclusion(s The results presented here indicate that expression of both Rac1 and Cdc42 is necessary for maintaining several transformed phenotypes in oncogenic HRas

  5. A pro-angiogenic degradable Mg-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) implant combined with rhbFGF in a rat limb ischemia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hanmei; Lv, Feng; Liu, Tianjun

    2017-12-01

    Site-specific controlled release of exogenous angiogenic growth factors, such as recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF), has become a promising approach to improve peripheral vascular disease. Here, we have developed an implant composed of spiral magnesium (Mg) and a coating made using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with encapsulated rhbFGF (Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF). The encapsulated protein could release continually for 4weeks with well preserved bioactivity. We compared the angiogenic effect produced by Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF with that of a PLGA implant loaded with rhbFGF (PLGA-rhbFGF). The incorporation of Mg in the implant raised the microclimate pH in the polymer, which preserved the stability of rhbFGF. Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF exhibited advantages over PLGA-rhbFGF implant in terms of a cytocompatibility evaluation. An in vivo angiogenesis test further confirmed the efficacy of released rhbFGF. HE, CD31 and α-SMA staining revealed that the controlled release of rhbFGF from the Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF implant was superior in promoting angiogenesis compared with that of the PLGA-rhbFGF implant. Four weeks post-implantation, the capillary density of the Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the PLGA-rhbFGF, control and the normal group (plactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with encapsulated rhbFGF (Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF). The preparation method does not involve any complex processes and results in a high encapsulation efficiency (approximately 100%). The degradation of metal Mg raise the microclimate pH in the PLGA polymer, which could well preserve the bioactivity of rhbFGF incorporated in the implant. Mg-PLGA-based, sustained local delivery of rhbFGF promotes post-ischemic angiogenesis and blood flow recovery in rat limb ischemic model. This work marks the first report for controlled release of rhbFGF in combination with metal Mg, and suggests potential therapeutic usefulness of Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF for tissue ischemia. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc

  6. Phosphorylated human prolactin (S179D-hPRL) is a potent anti-angiogenic hormone in vitro and in vivo; Prolactina humana pseudofosforilada (S179D-hPRL) e um potente fator anti-angiogenico in vitro e in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Eric Kinnosuke Martins

    2006-07-01

    previously shown, S179D-hPRL blocked extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in response to bFGF, but, in addition, continued co-incubation showed a delayed and prolonged activation of ERK. PD98059 [a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPkinase) inhibitor] inhibited this delayed activation of ERK and the effects of S179D-hPRL on all parameters except p53, or activity of the Bax promoter. We conclude that low doses of S179D-hPRL block bFGF-induced ERK signaling and yet activates ERK in a different time frame to elevate p21, and activate the extrinsic pathway. Longer incubations and higher concentrations, however, additionally activate the intrinsic pathway using an alternate intracellular signal. These findings suggest that circulating levels of phosphorylated hPRL may reduce the progression of cancer and, furthermore, that S179D-hPRL may be a useful anti-angiogenic therapeutic. (author)

  7. Results of a Pilot Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial in Primary and Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon with St. John's Wort: Detecting Changes in Angiogenic Cytokines When RP Improves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenfant, Déanne; Summers, Kelly; Seney, Shannon; McBain, Donna; Petrlich, Lisa; Watson, Sharon; Vanderhoek, Louise; Samadi, Nooshin; Bonner, Ashley; Pope, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Objectives.To perform a 6-week double-blind RCT in Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) comparing the plant extract St. John's Wort (SJW) to placebo. Methods. RP patients having at least 7 attacks per week were stratified by primary and secondary RP and within secondary by systemic sclerosis or other connective tissue disease. Subjects completed a daily standardized diary recording all RP attacks (frequency, duration and severity). Serum levels of 18 inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines were measured pre- and post-treatment. Results. Eighteen patients completed the study; 8 received SJW and 10 placebo. The decrease in mean number of attacks per day was 0.75 with SJW and 1.01 with placebo, P = 0.06. Attack duration and severity were not different between groups. Cytokine analyses demonstrated no between-groups differences. Combining treatment groups, those with >50% improvement in frequency of attacks yielded a significant increase in E-selectin (P = 0.049), MMP-9 (P = 0.011), G-CSF (P = 0.02), and VEGF (P = 0.012) pre- versus post-treatment. A ≥50% improvement in severity of attacks corresponded to a significant increase in levels of sVCAM-1 (P = 0.003), sICAM-1 (P = 0.007), and MCP-1 (P = 0.004). Conclusions. There were no clinical or biomarker benefit of SJW versus placebo in RP. However, combining all patients, there were changes in some cytokines that may be further investigated. PMID:22389797

  8. Sustained systemic response paralleled with ovarian metastasis progression by sunitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Is this an anti-angiogenic potentiation of cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam K Mete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell cancer is associated with poor prognosis and survival and is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Therapeutic targeting of molecular pathways for tumor angiogenesis and other specific activation mechanisms offers improved tumor response and prolonged survival. A 48-year-old, female patient presented with large right renal mass with features suggesting of renal cell cancer without metastasis on contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT. Right radical nephrectomy was done. After 9 months of surgery, she got metastasis in lung, liver and ovary. The patient received sunitinib via an expanded access program. After eight 6-week cycles of sunitinib, a reassessment CT scan confirmed an excellent partial response with the almost complete disappearance (90% of liver and lung metastasis but the adnexal mass had increased in size (>10 times and the possibility was thought of second malignancy. Excision of the mass performed. Histopathology of the mass depicted metastatic renal cell cancer. There is possibility of a ′site-specific anti-angiogenic potentiation mechanism′ of malignancy in relation to sunitinib based upon the preclinical studies, in reference to the index case. Regression of one site with concurrent progression is possible. The exact mechanism of site-specific response, especially organ specific progression by vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors in metastatic renal cell cancer warrants further study.

