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Sample records for nematode neuropeptide af2

  1. Different Neuropeptides are Expressed in Different Functional Subsets of Cholinergic Excitatory Motorneurons in the Nematode Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konop, Christopher J.; Knickelbine, Jennifer J.; Sygulla, Molly S.; Vestling, Martha M.; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides are known to have dramatic effects on neurons and synapses; however, despite extensive studies of the motorneurons in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, their peptide content had not yet been described. We determined the peptide content of single excitatory motorneurons by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. There are 2 subsets of ventral cord excitatory motorneurons, each with neuromuscular output either anterior or posterior to their cell body, mediating forward or backward locomotion, respectively. Strikingly, the two sets of neurons contain different neuropeptides, with AF9 and 6 novel peptides (As-NLP-21.1-6) in anterior projectors, and the 6 afp-1 peptides in addition to AF2 in posterior projectors. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of these peptides, validating the integrity of the dissection technique. This work identifies new components of the functional behavioral circuit, as well as potential targets for anti-parasitic drug development. PMID:25812635

  2. Different neuropeptides are expressed in different functional subsets of cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konop, Christopher J; Knickelbine, Jennifer J; Sygulla, Molly S; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O W

    2015-06-17

    Neuropeptides are known to have dramatic effects on neurons and synapses; however, despite extensive studies of the motorneurons in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, their peptide content had not yet been described. We determined the peptide content of single excitatory motorneurons by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. There are two subsets of ventral cord excitatory motorneurons, each with neuromuscular output either anterior or posterior to their cell body, mediating forward or backward locomotion, respectively. Strikingly, the two sets of neurons contain different neuropeptides, with AF9 and six novel peptides (As-NLP-21.1-6) in anterior projectors, and the six afp-1 peptides in addition to AF2 in posterior projectors. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of these peptides, validating the integrity of the dissection technique. This work identifies new components of the functional behavioral circuit, as well as potential targets for antiparasitic drug development.

  3. Gene expression and pharmacology of nematode NLP-12 neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Paul; Leech, Suzie; Marks, Nikki J; Geary, Timothy G; Maule, Aaron G

    2006-05-31

    This study examines the biology of NLP-12 neuropeptides in Caenorhabditis elegans, and in the parasitic nematodes Ascaris suum and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. DYRPLQFamide (1 nM-10 microM; n > or =6) produced contraction of innervated dorsal and ventral Ascaris body wall muscle preparations (10 microM, 6.8+/-1.9 g; 1 microM, 4.6+/-1.8 g; 0.1 microM, 4.1+/-2.0 g; 10 nM, 3.8+/-2.0 g; n > or =6), and also caused a qualitatively similar, but quantitatively lower contractile response (10 microM, 4.0+/-1.5 g, n=6) on denervated muscle strips. Ovijector muscle displayed no measurable response (10 microM, n=5). nlp-12 cDNAs were characterised from A. suum (As-nlp-12) and T. colubriformis (Tc-nlp-12), both of which show sequence similarity to C. elegans nlp-12, in that they encode multiple copies of -LQFamide peptides. In C. elegans, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis showed that nlp-12 was transcribed throughout the life cycle, suggesting that DYRPLQFamide plays a constitutive role in the nervous system of this nematode. Transcription was also identified in both L3 and adult stages of T. colubriformis, in which Tc-nlp-12 is expressed in a single tail neurone. Conversely, As-nlp-12 is expressed in both head and tail tissue of adult female A. suum, suggesting species-specific differences in the transcription pattern of this gene.

  4. FLP-1 neuropeptides modulate sensory and motor circuits in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntschuh, Ingrid; Raps, Daniel A; Joseph, Ivor; Reid, Christopher; Chait, Alexander; Totanes, Raubern; Sawh, Michelle; Li, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes infect over one quarter of the population worldwide, causing morbidity in over one billion people. Current anthelmintic drugs are beginning to lose effectiveness due to the presence of resistant strains. We are interested in the role of neuropeptides, which regulate behaviors in all organisms, as another possible target for anthelmintic drugs. FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) are a family of neuropeptides that are conserved throughout the animal kingdom. In particular, nematodes contain the largest family of FaRPs identified thus far and many of these FaRPs are identical among different nematode species; FaRPs in nematodes are collectively referred to as FLPs (FMRFamide-like peptides). However, little is known about the function of these FLPs. We are using the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for examining FLPs in nematodes. C. elegans contains at least 31 flp genes that encode 72 potential FLPs. Among the flp genes, flp-1 is one of the few that is universally found in nematodes. FLP-1 neuropeptides were previously reported to be involved in sensory and motor functions. However, previous alleles of flp-1 also disrupted a neighboring gene, daf-10. To understand the phenotypes of flp-1, new alleles that specifically disrupt flp-1 were characterized. The previously reported locomotory and egg-laying defects were found to be due to loss of flp-1, while the osmolarity defect is due to loss of daf-10. In addition, loss of flp-1 and daf-10 both cause several phenotypes that increase in severity in the double mutants by disrupting different neurons in the neural circuits.

  5. A pharmacological study of NLP-12 neuropeptide signaling in free-living and parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Lise; Janssen, Tom; De Haes, Wouter; Beets, Isabel; Meelkop, Ellen; Grant, Warwick; Schoofs, Liliane

    2012-03-01

    NLP-12a and b have been identified as cholecystokinin/sulfakinin-like neuropeptides in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. They are suggested to play an important role in the regulation of digestive enzyme secretion and fat storage. This study reports on the identification and characterization of an NLP-12-like peptide precursor gene in the rat parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti. The S. ratti NLP-12 peptides are able to activate both C. elegans CKR-2 receptor isoforms in a dose-dependent way with affinities in the same nanomolar range as the native C. elegans NLP-12 peptides. The C-terminal RPLQFamide sequence motif of the NLP-12 peptides is perfectly conserved between free-living and parasitic nematodes. Based on systemic amino acid replacements the Arg-, Leu- and Phe- residues appear to be critical for high-affinity receptor binding. Finally, a SAR analysis revealed the essential pharmacophore in C. elegans NLP-12b to be the pentapeptide RPLQFamide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synergism between soluble guanylate cyclase signaling and neuropeptides extends lifespan in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abergel, Rachel; Livshits, Leonid; Shaked, Maayan; Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Gross, Einav

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen (O 2 ) homeostasis is important for all aerobic animals. However, the manner by which O 2 sensing and homeostasis contribute to lifespan regulation is poorly understood. Here, we use the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to address this question. We demonstrate that a loss-of-function mutation in the neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1 and a deletion mutation in the atypical soluble guanylate cyclase gcy-35 O 2 sensor interact synergistically to extend worm lifespan. The function of npr-1 and gcy-35 in the O 2 -sensing neurons AQR, PQR, and URX shortens the lifespan of the worm. By contrast, the activity of the atypical soluble guanylate cyclase O 2 sensor gcy-33 in these neurons is crucial for lifespan extension. In addition to AQR, PQR, and URX, we show that the O 2 -sensing neuron BAG and the interneuron RIA are also important for the lifespan lengthening. Neuropeptide processing by the proprotein convertase EGL-3 is essential for lifespan extension, suggesting that the synergistic effect of joint loss of function of gcy-35 and npr-1 is mediated through neuropeptide signal transduction. The extended lifespan is regulated by hypoxia and insulin signaling pathways, mediated by the transcription factors HIF-1 and DAF-16. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to play an important function in lifespan lengthening. As HIF-1 and DAF-16 activities are modulated by ROS, we speculate that joint loss of function of gcy-35 and npr-1 extends lifespan through ROS signaling. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A neuropeptide modulates sensory perception in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Morris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs employ a sophisticated chemosensory apparatus to detect potential hosts. Understanding the molecular basis of relevant host-finding behaviours could facilitate improved EPN biocontrol approaches, and could lend insight to similar behaviours in economically important mammalian parasites. FMRFamide-like peptides are enriched and conserved across the Phylum Nematoda, and have been linked with motor and sensory function, including dispersal and aggregating behaviours in the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The RNA interference (RNAi pathway of Steinernema carpocapsae was characterised in silico, and employed to knockdown the expression of the FMRFamide-like peptide 21 (GLGPRPLRFamide gene (flp-21 in S. carpocapsae infective juveniles; a first instance of RNAi in this genus, and a first in an infective juvenile of any EPN species. Our data show that 5 mg/ml dsRNA and 50 mM serotonin triggers statistically significant flp-21 knockdown (-84%*** over a 48 h timecourse, which inhibits host-finding (chemosensory, dispersal, hyperactive nictation and jumping behaviours. However, whilst 1 mg/ml dsRNA and 50 mM serotonin also triggers statistically significant flp-21 knockdown (-51%** over a 48 h timecourse, it does not trigger the null sensory phenotypes; statistically significant target knockdown can still lead to false negative results, necessitating appropriate experimental design. SPME GC-MS volatile profiles of two EPN hosts, Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor reveal an array of shared and unique compounds; these differences had no impact on null flp-21 RNAi phenotypes for the behaviours assayed. Localisation of flp-21 / FLP-21 to paired anterior neurons by whole mount in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry corroborates the RNAi data, further suggesting a role in sensory modulation. These data can underpin efforts to study these behaviours in other economically important parasites, and could

  8. Control of nematode parasites with agents acting on neuro-musculature systems: lessons for neuropeptide ligand discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard J; Robertson, Alan P

    2010-01-01

    rates are now often less than 100% and resistance of parasites to agents acting on the neuromuscular systems is present in a wide range of parasites of animals and humans hosts. In the face of this resistance the development of novel and effective agents is an urgent and imperative need. New drugs which act on the neuromuscular system have an advantage for medication for animals and humans because they have a rapid therapeutic effect within 3 hours of administration. The effects on the neuromuscular system include: spastic paralysis with drugs like levamisole and pyrantel; flaccid paralysis as with piperazine; or disruption of other vital muscular activity as with ivermectin. Figure 1 B and C, illustrates an example ofa spastic effect oflevamisole on infectious L3 larvae of Ostertagia ostertagiae, a parasite of pigs. The effect was produced within minutes of the in vitro application oflevamisole. In this chapter we comment on the properties of existing agents that have been used to control nematode parasites and that have an action on neuromuscular systems. We then draw attention to resistance that has developed to these compounds and comment on their toxicity and spectra of actions. We hope that some of the lessons that the use of these compounds has taught us may to be applied to any novel neuropeptide ligand that may be introduced. Our aim is then is to provide some warning signs for recognized but dangerous obstacles.

  9. Neuropeptide W

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    Fumiko eTakenoya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide W (NPW, which was first isolated from the porcine hypothalamus, exists in two forms, consisting of 23 (NPW23 or 30 (NPW30 amino acids. These neuropeptides bind to one of two neuropeptide W receptors, either NPBWR1 (otherwise known as GPR7 or NPBWR2 (GPR8, which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor family. GPR7 is expressed in the brain and peripheral organs of both humans and rodents, whereas GPR8 is not found in rodents. GPR7 mRNA in rodents is widely expressed in several hypothalamic regions, including the paraventricular, supraoptic, ventromedial, dorsomedial, suprachiasmatic and arcuate nuclei. These observations suggest that GPR7 plays a crucial role in the modulation of neuroendocrine function. The intracerebroventricular infusion of NPW has been shown to suppress food intake and body weight and to increase both heat production and body temperature, suggesting that this neuropeptide functions as an endogenous catabolic signaling molecule. Here we summarize our current understanding of the distribution and function of NPW in the brain.

  10. Neuropeptides, Microbiota, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, P

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota and the brain interact with each other through multiple bidirectional signaling pathways in which neuropeptides and neuroactive peptide messengers play potentially important mediator roles. Currently, six particular modes of a neuropeptide link are emerging. (i) Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters contribute to the mutual microbiota-host interaction. (ii) The synthesis of neuroactive peptides is influenced by microbial control of the availability of amino acids. (iii) The activity of neuropeptides is tempered by microbiota-dependent autoantibodies. (iv) Peptide signaling between periphery and brain is modified by a regulatory action of the gut microbiota on the blood-brain barrier. (v) Within the brain, gut hormones released under the influence of the gut microbiota turn into neuropeptides that regulate multiple aspects of brain activity. (vi) Cerebral neuropeptides participate in the molecular, behavioral, and autonomic alterations which the brain undergoes in response to signals from the gut microbiota. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunochemical analysis of neuropeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehfeld, J.F.; Hilsted, L.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of neuropeptides requires assays that take into account the basic characteristics of bioactive peptides, i.e. the structural homology; the molecular heterogeneity of a given neuropeptide system; the widespread synthesis in different neurons and cells; and cell-specific processing of the primary translation product. Development of libraries of sensitive radioimmunoassays (RIAs), each of which is monospecific for essential sequences of propeptides, comply with some of the needs. Processing-site specific RIAs have proven particularly useful in combination with chromatography and enzymography. 4 references, 1 figure

  12. Neuropeptides in cnidarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J.P.; Williamson, Michael; Hansen, Georg Nørgaard

    2002-01-01

    Cnidarians are the lowest animal group having a nervous system. In the primitive nervous systems of cnidarians, peptides play important roles as neurotransmitters or neurohormones. So far, we have isolated and sequenced about 35 neuropeptides from different cnidarian classes (Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa,...

  13. Phytopathogenic Nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, J.; Vervoort, M.T.W.; Megen, van H.H.B.; Rybarczyk-Mydlowska, K.; Quist, C.W.; Smant, G.; Bakker, J.

    2015-01-01

    Soil is teeming with life, and rhizosphere soil is even more densely in habited than bulk soil. In terms of biomass, bacteria and fungi are dominant groups, whereas nematodes (roundworms) are the most abundant Metazoans. Bulk soil, soil not directly affected by living plant roots, typically harbours

  14. Behaviour of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juveniles exposed to nematode FMRFamide-like peptides in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes depend upon a family of neuropeptides, the FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), to regulate locomotion and behavior. To exploit FLPs as leads to novel nematode control agents, an understanding of how specific FLPs affect behavior, and what differences exist between species, is i...

  15. FAMILY OF FLP PEPTIDES IN CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS AND RELATED NEMATODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eLi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides regulate all aspects of behavior in multicellular organisms. Because of their ability to act at long distances, neuropeptides can exert their effects beyond the conventional synaptic connections, thereby adding an intricate layer of complexity to the activity of neural networks. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a large number of neuropeptide genes that are expressed throughout the nervous system has been identified. The actions of these peptides supplement the synaptic connections of the 302 neurons, allowing for fine tuning of neural networks and increasing the ways in which behaviors can be regulated. In this review, we focus on a large family of genes encoding FMRFamide-related peptides. These genes, the flp genes, have been used as a starting point to identifying flp genes throughout Nematoda. Nematodes have the largest family of FMRFamide-related peptides described thus far. The challenges in the future are the elucidation of their functions and the identification of the receptors and signaling pathways through which they function.

  16. The FMRFamide-like peptide family in nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katleen ePeymen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the three decades since the FMRFamide peptide was isolated from the mollusk Macrocallista nimbosa, structurally similar peptides sharing a C-terminal RFamide motif have been identified across the animal kingdom. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs represent the largest known family of neuropeptides in invertebrates. In the phylum Nematoda, at least 32 flp genes are classified, making the FLP system of nematodes unusually complex. The diversity of the nematode FLP complement is most extensively mapped in Caenorhabditis elegans, where over 70 FLPs have been predicted. FLPs have shown to be expressed in the majority of the 302 C. elegans neurons including interneurons, sensory and motor neurons. The vast expression of FLPs is reflected in the broad functional repertoire of nematode FLP signaling, including neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory effects on locomotory activity, reproduction, feeding, and behavior. In contrast to the many identified nematode FLPs, only few peptides have been assigned a receptor and there is the need to clarify the pathway components and working mechanisms of the FLP signaling network. Here, we review the diversity, distribution, and functions of FLPs in nematodes.

  17. The Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    Discusses advantages of nematode use for studying patterns of cell division, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Describes nematode development. Cites experimental approaches available for genetic studies. Reviews the topics of control of cell division and differentiation, the nervous system, and muscle assembly and function of the organism. (RT)

  18. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius Strain AF2, a Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Goldman, Gustavo H; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M

    2015-12-03

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius strain AF2, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing cellulose, although at lower levels compared to another bacterium from the same environment, K. rhaeticus strain AF1. Copyright © 2015 dos Santos et al.

  20. Coexistence of neuropeptides in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1983-01-01

    Using a technique for simultaneous visualisation of two antigens in one section, oxytocin-like immunoreactivity has been found to coexist with bombesin-like immunoreactivity in neurons of the basal disk, gastric region and tentacles of hydra. Neurons with oxytocin-like immunoreactivity in peduncle...... and hypostome, on the other hand, have little or no bombesin-like material. Oxytocin-like immunoreactivity never coexists with FMRFamide-immunoreactivity. The neurons with oxytocin- and FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity, however, are often found to be closely intermingled. The results show that coexistence......, as well as non-coexistence, of neuropeptides is a phylogenetically old principle....

  1. INTERPRETATION OF AT-LINE SPECTRA FROM AFS-2 BATCH #3 FERROUS SULFAMATE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.; O' Rourke, P.

    2013-12-10

    Spectra from the “at-line” spectrometer were obtained during the ferrous sulfamate (FS) valence adjustment step of AFS-2 Batch #3 on 9/18/2013. These spectra were analyzed by mathematical principal component regression (PCR) techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. Despite the complications from Pu(IV), we conclude that all Pu(VI) was consumed during the FS treatment, and that by the end of the treatment, about 85% was as Pu(IV) and about 15% was as Pu(III). Due to the concerns about the “odd” shape of the Pu(IV) peak and the possibility of this behavior being observed in the future, a follow-up sample was sent to SRNL to investigate this further. Analysis of this sample confirmed the previous results and concluded that it “odd” shape was due to an intermediate acid concentration. Since the spectral evidence shows complete reduction of Pu(VI) we conclude that it is appropriate to proceed with processing of this the batch of feed solution for HB-Line including the complexation of the fluoride with aluminum nitrate.

  2. Neuropeptides in Lower Urinary Tract (LUT) Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, neurokinin A, bradykinin, and endothelin-1 are expressed in the lower urinary tract (LUT) in both neural and non-neural (e.g., urothelium) components. LUT neuropeptide immunoreactivity is present in afferent and autonomic efferent neurons innervating the bladder and urethra and in the urothelium of the urinary bladder. Neuropeptides have tissue-specific distributions and functions in the LUT and exhibit neuroplastic changes in expression and function with LUT dysfunction following neural injury, inflammation and disease. LUT dysfunction with abnormal voiding including urinary urgency, increased voiding frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence and pain may reflect a change in the balance of neuropeptides in bladder reflex pathways. LUT neuropeptide/receptor systems may represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21290237

  3. Biodegradation of BOD and ammonia-free using bacterial consortium in aerated fixed film bioreactor (AF2B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayitno, Rulianah, Sri; Saroso, Hadi; Meilany, Diah

    2017-06-01

    BOD and Ammonia-free (NH3-N) are pollutants of hospital wastewater which often exceed the quality standards. It is because biological processes in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) have not been effective in degrading BOD and NH3-N. Therefore, a study on factors that influence the biodegradation of BOD and NH3-N by choosing the type of bacteria to improve the mechanisms of biodegradation processes is required. Bacterial consortium is a collection of several types of bacteria obtained from isolation process, which is known to be more effective than a single bacterial in degrading pollutants. On the other hand, AF2B is a type of reactor in wastewater treatment system. The AF2B contains a filter media that has a large surface area so that the biodegradation process of pollutants by microorganism can be improved. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of volume of starter and air supplies on decreasing BOD and NH3-N in hospital wastewater using bacterial consortium in the AF2B on batch process. The research was conducted in three stages: the making of the growth curve of the bacterial consortium, bacterial consortium acclimatization, and hospital wastewater treatment in the AF2B with batch process. The variables used are the volume of starter (65%, 75%, and 85% in volume) and air supplies (2.5, 5, and 7.5 L/min). Meanwhile, the materials used are hospital wastewater, bacterial consortium (Pseudomonas diminuta, Pseudomonas capica, Bacillius sp, and Nitrobacter sp), blower, and AF2B. AF2B is a plastic basin containing a filter media with a wasp-nest shape used as a medium for growing the bacterial consortium. In the process of making the growth curve, a solid form of bacterial consortium was dissolved in sterilized water, then grown in a nutrient broth (NB). Then, shaking and sampling were done at any time to determine the path growth of bacterial consortium. In the acclimatization process, bacterial isolates were grown using hospital wastewater as a

  4. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs.

  5. Neuropeptides in Lower Urinary Tract (LUT) Function

    OpenAIRE

    Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, neurokinin A, bradykinin, and endothelin-1 are expressed in the lower urinary tract (LUT) in both neural and non-neural (e.g., urothelium) components. LUT neuropeptide immunoreactivity is present in afferent and autonomic efferent neurons innervating the bladder and urethra and in the urothelium of the urinary bla...

  6. AFS-2 FLOWSHEET MODIFICATIONS TO ADDRESS THE INGROWTH OF PU(VI) DURING METAL DISSOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crapse, K.; Rudisill, T.; O' Rourke, P.; Kyser, E.

    2014-07-02

    In support of the Alternate Feed Stock Two (AFS-2) PuO{sub 2} production campaign, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted a series of experiments concluding that dissolving Pu metal at 95°C using a 6–10 M HNO{sub 3} solution containing 0.05–0.2 M KF and 0–2 g/L B could reduce the oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) as compared to dissolving Pu metal under the same conditions but at or near the boiling temperature. This flowsheet was demonstrated by conducting Pu metal dissolutions at 95°C to ensure that PuO{sub 2} solids were not formed during the dissolution. These dissolution parameters can be used for dissolving both Aqueous Polishing (AP) and MOX Process (MP) specification materials. Preceding the studies reported herein, two batches of Pu metal were dissolved in the H-Canyon 6.1D dissolver to prepare feed solution for the AFS-2 PuO{sub 2} production campaign. While in storage, UV-visible spectra obtained from an at-line spectrophotometer indicated the presence of Pu(VI). Analysis of the solutions also showed the presence of Fe, Ni, and Cr. Oxidation of Pu(IV) produced during metal dissolution to Pu(VI) is a concern for anion exchange purification. Anion exchange requires Pu in the +4 oxidation state for formation of the anionic plutonium(IV) hexanitrato complex which absorbs onto the resin. The presence of Pu(VI) in the anion feed solution would require a valence adjustment step to prevent losses. In addition, the presence of Cr(VI) would result in absorption of chromate ion onto the resin and could limit the purification of Pu from Cr which may challenge the purity specification of the final PuO{sub 2} product. Initial experiments were performed to quantify the rate of oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) (presumed to be facilitated by Cr(VI)) as functions of the HNO{sub 3} concentration and temperature in simulated dissolution solutions containing Cr, Fe, and Ni. In these simulated Pu dissolutions studies, lowering the temperature from near boiling

  7. Social networks of educated nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate lethal parasitoids of insect larvae that navigate a chemically complex belowground environment while interacting with their insect hosts, plants, and each other. In this environment, prior exposure to volatile compounds appears to prime nematodes in a compound...

  8. cyst nematode in tiaret a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Labdelli

    1 sept. 2017 ... Syrie par [12], en Arabie saoudite par [16, 17], en Iran par [18] en Inde par [19]en Chine par[20] . .... qui a pour principe d'évaluer le taux de multiplication du nematode en fin de culture et le comparé à ..... cereal cyst nematode complex in relation to breeding resistant durum wheat Fundam. appl. Nemat ...

  9. Emerging functions for neuropeptide Y5 receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, A.; Michel, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Y5 subtype of neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors has raised considerable interest as a mediator of NPY-stimulated food intake, but with the advent of recent data, this hypothesis has come into question. Moreover, Y5 receptor-selective drugs might not be specific for food intake because additional

  10. Zerumbone improved immunoreactivity of neuropeptides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this investigation was to explore the improvement effect of oral administration of zerumbone on the density of protein gene product; calcitonin gene related peptide and neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve fibers against monosodium iodoacetate induced osteoarthritis changes in rat's knee synovial ...

  11. Neuropeptides controlling energy balance: orexins and neuromedins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Joshua P.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Novak, Colleen M.; Billington, Charles J.; Teske, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we review the feeding and energy expenditure effects of orexin (also known as hypocretin) and neuromedin. Orexins are multifunctional neuropeptides that affect energy balance by participating in regulation of appetite, arousal, and spontaneous physical activity. Central orexin signaling for all functions originates in the lateral hypothalamus–perifornical area, and is likely functionally differentiated based on site of action and on interacting neural influences. The effect of orexin on feeding is likely related to arousal in some ways, but is nonetheless a separate neural process that depends on interactions with other feeding related neuropeptides. In a pattern distinct from other neuropeptides, orexin stimulates both feeding and energy expenditure. Orexin increases in energy expenditure are mainly by increasing spontaneous physical activity, and this energy expenditure effect is more potent than the effect on feeding. Global orexin manipulations, such as in transgenic models, produce energy balance changes consistent with a dominant energy expenditure effect of orexin. Neuromedins are gut-brain peptides that reduce appetite. There are gut sources of neuromedin, but likely the key appetite related neuromedin producing neurons are in hypothalamus and parallel other key anorectic neuropeptide expression in the arcuate to paraventricular hypothalamic projection. As with other hypothalamic feeding related peptides, hindbrain sites are likely also important sources and targets of neuromedin anorectic action. Neuromedin increases physical activity in addition to reducing appetite, thus producing a consistent negative energy balance effect. Together with the various other neuro-peptides, -transmitters, -modulators and –hormones, neuromedin and orexin act in the appetite network to produce changes in food intake and energy expenditure, which ultimately influences the regulation of body weight. PMID:22249811

  12. Discovery of novel representatives of bilaterian neuropeptide families and reconstruction of neuropeptide precursor evolution in ophiuroid echinoderms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abylkassimova, Nikara; Hugall, Andrew F.; O'Hara, Timothy D.; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2017-01-01

    Neuropeptides are a diverse class of intercellular signalling molecules that mediate neuronal regulation of many physiological and behavioural processes. Recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing are enabling identification of neuropeptide precursor proteins in species from a growing variety of animal taxa, providing new insights into the evolution of neuropeptide signalling. Here, detailed analysis of transcriptome sequence data from three brittle star species, Ophionotus victoriae, Amphiura filiformis and Ophiopsila aranea, has enabled the first comprehensive identification of neuropeptide precursors in the class Ophiuroidea of the phylum Echinodermata. Representatives of over 30 bilaterian neuropeptide precursor families were identified, some of which occur as paralogues. Furthermore, homologues of endothelin/CCHamide, eclosion hormone, neuropeptide-F/Y and nucleobinin/nesfatin were discovered here in a deuterostome/echinoderm for the first time. The majority of ophiuroid neuropeptide precursors contain a single copy of a neuropeptide, but several precursors comprise multiple copies of identical or non-identical, but structurally related, neuropeptides. Here, we performed an unprecedented investigation of the evolution of neuropeptide copy number over a period of approximately 270 Myr by analysing sequence data from over 50 ophiuroid species, with reference to a robust phylogeny. Our analysis indicates that the composition of neuropeptide ‘cocktails’ is functionally important, but with plasticity over long evolutionary time scales. PMID:28878039

  13. RNA interference in plant parasitic nematodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... nematodes. RNAi should help identify gene and, hence, protein targets for nematode control strategies. Key words: RNA interference, RNAi, gene expression, plant parasitic nematodes. INTRODUCTION. Plant parasitic nematodes are found as pests of crops throughout the world with many having a severe ...

  14. Kinetic Profile of Neuropeptide-Receptor Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederpelt, Indira; Bunnik, Julia; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2016-12-01

    Currently, drug discovery focusses only on quantifying pharmacological parameters, sometimes including binding kinetics, of drug candidates. For a complete understanding of a drug's desired binding kinetics, the kinetics of both the target and its endogenous ligands should be considered. This is because the release and binding kinetics of endogenous ligands in addition to receptor internalization rates are significant contributors to drug-target interactions. Here, we discuss the kinetic profile of three neuropeptides and their receptors; gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), neuropeptide Y receptors, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF 1 R). These three examples provide new insights into the importance of kinetic profiles which could improve the understanding of desired drug-target binding kinetics and advance drug discovery for various neurological and psychiatric illnesses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuropeptide levels in Dercum's disease (adiposis dolorosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Brorson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dercum’s disease (adiposis dolorosa is characterised by adiposity and chronic pain in the adipose tissue. It has been proposed that conditions encompassing chronic pain have altered concentrations of neuropeptides involved in pain transmission. The aim of this investigation was to examine whether patients with Dercum’s disease have abnormal concentrations of different neuropeptides. In cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and in plasma (P from 53 patients with Dercum’s disease substance P-like immunoreactivity (SP-LI, neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI, b-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (b-END-LI, calcitonin gene-related peptidelike immunoreactivity (CGRP-LI, met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity (m-ENK-LI, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI, somatostatin (SOM-LI, g2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-like immunoreactivity (g2-MSH-LI, and dynorphin-like immunoreactivity (DYN-LI were measured. Three of the substances were also measured in a control group. The CSF concentration of SP was statistically significantly lower in the Dercum group than in the control group, whereas NPY-LI and b-END-LI were borderline statistically significantly lower and higher, respectively, in Dercum patients compared to controls. Compared with reference values, CSF-MSH-LI levels were slightly elevated and CSF-NPY-LI levels were slightly lowered in the Dercum group. The other substances in both CSF and plasma were within the reference values with a high degree of statistical significance. In conclusion, altered levels of neuropeptides that have previously been seen in different pain conditions cannot clearly be demonstrated in Dercum’s disease.

  16. RNAi-mediated disruption of neuropeptide genes, nlp-3 and nlp-12, cause multiple behavioral defects in Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Manoranjan; Dutta, Tushar K; Phani, Victor; Papolu, Pradeep K; Shivakumara, Tagginahalli N; Rao, Uma

    2017-08-26

    Owing to the current deficiencies in chemical control options and unavailability of novel management strategies, root-knot nematode (M. incognita) infections remain widespread with significant socio-economic impacts. Helminth nervous systems are peptide-rich and appear to be putative drug targets that could be exploited by antihelmintic chemotherapy. Herein, to characterize the novel peptidergic neurotransmitters, in silico mining of M. incognita genomic and transciptomic datasets revealed the presence of 16 neuropeptide-like protein (nlp) genes with structural hallmarks of neuropeptide preproproteins; among which 13 nlps were PCR-amplified and sequenced. Two key nlp genes (Mi-nlp-3 and Mi-nlp-12) were localized to the basal bulb and tail region of nematode body via in situ hybridization assay. Mi-nlp-3 and Mi-nlp-12 were greatly expressed (in qRT-PCR assay) in the pre-parasitic juveniles and adult females, suggesting the association of these genes in host recognition, development and reproduction of M. incognita. In vitro knockdown of Mi-nlp-3 and Mi-nlp-12 via RNAi demonstrated the significant reduction in attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato root in Pluronic gel medium. A pronounced perturbation in development and reproduction of NLP-silenced worms was also documented in adzuki beans in CYG growth pouches. The deleterious phenotypes obtained due to NLP knockdown suggests that transgenic plants engineered to express RNA constructs targeting nlp genes may emerge as an environmentally viable option to manage nematode problems in crop plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Caenorhabditis elegans NLP peptides with arthropod neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Steven J; Lindemans, Marleen; Janssen, Tom; Schoofs, Liliane

    2009-04-01

    Neuropeptides are small messenger molecules that can be found in all metazoans, where they govern a diverse array of physiological processes. Because neuropeptides seem to be conserved among pest species, selected peptides can be considered as attractive targets for drug discovery. Much can be learned from the model system Caenorhabditis elegans because of the availability of a sequenced genome and state-of-the-art postgenomic technologies that enable characterization of endogenous peptides derived from neuropeptide-like protein (NLP) precursors. Here, we provide an overview of the NLP peptide family in C. elegans and discuss their resemblance with arthropod neuropeptides and their relevance for anthelmintic discovery.

  18. Neuropeptide delivery to the brain: a von Willebrand factor signal peptide to direct neuropeptide secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Backer Marijke WA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple neuropeptides, sometimes with opposing functions, can be produced from one precursor gene. To study the roles of the different neuropeptides encoded by one large precursor we developed a method to overexpress minigenes and establish local secretion. Results We fused the signal peptide from the Von Willebrand Factor (VWF to a furin site followed by a processed form of the Agouti related protein (AgRP, AgRP83-132 or α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. In vitro, these minigenes were secreted and biologically active. Additionally, the proteins of the minigenes were not transported into projections of primary neurons, thereby ensuring local release. In vivo administration of VWF-AgRP83-132 , using an adeno-associated viral vector as a delivery vehicle, into the paraventricular hypothalamus increased body weight and food intake of these rats compared to rats which received a control vector. Conclusions This study demonstrated that removal of the N-terminal part of full length AgRP and addition of a VWF signal peptide is a successful strategy to deliver neuropeptide minigenes to the brain and establish local neuropeptide secretion.

  19. Transcriptomic identification of starfish neuropeptide precursors yields new insights into neuropeptide evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Dean C.; Mirabeau, Olivier; Moghul, Ismail; Pancholi, Mahesh R.; Wurm, Yannick; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides are evolutionarily ancient mediators of neuronal signalling in nervous systems. With recent advances in genomics/transcriptomics, an increasingly wide range of species has become accessible for molecular analysis. The deuterostomian invertebrates are of particular interest in this regard because they occupy an ‘intermediate' position in animal phylogeny, bridging the gap between the well-studied model protostomian invertebrates (e.g. Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans) and the vertebrates. Here we have identified 40 neuropeptide precursors in the starfish Asterias rubens, a deuterostomian invertebrate from the phylum Echinodermata. Importantly, these include kisspeptin-type and melanin-concentrating hormone-type precursors, which are the first to be discovered in a non-chordate species. Starfish tachykinin-type, somatostatin-type, pigment-dispersing factor-type and corticotropin-releasing hormone-type precursors are the first to be discovered in the echinoderm/ambulacrarian clade of the animal kingdom. Other precursors identified include vasopressin/oxytocin-type, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-type, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-type, calcitonin-type, cholecystokinin/gastrin-type, orexin-type, luqin-type, pedal peptide/orcokinin-type, glycoprotein hormone-type, bursicon-type, relaxin-type and insulin-like growth factor-type precursors. This is the most comprehensive identification of neuropeptide precursor proteins in an echinoderm to date, yielding new insights into the evolution of neuropeptide signalling systems. Furthermore, these data provide a basis for experimental analysis of neuropeptide function in the unique context of the decentralized, pentaradial echinoderm bauplan. PMID:26865025

  20. In silico prediction of neuropeptides in Hymenoptera parasitoid wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Juhua; Zhao, Jianhua; Tian, Xiaoli

    2018-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps of the order Hymenoptera, the most diverse groups of animals, are important natural enemies of arthropod hosts in natural ecosystems and can be used in biological control. To date, only one neuropeptidome of a parasitoid wasp, Nasonia vitripennis, has been identified. This study aimed to identify more neuropeptides of parasitoid wasps, by using a well-established workflow that was previously adopted for predicting insect neuropeptide sequences. Based on publicly accessible databases, totally 517 neuropeptide precursors from 24 parasitoid wasp species were identified; these included five neuropeptides (CNMamide, FMRFamide-like, ITG-like, ion transport peptide-like and orcokinin B) that were identified for the first time in parasitoid wasps, to our knowledge. Next, these neuropeptides from parasitoid wasps were compared with those from other insect species. Phylogenetic analysis suggested the divergence of AST-CCC within Hymenoptera. Further, the encoding patterns of CAPA/PK family genes were found to be different between Hymenoptera species and other insect species. Some neuropeptides that were not found in some parasitoid superfamilies (e.g., sulfakinin), or considerably divergent between different parasitoid superfamilies (e.g., sNPF) might be related to distinct physiological processes in the parasitoid life. Information of neuropeptide sequences in parasitoid wasps can be useful for better understanding the phylogenetic relationships of Hymenoptera and further elucidating the physiological functions of neuropeptide signaling systems in parasitoid wasps.

  1. Micellar nanomedicine of human neuropeptide Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmis, Antonina; Lim, Sok Bee; Desai, Esha; Jeon, Eunjung; Lee, Bao-Shiang; Rubinstein, Israel; Onyüksel, Hayat

    2011-08-01

    Human neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important biologics that regulates a multitude of physiological functions and could be amenable to therapeutic manipulations in certain disease states. However, rapid (within minutes) enzymatic degradation and inactivation of NPY precludes its development as a drug. Accordingly, we determined whether self-association of NPY with biocompatible and biodegradable sterically stabilized phospholipid micelles (SSM) improves its stability and bioactivity. We found that in saline NPY spontaneously aggregates; however, in the presence of SSM it self-associates with the micelles as monomers. Three NPY molecules self-associate with 1 SSM at saturation. This process stabilizes the peptide in α-helix conformation, abrogates its degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and potentiates NPY-induced inhibition of cAMP elaboration in SK-N-MC cells. Collectively, these data indicate that self-association of NPY with SSM stabilizes and protects the peptide in active monomeric conformation, thereby amplifying its bioactivity in vitro. We propose further development of NPY in SSM as a novel, long-acting nanomedicine. Human neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulates a multitude of physiological functions and could be amenable to therapeutic manipulations, which is currently limited by its short half life. Self-association of NPY with spherically stabilized micelles (SSM) protects and stabilizes the peptide in active monomeric conformation, thereby amplifying its bioactivity in vitro, enabling future therapeutic considerations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuropeptide Signaling in Crustaceans Probed by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhidan

    Neuropeptides are one of the most diverse classes of signaling molecules whose identities and functions are not yet fully understood. They have been implicated in the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes, including feeding-related and motivated behaviors, and also environmental adaptations. In this work, improved mass spectrometry-based analytical platforms were developed and applied to the crustacean systems to characterize signaling molecules. This dissertation begins with a review of mass spectrometry-based neuropeptide studies from both temporal- and spatial-domains. This review is then followed by several chapters detailing a few research projects related to the crustacean neuropeptidomic characterization and comparative analysis. The neuropeptidome of crayfish, Orconectes rusticus is characterized for the first time using mass spectrometry-based tools. In vivo microdialysis sampling technique offers the capability of direct sampling from extracellular space in a time-resolved manner. It is used to investigate the secreted neuropeptide and neurotransmitter content in Jonah crab, Cancer borealis, in this work. A new quantitation strategy using alternative mass spectrometry data acquisition approach is developed and applied for the first time to quantify neuropeptides. Coupling of this method with microdialysis enables the study of neuropeptide dynamics concurrent with different behaviors. Proof-of-principle experiments validating this approach have been carried out in Jonah crab, Cancer borealis to study feeding- and circadian rhythm-related neuropeptide changes using micoridialysis in a time-resolved manner. This permits a close correlation between behavioral and neurochemical changes, providing potential candidates for future validation of regulatory roles. In addition to providing spatial information, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) technique enables the characterization of signaling molecules while preserving the temporal resolution. A

  3. Predator-prey interactions of nematode-trapping fungi and nematodes: both sides of the coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Diez de Ulzurrun, Guillermo; Hsueh, Yen-Ping

    2018-05-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi develop complex trapping devices to capture and consume nematodes. The dynamics of these organisms is especially important given the pathogenicity of nematodes and, consequently, the potential application of nematode-trapping fungi as biocontrol agents. Furthermore, both the nematodes and nematode-trapping fungi can be easily grown in laboratories, making them a unique manipulatable predator-prey system to study their coevolution. Several different aspects of these fungi have been studied, such as their genetics and the different factors triggering trap formation. In this review, we use the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (which forms adhesive nets) as a model to describe the trapping process. We divide this process into several stages; namely attraction, recognition, trap formation, adhesion, penetration, and digestion. We summarize the latest findings in the field and current knowledge on the interactions between nematodes and nematode-trapping fungi, representing both sides of the predator-prey interaction.

  4. Nematode Indicators of Organic Enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferris, H.; Bongers, A.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    The organisms of the soil food web, dependent on resources from plants or on amendment from other sources, respond characteristically to enrichment of their environment by organic matter. Primary consumers of the incoming substrate, including bacteria, fungi, plant-feeding nematodes, annelids, and

  5. Differential neuropeptide responses to starvation with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, T; Makino, S; Nishiyama, M; Asaba, K; Hashimoto, K

    2001-12-01

    During starvation, counterregulatory responses to loss of food (i.e. responses that lead to an increase in appetite) occur in the central nervous system (CNS). This study was designed to examine whether middle-aged rats show greater or smaller behavioural, peripheral and central hormonal responses during starvation compared to young rats. In experiment 1, refeeding following 4 days of starvation was measured in both middle-aged (72-week-old) and young (9-week-old) rats. The level of refeeding was similar to each prestarved level until 3 days after the end of starvation in both groups. From the 4th day, the level of refeeding in young rats increased and reached beyond the prestarved level, whereas refeeding in middle-aged rats remained similar to the prestarved level. Thus, overall refeeding throughout 7 days was greater in young rats than in middle-aged rats. In experiment 2, middle-aged and young rats were starved for 4 days and were killed in the morning. Middle-aged rats showed a smaller plasma corticosterone response than that of young rats. The magnitude of decreases in plasma glucose, insulin and leptin was similar in both groups. In the arcuate nucleus, the starvation-induced increase in neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA and the decrease in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA were smaller in middle-aged rats than in young rats. In contrast, the starvation-induced decrease in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was greater in middle-aged rats than young rats. The magnitude of decrease in type-2 CRH receptor mRNA in the ventromedial hypothalamus was similar in both groups. The results indicate that (a) ageing impaired refeeding response (b), middle-aged rats showed the same directional neuropeptide mRNA responses as seen in young rats during starvation and (c) the magnitude of these counterregulatory responses in the CNS in middle-aged versus young rats was not uniform, but rather was site-specific or neuropeptide

  6. Neuropeptide S Receptor Induces Neuropeptide Expression and Associates with Intermediate Phenotypes of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Carlson, Paula; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; McKinzie, Sanna; Busciglio, Irene; Burton, Duane; Zucchelli, Marco; D’Amato, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims NPSR1, the receptor for neuropeptide S (NPS), is expressed by gastrointestinal (GI) enteroendocrine (EE) cells, and is involved in inflammation, anxiety and nociception. NPSR1 polymorphisms are associated with asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. We aimed to determine whether NPS induces expression of GI neuropeptides; and to associate NPSR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with symptom phenotype and GI functions in health and functional GI disorders (FGID). Methods The effect of NPS on mRNA expression of neuropeptides was assessed using real-time PCR in NPSR1-tranfected HEK293 cells. Seventeen NPSR1 SNPs were successfully genotyped in 699 subjects from a regional cohort of 466 FGID patients and 233 healthy controls. Associations were sought using sex-adjusted regression analysis and false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Results NPS-NPSR1 signaling induced increased expression of CCK, VIP, PYY, and somatostatin. There were no significant associations with phenotypes of FGID symptoms. There were several NPSR1 SNPs associated with individual motor or sensory functions; the associations of SNPs rs2609234, rs6972158 and rs1379928 with colonic transit rate remained significant after FDR correction. The rs1379928 polymorphism was also associated with pain, gas and urgency sensory ratings at 36 mm Hg distension, the level pre-specified for formal testing. Associations with rectal sensory ratings were not significant after FDR correction. Conclusions Expression of several neuropeptides is induced upon NPS-NPSR1 signaling; NPSR1 variants are associated with colonic transit in FGID. The role of the NPS system in FGID deserves further study. PMID:19732772

  7. NeuroPep: a comprehensive resource of neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Mingxia; Yin, Sanwen; Jang, Richard; Wang, Jian; Xue, Zhidong; Xu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides play a variety of roles in many physiological processes and serve as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of some nervous-system disorders. In recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of identified neuropeptides. Therefore, we have developed NeuroPep, a comprehensive resource of neuropeptides, which holds 5949 non-redundant neuropeptide entries originating from 493 organisms belonging to 65 neuropeptide families. In NeuroPep, the number of neuropeptides in invertebrates and vertebrates is 3455 and 2406, respectively. It is currently the most complete neuropeptide database. We extracted entries deposited in UniProt, the database (www.neuropeptides.nl) and NeuroPedia, and used text mining methods to retrieve entries from the MEDLINE abstracts and full text articles. All the entries in NeuroPep have been manually checked. 2069 of the 5949 (35%) neuropeptide sequences were collected from the scientific literature. Moreover, NeuroPep contains detailed annotations for each entry, including source organisms, tissue specificity, families, names, post-translational modifications, 3D structures (if available) and literature references. Information derived from these peptide sequences such as amino acid compositions, isoelectric points, molecular weight and other physicochemical properties of peptides are also provided. A quick search feature allows users to search the database with keywords such as sequence, name, family, etc., and an advanced search page helps users to combine queries with logical operators like AND/OR. In addition, user-friendly web tools like browsing, sequence alignment and mapping are also integrated into the NeuroPep database. Database URL: http://isyslab.info/NeuroPep © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Antimicrobial effectors in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: an outgroup to the Arthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierking, Katja; Yang, Wentao; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2016-05-26

    Nematodes and arthropods likely form the taxon Ecdysozoa. Information on antimicrobial effectors from the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans may thus shed light on the evolutionary origin of these defences in arthropods. This nematode species possesses an extensive armory of putative antimicrobial effector proteins, such as lysozymes, caenopores (or saposin-like proteins), defensin-like peptides, caenacins and neuropeptide-like proteins, in addition to the production of reactive oxygen species and autophagy. As C. elegans is a bacterivore that lives in microbe-rich environments, some of its effector peptides and proteins likely function in both digestion of bacterial food and pathogen elimination. In this review, we provide an overview of C. elegans immune effector proteins and mechanisms. We summarize the experimental evidence of their antimicrobial function and involvement in the response to pathogen infection. We further evaluate the microbe-induced expression of effector genes using WormExp, a recently established database for C. elegans gene expression analysis. We emphasize the need for further analysis at the protein level to demonstrate an antimicrobial activity of these molecules both in vitro and in vivoThis article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Neuropeptide Control of Feeding Behavior in Birds and Its Difference with Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Tachibana, Tetsuya; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is an essential behavior for animals to sustain their lives. Over the past several decades, many neuropeptides that regulate feeding behavior have been identified in vertebrates. These neuropeptides are called “feeding regulatory neuropeptides.” There have been numerous studies on the role of feeding regulatory neuropeptides in vertebrates including birds. Some feeding regulatory neuropeptides show different effects on feeding behavior between birds and other vertebrates, particularly...

  10. Review: Neuropeptide Control of Feeding Behavior in Birds and its Difference with Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuya Tachibana; Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is an essential behavior for animals to sustain their lives. Over the past several decades, many neuropeptides that regulate feeding behavior have been identified in vertebrates. These neuropeptides are called feeding regulatory neuropeptides. There have been numerous studies on the role of feeding regulatory neuropeptides in vertebrates including birds. Some feeding regulatory neuropeptides show different effects on feeding behavior between birds and other vertebrates, particularly m...

  11. Evolution of pigment-dispersing factor neuropeptides in Panarthropoda: Insights from Onychophora (velvet worms) and Tardigrada (water bears).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Georg; Hering, Lars; Stosch, Juliane M; Stevenson, Paul A; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) denotes a conserved family of homologous neuropeptides present in several invertebrate groups, including mollusks, nematodes, insects, and crustaceans (referred to here as pigment-dispersing hormone [PDH]). With regard to their encoding genes (pdf, pdh), insects possess only one, nematodes two, and decapod crustaceans up to three, but their phylogenetic relationship is unknown. To shed light on the origin and diversification of pdf/pdh homologs in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda) and other molting animals (Ecdysozoa), we analyzed the transcriptomes of five distantly related onychophorans and a representative tardigrade and searched for putative pdf homologs in publically available genomes of other protostomes. This revealed only one pdf homolog in several mollusk and annelid species; two in Onychophora, Priapulida, and Nematoda; and three in Tardigrada. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the last common ancestor of Panarthropoda possessed two pdf homologs, one of which was lost in the arthropod or arthropod/tardigrade lineage, followed by subsequent duplications of the remaining homolog in some taxa. Immunolocalization of PDF-like peptides in six onychophoran species, by using a broadly reactive antibody that recognizes PDF/PDH peptides in numerous species, revealed an elaborate system of neurons and fibers in their central and peripheral nervous systems. Large varicose projections in the heart suggest that the PDF neuropeptides functioned as both circulating hormones and locally released transmitters in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda. The lack of PDF-like-immunoreactive somata associated with the onychophoran optic ganglion conforms to the hypothesis that onychophoran eyes are homologous to the arthropod median ocelli. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Role of Hypothalamic Neuropeptides in Neurogenesis and Neuritogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bakos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a source of neural progenitor cells which give rise to different populations of specialized and differentiated cells during brain development. Newly formed neurons in the hypothalamus can synthesize and release various neuropeptides. Although term neuropeptide recently undergoes redefinition, small-size hypothalamic neuropeptides remain major signaling molecules mediating short- and long-term effects on brain development. They represent important factors in neurite growth and formation of neural circuits. There is evidence suggesting that the newly generated hypothalamic neurons may be involved in regulation of metabolism, energy balance, body weight, and social behavior as well. Here we review recent data on the role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in adult neurogenesis and neuritogenesis with special emphasis on the development of food intake and social behavior related brain circuits.