  9. Relationship between levels of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors and the endoscopic, histological and clinical activity, and acute-phase reactants in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algaba, Alicia; Linares, Pablo M; Fernández-Contreras, M Encarnación; Ordoñez, Amparo; Trápaga, Javier; Guerra, Iván; Chaparro, María; de la Poza, Gema; Gisbert, Javier P; Bermejo, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors (ALFs) may play an important role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aims were to evaluate levels of ALFs in serum and the colonic mucosa culture supernatant (MCS) of patients with active and quiescent IBD and healthy subjects and to correlate them with the endoscopic, clinical and histological activity and with acute-phase reactants. This is a prospective study of 28 controls and 72 IBD patients. Serum and MCS concentration of VEGFA, VEGFC, VEGFD, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PlGF, Ang1, Ang2 and Tie2 were measured by ELISA. Activity was established by specific indexes (CDAI, Mayo score, SES-CD, D'Haens scale and Riley index). Acute-phase reactants were routinely measured. MCS levels of all ALFs except VEGFR3 were higher in patients with endoscopic (p0.8). MCS determination suggests a local increase in ALFs that correlates with IBD activity. Although the correlation between ALFs in serum and MCS was not good, the study of some of these factors as possible targets of new drugs for IBD constitutes a key new line of research. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Achillea biebersteinii Flower Extract and Its Anti-Angiogenic Properties in the Rat Aortic Ring Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties which have attracted intensive research interest because of their important medical applications. In this study silver nanoparticles (Ab.Ag-NPs were synthesized for biomedical applications using a completely green biosynthetic method using Achillea biebersteinii flowers extract. The structure and properties of Ab.Ag-NPs were investigated using UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, zeta potential and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS. The UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peak at 460 nm, which indicates the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The average particle diameter as determined by TEM was found to be 12 ± 2 nm. The zeta potential analysis indicated that Ab.Ag-NPs have good stability EDX analysis also exhibits presentation of silver element. As angiogenesis is an important phenomenon and as growth factors imbalance in this process causes the acceleration of several diseases including cancer, the anti-angiogenic properties of Ab.Ag-NPs were evaluated using the rat aortic ring model. The results showed that Ab.Ag-NPs (200 μg/mL lead to a 50% reduction in the length and number of vessel-like structures. The synthesized silver nanoparticles from the Achillea biebersteinii flowers extract, which do not involve any harmful chemicals were well-dispersed and stabilized through this green method and showed potential therapeutic benefits against angiogenesis.

  11. The anti-angiogenic effect of dexamethasone in a murine hepatocellular carcinoma model by augmentation of gluconeogenesis pathway in malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Fei; Liu, Mingming; Li, Bingwei; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Sheng, Youming; Liu, Shuying; Han, Jianqun; Li, Hongwei; Xiu, Ruijuan

    2016-05-01

    Angiogenesis is a long-term complex process involving various protein factors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Dexamethasone (Dex), considered as a synthetic glucocorticoid drug in clinical therapy, has been reported to have the therapeutic efficacy against liver cancer by intervention of abnormal glycolysis. In this study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic effect of Dex in murine liver cancer and attempted to demonstrate the potential mechanism. The malignant cells H22 were treated with Dex. Western blotting was used to explore the expression of PEPCK and G6Pase which were the two key enzymes that regulated gluconeogenesis. The supernatants from cultured H22 treated by Dex were collected and co-cultured with HUVECs. In vitro, migration assay, transwell assay and tube formation assay were performed to assess for migration, proliferation and tube formation abilities of HUVECs, respectively. In situ murine hepatoma model with green fluorescent protein markers (HepG2-GFP) was constructed to determine angiogenesis after treatment by Dex. PEPCK and G6Pase were almost deficient in H22 compared with normal liver cells NCTC-1469 (P gluconeogenesis could be restored significantly (P gluconeogenesis pathway.

  12. Muscle-specific expression of hypoxia-inducible factor in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mounier, Rémi; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Plomgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is well known to exhibit a high degree of plasticity depending on environmental changes, such as various oxygen concentrations. Studies of the oxygen-sensitive subunit alpha of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) are difficult owing to the large variety of functionally diverse muscle......alpha protein level. Interestingly, none of the HIF-1alpha target genes, like the most studied angiogenic factor involved in muscle angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), exhibited a muscle fibre-specific-related mRNA expression at rest in normoxia. However, soleus presented...... here, support a key role for HIF-1alpha for maintaining muscle homeostasis in non-hypoxic conditions....

  13. PEDF-induced alteration of metabolism leading to insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnagarin, Revathy; Dharmarajan, Arunasalam M; Dass, Crispin R

    2015-02-05

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory, and neurotrophic serine protease inhibitor protein. PEDF is evolving as a novel metabolic regulatory protein that plays a causal role in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is the central pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovarian disease, and metabolic syndrome, and PEDF is associated with them. The current evidence suggests that PEDF administration to animals induces insulin resistance, whereas neutralisation improves insulin sensitivity. Inflammation, lipolytic free fatty acid mobilisation, and mitochondrial dysfunction are the proposed mechanism of PEDF-mediated insulin resistance. This review summarises the probable mechanisms adopted by PEDF to induce insulin resistance, and identifies PEDF as a potential therapeutic target in ameliorating insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Silymarin Ameliorates Diabetes-Induced Proangiogenic Response in Brain Endothelial Cells through a GSK-3β Inhibition-Induced Reduction of VEGF Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Alhusban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Additionally, it was found to induce a dysfunctional angiogenic response in the brain that was attributed to oxidative stress. Milk thistle seed extract (silymarin has potent antioxidant properties, though its potential use in ameliorating diabetes-induced aberrant brain angiogenesis is unknown. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β is a regulator of angiogenesis that is upregulated by diabetes. Its involvement in diabetes-induced angiogenesis is unknown. To evaluate the potential of silymarin to ameliorate diabetes-induced aberrant angiogenesis, human brain endothelial cells (HBEC-5i were treated with 50 μg/mL advanced glycation end (AGE products in the presence or absence of silymarin (50, 100 μM. The angiogenic potential of HBEC-5i was evaluated in terms of migration and in vitro tube formation capacities. The involvement of GSK-3β was also evaluated. AGE significantly increased the migration and tube formation rates of HBEC-5i by about onefold (p=0.0001. Silymarin reduced AGE-induced migration in a dose-dependent manner where 50 μM reduced migration by about 50%, whereas the 100 μM completely inhibited AGE-induced migration. Similarly, silymarin 50 μg/mL blunted AGE-induced tube formation (p=0.001. This effect was mediated through a GSK-3β-dependent inhibition of VEGF release. In conclusion, silymarin inhibits AGE-induced aberrant angiogenesis in a GSK-3β-mediated inhibition of VEGF release.