  13. Immunologists getting nervous: neuropeptides, dendritic cells and T cell activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIt is increasingly recognised that the immune and nervous systems are closely integrated to optimise defence systems within the lung. In this commentary, the contribution of various neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive

  14. Advances in Mass Spectrometric Tools for Probing Neuropeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchberger, Amanda; Yu, Qing; Li, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators in the functionality of the brain and other neurological organs. Because neuropeptides exist in a wide range of concentrations, appropriate characterization methods are needed to provide dynamic, chemical, and spatial information. Mass spectrometry and compatible tools have been a popular choice in analyzing neuropeptides. There have been several advances and challenges, both of which are the focus of this review. Discussions range from sample collection to bioinformatic tools, although avenues such as quantitation and imaging are included. Further development of the presented methods for neuropeptidomic mass spectrometric analysis is inevitable, which will lead to a further understanding of the complex interplay of neuropeptides and other signaling molecules in the nervous system.

  15. Analoghi del Neuropeptide S modificati in posizione 5

    OpenAIRE

    Del Zoppo, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is the last neuropeptide identified via Reverse Pharmacology techniques. NPS selectively binds and activates a previously orphan GPCR 154, now named NPSR, producing intracellular calcium mobilization and cAMP levels. Biological functions modulated by the NPS/NPSR system include anxiety, arousal, locomotion, food intake, memory, and drug addiction. The primary sequence of NPS (in humans SFRNGVGTGMKKTSFQRAKS) is highly conserved among vertebrates especially a...

  16. New techniques, applications and perspectives in neuropeptide research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaney, Kellen; Buchberger, Amanda R; Atkinson, Louise; Gründer, Stefan; Mousley, Angela; Li, Lingjun

    2018-02-08

    Neuropeptides are one of the most diverse classes of signaling molecules and have attracted great interest over the years owing to their roles in regulation of a wide range of physiological processes. However, there are unique challenges associated with neuropeptide studies stemming from the highly variable molecular sizes of the peptides, low in vivo concentrations, high degree of structural diversity and large number of isoforms. As a result, much effort has been focused on developing new techniques for studying neuropeptides, as well as novel applications directed towards learning more about these endogenous peptides. The areas of importance for neuropeptide studies include structure, localization within tissues, interaction with their receptors, including ion channels, and physiological function. Here, we discuss these aspects and the associated techniques, focusing on technologies that have demonstrated potential in advancing the field in recent years. Most identification and structural information has been gained by mass spectrometry, either alone or with confirmations from other techniques, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and other spectroscopic tools. While mass spectrometry and bioinformatic tools have proven to be the most powerful for large-scale analyses, they still rely heavily on complementary methods for confirmation. Localization within tissues, for example, can be probed by mass spectrometry imaging, immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassays. Functional information has been gained primarily from behavioral studies coupled with tissue-specific assays, electrophysiology, mass spectrometry and optogenetic tools. Concerning the receptors for neuropeptides, the discovery of ion channels that are directly gated by neuropeptides opens up the possibility of developing a new generation of tools for neuroscience, which could be used to monitor neuropeptide release or to specifically change the membrane potential of neurons. It is expected

  17. Survey of Nematodes on Coffee in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, S.; Schmitt, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of coffee fields in Hawaii during 1989-1991 indicated the presence of 10 nematode species in 8 genera. After coffee was planted in fields previously in sugarcane, populations of Criconemella sp. and Pratylenchus zeae gradually decreased, while Rotylenchulus reniformis and, in one field, Meloidogyne incognita, increased in numbers. Coffee is a poor host of R. reniformis, but weeds in coffee plantations may support this nematode. At present, nematodes pose no serious threat to Hawaii's expanding coffee industry. PMID:19283060

  18. Phylogeny of nematodes from birds of prey

    OpenAIRE

    Honisch, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Birds of prey host a wide variety of endoparasites. The majority of these endoparasites are nematodes. They can be found mainly in the digestive and respiratory system. The current accepted phylogeny of nematodes found in birds of prey is based on morphological traits. In this study molecular data were used to assess phylogenetic relationships in this group of parasitic nematodes. The aim of the study was to evaluate a method for rapid species identification, to construct a phylogeny of paras...

  19. Survey of Nematodes on Coffee in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Schenck, S.; Schmitt, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of coffee fields in Hawaii during 1989-1991 indicated the presence of 10 nematode species in 8 genera. After coffee was planted in fields previously in sugarcane, populations of Criconemella sp. and Pratylenchus zeae gradually decreased, while Rotylenchulus reniformis and, in one field, Meloidogyne incognita, increased in numbers. Coffee is a poor host of R. reniformis, but weeds in coffee plantations may support this nematode. At present, nematodes pose no serious threat to Hawaii's ...

  20. MGL-1 on AIY neurons translates starvation to reproductive plasticity via neuropeptide signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haelim; Paik, Young-Ki

    2017-10-01

    Reproductive plasticity is the ability of an animal to modulate its reproductive functions in response to environmental changes. For example, Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode, can adjust the onsets of oogenesis and embryogenesis under harsh environmental conditions, including starvation. However, the molecular mechanisms used to perceive and translate environmental signals into reproductive functional adjustments remain largely uncharacterized. We discovered that in C. elegans, the glutamate receptor homolog MGL-1 initiated reproductive plasticity in response to starvation. A genetic analysis of the mutant gene, mgl-1(tm1811), suggested that starvation delayed the onsets of oogenesis and embryogenesis via MGL-1. Cell-specific rescues of mgl-1 deletion mutants, which used transgenic lines designed to express MGL-1 in different neurons (e.g., RMD, AIA, AIY, and NSM), suggested that only AIY-rescued animals exhibited normal delays in oogenesis and embryogenesis equivalent to those of wild-type animals, suggesting recovery. Furthermore, in AIY neurons, MGL-1 appears to use neuropeptide signaling, rather than glutamate, to translate starvation stimuli into delayed oogenesis and embryogenesis. Our findings, which reveal molecular linkages between starvation signals and reproductive alterations, may provide a basis for understanding energy reallocation mechanisms, as the mgl-1 deletion mutant exhibited more severe reductions in lifespan and fat accumulation than did wild-type animals under starvation conditions. Taken together, MGL-1 is the molecular driver underlying the translation of starvation signals to reproduction plasticity in an AIY neuron-specific manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Autonomic dysfunction and neuropeptide Y in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, M; Iannuccelli, C; Alessandri, C; Paradiso, M; Riccieri, V; Libri, F; Valesini, G

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome associated with widespread pain and various other signs and symptoms. Several of these multisystem features could be explained on the basis of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ANS dysfunction in FM based on time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) analysis and serum neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in 51 patients with FM, 25 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), and 15 healthy controls (NHS). Compared with the SSc and NHS groups, the FM group had significantly higher NPY levels, and in the FM subgroup subjected to HRV analysis (25/51 patients, 49%), certain HRV indices were significantly reduced. In this subgroup, NPY was significantly correlated with the SDANN index and the NN50, but neither NPY or HRV parameters showed any significant correlation with clinical aspects of the FM. These findings suggest that autonomic dysfunction and NPY are crucial elements in the pathophysiology of FM. Additional studies are necessary to define the complex roles played by NPY and ANS in modulating pain and immunological functions of different diseases.

  2. The neuropeptide oxytocin modulates consumer brand relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Andreas; Thron, Jesko; Scheele, Dirk; Marsh, Nina; Hurlemann, René

    2015-10-09

    Each year, companies invest billions of dollars into marketing activities to embellish brands as valuable relationship partners assuming that consumer brand relationships (CBRs) and interpersonal relationships rest upon the same neurobiological underpinnings. Given the crucial role of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in social bonding, this study tests whether OXT-based mechanisms also determine the bond between consumers and brands. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled study involving 101 subjects and analyzed the effect of intranasal OXT on consumers' attribution of relationship qualities to brands, brands paired with human celebrity endorsers, and familiar persons. OXT indeed promoted the attribution of relationship qualities not only in the case of social and semi-social stimuli, but also brands. Intriguingly, for subjects scoring high on autistic-like traits, the effect of OXT was completely reversed, evident in even lower relationship qualities across all stimulus categories. The importance of OXT in a CBR context is further corroborated by a three-fold increase in endogenous release of OXT following exposure to one's favorite brand and positive associations between baseline peripheral OXT concentrations and brand relationship qualities. Collectively, our findings indicate that OXT not only plays a fundamental role in developing interpersonal relationships, but also enables relationship formation with objects such as brands.

  3. Condensed tannins act against cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novobilský, Adam; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    The use of natural plant anthelmintics was suggested as a possible alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in ruminants. Direct anthelmintic effects of tannin-containing plants have already been shown in sheep and goat GIN. These anthelmintic properties are mainly associated with ...... extracts. Our results, therefore, indicated that tannin-containing plants could act against cattle nematodes....

  4. Benthic freshwater nematode community dynamics under conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of the influence of fish aquaculture on benthic freshwater nematode assemblages are scarce, but could provide a way of gauging environmental effects. The abundance and diversity of nematode assemblages in response to Oreochromis niloticus aquaculture were investigated in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, ...

  5. Neuropeptide Mapping of Dimmed Cells of Adult Drosophila Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesner, Max; Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    Neuropeptides are structurally highly diverse messenger molecules that act as regulators of many physiological processes such as development, metabolism, reproduction or behavior in general. Differentiation of neuropeptidergic cells often corresponds with the presence of the transcription factor DIMMED. In the central nervous system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, DIMMED commonly occurs in neuroendocrine neurons that release peptides as neurohormones but also in interneurons with complex branching patterns. Fly strains with green fluorescence protein (GFP)-expressing dimmed cells make it possible to systematically analyze the processed neuropeptides in these cells. In this study, we mapped individual GFP-expressing neurons of adult D. melanogaster from the dimmed (c929)>GFP line. Using single cell mass spectrometry, we analyzed 10 types of dimmed neurons from the brain/gnathal ganglion. These cells included neuroendocrine cells with projection into the retrocerebral complex but also a number of large interneurons. Resulting mass spectra not only provided comprehensive data regarding mature products from 13 neuropeptide precursors but also evidence for the cellular co-localization of neuropeptides from different neuropeptide genes. The results can be implemented in a neuroanatomical map of the D. melanogaster brain. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Expression of neuropeptides and their degrading enzymes in ACD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, H; Lee, W J; Lee, Y W; Chang, S-E; Choi, J-H; Kim, M N; Kim, B J; Choi, Y S; Suh, H S

    2010-04-01

    Sensory neuropeptides such as neurokinin A or substance P modulate skin and immune cells the functions of neurokinin receptor activation during neurogenic inflammation. Zinc metalloproteases, such as neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), effectively control the bioavailability of these neuropeptide mediators, which are released from sensory nerves, immune and skin cells during cutaneous responses to endogenous or exogenous noxious stimuli. Recently, studies have suggested that neuropeptides are one of the major pathogenetic fact in many dermatoses, such as allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. To investigate the expression of major neuropeptides, SP and its degrading enzymes such as NEP and ACE, in the lesions of ACD. A skin biopsy was obtained from 10 patients with ACD. We analysed the expression of these molecules by immunohistochemical staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, western blotting and reverse transcription PCR. There was a significant increase in expression of SP in keratinocytes from ACD lesions compared with those in control skin. There was also increased expression of ACE but not NEP in ACD. Neuropeptides and their degrading enzymes, particularly SP and ACE, have a significant role in the pathogenesis of ACD.

  7. A secreted antibacterial neuropeptide shapes the microbiome of Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, René; Schröder, Katja; Murillo Rincón, Andrea P; Fraune, Sebastian; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Herbst, Eva-Maria; Wittlieb, Jörg; Schwentner, Martin; Grötzinger, Joachim; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2017-09-26

    Colonization of body epithelial surfaces with a highly specific microbial community is a fundamental feature of all animals, yet the underlying mechanisms by which these communities are selected and maintained are not well understood. Here, we show that sensory and ganglion neurons in the ectodermal epithelium of the model organism hydra (a member of the animal phylum Cnidaria) secrete neuropeptides with antibacterial activity that may shape the microbiome on the body surface. In particular, a specific neuropeptide, which we call NDA-1, contributes to the reduction of Gram-positive bacteria during early development and thus to a spatial distribution of the main colonizer, the Gram-negative Curvibacter sp., along the body axis. Our findings warrant further research to test whether neuropeptides secreted by nerve cells contribute to the spatial structure of microbial communities in other organisms.Certain neuropeptides, in addition to their neuromodulatory functions, display antibacterial activities of unclear significance. Here, the authors show that a secreted neuropeptide modulates the distribution of bacterial communities on the body surface during development of the model organism Hydra.

  8. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host–parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  9. The neuropeptide bursicon acts in cuticle metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shengzhang; Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Xi; Stanley, David; Yu, Xiaoping; Song, Qisheng

    2015-06-01

    Bursicon is a heterodimeric neuropeptide formed of bursicon α (burs α) and bursicon β (burs β) that controls cuticle tanning and wing expansion in insects. Burs α-α and burs β-β homodimers are also formed; they act via an unknown receptor to induce expression of prophylactic immune and stress genes during molting. Based on the hypothesis that burs β-β and/or bursicon influence expression of additional genes acting after the molt, we prepared and sequenced six Drosophila cDNA libraries from groups of flies separately injected with burs β-β, bursicon, or blank control. Compared to the control, the burs β-β treatments led to upregulation (by at least 1.5-fold) of 262 genes at 0.5 h postinjection (PI) and 298 genes at 1 h PI; 323 genes at 0.5 h PI and 269 genes at 1h PI were downregulated (by at least 0.67). Similar changes were recorded following bursicon injections. Of these genes, expression of seven transcripts encoding cuticle proteins was upregulated and three downregulated by burs β-β; expression of nine transcripts encoding cuticle proteins were upregulated and four downregulated following bursicon treatments. Expression of dozens of genes involved in chitin metabolism was altered by the experimental treatments. We recorded parallel changes in expression of selected genes by transcriptome and qPCR analysis. These findings support our hypothesis that burs β-β and bursicon influence expression of additional genes acting after the molt. We report that burs β-β and bursicon act in cuticle synthesis and degradation by regulating the expression of cuticular protein and chitin metabolizing related genes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Neuropeptide Control of Feeding Behavior in Birds and Its Difference with Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Tetsuya; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is an essential behavior for animals to sustain their lives. Over the past several decades, many neuropeptides that regulate feeding behavior have been identified in vertebrates. These neuropeptides are called "feeding regulatory neuropeptides." There have been numerous studies on the role of feeding regulatory neuropeptides in vertebrates including birds. Some feeding regulatory neuropeptides show different effects on feeding behavior between birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals. The difference is marked with orexigenic neuropeptides. For example, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexin, and motilin, which are regarded as orexigenic neuropeptides in mammals, have no effect on feeding behavior in birds. Furthermore, ghrelin and growth hormone-releasing hormone, which are also known as orexigenic neuropeptides in mammals, suppress feeding behavior in birds. Thus, it is likely that the feeding regulatory mechanism has changed during the evolution of vertebrates. This review summarizes the recent knowledge of peptidergic feeding regulatory factors in birds and discusses the difference in their action between birds and other vertebrates.

  11. Brain neuropeptides in central ventilatory and cardiovascular regulation in trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude eLe Mével

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many neuropeptides and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are present within the brain area involved in ventilatory and cardiovascular regulation but only a few mammalian studies have focused on the integrative physiological actions of neuropeptides on these vital cardio-respiratory regulations. Because both the central neuroanatomical substrates that govern motor ventilatory and cardiovascular output and the primary sequence of regulatory peptides and their receptors have been mostly conserved through evolution, we have developed a trout model to study the central action of native neuropeptides on cardio-ventilatory regulation. In the present review, we summarize the most recent results obtained using this non-mammalian model with a focus on PACAP, VIP, tachykinins, CRF, urotensin-1, CGRP, angiotensin-related peptides, urotensin-II, NPY, and PYY. We propose hypotheses regarding the physiological relevance of the results obtained.

  12. A radioactive assay for the degradation of neuropeptide Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, R.; Lucius, R.; Mentlein, R.

    1995-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the mammalian central nervous system. Like other neuropeptides, NPY is inactivated by specialized neuro-peptidases. To trace the degradation of NPY, an assay was established using biotinylated NPY. Biotinyl-NPY was radiolabeled with Na 125 I by the chloramine-T method and bound to a streptavidin-agarose matrix. The amount of radiolabeling was analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. The assay was carried out with five peptidases and inhibitors to demonstrate different specific activity. Measurable amounts of radioactivity were released by treatment with endopeptidase-24.18, plasmin, and trypsin, whereas dipetidylpeptidase IV (DPPIV) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) showed no activity in this assay. In the case of DPPIV this is due to a resistance of the assay to aminopeptidase attack. The assay is useful to study the specific degradation of NPY particularly by endopeptidases in all kinds of biological samples. (authors). 31 refs., 6 figs

  13. Genetic analysis of root-knot nematode resistance in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaistra, J.

    2006-01-01

    The development of potato varieties with resistance towards the potato cyst nematode, allowed a dramatic decrease of the use of nematicides. Subsequently the population of the free living nematodes and the root-knot nematodes ( Meloidogyne spp.) has increased. Among the root-knot nematodes, three

  14. Regulation of neurosteroid biosynthesis by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc eDo-Rego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic pathways leading to the synthesis of bioactive steroids in the brain are now almost completely elucidated in various groups of vertebrates and, during the last decade, the neuronal mechanisms involved in the regulation of neurosteroid production have received increasing attention. This report reviews the current knowledge concerning the effects of neurotransmitters, peptide hormones and neuropeptides on the biosynthesis of neurosteroids. Anatomical studies have been carried out to visualize the neurotransmitter- or neuropeptide-containing fibers contacting steroid-synthesizing neurons as well as the neurotransmitter, peptide hormones or neuropeptide receptors expressed in these neurons. Biochemical experiments have been conducted to investigate the effects of neurotransmitters, peptide hormones or neuropeptides on neurosteroid biosynthesis, and to characterize the type of receptors involved. Thus, it has been found that glutamate, acting through kainate and/or AMPA receptors, rapidly inactivates P450arom, and that melatonin produced by the pineal gland and eye inhibits the biosynthesis of 7-hydroxypregnenolone (7-OH-5P, while prolactin produced by the adenohypophysis enhances the formation of 7-OH-5P. It has also been demonstrated that the biosynthesis of neurosteroids is inhibited by GABA, acting through GABAA receptors, and neuropeptide Y, acting through Y1 receptors. In contrast, it has been shown that the octadecaneuropetide ODN, acting through central-type benzodiazepine receptors, the triakontatetraneuropeptide TTN, acting though peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors, and vasotocine, acting through V1a-like receptors, stimulate the production of neurosteroids. Since neurosteroids are implicated in the control of various neurophysiological and behavioral processes, these data suggest that some of the neurophysiological effects exerted by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides may be mediated via the regulation

  15. Neuropeptides and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Current efforts in elucidating the implication of neuropeptides in the microbiota-gut-brain axis address four information carriers from the gut to the brain (vagal and spinal afferent neurons; immune mediators such as cytokines; gut hormones; gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) and four information carriers from the central nervous system to the gut (sympathetic efferent neurons; parasympathetic efferent neurons; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal cortex). Apart from operating as neurotransmitters, many biologically active peptides also function as gut hormones. Given that neuropeptides and gut hormones target the same cell membrane receptors (typically G protein-coupled receptors), the two messenger roles often converge in the same or similar biological implications. This is exemplified by NPY and peptide YY (PYY), two members of the PP-fold peptide family. While PYY is almost exclusively expressed by enteroendocrine cells, NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis. The function of PYY-releasing enteroendocrine cells is directly influenced by short chain fatty acids generated by the intestinal microbiota from indigestible fibre, while NPY may control the impact of the gut microbiota on inflammatory processes, pain, brain function and behaviour. Although the impact of neuropeptides on the interaction between the gut microbiota and brain awaits to be analysed, biologically active peptides

  16. Tachykinin neuropeptides in cerebellar granule neurons: an immunocytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Barbato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that exogenously administered neurokinin A and neurokinin B, but not substance P, increased the sensitivity of cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs to glutamate. In the present study, the presence of tachykinin neuropeptides in CGNs was tested by confocalbased immunofluorescence.We found that neurokinin A and neurokinin B are present in CGNs but absent in astrocytes. while substance P is abundant in astrocytes but absent in CGNs. It is postulated that the different localization of tachykinin neuropeptides in CGNs and astroglial cells has a physiological role in the modulation of excitatory transmission.

  17. Use of targetable gfp-tagged neuropeptide for visualizing neuropeptide release following execution of a behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Qasim M; Ewer, John

    2004-05-01

    Previous work has shown that a transgene consisting of a fusion between the rat atrial natriuretic peptide and a green fluorescent protein reporter (ANF-gfp) is processed, localized, and released, as would be an endogenous neuropeptide when it is expressed in the nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster using the GAL4/UAS expression system. Here we have tested the utility of this targetable transgene for detecting neuropeptide release following the execution of a peptide-controlled behavior. For the behavior we used ecdysis, the behavior expressed by insects to shed their old cuticle at the end of the molt. We found that larval ecdysis was accompanied by a readily detectable reduction in gfp fluorescence from relevant secretory cells in the periphery and peptidergic neurons in the CNS. We also found that expression of the ANF-gfp products did not have detrimental effects on larval ecdysis or adult circadian rhythmicity, when the transgene was expressed in peptidergic cells that are known to control these behaviors. Finally, we used a broadly expressed GAL4 driver to show that the UAS-ANF-gfp transgene could be used to identify axons that show a reduction in gfp fluorescence following the expression of ecdysis behavior. These findings, coupled with the availability of an increasing number of strains bearing different GAL4 drivers, suggest that this transgene will be a useful tool for identifying peptidergic neurons and secretory cells (and, eventually, their secretory product) that release their peptide content during the occurrence, in the intact animal, of a developmental, physiological or behavioral process of interest. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 59: 181-191, 2004

  18. Molecular cloning of a preprohormone from sea anemones containing numerous copies of a metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide: a likely role for dipeptidyl aminopeptidase in neuropeptide precursor processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leviev, I; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1995-01-01

    cleavage sites, and therefore, are also likely to be produced from the precursor. Thus, there are at least 37 closely related neuropeptides localized on the precursor protein, making this precursor one of the most productive preprohormones known so far. This report also shows that unusual processing sites......Neuropeptides are an important group of hormones mediating or modulating neuronal communication. Neuropeptides are especially abundant in evolutionarily "old" nervous systems, such as those of cnidarians, the lowest animal group having a nervous system. Cnidarians often have a life cycle including...... the precursor protein for this metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide from sea anemones. The precursor protein is 514-amino acid residues long and contains 10 copies of the immature, authentic neuropeptide (Gln-Gln-Pro-Gly-Leu-Trp-Gly). All neuropeptide copies are preceded by Xaa-Pro or Xaa-Ala sequences...

  19. Neuropeptides and social behavior of rats tested in dyadic encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various neuropeptides on social behavior was studied in a test procedure in which 7-day isolated animals were tested together with non-isolated partners in dyadic encounters. The short-term isolation procedure increased the frequency and duration of social activities of the rats, but

  20. Is fibromyalgia an autoimmune disorder of endogenous vasoactive neuropeptides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Donald R

    2004-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder characterised by soft tissue pain, disturbance of function an often prolonged course and variable fatigue and debility. A clearly defined aetiology has not been described. This paper proposes that immunological aberration is likely and this may prove to be associated with an expanding group of novel vasoactive neuropeptides. Vasoactive neuropeptides act as hormones, neurotransmitters, immune modulators and neurotrophes. They are readily catalysed to small peptide fragments. They and their binding sites are immunogenic and are known to be associated with a range of autoimmune conditions. They have a vital role in maintaining vascular flow in organs, and in thermoregulation, memory and concentration. They are co-transmitters for acetylcholine, are potent immune regulators with primarily anti-inflammatory activity, and have a significant role in protection of the nervous system to toxic assault and the maintenance of homeostasis. Failure of these substances has adverse consequences for homeostasis. This paper describes a biologically plausible mechanism for the development of FM based on loss of immunological tolerance to the vasoactive neuropeptides. The proposed mechanism of action is that inflammatory cytokines are provoked by tissue injury from unaccustomed exercise or physical injury. This may trigger a response by certain vasoactive neuropeptides which then undergo autoimmune dysfunction as well as affecting their receptor binding sites. The condition may potentially arise de novo perhaps in genetically susceptible individuals. FM is postulated to be an autoimmune disorder and may include dysfunction of purine nucleotide metabolism and nociception.

  1. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we s...

  2. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y show increased sensitivity to cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing data implicating neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the neurobiology of addiction. This study explored the possible role of NPY in cocaine-induced behavior using NPY knockout mice. The transgenic mice showed a hypersensitive response to cocaine in three animal models of cocaine addiction...

  3. Expression of GFSKLYFamide-like neuropeptide in the digestive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuropeptides are key mediators of physiological processes in animals and a considerable amount of information has been accumulated on their diversity and functions across phyla. However, progress in echinoderm neurobiology has been much slower than others. The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is an ...

  4. Third ventricle neuropeptide-Y infusion effect on metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this study was to determine whether neuropeptide-Y affects the mean plasma concentrations of metabolic parameters such as thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), growth hormone (GH), insulin, glucagon, glucose, fatty acid and urea in the goats fed different energy content in diets. 16 goats were randomly ...

  5. Oxytocin: the neuropeptide of love reveals some of its secrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Inga D

    2007-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin is synthesized in the brain and released from neurohypophyseal terminals into the blood and within defined brain regions that regulate emotional, cognitive, and social behaviors. A recent study of CD38-/- mice (Jin et al., 2007) has demonstrated an essential role for the transmembrane receptor CD38 in secretion of oxytocin into the blood.

  6. Neuropeptides and Microglial Activation in Inflammation, Pain, and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniglia, Lila; Ramírez, Delia; Durand, Daniela; Saba, Julieta; Turati, Juan; Caruso, Carla; Scimonelli, Teresa N; Lasaga, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Microglial cells are responsible for immune surveillance within the CNS. They respond to noxious stimuli by releasing inflammatory mediators and mounting an effective inflammatory response. This is followed by release of anti-inflammatory mediators and resolution of the inflammatory response. Alterations to this delicate process may lead to tissue damage, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Chronic pain, such as inflammatory or neuropathic pain, is accompanied by neuroimmune activation, and the role of glial cells in the initiation and maintenance of chronic pain has been the subject of increasing research over the last two decades. Neuropeptides are small amino acidic molecules with the ability to regulate neuronal activity and thereby affect various functions such as thermoregulation, reproductive behavior, food and water intake, and circadian rhythms. Neuropeptides can also affect inflammatory responses and pain sensitivity by modulating the activity of glial cells. The last decade has witnessed growing interest in the study of microglial activation and its modulation by neuropeptides in the hope of developing new therapeutics for treating neurodegenerative diseases and chronic pain. This review summarizes the current literature on the way in which several neuropeptides modulate microglial activity and response to tissue damage and how this modulation may affect pain sensitivity.

  7. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Møller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  8. Neuropeptides and Microglial Activation in Inflammation, Pain, and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Carniglia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglial cells are responsible for immune surveillance within the CNS. They respond to noxious stimuli by releasing inflammatory mediators and mounting an effective inflammatory response. This is followed by release of anti-inflammatory mediators and resolution of the inflammatory response. Alterations to this delicate process may lead to tissue damage, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Chronic pain, such as inflammatory or neuropathic pain, is accompanied by neuroimmune activation, and the role of glial cells in the initiation and maintenance of chronic pain has been the subject of increasing research over the last two decades. Neuropeptides are small amino acidic molecules with the ability to regulate neuronal activity and thereby affect various functions such as thermoregulation, reproductive behavior, food and water intake, and circadian rhythms. Neuropeptides can also affect inflammatory responses and pain sensitivity by modulating the activity of glial cells. The last decade has witnessed growing interest in the study of microglial activation and its modulation by neuropeptides in the hope of developing new therapeutics for treating neurodegenerative diseases and chronic pain. This review summarizes the current literature on the way in which several neuropeptides modulate microglial activity and response to tissue damage and how this modulation may affect pain sensitivity.

  9. Identification of the Drosophila and Tribolium receptors for the recently discovered insect RYamide neuropeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Caitlin; Hauser, Frank; Krogh-Meyer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    short neuropeptides F. Amazingly, these neuropeptides show no cross-reactivity to the Tribolium RYamide receptor, while the Drosophila RYamide receptor is only very slightly activated by high concentrations (>10(-6)M) of neuropeptide F and short neuropeptide F-1, showing that the two RYamide receptors...

  10. Molecular cloning of a preprohormone from sea anemones containing numerous copies of a metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide: a likely role for dipeptidyl aminopeptidase in neuropeptide precursor processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leviev, I; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1995-01-01

    the precursor protein for this metamorphosis-inducing neuropeptide from sea anemones. The precursor protein is 514-amino acid residues long and contains 10 copies of the immature, authentic neuropeptide (Gln-Gln-Pro-Gly-Leu-Trp-Gly). All neuropeptide copies are preceded by Xaa-Pro or Xaa-Ala sequences...... a polyp, a medusa, and a planula larva stage. Recently, a neuropeptide, sea anemones that induces metamorphosis in a hydroid planula larva to become a hydropolyp [Leitz, T., Morand, K. & Mann, M. (1994) Dev. Biol. 163, 440-446]. Here, we have cloned...

  11. Parasitic Nematode Interactions with Mammals and Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasmer, D.P.; Goverse, A.; Smant, G.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent

  12. WormBase: Annotating many nematode genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin; Davis, Paul; Paulini, Michael; Tuli, Mary Ann; Williams, Gary; Yook, Karen; Durbin, Richard; Kersey, Paul; Sternberg, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) has been serving the scientific community for over 11 years as the central repository for genomic and genetic information for the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The resource has evolved from its beginnings as a database housing the genomic sequence and genetic and physical maps of a single species, and now represents the breadth and diversity of nematode research, currently serving genome sequence and annotation for around 20 nematodes. In this article, we focus on WormBase's role of genome sequence annotation, describing how we annotate and integrate data from a growing collection of nematode species and strains. We also review our approaches to sequence curation, and discuss the impact on annotation quality of large functional genomics projects such as modENCODE.

  13. Genome Evolution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Jones, John T

    2017-08-04

    Plant parasitism has evolved independently on at least four separate occasions in the phylum Nematoda. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to plant-parasitic nematodes has allowed a wide range of genome- or transcriptome-level comparisons, and these have identified genome adaptations that enable parasitism of plants. Current genome data suggest that horizontal gene transfer, gene family expansions, evolution of new genes that mediate interactions with the host, and parasitism-specific gene regulation are important adaptations that allow nematodes to parasitize plants. Sequencing of a larger number of nematode genomes, including plant parasites that show different modes of parasitism or that have evolved in currently unsampled clades, and using free-living taxa as comparators would allow more detailed analysis and a better understanding of the organization of key genes within the genomes. This would facilitate a more complete understanding of the way in which parasitism has shaped the genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  14. Neuropeptide systems and new treatments for nicotine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W

    2017-05-01

    The mildly euphoric and cognitive enhancing effects of nicotine play a role in the initiation of smoking, while dysphoria and anxiety associated with smoking cessation contribute to relapse. After the acute withdrawal phase, smoking cues, a few cigarettes (i.e., lapse), and stressors can cause relapse. Human and animal studies have shown that neuropeptides play a critical role in nicotine addiction. The goal of this paper is to describe the role of neuropeptide systems in the initiation of nicotine intake, nicotine withdrawal, and the reinstatement of extinguished nicotine seeking. The reviewed studies indicate that several drugs that target neuropeptide systems diminish the rewarding effects of nicotine by preventing the activation of dopaminergic systems. Other peptide-based drugs diminish the hyperactivity of brain stress systems and diminish withdrawal-associated symptom severity. Blockade of hypocretin-1 and nociceptin receptors and stimulation of galanin and neurotensin receptors diminishes the rewarding effects of nicotine. Both corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 and kappa-opioid receptor antagonists diminish dysphoria and anxiety-like behavior associated with nicotine withdrawal and inhibit stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. Furthermore, blockade of vasopressin 1b receptors diminishes dysphoria during nicotine withdrawal, and melanocortin 4 receptor blockade prevents stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. The role of neuropeptide systems in nicotine-primed and cue-induced reinstatement is largely unexplored, but there is evidence for a role of hypocretin-1 receptors in cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. Drugs that target neuropeptide systems might decrease the euphoric effects of smoking and improve relapse rates by diminishing withdrawal symptoms and improving stress resilience.

  15. Growing Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum L.) in Nematode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parasitic root-knot nematodes are a threat to tomato production. In this study, the effect of Procarvian carpensis manure at a rate of 5tons/ha and the balanced NPK inorganic fertilizer at a rate of 100kg/ha on the growth performance of the tomato genotype “Duluti” on a highly root-knot nematode soil was evaluated. The field ...

  16. Nematode parasites of animals are more prone to develop xenobiotic resistance than nematode parasites of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, A; Cabaret, J

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we concentrate on a comparison of plant and animal-parasitic nematodes, to gain insight into the factors that influence the acquisition of the drug resistance by nematodes. Comparing nematode parasite of domestic animals and cultivated plants, it appears that drug resistance threatens only domestic animal production. Does the paucity of report on nematicide field resistance reflect reality or, is nematicide resistance bypassed by other management practices, specific to cultivated plants (i.e. agricultural control)? First, it seems that selection pressure by treatments in plants is not as efficient as selection pressure in ruminants. Agronomic practices (i.e. sanitation, early planting, usage of nematodes resistant cultivar and crop rotation) are frequently used to control parasitic-plant nematodes. Although the efficiency of such measures is generally moderate to high, integrated approaches are developing successfully in parasitic-plant nematode models. Secondly, the majority of anthelmintic resistance cases recorded in animal-parasitic nematodes concern drug families that are not used in plant-parasitic nematodes control (i.e. benzimidazoles, avermectines and levamisole). Thirdly, particular life traits of parasitic-plant nematodes (low to moderate fecundity and reproductive strategy) are expected to reduce probability of appearance and transmission of drug resistance genes. It has been demonstrated that, for a large number of nematodes such as Meloidogyne spp., the mode of reproduction by mitotic parthenogenesis reduced genetic diversity of populations which may prevent a rapid drug resistance development. In conclusion, anthelmintic resistance develops in nematode parasite of animals as a consequence of an efficient selection pressure. Early detection of anthelmintic resistance is then crucial: it is not possible to avoid it, but only to delay its development in farm animal industry.

  17. Nematode parasites of animals are more prone to develop xenobiotic resistance than nematode parasites of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we concentrate on a comparison of plant and animal-parasitic nematodes, to gain insight into the factors that influence the acquisition of the drug resistance by nematodes. Comparing nematode parasite of domestic animals and cultivated plants, it appears that drug resistance threatens only domestic animal production. Does the paucity of report on nematicide field resistance reflect reality or, is nematicide resistance bypassed by other management practices, specific to cultivated plants (i.e. agricultural control ? First, it seems that selection pressure by treatments in plants is not as efficient as selection pressure in ruminants. Agronomic practices (i.e. sanitation, early planting, usage of nematodes resistant cultivar and crop rotation are frequently used to control parasitic-plant nematodes. Although the efficiency of such measures is generally moderate to high, integrated approaches are developing successfully in parasitic-plant nematode models. Secondly, the majority of anthelmintic resistance cases recorded in animal-parasitic nematodes concern drug families that are not used in plant-parasitic nematodes control (i.e. benzimidazoles, avermectines and levamisole. Thirdly, particular life traits of parasitic-plant nematodes (low to moderate fecundity and reproductive strategy are expected to reduce probability of appearance and transmission of drug resistance genes. It has been demonstrated that, for a large number of nematodes such as Meloidogyne spp., the mode of reproduction by mitotic parthenogenesis reduced genetic diversity of populations which may prevent a rapid drug resistance development. In conclusion, anthelmintic resistance develops in nematode parasite of animals as a consequence of an efficient selection pressure. Early detection of anthelmintic resistance is then crucial : it is not possible to avoid it, but only to delay its development in farm animal industry.

  18. Tropical nematode diversity: vertical stratification of nematode communities in a Costa Rican humid lowland rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, T O; Neher, D A; Mullin, P; Esquivel, A; Giblin-Davis, R M; Kanzaki, N; Stock, S P; Mora, M M; Uribe-Lorio, L

    2009-03-01

    Comparisons of nematode communities among ecosystems have indicated that, unlike many organisms, nematode communities have less diversity in the tropics than in temperate ecosystems. There are, however, few studies of tropical nematode diversity on which to base conclusions of global patterns of diversity. This study reports an attempt to estimate nematode diversity in the lowland tropical rainforest of La Selva Biological Research Station in Costa Rica. We suggest one reason that previous estimates of tropical nematode diversity were low is because habitats above the mineral soil are seldom sampled. As much as 62% of the overall genetic diversity, measured by an 18S ribosomal barcode, existed in litter and understorey habitats and not in soil. A maximum-likelihood tree of barcodes from 360 individual nematodes indicated most major terrestrial nematode lineages were represented in the samples. Estimated 'species' richness ranged from 464 to 502 within the four 40 x 40 m plots. Directed sampling of insects and their associated nematodes produced a second set of barcodes that were not recovered by habitat sampling, yet may constitute a major class of tropical nematode diversity. While the generation of novel nematode barcodes proved relatively easy, their identity remains obscure due to deficiencies in existing taxonomic databases. Specimens of Criconematina, a monophyletic group of soil-dwelling plant-parasitic nematodes were examined in detail to assess the steps necessary for associating barcodes with nominal species. Our results highlight the difficulties associated with studying poorly understood organisms in an understudied ecosystem using a destructive (i.e. barcode) sampling method.

  19. Fungi associated with free-living soil nematodes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabörklü Salih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living soil nematodes have successfully adapted world-wide to nearly all soil types from the highest to the lowest of elevations. In the current study, nematodes were isolated from soil samples and fungi associated with these free-living soil nematodes were determined. Large subunit (LSU rDNAs of nematode-associated fungi were amplified and sequenced to construct phylogenetic trees. Nematode-associated fungi were observed in six nematode strains belonging to Acrobeloides, Steinernema and Cephalobus genera in different habitats. Malassezia and Cladosporium fungal strains indicated an association with Acrobeloides and Cephalobus nematodes, while Alternaria strains demonstrated an association with the Steinernema strain. Interactions between fungi and free-living nematodes in soil are discussed. We suggest that nematodes act as vectors for fungi.

  20. Nematode Interactions in Nature: Models for Sustainable Control of Nematode Pests of Crop Plants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van der W.H.; Cook, R.; Costa, S.; Davies, K.G.; Fargette, M.; Freitas, H.; Hol, W.H.G.; Kerry, B.R.; Maher, N.; Mateille, T.; Moens, M.; Peña, de la E.; Piskiewicz, A.M.; Raeymaekers, A.D.W.; Rodriquez-Echeverria, S.; Wurff, van der A.W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are major crop pests in agro-ecosystems while in nature their impact may range from substantial to no significant growth reduction. The aim of this review is to determine if nematode population control in natural ecosystems may provide us with a model for enhancing

  1. Nematode interactions in nature: models for sustainable control of nematode pests of crop plants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Putten, W.H.; Cook, R.; Costa, S.R.; Davies, K.G.; Fargette, M.; Freitas, H.; Hol, W.H.G.; Kerry, B.R.; Maher, N.; Mateille, T.; Moens, M.; De la Peña, E.; Piskiewicz, A.; Raeymaekers, A.; Rodríguez-Echeverría, S.; Van der Wurff, A.W.G.

    2006-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are major crop pests in agro-ecosystems while in nature their impact may range from substantial to no significant growth reduction. The aim of this review is to determine if nematode population control in natural ecosystems may provide us with a model for enhancing

  2. The evolution and variety of RFamide-type neuropeptides: insights from deuterostomian invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Richard Elphick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five families of neuropeptides that have a C-terminal RFamide motif have been identified in vertebrates: 1. gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH, 2. neuropeptide FF (NPFF 3. pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide (QRFP, 4. prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP and 5. Kisspeptin. Experimental demonstration of neuropeptide-receptor pairings combined with comprehensive analysis of genomic and/or transcriptomic sequence data indicate that, with the exception of the deuterostomian PrRP system, the evolutionary origins of these neuropeptides can be traced back to the common ancestor of bilaterians. Here we review the occurrence of homologs of vertebrate RFamide-type neuropeptides and their receptors in deuterostomian invertebrates - urochordates, cephalochordates, hemichordates and echinoderms. Extending analysis of the occurrence of the RFamide motif in other bilaterian neuropeptide families reveals RFamide-type peptides that have acquired modified C-terminal characteristics in the vertebrate lineage (e.g. NPY/NPF, neuropeptide families where the RFamide motif is unique to protostomian members (e.g. CCK/sulfakinins and RFamide-type peptides that have been lost in the vertebrate lineage (e.g. luqins. Furthermore, the RFamide motif is also a feature of neuropeptide families with a more restricted phylogenetic distribution (e.g. the prototypical FMRFamide-related neuropeptides in protostomes. Thus, the RFamide motif is both an ancient and a convergent feature of neuropeptides, with conservation, acquisition or loss of this motif occurring in different branches of the animal kingdom.

  3. Metabolic Labeling to Quantify Drosophila Neuropeptides and Peptide Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Thomas Otto; Chen, Jiangtian; Megha; Wegener, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are involved in the regulation of most if not all body functions, ranging from physiology to neuronal processing and the control of behavior. To assess their functions, it is often vital to determine when and in which quantities they are produced, stored, and released. The latter is especially difficult to assess in small insects, such as the genetically amenable fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and cannot be achieved merely by quantifying mRNA transcripts. We have adapted and optimized methods to quantify neuropeptides and peptide hormones by metabolic labeling followed by LC-MS. In this chapter, we describe the labeling protocols used in our laboratory and discuss problems and pitfalls that we encountered.

  4. Survey and effects of plant parasitic root nematodes of cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Five thousand, one hundred and twenty cashew trees were sampled and nematodes in their rhizospheres extracted by modified Cobb's decanting and sieving technique. Pure cultures of the nematodes were further inoculated on 30 days old ...

  5. Different responses of soybean cyst nematode resistance between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YONGCHUN LI

    parasitic nematode that feeds on the roots of soybean and most economically ... sified pest problems (Skorupska et al. 1994). Soybean cyst nematode .... Genomic DNA extraction and pooling for bulk segregant analysis. Genomic DNA was isolated ...

  6. Nematode-plant interactions in grasslands under restoration management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, B.C.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : competition, fertilisation, food quality, grassland, herbivory, nitrogen, nutrients, plant-feeding nematodes, productivity, restoration management, succession, synergism, vegetation

    Plant-feeding nematodes may have a considerable

  7. Regulation of Neurosteroid Biosynthesis by Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Do Rego, Jean Luc; Seong, Jae Young; Burel, Delphine; Leprince, Jerôme; Vaudry, David; Luu-The, Van; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Pelletier, Georges; Vaudry, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    The enzymatic pathways leading to the synthesis of bioactive steroids in the brain are now almost completely elucidated in various groups of vertebrates and, during the last decade, the neuronal mechanisms involved in the regulation of neurosteroid production have received increasing attention. This report reviews the current knowledge concerning the effects of neurotransmitters, peptide hormones, and neuropeptides on the biosynthesis of neurosteroids. Anatomical studies have been carried out...

  8. Platelet neuropeptide Y is critical for ischemic revascularization in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tilan, Jason U.; Everhart, Lindsay M.; Abe, Ken; Kuo-Bonde, Lydia; Chalothorn, Dan; Kitlinska, Joanna; Burnett, Mary Susan; Epstein, Stephen E.; Faber, James E.; Zukowska, Zofia

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that the sympathetic neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) is potently angiogenic, primarily through its Y2 receptor, and that endogenous NPY is crucial for capillary angiogenesis in rodent hindlimb ischemia. Here we sought to identify the source of NPY responsible for revascularization and its mechanisms of action. At d 3, NPY−/− mice demonstrated delayed recovery of blood flow and limb function, consistent with impaired collateral conductance, while ischemic capillary...

  9. Neuropeptide/Receptor expression and plasticity in micturition pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Liana; Girard, Beatrice; Arms, Lauren; Guertin, Pierre; Vizzard, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    Several motor behaviors such as locomotion, respiration, sexual function, and micturition are generated by rhythmic and stereotyped motor patterns of activity. In most cases, these functions are primarily controlled by signals and neuronal commands that originate from the brainstem and spinal cord. Defined as the storage and periodic elimination of urine, micturition requires a complex neural control system that coordinates the activities of a variety of effector organs including the smooth muscle of the urinary bladder and the smooth and striated muscle of the urethral sphincters. The lower urinary tract (LUT) reflex mechanisms, organized at the level of the lumbosacral spinal cord, are modulated predominantly by supraspinal controls. These LUT mechanisms include: (1) storage reflexes organized at the spinal level; (2) elimination reflexes organized at a supraspinal site in the pons; and (3) spinal storage reflexes modulated by inputs from the rostral pons. Precise coordination of the reciprocal functions of the urinary bladder and urethra and complex neural organization are required for normal function. Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems are expressed in central and peripheral nervous system pathways that regulate the LUT and expression can also be found in both neural and non-neural (e.g., urothelium) components. Neuropeptides have tissue-specific distributions and functions in the LUT and exhibit neuroplastic changes in expression and function with LUT dysfunction with neural injury, inflammation, stress and disease. LUT dysfunction with abnormal voiding including urinary urgency, increased voiding frequency, nocturia, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, continence, detrusor dysynergia and/or pain may reflect a change in the balance of neuropeptides in central and peripheral bladder reflex pathways. LUT neuropeptide/receptor systems in LUT pathways may thus represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  10. Exploring the Sea Urchin Neuropeptide Landscape by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Eric B.; Annangudi, Suresh P.; Wadhams, Andinet A.; Richmond, Timothy A.; Yang, Ning; Southey, Bruce R.; Romanova, Elena V.; Schoofs, Liliane; Baggerman, Geert; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2018-04-01

    Neuropeptides are essential cell-to-cell signaling messengers and serve important regulatory roles in animals. Although remarkable progress has been made in peptide identification across the Metazoa, for some phyla such as Echinodermata, limited neuropeptides are known and even fewer have been verified on the protein level. We employed peptidomic approaches using bioinformatics and mass spectrometry (MS) to experimentally confirm 23 prohormones and to characterize a new prohormone in nervous system tissue from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the purple sea urchin. Ninety-three distinct peptides from known and novel prohormones were detected with MS from extracts of the radial nerves, many of which are reported or experimentally confirmed here for the first time, representing a large-scale study of neuropeptides from the phylum Echinodermata. Many of the identified peptides and their precursor proteins have low homology to known prohormones from other species/phyla and are unique to the sea urchin. By pairing bioinformatics with MS, the capacity to characterize novel peptides and annotate prohormone genes is enhanced. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. [Modification of the FF neuropeptide enhances its hypertensive effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapel'ko, V I; Bespalova, Zh D; Efremov, E E; Lakomkin, V L; Orlova, Ts R; Lakomkin, S V; Sidorova, M V; Az'muko, A A; Molokoedov, A S; Sharf, T V

    2009-05-01

    Neuropeptide FF (H-Phe-Leu-Phe-Gln-Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-NH2) injected intravenously temporarily enhanced the arterial pressure (AP) and the heart rate (HR). However, its role in the regulation of blood circulation is obscure. To study the properties of the molecule, its analogue was synthesized, in which proline in position 7 was substituted with glycine, and leucine in the position 2 with norleucine. Modified neuropeptide FF (FFm) also temporarily and in a dose-dependent manner increased the AP and HR; however, the equal degree of increase was reached at doses of FFm being 5-7 times lesser as compared with the natural peptide. The application of the FFm at hemorrhagic shock excluded mortality of animals during the experiment, considerably increased the degree of AP and HR restoration in the remaining experiments, and improved the survival of animals in 24 hours. It has been found that the level of antibodies to the fragment of hFF1 receptor in the serum is lower in spontaneously hypertensive rats SHR as compared with Wistar rats, but it is increased in patients of cardiological profile as compared with donors. The findings suggest involvement of neuropeptide FF in the regulation of blood circulation; however, the precise mechanisms remain to be determined.