  15. Cinnamic aldehyde suppresses hypoxia-induced angiogenesis via inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression during tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woom-Yee; Choi, Jae-Sun; Kim, Ja-Eun; Jeong, Joo-Won

    2015-11-01

    During tumor progression, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) plays a critical role in tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth by regulating the transcription of several genes in response to a hypoxic environment and changes in growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of cinnamic aldehyde (CA) on tumor growth and angiogenesis and the mechanisms underlying CA's anti-angiogenic activities. We found that CA administration inhibits tumor growth and blocks tumor angiogenesis in BALB/c mice. In addition, CA treatment decreased HIF-1α protein expression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in mouse tumors and Renca cells exposed to hypoxia in vitro. Interestingly, CA treatment did not affect the stability of von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL)-associated HIF-1α and CA attenuated the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Collectively, these findings strongly indicate that the anti-angiogenic activity of CA is, at least in part, regulated by the mTOR pathway-mediated suppression of HIF-1α protein expression and these findings suggest that CA may be a potential drug for human cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of Angiogenic Factor Production from Murine Mast Cells by an Antiallergic Agent (Epinastine Hydrochloride In Vitro

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    K. Asano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is an important event both in the development of allergic inflammatory responses and in the pathophysiology of tissue remodeling in allergic diseases. In the present study, therefore, we examined the influence of antihistamines on angiogenesis through the choice of epinastine hydrochloride (EP and murine mast cells in vitro. Mast cells (5×105 cells/mL presensitized with murine IgE specific for ovalbumin (OVA were stimulated with 10 ng/mL OVA in the presence of various concentrations of EP for 4 hours. The levels of angiogenesis factors, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in culture supernatants, were examined by ELISA. We also examined mRNA expression for the angiogenesis factors by RT-PCR. EP significantly inhibited the production of KC, TNF, and VEGF induced by IgE-dependent mechanism at more than 25 ng/mL. Semiquantitative analysis using RT-PCR showed that EP also significantly reduced mRNA expressions for KC, TNF, and VEGF. These results strongly suggest that EP suppresses angiogenesis factor production through the inhibition of mRNA expression in mast cells and results in favorable modification of clinical conditions of allergic diseases.

  17. Metabolic Symbiosis Enables Adaptive Resistance to Anti-angiogenic Therapy that Is Dependent on mTOR Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Allen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic targeting of tumor angiogenesis with VEGF inhibitors results in demonstrable, but transitory efficacy in certain human tumors and mouse models of cancer, limited by unconventional forms of adaptive/evasive resistance. In one such mouse model, potent angiogenesis inhibitors elicit compartmental reorganization of cancer cells around remaining blood vessels. The glucose and lactate transporters GLUT1 and MCT4 are induced in distal hypoxic cells in a HIF1α-dependent fashion, indicative of glycolysis. Tumor cells proximal to blood vessels instead express the lactate transporter MCT1, and p-S6, the latter reflecting mTOR signaling. Normoxic cancer cells import and metabolize lactate, resulting in upregulation of mTOR signaling via glutamine metabolism enhanced by lactate catabolism. Thus, metabolic symbiosis is established in the face of angiogenesis inhibition, whereby hypoxic cancer cells import glucose and export lactate, while normoxic cells import and catabolize lactate. mTOR signaling inhibition disrupts this metabolic symbiosis, associated with upregulation of the glucose transporter GLUT2.

  18. Alterations in expression of elastogenic and angiogenic genes by different conditions of mechanical ventilation in newborn rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Andreas A; Wang, Jinxia; Post, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an important risk factor for development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Here we investigated the effects of different tidal volumes (VT) and duration of ventilation on expression of genes involved in alveolarization [tropoelastin (Eln), lysyloxidase-like 1 (Loxl1), fibulin5 (Fbln5), and tenascin-C (Tnc)] and angiogenesis [platelet derived growth factors (Pdgf) and vascular endothelial growth factors (Vegf) and their receptors] in 8-day-old rats. First, pups were ventilated for 8 h with low (LVT: 3.5 ml/kg), moderate (MVT: 8.5 ml/kg), or high (HVT: 25 ml/kg) tidal volumes. LVT and MVT decreased Tnc expression, whereas HVT increased expression of all three elastogenic genes and Tnc. PDGF α-receptor mRNA was increased in all ventilation groups, while Pdgfb expression was decreased after MVT and HVT ventilation. Only HVT ventilation upregulated Vegf expression. Independent of VT, ventilation upregulated Vegfr1 expression, while MVT and HVT downregulated Vegfr2 expression. Next, we evaluated duration (0-24 h) of MVT ventilation on gene expression. Although expression of all elastogenic genes peaked at 12 h of ventilation, only Fbln5 was negatively affected at 24 h. Tnc expression decreased with duration of ventilation. Changes in expression of Pdgfr and Vegfr were maximal at 8 h of ventilation. Disturbed elastin fiber deposition and decrease in small vessel density was only observed after 24 h. Thus, an imbalance between Fbln5 and Eln expression may trigger dysregulated elastin fiber deposition during the first 24 h of mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, ventilation-induced alterations in Pdgf and Vegf receptor expression are tidal volume dependent and may affect pulmonary vessel formation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. The tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Yi-Yong; Lee, Dong-Keon [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); So, Ju-Hoon; Kim, Cheol-Hee [Department of Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jeoung, Dooil [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hansoo [Department of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Jongseon [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Moo-Ho [Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kwon-Soo [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Guen [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Myeong, E-mail: ymkim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Kringle 5, derived from plasminogen, is highly capable of inhibiting angiogenesis. Here, we have designed and synthesized 10 tetrapeptides, based on the amino acid properties of the core tetrapeptide Lys-Leu-Tyr-Asp (KLYD) originating from anti-angiogenic kringle 5 of human plasminogen. Of these, Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu (RLYE) effectively inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation, with an IC{sub 50} of 0.06–0.08 nM, which was about ten-fold lower than that of the control peptide KLYD (0.79 nM), as well as suppressed developmental angiogenesis in a zebrafish model. Furthermore, this peptide effectively inhibited the cellular events that precede angiogenesis, such as ERK and eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide production, in endothelial cells stimulated with VEGF. Collectively, these data demonstrate that RLYE is a potent anti-angiogenic peptide that targets the VEGF signaling pathway. - Highlights: • The tetrapeptide RLYE inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro. • RLYE also suppressed neovascularization in a zebrafish model. • Its effect was correlated with inhibition of VEGF-induced ERK and eNOS activation. • RLYE may be used as a therapeutic drug for angiogenesis-related diseases.

  20. Effects of " vitex agnus castus" extract and magnesium supplementation, alone and in combination, on osteogenic and angiogenic factors and fracture healing in women with long bone fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of vitex agnus castus extract, as a source of phytoestrogens, plus magnesium supplementation on osteogenic and angiogenic factors and callus formation in women with long bone fracture. Material and Methods: In a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial, 64 women with long bone fracture, 20-45 years old, were randomly allocated to receive 1 one Agnugol tablet (4 mg dried fruit extract of vitex agnus castus plus 250 mg magnesium oxide (VAC + Mg group (n = 10, 2 one Agnugol tablet plus placebo (VAC group (n = 15, 3 placebo plus 250 mg magnesium oxide (Mg group (n = 12, or 4 placebo plus placebo (placebo group (n = 14 per day for 8 weeks. At baseline and endpoint of the trial, serum alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured together with radiological bone assessment. Results: There were no significant differences in the characteristic aspects of concern between the four groups at baseline. Despite the increased level of alkaline phosphatase in the VAC group (188.33 ± 16.27 to 240.40 ± 21.49, P = 0.05, administration of VAC + Mg could not increase alkaline phosphatase activity. However, treatment with VAC + Mg significantly enhanced the osteocalcin level. The serum concentration of VEGF was increased in the VAC group (269.04 ± 116.63 to 640.03 ± 240.16, P < 0.05. Callus formation in the VAC + Mg group was higher than the other groups but the differences between the four groups were not significant (P = 0.39. No relevant side effect was observed in patients in each group. Conclusion : Our results suggest that administration of vitex agnus castus plus magnesium may promote fracture healing. However, more studies need to further explore the roles of vitex agnus castus in fracture repair processes.