  12. Extended phenotype: nematodes turn ants into bird-dispersed fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D P; Kronauer, D J C; Boomsma, J J

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs.......A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs....

  13. Microbial ecology and nematode control in natural ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, S.R.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Kerry, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes have traditionally been studied in agricultural systems, where they can be pests of importance on a wide range of crops. Nevertheless, nematode ecology in natural ecosystems is receiving increasing interest because of the role of nematodes in soil food webs, nutrient

  14. Selectable genetic markers for nematode transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano-Santini, Rosina; Dupuy, Denis

    2011-06-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used to study genetics and development since the mid-1970s. Over the years, the arsenal of techniques employed in this field has grown steadily in parallel with the number of researchers using this model. Since the introduction of C. elegans transgenesis, nearly 20 years ago, this system has been extensively used in areas such as rescue experiments, gene expression studies, and protein localization. The completion of the C. elegans genome sequence paved the way for genome-wide studies requiring higher throughput and improved scalability than provided by traditional genetic markers. The development of antibiotic selection systems for nematode transgenesis addresses these requirements and opens the possibility to apply transgenesis to investigate biological functions in other nematode species for which no genetic markers had been developed to date.

  15. Remote Sensing of Parasitic Nematodes in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John

    2007-01-01

    A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.

  16. The Elusive Search for Reniform Nematode Resistance in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Churamani; McGawley, Edward C; Overstreet, Charles; Stetina, Salliana R

    2018-02-05

    The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira) has emerged as the most important plant-parasitic nematode of cotton in the United States cotton belt. Success in the development of reniform nematode-resistant upland cotton cultivars (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has not been realized despite over three decades of breeding efforts. Research approaches ranging from conventional breeding to triple species hybrids to marker-assisted selection have been employed to introgress reniform nematode resistance from other species of cotton into upland cultivars. Reniform nematode-resistant breeding lines derived from G. longicalyx were developed in 2007. However, these breeding lines displayed stunting symptoms and a hypersensitive response to reniform nematode infection. Subsequent breeding efforts focused on G. barbadense, G. aridum, G. armoreanum, and other species that have a high level of resistance to reniform nematode. Marker-assisted selection has greatly improved screening of reniform nematode-resistant lines. The use of advanced molecular techniques such as CRISPER-Cas9 systems and alternative ways such as delivery of suitable "cry" proteins and specific double-stranded RNA to nematodes will assist in developing resistant cultivars of cotton. In spite of the efforts of cotton breeders and nematologists, successes are limited only to the development of reniform nematode-resistant breeding lines. In this article, we provide an overview of the approaches employed to develop reniform nematode-resistant upland cotton cultivars in the past, progress to date, major obstacles, and some promising future research activity.

  17. Nematode populations as influenced by Leucaena leucocephala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study to determine the effect of Flemingia congesta and Leucaena leucocephala hedgerows, as sources of mulch, on the population of nematode species in an alley cropping system was conducted at the Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana from May 1991 to February 1994. Treatments comprised Leucaena ...

  18. Evaluation of nematode suppression and yield improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... Objective: To investigate nematode suppression and yield improvement potential of two organic materials; poultry manure ... region of Ghana. The organic materials were applied on two sweet potato varieties; Apomuden and Santom ..... but a trend similar to what happened in 2014 occurred at. Atebubu.

  19. Cell cycle activation by plant parasitic nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.; Almeida Engler, de J.; Verhees, J.; Krol, van der S.; Helder, J.; Gheysen, G.

    2000-01-01

    Sedentary nematodes are important pests of crop plants. They are biotrophic parasites that can induce the (re)differentiation of either differentiated or undifferentiated plant cells into specialized feeding cells. This (re)differentiation includes the reactivation of the cell cycle in specific

  20. TABLE PREVALENCE OF GIT NEMATODES IN CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A study was carried out on the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infection in naturally infected cattle in Ogbomoso area of Oyo State using standard parasitological techniques. The results indicated that out of the 1000 cattle examined, 30(3%) were infected and parasites identified were Haemonchus contortus.

  1. Prevalence of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from December, 2014 to May, 2015 on 914 animals (345 sheep and 569 goats) at Jalingo abattoir, Taraba State, Nigeria based on faecal examination. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes in slaughtered small ...

  2. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival

  3. Epidemiology and Control of Gastrointestinal Nematodes Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the epidemiology and control of gastrointestinal nematode infections in lambs in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya was carried out between January 2001 and December 2001. Forty Dorper lambs were randomly recruited at the age of 6 weeks and their faecal samples examined for strongyle-type ...

  4. Isolation of entomopathogenic nematodes and control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jaime Ruiz

    This study aimed to isolate native entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca and to determine their potential for control of white grub (Phyllophaga vetula Horn). Fifty-five (55) soil samples were collected in 13 communities in the period August to October 2008 and 29.1% of these were found ...

  5. Evolution of embryonic development in nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Jens

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nematodes can be subdivided into basal Enoplea (clades 1 and 2 and more derived Chromadorea (clades 3 to 12. Embryogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans (clade 9 has been analyzed in most detail. Their establishment of polarity and asymmetric cleavage requires the differential localization of PAR proteins. Earlier studies on selected other nematodes revealed that embryonic development of nematodes is more diverse than the essentially invariant development of C. elegans and the classic study object Ascaris had suggested. To obtain a more detailed picture of variations and evolutionary trends we compared embryonic cell lineages and pattern formation in embryos of all 12 nematode clades. Methods The study was conducted using 4-D microscopy and 3-D modeling of developing embryos. Results We found dramatic differences compared to C. elegans in Enoplea but also considerable variations among Chromadorea. We discovered 'Polarity Organizing Centers' (POCs that orient cleavage spindles along the anterior-posterior axis in distinct cells over consecutive cell generations. The resulting lineally arranged blastomeres represent a starting point for the establishment of bilateral symmetry within individual lineages. We can discern six different early cleavage types and suggest that these variations are due to modifications in the activity of the POCs in conjunction with changes in the distribution of PAR proteins. In addition, our studies indicate that lineage complexity advanced considerably during evolution, that is we observe trends towards an increase of somatic founder cells, from monoclonal to polyclonal lineages and from a variable (position-dependent to an invariable (lineage-dependent way of cell fate specification. In contrast to the early phase of embryogenesis, the second half ('morphogenesis' appears similar in all studied nematodes. Comparison of early cleavage between the basal nematode Tobrilus stefanskii and the tardigrade

  6. Neuropeptide Y and its involvement in chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz-delCastillo, Marta; Woldbye, David P D; Heegaard, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pain is a serious condition that significantly impairs the quality of life, affecting an estimate of 1.5 billion people worldwide. Despite the physiological, emotional and financial burden of chronic pain, there is still a lack of efficient treatments. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a highly...... and Y2 receptors. Intrathecal administration of NPY in animal models of neuropathic, inflammatory or postoperative pain has been shown to cause analgesia, even though its exact mechanisms are still unclear. It remains to be seen whether these promising central antinociceptive effects of NPY can...... be transferred into a future treatment for chronic pain....

  7. A review of neuropeptide and neuroendocrine dysregulation in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailer, Ursula F; Kaye, Walter H

    2003-02-01

    Neuropeptides play an important role in the regulation of feeding behavior and obesity. The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve a complicated interplay between peripheral systems (including gustatory stimulation, gastrointestinal peptide secretion, and vagal afferent nerve responses) and central nervous system (CNS) neuropeptides and/or monoamines. These neuronal systems include neuropeptides (CRH, opioids, neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY), vasopressin and oxytocin, CCK, and leptin) and monamines (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine). In addition to regulating eating behavior, a number of CNS neuropeptides participate in the regulation of neuroendocrine pathways. Thus, clinical studies have evaluated the possibility that CNS neuropeptide alterations may contribute to dysregulated secretion of the gonadal hormones, cortisol, thyroid hormones and growth hormone in the eating disorders. Most of the neuroendocrine and neuropeptide alterations apparent during symptomatic episodes of AN and BN tend to normalize after recovery. This observation suggests that most of the disturbances are consequences rather than causes of malnutrition, weight loss and/or altered meal patterns. Still, an understanding of these neuropeptide disturbances may shed light on why many people with AN or BN cannot easily "reverse" their illness and even after weight gain and normalized eating patterns, many individuals who have recovered from AN or BN have physiological, behavioral and psychological symptoms that persist for extended periods of time.

  8. Combined gene overexpression of neuropeptide Y and its receptor Y5 in the hippocampus suppresses seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Casper René; Nikitidou, Litsa; Sørensen, Andreas Toft

    2012-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that recombinant adeno-associated viral vector-induced hippocampal overexpression of neuropeptide Y receptor, Y2, exerts a seizure-suppressant effect in kindling and kainate-induced models of epilepsy in rats. Interestingly, additional overexpression of neuropeptide Y...

  9. Genomics, transcriptomics, and peptidomics of neuropeptides and protein hormones in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptides and protein hormones are ancient molecules that mediate cell-to-cell communication. The whole genome sequence from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, along with those from other insect species, provides an opportunity to study the evolution of the genes encoding neuropeptide...

  10. Neuropeptide S mitigates spatial memory impairment induced by rapid eye movement sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengqing; Huang, Liuqing; Wu, Huijuan; Li, Yanpeng; Zhang, Lin; Yin, You; Xiang, Zhenghua; Zhao, Zhongxin

    2010-06-23

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation causes learning and memory deficits. Neuropeptide S, a newly discovered neuropeptide, has been shown to regulate arousal, anxiety, and may enhance long-term memory formation and spatial memory. However, it is unknown whether neuropeptide S could improve the REM sleep deprivation-induced memory impairment. Here, we report that 72-h REM sleep deprivation in rats resulted in spatial memory impairment and reduced phosphorylation level of cAMP-response element binding protein in the hippocampus, both of which were reversed by central administration of neuropeptide S. The results suggest that neuropeptide S mitigates spatial memory impairment in rats induced by 72-h REM sleep deprivation, possibly through activating cAMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation in the hippocampus.

  11. Genomics, transcriptomics, and peptidomics of Daphnia pulex neuropeptides and protein hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dircksen, Heinrich; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    We report 43 novel genes in the water flea Daphnia pulex encoding 73 predicted neuropeptide and protein hormones as partly confirmed by RT-PCR. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identified 40 neuropeptides by mass matches and 30 neuropeptides by fragmentation sequencing. Single genes encode adipokinetic...... hormone, allatostatin-A, allatostatin-B, allatotropin, Ala(7)-CCAP, CCHamide, Arg(7)-corazonin, DENamides, CRF-like (DH52) and calcitonin-like (DH31) diuretic hormones, two ecdysis-triggering hormones, two FIRFamides, one insulin, two alternative splice forms of ion transport peptide (ITP), myosuppressin......, neuroparsin, two neuropeptide-F splice forms, three periviscerokinins (but no pyrokinins), pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, Met(4)-proctolin, short neuropeptide-F, three RYamides, SIFamide, two sulfakinins, and three tachykinins. There are two genes for a preprohormone containing orcomyotropin...

  12. G-protein coupling and signalling of Y1-like neuropeptide Y receptors in SK-N-MC cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feth, F.; Rascher, W.; Michel, M. C.

    1991-01-01

    We have studied [125I]neuropeptide Y-binding sites and neuropeptide Y-mediated second messenger responses in human SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells with special reference to the role of G-proteins. Neuropeptide Y stimulated two second messenger responses in SK-N-MC cells, inhibition of cAMP accumulation

  13. Structural and luminescence studies of Eu3+: TeO2sbnd B2O3sbnd AOsbnd AF2 (A = Pb, Ba, Zn, Cd, Sr) glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, S.; Marimuthu, K.; Muralidharan, G.

    2017-09-01

    Eu3+ doped oxyfluoro boro-tellurite (TBXFE) with molar composition 29 TeO2sbnd 30B2O3sbnd 20AOsbnd 20AF2sbnd 1Eu2O3 (where A = Pb, Ba, Zn, Cd, Sr) glasses were prepared and investigated by XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR, luminescence and decay measurements. XRD patterns confirm the glassy nature of the prepared glasses. The influence of metal ions on the structure of boro-tellurite glasses were investigated through FTIR spectra. The intra band (4f-4f) transitions of Eu3+ ions are discussed through UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra. The covalent nature around the Eu3+ ions with ligands are discussed using the bonding parameter (δ) and nephelauxetic ratio (β). The fundamental absorption edge, direct, indirect band gap, Urbach energy and band tailing parameters are reported. A bright red emission at 616 nm corresponding to the 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ ions could be observed in the title glasses. Judd-Ofelt parameters were estimated from the emission spectra of Eu3+ ions. The dependence of these parameters on the composition of the glass is discussed. Judd-Ofelt parameters were used to derive the radiative parameters such as transition probabilities (A, s-1), branching ratios (βR), radiative lifetime (τrad) and stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) for the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions. The luminescence intensity ratio (LIR) of 5D0 → 7F2/5D0 → 7F1 transitions was estimated to analyze the local site symmetry around the Eu3+ ions in the present glasses. The chromaticity coordinates and colour purity were calculated from the emission spectra and analyzed with Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) 1931 diagram. The experimental lifetime of 5D0 level could be fitted to a single exponential indicating the absence of energy transfer between the Eu3+ ions in the present glasses.

  14. Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John T; Haegeman, Annelies; Danchin, Etienne G J; Gaur, Hari S; Helder, Johannes; Jones, Michael G K; Kikuchi, Taisei; Manzanilla-López, Rosa; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Wesemael, Wim M L; Perry, Roland N

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a 'top 10' list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10) Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  15. Helminths of Wild Predatory Mammals of Ukraine. Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varodi E. I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes information on the nematodes parasitic in wild Carnivora of Ukraine. Totally, 50 species of nematodes are known to parasitise carnivorans in the country, 30 species were registered in the present study. Nematodes were found in 14 species of examined hosts from the families Canidae, Mustelidae and Felidae. Maximum diversity of nematodes of carnivorans was observed in Polissia (forest zone in the north of the country and in Kherson Region in the south. Hosts from the family Canidae harboured 19 nematode species; studied species of the Mustelidae were infected with 15 nematode species, 6 of them were also found in Canidae. The wildcat (Felis silvestris Schreber and the lynx (Lynx lynx Linnaeus harboured only two species of nematodes, both are specific parasites of these hosts. The most comprehensive information concerns the nematode communities of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus and the wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus, with 19 and 9 nematode species found, correspondingly. From 1 to 6 nematode species were found in other species of carnivorans.

  16. The neuropeptide transcriptome of a model echinoderm, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Matthew L; Elphick, Maurice R

    2012-12-01

    Neuronal secretion of peptide signaling molecules (neuropeptides) is an evolutionarily ancient feature of nervous systems. Here we report the identification of 20 cDNAs encoding putative neuropeptide precursors in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Phylum Echinodermata), providing new insights on the evolution and diversity of neuropeptides. Identification of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide precursor (SpGnRHP) is consistent with the widespread phylogenetic distribution of GnRH-type neuropeptides in the bilateria. A protein (SpTRHLP) comprising multiple copies of peptides that share structural similarity with thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is the first TRH-like precursor to be identified in an invertebrate. SpCTLP is the first calcitonin-like peptide with two N-terminally located cysteine residues to be found in a non-chordate species. Discovery of two proteins (SpPPLNP1, SpPPLNP2) comprising homologs of molluscan pedal peptides and arthropod orcokinins indicates the existence of a bilaterian family of pedal peptide/orcokinin-type neuropeptides. Other proteins identified contain peptides that do not share apparent sequence similarity with known neuropeptides. These include Spnp5, which comprises multiple copies of C-terminally amidated peptides that have an N-terminal Ala-Asn motif (AN peptides), and Spnp9, Spnp10 and Spnp12, which contain putative neuropeptides with a C-terminal Phe-amide, Ser-amide or Pro-amide, respectively. Several proteins (Spnp11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20) contain putative neuropeptides with multiple cysteine residues (2, 6 or 8), which may mediate formation of intramolecular or intermolecular disulphide bridges. Looking ahead, the identification of these neuropeptide precursors in S. purpuratus has provided a strong basis for a comprehensive analysis of neuropeptide function in this model echinoderm species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of sensory neuropeptides on human cutaneous wound healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéret, J; Lebonvallet, N; Buhé, V; Carre, J L; Misery, L; Le Gall-Ianotto, C

    2014-06-01

    Close interactions exist between primary sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and skin cells. The PNS may be implicated in the modulation of different skin functions as wound healing. Study the influence of sensory neurons in human cutaneous wound healing. We incubated injured human skin explants either with rat primary sensory neurons from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or different neuropeptides (vasoactive intestinal peptide or VIP, calcitonin gene-related peptide or CGRP, substance P or SP) at various concentrations. Then we evaluated their effects on the proliferative and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling phases, dermal fibroblasts adhesion and differentiation into myofibroblasts. Thus, DRG and all studied neuromediators increased fibroblasts and keratinocytes proliferation and act on the expression ratio between collagen type I and type III in favor of collagen I, particularly between the 3rd and 7th day of culture. Furthermore, the enzymatic activities of matrix metalloprotesases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were increased in the first days of wound healing process. Finally, the adhesion of human dermal fibroblasts and their differentiation into myofibroblasts were promoted after incubation with neuromediators. Interestingly, the most potent concentrations for each tested molecules, were the lowest concentrations, corresponding to physiological concentrations. Sensory neurons and their derived-neuropeptides are able to promote skin wound healing. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuropeptides in brain: Effects of microwave irradiation and decapitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathe, A.A.; Stenfors, C.; Brodin, E.; Theodorsson, E.

    1990-01-01

    Substance P (SP)-, neurokinin A (NKA)- neurotensin (NT)-, neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-like immunoreactivity (LI) were measured and characterized by specific radioimmunoassays (RIA) and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in extracts of rat brain. Concentrations of SP-LI, NKA-LI and NT-LI in brains of decapitated animals were 59, 49 and 64 percent lower compared to those found in animals sacrificed by focused microwave irradiation (MW). In contrast, no difference in brain NPY-LI and VIP-LI levels was found between animals killed by MW and decapitation. HPLC chromatograms of SP-, NKA-, NT- and NPY-LI showed the same immunoreactive components in extracts of brains from both groups of animals. Thus, no additional immunoreactive components were formed by MW compared to those found after decapitation. The present findings may reflect an MW-induced inhibition of peptidase activity or, perhaps, a more efficient extraction of certain neuropeptides following MW treatment. The results imply that the traditional methods of sacrifice may result in the measurement of spuriously low tissue concentrations of some peptides, e.g. tachykinins, in brain

  19. Allatotropin: An Ancestral Myotropic Neuropeptide Involved in Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzugaray, María Eugenia; Adami, Mariana Laura; Diambra, Luis Anibal; Hernandez-Martinez, Salvador; Damborenea, Cristina; Noriega, Fernando Gabriel; Ronderos, Jorge Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell-cell interactions are a basic principle for the organization of tissues and organs allowing them to perform integrated functions and to organize themselves spatially and temporally. Peptidic molecules secreted by neurons and epithelial cells play fundamental roles in cell-cell interactions, acting as local neuromodulators, neurohormones, as well as endocrine and paracrine messengers. Allatotropin (AT) is a neuropeptide originally described as a regulator of Juvenile Hormone synthesis, which plays multiple neural, endocrine and myoactive roles in insects and other organisms. Methods A combination of immunohistochemistry using AT-antibodies and AT-Qdot nanocrystal conjugates was used to identify immunoreactive nerve cells containing the peptide and epithelial-muscular cells targeted by AT in Hydra plagiodesmica. Physiological assays using AT and AT- antibodies revealed that while AT stimulated the extrusion of the hypostome in a dose-response fashion in starved hydroids, the activity of hypostome in hydroids challenged with food was blocked by treatments with different doses of AT-antibodies. Conclusions AT antibodies immunolabeled nerve cells in the stalk, pedal disc, tentacles and hypostome. AT-Qdot conjugates recognized epithelial-muscular cell in the same tissues, suggesting the existence of anatomical and functional relationships between these two cell populations. Physiological assays indicated that the AT-like peptide is facilitating food ingestion. Significance Immunochemical, physiological and bioinformatics evidence advocates that AT is an ancestral neuropeptide involved in myoregulatory activities associated with meal ingestion and digestion. PMID:24143240

  20. Neuropeptide FF receptors as novel targets for limbic seizure attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, Jeanelle; Meurs, Alfred; Bihel, Frederic; Hammoud, Hassan; Schmitt, Martine; De Kock, Joery; Utard, Valerie; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Buffel, Ine; Coppens, Jessica; Tourwe, Dirk; Maes, Veronique; De Prins, An; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Massie, Ann; Balasubramaniam, Ambikaipakan; Boon, Paul; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Simonin, Frederic; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well established anticonvulsant and first-in-class antiepileptic neuropeptide. In this study, the controversial role of NPY1 receptors in epilepsy was reassessed by testing two highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands and a mixed NPY1/NPFF receptor antagonist BIBP3226 in a rat model for limbic seizures. While BIBP3226 significantly attenuated the pilocarpine-induced seizures, neither of the highly selective NPY1 receptor ligands altered the seizure severity. Administration of the NPFF1/NPFF2 receptor antagonist RF9 also significantly attenuated limbic seizure activity. To further prove the involvement of NPFF receptors in these seizure-modulating effects, low and high affinity antagonists for the NPFF receptors were tested. We observed that the low affinity ligand failed to exhibit anticonvulsant properties while the two high affinity ligands significantly attenuated the seizures. Continuous NPFF1 receptor agonist administration also inhibited limbic seizures whereas bolus administration of the NPFF1 receptor agonist was without effect. This suggests that continuous agonist perfusion could result in NPFF1 receptor desensitization and mimic NPFF1 receptor antagonist administration. Our data unveil for the first time the involvement of the NPFF system in the management of limbic seizures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Allatotropin: an ancestral myotropic neuropeptide involved in feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Alzugaray

    Full Text Available Cell-cell interactions are a basic principle for the organization of tissues and organs allowing them to perform integrated functions and to organize themselves spatially and temporally. Peptidic molecules secreted by neurons and epithelial cells play fundamental roles in cell-cell interactions, acting as local neuromodulators, neurohormones, as well as endocrine and paracrine messengers. Allatotropin (AT is a neuropeptide originally described as a regulator of Juvenile Hormone synthesis, which plays multiple neural, endocrine and myoactive roles in insects and other organisms.A combination of immunohistochemistry using AT-antibodies and AT-Qdot nanocrystal conjugates was used to identify immunoreactive nerve cells containing the peptide and epithelial-muscular cells targeted by AT in Hydra plagiodesmica. Physiological assays using AT and AT- antibodies revealed that while AT stimulated the extrusion of the hypostome in a dose-response fashion in starved hydroids, the activity of hypostome in hydroids challenged with food was blocked by treatments with different doses of AT-antibodies.AT antibodies immunolabeled nerve cells in the stalk, pedal disc, tentacles and hypostome. AT-Qdot conjugates recognized epithelial-muscular cell in the same tissues, suggesting the existence of anatomical and functional relationships between these two cell populations. Physiological assays indicated that the AT-like peptide is facilitating food ingestion.Immunochemical, physiological and bioinformatics evidence advocates that AT is an ancestral neuropeptide involved in myoregulatory activities associated with meal ingestion and digestion.

  2. Neuropeptides Modulate Female Chemosensory Processing upon Mating in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Hussain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A female's reproductive state influences her perception of odors and tastes along with her changed behavioral state and physiological needs. The mechanism that modulates chemosensory processing, however, remains largely elusive. Using Drosophila, we have identified a behavioral, neuronal, and genetic mechanism that adapts the senses of smell and taste, the major modalities for food quality perception, to the physiological needs of a gravid female. Pungent smelling polyamines, such as putrescine and spermidine, are essential for cell proliferation, reproduction, and embryonic development in all animals. A polyamine-rich diet increases reproductive success in many species, including flies. Using a combination of behavioral analysis and in vivo physiology, we show that polyamine attraction is modulated in gravid females through a G-protein coupled receptor, the sex peptide receptor (SPR, and its neuropeptide ligands, MIPs (myoinhibitory peptides, which act directly in the polyamine-detecting olfactory and taste neurons. This modulation is triggered by an increase of SPR expression in chemosensory neurons, which is sufficient to convert virgin to mated female olfactory choice behavior. Together, our data show that neuropeptide-mediated modulation of peripheral chemosensory neurons increases a gravid female's preference for important nutrients, thereby ensuring optimal conditions for her growing progeny.

  3. Vasoactive neuropeptides in clinical ophthalmology: An association with autoimmune retinopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Staines

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Donald R Staines1,2, Ekua W Brenu2, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik21Queensland Health, Gold Coast Population Health Unit, Southport, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; 2Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Population Health and Neuroimmunology Unit, Bond University, Robina, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: The mammalian eye is protected against pathogens and inflammation in a relatively immune-privileged environment. Stringent mechanisms are activated that regulate external injury, infection, and autoimmunity. The eye contains a variety of cells expressing vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs, and their receptors, located in the sclera, cornea, iris, ciliary body, ciliary process, and the retina. VNs are important activators of adenylate cyclase, deriving cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP from adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Impairment of VN function would arguably impede cAMP production and impede utilization of ATP. Thus VN autoimmunity may be an etiological factor in retinopathy involving perturbations of purinergic signaling. A sound blood supply is necessary for the existence and functional properties of the retina. This paper postulates that impairments in the endothelial barriers and the blood–retinal barrier, as well as certain inflammatory responses, may arise from disruption to VN function. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors and purinergic modulators may have a role in the treatment of postulated VN autoimmune retinopathy.Keywords: retinopathy, autoimmune, vasoactive neuropeptides, phosphodiesterase inhibitors

  4. A model for nematode locomotion in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, H. William; Wall, Diana H.; DeCrappeo, Nicole; Brenner, John S.

    2001-01-01

    Locomotion of nematodes in soil is important for both practical and theoretical reasons. We constructed a model for rate of locomotion. The first model component is a simple simulation of nematode movement among finite cells by both random and directed behaviours. Optimisation procedures were used to fit the simulation output to data from published experiments on movement along columns of soil or washed sand, and thus to estimate the values of the model's movement coefficients. The coefficients then provided an objective means to compare rates of locomotion among studies done under different experimental conditions. The second component of the model is an equation to predict the movement coefficients as a function of controlling factors that have been addressed experimentally: soil texture, bulk density, water potential, temperature, trophic group of nematode, presence of an attractant or physical gradient and the duration of the experiment. Parameters of the equation were estimated by optimisation to achieve a good fit to the estimated movement coefficients. Bulk density, which has been reported in a minority of published studies, is predicted to have an important effect on rate of locomotion, at least in fine-textured soils. Soil sieving, which appears to be a universal practice in laboratory studies of nematode movement, is predicted to negatively affect locomotion. Slower movement in finer textured soils would be expected to increase isolation among local populations, and thus to promote species richness. Future additions to the model that might improve its utility include representing heterogeneity within populations in rate of movement, development of gradients of chemical attractants, trade-offs between random and directed components of movement, species differences in optimal temperature and water potential, and interactions among factors controlling locomotion.

  5. Association of nematodes and dogwood cankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, L H; Bernard, E C

    1994-03-01

    Dogwood canker is a serious production problem of unknown etiology. From May 1985 through April 1989, cankers from 290 flowering dogwood trees in 15 separate nurseries were sampled for nematodes. Seventy-three percent (213) of the cankers contained nematodes. Panagrolaimus rigidus (Schneider) Thorne (115/290) and Aphelenchoides spp. (91/290) were the most frequently collected taxa. Panagrolaimus rigidus was reared on 2% water agar with unidentified bacteria as the food source. Aphelenchoides spp. were reared in antibiotic-amended agar culture with the fungus Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spauld. &Schrenk as a food source. Repeated attempts to culture Aphelenchoides spp. on dogwood callus tissue were unsuccessful. Artificially created stem wounds inoculated with combinations of Aphelenchoides spp. and P. rigidus callused completely in 60 days with no indication of canker development. Very low numbers of nematodes were recovered from inoculated trees, but P. rigidus and one Aphelenchoides sp. were efficient dispersers and occurred in treatments other than those in which they were inoculated.

  6. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegansand P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  7. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudel

    Full Text Available Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water, we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  8. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler D; Huffnagle, Ian M; Besser, John M; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  9. C. elegans Stress-Induced Sleep Emerges from the Collective Action of Multiple Neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Ravi D; Chow, Elly S; Wang, Han; Schwarz, Erich M; Sternberg, Paul W

    2016-09-26

    The genetic basis of sleep regulation remains poorly understood. In C. elegans, cellular stress induces sleep through epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent activation of the EGF receptor in the ALA neuron. The downstream mechanism by which this neuron promotes sleep is unknown. Single-cell RNA sequencing of ALA reveals that the most highly expressed, ALA-enriched genes encode neuropeptides. Here we have systematically investigated the four most highly enriched neuropeptides: flp-7, nlp-8, flp-24, and flp-13. When individually removed by null mutation, these peptides had little or no effect on stress-induced sleep. However, stress-induced sleep was abolished in nlp-8; flp-24; flp-13 triple-mutant animals, indicating that these neuropeptides work collectively in controlling stress-induced sleep. We tested the effect of overexpression of these neuropeptide genes on five behaviors modulated during sleep-pharyngeal pumping, defecation, locomotion, head movement, and avoidance response to an aversive stimulus-and we found that, if individually overexpressed, each of three neuropeptides (nlp-8, flp-24, or flp-13) induced a different suite of sleep-associated behaviors. These overexpression results raise the possibility that individual components of sleep might be specified by individual neuropeptides or combinations of neuropeptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Neuropeptides and Mechanical Loading on Bone Cell Resorption in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Min Yoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP are present in nerve fibers of bone tissues and have been suggested to potentially regulate bone remodeling. Oscillatory fluid flow (OFF-induced shear stress is a potent signal in mechanotransduction that is capable of regulating both anabolic and catabolic bone remodeling. However, the interaction between neuropeptides and mechanical induction in bone remodeling is poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to quantify the effects of combined neuropeptides and mechanical stimuli on mRNA and protein expression related to bone resorption. Neuropeptides (VIP or CGRP and/or OFF-induced shear stress were applied to MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells and changes in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB ligand (RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG mRNA and protein levels were quantified. Neuropeptides and OFF-induced shear stress similarly decreased RANKL and increased OPG levels compared to control. Changes were not further enhanced with combined neuropeptides and OFF-induced shear stress. These results suggest that neuropeptides CGRP and VIP have an important role in suppressing bone resorptive activities through RANKL/OPG pathway, similar to mechanical loading.

  11. Extracting DNA of nematodes communities from Argentine Pampas agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Mondino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined four strategies (Tris/EDTA, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Chelex 100 resin and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide -CTAB- for extracting nucleic acid (DNA from communities of nematodes. Nematodes were isolated from an agricultural area under different management of long-term crop rotation experiment from Argentina during three seasons. After DNA extraction, Polymerase Chain Reaction-amplifications were performed and considered as indicators of successful DNA extraction. The CTAB combined with proteinase K and phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol was the unique successful method because positive amplifications were obtained by using both eukaryotic and nematode specific primers. This work could contribute to biodiversity studies of nematodes on agroecosystems.

  12. Innate immune properties of selected human neuropeptides against Moraxella catarrhalis and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustyniak Daria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable evidence supports the concept of active communication between the nervous and immune systems. One class of such communicators are the neuropeptides (NPs. Recent reports have highlighted the antimicrobial activity of neuropeptides, placing them among the integral components of innate immune defense. This study examined the action of four human neuropeptides: calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, neuropeptide Y (NPY, substance P (SP and somatostatin (SOM, which are accessible in the upper respiratory tract, against two human-specific respiratory pathogens. We studied: (i neuropeptide-mediated direct antibacterial activity exerted against Moraxella catarrhalis and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and (ii indirect immunomodulatory role of these neuropeptides in the neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis of indicated pathogens. Results We found that 100 micromolar concentrations of CGRP, NPY, SP, and SOM effectively permeabilized bacterial membranes and showed (except SOM bactericidal activity against both pathogens. SOM acted only bacteriostatically. However the killing efficacy was dependent on the bactericidal assay used. The rank order of killing NP effect was: NPY ≥ CGRP > SP >> SOM and correlated with their potency to permeabilize bacterial membranes. The killing and permeabilization activity of the analyzed NPs showed significant correlation with several physicochemical properties and amino acid composition of the neuropeptides. M. catarrhalis was more sensitive to neuropeptides than nontypeable H. influenzae. The immunomodulatory bimodal effect of physiological concentrations of CGRP, NPY, and SP on the phagocytic function of human neutrophils against M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae was observed both in the ingestion (pathogen uptake and reactive oxygen species generation stages. This effect was also dependent on the distinct type of pathogen recognition (opsonic versus nonopsonic. Conclusions The present

  13. More than two decades of research on insect neuropeptide GPCRs: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle eCaers

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the state of the art on neuropeptide receptors in insects. Most of these receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and are involved in the regulation of virtually all physiological processes during an insect’s life. More than twenty years ago a milestone in invertebrate endocrinology was achieved with the characterization of the first insect neuropeptide receptor, i.e. the Drosophila tachykinin-like receptor. However, it took until the release of the Drosophila genome in 2000 that research on neuropeptide receptors boosted. In the last decade a plethora of genomic information of other insect species also became available, leading to a better insight in the functions and evolution of the neuropeptide signaling systems and their intracellular pathways. It became clear that some of these systems are conserved among all insect species, indicating that they fulfill crucial roles in their physiological processes. Meanwhile, other signaling systems seem to be lost in several insect orders or species, suggesting that their actions were superfluous in those insects, or that other neuropeptides have taken over their functions. It is striking that the deorphanization of neuropeptide GPCRs gets much attention, but the subsequent unraveling of the intracellular pathways they elicit, or their physiological functions are often hardly examined. Especially in insects besides Drosophila this information is scarce if not absent. And although great progress made in characterizing neuropeptide signaling systems, even in Drosophila several predicted neuropeptide receptors remain orphan, awaiting for their endogenous ligand to be determined. The present review gives a précis of the insect neuropeptide receptor research of the last two decades. But it has to be emphasized that the work done so far is only the tip of the iceberg and our comprehensive understanding of these important signaling systems will still increase substantially in

  14. Neuropeptide y promotes neurogenesis in murine subventricular zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agasse, Fabienne; Bernardino, Liliana; Kristiansen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ) represent a reliable source of neurons for cell replacement. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) promotes neurogenesis in the hippocampal subgranular layer and the olfactory epithelium and may be useful for the stimulation of SVZ dynamic in brain repair purposes. We...... describe that NPY promotes SVZ neurogenesis. NPY (1 microM) treatments increased proliferation at 48 hours and neuronal differentiation at 7 days in SVZ cell cultures. NPY proneurogenic properties are mediated via the Y1 receptor. Accordingly, Y1 receptor is a major active NPY receptor in the mouse SVZ......-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase signal in growing axons, consistent with axonogenesis. NPY, as a promoter of SVZ neurogenesis, is a crucial factor for future development of cell-based brain therapy. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article....

  15. Neuropeptide Y inhibits hippocampal seizures and wet dog shakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, D P; Madsen, T M; Larsen, P J

    1996-01-01

    The effects of intracerebroventricular neuropeptide Y (NPY) or somatostatin were studied upon hippocampal EEG seizures elicited by electrical stimulation of the rat dentate gyrus or subiculum. At doses of 6 and 12 nmol, the latter dose being more effective, NPY reduced the primary afterdischarge...... effects in the dentate gyrus and subiculum, but also in areas to which epileptiform EEG activity spreads before reverberating. In addition, NPY strongly reduced seizure-related 'wet dog shakes' (WDS). This is consistent with previous studies showing that the dentate gyrus is essential for the generation...... of WDS. However, NPY inhibited WDS even when 1.ADDs were evoked which did not differ from those of vehicle rats, indicating extra-dentate inhibition by NPY as well. No effects were seen with somatostatin. These results show that NPY exerts antiepileptiform effects in vivo, suggesting that increased NPY...

  16. Diversity and abundance: the basic properties of neuropeptide action in molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Tibor

    2011-05-15

    Neuropeptides, the most diverse group of signaling molecules, are responsible for regulating a variety of cellular and behavioral processes in all vertebrate and invertebrate animals. The role played by peptide signals in information processing is fundamentally different from that of conventional neurotransmitters. Neuropeptides may act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators and are released at either synaptic or non-synaptic sites. Peptide signals control developmental processes, drive specific behaviors or contribute to the mechanisms of learning and memory storage. Co-transmission within or across peptide families, and between peptide and non-peptide signaling molecules, is common; this ensures the great versatility of their action. How these tasks are fulfilled when multiple neuropeptides are released has become an important topic for peptide research. Although our knowledge concerning the physiological and behavioral roles of most of the neuropeptides isolated from molluscs is incomplete, this article provides examples to address the complexity of peptide signaling. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Transgenesis in parasitic nematodes: building a better array

    OpenAIRE

    Lok, James B.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of recent progress in the development of transgenesis in parasitic nematodes, several impediments remain before this methodology can become a practical and widely employed tool in parasitology. Recently published studies on transgenesis in the necromenic nematode Pristionchus pacificus from the laboratory of Ralf Sommer highlight several leads that might be valuable as efforts to refine current systems in obligate parasites go forward.

  18. Microsatellite diversity of isolates of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsen, M.; Plas, M. E.; Lenstra, J. A.; Roos, M. H.; Hoekstra, R.

    2000-01-01

    The alarming development of anthelmintic resistance in important gastrointestinal nematode parasites of man and live-stock is caused by selection for specific genotypes. In order to provide genetic tools to study the nematode populations and the consequences of anthelmintic treatment, we isolated

  19. Cyst nematode-induced changes in plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes a first attempt to investigate the biological activity of cyst nematode secretions on plant cell proliferation and the molecular mechanisms underlying feeding cell development in plant roots upon cyst nematode infection.

    To investigate the role of

  20. The cyst nematodes Heterodera and Globodera species in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of the cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp. and Globodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to many crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria, El Behera and Sohag governorates during 2012-...

  1. Occurence of plant parasitic nematodes and factors that enhance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant parasitic nematodes remain a major challenge to crop production that has hitherto received minmum research attention in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper gives the diversity of nematode genera and species associated with cereal crops and indicates the possibility of nemadode population build up due to production ...

  2. Free-living Marine Nematodes. Part 1 British Enoplids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first of three volumes dealing with the most abundant group of animals on the sea-bed and sea-shore, the free-living marine nematodes, and is devoted to those marine nematodes belonging to the subclass Enoplia. Separate volumes will deal with the orders Chromadorida and. Monhysterida. To most marine ...

  3. Evaluation of fallow and cover crops for nematode suppression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in three agroecological zones of south-western Nigeria to evaluate the effect of siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) and mucuna (Mucuna utilis) cover/fallow crops on plant-parasitic nematode population. The natural bush regrowth was used as control. Plant-parasitic nematodes were identified and ...

  4. Soybean lines evaluated for resistance to reniform nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-four wild and domestic soybean (Glycine max and G. soja) lines were evaluated for resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in growth chamber tests with a day length of 16 hours and temperature held constant at 28 C. Several entries for which reactions to reniform nematode w...

  5. Screening of in vitro derived mutants of banana against nematodes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rest of the mutants namely Ro Im V4 6-1-2 and Si Im V4 6-2-5 were found to be susceptible to nematodes. The resistant and moderately resistant mutants of banana could be further used in breeding programmes as well as being recognized as potential cultivars of commerce. Key words: Banana, nematode, resistance, ...

  6. Molecular and genetic analyses of potato cyst nematode resistance loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.H.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the genomic localisation and organisation of loci that harbour resistance to the potato cyst nematode species Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis . Resistance to the potato cyst nematodes G. pallida and G. rostochiensis is an important aspect in potato breeding. To gain

  7. Integrated management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrated management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) for tomato production and productivity. Bayuh Belay1* ... less gall formation, number of eggs per egg mass and final nematode population over the untreated control in the pot house experiment. ...... to Control Plant Pests. University of Idaho. Moscow ...

  8. A Survey of Nematode Infection in Oreochromis niloticus (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence and intensity of nematode infection was investigated in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Kyoga, Uganda and 11% of the 406 fish examined were parasitized by nematodes of the genus Contracaecum. The prevalence of these parasites was greatest in the smallest and largest size classes, but this ...

  9. Book review: Systematics of Cyst Nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cyst nematodes are an important group of plant-parasitic nematodes that cause billions of dollars in economic damage to crops every year. This article reviews a recently published, two-volume monograph that describes the morphological and molecular characteristics of these agriculturally signif...

  10. Prevalence of trichostrongylid nematode in sheeps in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parasitism of Trichostrongylid nematode is a world-wide problem for both small and large scale farmers and is a great threat to the livestock industry and also a major constraint to the wellbeing and productive performance of ruminant animals. This study was carried out to determine the effect of Trichostrongylid nematode in ...

  11. Nematode community structure as a bioindicator in environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, T.; Ferris, H.

    1999-01-01

    Four of every five multicellular animals on the planet are nematodes. They occupy any niche that provides an available source of organic carbon in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. Nematodes vary in sensitivity to pollutants and environmental disturbance. Recent development of indices

  12. Epidemiological study on abomasal nematodes in slaughtered small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are one of the major causes of productivity losses in small ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence, worm burden of abomasal nematodes and associated faecal egg counts (FEC) of small ruminants slaughtered from November, 2011 to October, 2012.

  13. Freshwater nematodes from South Africa. 4. The genus Monhystera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater nematodes from South Africa. 4. The genus Monhystera Bastian, 1865. A.P. Joubert and J. Heyns. Department of Zoology. Rand Afrikaans University. During a survey of freshwater nematodes in South Africa, five species of Monhystera Bastian, 1865, were encountered. The five species, three of which are new to ...

  14. Nematode effector proteins: an emerging paradigm of parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytonematodes use a stylet and secreted effectors to invade host tissues and extract nutrients to support their growth and development. The molecular function of nematode effectors is currently the subject of intense investigation. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of nematode ...

  15. Prevalence of common gastro-intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    (Hansen and Perry, 1994). Furthermore, nematode egg counting per gramme of faeces (epg) was done on the same samples using the modified McMaster technique, as described by Hansen and. Perry (1994). Identification of third stage nematode larvae. About three grammes of faeces were taken from each sample.

  16. Occurrence and prevalence of nematodes in yam fields from four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nematodes is one of the major biotic constraints affecting profitable yam production throughout Nigeria. They affect yams both in the field and in storage thus threatening food security and economic deprivation to growers and their households. The research work identified the types, frequency and population of nematodes ...

  17. occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes and factors that enhance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Plant parasitic nematodes remain a major challenge to crop production that has hitherto received minmum research attention in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper gives the diversity of nematode genera and species associ- ated with cereal crops and indicates the possibility of nemadode population build up due to production ...

  18. Native nematodes as new bio-insecticides for cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the summer of 2015, an effort was made in central Wisconsin to find an entomopathogenic nematode capable controlling Wisconsin’s cranberry pests. Using a standard baiting method, a nematode of the Oscheius genus was collected from the mossy, sandy, peat-filled soils of a wild cranberry marsh. Thi...

  19. Plants producing pyrrolizidine alkaloids: sustainable tools for nematode management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden, T.C.; Boppre, M.

    2010-01-01

    1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine ester alkaloids (pyrrolizidine alkaloids; PAs) are a class of secondary plant metabolites found in hundreds of plant species. In vitro, PAs are known to affect plant-parasitic nematodes. Thus, PA-producing plants might be used in nematode management. So far, however,

  20. Control of the peachtree borer using beneficial nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, is a major pest of peaches and other stone fruits. Our research indicates that entomopathogenic nematodes, also known as beneficial nematodes, can be used effectively to control the insect. We conducted replicated experiments in randomized block designs ov...

  1. Localization of neuropeptide gene expression in larvae of an echinoderm, the starfish Asterias rubens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana D Mayorova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides are an ancient class of neuronal signaling molecules that regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes in animals. The life cycle of many animals includes a larval stage(s that precedes metamorphic transition to a reproductively active adult stage but, with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster and other insects, research on neuropeptide signaling has hitherto largely focused on adult animals. However, recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing have facilitated investigation of neuropeptide expression/function in the larvae of protostomian (e.g. the annelid Platynereis dumerilii and deuterostomian (e.g. the urochordate Ciona intestinalis invertebrates. Accordingly, here we report the first multi-gene investigation of larval neuropeptide precursor expression in a species belonging to the phylum Echinodermata - the starfish Asterias rubens. Whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization was used to visualize in bipinnaria and brachiolaria stage larvae the expression of eight neuropeptide precursors: L-type SALMFamide (S1, F-type SALMFamide (S2, vasopressin/oxytocin-type, NGFFYamide, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-type, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-type, calcitonin-type and corticotropin-releasing hormone-type. Expression of only three of the precursors (S1, S2, NGFFYamide was observed in bipinnaria larvae but by the brachiolaria stage expression of all eight precursors was detected. An evolutionarily conserved feature of larval nervous systems is the apical organ and in starfish larvae this comprises the bilaterally symmetrical lateral ganglia, but only the S1 and S2 precursors were found to be expressed in these ganglia. A prominent feature of brachiolaria larvae is the attachment complex, comprising the brachia and adhesive disk, which mediates larval attachment to a substratum prior to metamorphosis. Interestingly, all of the neuropeptide precursors examined here are expressed in the attachment complex, with

  2. Localization of Neuropeptide Gene Expression in Larvae of an Echinoderm, the Starfish Asterias rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorova, Tatiana D; Tian, Shi; Cai, Weigang; Semmens, Dean C; Odekunle, Esther A; Zandawala, Meet; Badi, Yusef; Rowe, Matthew L; Egertová, Michaela; Elphick, Maurice R

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides are an ancient class of neuronal signaling molecules that regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes in animals. The life cycle of many animals includes a larval stage(s) that precedes metamorphic transition to a reproductively active adult stage but, with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster and other insects, research on neuropeptide signaling has hitherto largely focused on adult animals. However, recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing have facilitated investigation of neuropeptide expression/function in the larvae of protostomian (e.g., the annelid Platynereis dumerilii ) and deuterostomian (e.g., the urochordate Ciona intestinalis ) invertebrates. Accordingly, here we report the first multi-gene investigation of larval neuropeptide precursor expression in a species belonging to the phylum Echinodermata-the starfish Asterias rubens . Whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization was used to visualize in bipinnaria and brachiolaria stage larvae the expression of eight neuropeptide precursors: L-type SALMFamide (S1), F-type SALMFamide (S2), vasopressin/oxytocin-type, NGFFYamide, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-type, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-type, calcitonin-type and corticotropin-releasing hormone-type. Expression of only three of the precursors (S1, S2, NGFFYamide) was observed in bipinnaria larvae but by the brachiolaria stage expression of all eight precursors was detected. An evolutionarily conserved feature of larval nervous systems is the apical organ and in starfish larvae this comprises the bilaterally symmetrical lateral ganglia, but only the S1 and S2 precursors were found to be expressed in these ganglia. A prominent feature of brachiolaria larvae is the attachment complex, comprising the brachia and adhesive disk, which mediates larval attachment to a substratum prior to metamorphosis. Interestingly, all of the neuropeptide precursors examined here are expressed in the attachment complex, with distinctive

  3. Genomics and peptidomics of neuropeptides and protein hormones present in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Neupert, Susanne; Williamson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Neuropeptides and protein hormones constitute a very important group of signaling molecules, regulating central physiological processes such as reproduction, development, and behavior. Using a bioinformatics approach, we screened the recently sequenced genome of the parasitic wasp, Nasonia vitrip...... melanogaster, Aedes aegypti (both Diptera), Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), and Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera). This lower number of neuropeptide genes might be related to Nasonia's parasitic life....

  4. Prevention of Stress-Impaired Fear Extinction Through Neuropeptide S Action in the Lateral Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Chauveau, Frédéric; Lange, Maren Denise; Jüngling, Kay; Lesting, Jörg; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Stressful and traumatic events can create aversive memories, which are a predisposing factor for anxiety disorders. The amygdala is critical for transforming such stressful events into anxiety, and the recently discovered neuropeptide S transmitter system represents a promising candidate apt to control these interactions. Here we test the hypothesis that neuropeptide S can regulate stress-induced hyperexcitability in the amygdala, and thereby can interact with stress-induced alterations of fe...

  5. Interaction of Mimetic Analogs of Insect Kinin Neuropeptides with Arthropod Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    insect excretory system . J Exp Biol 1981; 90:1‑15. 61. O’Donnell MJ, Maddrell SHP. Paracellular and transcellular routes for water and solute...U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2881 F/B Road, College Station, Texas, USA. Email: nachman@tamu.edu Neuropeptide Systems as Targets for Parasite and...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 28 Neuropeptide Systems as Targets for Parasite and Pest Control Unfortunately, insect kinin peptides are unsuitable

  6. Neuropeptide Y in Alcohol Addiction and Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Thorsell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY, a neuropeptide highly conserved throughout evolution, is present at high levels in the central nervous system (CNS, as well as in peripheral tissues such as the gut and cardiovascular system. The peptide exerts its effects via multiple receptor subtypes, all belonging to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Of these subtypes, the Y1 and the Y2 are the most thoroughly characterized, followed by the Y5 subtype. NPY and its receptors have been shown to be of importance in central regulation of events underlying, for example, affective disorders, drug/alcohol use disorders, and energy homeostasis. Furthermore, within the CNS, NPY also affects sleep regulation and circadian rhythm, memory function, tissue growth, and plasticity. The potential roles of NPY in the etiology and pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders, as well as alcohol use disorders, have been extensively studied. This focus was prompted by early indications for an involvement of NPY in acute responses to stress, and, later, also data pointing to a role in alterations within the CNS during chronic, or repeated, exposure to adverse events. These functions of NPY, in addition to the peptide’s regulation of disease states, suggest that modulation of the activity of the NPY system via receptor agonists/antagonists may be a putative treatment mechanism in affective disorders as well as alcohol use disorders. In this review, we present an overview of findings with regard to the NPY system in relation to anxiety and stress, acute as well as chronic; furthermore we discuss post-traumatic stress disorder and, in part depression. In addition, we summarize findings on alcohol use disorders and related behaviors. Finally, we briefly touch upon genetic as well as epigenetic mechanisms that may be of importance for NPY function and regulation. In conclusion, we suggest that modulation of NPY-ergic activity within the CNS, via ligands aimed at different receptor

  7. Transgenesis in the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinshe; Shao, Hongguang; Junio, Ariel; Nolan, Thomas J; Massey, Holman C; Pearce, Edward J; Viney, Mark E; Lok, James B

    2011-10-01

    Strongyloides and related genera are advantageous subjects for transgenesis in parasitic nematodes, primarily by gonadal microinjection as has been used with Caenorhabditis elegans. Transgenesis has been achieved in Strongyloides stercoralis and in Parastrongyloides trichosuri, but both of these lack well-adapted, conventional laboratory hosts in which to derive transgenic lines. By contrast, Strongyloides ratti develops in laboratory rats with high efficiency and offers the added advantages of robust genomic and transcriptomic databases and substantial volumes of genetic, developmental and immunological data. Therefore, we evaluated methodology for transgenesis in S. stercoralis as a means of transforming S. ratti. S. stercoralis-based GFP reporter constructs were expressed in a proportion of F1 transgenic S. ratti following gonadal microinjection into parental free-living females. Frequencies of transgene expression in S. ratti, ranged from 3.7% for pAJ09 to 6.8% for pAJ20; respective frequencies for these constructs in S. stercoralis were 5.6% and 33.5%. Anatomical patterns of transgene expression were virtually identical in S. ratti and S. stercoralis. This is the first report of transgenesis in S. ratti, an important model organism for biological investigations of parasitic nematodes. Availability of the rat as a well-adapted laboratory host will facilitate derivation of transgenic lines of this parasite. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Arrested larval development in cattle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Duncan, M

    1987-06-01

    Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.

  9. Some nematodes of freshwater fishes in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Prouza, A; Royero, R

    1997-01-01

    The present paper comprises a systematic survey of nematodes found in 88 specimens of 24 species of freshwater fishes in Venezuela in 1992 and 1994. The following 13 species of nematodes were recorded: Adults; Guyanema longispiculum Moravec, Prouza et Royero, 1996, Guyanema sp., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus Travassos, Artigas et Pereira, 1928, P. (S.) krameri (Petter, 1974) comb. n., P.(S.) pintoi (Kohn et Fernandes, 1988) comb, n., Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp., Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris) mahnerti (Petter et Cassone, 1984). Larvae: Anisakidae gen. sp., Brevimulticaecum sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Contracaecum sp. Type 2, Contracaecum sp. Type 3, Eustrongylides sp. All these parasites are reported from Venezuela for the first time and all findings represent new host records. Brevimulticaecum larvae are reported from fishes for the first time. Almost all parasites are briefly described and illustrated and problems concerning their morphology, taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. A new name, Terranova diazungriai nom.nov. is proposed for T. caballeroi Díaz-Ungría, 1968 (a junior homonym of T. caballeroi Barus et Coy Otero, 1966).

  10. Experimental Evolution withCaenorhabditisNematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotónio, Henrique; Estes, Suzanne; Phillips, Patrick C; Baer, Charles F

    2017-06-01

    The hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been one of the primary model systems in biology since the 1970s, but only within the last two decades has this nematode also become a useful model for experimental evolution. Here, we outline the goals and major foci of experimental evolution with C. elegans and related species, such as C . briggsae and C. remanei , by discussing the principles of experimental design, and highlighting the strengths and limitations of Caenorhabditis as model systems. We then review three exemplars of Caenorhabditis experimental evolution studies, underlining representative evolution experiments that have addressed the: (1) maintenance of genetic variation; (2) role of natural selection during transitions from outcrossing to selfing, as well as the maintenance of mixed breeding modes during evolution; and (3) evolution of phenotypic plasticity and its role in adaptation to variable environments, including host-pathogen coevolution. We conclude by suggesting some future directions for which experimental evolution with Caenorhabditis would be particularly informative. Copyright © 2017 Teotónio et al.

  11. Vertebrate herbivores influence soil nematodes by modifying plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, G F; Olff, Han; Duyts, Henk; van der Putten, Wim H

    2010-03-01

    Abiotic soil properties, plant community composition, and herbivory all have been reported as important factors influencing the composition of soil communities. However, most studies thus far have considered these factors in isolation, whereas they strongly interact in the field. Here, we study how grazing by vertebrate herbivores influences the soil nematode community composition of a floodplain grassland while we account for effects of grazing on plant community composition and abiotic soil properties. Nematodes are the most ubiquitous invertebrates in the soil. They include a variety of feeding types, ranging from microbial feeders to herbivores and carnivores, and they perform key functions in soil food webs. Our hypothesis was that grazing affects nematode community structure and composition through altering plant community structure and composition. Alternatively, we tested whether the effects of grazing may, directly or indirectly, run via changes in soil abiotic properties. We used a long-term field experiment containing plots with and without vertebrate grazers (cattle and rabbits). We compared plant and nematode community structure and composition, as well as a number of key soil abiotic properties, and we applied structural equation modeling to investigate four possible pathways by which grazing may change nematode community composition. Aboveground grazing increased plant species richness and reduced both plant and nematode community heterogeneity. There was a positive relationship between plant and nematode diversity indices. Grazing decreased the number of bacterial-feeding nematodes, indicating that in these grasslands, top-down control of plant production by grazing leads to bottom-up control in the basal part of the bacterial channel of the soil food web. According to the structural equation model, grazing had a strong effect on soil abiotic properties and plant community composition, whereas plant community composition was the main determinant of

  12. Mining the secretome of root-knot nematodes for cell wall modifying proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    The products of parasitism genes in nematodes must be secreted to reach their targets at the nematode-plant interface. These nematode secretory proteins are therefore recognised to play an important role in the nematode-plant interaction and as a result have been subject of intense study for years.

  13. Neuropeptide Y system in the retina: From localization to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Carvalho, Ana; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2015-07-01

    The retina is a highly complex structure where several types of cells communicate through countless different molecules to codify visual information. Each type of cells plays unique roles in the retina, presenting a singular expression of neurotransmitters. Some neurotransmitter systems in the retina are well understood, while others need to be better explored to unravel the intricate signaling system involved. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino acid peptide, is one of the most common peptide neurotransmitter in the CNS and a highly conserved peptide among species. We review the localization of NPY and NPY receptors (mainly NPY Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5) in retinal cells. Common features of the expression of NPY and NPY receptors in mammalian and non-mammalian species indicate universal roles of this system in the retina. In the present review, we highlight the putative roles of NPY receptor activation in the retina, discussing, in particular, their involvement in retinal development, neurotransmitter release modulation, neuroprotection, microglia and Muller cells function, retinal pigmented epithelium changes, retinal endothelial physiology and proliferation of retinal progenitor cells. Further studies are needed to confirm that targeting the NPY system might be a potential therapeutic strategy for retinal degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuropeptides as endogenous neuronal growth regulatory factors on serotonergic maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila-Garcia, M.I.

    1989-01-01

    Products of the proopiomelanocortin molecule as well as leu- and met-enkephalin were tested for their effects on serotonergic neuronal maturation. High affinity uptake of ({sup 3}H)5-HT and morphometrics using immunocytochemistry specific for serotonergic neurons were used to monitor neuronal maturation. Cultured brainstem raphe neurons from 14 day fetuses, in the presence or absence of target tissue, were administered neuropeptides at various concentrations for 1,3 or 5 days in culture. ACTH peptides stimulate neurite length and, with the endorphins, the expression of ({sup 3}H)5-HT uptake by serotonergic fetal neurons cultured alone but had no effect when these neurons were cocultured with hippocampal target cells. A daily dose of leu-enkephalin to these cells inhibited neuronal uptake after 5 days of exposure and decreased neurite cell length in 24 hr cultures. In contrast, a single dose of leu-enkephalin at plating stimulated uptake after 5 days while co-administration of bacitracin inhibited uptake expression. Naloxone reversed the opioid effect and stimulated uptake when administered alone. Desulfated-CCK, which resembles leu-enkephalin, was equally potent as leu-enkephalin in inhibiting uptake.

  15. Plasma neuropeptide Y levels differ in distinct diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Aysegül; Rasul, Sazan; Dimitrov, Alexander; Handisurya, Ammon; Gartner, Wolfgang; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Wagner, Ludwig; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Base, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important hormone in appetite regulation. Although the contribution of NPY to metabolic disease has been previously demonstrated, there are only a few reports addressing NPY plasma levels under distinct diabetic conditions. In this study we evaluated NPY plasma levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients with (n=34) and without (n=34) diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP) and compared these with age and gender matched healthy controls (n=34). We also analyzed NPY plasma levels in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients with age and pregnancy-week matched controls with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). NPY concentration was determined using a commercially available radioimmunoassay kit. In addition, metabolic parameters of DM2 and GDM patients were recorded. One-way ANOVA tests with appropriate post hoc corrections showed elevated levels of NPY in DM2 patients with and without PNP when compared with those of healthy controls (122.32±40.86 and 117.33±29.92 vs. 84.65±52.17 pmol/L; pwomen with NGT (74.87±14.36 vs. 84.82±51.13 pmol/L, respectively). Notably, the NPY concentration correlated positively with insulin levels in DM2 patients (R=0.35, pDM2 pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Platelet neuropeptide Y is critical for ischemic revascularization in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilan, Jason U; Everhart, Lindsay M; Abe, Ken; Kuo-Bonde, Lydia; Chalothorn, Dan; Kitlinska, Joanna; Burnett, Mary Susan; Epstein, Stephen E; Faber, James E; Zukowska, Zofia

    2013-06-01

    We previously reported that the sympathetic neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) is potently angiogenic, primarily through its Y2 receptor, and that endogenous NPY is crucial for capillary angiogenesis in rodent hindlimb ischemia. Here we sought to identify the source of NPY responsible for revascularization and its mechanisms of action. At d 3, NPY(-/-) mice demonstrated delayed recovery of blood flow and limb function, consistent with impaired collateral conductance, while ischemic capillary angiogenesis was reduced (~70%) at d 14. This biphasic temporal response was confirmed by 2 peaks of NPY activation in rats: a transient early increase in neuronally derived plasma NPY and increase in platelet NPY during late-phase recovery. Compared to NPY-null platelets, collagen-activated NPY-rich platelets were more mitogenic (~2-fold vs. ~1.6-fold increase) for human microvascular endothelial cells, and Y2/Y5 receptor antagonists ablated this difference in proliferation. In NPY(+/+) mice, ischemic angiogenesis was prevented by platelet depletion and then restored by transfusion of platelets from NPY(+/+) mice, but not NPY(-/-) mice. In thrombocytopenic NPY(-/-) mice, transfusion of wild-type platelets fully restored ischemia-induced angiogenesis. These findings suggest that neuronally derived NPY accelerates the early response to femoral artery ligation by promoting collateral conductance, while platelet-derived NPY is critical for sustained capillary angiogenesis.

  17. Mast cell subsets and neuropeptides in leprosy reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Sérgio Luiz Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunohistochemical identification of neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone quantification of mast cells and their subsets (tryptase/chymase-immunoreactive mast cells = TCMC and tryptase-immunoreactive mast cells = TMC were determined in biopsies of six patients with leprosy reactions (three patients with type I reaction and three with type II. Biopsies were compared with those taken from the same body site in the remission stage of the same patient. We found a relative increase of TMC in the inflammatory infiltrate of the reactional biopsies compared to the post-reactional biopsy. Also, the total number of mast cells and the TMC/TCMC ratio in the inflammatory infiltrate was significantly higher than in the intervening dermis of the biopsies of both periods. No significant difference was found regarding neuroptide expression in the reactional and post-reactional biopsies. The relative increase of TMC in the reactional infiltrates could implicate this mast cell subset in the reported increase of the immune response in leprosy reactions.

  18. Discovery of Novel Proline-Based Neuropeptide FF Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy; Decker, Ann M; Langston, Tiffany L; Mathews, Kelly M; Siemian, Justin N; Li, Jun-Xu; Harris, Danni L; Runyon, Scott P; Zhang, Yanan

    2017-10-18

    The neuropeptide FF (NPFF) system has been implicated in a number of physiological processes including modulating the pharmacological activity of opioid analgesics and several other classes of drugs of abuse. In this study, we report the discovery of a novel proline scaffold with antagonistic activity at the NPFF receptors through a high throughput screening campaign using a functional calcium mobilization assay. Focused structure-activity relationship studies on the initial hit 1 have resulted in several analogs with calcium mobilization potencies in the submicromolar range and modest selectivity for the NPFF1 receptor. Affinities and potencies of these compounds were confirmed in radioligand binding and functional cAMP assays. Two compounds, 16 and 33, had good solubility and blood-brain barrier permeability that fall within the range of CNS permeant candidates without the liability of being a P-glycoprotein substrate. Finally, both compounds reversed fentanyl-induced hyperalgesia in rats when administered intraperitoneally. Together, these results point to the potential of these proline analogs as promising NPFF receptor antagonists.

  19. The hypothalamic neuropeptide FF network is impaired in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharuk, Valeri D; Buijs, Ruud M; Jhamandas, Jack H; Swaab, Dick F

    2014-07-01

    The human hypothalamus contains the neuropeptide FF (NPFF) neurochemical network. Animal experiments demonstrated that NPFF is implicated in the central cardiovascular regulation. We therefore studied expression of this peptide in the hypothalamus of individuals who suffered from essential hypertension (n = 8) and died suddenly due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and compared to that of healthy individuals (controls) (n = 6) who died abruptly due to mechanical trauma of the chest. The frozen right part of the hypothalamus was cut coronally into serial sections of 20 μm thickness, and each tenth section was stained immunohistochemically using antibody against NPFF. The central section through each hypothalamic nucleus was characterized by the highest intensity of NPFF immunostaining and thus was chosen for quantitative densitometry. In hypertensive patients, the area occupied by NPFF immunostained neuronal elements in the central sections through the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCh), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (Pa), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), perinuclear zone (PNZ) of the supraoptic nucleus (SON), dorso- (DMH), ventromedial (VMH) nuclei, and perifornical nucleus (PeF) was dramatically decreased compared to controls, ranging about six times less in the VMH to 15 times less in the central part of the BST (BSTC). The NPFF innervation of both nonstained neuronal profiles and microvasculature was extremely poor in hypertensive patients compared to control. The decreased NPFF expression in the hypothalamus of hypertensive patients might be a cause of impairment of its interaction with other neurochemical systems, and thereby might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  20. Microbial symbionts accelerate wound healing via the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilos Poutahidis

    Full Text Available Wound healing capability is inextricably linked with diverse aspects of physical fitness ranging from recovery after minor injuries and surgery to diabetes and some types of cancer. Impact of the microbiome upon the mammalian wound healing process is poorly understood. We discover that supplementing the gut microbiome with lactic acid microbes in drinking water accelerates the wound-healing process to occur in half the time required for matched control animals. Further, we find that Lactobacillus reuteri enhances wound-healing properties through up-regulation of the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin, a factor integral in social bonding and reproduction, by a vagus nerve-mediated pathway. Bacteria-triggered oxytocin serves to activate host CD4+Foxp3+CD25+ immune T regulatory cells conveying transplantable wound healing capacity to naive Rag2-deficient animals. This study determined oxytocin to be a novel component of a multi-directional gut microbe-brain-immune axis, with wound-healing capability as a previously unrecognized output of this axis. We also provide experimental evidence to support long-standing medical traditions associating diet, social practices, and the immune system with efficient recovery after injury, sustained good health, and longevity.

  1. Ant trail pheromone biosynthesis is triggered by a neuropeptide hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Yeon Choi

    Full Text Available Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (∼200 have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia or PBAN receptor gene (in DG expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta.

  2. The effect of tachykinin neuropeptides on amyloid {beta} aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flashner, Efrat [The Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Edmond J. Safra Campus, Givat Ram, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Raviv, Uri, E-mail: raviv@chem.ch.huji.ac.il [The Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Edmond J. Safra Campus, Givat Ram, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Friedler, Assaf, E-mail: assaf@chem.ch.huji.ac.il [The Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Edmond J. Safra Campus, Givat Ram, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Mechanistic explanation of how tachykinin neuropeptides reduce A{beta}-induced neurotoxicity. {yields} Biophysical studies suggest that tachykinins do not modulate the distribution of A{beta} oligomeric states, but rather may incorporate into the fibrils. {yields} A possible strategy to inhibit toxicity of amyloid fibrils. -- Abstract: A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is production of amyloid {beta} peptides resulting from aberrant cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Amyloid {beta} assembles into fibrils under physiological conditions, through formation of neurotoxic intermediate oligomers. Tachykinin peptides are known to affect amyloid {beta} neurotoxicity in cells. To understand the mechanism of this effect, we studied how tachykinins affect A{beta}(1-40) aggregation in vitro. Fibrils grown in the presence of tachykinins exhibited reduced thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence, while their morphology, observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM), did not alter. Cross linking studies revealed that the distribution of low molecular weight species was not affected by tachykinins. Our results suggest that there may be a specific interaction between tachykinins and A{beta}(1-40) that allows them to co-assemble. This effect may explain the reduction of A{beta}(1-40) neurotoxicity in cells treated with tachykinins.

  3. Identification of Virulence Factors in Nematode-Trapping Fungi - Insights from Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Karl-Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are soil-living organisms with the unique ability to capture and infect free-living nematodes. The interest in studying these fungi arises from their potential use as biological control agents for plant- and animal-parasitic nematodes. To enter the parasitic stage, nematode-trapping fungi develop different kinds of trapping structures. In order to understand more about the evolution of parasitism in the nematode-trapping fungi and to identify virulence factors in these...

  4. A Randomized Dose-Ranging Study of Neuropeptide Y in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Sehrish; Van Dam, Nicholas T; Horn, Sarah R; Kautz, Marin M; Parides, Michael; Costi, Sara; Collins, Katherine A; Iacoviello, Brian; Iosifescu, Dan V; Mathé, Aleksander A; Southwick, Steven M; Feder, Adriana; Charney, Dennis S; Murrough, James W

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety and trauma-related disorders are among the most prevalent and disabling medical conditions in the United States, and posttraumatic stress disorder in particular exacts a tremendous public health toll. We examined the tolerability and anxiolytic efficacy of neuropeptide Y administered via an intranasal route in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Twenty-six individuals were randomized in a cross-over, single ascending dose study into 1 of 5 cohorts: 1.4 mg (n=3), 2.8 mg (n=6), 4.6 mg (n=5), 6.8 mg (n=6), and 9.6 mg (n=6). Each individual was dosed with neuropeptide Y or placebo on separate treatment days 1 week apart in random order under double-blind conditions. Assessments were conducted at baseline and following a trauma script symptom provocation procedure subsequent to dosing. Occurrence of adverse events represented the primary tolerability outcome. The difference between treatment conditions on anxiety as measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory immediately following the trauma script represented efficacy outcomes. Twenty-four individuals completed both treatment days. Neuropeptide Y was well tolerated up to and including the highest dose. There was a significant interaction between treatment and dose; higher doses of neuropeptide Y were associated with a greater treatment effect, favoring neuropeptide Y over placebo on Beck Anxiety Inventory score (F1,20=4.95, P=.038). There was no significant interaction for State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score. Our study suggests that a single dose of neuropeptide Y is well tolerated up to 9.6 mg and may be associated with anxiolytic effects. Future studies exploring the safety and efficacy of neuropeptide Y in stress-related disorders are warranted. The reported study is registered at: http://clinicaltrials.gov (ID: NCT01533519). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  5. Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) on Oats. II. Early Root Development and Nematode Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Volkmar, K. M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of Heterodera avenae infestation on early seminal and lateral root growth was examined in four oat genotypes differing in tolerance to H. avenae. Recently emerged seminal roots were inoculated with a range of H. avenae larval densities, then transferred a hydroponic system to remove the effect of later nematode penetration on root development. Intolerance to H. avenae was assessed in terms of impairment of seminal root extension resulting in fewer primary lateral roots emerging fro...

  6. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 11. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Marais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are some of the most abundant soil organisms and are an essential part of soil ecology. These organisms are used as indicator organisms and can be linked to soil health. Biological collections contain vast amounts of data, with the National Collection of Nematodes housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Council being no different. During the digitising of the collection a number of unpublished records of plant nematodes reported from protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal were found in the South African Plant-Parasitic Nematode Survey database. A total of 222 plant nematode species belonging to 39 genera were reported from the province, with only 94 of these species reported from the protected areas and 172 and 159 species reported from uncultivated (outside the protected areas and cultivated areas, respectively. Only nine species, Criconema silvum, Criconema talanum, Helicotylenchus marethae, Ogma dracomontanum, Ogma louisi, Ogma ueckermanni, Paralongidorus deborae, Trichodorus rinae and Xiphinemella marindae were described from protected areas, whilst O. dracomontanum, P. deborae and T. rinae were subsequently also reported from other provinces. Conservation implications: A higher degree of diversity of nematodes was observed in the unprotected areas of the province. The observation suggests that nematode fauna, and by implication also other invertebrates, are not adequately protected.

  7. Excretory/secretory products of anisakid nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Parasites from the family Anisakidae are widely distributed in marine fish populations worldwide and mainly nematodes of the three genera Anisakis, Pseudoterranova and Contracaecum have attracted attention due to their pathogenicity in humans. Their life cycles include invertebrates and fish...... as intermediate or transport hosts and mammals or birds as final hosts. Human consumption of raw or underprocessed seafood containing third stage larvae of anisakid parasites may elicit a gastrointestinal disease (anisakidosis) and allergic responses. Excretory and secretory (ES) compounds produced...... by the parasites are assumed to be key players in clinical manifestation of the disease in humans, but the molecules are likely to play a general biological role in invertebrates and lower vertebrates as well. ES products have several functions during infection, e.g. penetration of host tissues and evasion of host...

  8. Variation in estuarine littoral nematode populations over three spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodda, M.

    1990-04-01

    The population characteristics of the nematode fauna from five replicate cores taken over four seasons at nine sites within mangroves, at three different estuaries on the south-east coast of Australia, are compared. Using cluster analysis, principal co-ordinate analysis and other statistical techniques, the variation in nematode populations is identified as arising from several sources: temperature changes between the more northerly and southerly estuaries (5%); changes in grain size and organic content of the sediment between sites (22%); changes between sites in the frequency of samples containing certain types of food, particularly associated with pools of water and surface topography (30%); stochastic changes in nematode populations within individual samples, probably caused by small scale spatial and temporal variability in food sources (35%); and seasonal changes at all the sites and estuaries (8%). The implications of this pattern of variation for the biology of the nematodes is discussed.

  9. Excretory/secretory products from the gastrointestinal nematode Trichuris muris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritten, Lucienne; Tam, Mifong; Vargas, Mireille; Jardim, Armando; Stevenson, Mary M; Keiser, Jennifer; Geary, Timothy G

    2017-07-01

    To better control gastrointestinal nematode infections in humans and animals, it is important to understand the strategies used by these parasites to modulate the host immune system. In this regard, molecules released by parasites have been attributed crucially important roles in host-parasite negotiations. We characterized the excretory/secretory (E/S) microRNA (miRNA) and protein profiles from the mouse gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichuris muris. Released miRNAs were subjected to miRNA sequencing and E/S proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry. Fourteen miRNAs were identified in T. muris exosome-like vesicles, as well as 73 proteins of nematode origin, 11 of which were unique to this study. Comparison with published nematode protein secretomes revealed high conservation at the functional level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of sympathetic nervous system and neuropeptides in obesity hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Hall

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is the most common cause of human essential hypertension in most industrialized countries. Although the precise mechanisms of obesity hypertension are not fully understood, considerable evidence suggests that excess renal sodium reabsorption and a hypertensive shift of pressure natriuresis play a major role. Sympathetic activation appears to mediate at least part of the obesity-induced sodium retention and hypertension since adrenergic blockade or renal denervation markedly attenuates these changes. Recent observations suggest that leptin and its multiple interactions with neuropeptides in the hypothalamus may link excess weight gain with increased sympathetic activity. Leptin is produced mainly in adipocytes and is believed to regulate energy balance by acting on the hypothalamus to reduce food intake and to increase energy expenditure via sympathetic activation. Short-term administration of leptin into the cerebral ventricles increases renal sympathetic activity, and long-term leptin infusion at rates that mimic plasma concentrations found in obesity raises arterial pressure and heart rate via adrenergic activation in non-obese rodents. Transgenic mice overexpressing leptin also develop hypertension. Acute studies suggest that the renal sympathetic effects of leptin may depend on interactions with other neurochemical pathways in the hypothalamus, including the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R. However, the role of this pathway in mediating the long-term effects of leptin on blood pressure is unclear. Also, it is uncertain whether there is resistance to the chronic renal sympathetic and blood pressure effects of leptin in obese subjects. In addition, leptin also has other cardiovascular and renal actions, such as stimulation of nitric oxide formation and improvement of insulin sensitivity, which may tend to reduce blood pressure in some conditions. Although the role of these mechanisms in human obesity has not been elucidated, this

  11. Neuropeptide Y and neurovascular control in skeletal muscle and skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Gary J.; Jackson, Dwayne N.; Mattar, Louis; Johnson, John M.; Shoemaker, J. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a ubiquitous peptide with multiple effects on energy metabolism, reproduction, neurogenesis, and emotion. In addition, NPY is an important sympathetic neurotransmitter involved in neurovascular regulation. Although early studies suggested that the vasoactive effects of NPY were limited to periods of high stress, there is growing evidence for the involvement of NPY on baseline vasomotor tone and sympathetically evoked vasoconstriction in vivo in both skeletal muscle and the cutaneous circulation. In Sprague-Dawley rat skeletal muscle, Y1-receptor activation appears to play an important role in the regulation of basal vascular conductance, and this effect is similar in magnitude to the α1-receptor contribution. Furthermore, under baseline conditions, agonist and receptor-based mechanisms for Y1-receptor-dependent control of vascular conductance in skeletal muscle are greater in male than female rats. In skin, there is Y1-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction during whole body, but not local, cooling. As with the NPY system in muscle, this neural effect in skin differs between males and females and in addition, declines with aging. Intriguingly, skin vasodilation to local heating also requires NPY and is currently thought to be acting via a nitric oxide pathway. These studies are establishing further interest in the role of NPY as an important vasoactive agent in muscle and skin, adding to the complexity of neurovascular regulation in these tissues. In this review, we focus on the role of NPY on baseline vasomotor tone in skeletal muscle and skin and how NPY modulates vasomotor tone in response to stress, with the aim of compiling what is currently known, while highlighting some of the more pertinent questions yet to be answered. PMID:19571208

  12. The Neuropeptide Oxytocin Induces a Social Altruism Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Nina; Scheele, Dirk; Gerhardt, Holger; Strang, Sabrina; Enax, Laura; Weber, Bernd; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2015-11-25

    Current psychological concepts of social and ecological responsibility emphasize the relevance of altruism, suggesting that more altruistic individuals are more likely to engage in sustainable behaviors. Emerging evidence indicates a central role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in promoting altruism. Whether this influence extends to ecological responsibility or is limited to the social domain remains unknown. In two independent experiments involving 172 human participants, we addressed this question by exposing subjects to a sustainability-related monetary donation task, with the option to support either socially or ecologically framed charities. We found that oxytocin induced a context-dependent change in altruistic behavior away from pro-environmental toward pro-social donations, while keeping constant the overall proportion of donated money. This pro-social bias transcended to the domain of sustainable consumption. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that altruistic priorities vary as a function of oxytocin system activity, which has implications for the promotion of pro-environmental attitudes and eco-friendly behaviors. Individual responses to ecological and social sustainability require a shift in personal priorities away from selfish to more altruistic behaviors. Emerging evidence indicates a central role of the hypothalamic peptide oxytocin in promoting altruism, but whether the influence of oxytocin benefits altruistic decision-making in the context of ecological and social sustainability is unclear. In two independent behavioral experiments involving 172 human subjects, we show that heightened oxytocin system activity induces a social altruism bias at the cost of ecological responsibility. Our results have fundamental implications for policy interventions and business strategies designed to sustain ecological resources by suggesting that a social framing may attract more individuals to engage in pro-environmental and eco-friendly behaviors. Copyright

  13. The effect of neuropeptide FF in the amygdala kindling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, I; Meurs, A; Portelli, J; Raedt, R; De Herdt, V; Poppe, L; De Meulenaere, V; Wadman, W; Bihel, F; Schmitt, M; Vonck, K; Bourguignon, J-J; Simonin, F; Smolders, I; Boon, P

    2016-09-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and its receptors (NPFF1 R and NPFF2 R) are differentially distributed throughout the central nervous system. NPFF reduces cortical excitability in rats when administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), and both NPFF and NPFF1 R antagonists attenuate pilocarpine-induced limbic seizures. In this study, our aim was to determine whether NPFF exerts anticonvulsant or anti-epileptogenic effects in the rat amygdala kindling model for temporal lobe seizures. Male Wistar rats were implanted with a recording/stimulation electrode in the right amygdala and a cannula in the left lateral ventricle. In a first group of animals, the afterdischarge threshold (ADT) was determined after a single i.c.v. infusion of saline (n = 8) or NPFF (1 nmol/h for 2 h; n = 10). Subsequently, daily infusion of saline (n = 8) or NPFF (1 nmol/h for 2 h; i.c.v.; n = 9) was performed, followed by a kindling stimulus (ADT+200 μA). Afterdischarge duration and seizure severity were evaluated after every kindling stimulus. A second group of rats (n = 7) were fully kindled, and the effect of saline or a high dose of NPFF (10 nmol/h for 2 h, i.c.v.) on ADT and the generalized seizure threshold (GST) was subsequently determined. In naive rats, NPFF significantly increased the ADT compared to control (435 ± 72 μA vs 131 ± 23 μA [P < 0.05]). When rats underwent daily stimulations above the ADT, NPFF did not delay or prevent kindling acquisition. Furthermore, a high dose of NPFF did not alter ADT or GST in fully kindled rats. I.c.v. administration of NPFF reduced excitability in the amygdala in naive, but not in fully kindled rats, and had no effect on kindling acquisition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Relationship of neuropeptide FF receptors with pubertal maturation of gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Jennifer F; Heidorn, Neely L; Ryu, Vitaly; Czaja, Krzysztof; Nonneman, Danny J; Barb, C Richard; Hausman, Gary J; Rohrer, Gary A; Prezotto, Ligia D; McCosh, Richard B; Wright, Elane C; White, Brett R; Freking, Bradley A; Oliver, William T; Hileman, Stanley M; Lents, Clay A

    2017-03-01

    Mechanisms governing the timing of puberty in pigs are poorly understood. A genome-wide association study for age at first estrus in pigs identified candidate genes including neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which is a putative receptor for RFamide-related peptides (RFRP). RFRP has been shown to negatively regulate secretion of reproductive hormones from hypothalamic and pituitary tissue of pigs in culture. Here, the porcine NPFFR2 gene was further screened and four potentially functional variants were identified to be associated with age at first estrus in pigs (1,288 gilts). The RFRP neurons in the porcine hypothalamus were localized in the paraventricular and dorsomedial nuclei with RFRP fibers in the lateral hypothalamic area. There were marked changes in expression of NPFF receptors in the anterior pituitary gland and hypothalamus of gilts beginning with the peripubertal period. The hypothesis that NPFF receptor function is related to secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in gilts was tested with various NPFF receptor ligands. The NPFF receptor antagonist RF9 stimulated a pulse-like release of LH in prepubertal gilts. The putative NPFF receptor agonist RFRP3 modestly suppressed LH pulses in ovariectomized (OVX) prepubertal gilts. A porcine-specific RFRP2 failed to have an effect on LH secretion in OVX prepubertal gilts despite its high degree of homology to avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone. Results indicate that an RFRP system is present in the pig and that NPFFR2 is important for pubertal onset in gilts. It is not clear if this regulation involves major control of LH secretion or another unknown mechanism. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Effects of ghrelin on circulating neuropeptide Y levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiro, Vittorio; Saccani-Jotti, Gloria; Rubino, Pasquale; Manfredi, Guido; Melani, Andrea; Chiodera, Paolo

    2006-12-01

    Ghrelin is a 28 amino-acid peptide with a strong GH-releasing activity and a complex role in regulation of appetite, fuel utilization, body weight and composition. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well-known stimulator of pathways favouring food intake and energy storage. Recently, studies in rodents suggested a possible mediation of ghrelin action by NPY. In contrast, until now no evidence of ghrelin-NPY interaction in humans has been provided. In the present study, we examined whether ghrelin influences NPY secretion in normal men. Twelve healthy normal men (aged 24-35 years; body mass index (BMI) 22.3+/-0.93 kg/m2) were tested twice at 08.00 AM on two different days, in random order at weekly intervals, after an overnight fast and rest in bed. An intravenous bolus of 1 microg/kg body weight ghrelin (esperimental test) or an equal amount of normal saline (control test) was injected at time 0. Blood was taken before and over 90 minutes after injections, and was used for the measurement of plasma NPY levels. Plasma levels of NPY slightly, but significantly rose in response to ghrelin, with a mean peak level at 15 min after injection, whereas no significant change was observed after saline administration. Our results show a significant enhancement of plasma NPY levels under ghrelin stimulation. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a ghrelin-NPY interaction in humans, which may suggest a possible mediation of ghrelin action by NPY in humans.

  16. Transgenesis in parasitic nematodes: building a better array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, James B.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of recent progress in the development of transgenesis in parasitic nematodes, several impediments remain before this methodology can become a practical and widely employed tool in parasitology. Recently published studies on transgenesis in the necromenic nematode Pristionchus pacificus from the laboratory of Ralf Sommer highlight several leads that might be valuable as efforts to refine current systems in obligate parasites go forward. PMID:19617000

  17. Ecostructuring of marine nematode communities by submarine groundwater discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Katarzyna; Tamborski, Joseph; Kotwicki, Lech; Bokuniewicz, Henry

    2018-05-01

    Inputs of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean may alter local and regional-scale biology. Here, we report on nematode assemblages along the north shore of Long Island, NY. We test if nematode communities differed between sites impacted by mixed fresh-saline SGD and where SGD is exclusively saline. Diversity of nematodes was low at sites impacted by fresh SGD and communities were dominated by a few opportunistic genera. Moreover, a set of typical freshwater nematode genera restricted to impacted sites was observed. Their presence in the marine coastal zone is exceptional and underlines the structuring role that fresh SGD plays in the local ecosystem. Saline SGD structured nematode assemblages differently compared to sites impacted by fresh SGD. The number of nematode genera was markedly higher at saline SGD sites, with a different community structure. This study highlights the importance to which inputs of fresh SGD may have on local ecosystem diversity in marine coastal environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Targeted mutagenesis in a human-parasitic nematode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer S Gang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes infect over 1 billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases. Despite their prevalence, our understanding of the biology of parasitic nematodes has been limited by the lack of tools for genetic intervention. In particular, it has not yet been possible to generate targeted gene disruptions and mutant phenotypes in any parasitic nematode. Here, we report the development of a method for introducing CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene disruptions in the human-parasitic threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis. We disrupted the S. stercoralis twitchin gene unc-22, resulting in nematodes with severe motility defects. Ss-unc-22 mutations were resolved by homology-directed repair when a repair template was provided. Omission of a repair template resulted in deletions at the target locus. Ss-unc-22 mutations were heritable; we passed Ss-unc-22 mutants through a host and successfully recovered mutant progeny. Using a similar approach, we also disrupted the unc-22 gene of the rat-parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti. Our results demonstrate the applicability of CRISPR-Cas9 to parasitic nematodes, and thereby enable future studies of gene function in these medically relevant but previously genetically intractable parasites.

  19. Communities of terrestrial nematodes after different approaches to heathland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radochova, Petra; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Since the 20th century, the distribution of European heathlands rapidly decreased due to agricultural intensification, heavy use of artificial fertilizers or acidification (Aerts & Heil, 1993). Therefore, various attempts of heathland restoration are under way in these days. Analysis of nematode community composition can be one of the tools suitable for succession evaluation (Ferris et al., 2001). In 2011, 2013 and 2014, soil samples were collected from heathland restoration experiment (launched in 2011) where different restoration methods were applied in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment; existing heathlands were also sampled to identify the target community both in dry and wet heathland. A total of 60 samples of extracted nematodes were analysed for absolute abundance, trophic groups, and genera dominance. Various indices were calculated to describe the nematode community. We were able to prove faster development of wet heathlands towards the target community. However, because of large data variability, there was no significant difference between treatments. Development of wet and dry heathlands differed also in increased proportion of omniphagous nematodes in 2013 and predators in 2014 in dry heathlands. After three years of heathland restoration, nematode community has not yet reached parameters of the target community. References Aerts, R., Heil, G. W., 1993. Heathlands: patterns and processes in a changing environment, 1st ed, Geobotany: 20. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, p. 229. Ferris, H., Bongers, T., De Goede, R. G. M., 2001. A framework for soil food web diagnostics: Extension of the nematode faunal analysis oncept. Appl. Soil Ecol. 18, 13-29.

  20. Plant elicitor peptides promote plant defences against nematodes in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Woo; Huffaker, Alisa; Crippen, Devany; Robbins, Robert T; Goggin, Fiona L

    2018-04-01

    Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are widely distributed among angiosperms, and have been shown to amplify immune responses in multiple plant families. Here, we characterize three Peps from soybean (Glycine max) and describe their effects on plant defences against two damaging agricultural pests, the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Seed treatments with exogenous GmPep1, GmPep2 or GmPep3 significantly reduced the reproduction of both nematodes. Pep treatment also protected plants from the inhibitory effects of root-knot nematodes on above-ground growth, and up-regulated basal expression levels of nematode-responsive defence genes. GmPep1 induced the expression of its propeptide precursor (GmPROPEP1), a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein (NBS-LRR), a pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI), Respiratory Burst Oxidase Protein D (RBOHD) and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leaves. In addition, GmPep2 and GmPep3 seed treatments up-regulated RBOHD expression and ROS accumulation in roots and leaves. These results suggest that GmPeps activate plant defences through systemic transcriptional reprogramming and ROS signalling, and that Pep seed treatments represent a potential strategy for nematode management. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  1. Relationship between production, nematodes and "redness" in strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Nogueira Curi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In recent years "redness" has increasingly appeared in strawberry plants with leaves taking on a reddish color. No causal agent has been associated with plants. Since strawberries presented problems due to the incidence of nematodes, the purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between production, resistance to the Meloidogyne hapla nematode and the "redness" symptom in strawberry cultivars. Two experiments were performed, both with the 'Camino Real', 'Festival', 'Oso Grande', 'Albion' and 'Camarosa' cultivars. The first experiment was performed in the field, where the following were evaluated: strawberry production, fruit quality, macro and micronutrient contents in fruit and leaves, percentage of plant survival, incidence of nematodes, quantity of eggs in the roots and juveniles in the soil, and the incidence of Botrytis cinerea . In the second experiment, the strawberries were transplanted into pots and filled with pinus bark-based commercial substrate. Half the pots were inocculated with Meloidogyne hapla . Cultivars presented differences in fruit production and also in the incidence of "redness". Lowest performance in production was related to the high incidence of the nematode Meloidogyne hapla. 'Oso Grande' and 'Albion' presented nematode-resistant behavior. It was possible find a relationship between the incidence of the Meloidogyne hapla nematode, and the incidence of "redness" only 'Camino Real' cultivar.

  2. The Neuropeptides FLP-2 and PDF-1 Act in Concert To Arouse Caenorhabditis elegans Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Didi; Taylor, Kelsey P; Hall, Qi; Kaplan, Joshua M

    2016-11-01

    During larval molts, Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a sleep-like state (termed lethargus) that is characterized by the absence of feeding and profound locomotion quiescence. The rhythmic pattern of locomotion quiescence and arousal linked to the molting cycle is mediated by reciprocal changes in sensory responsiveness, whereby arousal is associated with increased responsiveness. Sensory neurons arouse locomotion via release of a neuropeptide (PDF-1) and glutamate. Here we identify a second arousing neuropeptide (FLP-2). We show that FLP-2 acts via an orexin-like receptor (FRPR-18), and that FLP-2 and PDF-1 secretion are regulated by reciprocal positive feedback. These results suggest that the aroused behavioral state is stabilized by positive feedback between two neuropeptides. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. Current Evidence for a Role of Neuropeptides in the Regulation of Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Catalani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides drive a wide diversity of biological actions and mediate multiple regulatory functions involving all organ systems. They modulate intercellular signalling in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as the cross talk among nervous and endocrine systems. Indeed, neuropeptides can function as peptide hormones regulating physiological homeostasis (e.g., cognition, blood pressure, feeding behaviour, water balance, glucose metabolism, pain, and response to stress, neuroprotection, and immunomodulation. We aim here to describe the recent advances on the role exerted by neuropeptides in the control of autophagy and its molecular mechanisms since increasing evidence indicates that dysregulation of autophagic process is related to different pathological conditions, including neurodegeneration, metabolic disorders, and cancer.

  4. Neuropeptide Receptor Ligands for the Treatment of Schizophrenia: Focus on Neurotensin and Tachykinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Guy

    2015-01-01

    There is a wealth of evidence that various neuropeptides and their receptor ligands modulate schizophrenia- related behaviors in preclinical animal models, suggesting that neuropeptide systems may represent potential novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. In particular, neurotensin and tachykinins have been the subject of significant research efforts, generating compelling preclinical data in the schizophrenia field. However, clinical studies with notably selective tachykinin NK3 receptor antagonists in schizophrenia have been disappointing, and they were unable to confirm the promising therapeutic potential from animal studies, thereby questioning the therapeutic utility of these compounds for this condition. This article reviews preclinical and clinical findings on ligands for neurotensin and tachykinin receptors in schizophrenia, and provides possible explanations for the failure so far to develop small-molecule neuropeptide ligands for the treatment of schizophrenia.

  5. Influences of an analog of the neuropeptide ACTH 4--9 on mentally retarded adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, B B; Sandman, C A

    1979-01-01

    In a double-blind procedure, 24 mentally retarded adults received 0 mg, 5mg, or 20 mg of an analog of the neuropeptide ACTH 4--9. Following treatment with peptide, the subjects were given the Trails B Test (from the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test, the Benton Visual Retention Test, a concept-formation task, and a standard orienting sequence. The results of the behavioral tests suggested that attentional processes were enhanced in subjects treated with the peptide. The present study, in conjunction with another investigation using the neuropeptide ACTH/MSH 4--10 (Sandman, George, Walker, Nolan & Kastin, 1976), indicates that attentional deficits in mentally retarded adults, traditionally assumed to be irreversible, may be influenced by treatment with fragments of the neuropeptides ACTH and MSH.

  6. The Neuropeptides FLP-2 and PDF-1 Act in Concert To Arouse Caenorhabditis elegans Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Didi; Taylor, Kelsey P.; Hall, Qi; Kaplan, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    During larval molts, Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a sleep-like state (termed lethargus) that is characterized by the absence of feeding and profound locomotion quiescence. The rhythmic pattern of locomotion quiescence and arousal linked to the molting cycle is mediated by reciprocal changes in sensory responsiveness, whereby arousal is associated with increased responsiveness. Sensory neurons arouse locomotion via release of a neuropeptide (PDF-1) and glutamate. Here we identify a second arousing neuropeptide (FLP-2). We show that FLP-2 acts via an orexin-like receptor (FRPR-18), and that FLP-2 and PDF-1 secretion are regulated by reciprocal positive feedback. These results suggest that the aroused behavioral state is stabilized by positive feedback between two neuropeptides. PMID:27585848

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of neuropeptide FF-like in the brain of the turtle: Relation to catecholaminergic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz, M.; Smeets, W.J.A.J.; Lopez, J.M.; Moreno, N.; Morona, R.; Dominguez, L.; Gonzalez, A.

    2008-01-01

    A previous study in the lizard Gekko gecko has revealed that neuropeptide FF (NPFF, a neuropeptide involved in nociception, cardiovascular regulation, and endocrine function) is widely distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord. Although the distribution of NPFF immunoreactivity shares many

  8. Phosphopeptidomics Reveals Differential Phosphorylation States and Novel SxE Phosphosite Motifs of Neuropeptides in Dense Core Secretory Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Christopher B.; Toneff, Thomas; Mosier, Charles; Podvin, Sonia; O'Donoghue, Anthony J.; Hook, Vivian

    2018-03-01

    Neuropeptides are vital for cell-cell communication and function in the regulation of the nervous and endocrine systems. They are generated by post-translational modification (PTM) steps resulting in small active peptides generated from prohormone precursors. Phosphorylation is a significant PTM for the bioactivity of neuropeptides. From the known diversity of distinct neuropeptide functions, it is hypothesized that the extent of phosphorylation varies among different neuropeptides. To assess this hypothesis, neuropeptide-containing dense core secretory vesicles from bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells were subjected to global phosphopeptidomics analyses by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Phosphopeptides were identified directly by LC-MS/MS and indirectly by phosphatase treatment followed by LC-MS/MS. The data identified numerous phosphorylated peptides derived from neuropeptide precursors such as chromogranins, secretogranins, proenkephalin and pro-NPY. Phosphosite occupancies were observed at high and low levels among identified peptides and many of the high occupancy phosphopeptides represent prohormone-derived peptides with currently unknown bioactivities. Peptide sequence analyses demonstrated SxE as the most prevalent phosphorylation site motif, corresponding to phosphorylation sites of the Fam20C protein kinase known to be present in the secretory pathway. The range of high to low phosphosite occupancies for neuropeptides demonstrates cellular regulation of neuropeptide phosphorylation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Discovery of a novel insect neuropeptide signaling system closely related to the insect adipokinetic hormone and corazonin hormonal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karina Kiilerich; Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Schneider, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a central role in the physiology of insects. One large family of insect neuropeptides are the adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), which mobilize lipids and carbohydrates from the insect fat body. Other peptides are the corazonins that are...