  1. Effects of "vitex agnus castus" extract and magnesium supplementation, alone and in combination, on osteogenic and angiogenic factors and fracture healing in women with long bone fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Rostami, Zahra Hassanzadeh; Emami, Mohammad Jafar; Tabatabaee, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the combination of vitex agnus castus extract, as a source of phytoestrogens, plus magnesium supplementation on osteogenic and angiogenic factors and callus formation in women with long bone fracture. In a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial, 64 women with long bone fracture, 20-45 years old, were randomly allocated to receive 1) one Agnugol tablet (4 mg dried fruit extract of vitex agnus castus) plus 250 mg magnesium oxide (VAC + Mg group (n = 10)), 2) one Agnugol tablet plus placebo (VAC group (n = 15)), 3) placebo plus 250 mg magnesium oxide (Mg group (n = 12)), or 4) placebo plus placebo (placebo group (n = 14)) per day for 8 weeks. At baseline and endpoint of the trial, serum alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured together with radiological bone assessment. There were no significant differences in the characteristic aspects of concern between the four groups at baseline. Despite the increased level of alkaline phosphatase in the VAC group (188.33 ± 16.27 to 240.40 ± 21.49, P = 0.05), administration of VAC + Mg could not increase alkaline phosphatase activity. However, treatment with VAC + Mg significantly enhanced the osteocalcin level. The serum concentration of VEGF was increased in the VAC group (269.04 ± 116.63 to 640.03 ± 240.16, P vitex agnus castus plus magnesium may promote fracture healing. However, more studies need to further explore the roles of vitex agnus castus in fracture repair processes.

  2. The evaluation of anti-angiogenic treatment effects for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors using functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Zhen, E-mail: leizhen2004@163.com [Department of Anatomy, Chinese Medical University, No. 92, Beiermalu Road, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001 (China) and Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Ma Heji, E-mail: maheji9831@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Xu Na, E-mail: xuna821230@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Xi Huanjiu, E-mail: xihuanjiu2004@yahoo.cn [Anthropology Institute, Liaoning Medical College, No. 40, Sanduan, Songpo Rd, Jinzhou, 121001 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Objective: Investigate the benefit of functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT) perfusion imaging in the non-invasive assessment of targeted anti-angiogenesis therapy on an implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumor model. Method: 69 female pure New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of the 4 groups and received treatment accordingly: control (saline), Endostar, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin and 5-Fluorouracil, CEF), combination therapy (Endostar and CEF). After 2 weeks of treatment, f-MSCT perfusion scannings were performed for all rabbits and information about blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and surface permeability (SP) was collected. After perfusion imaging, tumor tissues were sampled for immunohistochemistry and the Western blot test of VEGF protein expression. Results: (1) The VEGF expression level, measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, decreased by treatment group (control > Endostar > CEF > combination therapy). The same was true for the mean BF, BV, MTT and PS, which decreased from the control group to the combination therapy group gradually. The mean MTT level increased in reverse order from the control to the combination therapy group. The difference between any 2 groups on these measures was statistically significant (P < 0.05). (2) There was moderate positive correlation between VEGF expression and BE, BV, or PS level (P < 0.05) and a negative correlation between VEGF expression and MTT level for all 4 groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, f-MSCT can be used as a non-invasive approach to evaluate the effect of anti-angiogenic therapy for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors.

  3. The evaluation of anti-angiogenic treatment effects for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors using functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Zhen; Ma Heji; Xu Na; Xi Huanjiu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the benefit of functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT) perfusion imaging in the non-invasive assessment of targeted anti-angiogenesis therapy on an implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumor model. Method: 69 female pure New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of the 4 groups and received treatment accordingly: control (saline), Endostar, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin and 5-Fluorouracil, CEF), combination therapy (Endostar and CEF). After 2 weeks of treatment, f-MSCT perfusion scannings were performed for all rabbits and information about blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and surface permeability (SP) was collected. After perfusion imaging, tumor tissues were sampled for immunohistochemistry and the Western blot test of VEGF protein expression. Results: (1) The VEGF expression level, measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, decreased by treatment group (control > Endostar > CEF > combination therapy). The same was true for the mean BF, BV, MTT and PS, which decreased from the control group to the combination therapy group gradually. The mean MTT level increased in reverse order from the control to the combination therapy group. The difference between any 2 groups on these measures was statistically significant (P < 0.05). (2) There was moderate positive correlation between VEGF expression and BE, BV, or PS level (P < 0.05) and a negative correlation between VEGF expression and MTT level for all 4 groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, f-MSCT can be used as a non-invasive approach to evaluate the effect of anti-angiogenic therapy for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors.

  4. Effects of intraluteal implants of prostaglandin E1 or E2 on angiogenic growth factors in luteal tissue of Angus and Brahman cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Yoshie S; Ma, Yan; Ford, Stephen P; Nett, Terry M; Vann, Rhonda C; Lewis, Andrew W; Neuendorff, Don A; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Weems, Charles W