  10. Adeno-Associated Viral Vector-Induced Overexpression of Neuropeptide Y Y2 Receptors in the Hippocampus Suppresses Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldbye, David P. D.; Angehagen, Mikael; Gotzsche, Casper R.; Elbrond-Bek, Heidi; Sorensen, Andreas T.; Christiansen, Soren H.; Olesen, Mikkel V.; Nikitidou, Litsa; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Kanter-Schlifke, Irene; Kokaia, Merab

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors overexpressing neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus exerts seizure-suppressant effects in rodent epilepsy models and is currently considered for clinical application in patients with intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizure suppression by neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus is…

  11. Effect of incubation temperature on neuropeptide Y and neuropeptide Y receptors in turkey and chicken satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel L; McCormick, Janet L; Velleman, Sandra G

    2018-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an appetite stimulating peptide released from the central nervous system and impacts the function of many different cell types. A recent transcriptome study showed that NPY expression was altered when turkey breast muscle satellite cells were incubated at low or high temperatures, suggesting NPY may mediate temperature effects on satellite cells. However, to date minimal information exists describing the expression and function of NPY in satellite cells. The objective of this study was to determine how temperature impacts NPY and NPY receptor gene expression in satellite cells isolated from turkeys and chickens with differing genetic lineages. Two broiler and two turkey breast muscle satellite cell lines were incubated at 35, 38 or 41 °C during proliferation and differentiation. In both turkey lines, NPY, and receptors NPY2R and NPY5R expression increased at elevated temperatures after 72 h of proliferation. During differentiation NPY and NPY5R expression increased in both turkey lines with higher temperatures, whereas NPY2R was minimally affected by temperature. In contrast, in both chicken cell lines there were few significant differences for NPY and NPY receptor expression across temperature during proliferation. During differentiation, the temperature effect was different in the two chicken cell lines. In the BPM8 chicken line, there were few differences in NPY and NPY receptors across temperature; whereas elevated temperatures increased NPY, NPY2R, and NPY5R expression in the 708 line. The differences between turkey and chicken lines suggest NPY has species specific satellite cell functions in response to heat stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular insights into land snail neuropeptides through transcriptome and comparative gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kevin J; Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Bell, Francesca; Kuballa, Anna V; Storey, Kenneth B; Cummins, Scott F

    2015-04-17

    Snails belong to the molluscan class Gastropoda, which inhabit land, freshwater and marine environments. Several land snail species, including Theba pisana, are crop pests of major concern, causing extensive damage to agriculture and horticulture. A deeper understanding of their molecular biology is necessary in order to develop methods to manipulate land snail populations. The present study used in silico gene data mining of T. pisana tissue transcriptomes to predict 24,920 central nervous system (CNS) proteins, 37,661 foot muscle proteins and 40,766 hepatopancreas proteins, which together have 5,236 unique protein functional domains. Neuropeptides, metabolic enzymes and epiphragmin genes dominated expression within the CNS, hepatopancreas and muscle, respectively. Further investigation of the CNS transcriptome demonstrated that it might contain as many as 5,504 genes that encode for proteins destined for extracellular secretion. Neuropeptides form an important class of cell-cell messengers that control or influence various complex metabolic events. A total of 35 full-length neuropeptide genes were abundantly expressed within T. pisana CNS, encoding precursors that release molluscan-type bioactive neuropeptide products. These included achatin, allototropin, conopressin, elevenin, FMRFamide, LFRFamide, LRFNVamide, myomodulins, neurokinin Y, PKYMDT, PXFVamide, sCAPamides and several insulin-like peptides. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of neural ganglia confirmed the presence of many of these neuropeptides. Our results provide the most comprehensive picture of the molecular genes and proteins associated with land snail functioning, including the repertoire of neuropeptides that likely play significant roles in neuroendocrine signalling. This information has the potential to expedite the study of molluscan metabolism and potentially stimulate advances in the biological control of land snail pest species.

  13. Prevention of stress-impaired fear extinction through neuropeptide s action in the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Frédéric; Lange, Maren Denise; Jüngling, Kay; Lesting, Jörg; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2012-06-01

    Stressful and traumatic events can create aversive memories, which are a predisposing factor for anxiety disorders. The amygdala is critical for transforming such stressful events into anxiety, and the recently discovered neuropeptide S transmitter system represents a promising candidate apt to control these interactions. Here we test the hypothesis that neuropeptide S can regulate stress-induced hyperexcitability in the amygdala, and thereby can interact with stress-induced alterations of fear memory. Mice underwent acute immobilization stress (IS), and neuropeptide S and a receptor antagonist were locally injected into the lateral amygdala (LA) during stress exposure. Ten days later, anxiety-like behavior, fear acquisition, fear memory retrieval, and extinction were tested. Furthermore, patch-clamp recordings were performed in amygdala slices prepared ex vivo to identify synaptic substrates of stress-induced alterations in fear responsiveness. (1) IS increased anxiety-like behavior, and enhanced conditioned fear responses during extinction 10 days after stress, (2) neuropeptide S in the amygdala prevented, while an antagonist aggravated, these stress-induced changes of aversive behaviors, (3) excitatory synaptic activity in LA projection neurons was increased on fear conditioning and returned to pre-conditioning values on fear extinction, and (4) stress resulted in sustained high levels of excitatory synaptic activity during fear extinction, whereas neuropeptide S supported the return of synaptic activity during fear extinction to levels typical of non-stressed animals. Together these results suggest that the neuropeptide S system is capable of interfering with mechanisms in the amygdala that transform stressful events into anxiety and impaired fear extinction.

  14. Expression Profiles of Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Their Receptors in Human Keratocytes In Vitro and In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słoniecka, Marta; Le Roux, Sandrine; Boman, Peter; Byström, Berit; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ. Cultured keratocytes expressed genes encoding for SP and NKA, and for catecholamine and glutamate synthesizing enzymes, as well as genes for neuropeptide, adrenergic and ACh (muscarinic) receptors. Keratocytes in culture produced SP, NKA, catecholamines, ACh, and glutamate, and expressed neurokinin-1 and -2 receptors (NK-1R and NK-2R), dopamine receptor D2, muscarinic ACh receptors, and NDMAR1 glutamate receptor. Human corneal sections expressed SP, NKA, NK-1R, NK-2R, receptor D2, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), M3, M4 and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors, glutamate, and NMDAR1, but not catecholamine synthesizing enzyme or the α1 and β2 adrenoreceptors, nor M1 receptor. In addition, expression profiles assumed significant differences between keratocytes from the peripheral cornea as compared to those from the central cornea, as well as differences between keratocytes cultured under various serum concentrations. In conclusion, human keratocytes express an array of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cells furthermore express receptors for neuropeptides/neurotransmitters, which suggests that they are susceptible to stimulation by these substances in the cornea, whether of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. As it has been shown that neuropeptides

  15. Settlement induction of Acropora palmata planulae by a GLW-amide neuropeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, P. M.; Szmant, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Complex environmental cues dictate the settlement of coral planulae in situ; however, simple artificial cues may be all that is required to induce settlement of ex situ larval cultures for reef re-seeding and restoration projects. Neuropeptides that transmit settlement signals and initiate the metamorphic cascade have been isolated from hydrozoan taxa and shown to induce metamorphosis of reef-building Acropora spp. in the Indo-Pacific, providing a reliable and efficient settlement cue. Here, the metamorphic activity of six GLW-amide cnidarian neuropeptides was tested on larvae of the Caribbean corals Acropora palmata, Montastraea faveolata and Favia fragum. A. palmata planulae were induced to settle by the exogenous application of the neuropeptide Hym-248 (concentrations ≥1 × 10-6 M), achieving 40-80% attachment and 100% metamorphosis of competent planulae (≥6 days post-fertilization) during two spawning seasons; the remaining neuropeptides exhibited no activity. Hym-248 exposure rapidly altered larval swimming behavior (96% metamorphosis after 6 h. In contrast , M. faveolata and F. fragum planulae did not respond to any GLW-amides tested, suggesting a high specificity of neuropeptide activators on lower taxonomic scales in corals. Subsequent experiments for A. palmata revealed that (1) the presence of a biofilm did not enhance attachment efficiency when coupled with Hym-248 treatment, (2) neuropeptide-induced settlement had no negative effects on early life-history developmental processes: zooxanthellae acquisition and skeletal secretion occurred within 12 days, colonial growth occurred within 36 days, and (3) Hym-248 solutions maintained metamorphic activity following storage at room temperature (10 days), indicating its utility in remote field settings. These results corroborate previous studies on Indo-Pacific Acropora spp. and extend the known metamorphic activity of Hym-248 to Caribbean acroporids. Hym-248 allows for directed and reliable settlement of

  16. Analysis and evaluation of (neuro)peptides in honey bees exposed to pesticides in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramos, María Del Mar; Gómez Ramos, María José; Martínez Galera, María; Gil García, María Dolores; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2018-04-01

    During the last years, declines in honey bee colonies are being registered worldwide. Cholinergic pesticides and their extensive use have been correlated to the decline of pollinators and there is evidence that pesticides act as neuroendocrine disruptors affecting the metabolism of neuropeptides. However, there is a big absence of studies with quantitative results correlating the effect of pesticide exposure with changes on neuropeptides insects, and most of them are conducted under laboratory conditions, typically with individual active ingredients. In this study, we present an analytical workflow to evaluate pesticide effects on honey bees through the analysis of (neuro)peptides. The workflow consists of a rapid extraction method and liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole for preselected neuropeptides. For non-target analysis, high resolution mass spectrometry, multivariate analysis and automatic identification of discriminated peptides using a specific software and protein sequence databases. The analytical method was applied to the analysis of target and non-target (neuro)peptides in honey bees with low and high content of a wide range of pesticides to which have been exposed in field conditions. Our findings show that the identification frequency of target neuropeptides decreases significantly in honey bees with high concentration of pesticides (pesticide concentrations ≥ 500 μg kg -1 ) in comparison with the honey bees with low content of pesticides (pesticide concentrations ≤ 20 μg kg -1 ). Moreover, the principal component analysis in non-target search shows a clear distinction between peptide concentration in honey bees with high level of pesticides and honey bees with low level. The use of high resolution mass spectrometry has allowed the identification of 25 non-redundant peptides responsible for discrimination between the two groups, derived from 18 precursor proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Myotropic activity and immunolocalization of selected neuropeptides of the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides (Coleoptera: Silphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbański, Arkadiusz; Lubawy, Jan; Marciniak, Paweł; Rosiński, Grzegorz

    2018-01-15

    Burying beetles (Nicrophorus sp.) are necrophagous insects with developed parental care. Genome of Nicrophorus vespilloides has been recently sequenced, which makes them interesting model organism in behavioral ecology. However, we know very little about their physiology, including the functioning of their neuroendocrine system. In this study, one of the physiological activities of proctolin, myosuppressin (Nicve-MS), myoinhibitory peptide (Trica-MIP-5) and the short neuropeptide F (Nicve-sNPF) in N. vespilloides have been investigated. The tested neuropeptides were myoactive on N. vespilloides hindgut. After application of the proctolin increased hindgut contraction frequency was observed (EC 50 value was 5.47 × 10 -8 mol/L). The other tested neuropeptides led to inhibition of N. vespilloides hindgut contractions (Nicve-MS: IC 50 = 5.20 × 10 -5 mol/L; Trica-MIP-5: IC 50 = 5.95 × 10 -6 mol/L; Nicve-sNPF: IC 50 = 4.08 × 10 -5 mol/L). Moreover, the tested neuropeptides were immunolocalized in the nervous system of N. vespilloides. Neurons containing sNPF and MIP in brain and ventral nerve cord (VNC) were identified. Proctolin-immunolabeled neurons only in VNC were observed. Moreover, MIP-immunolabeled varicosities and fibers in retrocerebral complex were observed. In addition, our results have been supplemented with alignments of amino acid sequences of these neuropeptides in beetle species. This alignment analysis clearly showed amino acid sequence similarities between neuropeptides. Moreover, this allowed to deduce amino acid sequence of N. vespilloides proctolin (RYLPTa), Nicve-MS (QDVDHVFLRFa) and six isoforms of Nicve-MIP (Nicve-MIP-1-DWNRNLHSWa; Nicve-MIP-2-AWQNLQGGWa; Nicve-MIP-3-AWQNLQGGWa; Nicve-MIP-4-AWKNLNNAGWa; Nicve-MIP-5-SEWGNFRGSWa; Nicve-MIP-6- DPAWTNLKGIWa; and Nicve-sNPF-SGRSPSLRLRFa). © 2018 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Chronic antipsychotic treatment selectively alters nerve growth factor and neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity and the distribution of choline acetyl transferase in rat brain regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelucci, F; Aloe, L; Gruber, SHM; Fiore, M; Mathe, AA

    Neuropeptides and neurotrophins play a number of roles in the central nervous system (CNS). Nerve growth factor NGF), the first characterized member of the family of neurotrophins, influences the synthesis of some neuropeptides, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), a peptide amply expressed in the CNS,

  19. Effects of Neuropeptides In The Development Of The Atopic Dermatitis Of Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Kojima

    2004-01-01

    Conclusions: It is suggested that repeated contact allergic dermatitis or mental stress may promote the development and exacerbation of AD and that substance P has a role in this response. In addition, it seems that an anti-allergic drug, such as olopatadine hydrochloride, possibly downregulates substance P, thereby suppressing the development of AD. In the future, the development and clinical application of a drug that strongly influences the release of neuropeptides, such as substance P, and the expression of neuropeptide receptors would be expected for the treatment of AD.

  20. Anorexia in human and experimental animal models: physiological aspects related to neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Uezono, Yasuhito; Ueta, Yoichi

    2015-09-01

    Anorexia, a loss of appetite for food, can be caused by various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, firstly, clinical aspects of anorexia nervosa are summarized in brief. Secondly, hypothalamic neuropeptides responsible for feeding regulation in each hypothalamic nucleus are discussed. Finally, three different types of anorexigenic animal models; dehydration-induced anorexia, cisplatin-induced anorexia and cancer anorexia-cachexia, are introduced. In conclusion, hypothalamic neuropeptides may give us novel insight to understand and find effective therapeutics strategy essential for various kinds of anorexia.

  1. Identifying neuropeptide and protein hormone receptors in Drosophila melanogaster by exploiting genomic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Williamson, Michael; Cazzamali, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    insect genome, that of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, was sequenced in 2000, and about 200 GPCRs have been annnotated in this model insect. About 50 of these receptors were predicted to have neuropeptides or protein hormones as their ligands. Since 2000, the cDNAs of most of these candidate...... receptors have been cloned and for many receptors the endogenous ligand has been identified. In this review, we will give an update about the current knowledge of all Drosophila neuropeptide and protein hormone receptors, and discuss their phylogenetic relationships. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-Feb...

  2. GABA localization in the nematode Ascaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guastella, J.

    1988-01-01

    A histochemical approach was used to examine the distribution of GABA-associated neurons in the nematode Ascaris, an organism whose small number of morphologically simple neurons make it an excellent preparation for analyzing neuronal phenotypes. Two GABAergic markers were examined: GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR), a marker for endogenous stores of GABA; and ({sup 3}H)-GABA uptake, a marker for GABA uptake sites. Strong GLIR was present in the cell bodies, neurites and commissures of dorsal and ventral inhibitory motorneurons present in this region. Strong GLIR was also present in the cell bodies and processes of the four RME neurons in the nerve ring and in several other ganglionic neurons. Staining was absent in excitatory motorneurons, in ventral cord interneurons and in muscle cells and hypodermis. GABA uptake sites were found in single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. ({sup 3}H)-GABA labeling was also observed in the other two RME cells and several other cephalic neurons. Four putative cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the retrovesicular ganglion (RVG) were heavily labeled. Ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motorneurons did not take up ({sup 3}H)-GABA. Labeling of the ventral cord excitatory motorneuron somata and cell bodies was at or slightly above background. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed.

  3. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  4. In vitro proteolysis of nematode FLPs by preparations from the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus and two plant-parasitic nematodes (Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteolytic activities in extracts from three nematodes, the plant parasites Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita, and the free-living Panagrellus redivivus, were surveyed for substrate preferences using a battery of seven FRET-modified peptide substrates, all derived from members of the la...

  5. Prevertebrate Local Gene Duplication Facilitated Expansion of the Neuropeptide GPCR Superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seongsik; Furlong, Michael; Sim, Mikang; Cho, Minah; Park, Sumi; Cho, Eun Bee; Reyes-Alcaraz, Arfaxad; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Kim, Jaebum; Seong, Jae Young

    2015-11-01

    In humans, numerous genes encode neuropeptides that comprise a superfamily of more than 70 genes in approximately 30 families and act mainly through rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Two rounds of whole-genome duplication (2R WGD) during early vertebrate evolution greatly contributed to proliferation within gene families; however, the mechanisms underlying the initial emergence and diversification of these gene families before 2R WGD are largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed 25 vertebrate rhodopsin-like neuropeptide GPCR families and their cognate peptides using phylogeny, synteny, and localization of these genes on reconstructed vertebrate ancestral chromosomes (VACs). Based on phylogeny, these GPCR families can be divided into five distinct clades, and members of each clade tend to be located on the same VACs. Similarly, their neuropeptide gene families also tend to reside on distinct VACs. Comparison of these GPCR genes with those of invertebrates including Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Branchiostoma floridae, and Ciona intestinalis indicates that these GPCR families emerged through tandem local duplication during metazoan evolution prior to 2R WGD. Our study describes a presumptive evolutionary mechanism and development pathway of the vertebrate rhodopsin-like GPCR and cognate neuropeptide families from the urbilaterian ancestor to modern vertebrates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Crustacean neuropeptide genes of the CHH/MIH/GIH family: implications from molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu-Ming; Gu, Pei-Li; Chu, Ka-Hou; Tobe, Stephen S

    2003-12-01

    The crustacean eyestalk CHH/MIH/GIH gene family represents a unique group of neuropeptide originally identified in crustaceans. These neuropeptides shared a high degree of amino acid identity, and the conservation of cysteine residues at the same relative positions. Based on their biological, biochemical, and molecular properties, they can be divided into the CHH and MIH subtypes with two major members in each subtype. In the shrimp, the CHH-subtypes can be divided into two forms (CHH-A and CHH-B). The CHH-A gene also comprises several isoforms which shared a high overall sequence identity. Although the MIH subtypes are postulated to have evolved from the CHH subtypes, the number of major MIH subtypes in each species has yet to be confirmed. While most of the genes consist of the basic plan of three exons and two introns, other alternative spliced variants have recently been described. Moreover, these alternative forms are usually expressed in non-eyestalk tissues. These findings suggest that these neuropeptides may have a broader spectrum of functions in crustaceans. The results from phylogenetic analysis suggest that the evolution of this group of neuropeptides occurs in a manner similar is to the gene duplication and mutation events hypothesized for the origin of the prolactin and growth hormone gene family of the vertebrate pituitary system.

  7. Anorexigenní neuropeptid CART v regulaci příjmu potravy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagelová, Veronika; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 4 (2014), s. 354-357 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/1368 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : CART * cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript * anorexigenic neuropeptide Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.272, year: 2014

  8. Neuropeptide Y enhances potassium excretion by mechanisms distinct from those controlling sodium excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, A.; Michel, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an established modulator of renal function. Although NPY reduces renal blood flow and does not alter glomerular filtration rate, it enhances diuresis and natriuresis. Although initial studies on natriuresis did not detect kaliuresis, we now report that a retrospective

  9. Study of plasma neuropeptide levels in patients with acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Youfen; Lan Suixin; Chen Yu; He Ling; Huang Yuan; Ma Yaling

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the dynamic changes of plasma neuropeptide (β-EP, NT, NPY) levels and the pathogenesis as well as clinical outcomes of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Methods: The concentrations of serum neuropeptides (β-EP, NT, NPY) were measured on the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th, 14 th day after the onset of disease with RIA in 103 patients with acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (38 cases of acute cerebral infarction, 32 cases of cerebral hemorrhage, 33 cases of acute myocardial infarction and acute heart failure) and 66 controls. Results: 1. NPY, NT and β-EP levels in patients with acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.01). (F=39.54, p<0.01; F=33.38, p<0.01; F=8.38, p<0.01 For β-EP, NPY and NT respectively). 2. The plasma neuropeptide levels were highest at onset and gradually lowered till to normal levels on the 14 th day. Conclusion: Plasma neuropeptide levels were closely related to the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, study of which might be useful in the clinical management of the diseases

  10. High diversity in neuropeptide immunoreactivity patterns among three closely related species of Dinophilidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerbl, Alexandra; Conzelmann, Markus; Jékely, Gáspár

    2017-01-01

    groups other than insects. In this study, we compare the immunoreactivity patterns of 14 neuropeptides in three closely related microscopic dinophilid annelids (Dinophilus gyrociliatus, D. taeniatus and Trilobodrilus axi). The brains of all three species were found to consist of around 700 somata...

  11. A phosphoproteomics approach to elucidate neuropeptide signal transduction controlling insect metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim F; Larsen, Martin R; Lobner-Olesen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    In insects, the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) stimulates production of ecdysone (E) in the prothoracic glands (PGs). E is the precursor of the principal steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), that is responsible for eliciting molting and metamorphosis. In this study, we used ...

  12. Unique translational modification of an invertebrate neuropeptide: a phosphorylated member of the adipokinetic hormone peptide family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Clark, K. D.; Auerswald, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 393, č. 3, (2006), s. 705-713 ISSN 0264-6021 Grant - others:National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) 2053806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone (AKH) * arthropod * neuropeptide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.100, year: 2006

  13. Interaction of neuropeptide Y genotype and childhood emotional maltreatment on brain activity during emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, Esther M.; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been associated with stress reactivity in affective disorders and is most densely expressed in the amygdala. An important stressor associated with affective disorders is the experience of childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). We investigated whether the interaction of NPY

  14. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough.

  15. Indomethacin inhibits the natriuretic effects of neuropeptide Y in anesthetized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, A.; Limmroth, V.; Michel, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a unique modulator of renal function that enhances urine flow and sodium excretion despite marked reductions in renal blood flow. We investigated whether the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin alters the renal NPY effects in anesthetized rats. Treatment with 5 mg/kg

  16. Vasopressin (VP) and neuropeptide FF (NPFF) systems in the normal and hypertensive human brainstem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharuk, Valeri D.; Buijs, Ruud M.; Jhamandas, Jack H.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2011-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)-, neuropeptide FF (NPFF)-, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing neurons were studied by means of single and double immunocytochemistry in the human brainstem of controls who died suddenly due to trauma and of patients who suffered from essential hypertension and died due to

  17. Limbic substrates of the effects of neuropeptide Y on intake of and motivation for palatable food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, R.; Luijendijk, M.C.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; la Fleur, S.E.; Adan, R.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Neuropeptide Y (NPY), given centrally augments food intake and the motivation to work for palatable food. Here, the brain regions were identified through which NPY increases food intake and motivation. Methods: NPY was infused into three brain regions implicated in food intake and

  18. Limbic substrates of the effects of neuropeptide Y on intake of and motivation for palatable food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, Rahul; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), given centrally augments food intake and the motivation to work for palatable food. Here, the brain regions were identified through which NPY increases food intake and motivation. NPY was infused into three brain regions implicated in food intake and motivation: the lateral

  19. Plant and soil nematodes from Lokchao Yangoupokpi Wildlife Sanctuary, Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohilal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study soil samples were collected from Lokchao Yangoupokpi Wildlife Sanctuary to investigate about what nematode species are associated with different plant hosts. This study shows rich nematode diversity in the sanctuary.

  20. Predation rates and prey selectivity in two predacious estuarine nematode species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moens, T.; Herman, P.M.J.; Verbeeck, L.; Steyaert, M.; Vincx, M.

    2000-01-01

    Enoploides longispiculosus and Adoncholaimus fuscus are representatives of nematode genera prominent in sediments of the North Sea and adjacent estuaries. Both are predatory nematodes, although predation is facultative in the latter. The present study investigates functional responses and prey

  1. Nucleic acid transfection and transgenesis in parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, James B

    2012-04-01

    Transgenesis is an essential tool for assessing gene function in any organism, and it is especially crucial for parasitic nematodes given the dwindling armamentarium of effective anthelmintics and the consequent need to validate essential molecular targets for new drugs and vaccines. Two of the major routes of gene delivery evaluated to date in parasitic nematodes, bombardment with DNA-coated microparticles and intragonadal microinjection of DNA constructs, draw upon experience with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Bombardment has been used to transiently transfect Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi and Litomosoides sigmodontis with both RNA and DNA. Microinjection has been used to achieve heritable transgenesis in Strongyloides stercoralis, S. ratti and Parastrongyloides trichosuri and for additional transient expression studies in B. malayi. A third route of gene delivery revisits a classic method involving DNA transfer facilitated by calcium-mediated permeabilization of recipient cells in developing B. malayi larvae and results in transgene inheritance through host and vector passage. Assembly of microinjected transgenes into multi-copy episomal arrays likely results in their transcriptional silencing in some parasitic nematodes. Methods such as transposon-mediated transgenesis that favour low-copy number chromosomal integration may remedy this impediment to establishing stable transgenic lines. In the future, stable transgenesis in parasitic nematodes could enable loss-of-function approaches by insertional mutagenesis, in situ expression of inhibitory double-stranded RNA or boosting RNAi susceptibility through heterologous expression of dsRNA processing and transport proteins.

  2. Smart Parasitic Nematodes Use Multifaceted Strategies to Parasitize Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are omnipresent in nature including many species which are parasitic to plants and cause enormous economic losses in various crops. During the process of parasitism, sedentary phytonematodes use their stylet to secrete effector proteins into the plant cells to induce the development of specialized feeding structures. These effectors are used by the nematodes to develop compatible interactions with plants, partly by mimicking the expression of host genes. Intensive research is going on to investigate the molecular function of these effector proteins in the plants. In this review, we have summarized which physiological and molecular changes occur when endoparasitic nematodes invade the plant roots and how they develop a successful interaction with plants using the effector proteins. We have also mentioned the host genes which are induced by the nematodes for a compatible interaction. Additionally, we discuss how nematodes modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS and RNA silencing pathways in addition to post-translational modifications in their own favor for successful parasitism in plants.

  3. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Amendments to Soil as Nematode Suppressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.

    1986-01-01

    Inorganic fertilizers containing ammoniacal nitrogen or formulations releasing this form of N in the soil are most effective for suppressing nematode populations. Anhydrous ammonia has been shown to reduce soil populations of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Heterodera glycines. The rates required to obtain significant suppression of nematode populations are generally in excess of 150 kg N/ha. Urea also suppresses several nematode species, including Meloidogyne spp., when applied at rates above 300 kg N/ha. Additional available carbon must be provided with urea to permit soil microorganisms to metabolize excess N and avoid phytotoxic effects. There is a direct relation between the amount of "protein" N in organic amendments and their effectiveness as nematode population suppressants. Most nematicidal amendments are oil cakes, or animal excrements containing 2-7% (w:w) N; these materials are effective at rates of 4-10 t/ha. Organic soil amendments containing mucopolysaccharides (e.g., mycelial wastes, chitinous matter) are also effective nematode suppressants. PMID:19294153

  4. Soy desiccants herbicides acting in nematode populations on community land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Baiochi Riboldi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbicides is the main method of weed control in soybeans. Desiccants are also being used routinely to anticipate the harvest and / or minimize the deterioration of seed quality. There is the possibility of direct or indirect contact with such pesticides, affect the community of nematodes in the soil. However, such effects and their magnitudes are yet to be clarified, especially in the case of selective herbicides. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of selective herbicides in soybean on nematodes harmful to the crop. The experiment was conducted with transgenic soybean (‘M-SOY 7908RR’. The experimental design was a randomized block design with the following treatments: paraquat (400 g a.i ha-1, diquat (200 g a.i ha-1, a mixture of paraquat and diquat (300 + 150 g a.i ha-1, two doses of carfentrazone ethyl (20 g a.i ha-1 and 30 g a.i ha-1 and control (without desiccant application. The nematode community in the area was monitored in four periods. In none of those was found significant variation in the populations of nematodes harmful to soybeans, due to the application of any of desiccants. However, especially in the last sampling time, the desiccant application always resulted in increased populations of free-living nematodes and parasites those considered weak for soybean.

  5. Signatures of adaptation to plant parasitism in nematode genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, David McK; Jones, John T; Opperman, Charles H; Kikuchi, Taisei; Danchin, Etienne G J

    2015-02-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause considerable damage to global agriculture. The ability to parasitize plants is a derived character that appears to have independently emerged several times in the phylum Nematoda. Morphological convergence to feeding style has been observed, but whether this is emergent from molecular convergence is less obvious. To address this, we assess whether genomic signatures can be associated with plant parasitism by nematodes. In this review, we report genomic features and characteristics that appear to be common in plant-parasitic nematodes while absent or rare in animal parasites, predators or free-living species. Candidate horizontal acquisitions of parasitism genes have systematically been found in all plant-parasitic species investigated at the sequence level. Presence of peptides that mimic plant hormones also appears to be a trait of plant-parasitic species. Annotations of the few genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes available to date have revealed a set of apparently species-specific genes on every occasion. Effector genes, important for parasitism are frequently found among those species-specific genes, indicating poor overlap. Overall, nematodes appear to have developed convergent genomic solutions to adapt to plant parasitism.

  6. Neuropeptides encoded within a neural transcriptome of the giant triton snail Charonia tritonis, a Crown-of-Thorns Starfish predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, U; Suwansa-Ard, S; Maikaeo, L; Motti, C A; Hall, M R; Cummins, S F

    2017-12-01

    Neuropeptides represent a diverse class of signaling molecules originating from neural tissues. These chemical modulators orchestrate complex physiological events including those associated with growth and reproduction. De novo transcriptome sequencing of a cerebral ganglion library of the endangered giant triton snail (Charonia tritonis) was undertaken in an effort to identify key neuropeptides that control or influence its physiology. The giant triton snail is considered a primary predator of the corallivore Acanthaster planci (Crown-of-Thorns Starfish) that is responsible for a significant loss in coral cover on reefs in the Indo-Pacific. The transcriptome library was assembled into contigs, and then bioinformatic analysis was used to identify a repertoire of 38 giant triton snail neuropeptide precursor genes, and various isoforms, that encode conserved molluscan neuropeptides. C. tritonis neuropeptides show overall precursor organisation consistent with those of other molluscs. These include those neuropeptides associated with mollusc reproduction such as the APGWamide, buccalin, conopressin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), NKY and egg-laying hormone. These data provide a foundation for further studies targeted towards the functional characterisation of neuropeptides to further understand aspects of the biology of the giant triton snail, such as elucidating its reproductive neuroendocrine pathway to allow the development of knowledge based captive breeding programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High-definition De Novo Sequencing of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH)-family Neuropeptides*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenxi; Hui, Limei; Cao, Weifeng; Lietz, Christopher B.; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Chen, Ruibing; Catherman, Adam D.; Thomas, Paul M.; Ge, Ying; Kelleher, Neil L.; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    A complete understanding of the biological functions of large signaling peptides (>4 kDa) requires comprehensive characterization of their amino acid sequences and post-translational modifications, which presents significant analytical challenges. In the past decade, there has been great success with mass spectrometry-based de novo sequencing of small neuropeptides. However, these approaches are less applicable to larger neuropeptides because of the inefficient fragmentation of peptides larger than 4 kDa and their lower endogenous abundance. The conventional proteomics approach focuses on large-scale determination of protein identities via database searching, lacking the ability for in-depth elucidation of individual amino acid residues. Here, we present a multifaceted MS approach for identification and characterization of large crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)-family neuropeptides, a class of peptide hormones that play central roles in the regulation of many important physiological processes of crustaceans. Six crustacean CHH-family neuropeptides (8–9.5 kDa), including two novel peptides with extensive disulfide linkages and PTMs, were fully sequenced without reference to genomic databases. High-definition de novo sequencing was achieved by a combination of bottom-up, off-line top-down, and on-line top-down tandem MS methods. Statistical evaluation indicated that these methods provided complementary information for sequence interpretation and increased the local identification confidence of each amino acid. Further investigations by MALDI imaging MS mapped the spatial distribution and colocalization patterns of various CHH-family neuropeptides in the neuroendocrine organs, revealing that two CHH-subfamilies are involved in distinct signaling pathways. PMID:23028060

  8. High-definition de novo sequencing of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)-family neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenxi; Hui, Limei; Cao, Weifeng; Lietz, Christopher B; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Chen, Ruibing; Catherman, Adam D; Thomas, Paul M; Ge, Ying; Kelleher, Neil L; Li, Lingjun

    2012-12-01

    A complete understanding of the biological functions of large signaling peptides (>4 kDa) requires comprehensive characterization of their amino acid sequences and post-translational modifications, which presents significant analytical challenges. In the past decade, there has been great success with mass spectrometry-based de novo sequencing of small neuropeptides. However, these approaches are less applicable to larger neuropeptides because of the inefficient fragmentation of peptides larger than 4 kDa and their lower endogenous abundance. The conventional proteomics approach focuses on large-scale determination of protein identities via database searching, lacking the ability for in-depth elucidation of individual amino acid residues. Here, we present a multifaceted MS approach for identification and characterization of large crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)-family neuropeptides, a class of peptide hormones that play central roles in the regulation of many important physiological processes of crustaceans. Six crustacean CHH-family neuropeptides (8-9.5 kDa), including two novel peptides with extensive disulfide linkages and PTMs, were fully sequenced without reference to genomic databases. High-definition de novo sequencing was achieved by a combination of bottom-up, off-line top-down, and on-line top-down tandem MS methods. Statistical evaluation indicated that these methods provided complementary information for sequence interpretation and increased the local identification confidence of each amino acid. Further investigations by MALDI imaging MS mapped the spatial distribution and colocalization patterns of various CHH-family neuropeptides in the neuroendocrine organs, revealing that two CHH-subfamilies are involved in distinct signaling pathways.

  9. Immobilization contributes to exaggerated neuropeptide signaling, inflammatory changes, and nociceptive sensitization after fracture in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian-Zhi; Wei, Tzuping; Li, Wen-Wu; Li, Xiang-Qi; Clark, J David; Kingery, Wade S

    2014-10-01

    A tibia fracture cast immobilized for 4 weeks can induce exaggerated substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide signaling and neuropeptide-dependent nociceptive and inflammatory changes in the hind limbs of rats similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Four weeks of hind limb cast immobilization can also induce nociceptive and vascular changes resembling CRPS. To test our hypothesis that immobilization alone could cause exaggerated neuropeptide signaling and inflammatory changes, we tested 5 cohorts of rats: 1) controls; 2) tibia fracture and hind limb casted; 3) hind limb casted, no fracture; 4) tibia fracture with intramedullary pinning, no cast; and 5) tibia fracture with intramedullary pinning and hind limb casting. After 4 weeks, the casts were removed and hind limb allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, sciatic nerve neuropeptide content, cutaneous and spinal cord inflammatory mediator levels, and spinal c-Fos activation were measured. After fracture with casting, there was allodynia, unweighting, warmth, edema, increased sciatic nerve substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, increased skin neurokinin 1 receptors and keratinocyte proliferation, increased inflammatory mediator expression in the hind paw skin (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, nerve growth factor) and cord (IL-1β, nerve growth factor), and increased spinal c-Fos activation. These same changes were observed after cast immobilization alone, except that spinal IL-1β levels were not increased. Treating cast-only rats with a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist inhibited development of nociceptive and inflammatory changes. Four weeks after fracture with pinning, all nociceptive and vascular changes had resolved and there were no increases in neuropeptide signaling or inflammatory mediator expression. Collectively, these data indicate that immobilization alone increased neuropeptide signaling and caused nociceptive and inflammatory changes similar

  10. Relation between stressful life events, neuropeptides and cytokines: results from the LISA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberth, Gunda; Weber, Annegret; Röder, Stefan; Elvers, Horst-Dietrich; Krämer, Ursula; Schins, Roel P F; Diez, Ulrike; Borte, Michael; Heinrich, Joachim; Schäfer, Thomas; Herbarth, Olf; Lehmann, Irina

    2008-12-01

    Stressful life events evidently have an impact on development of allergic diseases, but the mechanism linking stress to pathological changes of immune system function is still not fully understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between stressful life events, neuropeptide and cytokine concentrations in children. Within the LISAplus (Life style-Immune system-Allergy) study, blood samples from children of 6 yr of age were analysed for concentration of the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), substance P (SP) and the Th1/Th2 cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin (IL)-4. Life events such as severe disease or death of a family member, unemployment or divorce of the parents were assessed with a questionnaire filled in by the parents. For 234 children, blood analysis and questionnaire data regarding life events were available. Children with separated/divorced parents showed high VIP levels and high concentrations of the Th2 cytokine IL-4 in their blood. Severe diseases and death of a family member were neither associated with neuropeptide levels nor with cytokine concentrations. Unemployment of the parents was associated with decreased IFN-gamma concentrations in children's blood but not with neuropeptide levels, whereas children experiencing concomitant severe disease and death of a family member had reduced SP blood levels. The neuropeptide VIP might be a mediator between stressful life events and immune regulation contributing to the Th2 shifted immune response in children with separated/divorced parents. Unemployment of the parents was associated with immune regulation in children on the basis of a still unknown mechanism whereas reduced SP levels seem to have no effect on immune regulation.

  11. Neuropeptide FF and prolactin-releasing peptide decrease cortical excitability through activation of NPFF receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, Ine; Meurs, Alfred; Portelli, Jeanelle; Raedt, Robrecht; De Herdt, Veerle; Sioncke, Lynn; Wadman, Wytse; Bihel, Frederic; Schmitt, Martine; Vonck, Kristl; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Simonin, Frederic; Smolders, Ilse; Boon, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Drugs with a novel mechanism of action are needed to reduce the number of people with epilepsy that are refractory to treatment. Increasing attention is paid to neuropeptide systems and several anticonvulsant neuropeptides have already been described, such as galanin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Many others, however, have not been investigated for their ability to affect epileptic seizures. In this study, the potential anticonvulsant activities of three members of the RF-amide neuropeptide family, neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), and kisspeptin (Kp) and other receptor ligands (NPFF1/2 R, GPR10, and GRP54, respectively) were tested in the motor cortex stimulation model. A train of pulses with increasing intensity (0-10 mA over 150 s, 50 Hz, pulse width 2 msec) was delivered to the motor cortex of rats. The threshold intensity for eliciting a motor response (i.e., motor threshold) was determined through behavioral observation and used as a measure for cortical excitability. The threshold was determined before, during, and after the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of various NPFF1/2 R, GPR10, and GPR54 receptor ligands. NPFF and PrRP significantly increased the motor threshold by a maximum of 143 ± 27 and 83 ± 13 μA, respectively, for the doses of 1 nmol/h (p < 0.05). The increase of motor threshold by NPFF and PrRP was prevented by pretreatment and co-treatment with the NPFF1/2 R antagonist RF9. Pretreatment with a selective NPFF1 R antagonist also prevented the threshold increase induced by NPFF. Kp did not increase motor threshold. Intracerebroventricular infusion of NPFF or PrRP decreases cortical excitability in rats through activation of NPFFRs. Furthermore, the NPFF1 R is required for the NPFF-induced decrease in cortical excitability. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  13. A Treadmill to Localize, Exercise, and Measure the Propulsive Power of Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Chuan, Han-Sheng; Gnatt, Michael; Raizen, David; Bau, Haim

    2011-11-01

    The nematodes C. elegans is often used as model biological system to study the genetic basis of behavior, disease-progression, and aging, as well as to develop new therapies and screen drugs. On occasion, it is desirable to quantify the nematode's muscle power. Here, we present a kind of nematode treadmill. The device consists of a tapered conduit filled with aqueous solution. The conduit is subjected to a DC electric field and to pressure-driven flow directed from the narrow end. The nematode is inserted at the conduit's wide end. Directed by the electric field (through electrotaxis), the nematode swims deliberately upstream toward the negative pole. As the conduit narrows, the average fluid velocity and the drag force on the nematode increase. Eventually, the nematode arrives at an equilibrium position, at which its propulsive power balances the viscous drag force. The nematode's propulsive power is estimated with direct numerical simulations of the flow field around the nematode. The calculations utilize the experimentally imaged gait as a boundary condition. The device is useful to retain the nematode at a nearly fixed position for prolonged observations under a microscope, to keep the nematode exercising, and to estimate the nematode's power based on the conduit's width at the equilibrium position.

  14. Towards isolation of the tomato root-knot nematode resistance gene MI via positional cloning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daelen, van R.A.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are severe pathogens of plants and worldwide they cause damage to many economically important crops like potato, rice, cotton, and tomato. So the control of nematodes and the protection of plants against nematode damage are

  15. A SNARE-like protein and biotin are implicated in soybean cyst nematode virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some phytoparasitic nematodes have the ability to infect and reproduce on plants that are normally considered resistant to nematode infection. Such nematodes are referred to as virulent and the mechanisms they use to evade or suppress host plant defenses are not well understood. Here, we report the ...

  16. Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Alexander

    2016-08-04

    Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood but most likely multifactorial. This knowledge gap obstructs the progress regarding the development of endophytes or endophyte-derived constituents into biocontrol agents. In part, this may be caused by the fact that endophytic fungi form a rather heterogeneous group. By combining the knowledge of the currently characterized antagonistic endophytic fungi and their effects on nematode behavior and biology with the knowledge of microbial competition and induced plant defenses, the various mechanisms by which this nematode antagonism operates or may operate are discussed. Now that new technologies are becoming available and more accessible, the currently unresolved mechanisms can be studied in greater detail than ever before.

  17. Nematodes of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Knoff

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available New records for nematode species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established and new systematical arrangements proposed. Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 from the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena is referred for the first time in South America as a new host record. Procamallanus (S. pereirai Annereaux, 1946, from the spiral valve of Raja castelnaui is reported parasitizing an elasmobranch host. Nematode larvae of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are listed from the stomach and spiral valves of several hosts. Anisakidae larvae previously referred in Brazil in the genus Phocanema should be reallocated in Pseudoterranova. Nematodes of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranchs in Brazil.

  18. Nematodes of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoff, M; de São Clemente, S C; Pinto, R M; Gomes, D C

    2001-01-01

    New records for nematode species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established and new systematical arrangements proposed. Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 from the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena is referred for the first time in South America as a new host record. Procamallanus (S.) pereirai Annereaux, 1946, from the spiral valve of Raja castelnaui is reported parasitizing an elasmobranch host. Nematode larvae of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are listed from the stomach and spiral valves of several hosts. Anisakidae larvae previously referred in Brazil in the genus Phocanema should be reallocated in Pseudoterranova. Nematodes of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranchs in Brazil.

  19. Small-molecule pheromones and hormones controlling nematode development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Rebecca A

    2017-05-17

    The existence of small-molecule signals that influence development in Caenorhabditis elegans has been known for several decades, but only in recent years have the chemical structures of several of these signals been established. The identification of these signals has enabled connections to be made between these small molecules and fundamental signaling pathways in C. elegans that influence not only development but also metabolism, fertility, and lifespan. Spurred by these important discoveries and aided by recent advances in comparative metabolomics and NMR spectroscopy, the field of nematode chemistry has the potential to expand dramatically in the coming years. This Perspective will focus on small-molecule pheromones and hormones that influence developmental events in the nematode life cycle (ascarosides, dafachronic acids, and nemamides), will cover more recent work regarding the biosynthesis of these signals, and will explore how the discovery of these signals is transforming our understanding of nematode development and physiology.

  20. Statistical and Economic Techniques for Site-specific Nematode Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Griffin, Terry; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes.

  1. Statistical and Economic Techniques for Site-specific Nematode Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Griffin, Terry; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes. PMID:24643451

  2. Is chronic fatigue syndrome an autoimmune disorder of endogenous neuropeptides, exogenous infection and molecular mimicry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Donald R

    2004-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disorder characterised by prolonged fatigue and debility and is mostly associated with post-infection sequelae although ongoing infection is unproven. Immunological aberration is likely and this may prove to be associated with an expanding group of vasoactive neuropeptides in the context of molecular mimicry and inappropriate immunological memory. Vasoactive neuropeptides including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate activating polypeptide (PACAP) belong to the secretin/glucagon superfamily and act as hormones, neurotransmitters, immune modulators and neurotrophes. They are readily catalysed to smaller peptide fragments by antibody hydrolysis. They and their binding sites are immunogenic and are known to be associated with a range of autoimmune conditions. Vasoactive neuropeptides are widely distributed in the body particularly in the central, autonomic and peripheral nervous systems and have been identified in the gut, adrenal gland, reproductive organs, vasculature, blood cells and other tissues. They have a vital role in maintaining vascular flow in organs, and in thermoregulation, memory and concentration. They are co-transmitters for acetylcholine, nitric oxide, endogenous opioids and insulin, are potent immune regulators with primarily anti-inflammatory activity, and have a significant role in protection of the nervous system to toxic assault, promotion of neural development and the maintenance of homeostasis. This paper describes a biologically plausible mechanism for the development of CFS based on loss of immunological tolerance to the vasoactive neuropeptides following infection, significant physical exercise or de novo. It is proposed that release of these substances is accompanied by a loss of tolerance either to them or their receptor binding sites in CFS. Such an occurrence would have predictably serious consequences resulting from compromised function of the key roles these substances perform. All

  3. Neuropeptides in Heteroptera: Identification of allatotropin-related peptide and tachykinin-related peptides using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, the peptidomic analysis of neuropeptides from the retrocerebral complex and abdominal perisympathetic organs of polyphagous stinkbugs (Pentatomidae) revealed the group-specific sequences of pyrokinins, CAPA peptides (CAPA-periviscerokinins/PVKs and CAPA-pyrokinin), myosuppressin, corazonin...

  4. Hepatic vagotomy alters limbic and hypothalamic neuropeptide responses to insulin-dependent diabetes and voluntary lard ingestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    la Fleur, Susanne E.; Manalo, Sotara L.; Roy, Monica; Houshyar, Hani; Dallman, Mary F.

    2005-01-01

    Hypothalamic anorexigenic [corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and proopiomelanocortin] peptides decrease and the orexigen, neuropeptide Y, increases with diabetic hyperphagia. However, when diabetic rats are allowed to eat lard (saturated fat) as well as chow, both caloric intake and hypothalamic

  5. Food intake regulating-neuropeptides are expressed and regulated through pregnancy and following food restriction in rat placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cepeda Libia A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropeptide Y (NPY, agouti related peptide (AgRP, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART and melanocortins, the products of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC, are hypothalamic peptides involved in feeding regulation and energy homeostasis. Recent evidence has demonstrated their expression in rat and human placenta. Methods In the current study, we have investigated the expression of those neuropeptides in the rat placenta by real-time PCR using a model of maternal food restriction. Results Our results showed that placental-derived neuropeptides were regulated through pregnancy and following food restriction. Conclusion These data could indicate that placental-derived neuropeptides represent a local regulatory circuit that may fine-tune control of energy balance during pregnancy.

  6. Classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides involved in major depression in a multi-neurotransmitter system: a focus on antidepressant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Felix-Martin; Coveñas, R

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the alterations of classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides and the corresponding subreceptors involved in major depression. Neuronal circuits in the brainstem, hippocampus and hypothalamus are developed, since they can be used to derive a multimodal pharmacotherapy. In this sense, serotonin hypoactivity could occur through a strong presynaptic inhibition of glutaminergic neurons via the subtype 5 of metabotropic glutaminergic receptors, and noradrenaline hypoactivity could be due to an enhanced presynaptic inhibition of GABAergic neurons via GABAB receptors. In the hippocampus, dopamine hypoactivity leads to a decreased positive effect. In clinical trials, the antidepressant effect of drugs interfering with the mentioned subreceptors, for example the triple reuptake inhibitor amitifadine, is being investigated. Moreover, the alterations of neuropeptides, such as corticotropin-releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y and galanin are pointed out. The additional antidepressant effect of analogs, agonists and antagonists of the mentioned neuropeptides should be examined.

  7. Neuropeptide imaging on an LTQ with vMALDI source: The complete `all-in-one' peptidome analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaert, Peter D.; Conaway, Maria C. Prieto; Pekar, Tonya M.; Miller, Ken

    2007-02-01

    Direct tissue imaging was performed on dissected insect tissue using a MALDI ion trap to visualize endogenous neuropeptides. Coupling tissue imaging to tandem MSn allows for the identification of previously known species and the ability to identify new ones by de novo sequencing, as searchable databases for insects are sparse. Direct tissue imaging is an attractive technique for the study of neuropeptides as minimal sample preparation is required prior to mass spectrometry. We successfully identified neuropeptides present in the corpora cardiaca and allata of Acheta domesticus (the house cricket). Diagnostic fragments at low m/z were used to distinguish between lipids and neuropeptides. The distribution of peptides appears to be more differentially localized than that of phospholipids, which seem to be more evenly distributed within the tissue.