    2014-12-01

    Previously, it was reported that intraluteal implants containing prostaglandin E1 or E2 (PGE1 and PGE2) in Angus or Brahman cows prevented luteolysis by preventing loss of mRNA expression for luteal LH receptors and luteal unoccupied and occupied LH receptors. In addition, intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 upregulated mRNA expression for FP prostanoid receptors and downregulated mRNA expression for EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors. Luteal weight during the estrous cycle of Brahman cows was reported to be lesser than that of Angus cows but not during pregnancy. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 alter vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1), and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) protein in Brahman or Angus cows. On Day 13 of the estrous cycle, Angus cows received no intraluteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved, or Angus and Brahman cows received intraluteal silastic implants containing vehicle, PGE1, or PGE2 on Day 13 and corpora lutea were retrieved on Day 19. Corpora lutea slices were analyzed for VEGF, FGF-2, ANG-1, and ANG-2 angiogenic proteins via Western blot. Day-13 Angus cow luteal tissue served as preluteolytic controls. Data for VEGF were not affected (P > 0.05) by day, breed, or treatment. PGE1 or PGE2 increased (P 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-1 in Angus luteal tissue when compared with Day-13 or Day-19 controls, but ANG-1 was decreased (P 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-2 in Brahman cows. PGE1 or PGE2 may alter cow luteal FGF-2, ANG-1, or ANG-2 but not VEGF to prevent luteolysis; however, species or breed differences may exist. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Physician-initiated first-in-human clinical study using a novel angiogenic peptide, AG30/5C, for patients with severe limb ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Hironori; Yamaoka, Toshifumi; Hayashi, Misa; Tanemura, Atsushi; Takeya, Yasushi; Kurinami, Hitomi; Sugimoto, Ken; Nakamura, Ayumi; Tomono, Kazunori; Tamai, Katsuto; Katayama, Ichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2017-11-01

    In patients with diabetes or ischemia, angiogenesis and infection control are required for chronic leg ulcers, which substantially impair patients' quality of life. We developed a novel functional peptide, named AG30/5C, with angiogenic and anti-microbial properties. Treatment with AG30/5C significantly accelerated the wound healing of full-thickness defects in mice. To evaluate the safety of AG30/5C in the treatment of leg ulcers, a physician-initiated clinical study was carried out. The first-in-human trial was designed as an open-label treatment with AG30/5C (0.1 mg/mL) given twice per day for 11 days, and with a follow-up period of 17 days. The inclusion criteria for severe skin ulcers were: (i) diabetes or critical limb ischemia; (ii) resistance to standard therapy for 1 month; and (iii) detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the skin ulcer. Four patients were enrolled in this study, and two patients met these criteria. For the evaluation of safety, three adverse effects were reported as possibly related to AG30/5C treatment; however, these adverse effects were not severe and resolved during or after treatment. Thus, there were no safety concerns. In both patients, the size of the ulcer decreased after treatment (44.62% and 10.23% decrease), and further decreased after the follow-up period (73.85% and 10.23% decrease). The former patient was diagnosed as Werner syndrome and the skin ulcer was resistant to standard therapy; however, it was sensitive to AG30/5C treatment. Topical treatment with AG30/5C for severe leg ulcers was safe, well tolerated and effective. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2150-2156. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Motuporamines, anti-invasion and anti-angiogenic alkaloids from the marine sponge Xestospongia exigua (Kirkpatrick): isolation, structure elucidation, analogue synthesis, and conformational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E; Craig, Kyle S; Patrick, Brian; McHardy, Lianne M; van Soest, Rob; Roberge, Michel; Andersen, Raymond J

    2002-01-11

    Extracts of the sponge Xestospongia exigua collected in Papua New Guinea were positive in a new assay for anti-invasion activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of the three known motuporamines A (1), B (2), and C (3) along with the new motuporamines D (4), E (5), and F (6) and a mixture of G, H, and I (15). Motuporamines A (1), B (2), and C (3) and the mixture of G, H, and I (15) were responsible for the anti-invasion activity of the crude extract. Motuporamine C (3) has also been found to be anti-angiogenic. A series of analogues of the motuporamines have been synthesized and evaluated for anti-invasive activity. These SAR results revealed that a saturated 15-membered cyclic amine fused to the natural motuporamine diamine side chain (13) represented the optimal structure for anti-invasive activity in this family. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of one of the analogues 20 showed that in the solid state its 16-membered macrocyclic amine fragment adopted the [4444] quadrangular conformation predicted by calculations to be the lowest energy conformation for the corresponding cycloalkane, cyclohexadecane. These data along with literature X-ray data and conformational analysis for derivatives of azacyclotridecane have been used as precedents for predicting the lowest energy ring conformations of other motuporamines. The SAR data from the natural and synthetic motuporamines have been combined with the conformational analyses to provide an outline of the functionality and shape required for activity in this family of alkaloids and to design a new analogue 49 that showed good anti-invasion activity.

  7. Amplification of the angiogenic signal through the activation of the TSC/mTOR/HIF axis by the KSHV vGPCR in Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C Jham

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS is a vascular neoplasm characterized by the dysregulated expression of angiogenic and inflammatory cytokines. The driving force of the KS lesion, the KSHV-infected spindle cell, secretes elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, essential for KS development. However, the origin of VEGF in this tumor remains unclear.Here we report that the KSHV G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR upregulates VEGF in KS through an intricate paracrine mechanism. The cytokines secreted by the few vGPCR-expressing tumor cells activate in neighboring cells multiple pathways (including AKT, ERK, p38 and IKKβ that, in turn, converge on TSC1/2, promoting mTOR activation, HIF upregulation, and VEGF secretion. Conditioned media from vGPCR-expressing cells lead to an mTOR-dependent increase in HIF-1α and HIF-2α protein levels and VEGF upregulation. In a mouse allograft model for KS, specific inhibition of the paracrine activation of mTOR in non-vGPCR-expressing cells was sufficient to inhibit HIF upregulation in these cells, and abolished the ability of the vGPCR-expressing cells to promote tumor formation in vivo. Similarly, pharmacologic inhibition of HIF in this model blocked VEGF secretion and also lead to tumor regression.Our findings provide a compelling explanation for how the few tumor cells expressing vGPCR can contribute to the dramatic amplification of VEGF secretion in KS, and further provide a molecular mechanism for how cytokine dysregulation in KS fuels angiogenesis and tumor development. These data further suggest that activation of HIF by vGPCR may be a vulnerable target for the treatment of patients with KS.

  8. The angiogenic behaviors of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in co-culture with osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) on different titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bin; Andrukhov, Oleh; Berner, Simon; Schedle, Andreas; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2014-08-01