  8. The Role of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in Uncontrolled Alcohol Drinking and Relapse Behavior Resulting from Exposure to Stressful Events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiele, Todd E; Knapp, Darin J; Breese, George; McCown, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    .... An interesting candidate is neuropeptide Y (NPY). Recent evidence suggests that low NPY levels promote high alcohol consumption, and it has been established the NPY protects against stress and anxiety...

  9. Stem nematode counteracts plant resistance of aphids in alfalfa, Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ricardo A; Spears, Lori R

    2014-10-01

    Plants are exploited by a diverse community of insect herbivores and phytopathogens that interact indirectly through plant-mediated interactions. Generally, plants are thought to respond to insects and pathogens through different defensive signaling pathways. As plants are selected for resistance to one phytophagous organism type (insect vs. pathogen) in managed systems, it is not clear how this selection may affect community interactions. This study examined the effect of nematode-resistant varieties on aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) suppression, and then determined how infection by the stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci, mediated ecological effects on aphids and on plant defense proteins. Four alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties were selected with resistance to nematodes only (+,-), aphids only (-,+), nematodes and aphids (+,+), and susceptibility to nematodes and aphids (-,-). Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to isolate the effect of nematode infection and aphid abundance on each variety. We found that varieties resistant to nematode, regardless of aphid resistance, had the lowest aphid counts, suggesting possible cross-resistance. Aphid abundance, however, increased when plants were exposed to nematodes. Resistant varieties were associated with elevated saponins but these compounds were not affected by insect or pathogen feeding. Concentrations of peroxidases and trypsin inhibitors, however, were increased in nematode resistant varieties when exposed to nematodes and aphids, respectively. The patterns of plant defense were variable, and a combination of resistance traits and changes in nutrient availability may drive positive interactions between nematodes and aphids aboveground.

  10. The Ditylenchus destructor genome provides new insights into the evolution of plant parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinshui; Peng, Donghai; Chen, Ling; Liu, Hualin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Mengci; Ju, Shouyong; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming

    2016-07-27

    Plant-parasitic nematodes were found in 4 of the 12 clades of phylum Nematoda. These nematodes in different clades may have originated independently from their free-living fungivorous ancestors. However, the exact evolutionary process of these parasites is unclear. Here, we sequenced the genome sequence of a migratory plant nematode, Ditylenchus destructor We performed comparative genomics among the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans and all the plant nematodes with genome sequences available. We found that, compared with C. elegans, the core developmental control processes underwent heavy reduction, though most signal transduction pathways were conserved. We also found D. destructor contained more homologies of the key genes in the above processes than the other plant nematodes. We suggest that Ditylenchus spp. may be an intermediate evolutionary history stage from free-living nematodes that feed on fungi to obligate plant-parasitic nematodes. Based on the facts that D. destructor can feed on fungi and has a relatively short life cycle, and that it has similar features to both C. elegans and sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes from clade 12, we propose it as a new model to study the biology, biocontrol of plant nematodes and the interaction between nematodes and plants. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. High-throughput sequencing of nematode communities from total soil DNA extractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    nematodes without the need for enrichment was developed. Using this strategy on DNA templates from a set of 22 agricultural soils, we obtained 64.4% sequences of nematode origin in total, whereas the remaining sequences were almost entirely from other metazoans. The nematode sequences were derived from...... in previous sequence-based studies are not nematode specific but also amplify other groups of organisms such as fungi and plantae, and thus require a nematode enrichment step that may introduce biases. Results: In this study an amplification strategy which selectively amplifies a fragment of the SSU from...... a broad taxonomic range and most sequences were from nematode taxa that have previously been found to be abundant in soil such as Tylenchida, Rhabditida, Dorylaimida, Triplonchida and Araeolaimida. Conclusions: Our amplification and sequencing strategy for assessing nematode diversity was able to collect...

  12. Transcriptome and peptidome characterisation of the main neuropeptides and peptidic hormones of a euphausiid: the Ice Krill, Euphausia crystallorophias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Toullec

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ice krill, Euphausia crystallorophias is one of the species at the base of the Southern Ocean food chain. Given their significant contribution to the biomass of the Southern Ocean, it is vitally important to gain a better understanding of their physiology and, in particular, anticipate their responses to climate change effects in the warming seas around Antarctica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina sequencing was used to produce a transcriptome of the ice krill. Analysis of the assembled contigs via two different methods, produced 36 new pre-pro-peptides, coding for 61 neuropeptides or peptide hormones belonging to the following families: Allatostatins (A, B et C, Bursicon (α and β, Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormones (CHH and MIH/VIHs, Crustacean Cardioactive Peptide (CCAP, Corazonin, Diuretic Hormones (DH, the Eclosion Hormone (EH, Neuroparsin, Neuropeptide F (NPF, small Neuropeptide F (sNPF, Pigment Dispersing Hormone (PDH, Red Pigment Concentrating Hormone (RPCH and finally Tachykinin. LC/MS/MS proteomics was also carried out on eyestalk extracts, which are the major site of neuropeptide synthesis in decapod crustaceans. Results confirmed the presence of six neuropeptides and six precursor-related peptides previously identified in the transcriptome analyses. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of neuropeptide hormones in a Eucarida non-decapod Malacostraca, several of which are described for the first time in a non-decapod crustacean. Additionally, there is a potential expansion of PDH and Neuropeptide F family members, which may reflect certain life history traits such as circadian rhythms associated with diurnal migrations and also the confirmation via mass spectrometry of several novel pre-pro-peptides, of unknown function. Knowledge of these essential hormones provides a vital framework for understanding the physiological response of this key Southern Ocean species to climate change

  13. Insulin ameliorating endotoxaemia-induced muscle wasting is associated with the alteration of hypothalamic neuropeptides and inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kaipeng; Yu, Wenkui; Lin, Zhiliang; Tan, Shanjun; Bai, Xiaowu; Gao, Tao; Xi, Fengchan; Li, Ning

    2015-05-01

    Septic patients always develop muscle wasting, which delays the rehabilitation and contributes to the increased complications and mortality. Previous studies have implied the crucial role of central inflammation and neuropeptides in the energy balance and muscle metabolism. Insulin has been confirmed to attenuate muscle degradation and inhibit inflammation. We tested the hypothesis whether insulin ameliorating muscle wasting was associated with modulating hypothalamic inflammation and neuropeptides. Thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were in intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg) or saline, followed by subcutaneous injection of insulin (5 IU/kg) or saline. Twenty-four hours after injection, skeletal muscle and hypothalamus tissues were harvested. Muscle wasting was measured by the mRNA expression of two E3 ubiquitin ligases, muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF-1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), as well as 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) and tyrosine release. Hypothalamic inflammatory markers and neuropeptides expression were also measured in four groups. LPS injection led to significant increase in hypothalamic inflammation as well as muscle wasting. Also, increased hypothalamic neuropeptides, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript (CART) and neuropeptides Y (NPY) and decreased agouti-related protein (AgRP) were observed. Insulin treatment ameliorated endotoxaemia-induced muscle wasting and hypothalamic inflammation, and attenuated the alteration of neuropeptides, POMC, CART and AgRP. Hypothalamic inflammation and neuropeptides are involved in the endotoxaemia-induced muscle wasting. Insulin treatment can reduce muscle wasting, which is associated with reduced hypothalamic inflammation and alteration of hypothalamic neuropeptides. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of neuropeptides and peptide hormones in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite: evidence of roles in larval settlement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Cheng Yan

    Full Text Available The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of neuropeptides and peptide hormones in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite: evidence of roles in larval settlement.

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Xing-Cheng

    2012-10-02

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in this study shall

  16. Transcriptomic Analysis of Neuropeptides and Peptide Hormones in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite: Evidence of Roles in Larval Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing-Cheng; Chen, Zhang-Fan; Sun, Jin; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wu, Rudolf S. S.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in this study shall

  17. Parasitic nematodes in the chimpanzee population on Rubondo Island, Tanzania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrželková, Klára Judita; Hasegawa, H.; Moscovice, L. R.; Kaur, T.; Issa, M. H.; Huffman, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2006), s. 767-777 ISSN 0164-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chimpanzee * introduced population * nematode * new parasite record * Rubondo Island Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2006

  18. Systemic induced tolerance against root-knot nematodes in rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    c Institute of Biotechnology Research, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O.. Box 62000, City ... of information from fundamental research in order to get more insight on the interaction between these nematodes ..... 1200TM Automated PCR Set up robot (Corbett Life Science, 2009). All PCR samples ...

  19. Genetic diversity of the potato cyst nematode in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkertsma, R.T.

    1997-01-01


    The potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis (Woll.) Skarbilovich and G. pallida (Stone) originate from the Andes region in South America and have been introduced into Western Europe since 1850. Both species are

  20. GESTION DES NEMATODES A GALLES PARASITES DE LA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Galeano, M. 2003. Evaluating Pochonia chlamydosporia in a double-cropping system of lettuce and tomato in plastic houses infested with Meloidogyne javanica. Plant Pathology 52: 521-528. Westerdahl, B.B. et Becker, J.O. 2009. Cucurbit Nematodes. UC Pest Management. Guidelines: Cucurbits. UC ANR Publication.

  1. Occurence of Anisakids nematodes on Frozen Hake ( Merluccius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of the frozen hake were obtained once a week as corresponding to supply in Yenagoa Market Bayelsa State ,Nigeria . From every supply of 10 cartons, 10 pieces of hake were examined for the presence of Anisakids nematodes .The incidence was concluded after sampling continuously every week for 8weeks ...

  2. Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, J.T.; Haegeman, A.; Danchin, E.G.J.; Gaur, H.S.; Helder, J.; Jones, M.G.K.; Kikuchi, T.; Manzanilla-López, R.; Palomares-Rius, J.E.; Wesemael, W.M.L.; Perry, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a ‘top 10’ list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2010 and February 2011 to assess the prevalence of intestinal nematode infections among children aged 1 – 14 years living in two communities of rural Ebonyi State, Nigeria, characterize the risk factors for infection and develop environmental ...

  4. Prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 384 faecal samples for the coproscopic examination were collected and processed using direct faecal floatation method in parasitology laboratory of Jimma University, School of Veterinary medicine. Out of the total sampled cattle, 190 (49.5%) had a gastrointestinal nematode infection. Coprological investigation ...

  5. Faecal nematode egg counts in Merino sheep following natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    This study reports line differences in faecal nematode egg counts in strains of Merino sheep after natural challenge, and genetic (co)variances of egg counts with other traits of economic importance. Material and Methods. Sheep from a Merino selection experiment on the Tygerhoek experimental farm in the Southern Cape.

  6. Maintenance of genetic variation in automictic root-knot nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Beek, J. G. ( Hans); Punacker, Laas P.

    2008-01-01

    Differences in amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) between isolates and between mono-female lines of facultative automictic Meloidogyne hapla race A and obligate apomictic M incognita were determined to test the hypothesis that inverted meiosis occurs. DNA of the parthenogenetic nematode

  7. Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood

  8. Nematode Parasitemia in School aged Children in Sapele, Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) faecal samples were collected from school aged children in four randomly selected primary schools in Sapele metropolis of Delta State, Nigeria, to determine gastrointestinal nematode parasitemia. The formal-ether concentration technique was used to analyse the specimens and data obtained revealed ...

  9. Risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infections of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out in Nakuru and Mukurweini districts of Kenya to identify the risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in cattle on 128 dairy farms between June 16th 2010 and August 30th 2010. Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 419 heads of cattle that were above three ...

  10. The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode infection and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Nakuru and Mukurweini districts of Kenya to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and the financial impact of such infections among smallholder dairy farms. Parasitological examination involving feacal egg count and larval culture was employed to determine ...

  11. Gastrointestinal Nematodes and Body Condition Scores of Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of 210 trade goats slaughtered in Nsukka area of Enugu state and their effects on body conditions was studied between May and August, 2011. The body condition of each goat were determined and scored on a scale of 1 – 5. Faecal samples were then collected from the goats before ...

  12. Efficacy of two anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematodes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) and ivermectin (IVM) against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in naturally infected goats in the pastoral region of Karamoja, Uganda. Fifty four (54) small East African goats (female = 36, male = 18), of 4-6 months and from 18 flocks, were allocated to ...

  13. Seasonal patterns of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seasonal patterns of trichostrongylid nematode infections in Dorper yearlings in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District, Kenya were investigated by analysis faecal egg output, herbage infectivity and post-mortem worm recovery. Rectal faecal samples from 60 animals as well as herbage samples from their grazing fields ...

  14. Field study on nematode resistance in Nelore-breed cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bricarello, P A; Zaros, L G; Coutinho, L L; Rocha, R A; Kooyman, F N J; De Vries, E; Gonçalves, J R S; Lima, L G; Pires, A V; Amarante, A F T

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated Nelore cattle with different degrees of resistance to natural infections by gastrointestinal nematodes. One hundred weaned male cattle, 11-12 months of age, were kept on the same pasture and evaluated from October 2003 to February 2004. Faecal and blood samples were

  15. A survey of gastrointestinal nematodes in soil samples in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was to determine the comparative level of soil contamination by these helminthes. Out of the 60 top and deep soil samples collected from high-density areas, 12(20%) were positive for various pathogenic gastrointestinal nematodes. They include Ascaris sp., Toxocara canis, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, ...

  16. 5 Spatial Distribution of Nematodes at Organic.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    live in the thin films of water surrounding soil particles because water aids their mobility (Freckman ... Geostatistics can be used to analyse and quantify spatial autocorrelation by distance and direction (Evans et al., 1999). Geostatistical analysis in previous studies has shown that field-scale autocorrelation in nematode ...

  17. Nematodes and Weeds Control Effects of Pueraria phaseoloides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yield of plantain (Musa spp., AAB Simmonds) declines sharply after 1–2 years of cropping in West and Central Africa, due mainly to weeds and nematodes. A trial was carried out from January 2002 to October 2005 under two land-use systems (LUS) comprising 4–5 year-old bush fallow, dominated by Chromolaena ...

  18. RNA interference in plant parasitic nematodes | Karakas | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conserved in most eukaryotic organisms, the RNAi pathway is thought to have evolved as a form of innate immunity against viruses and also plays a major role in regulating development and genome maintenance. RNAi has recently been demonstrated in plant parasitic nematodes. It is a potentially powerful investigative ...

  19. testinal nematodes of sheep owned by smallholder farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analyzed using the formula described by Dash et al. (1988), arithmetic means, and Presidente (1985), geometric means, of FECR. Nematodes egg counts were subject to logarithmic transformation, [log (x+1)], to stabilize variances (Mar- tin, 1982) and expressed as geometric means for the groups; and also for analy-.

  20. Effect of tanniniferous browse meal on nematode faecal egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of tanniniferous browse meal on faecal egg counts (FEC) and intestinal worm burdens was investigated in sheep and goats infested experimentally with gastrointestinal nematodes. Initially, leaves of different browse tree species were assayed for condensed tannin (CT) content using a colorimetric method to ...

  1. Analysis of nematode infection levels among indoor pigs in Thika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infection levels of various species of nematode infection were studied in 35 indoor pig herds in Thika district, Kenya. Faecal samples were ... To reduce these costs, it is recommended that animals should be treated after faecal examination and laboratory determination of the EPG levels.. Kenya Veterinarian Vol.

  2. Population and molecular genetics of root-knot nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dautova, M.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes studies of root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. - an economically important pest in agriculture - using population and molecular genetics. Variability in virulence to Mi bearing tomato genotypes is shown for

  3. Foraging behavior and virulence of some entomopathogenic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manana A. Lortkipanidze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At present the biological control as a pest control technology is becoming more desirable. Biological formulations on basis of entomopathogenic nematodes are one of the effective means for the protection of agricultural and forest plants from harmful insects. Nowadays, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control agents is a key component in IPM system. The foraging strategies of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs vary between species. This variation is consistent with use of different foraging strategies between ambush, cruise and intermediate to find their host insects. In order to ambush prey, some species of EPNs nictate, or raise their bodies of the soil surface so they are better poised to attach passing insects, other species adopt a cruising strategy and rarely nictate. Some species adopt an intermediate strategy between ambush and cruise. We compared in laboratory the foraging strategies of the entomopathogenic nematode species: Steinernema carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and the recently described species Steinernema tbilisiensis and assessed their virulence against mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The tests showed that S. tbilisiensis adopts both foraging strategies.

  4. The dynamics of nematode infections of farmed ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.G.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics and control of nematode parasites of farmed ruminants are discussed via a qualitative analysis of a differential equation model. To achieve this a quantity, 'the basic reproduction quotient' (Q0), whose definition coincides with previous definitions of R0 for

  5. A critique of current methods in nematode taxonomy | Abebe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past few decades, there have been efforts to integrate molecular methods and digital 3D image-capturing technology in nematode taxonomy, the former to enhance the accuracy of identification of such a taxonomically challenging group and the latter to communicate morphological data. While the employment of ...

  6. Reproduction of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: The sedentary endoparasite Meloidogyne incognita is an important plant parasitic nematode that infects cotton causing significant yield losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate reproduction of M. incognita in Bt cotton (06Z604D), isoline (99M03) and HART 89M (local ...

  7. Gastrointestinal nematodes of donkeys in and around Alage, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of lugol's iodine was added to the sediment to differentiate the larvae which stains the free living nematode yellow, while parasitic 3rd stage larvae remain unstained. The larvae was then identified under low power microscopy (10x objective), based on the shape and number of gut cells, relative size of sheath tail and shape ...

  8. Towards understanding the free and receptor bound conformation of neuropeptide Y by fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Michael; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2009-06-01

    Despite a considerable sequence identity of the three mammalian hormones of the neuropeptide Y family, namely neuropeptide Y, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide, their structure in solution is described to be different. A so-called pancreatic polypeptide-fold has been identified for pancreatic polypeptide, whereas the structure of the N-terminal segment of neuropeptide Y is unknown. This element is important for the binding of neuropeptide Y to two of its relevant receptors, Y(1) and Y(5), but not to the Y(2) receptor subtype. In this study now, three doubly fluorescent-labeled analogs of neuropeptide Y have been synthesized that still bind to the Y(5) receptor with high affinity to investigate the conformation in solution and, for the first time, to probe the conformational changes upon binding of the ligand to its receptor in cell membrane preparations. The results obtained from the fluorescence resonance energy transfer investigations clearly show considerable differences in transfer efficiency that depend both on the solvent as well as on the peptide concentration. However, the studies do not support a pancreatic polypeptide-like folding of neuropeptide Y in the presence of membranes that express the human Y(5) receptor subtype.

  9. Profiling nematode communities in unmanaged flowerbed and agricultural field soils in Japan by DNA barcode sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Morise

    Full Text Available Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples and 48 (field samples isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs, indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis.

  10. Population development of beet cyst nematodes and their damage potential to sugar beets under different temperature regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Bart Vandenbossche; Björn Niere; Stefan Vidal

    2011-01-01

    _Heterodera schachtii_, the white beet cyst nematode, is considered as one of the most important nematode pests on sugar beet and is present in most sugar-beet growing areas. The yellow beet cyst nematode, _Heterodera betae_, is less prevalent but has also been found damaging beet crops. However, knowledge about the damage potential and population dynamics of the yellow beet cyst nematode is limited. The amount of damage inflicted by nematodes is dependent on different factors. An important f...

  11. [Neuropeptides, Cytokines and Thymus Peptides as Effectors of Interactions Between Thymus and Neuroendocrine System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkhovskaya, T I; Belova, O V; Zimina, I V; Kryuchkova, A V; Moskvina, S N; Bystrova, O V; Arion, V Ya; Sergienko, V I

    2015-01-01

    The review presents data on mutual influence of nervous system and thymus, realized through the neuroendocrine-immune interactions. The pres- ence of adrenergic and peptidergic nerves in thymus creates conditions for implementation of the effect of neuropeptides secreted by them. These neuropeptides induce activation of thymus cells receptors and influence on the main processes in thymus, including T-lymphocyte maturation, cytokine and hormones production. In turn, thymuspeptides and/or cytokines, controlled by them, enter the brain and exert influence on neuro- nalfunction, which creates the basis for changes of behavior and homeostasis maintenance in response to infection. Ageing and some infectious, autoimmune, neurodegenerative and cancer diseases are accompanied by distortion of interactions between thymus and central nervous system. Mechanisms of signaling pathways, which determine these interactions, are not revealed yet, and their understanding will promote the development of effective therapeutic strategies.

  12. CD and 31P NMR studies of tachykinin and MSH neuropeptides in SDS and DPC micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sydney C.; Brown, Taylor C.; Gonzalez, Javier D.; Levonyak, Nicholas S.; Rush, Lydia A.; Cremeens, Matthew E.

    2016-02-01

    Secondary structural characteristics of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB), α-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide (α-MSH), γ1-MSH, γ2-MSH, and melittin were evaluated with circular dichroism in phosphite buffer, DPC micelles, and SDS micelles. CD spectral properties of γ1-MSH and γ2-MSH as well as 31P NMR of DPC micelles with all the peptides are reported for the first time. Although, a trend in the neuropeptide/micelle CD data appears to show increased α-helix content for the tachykinin peptides (SP, NKA, NKB) and increased β-sheet content for the MSH peptides (α-MSH, γ1-MSH, γ2-MSH) with increasing peptide charge, the lack of perturbed 31P NMR signals for all neuropeptides could suggest that the reported antimicrobial activity of SP and α-MSH might not be related to a membrane disruption mode of action.

  13. Sensory Neurons Arouse C. elegans Locomotion via Both Glutamate and Neuropeptide Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungwon Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available C. elegans undergoes periods of behavioral quiescence during larval molts (termed lethargus and as adults. Little is known about the circuit mechanisms that establish these quiescent states. Lethargus and adult locomotion quiescence is dramatically reduced in mutants lacking the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1. Here, we show that the aroused locomotion of npr-1 mutants results from the exaggerated activity in multiple classes of sensory neurons, including nociceptive (ASH, touch sensitive (ALM and PLM, and stretch sensing (DVA neurons. These sensory neurons accelerate locomotion via both neuropeptide and glutamate release. The relative contribution of these sensory neurons to arousal differs between larval molts and adults. Our results suggest that a broad network of sensory neurons dictates transitions between aroused and quiescent behavioral states.

  14. Differential suppression of seizures via Y2 and Y5 neuropeptide Y receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, David P D; Nanobashvili, Avtandil; Sørensen, Andreas Vehus

    2005-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) prominently inhibits epileptic seizures in different animal models. The NPY receptors mediating this effect remain controversial partially due to lack of highly selective agonists and antagonists. To circumvent this problem, we used various NPY receptor knockout mice with the......, while activation of Y5 receptors in extra-hippocampal regions reduces generalized seizures in vivo.......Neuropeptide Y (NPY) prominently inhibits epileptic seizures in different animal models. The NPY receptors mediating this effect remain controversial partially due to lack of highly selective agonists and antagonists. To circumvent this problem, we used various NPY receptor knockout mice...... with the same genetic background and explored anti-epileptic action of NPY in vitro and in vivo. In Y2 (Y2-/-) and Y5 (Y5-/-) receptor knockouts, NPY partially inhibited 0 Mg2+-induced epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices. In contrast, in double knockouts (Y2Y5-/-), NPY had no effect, suggesting...

  15. Sensory Neurons Arouse C. elegans Locomotion via Both Glutamate and Neuropeptide Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Hu, Zhitao; Schafer, William R.; Kaplan, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    C. elegans undergoes periods of behavioral quiescence during larval molts (termed lethargus) and as adults. Little is known about the circuit mechanisms that establish these quiescent states. Lethargus and adult locomotion quiescence is dramatically reduced in mutants lacking the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1. Here, we show that the aroused locomotion of npr-1 mutants results from the exaggerated activity in multiple classes of sensory neurons, including nociceptive (ASH), touch sensitive (ALM and PLM), and stretch sensing (DVA) neurons. These sensory neurons accelerate locomotion via both neuropeptide and glutamate release. The relative contribution of these sensory neurons to arousal differs between larval molts and adults. Our results suggest that a broad network of sensory neurons dictates transitions between aroused and quiescent behavioral states. PMID:26154367

  16. Activated entomopathogenic nematode infective juveniles release lethal venom proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dihong Lu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are unique parasites due to their symbiosis with entomopathogenic bacteria and their ability to kill insect hosts quickly after infection. It is widely believed that EPNs rely on their bacterial partners for killing hosts. Here we disproved this theory by demonstrating that the in vitro activated infective juveniles (IJs of Steinernema carpocapsae (a well-studied EPN species release venom proteins that are lethal to several insects including Drosophila melanogaster. We confirmed that the in vitro activation is a good approximation of the in vivo process by comparing the transcriptomes of individual in vitro and in vivo activated IJs. We further analyzed the transcriptomes of non-activated and activated IJs and revealed a dramatic shift in gene expression during IJ activation. We also analyzed the venom proteome using mass spectrometry. Among the 472 venom proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors are especially abundant, and toxin-related proteins such as Shk domain-containing proteins and fatty acid- and retinol-binding proteins are also detected, which are potential candidates for suppressing the host immune system. Many of the venom proteins have conserved orthologs in vertebrate-parasitic nematodes and are differentially expressed during IJ activation, suggesting conserved functions in nematode parasitism. In summary, our findings strongly support a new model that S. carpocapsae and likely other Steinernema EPNs have a more active role in contributing to the pathogenicity of the nematode-bacterium complex than simply relying on their symbiotic bacteria. Furthermore, we propose that EPNs are a good model system for investigating vertebrate- and human-parasitic nematodes, especially regarding the function of excretory/secretory products.

  17. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, F.; Loosjes, M.

    1987-01-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars

  18. Substrates for Neuronal Cotransmission With Neuropeptides and Small Molecule Neurotransmitters in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässel, Dick R.

    2018-01-01

    It has been known for more than 40 years that individual neurons can produce more than one neurotransmitter and that neuropeptides often are colocalized with small molecule neurotransmitters (SMNs). Over the years much progress has been made in understanding the functional consequences of cotransmission in the nervous system of mammals. There are also some excellent invertebrate models that have revealed roles of coexpressed neuropeptides and SMNs in increasing complexity, flexibility, and dynamics in neuronal signaling. However, for the fly Drosophila there are surprisingly few functional studies on cotransmission, although there is ample evidence for colocalization of neuroactive compounds in neurons of the CNS, based both on traditional techniques and novel single cell transcriptome analysis. With the hope to trigger interest in initiating cotransmission studies, this review summarizes what is known about Drosophila neurons and neuronal circuits where different neuropeptides and SMNs are colocalized. Coexistence of neuroactive substances has been recorded in different neuron types such as neuroendocrine cells, interneurons, sensory cells and motor neurons. Some of the circuits highlighted here are well established in the analysis of learning and memory, circadian clock networks regulating rhythmic activity and sleep, as well as neurons and neuroendocrine cells regulating olfaction, nociception, feeding, metabolic homeostasis, diuretic functions, reproduction, and developmental processes. One emerging trait is the broad role of short neuropeptide F in cotransmission and presynaptic facilitation in a number of different neuronal circuits. This review also discusses the functional relevance of coexisting peptides in the intestine. Based on recent single cell transcriptomics data, it is likely that the neuronal systems discussed in this review are just a fraction of the total set of circuits where cotransmission occurs in Drosophila. Thus, a systematic search for

  19. Neuropeptide S Receptor (NPSR) Gene - Converging Evidence for a Role in Panic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Domschke, Katharina; Reif, Andreas; Weber, Heike; Richter, Jan; Hohoff, Christa; Ohrmann, Patricia; Pedersen, Anya; Bauer, Jochen; Suslow, Thomas; Kugel, Harald; Heindel, Walter L; Baumann, Christian; Klauke, Benedikt; Jacob, Christian; Maier, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Animal studies have suggested neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor (NPSR) to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety-related behavior. In the present study, a multilevel approach was applied to further elucidate the role of NPS in the etiology of human anxiety. The functional NPSR A/T (Asn107Ile) variant (rs324981) was investigated for association with (1) panic disorder with and without agoraphobia in two large, independent case-control studies, (2) dimensional an...

  20. Substrates for Neuronal Cotransmission With Neuropeptides and Small Molecule Neurotransmitters in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick R. Nässel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for more than 40 years that individual neurons can produce more than one neurotransmitter and that neuropeptides often are colocalized with small molecule neurotransmitters (SMNs. Over the years much progress has been made in understanding the functional consequences of cotransmission in the nervous system of mammals. There are also some excellent invertebrate models that have revealed roles of coexpressed neuropeptides and SMNs in increasing complexity, flexibility, and dynamics in neuronal signaling. However, for the fly Drosophila there are surprisingly few functional studies on cotransmission, although there is ample evidence for colocalization of neuroactive compounds in neurons of the CNS, based both on traditional techniques and novel single cell transcriptome analysis. With the hope to trigger interest in initiating cotransmission studies, this review summarizes what is known about Drosophila neurons and neuronal circuits where different neuropeptides and SMNs are colocalized. Coexistence of neuroactive substances has been recorded in different neuron types such as neuroendocrine cells, interneurons, sensory cells and motor neurons. Some of the circuits highlighted here are well established in the analysis of learning and memory, circadian clock networks regulating rhythmic activity and sleep, as well as neurons and neuroendocrine cells regulating olfaction, nociception, feeding, metabolic homeostasis, diuretic functions, reproduction, and developmental processes. One emerging trait is the broad role of short neuropeptide F in cotransmission and presynaptic facilitation in a number of different neuronal circuits. This review also discusses the functional relevance of coexisting peptides in the intestine. Based on recent single cell transcriptomics data, it is likely that the neuronal systems discussed in this review are just a fraction of the total set of circuits where cotransmission occurs in Drosophila. Thus, a

  1. Central and Peripheral Significance of Neuropeptide Y and Its Related Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-15

    477 Steroid Hormone Regulation of Brain Neuropeptide Y mRNA Levels. Bx’ P. CAMP and J. D. WHITE...but not in the dentate gyms after neonatal treatment with corticosterone in the rat. Acta Physiol. Scand. 138: 577-579. 18. FUXE, K.. L. F. AGNATI, A...the hypothalamus. ’, Inves- tigations carried out in vitro suggest that the stimulatory effects of NPY on LHRH secretion in steroid -treated

  2. Central neuropeptide Y (NPH) expression and function : role in stress, experimental anxiety, and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsell, Annika

    2000-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino acid peptide abundantly expressed throughout the mammalian nervous system, has been implicated in experimental anxiety and stress related responses, feeding, and learning and memory. These functions are mediated via different receptor subtype populations (Y1-Y6), all belonging to the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. The Y1 -subtype has been shown to mediate the anxiolytic effects of NPY, while the Y2 subtype is involved in regulation o...

  3. Activity patterns of neurosecretory cells releasing pheromonotropic neuropeptides in the moth Bombyx mori

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa, Toshio

    1998-01-01

    Short- and long-term firing patterns of neurosecretory cells releasing pheromonotropic neuropeptides in the silkworm moth Bombyx mori were examined. The cells showed three types of rhythmic changes in firing activity. Bursting activities with an interval of several seconds were synchronized with rhythmic abdominal motions for calling behavior. A slow fluctuation in firing activity over a period of several minutes depended on cyclic alternations of the flow of hemolymph. The electrical activit...

  4. Prokineticin 2 Is a Hypothalamic Neuropeptide That Potently Inhibits Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, JV; Bataveljic, A; Patel, NA; Bewick, GA; Roy, D; Campbell, D; Greenwood, HC; Murphy, KG; Hameed, S; Jethwa, PH; Ebling, FJP; Vickers, SP; Cheetham, S; Ghatei, MA; Bloom, SR

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Prokineticin 2 (PK2) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide expressed in central nervous system areas known to be involved in food intake. We therefore hypothesized that PK2 plays a role in energy homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated the effect of nutritional status on hypothalamic PK2 expression and effects of PK2 on the regulation of food intake by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of PK2 and anti-PK2 antibody. Subsequently, we investigated the potential mechanis...

  5. Control of sleep-to-wake transitions via fast amino acid and slow neuropeptide transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosqueiro, Thiago; Lecea, Luis de; Huerta, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) modulates cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, brainstem and spinal cord circuits and it expresses receptors for neuromodulators that operate on a time scale of several seconds. Evidence from anatomical, electrophysiological and optogenetic experiments has shown that LC neurons receive input from a group of neurons called hypocretin neurons that release a neuropeptide called hypocretin. It is less well known how these two groups of neurons can be coregulated using GABAergic (GABA standing for gamma aminobutyric acid) neurons. As the time scale for GABA A inhibition is several orders of magnitude faster than that for the hypocretin neuropeptide effect, we investigate the limits of circuit activity regulation using a realistic model of neurons. Our investigation shows that GABA A inhibition is insufficient to control the activity levels of the LCs. Although slower forms of GABA A can in principle work, there is not much plausibility due to the low probability of the presence of slow GABA A and lack of robust stability at the maximum firing frequencies. The best possible control mechanism predicted by our modeling analysis is the presence of inhibitory neuropeptides, which exert effects on a similar time scale to the hypocretin/orexin. Although the nature of these inhibitory neuropeptides has not been identified yet, it provides the most efficient mechanism in the modeling analysis. Finally, we present a reduced mean-field model that perfectly captures the dynamics and the phenomena generated by this circuit. This investigation shows that brain communication involving multiple time scales can be better controlled by employing orthogonal mechanisms of neural transmission to decrease interference between cognitive processes and hypothalamic functions. (paper)

  6. Quantitative structure activity relationship of benzoxazinone derivatives as neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deswal, S; Roy, N

    2006-04-01

    Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) has been established for 30 benzoxazinone derivatives acting as neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor antagonists. The genetic algorithm and multiple linear regression were used to generate the relationship between biological activity and calculated descriptors. Model with good statistical qualities was developed using four descriptors from topological, thermodynamic, spatial and electrotopological class. The validation of the model was done by cross validation, randomization and external test set prediction.

  7. Damage-associated responses of the host contribute to defence against cyst nematodes but not root-knot nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, Syed Jehangir; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Mendy, Badou; Anwer, Muhammad Arslan; Habash, Samer S.; Lozano-Torres, Jose L.; Grundler, Florian M.W.; Siddique, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    When nematodes invade and subsequently migrate within plant roots, they generate cell wall fragments (in the form of oligogalacturonides; OGs) that can act as damage-associated molecular patterns and activate host defence responses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating damage responses in

  8. NPY/neuropeptide Y enhances autophagy in the hypothalamus: a mechanism to delay aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveleira, Célia A; Botelho, Mariana; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Aging was recently described as a life event programmed by the hypothalamus, a key brain region that is crucial for the neuroendocrine interaction between the central nervous system and the periphery. Autophagy impairment is a hallmark of aging, contributing to the aging phenotype and to the aggravation of age-related diseases. Since hypothalamic autophagy decreases with age, strategies to promote autophagy in the hypothalamus may be relevant for control of the aging process. NPY (neuropeptide Y) is an endogenous neuropeptide mainly produced by the hypothalamus. We recently reported, for the first time, that NPY stimulates autophagy in rodent hypothalamus and mediates caloric restriction-induced autophagy in hypothalamic neurons. Moreover, we observed that NPY acts through NPY1R (neuropeptide Y receptor Y1) or NPY5R activation involving a concerted action of different signaling pathways. Since both hypothalamic autophagy and NPY levels decrease with age, modulation of NPY levels could provide new putative therapeutic tools to ameliorate age-related deteriorations and extend longevity.

  9. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) promotes inflammation-induced tumorigenesis by enhancing epithelial cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppsson, Sabrina; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Chandrasekharan, Bindu

    2017-02-01

    We have demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY), abundantly produced by enteric neurons, is an important regulator of intestinal inflammation. However, the role of NPY in the progression of chronic inflammation to tumorigenesis is unknown. We investigated whether NPY could modulate epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis, and thus regulate tumorigenesis. Repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) were used to model inflammation-induced tumorigenesis in wild-type (WT) and NPY knockout (NPY -/- ) mice. Intestinal epithelial cell lines (T84) were used to assess the effects of NPY (0.1 µM) on epithelial proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. DSS-WT mice exhibited enhanced intestinal inflammation, polyp size, and polyp number (7.5 ± 0.8) compared with DSS-NPY -/- mice (4 ± 0.5, P inflammation-induced tumorigenesis by NPY-epithelial cross talk as mediated by activation of PI3-K signaling and downregulation of miR-375. Our work exemplifies a novel role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in regulating inflammation-induced tumorigenesis via two modalities: first by enhanced proliferation (PI3-K/pAkt), and second by downregulation of microRNA-375 (miR-375)-dependent apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. Our data establish the existence of a microRNA-mediated cross talk between enteric neurons producing NPY and intestinal epithelial cells, and the potential of neuropeptide-regulated miRNAs as potential therapeutic molecules for the management of inflammation-associated tumors in the gut.

  10. Changes of cerebral contents of neuropeptides in rat models of multiple ischemic dementia (MID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xianghong; Guo Jingcai; Song Changyi; Wang Shejiao; Chen Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of changes of cerebral contents of the neuropeptides somatostatin (SS), arginine vasopressin (AVP) and substance P in rat models of MID. Methods: The rat models consisted of 15 rats undergoing intracarotid injection of autogenous thrombus powder. Another group of 15 rats undergoing sham operation served as controls. Learning and memory ability in these rats was assessed with daily passive avoidance task testing for 10 consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed on 30d and contents of the neuropeptides in tissue homogenate from different areas of brain (frontal cortex, temporal cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and corpus striatum) were measured with (RIA). Results: On the first day of passive avoidance task testing, the frequency of errors in the MID group and the control group was about the same. From the third day on, the frequency of errors in the MID group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The neuropeptides contents of all these cerebral areas in the MID group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01) with the only exception of the contents of substance P in thalamus (no significant difference between the contents in the two groups). Conclusion: The impairment of learning and memory in rat models with MID was possibly related to the lowered contents of SS, AVP and substance P in the brain tissue. (authors)

  11. Central Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Neuropeptides and Energy-Sensing Hormones during Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Maldonado-Ruiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS senses energy homeostasis by integrating both peripheral and autonomic signals and responding to them by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides release. Although it is previously considered an immunologically privileged organ, we now know that this is not so. Cells belonging to the immune system, such as B and T lymphocytes, can be recruited into the CNS to face damage or infection, in addition to possessing resident immunological cells, called microglia. In this way, positive energy balance during obesity promotes an inflammatory state in the CNS. Saturated fatty acids from the diet have been pointed out as powerful candidates to trigger immune response in peripheral system and in the CNS. However, how central immunity communicates to peripheral immune response remains to be clarified. Recently there has been a great interest in the neuropeptides, POMC derived peptides, ghrelin, and leptin, due to their capacity to suppress or induce inflammatory responses in the brain, respectively. These may be potential candidates to treat different pathologies associated with autoimmunity and inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the role of lipotoxicity associated with positive energy balance during obesity in proinflammatory response in microglia, B and T lymphocytes, and its modulation by neuropeptides.

  12. Crustose coralline algae and a cnidarian neuropeptide trigger larval settlement in two coral reef sponges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Whalan

    Full Text Available In sessile marine invertebrates, larval settlement is fundamental to population maintenance and persistence. Cues contributing to the settlement choices and metamorphosis of larvae have important implications for the success of individuals and populations, but cues mediating larval settlement for many marine invertebrates are largely unknown. This study assessed larval settlement in two common Great Barrier Reef sponges, Coscinoderma matthewsi and Rhopaloeides odorabile, to cues that enhance settlement and metamorphosis in various species of scleractinian coral larvae. Methanol extracts of the crustose coralline algae (CCA, Porolithon onkodes, corresponding to a range of concentrations, were used to determine the settlement responses of sponge larvae. Cnidarian neuropeptides (GLW-amide neuropeptides were also tested as a settlement cue. Settlement in both sponge species was approximately two-fold higher in response to live chips of CCA and optimum concentrations of CCA extract compared to 0.2 µm filtered sea water controls. Metamorphosis also increased when larvae were exposed to GLW-amide neuropeptides; R. odorabile mean metamorphosis reached 42.0±5.8% compared to 16.0±2.4% in seawater controls and in C. matthewsi mean metamorphosis reached 68.3±5.4% compared to 36.7±3.3% in seawater controls. These results demonstrate the contributing role chemosensory communication plays in the ability of sponge larvae to identify suitable habitat for successful recruitment. It also raises the possibility that larvae from distinct phyla may share signal transduction pathways involved in metamorphosis.

  13. A Large Collection of Novel Nematode-Infecting Microsporidia and Their Diverse Interactions with Caenorhabditis elegans and Other Related Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaotian; Sachse, Martin; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Troemel, Emily R.; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Microsporidia are fungi-related intracellular pathogens that may infect virtually all animals, but are poorly understood. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has recently become a model host for studying microsporidia through the identification of its natural microsporidian pathogen Nematocida parisii. However, it was unclear how widespread and diverse microsporidia infections are in C. elegans or other related nematodes in the wild. Here we describe the isolation and culture of 47 nematodes with microsporidian infections. N. parisii is found to be the most common microsporidia infecting C. elegans in the wild. In addition, we further describe and name six new species in the Nematocida genus. Our sampling and phylogenetic analysis further identify two subclades that are genetically distinct from Nematocida, and we name them Enteropsectra and Pancytospora. Interestingly, unlike Nematocida, these two genera belong to the main clade of microsporidia that includes human pathogens. All of these microsporidia are horizontally transmitted and most specifically infect intestinal cells, except Pancytospora epiphaga that replicates mostly in the epidermis of its Caenorhabditis host. At the subcellular level in the infected host cell, spores of the novel genus Enteropsectra show a characteristic apical distribution and exit via budding off of the plasma membrane, instead of exiting via exocytosis as spores of Nematocida. Host specificity is broad for some microsporidia, narrow for others: indeed, some microsporidia can infect Oscheius tipulae but not its sister species Oscheius sp. 3, and conversely some microsporidia found infecting Oscheius sp. 3 do not infect O. tipulae. We also show that N. ausubeli fails to strongly induce in C. elegans the transcription of genes that are induced by other Nematocida species, suggesting it has evolved mechanisms to prevent induction of this host response. Altogether, these newly isolated species illustrate the diversity and ubiquity of

  14. Annotation of novel neuropeptide precursors in the migratory locust based on transcript screening of a public EST database and mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Loof Arnold

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For holometabolous insects there has been an explosion of proteomic and peptidomic information thanks to large genome sequencing projects. Heterometabolous insects, although comprising many important species, have been far less studied. The migratory locust Locusta migratoria, a heterometabolous insect, is one of the most infamous agricultural pests. They undergo a well-known and profound phase transition from the relatively harmless solitary form to a ferocious gregarious form. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of this phase transition are not fully understood, but it is undoubtedly that neuropeptides are involved. However, neuropeptide research in locusts is hampered by the absence of genomic information. Results Recently, EST (Expressed Sequence Tag databases from Locusta migratoria were constructed. Using bioinformatical tools, we searched these EST databases specifically for neuropeptide precursors. Based on known locust neuropeptide sequences, we confirmed the sequence of several previously identified neuropeptide precursors (i.e. pacifastin-related peptides, which consolidated our method. In addition, we found two novel neuroparsin precursors and annotated the hitherto unknown tachykinin precursor. Besides one of the known tachykinin peptides, this EST contained an additional tachykinin-like sequence. Using neuropeptide precursors from Drosophila melanogaster as a query, we succeeded in annotating the Locusta neuropeptide F, allatostatin-C and ecdysis-triggering hormone precursor, which until now had not been identified in locusts or in any other heterometabolous insect. For the tachykinin precursor, the ecdysis-triggering hormone precursor and the allatostatin-C precursor, translation of the predicted neuropeptides in neural tissues was confirmed with mass spectrometric techniques. Conclusion In this study we describe the annotation of 6 novel neuropeptide precursors and the neuropeptides they encode from the

  15. Endosymbiont-based immunity in Drosophila melanogaster against parasitic nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shruti; Frazer, Joanna; Banga, Ashima; Pruitt, Katherine; Harsh, Sneh; Jaenike, John; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    Associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and their hosts represent a complex ecosystem within organisms ranging from humans to protozoa. Drosophila species are known to naturally harbor Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts, which play a protective role against certain microbial infections. Here, we investigated whether the presence or absence of endosymbionts affects the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster larvae to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes carrying or lacking their mutualistic Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (symbiotic or axenic nematodes, respectively). We find that the presence of Wolbachia alone or together with Spiroplasma promotes the survival of larvae in response to infection with S. carpocapsae symbiotic nematodes, but not against axenic nematodes. We also find that Wolbachia numbers are reduced in Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic compared to symbiotic nematodes, and they are also reduced in Spiroplasma-containing compared to Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic nematodes. We further show that S. carpocapsae axenic nematode infection induces the Toll pathway in the absence of Wolbachia, and that symbiotic nematode infection leads to increased phenoloxidase activity in D. melanogaster larvae devoid of endosymbionts. Finally, infection with either type of nematode alters the metabolic status and the fat body lipid droplet size in D. melanogaster larvae containing only Wolbachia or both endosymbionts. Our results suggest an interaction between Wolbachia endosymbionts with the immune response of D. melanogaster against infection with the entomopathogenic nematodes S. carpocapsae. Results from this study indicate a complex interplay between insect hosts, endosymbiotic microbes and pathogenic organisms.

  16. Fast, automated measurement of nematode swimming (thrashing without morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattelle David B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "thrashing assay", in which nematodes are placed in liquid and the frequency of lateral swimming ("thrashing" movements estimated, is a well-established method for measuring motility in the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans as well as in parasitic nematodes. It is used as an index of the effects of drugs, chemicals or mutations on motility and has proved useful in identifying mutants affecting behaviour. However, the method is laborious, subject to experimenter error, and therefore does not permit high-throughput applications. Existing automation methods usually involve analysis of worm shape, but this is computationally demanding and error-prone. Here we present a novel, robust and rapid method of automatically counting the thrashing frequency of worms that avoids morphometry but nonetheless gives a direct measure of thrashing frequency. Our method uses principal components analysis to remove the background, followed by computation of a covariance matrix of the remaining image frames from which the interval between statistically-similar frames is estimated. Results We tested the performance of our covariance method in measuring thrashing rates of worms using mutations that affect motility and found that it accurately substituted for laborious, manual measurements over a wide range of thrashing rates. The algorithm used also enabled us to determine a dose-dependent inhibition of thrashing frequency by the anthelmintic drug, levamisole, illustrating the suitability of the system for assaying the effects of drugs and chemicals on motility. Furthermore, the algorithm successfully measured the actions of levamisole on a parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, which undergoes complex contorted shapes whilst swimming, without alterations in the code or of any parameters, indicating that it is applicable to different nematode species, including parasitic nematodes. Our method is capable of analyzing a 30 s movie in

  17. Identification, Validation and Utilization of Novel Nematode-Responsive Root-Specific Promoters in Arabidopsis for Inducing Host-Delivered RNAi Mediated Root-Knot Nematode Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kakrana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita, is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite that infects a large number of crops and severely affects productivity. The commonly used nematode control strategies have their own limitations. Of late, RNA interference (RNAi has become a popular approach for the development of nematode resistance in plants. Transgenic crops capable of expressing dsRNAs, specifically in roots for disrupting the parasitic process, offer an effective and efficient means of producing resistant crops. We identified nematode-responsive and root-specific (NRRS promoters by using microarray data from the public domain and known conserved cis-elements. A set of 51 NRRS genes was identified which was narrowed down further on the basis of presence of cis-elements combined with minimal expression in the absence of nematode infection. The comparative analysis of promoters from the enriched NRRS set, along with earlier reported nematode-responsive genes, led to the identification of specific cis-elements. The promoters of two candidate genes were used to generate transgenic plants harboring promoter GUS constructs and tested in planta against nematodes. Both promoters showed preferential expression upon nematode infection, exclusively in the root in one and galls in the other. One of these NRRS promoters was used to drive the expression of splicing factor, a nematode-specific gene, for generating host-delivered RNAi-mediated nematode-resistant plants. Transgenic lines expressing dsRNA of splicing factor under the NRRS promoter exhibited upto a 32% reduction in number of galls compared to control plants.

  18. Nematodes Parasites of Teiid Lizards from the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, L C; Gardner, S L; Melo, F T V; Giese, E G; Santos, J N

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the helminth composition and parameters of infection by several species of nematodes in teiid lizards, Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Cnemidophorus cryptus Cole and Dessauer, 1993, and Kentropyx calcarata Spix, 1825 from the Brazilian Amazonian Rainforest. The population of lizards studied were parasitized by 6 species of Phylum Nemata including: Spinicauda spinicauda (Olfers, 1919), Parapharyngodon alvarengai Freitas, 1957, Physaloptera sp. (adults), Physaloptera sp. (larvae), Piratuba digiticauda Lent and Freitas, 1941, and Anisakidae (larvae). The overall prevalence was 66.17% and the mean intensity of infection was 19.40 ± 25.48. The association between the body-length of lizards and the abundance and richness of parasitic nematodes was statistically significant only in Ameiva a. ameiva. A new host record is reported here with 1 specimen of the family Anasakidae in Ameiva a. ameiva. Both S. spinicauda and Physaloptera sp. represent new records from C. cryptus.