    Interaction between osteogenesis and angiogenesis plays an important role in implant osseointegration. In the present study we investigated the influence of titanium surface properties on the angiogenic behaviors of endothelial cells grown in direct contact co-culture with osteoblasts. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and osteoblast-like cells (MG-63 cells) were grown in direct co-culture on the following titanium surfaces: acid-etched (A), hydrophilic A (modA), coarse-gritblasted and acid-etched (SLA) and hydrophilic SLA (SLActive). Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counting combined with flow cytometry. The expression of von Willebrand Factor (vWF), thrombomodulin (TM), endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR), E-Selectin, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors Flt-1 and KDR in HUVECs and VEGF in MG-63 were measured by qPCR. The dynamic behavior of endothelial cells was recorded by time-lapse microscopy. Proliferation of HUVECs was highest on A, followed by SLA, modA and SLActive surfaces. The expression of vWF, TM, EPCR, E-Selectin and Flt-1 in HUVECs was significantly higher on A than on all other surfaces. The expression of KDR in HUVECs grown on A surface was below detection limit. VEGF expression in MG-63 cells was significantly higher on SLActive vs SLA and modA vs A surfaces. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that HUVECs moved quickest and formed cell clusters earlier on A surface, followed by SLA, modA and SLActive surface. In co-culture conditions, proliferation and expression of angiogenesis associated genes in HUVECs are promoted by smooth hydrophobic Ti surface, which is in contrast to previous mono-culture studies. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of high frequency ultrasound methods and contrast agents for characterising tumor response to anti-angiogenic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rix, Anne, E-mail: arix@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Lederle, Wiltrud, E-mail: wlederle@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Siepmann, Monica, E-mail: monica.siepmann@rub.de [Department of Medical Engineering, Universitätstraße 150, 44780 Bochum, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Fokong, Stanley, E-mail: sfokong@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Behrendt, Florian F., E-mail: fbehrendt@ukaachen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Bzyl, Jessica, E-mail: jbzyl@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Grouls, Christoph, E-mail: cgrouls@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Kiessling, Fabian, E-mail: fkiessling@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Palmowski, Moritz, E-mail: mpalmowski@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced high-frequency 3D Doppler ultrasound with contrast-enhanced 2D and 3D B-mode imaging for assessing tumor vascularity during antiangiogenic treatment using soft-shell and hard-shell microbubbles. Materials and methods: Antiangiogenic therapy effects (SU11248) on vascularity of subcutaneous epidermoid-carcinoma xenografts (A431) in female CD1 nude mice were investigated longitudinally using non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced 3D Doppler at 25 MHz. Additionally, contrast-enhanced 2D and 3D B-mode scans were performed by injecting hard-shell (poly-butyl-cyanoacrylate-based) and soft-shell (phospholipid-based) microbubbles. Suitability of both contrast agents for high frequency imaging and the sensitivity of the different ultrasound methods to assess early antiangiogenic therapy effects were investigated. Ultrasound data were validated by immunohistology. Results: Hard-shell microbubbles induced higher signal intensity changes in tumors than soft-shell microbubbles in 2D B-mode measurements (424 ± 7 vs. 169 ± 8 A.U.; p < 0.01). In 3D measurements, signals of soft-shell microbubbles were hardly above the background (5.48 ± 4.57 vs. 3.86 ± 2.92 A.U.), while signals from hard-shell microbubbles were sufficiently high (30.5 ± 8.06 A.U). Using hard-shell microbubbles 2D and 3D B-mode imaging depicted a significant decrease in tumor vascularity during antiangiogenic therapy from day 1 on. Using soft-shell microbubbles significant therapy effects were observed at day 4 after therapy in 2D B-mode imaging but could not be detected in the 3D mode. With non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced Doppler imaging significant differences between treated and untreated tumors were found from day 2 on. Conclusion: Hard-shell microbubble-enhanced 2D and 3D B-mode ultrasound achieved highest sensitivity for assessing therapy effects on tumor vascularisation and were superior to B-mode ultrasound with soft-shell microbubbles and to Doppler

  10. Radiation induced lung injury: prediction, assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, Prashanth; Mallick, Supriya; Rath, Goura Kishore; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Radiation induced lung injury has long been considered a treatment limiting factor for patients requiring thoracic radiation. This radiation induced lung injury happens early as well as late. Radiation induced lung injury can occur in two phases viz. early (radiation pneumonitis and late (>6 months) when it is called radiation induced lung fibrosis. There are multiple factors that can be patient, disease or treatment related that predict the incidence and severity of radiation pneumonitis. Radiation induced damage to the type I pneumocytes is the triggering factor to initiate such reactions. Over the years, radiation therapy has witnessed a paradigm shift in radiation planning and delivery and successfully reduced the incidence of lung injury. Radiation pneumonitis is usually a diagnosis of exclusion. Steroids, ACE inhibitors and pentoxyphylline constitute the cornerstone of therapy. Radiation induced lung fibrosis is another challenging aspect. The pathophysiology of radiation fibrosis includes continuing inflammation and microvascular changes due to pro-angiogenic and pro- fibrogenic stimuli resembling those in adult bronchiectasis. General supportive management, mobilization of airway secretions, anti-inflammatory therapy and management of acute exacerbations remains the treatment option. Radiation induced lung injury is an inevitable accompaniment of thoracic radiation.

  11. Eugenol induces apoptosis and inhibits invasion and angiogenesis in a rat model of gastric carcinogenesis induced by MNNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Palrasu; Murugan, Ramalingam Senthil; Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Vinothini, Govindarajah; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2010-06-19

    Combining apoptosis induction with anti-invasive and anti-angiogenic treatment is gaining increasing attention as a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention. In the present study, eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) was evaluated for its chemopreventive effects on N-methyl-N(')-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis in Wistar rats by analyzing markers of apoptosis, invasion and angiogenesis. The expressions of markers of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax, Apaf-1, cytochrome C, caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase; PARP), invasion (matrix metalloproteinase-2; MMP-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9; MMP-9, reversion-inducing cysteine rich protein with Kazal motifs; RECK and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-2; TIMP-2) and angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF and VEGF receptor1; VEGFR1) in stomach tissue of experimental and control animals were measured by gelatin zymogram, immunohistochemical, Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. Rats administered MNNG developed gastric carcinomas that displayed apoptosis avoidance coupled to upregulation of pro-invasive and angiogenic factors. Administration of eugenol induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway by modulating the Bcl-2 family proteins, Apaf-1, cytochrome C, and caspases and inhibiting invasion, and angiogenesis as evidenced by changes in the activities of MMPs and the expression of MMP-2 and -9, VEGF, VEGFR1, TIMP-2 and RECK. Phytochemicals such as eugenol that are capable of manipulating the equilibrium between pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins as well as the delicate balance between stimulators and inhibitors of invasion and angiogenesis are attractive candidates for preventing tumour progression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of response to anti-angiogenic targeted therapy in pulmonary metastatic renal cell carcinoma: R2* value as a predictive biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guangyu; Liu, Guiqin; Suo, Shiteng; Liu, Xiaosheng; Xu, Jianrong [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Kong, Wen; Zhang, Jin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Urinary Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Qu, Jianxun [GE Healthcare, Shanghai (China)