  19. Optimizing the application of entomopathogenic nematodes: experimental set-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusselman, E; Steurbaut, W; Sonck, B

    2007-01-01

    The complex issue concerning the spray application of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (EPNs) with a hydraulic sprayer is still not solved. This research project focuses on the effect of spray application technique on the viability and deposition of EPNs. In this paper the experimental set-up used for this evaluation is described. A modular spray application system has been developed and is currently used to evaluate the effect of different parts of a sprayer on the viability of the EPNs. Based on the results of experiments using this modular spray application system, recommendations regarding pump type, mixing system, nozzle type and filter size will be formulated. Because of the large number of experiments in this research project, an image analysis system for the determination of the viability of the nematodes is developed. This paper describes two experiments comparing the new developed image processing technique with the standard microscopic counting technique.

  20. IMMUNE REGULATING ES-PRODUCTS IN PARASITIC NEMATODES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlool, Qusay Zuhair Mohammad; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per Walter

    work elucidates the effect of ES substances on the fish immune system by measuring immune gene expression in spleen and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally with ES products isolated from A. simplex third stage larvae. The overall gene expression profile of exposed...... fish showed a generalized down-regulation of the immune genes tested, suggesting a role of ES proteins in minimizing the immune reaction of rainbow trout against invading nematodes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of the ES proteins and found that lipase, esterase lipase, valine and cysteine...... arylamidases, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and a-galactosidase activities were present in the ES solution. This type of hydrolytic enzyme activity may play a role in nematode penetration of host tissue. Based on the notion that A. simplex ES-proteins may have an immune-depressive effect, it could also...

  1. Assessment of nematode community structure as a bioindicator in river monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.C.; Chen, P.C. [Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuan Rd, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Tsay, T.T., E-mail: tttsay@nchu.edu.t [Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuan Rd, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Nematode communities from river water and sediments were assessed for the abundance, feeding types, maturity indices and nematode channel ratio (NCR). The sampling sites studied included different levels of pollution and contamination from agricultural, industrial and sewage sources. The nematode abundance found in the sediment samples was more than that in the water samples. The lowest nematode abundance in sediment samples and the lowest NCR in water samples were both found at the industrial pollution site. Water samples showed positive correlation between the NCR and river pollution index (RPI). Mean maturity indices in sediment samples were inversely correlated with RPI. The pollutant source determined the relationship between NCR and pollution level, while maturity index always showed negative correlation with pollutant level regardless of the pollutant sources. The nematode abundance and its community structure were both reliable bioindicators for monitoring long-term river pollution in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. - Nematode community structure in rivers is related to the contamination source and level.

  2. Assessment of nematode community structure as a bioindicator in river monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.C.; Chen, P.C.; Tsay, T.T.

    2010-01-01

    Nematode communities from river water and sediments were assessed for the abundance, feeding types, maturity indices and nematode channel ratio (NCR). The sampling sites studied included different levels of pollution and contamination from agricultural, industrial and sewage sources. The nematode abundance found in the sediment samples was more than that in the water samples. The lowest nematode abundance in sediment samples and the lowest NCR in water samples were both found at the industrial pollution site. Water samples showed positive correlation between the NCR and river pollution index (RPI). Mean maturity indices in sediment samples were inversely correlated with RPI. The pollutant source determined the relationship between NCR and pollution level, while maturity index always showed negative correlation with pollutant level regardless of the pollutant sources. The nematode abundance and its community structure were both reliable bioindicators for monitoring long-term river pollution in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. - Nematode community structure in rivers is related to the contamination source and level.

  3. Molecular characterization of the Drosophila responses towards nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Arefin, Md. Badrul

    2016-01-01

    A sophisticated evolutionary conserved innate immune system has evolved in insects to fight pathogens and to restrict damage in harmful (danger) situations including cancer. A significant amount of knowledge about different infection models in Drosophila has been generated in past decades, which revealed functional resemblances and implications for vertebrate systems. However, how Drosophila responds towards multicellular parasitic nematodes and in danger situations is still little understood...

  4. Functional characterization of a second pedal peptide/orcokinin-type neuropeptide signaling system in the starfish Asterias rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming; Egertová, Michaela; Zampronio, Cleidiane G; Jones, Alexandra M; Elphick, Maurice R

    2018-04-01

    Molluscan pedal peptides (PPs) and arthropod orcokinins (OKs) are prototypes of a family of neuropeptides that have been identified in several phyla. Recently, starfish myorelaxant peptide (SMP) was identified as a PP/OK-type neuropeptide in the starfish Patiria pectinifera (phylum Echinodermata). Furthermore, analysis of transcriptome sequence data from the starfish Asterias rubens revealed two PP/OK-type precursors: an SMP-type precursor (A. rubens PP-like neuropeptide precursor 1; ArPPLNP1) and a second precursor (ArPPLNP2). We reported previously a detailed analysis of ArPPLNP1 expression in A. rubens and here we report the first functional characterization ArPPLNP2-derived neuropeptides. Sequencing of a cDNA encoding ArPPLNP2 revealed that it comprises eleven related neuropeptides (ArPPLN2a-k), the structures of several of which were confirmed using mass spectrometry. Analysis of the expression of ArPPLNP2 and neuropeptides derived from this precursor using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed a widespread distribution, including expression in radial nerve cords, circumoral nerve ring, digestive system, tube feet and innervation of interossicular muscles. In vitro pharmacology revealed that the ArPPLNP2-derived neuropeptide ArPPLN2h has no effect on the contractility of tube feet or the body wall-associated apical muscle, contrasting with the relaxing effect of ArPPLN1b (ArSMP) on these preparations. ArPPLN2h does, however, cause dose-dependent relaxation of cardiac stomach preparations, with greater potency/efficacy than ArPPLN1b and with similar potency/efficacy to the SALMFamide neuropeptide S2. In conclusion, there are similarities in the expression patterns of ArPPLNP1 and ArPPLNP2 but our data also indicate specialization in the roles of neuropeptides derived from these two PP/OK-type precursors in starfish. © 2017 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Functional characterization of a second pedal peptide/orcokinin‐type neuropeptide signaling system in the starfish Asterias rubens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming; Egertová, Michaela; Zampronio, Cleidiane G.; Jones, Alexandra M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Molluscan pedal peptides (PPs) and arthropod orcokinins (OKs) are prototypes of a family of neuropeptides that have been identified in several phyla. Recently, starfish myorelaxant peptide (SMP) was identified as a PP/OK‐type neuropeptide in the starfish Patiria pectinifera (phylum Echinodermata). Furthermore, analysis of transcriptome sequence data from the starfish Asterias rubens revealed two PP/OK‐type precursors: an SMP‐type precursor (A. rubens PP‐like neuropeptide precursor 1; ArPPLNP1) and a second precursor (ArPPLNP2). We reported previously a detailed analysis of ArPPLNP1 expression in A. rubens and here we report the first functional characterization ArPPLNP2‐derived neuropeptides. Sequencing of a cDNA encoding ArPPLNP2 revealed that it comprises eleven related neuropeptides (ArPPLN2a‐k), the structures of several of which were confirmed using mass spectrometry. Analysis of the expression of ArPPLNP2 and neuropeptides derived from this precursor using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed a widespread distribution, including expression in radial nerve cords, circumoral nerve ring, digestive system, tube feet and innervation of interossicular muscles. In vitro pharmacology revealed that the ArPPLNP2‐derived neuropeptide ArPPLN2h has no effect on the contractility of tube feet or the body wall‐associated apical muscle, contrasting with the relaxing effect of ArPPLN1b (ArSMP) on these preparations. ArPPLN2h does, however, cause dose‐dependent relaxation of cardiac stomach preparations, with greater potency/efficacy than ArPPLN1b and with similar potency/efficacy to the SALMFamide neuropeptide S2. In conclusion, there are similarities in the expression patterns of ArPPLNP1 and ArPPLNP2 but our data also indicate specialization in the roles of neuropeptides derived from these two PP/OK‐type precursors in starfish. PMID:29218721

  6. Proteins secreted by root-knot nematodes accumulate in the extracellular compartment during root infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Vieira, Paulo; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes are biotrophic parasites that invade the root apex of host plants and migrate towards the vascular cylinder where they induce the differentiation of root cells into hypertrophied multinucleated giant cells. Giant cells are part of the permanent feeding site required for nematode development into the adult stage. To date, a repertoire of candidate effectors potentially secreted by the nematode into the plant tissues to promote infection has been identified. However, the pre...

  7. Prevalence and intensity of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep in eastern Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kulišić, Z.; Aleksić, Nevenka; Đorđević, M.; Gajić, B.; Tambur, Z.; Stevanović, Jevrosima; Stanimirović, Z.

    2013-01-01

    A coprological examination of 680 grazing sheep was performed in Eastern Serbia from March 2011 to November 2012 in order to determine the presence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematode parasites. Fecal samples were randomly collected and examined by using qualitative and quantitative coprological techniques. It was found that 74.56% sheep were infected. Samples that contained nematode eggs were processed for larval development and eleven nematode genera were i...

  8. Partitioning Yield Loss on Yellow Squash into Nematode and Insect Components

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, R.; Waddill, V. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a contplex of several insect and nematode pests on yield of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) was examined in two field tests in southern Florida. Applications of permethrin for insect control and oxamyl primarily for nematode control plus some insect control were made alone and in combination to achieve differential reduction of various insect and nematode components contributing to yield loss. The effect of these components on yield was further analyzed by multiple regression....

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Alfalfa Cultivars Infected With Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Postnikova, Olga A.; Hult, Maria; Shao, Jonathan; Skantar, Andrea; Nemchinov, Lev G.

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute...

  10. A nematode that can manipulate the behaviour of slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alex; Green, Michael; Martin, Hayley; Crossland, Katie; Swaney, William T; Williamson, Sally M; Rae, Robbie

    2018-02-27

    The ability of parasites to manipulate the behaviour of their hosts has evolved multiple times, and has a clear fitness benefit to the parasite in terms of facilitating growth, reproduction and transfer to suitable hosts. The mechanisms by which these behavioural changes are induced are poorly understood, but in many cases parasite manipulation of serotonergic signalling in the host brain is implicated. Here we report that Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, a parasite of terrestrial gastropod molluscs, can alter the behaviour of slugs. Uninfected slugs (Deroceras panormitanum, Arion subfuscus and Arion hortensis) avoid areas where P. hermaphrodita is present, but slugs infected with P. hermaphrodita are more likely to be found where the nematodes are present. This ability is specific to P. hermaphrodita and other nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) do not induce this behavioural change. To investigate how P. hermaphrodita changes slug behaviour we exposed slugs to fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and cyproheptadine (a serotonin receptor antagonist). Uninfected slugs fed fluoxetine no longer avoided areas where P. hermaphrodita was present; and conversely, infected slugs fed cyproheptadine showed no increased attraction to areas with nematodes. These findings suggest that a possible mechanism by whichP. hermaphrodita is able to manipulate parasite avoidance behaviour in host slugs is by manipulating serotonergic signalling in the brain, and that increased serotonin levels are potentially associated with a reduction in parasite avoidance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae OVICIDAL POTENTIAL ON GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Laitano Dias de Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthelmintic resistance in nematodes, several research studies have been developed seeking control alternatives to these parasites. This study evaluated the in vitro action of Origanum vulgare on gastrointestinal nematode eggs of cattle. In order to evaluate the ability to inhibit egg hatch, different dried leaves extracts of this plant were tested, such as dye, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at concentrations varying from 0.62 to 80 mg/mL. Each assay was accompanied by control containing levamisole hydrochloride (0.2 mg/mL, distilled water and 70 ºGL grain alcohol at the same concentration of the extracts. Test results showed that the different O. vulgare extracts inhibited egg hatch of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes at a percentage that varied from 8.8 to 100%; dye and hydroalcoholic extract were the most promising inhibitors. In view of this ovicidal property, O. vulgare may be an important source of viable antiparasitic compounds for nematodiosis control in ruminants.

  12. Scaleable downstream recovery of nematodes used as biopesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J A; Pearce, J D; Ayazi Shamlou, P

    2001-12-20

    This study assesses the suitability of sieving as a scaleable technique for the separation of adult nematodes from infective juveniles, the latter is an effective bioinsecticide whereas the former is waste material resulting from the fermentation process. Batch and semibatch experiments using conventional flow-assisted wet sieving and a novel cross-flow sieving technique were used to study the separation of juveniles from adult nematodes. The experiments were carried out using small-scale devices and the data were analyzed in terms of the screen effectiveness factor. The results were used to identify the sieve size and operating conditions for optimum juvenile recovery. It was found that, for a given species of nematode, optimum recovery was achieved when sieving was carried out in the cross-flow mode, the maximum recovery being a function of the size of the screen. Industrial-scale self-cleaning equipment capable of large-scale continuous screening was used to confirm the capacity of the small-scale operation for scale-up. Experimental results with this unit showed that in continuous operation sieving time is an additional parameter that influences separation performance. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. A neuropeptide FF agonist blocks the acquisition of conditioned place preference to morphine in C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Stéphane; Betourne, Alexandre; Marty, Virginie; Daumas, Stéphanie; Halley, Hélène; Lassalle, Jean-Michel; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Frances, Bernard

    2006-05-01

    Neuropeptide FF behaves as an opioid-modulating peptide that seems to be involved in morphine tolerance and physical dependence. Nevertheless, the effects of neuropeptide FF agonists on the rewarding properties of morphine remain unknown. C57BL6 mice were conditioned in an unbiased balanced paradigm of conditioned place preference to study the effect of i.c.v. injections of 1DMe (D-Tyr1(NMe)Phe3]NPFF), a stable agonist of the neuropeptide FF system, on the acquisition of place conditioning by morphine or alcohol (ethanol). Morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) induced a significant place preference. Injection of 1DMe (1-20 nmol), given 10 min before the i.p. injection of the reinforcing drug during conditioning, inhibited the rewarding effect of morphine but had no effect on the rewarding effect of ethanol. However, a single injection of 1DMe given just before place preference testing was unable to inhibit the rewarding effects of morphine. By itself, 1DMe was inactive but an aversive effect of this agonist could be evidenced if the experimental procedure was biased. These results suggest that neuropeptide FF, injected during conditioning, should influence the development of rewarding effects of morphine and reinforce the hypothesis of strong inhibitory interactions between neuropeptide FF and opioids.

  14. Characterization of a new fish-derived bioactive neuropeptide involved in bone remodelling. Its physiological function and therapeutic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Suarez-Bregua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A complex network of autocrine and paracrine signals, hormones and neuronal factors preserve the structural integrity of the skeleton and regulate mineral metabolism in vertebrates. We have characterized a new neuropeptide belonging to parathyroid hormone (PTH family. PTH family members are known to play a key role in maintaining mineral homeostasis, bone remodeling and in regulating embryonic development of skeleton and other tissues. This new neuropeptide is synthesized by two clusters of neurons located in lateral hypothalamus as showed in whole mount in situ hybridization. The functional characterization of the gene using a stable transgenic line revealed its key role in the regulation of bone mineral density. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses and comparative genomics results of conserved synteny reveal that this new neuropeptide is a new ohnolog of the PTH family present in teleosts and some tetrapods like chicken, but absent in mammals . Our findings suggest a new brain to bone pathway, where neuronal factors from hypothalamus signal to receptors on bone cells promoting bone remodeling. Further investigations about this new neuropeptide system would be relevant for developing therapies for bone mineral disorders in humans, since this neuropeptide has a conserved domain similar to other PTH-related peptides which have anabolic effects on bone.

  15. Gene Silencing and Sex Determination by Programmed DNA Elimination in Parasitic Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Adrian; Wang, Jianbin; Kang, Yuanyuan; Davis, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity is essential. However, programmed DNA elimination removes specific DNA sequences from the genome during early development. DNA elimination occurs in unicellular ciliates and diverse metazoa ranging from nematodes to vertebrates. Two distinct groups of nematodes use DNA elimination to silence germline-expressed genes in the soma (ascarids) or for sex determination (Strongyloides spp.). Data suggest that DNA elimination likely evolved independently in these nematodes. Recent studies indicate that differential CENP-A deposition within chromosomes determines which sequences are retained and lost during Ascaris DNA elimination. Additional studies are needed to determine the distribution, functions, and mechanisms of DNA elimination in nematodes. PMID:27315434

  16. The importance, biology and management of cereal cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mokrini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cereals are exposed to biotic and abiotic stresses. Among the biotic stresses, plant-parasitic nematodes play an important role in decreasing crop yield. Cereal cyst nematodes (CCNs are known to be a major constraint to wheat production in several parts of the world. Significant economic losses due to CCNs have been reported. Recognition and identification of CCNs are the first steps in nematode management. This paper reviews the current distribution of CCNs in different parts of the world and the recent advances in nematode identification. The different approaches for managing CCNs are also discussed.

  17. Nematodes as a source of total coliforms in a distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locas, Annie; Barbeau, Benoit; Gauthier, Vincent

    2007-05-01

    In a distribution system of a large North American city, recurring total coliforms and atypical coliforms were detected at the exit (distribution pumps) of a storage reservoir. The presence of total coliforms and atypical coliforms was noted when the pumps were in operation and the water temperature was higher than 18 degrees C. The total coliform and atypical coliform concentrations at the volute pump casings ranged from 0 to 93.5 colony forming units (cfu)/100 mL. Significant concentrations of nematodes were also detected at this sampling location, averaging 12.0 nematodes/L in 2001 and 17.4 nematodes/L in 2002. The hypothesis that coliforms were released from the nematodes during their transit through the high-pressure pump was tested by recovering nematodes by filtering large volumes of water and grinding the nematodes in the laboratory, using various techniques. Total coliform and heterotrophic bacteria concentrations ranged from 0 to 27 cfu/nematode and 0 to 643 cfu/nematode, respectively. The origin of the nematodes was traced back to the sand filters located at the two water treatment plants. The importance of invertebrates in the distribution system should not be dismissed and the associated health risks, if any, should be assessed.

  18. Regulation of sleep by neuropeptide Y-like system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxia He

    Full Text Available Sleep is important for maintenance of normal physiology in animals. In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY, a homolog of Drosophila neuropeptide F (NPF, is involved in sleep regulation, with different effects in human and rat. However, the function of NPF on sleep in Drosophila melanogaster has not yet been described. In this study, we investigated the effects of NPF and its receptor-neuropeptide F receptor (NPFR1 on Drosophila sleep. Male flies over-expressing NPF or NPFR1 exhibited increased sleep during the nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated that sleep episode duration during nighttime was greatly increased and sleep latency was significantly reduced, indicating that NPF and NPFR1 promote sleep quality, and their action on sleep is not because of an impact of the NPF signal system on development. Moreover, the homeostatic regulation of flies after sleep deprivation was disrupted by altered NPF signaling, since sleep deprivation decreased transcription of NPF in control flies, and there were less sleep loss during sleep deprivation and less sleep gain after sleep deprivation in flies overexpressing NPF and NPFR1 than in control flies, suggesting that NPF system auto-regulation plays an important role in sleep homeostasis. However, these effects did not occur in females, suggesting a sex-dependent regulatory function in sleep for NPF and NPFR1. NPF in D1 brain neurons showed male-specific expression, providing the cellular locus for male-specific regulation of sleep by NPF and NPFR1. This study brings a new understanding into sleep studies of a sexually dimorphic regulatory mode in female and male flies.

  19. Drosophila DH31 Neuropeptide and PDF Receptor Regulate Night-Onset Temperature Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Tadahiro; Tang, Xin; Umezaki, Yujiro; Chu, Michelle L; Hamada, Fumika N

    2016-11-16

    Body temperature exhibits rhythmic fluctuations over a 24 h period (Refinetti and Menaker, 1992) and decreases during the night, which is associated with sleep initiation (Gilbert et al., 2004; Kräuchi, 2007a,b). However, the underlying mechanism of this temperature decrease is largely unknown. We have previously shown that Drosophila exhibit a daily temperature preference rhythm (TPR), in which their preferred temperatures increase during the daytime and then decrease at the transition from day to night (night-onset) (Kaneko et al., 2012). Because Drosophila are small ectotherms, their body temperature is very close to that of the ambient temperature (Stevenson, 1985), suggesting that their TPR generates their body temperature rhythm. Here, we demonstrate that the neuropeptide diuretic hormone 31 (DH31) and pigment-dispersing factor receptor (PDFR) contribute to regulate the preferred temperature decrease at night-onset. We show that PDFR and tethered-DH31 expression in dorsal neurons 2 (DN2s) restore the preferred temperature decrease at night-onset, suggesting that DH31 acts on PDFR in DN2s. Notably, we previously showed that the molecular clock in DN2s is important for TPR. Although PDF (another ligand of PDFR) is a critical factor for locomotor activity rhythms, Pdf mutants exhibit normal preferred temperature decreases at night-onset. This suggests that DH31-PDFR signaling specifically regulates a preferred temperature decrease at night-onset. Thus, we propose that night-onset TPR and locomotor activity rhythms are differentially controlled not only by clock neurons but also by neuropeptide signaling in the brain. Body temperature rhythm (BTR) is fundamental for the maintenance of functions essential for homeostasis, such as generating metabolic energy and sleep. One major unsolved question is how body temperature decreases dramatically during the night. Previously, we demonstrated that a BTR-like mechanism, referred to as temperature preference rhythm (TPR

  20. Metabolism of cryptic peptides derived from neuropeptide FF precursors: the involvement of insulin-degrading enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Giuseppe; Mielczarek, Przemyslaw; Niedziolka, Magdalena; Silberring, Jerzy

    2014-09-22

    The term "cryptome" refers to the subset of cryptic peptides with bioactivities that are often unpredictable and very different from the parent protein. These cryptic peptides are generated by proteolytic cleavage of proteases, whose identification in vivo can be very challenging. In this work, we show that insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is able to degrade specific amino acid sequences present in the neuropeptide pro-NPFFA (NPFF precursor), generating some cryptic peptides that are also observed after incubation with rat brain cortex homogenate. The reported experimental findings support the increasingly accredited hypothesis, according to which, due to its wide substrate selectivity, IDE is involved in a wide variety of physiopathological processes.

  1. Molecular fingerprint of neuropeptide S-producing neurons in the mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaobin; Zeng, Joanne; Zhou, Anni

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) has been associated with a number of complex brain functions, including anxiety-like behaviors, arousal, sleep-wakefulness regulation, drug-seeking behaviors, and learning and memory. In order to better understand how NPS influences these functions in a neuronal network context...... of incoming neurotransmission, controlling neuronal activity of NPS-producing neurons. Stress-induced functional activation of NPS-producing neurons was detected by staining for the immediate-early gene c-fos, thus supporting earlier findings that NPS might be part of the brain stress response network....

  2. Three different prohormones yield a variety of Hydra-RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2) neuropeptides in Hydra magnipapillata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darmer, D; Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P

    1998-01-01

    from H. magnipapillata, each of which gives rise to a variety of RFamide neuropeptides. Preprohormone A contains one copy of unprocessed Hydra-RFamide I (QWLGGRFG), II (QWFNGRFG), III/IV [(KP)HLRGRFG] and two putative neuropeptide sequences (QLMSGRFG and QLMRGRFG). Preprohormone B has the same general....... Southern blot analyses suggest that preprohormones A and B are each coded for by a single gene, whereas one or possibly two closely related genes code for preprohormone C. Northern blot analyses and in situ hybridizations show that the gene coding for preprohormone A is expressed in neurons of both...... the head and foot regions of Hydra, whereas the genes coding for preprohormones B and C are specifically expressed in neurons of different regions of the head. All of this shows that neuropeptide biosynthesis in the primitive metazoan Hydra is already rather complex. Udgivelsesdato: 1998-Jun-1...

  3. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C., E-mail: catherine.lecomte-pradines@irsn.fr [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Bonzom, J.-M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, 6, rue Frederic Mistral, 84160 Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Villenave, C. [ELISOL Environment, Building 12, Campus de la Gaillarde, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 2 (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Dubourg, N. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, GARM Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Maksimenko, A. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France)

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h{sup −1}. These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H′). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h{sup −1}. This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites

  4. Sensory interaction between attractant diacetyl and repellent 2-nonanone in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Tetsuya; Izumi, Junichi; Hioki, Mamoru; Nagaya, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yasuaki

    2013-06-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the odorant diacetyl is sensed by AWA sensory neurons in the amphid sensory organ and elicits an attractive response, whereas 2-nonanone is sensed by AWB amphid sensory neurons and elicits an avoidance response. In the present study, we report that nematodes exhibit a sensory interaction between the attractant diacetyl and repellent 2-nonanone. In the presence of food, the chemotactic response to 0.01% diacetyl in nematodes preexposed to 0.1% diacetyl was greater than that in nonexposed naive nematodes (P < 0.05). The response to diacetyl was also greater in nematodes preexposed to 3% 2-nonanone in the presence of food than that in naive nematodes (P < 0.01). In the absence of food, the response to diacetyl in nematodes preexposed to diacetyl or 2-nonanone was significantly lower than that in nonexposed control nematodes (P < 0.01). The avoidance response to 10% 2-nonanone in nematodes preexposed to each odorant in the presence or absence of food was lower than that in nonexposed nematodes (P < 0.05). To confirm the validity of our results, the chemotactic responses to diacetyl and 2-nonanone were observed using che-3, odr-4, and odr-10 mutants, which exhibited defective sensitivity to diacetyl or 2-nonanone. From the results of our experiments, we conclude that nematodes exhibit a sensory interaction between diacetyl and 2-nonanone and speculate that this interaction is driven by higher-level neuronal circuits that underlie sensory integration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte-Pradines, C; Bonzom, J-M; Della-Vedova, C; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Villenave, C; Gaschak, S; Coppin, F; Dubourg, N; Maksimenko, A; Adam-Guillermin, C; Garnier-Laplace, J

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h(-1). These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H'). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h(-1). This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites. This might

  6. Insights into Adaptations to a Near-Obligate Nematode Endoparasitic Lifestyle from the Finished Genome of Drechmeria coniospora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Zhou, Z.; Guo, Q.; Fokkens, L.; Miskei, M.; Pócsi, I.; Zhang, W.; Chen, M.; Wang, L.; Sun, Y.; Donzelli, B.G.G.; Gibson, D.M.; Nelson, D.R.; Luo, J.G.; Rep, M.; Liu, H.; Yang, S.; Wang, J.; Krasnoff, S.B.; Xu, Y.; Molnár, I.; Lin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nematophagous fungi employ three distinct predatory strategies: nematode trapping, parasitism of females and eggs, and endoparasitism. While endoparasites play key roles in controlling nematode populations in nature, their application for integrated pest management is hindered by the limited

  7. Pedal peptide/orcokinin-type neuropeptide signaling in a deuterostome: The anatomy and pharmacology of starfish myorelaxant peptide in Asterias rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming; Egertová, Michaela; Zampronio, Cleidiane G; Jones, Alexandra M; Elphick, Maurice R

    2017-12-15

    Pedal peptide (PP) and orcokinin (OK) are related neuropeptides that were discovered in protostomian invertebrates (mollusks, arthropods). However, analysis of genome/transcriptome sequence data has revealed that PP/OK-type neuropeptides also occur in a deuterostomian phylum-the echinoderms. Furthermore, a PP/OK-type neuropeptide (starfish myorelaxant peptide, SMP) was recently identified as a muscle relaxant in the starfish Patiria pectinifera. Here mass spectrometry was used to identify five neuropeptides (ArPPLN1a-e) derived from the SMP precursor (PP-like neuropeptide precursor 1; ArPPLNP1) in the starfish Asterias rubens. Analysis of the expression of ArPPLNP1 and neuropeptides derived from this precursor in A. rubens using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed a widespread pattern of expression, with labeled cells and/or processes present in the radial nerve cords, circumoral nerve ring, digestive system (e.g., cardiac stomach) and body wall-associated muscles (e.g., apical muscle) and appendages (e.g., tube feet and papulae). Furthermore, our data provide the first evidence that neuropeptides are present in the lateral motor nerves and in nerve processes innervating interossicular muscles. In vitro pharmacological tests with SMP (ArPPLN1b) revealed that it causes dose-dependent relaxation of apical muscle, tube foot and cardiac stomach preparations from A. rubens. Collectively, these anatomical and pharmacological data indicate that neuropeptides derived from ArPPLNP1 act as inhibitory neuromuscular transmitters in starfish, which contrasts with the myoexcitatory actions of PP/OK-type neuropeptides in protostomian invertebrates. Thus, the divergence of deuterostomes and protostomes may have been accompanied by an inhibitory-excitatory transition in the roles of PP/OK-type neuropeptides as regulators of muscle activity. © 2017 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pedal peptide/orcokinin‐type neuropeptide signaling in a deuterostome: The anatomy and pharmacology of starfish myorelaxant peptide in Asterias rubens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming; Egertová, Michaela; Zampronio, Cleidiane G.; Jones, Alexandra M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pedal peptide (PP) and orcokinin (OK) are related neuropeptides that were discovered in protostomian invertebrates (mollusks, arthropods). However, analysis of genome/transcriptome sequence data has revealed that PP/OK‐type neuropeptides also occur in a deuterostomian phylum—the echinoderms. Furthermore, a PP/OK‐type neuropeptide (starfish myorelaxant peptide, SMP) was recently identified as a muscle relaxant in the starfish Patiria pectinifera. Here mass spectrometry was used to identify five neuropeptides (ArPPLN1a‐e) derived from the SMP precursor (PP‐like neuropeptide precursor 1; ArPPLNP1) in the starfish Asterias rubens. Analysis of the expression of ArPPLNP1 and neuropeptides derived from this precursor in A. rubens using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed a widespread pattern of expression, with labeled cells and/or processes present in the radial nerve cords, circumoral nerve ring, digestive system (e.g., cardiac stomach) and body wall‐associated muscles (e.g., apical muscle) and appendages (e.g., tube feet and papulae). Furthermore, our data provide the first evidence that neuropeptides are present in the lateral motor nerves and in nerve processes innervating interossicular muscles. In vitro pharmacological tests with SMP (ArPPLN1b) revealed that it causes dose‐dependent relaxation of apical muscle, tube foot and cardiac stomach preparations from A. rubens. Collectively, these anatomical and pharmacological data indicate that neuropeptides derived from ArPPLNP1 act as inhibitory neuromuscular transmitters in starfish, which contrasts with the myoexcitatory actions of PP/OK‐type neuropeptides in protostomian invertebrates. Thus, the divergence of deuterostomes and protostomes may have been accompanied by an inhibitory–excitatory transition in the roles of PP/OK‐type neuropeptides as regulators of muscle activity. PMID:28880392

  9. Mass Spectrometric Measurement of Neuropeptide Secretion in the Crab, Cancer borealis, by In Vivo Microdialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhidan; Schmerberg, Claire M.; Li, Lingjun

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides (NPs), a unique and highly important class of signaling molecules across the animal kingdom, have been extensively characterized in the neuronal tissues of various crustaceans. Because many NPs are released into circulating fluid (hemolymph) and travel to distant sites in order to exhibit physiological effects, it is important to measure the secretion of these NPs from living animals. In this study, we report on extensive characterization of NPs released in the crab Cancer borealis by utilizing in vivo microdialysis to sample NPs from the hemolymph. We determined the necessary duration for collection of microdialysis samples, enabling more comprehensive identification of NP content while maintaining the temporal resolution of sampling. Analysis of in vivo microdialysates using a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap™ Q-Exactive mass spectrometer revealed that more than 50 neuropeptides from 9 peptide families—including the allatostatin, RFamide, orcokinin, tachykinin-related peptide and RYamide families–were released into the circulatory system. The presence of these peptides both in neuronal tissues as well as in hemolymph indicates their putative hormonal roles, a finding that merits further investigation. Preliminary quantitative measurement of these identified NPs suggested several potential candidates that may be associated with the circadian rhythm in Cancer borealis. PMID:25537886

  10. Novel and ultra-rare damaging variants in neuropeptide signaling are associated with disordered eating behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lutter

    Full Text Available Eating disorders develop through a combination of genetic vulnerability and environmental stress, however the genetic basis of this risk is unknown.To understand the genetic basis of this risk, we performed whole exome sequencing on 93 unrelated individuals with eating disorders (38 restricted-eating and 55 binge-eating to identify novel damaging variants. Candidate genes with an excessive burden of predicted damaging variants were then prioritized based upon an unbiased, data-driven bioinformatic analysis. One top candidate pathway was empirically tested for therapeutic potential in a mouse model of binge-like eating.An excessive burden of novel damaging variants was identified in 186 genes in the restricted-eating group and 245 genes in the binge-eating group. This list is significantly enriched (OR = 4.6, p<0.0001 for genes involved in neuropeptide/neurotrophic pathways implicated in appetite regulation, including neurotensin-, glucagon-like peptide 1- and BDNF-signaling. Administration of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist exendin-4 significantly reduced food intake in a mouse model of 'binge-like' eating.These findings implicate ultra-rare and novel damaging variants in neuropeptide/neurotropic factor signaling pathways in the development of eating disorder behaviors and identify glucagon-like peptide 1-receptor agonists as a potential treatment for binge eating.

  11. Sensory Neuropeptides and Endogenous Opioids Expression in Human Dental Pulp with Asymptomatic Inflammation: In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chavarria-Bolaños

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, β-endorphins (β-End, and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. Methods. Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg, which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg, which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance. Once extracted, dental pulp tissue was prepared to determine the expression levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results. All samples from the CTRg exhibited basal levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids. By day seven, all patients were asymptomatic, even when all orthodontic-intrusive devices were still active. In the EXPg, the SP and CGRP exhibited statistically significant different levels. Although none of the endogenous opioids showed statistically significant differences, they all expressed increasing trends in the EXPg. Conclusions. SP and CGRP were identified in dental pulp after seven days of controlled orthodontic intrusion movement, even in the absence of pain.

  12. Contribution of Dynorphin and Orexin Neuropeptide Systems to the Motivational Effects of Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel I; Moorman, David E; Becker, Howard C

    2018-03-11

    Understanding the neural systems that drive alcohol motivation and are disrupted in alcohol use disorders is of critical importance in developing novel treatments. The dynorphin and orexin/hypocretin neuropeptide systems are particularly relevant with respect to alcohol use and misuse. Both systems are strongly associated with alcohol-seeking behaviors, particularly in cases of high levels of alcohol use as seen in dependence. Furthermore, both systems also play a role in stress and anxiety, indicating that disruption of these systems may underlie long-term homeostatic dysregulation seen in alcohol use disorders. These systems are also closely interrelated with one another - dynorphin/kappa opioid receptors and orexin/hypocretin receptors are found in similar regions and hypocretin/orexin neurons also express dynorphin - suggesting that these two systems may work together in the regulation of alcohol seeking and may be mutually disrupted in alcohol use disorders. This chapter reviews studies demonstrating a role for each of these systems in motivated behavior, with a focus on their roles in regulating alcohol-seeking and self-administration behaviors. Consideration is also given to evidence indicating that these neuropeptide systems may be viable targets for the development of potential treatments for alcohol use disorders.

  13. Tailless and Atrophin control Drosophila aggression by regulating neuropeptide signalling in the pars intercerebralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shaun M.; Thomas, Amanda L.; Nomie, Krystle J.; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A.

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour.

  14. Breakthrough in neuroendocrinology by discovering novel neuropeptides and neurosteroids: 2. Discovery of neurosteroids and pineal neurosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo

    2014-09-01

    Bargmann-Scharrer's discovery of "neurosecretion" in the first half of the 20th century has since matured into the scientific discipline of neuroendocrinology. Identification of novel neurohormones, such as neuropeptides and neurosteroids, is essential for the progress of neuroendocrinology. Our studies over the past two decades have significantly broadened the horizons of this field of research by identifying novel neuropeptides and neurosteroids in vertebrates that have opened new lines of scientific investigation in neuroendocrinology. We have established de novo synthesis and functions of neurosteroids in the brain of various vertebrates. Recently, we discovered 7α-hydroxypregnenolone (7α-OH PREG), a novel bioactive neurosteroid that acts as a key regulator for inducing locomotor behavior by means of the dopaminergic system. We further discovered that the pineal gland, an endocrine organ located close to the brain, is an important site of production of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol (CHOL). The pineal gland secretes 7α-OH PREG and 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP; allopregnanolone) that are involved in locomotor rhythms and neuronal survival, respectively. Subsequently, we have demonstrated their mode of action and functional significance. This review summarizes the discovery of these novel neurosteroids and its contribution to the progress of neuroendocrinology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization, tissue distribution, and expression of neuropeptide Y in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Tan, Xungang; Du, Shaojun; Sun, Wei; You, Feng; Zhang, Peijun

    2015-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide of the neuropeptide Y family that plays key roles in the regulation of food intake. In this study, we focused on NPY mRNA expression changes around feeding time and during food deprivation in olive flounder. The olive flounder NPY mRNA levels were analyzed in different tissues and a high level of expression was detected in the brain. We also demonstrated a correlation between NPY expression levels in the brain and feeding schedule. NPY expression levels in olive flounder maintained on a daily scheduled feeding regimen increased shortly before feeding and decreased after the scheduled feeding time. Compared with the -1 h group before feeding, NPY expression in the 3 h group after feeding decreased significantly ( PFood deprivation led to an 81.7% decrease in NPY mRNA levels in the 24 h fasted group ( Pfood intake in olive flounder. This result reveals the function of NPY in regulating food intake and its potential importance in olive flounder aquaculture.

  16. Beta-amyloid peptides undergo regulated co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toneff, Thomas; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Mosier, Charles; Abagyan, Armen; Ziegler, Michael; Hook, Vivian

    2013-08-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides are secreted from neurons, resulting in extracellular accumulation of Aβ and neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease. Because neuronal secretion is fundamental for the release of neurotransmitters, this study assessed the hypothesis that Aβ undergoes co-release with neurotransmitters. Model neuronal-like chromaffin cells were investigated, and results illustrate regulated, co-secretion of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) with peptide neurotransmitters (galanin, enkephalin, and NPY) and catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine). Regulated secretion from chromaffin cells was stimulated by KCl depolarization and nicotine. Forskolin, stimulating cAMP, also induced co-secretion of Aβ peptides with peptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters. These data suggested the co-localization of Aβ with neurotransmitters in dense core secretory vesicles (DCSV) that store and secrete such chemical messengers. Indeed, Aβ was demonstrated to be present in DCSV with neuropeptide and catecholamine transmitters. Furthermore, the DCSV organelle contains APP and its processing proteases, β- and γ-secretases, that are necessary for production of Aβ. Thus, Aβ can be generated in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV. Human IMR32 neuroblastoma cells also displayed regulated secretion of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) with the galanin neurotransmitter. These findings illustrate that Aβ peptides are present in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV, and undergo co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters that regulate brain functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides: New Players in the Control of Islet of Langerhans' Cell Mass and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cairano, Eliana S; Moretti, Stefania; Marciani, Paola; Sacchi, Vellea Franca; Castagna, Michela; Davalli, Alberto; Folli, Franco; Perego, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Islets of Langerhans control whole body glucose homeostasis, as they respond, releasing hormones, to changes in nutrient concentrations in the blood stream. The regulation of hormone secretion has been the focus of attention for a long time because it is related to many metabolic disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Endocrine cells of the islet use a sophisticate system of endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signals to synchronize their activities. These signals provide a fast and accurate control not only for hormone release but also for cell differentiation and survival, key aspects in islet physiology and pathology. Among the different categories of paracrine/autocrine signals, this review highlights the role of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. In a manner similar to neurons, endocrine cells synthesize, accumulate, release neurotransmitters in the islet milieu, and possess receptors able to decode these signals. In this review, we provide a comprehensive description of neurotransmitter/neuropetide signaling pathways present within the islet. Then, we focus on evidence supporting the concept that neurotransmitters/neuropeptides and their receptors are interesting new targets to preserve β-cell function and mass. A greater understanding of how this network of signals works in physiological and pathological conditions would advance our knowledge of islet biology and physiology and uncover potentially new areas of pharmacological intervention. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 756-767, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Neuropeptide co-expression in hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons of laboratory animals and the human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin eSkrapits

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic peptidergic neurons using kisspeptin (KP and its co-transmitters for communication are critically involved in the regulation of mammalian reproduction and puberty. This article provides an overview of neuropeptides present in KP neurons, with a focus on the human species. Immunohistochemical studies reveal that large subsets of human KP neurons synthesize neurokinin B, as also shown in laboratory species. In contrast, dynorphin described in KP neurons of rodents and sheep is found rarely in KP cells of human males and postmenopausal females. Similarly, galanin is detectable in mouse, but not human, KP cells, whereas substance P, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and proenkephalin-derived opioids are expressed in varying subsets of KP neurons in humans, but not reported in ARC of other species. Human KP neurons do not contain neurotensin, cholecystokinin, proopiomelanocortin-derivatives, agouti-related protein, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin or tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine. These data identify the possible co-transmitters of human KP cells. Neurochemical properties distinct from those of laboratory species indicate that humans use considerably different neurotransmitter mechanisms to regulate fertility.

  19. A Promising Therapeutic Target for Metabolic Diseases: Neuropeptide Y Receptors in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human neuropeptide Y (hNPY is one of the most widely expressed neurotransmitters in the human central and peripheral nervous systems. It consists of 36 highly conserved amino acid residues, and was first isolated from the porcine hypothalamus in 1982. While it is the most recently discovered member of the pancreatic polypeptide family (which includes neuropeptide Y, gut-derived hormone peptide YY, and pancreatic polypeptide, NPY is the most abundant peptide found in the mammalian brain. In order to exert particular functions, NPY needs to bind to the NPY receptor to activate specific signaling pathways. NPY receptors belong to the class A or rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR family and signal via cell-surface receptors. By binding to GPCRs, NPY plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including cortical excitability, stress response, food intake, circadian rhythms, and cardiovascular function. Abnormal regulation of NPY is involved in the development of a wide range of diseases, including obesity, hypertension, atherosclerosis, epilepsy, metabolic disorders, and many cancers. Thus far, five receptors have been cloned from mammals (Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5, and y6, but only four of these (hY1, hY2, hY4, and hY5 are functional in humans. In this review, we summarize the structural characteristics of human NPY receptors and their role in metabolic diseases.

  20. Habituation as an adaptive shift in response strategy mediated by neuropeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiel, Evan L.; Yu, Alex J.; Giles, Andrew C.; Rankin, Catharine H.

    2017-08-01

    Habituation is a non-associative form of learning characterized by a decremented response to repeated stimulation. It is typically framed as a process of selective attention, allowing animals to ignore irrelevant stimuli in order to free up limited cognitive resources. However, habituation can also occur to threatening and toxic stimuli, suggesting that habituation may serve other functions. Here we took advantage of a high-throughput Caenorhabditis elegans learning assay to investigate habituation to noxious stimuli. Using real-time computer vision software for automated behavioral tracking and optogenetics for controlled activation of a polymodal nociceptor, ASH, we found that neuropeptides mediated habituation and performed an RNAi screen to identify candidate receptors. Through subsequent mutant analysis and cell-type-specific gene expression, we found that pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) neuropeptides function redundantly to promote habituation via PDFR-1-mediated cAMP signaling in both neurons and muscles. Behavioral analysis during learning acquisition suggests that response habituation and sensitization of locomotion are parts of a shifting behavioral strategy orchestrated by pigment dispersing factor signaling to promote dispersal away from repeated aversive stimuli.

  1. The neuropeptide NLP-22 regulates a sleep-like state in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M D; Trojanowski, N F; George-Raizen, J B; Smith, C J; Yu, C-C; Fang-Yen, C; Raizen, D M

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptides have central roles in the regulation of homoeostatic behaviours such as sleep and feeding. Caenorhabditis elegans displays sleep-like quiescence of locomotion and feeding during a larval transition stage called lethargus and feeds during active larval and adult stages. Here we show that the neuropeptide NLP-22 is a regulator of Caenorhabditis elegans sleep-like quiescence observed during lethargus. nlp-22 shows cyclical mRNA expression in synchrony with lethargus; it is regulated by LIN-42, an orthologue of the core circadian protein PERIOD; and it is expressed solely in the two RIA interneurons. nlp-22 and the RIA interneurons are required for normal lethargus quiescence, and forced expression of nlp-22 during active stages causes anachronistic locomotion and feeding quiescence. Optogenetic stimulation of the RIA interneurons has a movement-promoting effect, demonstrating functional complexity in a single-neuron type. Our work defines a quiescence-regulating role for NLP-22 and expands our knowledge of the neural circuitry controlling Caenorhabditis elegans behavioural quiescence.

  2. Central amygdalar nucleus treated with orexin neuropeptides evoke differing feeding and grooming responses in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alò, Raffaella; Avolio, Ennio; Mele, Maria; Di Vito, Anna; Canonaco, Marcello

    2015-04-15

    Interaction of the orexinergic (ORXergic) neuronal system with the excitatory (glutamate, l-Glu) or the inhibitory (GABA) neurosignaling complexes evokes major homeostatic physiological events. In this study, effects of the two ORXergic neuropeptides (ORX-A/B) on their receptor (ORX-2R) expression changes were correlated to feeding and grooming actions of the hibernating hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Infusion of the central amygdala nucleus (CeA) with ORX-A caused hamsters to consume notable quantities of food, while ORX-B accounted for a moderate increase. Interestingly the latter neuropeptide was responsible for greater frequencies of grooming with respect to both controls and the hamsters treated with ORX-A. These distinct behavioral changes turned out to be even greater in the presence of l-Glu agonist (NMDA) while the α1 GABAA receptor agonist (zolpidem, Zol) greatly reduced ORX-A-dependent feeding bouts. Moreover, ORX-A+NMDA mainly promoted greater ORX-2R expression levels with respect to ORX-A-treated hamsters while ORX-B+Zol was instead largely responsible for a down-regulatory trend. Overall, these features point to CeA ORX-2R sites as key sensory limbic elements capable of regulating eating and grooming responses, which may provide useful insights regarding the type of molecular mechanism(s) operating during feeding bouts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Soil and freshwater nematodes of the Iberian fauna: A synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Santiago, R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The first available compilation of Iberian soil and freshwater nematodes is presented in this paper. The inventory is currently made up of 981 species belonging to 236 genera, 77 families and 12 orders. Data of the Iberian nematode fauna are compared with other components of the Iberian biota, as well as the nematode fauna of other geographical regions. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of the nematode inventory are analyzed and discussed, paying special attention to the kind of information available for each species, and concluding that practically one-third of Iberian species are deficiently characterized and need further study. Endemicity of Iberian species is also considered: 143 species, 14.6% of the total, are restricted (in their distribution to the Iberian geography, most of them being members of the orders Dorylaimida (87 and Tylenchida (29, which are also the most diversified nematode taxa. Practical or applied interest of knowledge of the Iberian nematode fauna is commented and supported with examples and recent contributions. Finally, an alphabetical list of the species, ordered by specific name, is provided.

    En esta contribución se presenta una recopilación de las especies ibéricas de nematodos de suelo y de agua dulce, la primera de este tipo realizada hasta el momento. El inventario actual lo componen 981 especies de 236 géneros, 77 familias y 12 órdenes. Los datos correspondiente a la fauna ibérica de nematodos se compara con la de otros táxones de la biota ibérica. Se analizan y se discuten distintos aspectos cuantitativos y cualitativos de la fauna nematológica, con especial énfasis en el tipo de información disponible sobre cada especie, y se concluye que casi una tercera parte de las especies ibéricas permanecen insuficientemente caracterizadas, razón por la cual requieren de estudios adicionales. La endemicidad de las especies es así mismo objeto de atención: 143 especies, un 14.6% del total est

  4. Soil nematodes show a mid-elevation diversity maximum and elevational zonation on Mt. Norikura, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Moroenyane, Itumeleng; Tripathi, Binu; Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Takahashi, Koichi; Yamamoto, Naomichi; An, Choa; Cho, Hyunjun; Adams, Jonathan

    2017-06-08

    Little is known about how nematode ecology differs across elevational gradients. We investigated the soil nematode community along a ~2,200 m elevational range on Mt. Norikura, Japan, by sequencing the 18S rRNA gene. As with many other groups of organisms, nematode diversity showed a high correlation with elevation, and a maximum in mid-elevations. While elevation itself, in the context of the mid domain effect, could predict the observed unimodal pattern of soil nematode communities along the elevational gradient, mean annual temperature and soil total nitrogen concentration were the best predictors of diversity. We also found nematode community composition showed strong elevational zonation, indicating that a high degree of ecological specialization that may exist in nematodes in relation to elevation-related environmental gradients and certain nematode OTUs had ranges extending across all elevations, and these generalized OTUs made up a greater proportion of the community at high elevations - such that high elevation nematode OTUs had broader elevational ranges on average, providing an example consistent to Rapoport's elevational hypothesis. This study reveals the potential for using sequencing methods to investigate elevational gradients of small soil organisms, providing a method for rapid investigation of patterns without specialized knowledge in taxonomic identification.