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the utility of MR R2*-mapping and the optimal time-point for assessing the response of pulmonary metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) to anti-angiogenic targeted therapy (aATT). The exploration-sample group and the validation-sample group consisted of 22 and 16 patients. The parameters of MR R2*-mapping, including the R2* value at each time-point (R2*{sub base}, R2*{sub 1cyc} and R2*{sub 2cyc}) and change between different time-points (R2*{sub (1cyc-base)/base}, R2*{sub (2cyc-base)/base} and R2*{sub (2cyc-1cyc)/1cyc}), were evaluated with a receiver-operating-characteristic analysis, and a cut-off value derived from the clinical outcome was applied to the Kaplan-Meier method to assess the value of R2* mapping and Response-Evaluation-Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) during treatment evaluation. The inter-, intra-observer agreements and inter-scan consistency were excellent (p > 0.80). For the exploration-sample group, the areas under the curve for the parameters of MR R2* mapping were 0.55, 0.60, 0.83, 0.64, 0.88 and 0.83 for R2*{sub base}, R2*{sub 1cyc}, R2*{sub 2cyc}, R2*{sub (1cyc-base)/base}, R2*{sub (2cyc-base)/base} and R2*{sub (2cyc-1cyc)/1cyc.} For the validation-sample, R2*{sub (2cyc-base)/base} better predicted progression-free survival (p = 0.03) than RECIST and other R2* mapping parameters with a lower p value. Assessing aATT outcome based on changes in the R2* value between baseline and second treatment is more accurate than assessment at other time-points and assessment based on the RECIST. (orig.)

  13. Curcumin and turmeric attenuate arsenic-induced angiogenesis in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Panayotis; Varman, Aarthi; Simpson-Durand, Cindy; Thorpe, Jessica; Ramalingam, Satish; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Houchen, Courtney; Ihnat, Michael; Anant, Shrikant; Ramanujam, Rama P

    2010-01-01

    Trivalent arsenic [As(III)] is currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of chronic and acute leukemias. However, As(III) has also demonstrated damaging effects on human health, including development of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Further, As(III) is a potent angiogenic agent. In this context, curcumin, an active ingredient in the dietary agent turmeric, has demonstrated potent antiproliferative, antiinflammatory, and antiangiogenic properties. In this report, we have shown that both curcumin and turmeric inhibit expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells exposed to As(III). Further, in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay model, treatment with low As(III) concentrations results in extensive increase in blood vessel density, which, however, is reduced in the presence of curcumin or turmeric. Collectively, the findings reported here strongly suggest that turmeric and curcumin can dramatically attenuate the process of angiogenesis induced by low As(III) concentrations.

  14. Analyses of the modulatory effects of antibacterial silver doped calcium phosphate-based ceramic nano-powder on proliferation, survival, and angiogenic capacity of different mammalian cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostancıoğlu, R Beklem; Peksen, Ceren; Genc, Hatice; Gürbüz, Mevlüt; Karel, Filiz Bayrakçı; Koparal, A Savas; Dogan, Aydin; Kose, Nusret; Koparal, A Tansu

    2015-08-26

    In this study, the antibacterial, cytotoxic, and angiogenic activities of silver doped calcium phosphate-based inorganic powder (ABT or PAG) were systematically investigated. ABT powders containing varying silver content were fabricated using a wet chemical manufacturing method. Antibacterial efficiencies of the ABT powders were investigated using a standard test with indicator bacteria and yeast. The cytotoxic effects of ABT on three different fibroblast cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were assessed using MTT assay. ABT powder exhibits concentration-related cytotoxicity characteristics. Apoptotic activity, attachment capability, and wound healing effects were examined on fibroblasts. The angiogenic activity of ABT was investigated by tube formation assay in HUVECs; 10 μg ml(-1) and 100 μg ml(-1) concentrations of the highest metal ion content of ABT did not disrupt the tube formation of HUVECs. All these tests showed that ABT does not compromise the survival of the cells and might impose regeneration ability to various cell types. These results indicate that silver doped calcium phosphate-based inorganic powder with an optimal silver content has good potential for developing new biomaterials for implant applications.

  15. Kaempferol inhibits angiogenic ability by targeting VEGF receptor-2 and downregulating the PI3K/AKT, MEK and ERK pathways in VEGF-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Hsien-Kuo; Horng, Chi-Ting; Liu, Yi-Shan; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Su, Chen-Ying; Chen, Pei-Syuan; Chiu, Hong-Yi; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2018-05-01

    Anti-angiogenesis is one of the most general clinical obstacles in cancer chemotherapy. Kaempferol is a flavonoid phytochemical found in many fruits and vegetables. Our previous study revealed that kaempferol triggered apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by ROS‑mediated p53/ATM/death receptor signaling. However, the anti‑angiogenic potential of kaempferol remains unclear and its underlying mechanism warranted further exploration in VEGF‑stimulated HUVECs. In the present study, kaempferol significantly reduced VEGF‑stimulated HUVEC viability. Kaempferol treatment also inhibited cell migration, invasion, and tube formation in VEGF‑stimulated HUVECs. VEGF receptor‑2 (VEGFR‑2), and its downstream signaling cascades (such as AKT, mTOR and MEK1/2‑ERK1/2) were reduced as determined by western blotting and kinase activity assay in VEGF‑stimulated HUVECs after treatment with kaempferol. The present study revealed that kaempferol may possess angiogenic inhibition through regulation of VEGF/VEGFR‑2 and its downstream signaling cascades (PI3K/AKT, MEK and ERK) in VEGF-stimulated endothelial cells.

  16. Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Nanoparticles Induce Reactive Oxygen Species, AKT, ERK, AP-1, NF-κB, VEGF, and Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling-Zhi; Ding, Min; Zheng, Jenny Z; Zhu, Yingxue; Fenderson, Bruce A; Li, Bingyun; Yu, Jing J; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Powder mixtures of tungsten carbide and metallic cobalt (WC-Co) are widely used in various products. Nanoparticles are engineered structures with at least one dimension of 100 nm or smaller. WC-Co is known to be associated with lung injury and diseases. Angiogenesis is a key process during vasculature, carcinogenesis, recovery of injury, and inflammatory diseases. However, the cellular effects of WC-Co nanoparticles on angiogenesis remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated angiogenic response and relative mechanisms after exposure to WC-Co nanoparticles. Our results showed that WC-Co nanoparticles at 5 μg/cm(2) induced ROS production which activated AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in lung epithelial cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS) staining and immunoblotting; WC-Co treatment also increased transcriptional activation of AP-1, NF-κB, and VEGF by reporter assay. Further studies demonstrated that ROS are upstream molecules of AKT and ERK signaling pathways; the activation of AP-1, NF-κB, and VEGF was through ROS generation, AKT and ERK1/2 activation. In addition, WC-Co nanoparticles affected the cells to induce angiogenesis by chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. These results illustrate that exposure to WC-Co nanoparticles induces angiogenic response by activating ROS, AKT, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and the downstream molecules and elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms during this process. This information may be useful for preventing potential damage from nanoparticle exposure in the future.

  17. Implication of snail in metabolic stress-induced necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Hee Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Necrosis, a type of cell death accompanied by the rupture of the plasma membrane, promotes tumor progression and aggressiveness by releasing the pro-inflammatory and angiogenic cytokine high mobility group box 1. It is commonly found in the core region of solid tumors due to hypoxia and glucose depletion (GD resulting from insufficient vascularization. Thus, metabolic stress-induced necrosis has important clinical implications for tumor development; however, its regulatory mechanisms have been poorly investigated.Here, we show that the transcription factor Snail, a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is induced in a reactive oxygen species (ROS-dependent manner in both two-dimensional culture of cancer cells, including A549, HepG2, and MDA-MB-231, in response to GD and the inner regions of a multicellular tumor spheroid system, an in vitro model of solid tumors and of human tumors. Snail short hairpin (sh RNA inhibited metabolic stress-induced necrosis in two-dimensional cell culture and in multicellular tumor spheroid system. Snail shRNA-mediated necrosis inhibition appeared to be linked to its ability to suppress metabolic stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial permeability transition, which are the primary events that trigger necrosis.Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Snail is implicated in metabolic stress-induced necrosis, providing a new function for Snail in tumor progression.

  18. Melanoma Exosome Induction of Endothelial Cell GM-CSF in Pre-metastatic Lymph Nodes may Result in Different M1 and M2 Macrophage Mediated Angiogenic Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process in the preparation of lymph nodes for melanoma metastasis. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) in M1 or HIF-2α in M2 polarized macrophages. HIF-1α promotes neoangiogenesis while HIF-2α facilitates morphogenic normalization of neovasculature.

  19. Anti-vascular agent Combretastatin A-4-P modulates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 and gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currie Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A functional vascular network is essential for the survival, growth and spread of solid tumours, making blood vessels a key target for therapeutic strategies. Combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA-4-P is a tubulin-depolymerising agent in Phase II clinical trials as a vascular disrupting agent. Not much is known of the molecular effect of CA-4-P under tumour conditions. The tumour microenvironment differs markedly from that in normal tissue, specifically with respect to oxygenation (hypoxia. Gene regulation under tumour conditions is governed by hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1, controlling angiogenic and metastatic pathways. Methods We investigated the effect of CA-4-P on factors of the upstream and downstream signalling pathway of HIF-1 in vitro. Results CA-4-P treatment under hypoxia tended to reduce HIF-1 accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect which was more prominent in endothelial cells than in cancer cell lines. Conversely, CA-4-P increased HIF-1 accumulation under aerobic conditions in vitro. At these concentrations of CA-4-P under aerobic conditions, nuclear factor κB was activated via the small GTPase RhoA, and expression of the HIF-1 downstream angiogenic effector gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, was increased. Conclusion Our findings advance the understanding of signal transduction pathways involved in the actions of the anti-vascular agent CA-4-P.

  20. PGC-1alpha in exercise- and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    (PGC)-1α is required for exercise-, exercise training- and fasting-induced mRNA and protein responses, respectively, of metabolic, angiogenic and gluconeogenic proteins in liver and adipose tissue in mice, 3) PGC-1α is required for both exercise training and resveratrol mediated prevention of age....... Furthermore the physical inactivity abolished the exercise-induced mRNA response of PGC-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in skeletal muscle that was present before bed rest. This indicates that just 7 days of physical inactivity reduces the metabolic capacity of human skeletal muscle...... that citrate synthase (CS) activity and mtDNA/nDNA content decreased with age in skeletal muscle of WT mice. CS activity, mtDNA/nDNA content, pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1α and VEGF protein content increased with lifelong exercise training in WT mice but not in PGC-1α KO mice. In contrast, lifelong resveratrol...

  1. Role of B61, the Ligand for the Eck Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, in TNF- α-Induced Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Akhilesh; Shao, Haining; Marks, Rory M.; Polverini, Peter J.; Dixit, Vishva M.

    1995-04-01

    B61, a cytokine-inducible endothelial gene product, is the ligand for the Eck receptor protein tyrosine kinase (RPTK). Expression of a B61-immunoglobulin chimera showed that B61 could act as an angiogenic factor in vivo and a chemoattractant for endothelial cells in vitro. The Eck RPTK was activated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) through induction of B61, and an antibody to B61 attenuated angiogenesis induced by TNF-α but not by basic fibroblast growth factor. This finding suggests the existence of an autocrine or paracrine loop involving activation of the Eck RPTK by its inducible ligand B61 after an inflammatory stimulus, the net effect of which would be to promote angiogenesis, a hallmark of chronic inflammation.

  2. In vitro and in vivo study of endothelial cells radio-induced death modulation by Sphingosine-1-Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaud, St.

    2007-01-01

    Protecting the vasculature from radiation-induced death is a major concern in tissue radioprotection. Developing a model of endothelial cells radiosensitivity, we proved that HMEC-1 undergo 2 waves of death after exposure to 15 Gy: an early pre mitotic apoptosis dependent of ceramide generation and a delayed DNA damage-induced mitotic death. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P), a ceramide antagonist, protects HMEC-1 only from early apoptosis, but not from mitotic death. We confirmed in vivo the S1P radioprotection from ceramide-mediated radio-induced apoptosis, and that S1P radioprotection is partially mediated by S1Ps receptors. Segregation between these 2 types of death may give the opportunity to define a new class of radioprotectors for normal tissue where quiescent endothelium represent the most sensitive target, while excluding malignant tumor containing pro-proliferating angiogenic endothelial cells, sensitive to mitotic death. (author)

  3. Ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein synthesis by inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Cho, Hyun-Ji [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Magae, Junji [Magae Bioscience Institute, 49-4 Fujimidai, Tsukuba 300-1263 (Japan); Lee, In-Kyu [Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-721 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Keun-Gyu, E-mail: kpark@knu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-721 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Young-Chae, E-mail: ycchang@cu.ac.kr [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-angiogenic effect of ascofuranone, an isoprenoid antibiotic from Ascochyta viciae, in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-1 responsive human breast cancer cells. Ascofuranone significantly and selectively suppressed EGF-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation, whereas it did not affect the expression of HIF-1β. Furthermore, ascofuranone inhibited the transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by reducing protein HIF-1α. Mechanistically, we found that the inhibitory effects of ascofuranone on HIF-1α protein expression are associated with the inhibition of synthesis HIF-1α through an EGF-dependent mechanism. In addition, ascofuranone suppressed EGF-induced phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6 kinase, but the phosphorylation of ERK/JNK/p38 kinase was not affected by ascofuranone. These results suggest that ascofuranone suppresses EGF-induced HIF-1α protein tra