  5. Product evaluation for reniform nematode suppression in Mississippi Delta sweetpotato production, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, can cause significant losses in sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas, production in the Mississippi Delta. Reniform nematode is a microscopic plant parasite that feeds on sweetpotato roots causing severe stunting of root growth. Reduction in yield due to the ...

  6. Genomic characterisation of the effector complement of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorpe, P.; Mantelin, S.; Cock, P.J.A.; Blok, V.C.; Coke, M.C.; Evers-van den Akker, S.; Guzeeva, E.; Lilley, C.J.; Smant, G.; Reid, A.J.; Wright, K.M.; Urwin, P.E.; Jones, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Background The potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida has biotrophic interactions with its host. The nematode induces a feeding structure – the syncytium – which it keeps alive for the duration of the life cycle and on which it depends for all nutrients required to develop to the adult stage.

  7. Azadirachtin powder for control of root-knot nematodes in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA ARS Daniel K. Inouye U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, 64 Nowelo St., Hilo, HI 96720. Root-knot nematodes cause root galling and yield reductions in many vegetable crops, including tomato. Three organic treatments to improve root growth and reduce nematode infestation were eval...

  8. Successes and failures in the use of parasitic nematodes for pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgis, R.; Koppenhöfer, A.M.; Lacey, L.A.; Bélair, G.; Duncan, L.W.; Grewal, P.S.; Samish, M.; Tan, L.; Torr, P.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in mass-production and formulation technology of entomopathogenic nematodes, the discovery of numerous isolates/strains and the desirability of reducing pesticide usage have resulted in a surge of scientific and commercial interest in these nematodes. The lessons learned from earlier

  9. Sunn Hemp cover cropping and organic fertilizer effects on the nematode community under temperate growing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantings of sunn hemp as a cover crop have been experimentally shown to improve soil health, reduce plant-parasitic nematodes, and increase nematode-antagonistic microorganisms. However, these studies have been largely conducted in tropical and subtropical regions. To investigate the impacts of sun...

  10. A model plant pathogen from the kingdom Animalia: Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niblack, T L; Lambert, K N; Tylka, G L

    2006-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, adversely affects the production of soybean, Glycine max, in many areas of the world, particularly in the United States, where it is the most economically important soybean pathogen. Despite the availability of hundreds of H. glycines-resistant soybean cultivars, the nematode continues to be a major limiting factor in soybean production. The use of nonhost rotation and resistance are the primary means of reducing losses caused by the nematode, but each of these options has disadvantages. As a subject for study of nematode parasitism and virulence, H. glycines provides a useful model despite its obligately parasitic nature. Its obligately sexual reproduction and ready adaptation to resistant cultivars, formerly referred to as "race shift," presents an excellent opportunity for the study of virulence in nematodes. Recent advances in H. glycines genomics have helped identify putative nematode parasitism genes, which, in turn, will aid in the understanding of nematode pathogenicity and virulence and may provide new targets for engineering nematode resistance.

  11. NEMATODE DIVERSITY IN A RANGE OF LAND USE TYPES IN JAMBI BENCHMARK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Swibawa & Titik Nur Aeny .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nematode Diversity in a Range of Land Use Types in Jambi Benchmark Indonesia. This study was conducted in Jambi  Benchmark, Indonesia from May 2004 to March 2005.  Out of 70 sampling points, 35 soil cores were taken from five land use types including forest less intensive, forest intensive, shrub, tree-based intensive, and crop-based less intensive.  From each soil core, 300 ml of soil was extracted by flotation and centrifugation technique using sucrose solution. One hundred randomly picked nematodes from each sample were identified to  genus level. The collected data were nematode abundance, number of genera, and trophic groups. The results showed that a total of 100 nematode genera within 31 families and 8 orders were found from soil samples of Jambi Benchmark. The abundance of total nematodes, bacterial feeding, and plant feeding nematodes were low in the intensive land use but high in less intensive land uses, i.e. shrub, intensive forest, and less intensive forest.  There was no significant correlation between land use intensity and the diversity of nematode taxa.  Nematode maturity indices were not sensitive enough to measure ecosystem disturbance caused by human intervention in Jambi Benchmark.

  12. RNAseq Analysis of the Drosophila Response to the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Yadav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster is an outstanding model to study the molecular and functional basis of host–pathogen interactions. Currently, our knowledge of microbial infections in D. melanogaster is well understood; however, the response of flies to nematode infections is still in its infancy. Here, we have used the potent parasitic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae, which lives in mutualism with its endosymbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila, to examine the transcriptomic basis of the interaction between D. melanogaster and entomopathogenic nematodes. We have employed next-generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq to investigate the transcriptomic profile of D. melanogaster larvae in response to infection by S. carpocapsae symbiotic (carrying X. nematophila or axenic (lacking X. nematophila nematodes. Bioinformatic analyses have identified the strong induction of genes that are associated with the peritrophic membrane and the stress response, as well as several genes that participate in developmental processes. We have also found that genes with different biological functions are enriched in D. melanogaster larvae responding to either symbiotic or axenic nematodes. We further show that while symbiotic nematode infection enriched certain known immune-related genes, axenic nematode infection enriched several genes associated with chitin binding, lipid metabolic functions, and neuroactive ligand receptors. In addition, we have identified genes with a potential role in nematode recognition and genes with potential antinematode activity. Findings from this study will undoubtedly set the stage for the identification of key regulators of antinematode immune mechanisms in D. melanogaster, as well as in other insects of socioeconomic importance.

  13. Optimization of a host diet for in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous studies, we developed an improved diet for Tenebrio molitor, a host that is used for in vivo nematode production, and we demonstrated that single insect diet components (e.g., lipids and proteins) can have a positive or negative impact on entomopathogenic nematode fitness and quality. I...

  14. Low cost production of nematodes for biological control of insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are produced in two ways: in artificial media using liquid or solid fermentation methods (in vitro) or by mass producing insect hosts to be artificially exposed to mass infection by nematodes (in vivo). The yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) is a good host for in vivo nema...

  15. Two simple methods for the collection of individual life stages of reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sedentary semi-endoparasitic nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, the reniform nematode, is a serious pest of cotton and soybean in the United States. In recent years, interest in the molecular biology of the interaction between R. reniformis and its plant hosts has increased; however, the unusual...

  16. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has

  17. Evaluation of tomato genotypes for resistance to root-knot nematodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most popular vegetable crops worldwide, owing to its high nutritive value and diversified use. Tomato production in Ghana is threatened by plant parasitic nematodes, especially the root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), which are responsible for huge economic yield losses.

  18. Mind the gaps in research on the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of farmed ruminants and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlier, J; Thamsborg, S M; Bartley, D J

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode control has an important role to play in increasing livestock production from a limited natural resource base and to improve animal health and welfare. In this synthetic review, we identify key research priorities for GI nematode control in farmed ruminants and pigs...

  19. Parallel adaptations and common host cell responses enabling feeding of obligate and facultative plant parasitic nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smant, Geert; Helder, Johannes; Goverse, Aska

    2018-01-01

    Parallel adaptations enabling the use of plant cells as the primary food source have occurred multiple times in distinct nematode clades. The hallmark of all extant obligate and facultative plant-feeding nematodes is the presence of an oral stylet, which is required for penetration of plant cell

  20. RNA Interference: A Novel Source of Resistance to Combat Plant Parasitic Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Banerjee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes cause severe damage and yield loss in major crops all over the world. Available control strategies include use of insecticides/nematicides but these have proved detrimental to the environment, while other strategies like crop rotation and resistant cultivars have serious limitations. This scenario provides an opportunity for the utilization of technological advances like RNA interference (RNAi to engineer resistance against these devastating parasites. First demonstrated in the model free living nematode, Caenorhabtidis elegans; the phenomenon of RNAi has been successfully used to suppress essential genes of plant parasitic nematodes involved in parasitism, nematode development and mRNA metabolism. Synthetic neurotransmitants mixed with dsRNA solutions are used for in vitro RNAi in plant parasitic nematodes with significant success. However, host delivered in planta RNAi has proved to be a pioneering phenomenon to deliver dsRNAs to feeding nematodes and silence the target genes to achieve resistance. Highly enriched genomic databases are exploited to limit off target effects and ensure sequence specific silencing. Technological advances like gene stacking and use of nematode inducible and tissue specific promoters can further enhance the utility of RNAi based transgenics against plant parasitic nematodes.

  1. HOW FUNGI INTERACT WITH NEMATODE TO ACTIVATE THE PLANT DEFENCE RESPONSE TO TOMATO PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, P; Costanza, A; Zonno, M C; Molinari, S; Altomare, C

    2014-01-01

    Management of plant parasitic nematodes with nematode predators, parasites or antagonists is an eco-friendly approach that may avoid the problems arisen by the use of toxic chemicals. Fungi belonging to Trichoderma spp. are well known in literature for their role in control of plant parasitic nematodes. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs), Meloidogyne spp., are obligate parasites that cause the formation of familiar galls on the roots of many cultivated plants. The interaction between the M. incognita motile second stage juveniles (J2s) and the isolate ITEM 908 of Trichoderma harzianum was examined in its effect on the nematode infestation level of susceptible tomato plants. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which ITEM 908 interacts with nematode-infected tomato plants, the expression patterns of the genes PR1 (marker of Salycilic Acid-depending resistance signalling pathway) and JERF3 (marker of the Jasmonic Acid/Ethylene-depending resistance signalling pathway) were detected over time in: i) untreated roots; ii) roots pre-treated with the fungus; iii) roots inoculated with the nematode; iv) pre-treated and inoculated roots. Infestation parameters were checked in untreated plants and plants treated with the fungus to test the effect of the fungus on nematode infestation level and to compare this effect with the expression of the genes PR1 and JERF3, involved in induced resistance.

  2. Controlling tulip stem nematodes in tulip bulbs by a hot water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van M.F.N.

    2013-01-01

    A hot water treatment (HWT) protocol is needed to control tulip stem nematode (TSN) in tulip bulbs. A HWT above approximately 45°C in tulips is assumed to be harmful to the bulbs. Experience with HWT to destroy stem nematodes in daffodils shows that the required temperature for this is 4 hours at

  3. The Activation and Suppression of Plant Innate Immunity by Parasitic Nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.; Smant, G.

    2014-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes engage in prolonged and intimate relationships with their host plants, often involving complex alterations in host cell morphology and function. It is puzzling how nematodes can achieve this, seemingly without activating the innate immune system of their hosts. Secretions

  4. Heterodera schachtii Tyrosinase-like protein a novel nematode effector modulating plant hormone homeostasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habash, S.; Radakovic, Z.S.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Siddique, S.; Dobrev, Petre; Gleason, C.; Grundler, F.M.W.; Elashry, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, JUL 31 (2017), č. článku 6874. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : arabidopsis-thaliana * cyst-nematode * parasitic nematode * transient expression * host plants * sequence * identification * infection * model * transformation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  5. [Cloning and analysis of three genes encoding type II CHH family neuropeptides from Fennropenaeus chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zai-Zhao; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2003-10-01

    On the basis of sequence similarity, the crustean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family peptides have been classified into two types of hormones: type I and type II. Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) is a neuropeptide member of type II CHH family. Molting in shrimp is controlled by MIH and ecdysone. By inhibiting the synthesis of ecdysone in the Y-organ, MIH indirectly suppresses the molting activity of shrimp. In this study, we reported the cloning and characterization of 3 gene fragments encoding type II CHH family neuropeptides of the shrimp Fennropenaeus chinensis. According to the complementary DNA sequence of the mult-inhibiting hormone of Fennropenaeus chinensis, 3 primers were designed and synthesized. MP1 and MP2 are sense primers, and MP3 is anti-sense primer. Polymerase chain reaction was performed using genomic DNA of Fennropenaeus chinensis as template. Three PCR products were obtained using primers MP1 and MP3. Their sizes are about 600 bp, 850 bp, 1050 bp, respectively. A 580 bp PCR product was obtained using primers MP2 and MP3. All the 4 PCR products were cloned into pMD18-T vector. The recombinant clones were sequenced using ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer. After sequencing, all the DNA sequences were searched in the GenBank by Blast program to find similar gene sequences. The searching results revealed 3 DNA fragment sequences were of high similarity with CHH family neuropeptide genes from various crustean species. The 3 DNA fragments were named as NP1, NP2, and NP3. Their sizes were 540 bp, 601 bp, and 826 bp, respectively. Using the mRNA sequences with the most similarity to the 3 sequence fragments as reference, the gene structure of the 3 DNA fragment sequences was analyzed. The exons of 3 sequence fragments were aligned with their similar sequences by Clustal W program. Both NP1 and NP2 consisted of 1 intron and 2 exons. NP3 consisted of 2 introns and 3 exons. Sequence analysis suggested that these 3 products belonged to sequence fragments of neuropeptide

  6. Molecular contest between potato and the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida: modulation of Gpa2-mediated resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koropacka, K.B.

    2010-01-01

    Gpa2 recognition specificity
    Among all the multicellular animals, nematodes are the most numerous. In soil, a high variety
    of free living nematodes feeding on bacteria can be found as well as species that parasitize
    insects, animals or plants. The potato cyst nematode (PCN)

  7. Anthelmintic activity of Cocos nucifera L. against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L M B; Bevilaqua, C M L; Costa, C T C; Macedo, I T F; Barros, R S; Rodrigues, A C M; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Morais, S M; Lima, Y C; Vieira, L S; Navarro, A M C

    2009-01-22

    The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This work evaluated the efficacy of Cocos nucifera fruit on sheep gastrointestinal parasites. The ethyl acetate extract obtained from the liquid of green coconut husk fiber (LGCHF) was submitted to in vitro and in vivo tests. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatching (EHT) and larval development tests (LDT) with Haemonchus contortus. The concentrations tested in the EHT were 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg ml(-1), while in the LDT they were 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg ml(-1). The in vivo assay was a controlled test. In this experiment, 18 sheep infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were divided into three groups (n=6), with the following doses administered: G1-400 mg kg(-1) LGCHF ethyl acetate extract, G2-0.2 mg kg(-1) moxidectin (Cydectin) and G3-3% DMSO. The worm burden was analyzed. The results of the in vitro and in vivo tests were submitted to ANOVA and analyzed by the Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively. The extract efficacy in the EHT and LDT, at the highest concentrations tested, was 100% on egg hatching and 99.77% on larval development. The parameters evaluated in the controlled test were not statistically different, showing that despite the significant results of the in vitro tests, the LGCHF ethyl acetate extract showed no activity against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

  8. Controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle by Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Natália Berne; de Castro, Leonardo Mortagua; de Almeida Capella, Gabriela; Motta, Tairan Ourique; de Souza Stori de Lara, Ana Paula; de Moura, Micaele Quintana; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we tested the in vitro and in vivo larvicidal activity of Bacillus species against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle, and their viability in the presence of anthelmintics. For in vitro tests, cattle feces naturally infected with trichostrongylides were incubated with spore suspensions of Bacillus circulans (Bcir), B. thuringiensis var. osvaldocruzi (Bto), B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) or B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Subsequently, residual larvae were counted and identified. All of the Bacillus species showed 60% or more larvicidal effects. Bcir and Bti were selected to be incubated with anthelmintics (moxidectin, nitroxynil and levamisole), and after 24, 72, and 144h, their viability was evaluated. Bti showed highest drug resistance, maintaining a concentration of 1×10 7 CFU/mL. Based on this result, Bti was selected for in vivo tests on calves naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The calves were dived into four groups: Group 1, Bti suspension of ∼1×10 9 CFU orally administered; Group 2, Bti suspension of ∼1×10 9 CFU orally administered with levamisole (subcutaneously, 150mg); Group 3, only levamisole (subcutaneously, 150mg), and Group 4 untreated. Then 24 and 48h after treatment, larvae numbers were counted. We observed a reduction of 84%, 100%, and 100% after 48h of treatment, respectively, for Groups 1, 2 and 3 treatments in comparison with the untreated. The tested Bacillus species showed larvicidal activity against bovine trichostrongylides, and its association with anthelmintics. It may serve as a promising integrated alternative for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Microsporidia are natural intracellular parasites of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troemel, Emily R; Félix, Marie-Anne; Whiteman, Noah K; Barrière, Antoine; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2008-12-09

    For decades the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been an important model system for biology, but little is known about its natural ecology. Recently, C. elegans has become the focus of studies of innate immunity and several pathogens have been shown to cause lethal intestinal infections in C. elegans. However none of these pathogens has been shown to invade nematode intestinal cells, and no pathogen has been isolated from wild-caught C. elegans. Here we describe an intracellular pathogen isolated from wild-caught C. elegans that we show is a new species of microsporidia. Microsporidia comprise a large class of eukaryotic intracellular parasites that are medically and agriculturally important, but poorly understood. We show that microsporidian infection of the C. elegans intestine proceeds through distinct stages and is transmitted horizontally. Disruption of a conserved cytoskeletal structure in the intestine called the terminal web correlates with the release of microsporidian spores from infected cells, and appears to be part of a novel mechanism by which intracellular pathogens exit from infected cells. Unlike in bacterial intestinal infections, the p38 MAPK and insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathways do not appear to play substantial roles in resistance to microsporidian infection in C. elegans. We found microsporidia in multiple wild-caught isolates of Caenorhabditis nematodes from diverse geographic locations. These results indicate that microsporidia are common parasites of C. elegans in the wild. In addition, the interaction between C. elegans and its natural microsporidian parasites provides a system in which to dissect intracellular intestinal infection in vivo and insight into the diversity of pathogenic mechanisms used by intracellular microbes.

  10. Cadmium toxicity in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popham, J.D.; Webster, J.M.

    1979-10-01

    The effect of cadmium on the fecundity, growth, and fine structure of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was studied. High concentrations of cadmium significantly decreased the fecundity and growth of these organisms. Electron microscopy showed that cadmium modifies the structure of the mitochondria in the esophagus and intestine, causes the formation of inclusion bodies in the nucleus of esophageal cells, and alters the morphology of cytosomes in the intestinal cells. The results suggest that the decreased fecundity and growth of cadmium-exposed C. elegans may be due to cadmium interfering with nutrient uptake or assimilation or both.

  11. Evaluation the effect of albendazole against nematodes in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Al-Farwachi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Six sheep farms in Mosul city, Iraq randomly selected, were surveyed for gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to Albendazole. On each of 6 sheep farms, 20 lambs were randomly distributed into two equal groups untreated control group, and albendazole (benzimidazole group (10 mg/kg BW. Faecal egg counts and larval cultures were done at 7, 14, and 21 days after anthelmintic treatment. Resistance was apparent for albendazole on 4 farms out of 6 (66.7%. Post-treatment larval cultures indicated: Strongyloides papillosus, Marshalligia marshalli, Nematodirus spathiger and Haemonchus contortus.

  12. Anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematodes in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Louis C

    2014-07-30

    The first documented case of macrocyclic lactone resistance in gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of cattle was seen in the US approximately 10 years ago. Since that time the increase incidence of anthelmintic resistance has continued at an alarming rate. Currently parasites of the genera Cooperia and/or Haemonchus resistant to generic or brand-name macrocyclic lactones have be demonstrated in more than half of all operations examined. Both of these parasite genera are capable of causing economic losses by decreasing food intake and subsequently animal productivity. Currently, there are no easy and quick means to detect anthelmintic resistant GI nematodes. Definitive identification requires killing of cattle. The most commonly used field detection method is the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). This method can be adapted for use as a screening agent for Veterinarians and producers to identify less than desired clearance of the parasites after anthelmintic treatment. Further studies can then define the reasons for persistence of the egg counts. The appearance of anthelmintic resistance is largely due to the development of very effective nematode control programs that have significantly improved the productivity of the US cattle industry, but at the same time has placed a high level of selective pressure on the parasite genome. The challenges ahead include the development of programs that control the anthelmintic resistant nematodes but at the same time result in more sustainable parasite control. The goal is to maintain high levels of productivity but to exert less selective pressures on the parasites. One of the most effective means to slow the development of drug resistance is through the simultaneous use of multiple classes of anthelmintics, each of which has a different mode of action. Reduction of the selective pressure on the parasites can be attained through a more targeted approach to drug treatments where the producer's needs are met by selective

  13. Role of nematodes as bioindicators in marine and freshwater habitats

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Geetanjali; Malhotra, S.K.; Ansari, Z.A.; Chatterji, A.

    of frequency is less than 6000 Hz. These differences may be con - si dered as an indication of geographical variations and the possibility of the existence of a species complex. 1. Daniels, R. J. R., Cobra , 2001, 46 , in press. 2.../l and acidity, 3.5 ? 8.0 mg/l). On the con trary, in the nematode species infested M. tengra in river Ganges Sali - nity, 6.54 ppt; hardness, 115 ? 130 mg/l; DO, 7.4 ? 8.0 mg/l; phosphates 9 , 0.25 ? 0.65 mg/l; nitrates, < 50.0 mg/l; nitrit es...

  14. Treatment of Nematodes with Ozone Gas: A Sustainable Alternative to Nematicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msayleb, Nahed; Ibrahim, Saiid

    This study tests Ozone as a Nematicides' alternative. Nematode-infected soil samples were treated with ascending doses of O3 by submerging the outlet of an "MB1000 Ozone Generator" in the 40 ml samples; then to test the O3 nematicidal effect by gas fumigation, Ozone gas was released into a sealed bag containing 80 g of each of the 6 nematode-infected soil samples with ascending doses and a repetition of each. With water-ozonation, 900 mg O3 were needed to kill 100% of nematodes, and the O3-Nematodes LD50 was identified by 420 mg. With the second experiment, O3 soil fumigation for 50 minutes at a dose of 1,125 mg in an air volume of 5 litres, were needed to control 95% of living nematodes.

  15. The impact of whale falls on nematode abundance in the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, Nicola J.; Lambshead, P. John D.; Ferrero, Timothy J.; Smith, Craig R.

    2004-05-01

    Abundance of nematode assemblages from the sediment surrounding an experimentally implanted whale carcass in the Santa Cruz Basin were investigated at 1.5 and 18 months after placement. Samples were taken at 0, 1, 3, 9 and 30 m distance away from the carcass. Abundance is positively correlated with distance from the carcass out to at least 30 m. Analyses of nematode abundance at 18 months after implantation showed a non-linear inverse pattern to that of the macrofauna implying that enhanced macrofaunal activity immediately around the carcass was decreasing nematode abundance through predation or competition. The increased nematode abundance at 30 m after 18 months may be a response to organic enrichment from the whale fall occurring where macrofaunal abundance no longer limits nematode densities.

  16. THE PREVALENCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF BALI CATTLE BREEDERS IN NUSA PENIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Agus Trisna Kusuma Antara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nusa Penida is a pure breeding area of bali cattle, in which the cattle are mainly kept in conventional maintenance system and potentially infected by parasite, especially gastrointestinal nematodes. This study aims were to determine the prevalence and type of gastrointestinal nematodes in bali cattle breeders in Nusa Penida. Fecal samples were taken from 50 bali cattle breeders kept in cages (simantri and another 50 samples were from cattle not kept in cage. The floating method was used for morphological examination and prevalence, the data was analyzed with descriptive analysis. The results showed, the prevalence of bovine gastrointestinal nematodes in Nusa Penida was 25%. The prevalence of nematode infection in bali cattle that kept cages was lower compared to the cattle that were not kept in cage. Strongyloides papillosus and Capillaria bovis were the gastrointestinal nematodes found in the infected cattle.

  17. Disruption of prefoldin-2 protein synthesis in root-knot nematodes via host-mediated gene silencing efficiently reduces nematode numbers and thus protects plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjappala, Hemavathi; Chung, Ha Young; Sim, Joon-Soo; Choi, Inchan; Hahn, Bum-Soo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of down-regulating endogeneous prefoldin-2 root-knot nematode transcripts by expressing dsRNA with sequence identity to the nematode gene in tobacco roots under the influence of strong Arabidopsis ubiquitin (UBQ1) promoter. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are sedentary endoparasites infecting a wide range of plant species. They parasitise the root system, thereby disrupting water and nutrient uptake and causing major reductions in crop yields. The most reliable means of controlling RKNs is via the use of soil fumigants such as methyl bromide. With the emergence of RNA interference (RNAi) technology, which permits host-mediated nematode gene silencing, a new strategy to control plant pathogens has become available. In the present study, we investigated host-induced RNAi gene silencing of prefoldin-2 in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana. Reductions in prefoldin-2 mRNA transcript levels were observed when nematodes were soaked in a dsRNA solution in vitro. Furthermore, nematode reproduction was suppressed in RNAi transgenic lines, as evident by reductions in the numbers of root knots (by 34-60 % in independent RNAi lines) and egg masses (by 33-58 %). Endogenous expression of prefoldin-2, analysed via real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, revealed that the gene was strongly expressed in the pre-parasitic J2 stage. Our observations demonstrate the relevance and potential importance of targeting the prefoldin gene during the nematode life cycle. The work also suggests that further improvements in silencing efficiency in economically important crops can be accomplished using RNAi directed against plant-parasitic nematodes.

  18. PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES ON STONE FRUITS AND CITRUS IN LEBANON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said K. Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Said K., Ibrahim Azar, Christian Naser, Badran Akikki and Ludmilla Ibrahim. 2016. Plant-parasitic nematodes on stone fruits and citrus in Lebanon. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(1: 9-24. This study aimed to determine the occurrence, distribution of plant parasitic nematodes on stone fruits in Lebanon and to determine the effect of plant extracts on the mortality of several nematode species. A total of 308 soil samples were collected from five different crops. Almost all surveyed areas showed infection with nematodes. The soil infestation rate with nematodes in collected soil samples from all 10 surveyed crops ranged from 66.6 to 100%. Eighteen out of 308 soil samples were free of nematodes (5.8%. All the collected soil samples from nectarine and plum orchards were infested with nematodes (100%, followed by citrus (97.6%, apple (88.7%, pear and quince (85.7%, and cherry (81.4%. The lowest infection (66.6% was detected on almond and apricot. The level of infestation varied from one area to another and ranged between 0.1 and 28 nematodes per 1 g of soil, with the highest number obtained on cherry. Several genera were identified based on morphological characters including: root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., Tylenchulus, Xiphinema, Rotylenchus, Pratylenchus, and Longidorus. Tylenchulus and Radopholus spp. were the most common on citrus trees, whereas Pratylechus and Meloidogyne spp. were detected almost in all the samples collected from all the crops. Six chopped aromatic plants were tested in pot experiments to control nematodes population densities. The results revealed that carbofuran (nematicide was the most effective (88.48% in comparison to the plant materials. Allium sativum gave the highest control (76.52% followed by Tageta patula (72.0%, Cucurbita maxima (71.84% and Inula viscosa (63.96%. Origanum syriacum (55.04% and Thymus (53.72% were less effective in comparison to the rest of tested plant materials.

  19. Generalists at the interface: Nematode transmission between wild and domestic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine G. Walker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitic nematode species are generalists capable of infecting multiple host species. The complex life cycle of nematodes, involving partial development outside of the host, facilitates transmission of these parasites between host species even when there is no direct contact between hosts. Infective nematode larvae persist in the environment, and where grazing or water sources are shared ingestion of parasite larvae deposited by different host species is likely. In this paper we examine the extent to which nematode parasite species have been observed in sympatric wild and domestic ungulates. First, using existing host–parasite databases, we describe expected overlap of 412 nematode species between 76 wild and 8 domestic ungulate host species. Our results indicate that host-specific parasites make up less than half of the nematode parasites infecting any particular ungulate host species. For wild host species, between 14% (for common warthog and 76% (for mouflon of parasitic nematode species are shared with domestic species. For domestic host species, between 42% (for horse and 77% (for llamas/alpacas of parasitic nematode species are shared with wild species. We also present an index of liability to describe the risk of cross-boundary parasites to each host species. We then examine specific examples from the literature in which transmission of nematode parasites between domestic and wild ungulates is described. However, there are many limitations in the existing data due to geographical bias and certain host species being studied more frequently than others. Although we demonstrate that many species of parasitic nematode are found in both wild and domestic hosts, little work has been done to demonstrate whether transmission is occurring between species or whether similar strains circulate separately. Additional research on cross-species transmission, including the use of models and of genetic methods to define strains, will provide

  20. Generalists at the interface: Nematode transmission between wild and domestic ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Josephine G; Morgan, Eric R

    2014-12-01

    Many parasitic nematode species are generalists capable of infecting multiple host species. The complex life cycle of nematodes, involving partial development outside of the host, facilitates transmission of these parasites between host species even when there is no direct contact between hosts. Infective nematode larvae persist in the environment, and where grazing or water sources are shared ingestion of parasite larvae deposited by different host species is likely. In this paper we examine the extent to which nematode parasite species have been observed in sympatric wild and domestic ungulates. First, using existing host-parasite databases, we describe expected overlap of 412 nematode species between 76 wild and 8 domestic ungulate host species. Our results indicate that host-specific parasites make up less than half of the nematode parasites infecting any particular ungulate host species. For wild host species, between 14% (for common warthog) and 76% (for mouflon) of parasitic nematode species are shared with domestic species. For domestic host species, between 42% (for horse) and 77% (for llamas/alpacas) of parasitic nematode species are shared with wild species. We also present an index of liability to describe the risk of cross-boundary parasites to each host species. We then examine specific examples from the literature in which transmission of nematode parasites between domestic and wild ungulates is described. However, there are many limitations in the existing data due to geographical bias and certain host species being studied more frequently than others. Although we demonstrate that many species of parasitic nematode are found in both wild and domestic hosts, little work has been done to demonstrate whether transmission is occurring between species or whether similar strains circulate separately. Additional research on cross-species transmission, including the use of models and of genetic methods to define strains, will provide evidence to answer this

  1. A Multifaceted Mass Spectrometric Method to Probe Feeding Related Neuropeptide Changes in Callinectes sapidus and Carcinus maenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhuo; DeLaney, Kellen; Hui, Limei; Wang, Junhua; Sturm, Robert M.; Li, Lingjun

    2018-02-01

    Food intake is regulated by various neuromodulators, including numerous neuropeptides. However, it remains elusive at the molecular and cellular level as to how these important chemicals regulate internal processes and which regions of the neuronal organs are responsible for regulating the behavior. Here we report a comparative neuropeptidomic analysis of the brain and pericardial organ (PO) in response to feeding in two well-studied crustacean physiology model organisms, Callinectes sapidus and Carcinus maenas, using mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. A multifaceted MS-based approach has been developed to obtain complementary information on the expression changes of a large array of neuropeptides in the brain and PO. The method employs stable isotope labeling of brain and PO extracts for relative MS quantitation, capillary electrophoresis (CE)-MS for fractionation and high-specificity analysis, and mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) for in-situ molecular mapping of peptides. A number of neuropeptides, including RFamides, B-type allatostatins (AST-B), RYamides, and orcokinins exhibit significant changes in abundance after feeding in this investigation. Peptides from the AST-B family found in PO tissue were shown to have both altered expression and localization changes after feeding, indicating that they may be a class of vital neuropeptide regulators involved in feeding behavior. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. FRPR-4 Is a G-Protein Coupled Neuropeptide Receptor That Regulates Behavioral Quiescence and Posture in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Nelson

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides signal through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs to regulate a broad array of animal behaviors and physiological processes. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes approximately 100 predicted neuropeptide receptor GPCRs, but in vivo roles for only a few have been identified. We describe here a role for the GPCR FRPR-4 in the regulation of behavioral quiescence and locomotive posture. FRPR-4 is activated in cell culture by several neuropeptides with an amidated isoleucine-arginine-phenylalanine (IRF motif or an amidated valine-arginine-phenylalanine (VRF motif at their carboxy termini, including those encoded by the gene flp-13. Loss of frpr-4 function results in a minor feeding quiescence defect after heat-induced cellular stress. Overexpression of frpr-4 induces quiescence of locomotion and feeding as well as an exaggerated body bend posture. The exaggerated body bend posture requires the gene flp-13. While frpr-4 is expressed broadly, selective overexpression of frpr-4 in the proprioceptive DVA neurons results in exaggerated body bends that require flp-13 in the ALA neuron. Our results suggest that FLP-13 and other neuropeptides signal through FRPR-4 and other receptors to regulate locomotion posture and behavioral quiescence.

  3. Effects of cannabinoids on neuropeptide Y and β-endorphin expression in the rat hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkali-Kassemi, Lamiae; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Magoul, Rabia; Merroun, Ikram; Lopez-Jurado, Maria; Errami, Mohammed

    2011-02-01

    The control of appetite and satiety is extremely complex and involves a balance between neurotransmitters and neuropeptides to stimulate and/or inhibit feeding behaviour. The effect of cannabinoids on food intake is well established, but little is known about the mechanism of action underlying their activity. In the present report, the effect of pharmacological manipulation of the cannabinoid receptor on the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides is investigated. We used an immunohistochemical approach to examine the effect of intracerebroventricular administration of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 and the inverse agonist AM251 on neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the β-endorphin (β-end) neuronal hypothalamic systems. Double immunohistochemistry (c-fos/β-end) was used to assess the number of β-end neurons activated by the cannabinoid agonist. The present results showed that 1 μg WIN 55,212-2 increases β-end immunoreactivity within the arcuate nucleus while no significant changes were noted in the NPY-immunoreactive nerve fibres network in comparison to the control group. Injection of 1 μg AM251 decreases both NPY and β-end immunoreactivity within the arcuate nucleus. The number of β-end neurons exhibiting c-fos increased significantly in WIN 55,212-2 compared with the control group. These results suggest that cannabinoids affect the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides, notably the NPY and β-end systems, which may have implications in the orexigenic action of cannabinoids.

  4. Excitatory action of the native neuropeptide antho-rfamide on muscles in the pennatulid Renilla köllikeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anctil, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1989-01-01

    1. Antho-RFamide (pGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-amide), a neuropeptide recently isolated from the sea pansy Renilla köllikeri induced sustained (tonic) contractions in the rachis and peduncle of the colony, and in the individual autozooid polyps. 2. The threshold concentration for this effect was 5 nM in summ...

  5. Y1 receptors for neuropeptide Y are coupled to mobilization of intracellular calcium and inhibition of adenylate cyclase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakerlund, L; Gether, U; Fuhlendorff, J

    1990-01-01

    Two types of binding sites have previously been described for neuropeptide Y (NPY), called Y1 and Y2 receptors. The intracellular events following Y1 receptor activation was studied in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC. Both NPY and the specific Y1 receptor ligand, [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY, caused...

  6. Development of a human vasopressin V-1a-receptor antagonist from an evolutionary-related insect neuropeptide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Di Giglio, M. G.; Muttenthaler, M.; Harpsoe, K.; Liutkeviciute, Z.; Keov, P.; Eder, T.; Rattei, T.; Arrowsmith, S.; Wray, S.; Marek, Aleš; Elbert, Tomáš; Alewood, P. F.; Gloriam, D. E.; Gruber, C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Feb 1 (2017), č. článku 41002. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : neuropeptide * inotocin * V1aR-antagonist Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/srep41002

  7. The release of a pheromonotropic neuropeptide, PBAN, in the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, exhibits a circadian rhythm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závodská, Radka; von Wowern, G.; Löfstedt, C.; Rosén, W. Q.; Šauman, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2009), s. 435-440 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : pheromone biosynthesis activating * neuropeptide (PBAN) * circadian rhythm Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2009

  8. Neuropeptide signaling sequences identified by pyrosequencing of the American dog tick synganglion transcriptome during blood feeding and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Kevin V; Khalil, Sayed M S; Ross, E; Grozinger, Christina M; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Michael Roe, R

    2010-01-01

    Ticks are important vectors of numerous pathogens that impact human and animal health. The tick central nervous system represents an understudied area in tick biology and no tick synganglion-specific transcriptome has been described to date. Here we characterize whole or partial cDNA sequences of fourteen putative neuropeptides (allatostatin, insulin-like peptide, ion-transport peptide, sulfakinin, bursicon alpha/beta, eclosion hormone, glycoprotein hormone alpha/beta, corazonin, four orcokinins) and five neuropeptide receptors (gonadotropin receptor, leucokinin-like receptor, sulfakinin receptor, calcitonin receptor, pyrokinin receptor) translated from cDNA synthesized from the synganglion of unfed, partially fed and replete female American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis. Their homology to the same neuropeptides in other taxa is discussed. Many of these neuropeptides such as an allatostatin, insulin-like peptide, eclosion hormone, bursicon alpha and beta and glycoprotein hormone alpha and beta have not been previously described in the Chelicerata. An insulin-receptor substrate protein was also found indicating that an insulin signaling network is present in ticks. A putative type-2 proprotein processing convertase was also sequenced that may be involved in cleavage at monobasic and dibasic endoproteolytic cleavage sites in prohormones. The possible physiological role of the proteins discovered in adult tick blood feeding and reproduction will be discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neuropeptide changes and neuroactive amino acids in CSF from humans and sheep with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs, Batten disease).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay, G.W.; Verbeek, M.M.; Furlong, J.M.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Palmer, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    Anomalies in neuropeptides and neuroactive amino acids have been postulated to play a role in neurodegeneration in a variety of diseases including the inherited neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs, Batten disease). These are often indicated by concentration changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

  10. Three different prohormones yield a variety of Hydra-RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2) neuropeptides in Hydra magnipapillata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darmer, D; Hauser, F; Nothacker, H P

    1998-01-01

    the head and foot regions of Hydra, whereas the genes coding for preprohormones B and C are specifically expressed in neurons of different regions of the head. All of this shows that neuropeptide biosynthesis in the primitive metazoan Hydra is already rather complex. Udgivelsesdato: 1998-Jun-1...

  11. Energy Balance Regulating Neuropeptides Are Expressed through Pregnancy and Regulated by Interleukin-6 Deficiency in Mouse Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pazos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The placenta produces a number of signaling molecules including metabolic and reproductive hormones as well as several inflammatory mediators. Among them, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, a well-known immune and metabolic regulator, acts peripherally modulating metabolic function and centrally increasing energy expenditure and reducing body fat. IL-6 interacts with key hypothalamic neuropeptidergic systems controlling energy homeostasis such as those producing the orexigenic/anabolic: neuropeptide Y (NPY and agouti-related peptide (AgRP and anorectic/catabolic neuropeptides: proopiomelanocortin (POMC and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART. Human and rat placenta have been identified as source of these neuropeptides, but their expression and regulation in murine placental tissues remain unknown. Therefore, placental mRNA levels of IL-6, NPY, AgRP, POMC, and CART at different pregnancy stages (gestational days 13, 15, and 18 were analyzed by real time PCR, as were the effect of IL-6 deficiency (IL-6 knockout mice on their placental expression. Our results showed that placenta-derived neuropeptides were regulated by gestational age and IL-6 throughout the second half of mouse pregnancy. These data suggest that IL-6 may participate in the fine tune control of energy balance during pregnancy by extending its action as a metabolic signal to the main organ at the fetomaternal interface: the placenta.

  12. Energy Balance Regulating Neuropeptides Are Expressed through Pregnancy and Regulated by Interleukin-6 Deficiency in Mouse Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Patricia; Lima, Luis; Diéguez, Carlos; García, María C.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta produces a number of signaling molecules including metabolic and reproductive hormones as well as several inflammatory mediators. Among them, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a well-known immune and metabolic regulator, acts peripherally modulating metabolic function and centrally increasing energy expenditure and reducing body fat. IL-6 interacts with key hypothalamic neuropeptidergic systems controlling energy homeostasis such as those producing the orexigenic/anabolic: neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and anorectic/catabolic neuropeptides: proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART). Human and rat placenta have been identified as source of these neuropeptides, but their expression and regulation in murine placental tissues remain unknown. Therefore, placental mRNA levels of IL-6, NPY, AgRP, POMC, and CART at different pregnancy stages (gestational days 13, 15, and 18) were analyzed by real time PCR, as were the effect of IL-6 deficiency (IL-6 knockout mice) on their placental expression. Our results showed that placenta-derived neuropeptides were regulated by gestational age and IL-6 throughout the second half of mouse pregnancy. These data suggest that IL-6 may participate in the fine tune control of energy balance during pregnancy by extending its action as a metabolic signal to the main organ at the fetomaternal interface: the placenta. PMID:24744782

  13. Energy Balance Regulating Neuropeptides Are Expressed through Pregnancy and Regulated by Interleukin-6 Deficiency in Mouse Placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Patricia; Lima, Luis; Diéguez, Carlos; García, María C

    2014-01-01

    The placenta produces a number of signaling molecules including metabolic and reproductive hormones as well as several inflammatory mediators. Among them, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a well-known immune and metabolic regulator, acts peripherally modulating metabolic function and centrally increasing energy expenditure and reducing body fat. IL-6 interacts with key hypothalamic neuropeptidergic systems controlling energy homeostasis such as those producing the orexigenic/anabolic: neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and anorectic/catabolic neuropeptides: proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART). Human and rat placenta have been identified as source of these neuropeptides, but their expression and regulation in murine placental tissues remain unknown. Therefore, placental mRNA levels of IL-6, NPY, AgRP, POMC, and CART at different pregnancy stages (gestational days 13, 15, and 18) were analyzed by real time PCR, as were the effect of IL-6 deficiency (IL-6 knockout mice) on their placental expression. Our results showed that placenta-derived neuropeptides were regulated by gestational age and IL-6 throughout the second half of mouse pregnancy. These data suggest that IL-6 may participate in the fine tune control of energy balance during pregnancy by extending its action as a metabolic signal to the main organ at the fetomaternal interface: the placenta.

  14. Study of the Neuropeptide Function in Parkinson’s Disease Using the 6-Hydroxydopamine Model of Experimental Hemiparkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Banegas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease, one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by unilateral brain dopamine damage in its initial stages, remains unknown in many respects. It is especially necessary to improve the early diagnosis and, in order to improve the treatment, to go thoroughly into the knowledge of its pathophysiology. To do this, it is essential to perform studies in appropriate animal models of the disease. One of those is generated by the unilateral intracerebral administration of the neurotoxic 6-hydroxydopamine that produces clear asymmetrical cerebral dopamine depletion. Currently the neuronal coexistence of several neurotransmitters is obvious. Particularly interesting is the coexistence of dopamine with various neuropeptides. If the neuronal content of dopamine is asymmetrically altered in the early stages of the Parkinson’s disease, the coexisting neuropeptides may also be asymmetrically altered. Therefore, their study is important to appropriately understand the pathogenesis of the Parkinson’s disease. The function of the neuropeptides can be studied through their metabolism by neuropeptidases whose activity reflects the functional status of their endogenous substrates as well as the one of the peptides resulting from their hydrolysis. Here we review the 6-hydroxydopamine model of experimental hemiparkinsonism as an appropriate model to study the initial asymmetric stages of the disease. In particular, we analyze the consequences of unilateral brain dopamine depletions on the functionality of brain neuropeptides through the study of the activity of cerebral neuropeptidases.

  15. Time-dependent effects of neuropeptide Y infusion in the paraventricular hypothalamus on ingestive and associated behaviors in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, G; Strubbe, JH

    In this study the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the daily regulation of feeding, drinking, locomotor activity, and nestbox occupation was investigated. These behaviors were recorded during and after bilateral infusion of NPY into the PVN of

  16. Functional Characterization of Paralogous Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Type and Corazonin-Type Neuropeptides in an Echinoderm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Tian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Homologs of the vertebrate neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH have been identified in invertebrates, including the insect neuropeptide corazonin (CRZ. Recently, we reported the discovery of GnRH-type and CRZ-type signaling systems in an echinoderm, the starfish Asterias rubens, demonstrating that the evolutionary origin of paralogous GnRH-type and CRZ-type neuropeptides can be traced back to the common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes. Here, we have investigated the physiological roles of the GnRH-type (ArGnRH and the CRZ-type (ArCRZ neuropeptides in A. rubens, using mRNA in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and in vitro pharmacology. ArGnRH precursor (ArGnRHP-expressing cells and ArGnRH-immunoreactive cells and/or processes are present in the radial nerve cords, circumoral nerve ring, digestive system (e.g., cardiac stomach and pyloric stomach, body wall-associated muscle (apical muscle, and appendages (tube feet, terminal tentacle. The general distribution of ArCRZ precursor (ArCRZP-expressing cells is similar to that of ArGnRHP, but with specific local differences. For example, cells expressing ArGnRHP are present in both the ectoneural and hyponeural regions of the radial nerve cords and circumoral nerve ring, whereas cells expressing ArCRZP were only observed in the ectoneural region. In vitro pharmacological experiments revealed that both ArGnRH and ArCRZ cause contraction of cardiac stomach, apical muscle, and tube foot preparations. However, ArGnRH was more potent/effective than ArCRZ as a contractant of the cardiac stomach, whereas ArCRZ was more potent/effective than ArGnRH as a contractant of the apical muscle. These findings demonstrate that both ArGnRH and ArCRZ are myoexcitatory neuropeptides in starfish, but differences in their expression patterns and pharmacological activities are indicative of distinct physiological roles. This is the first study to investigate the physiological roles of both Gn

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans: a simple nematode infection model for Penicillium marneffei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Huang

    Full Text Available Penicillium marneffei, one of the most important thermal dimorphic fungi, is a severe threat to the life of immunocompromised patients. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of P. marneffei remain largely unknown. In this work, we developed a model host by using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the virulence of P. marneffei. Using two P. marneffei clinical isolate strains 570 and 486, we revealed that in both liquid and solid media, the ingestion of live P. marneffei was lethal to C. elegans (P<0.001. Meanwhile, our results showed that the strain 570, which can produce red pigment, had stronger pathogenicity in C. elegans than the strain 486, which can't produce red pigment (P<0.001. Microscopy showed the formation of red pigment and hyphae within C. elegans after incubation with P. marneffei for 4 h, which are supposed to be two contributors in nematodes killing. In addition, we used C. elegans as an in vivo model to evaluate different antifungal agents against P. marneffei, and found that antifungal agents including amphotericin B, terbinafine, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole successfully prolonged the survival of nematodesinfected by P. marneffei. Overall, this alternative model host can provide us an easy tool to study the virulence of P. marneffei and screen antifungal agents.

  18. Sugarcane straw and the populations of pests and nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The green cane harvesting represented a significant change in sugarcane ecosystem due to the presence of straw left on the soil and to the absence of fire. These two factors may affect the populations of pests and their natural enemies. Among the pests benefit from the green cane harvesting stand out the spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata, the curculionid Sphenophorus levis and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. In areas of green cane harvesting, the population of these species grew faster than in areas of burnt cane. On the other hand, there are virtually no records of attacks by lesser cornstalk borers in areas of green cane harvesting. Populations of plant parasitic nematodes and the beetles Migdolus fryanus, very important pests of sugarcane, were apparently not affected by the green cane harvesting. Despite the absence of more consistent information, it appears that populations of ants and the giant borer Telchin licus can increase in green cane areas, due primarily to the difficulty of pest control. The partial or total removal of straw from the field represents an additional change to the ecosystem that could alter the status of pests and nematodes. It is likely that spittlebug, the curculionid S. levis and sugarcane borer populations decrease if a portion of the straw is removed from the field. However, the pest populations in areas where the straw is collected will not return to their original conditions at the time of burnt cane harvesting because the absence of fire will be maintained.

  19. Rogue sperm indicate sexually antagonistic coevolution in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E Ellis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intense reproductive competition often continues long after animals finish mating. In many species, sperm from one male compete with those from others to find and fertilize oocytes. Since this competition occurs inside the female reproductive tract, she often influences the outcome through physical or chemical factors, leading to cryptic female choice. Finally, traits that help males compete with each other are sometimes harmful to females, and female countermeasures may thwart the interests of males, which can lead to an arms race between the sexes known as sexually antagonistic coevolution. New studies from Caenorhabditis nematodes suggest that males compete with each other by producing sperm that migrate aggressively and that these sperm may be more likely to win access to oocytes. However, one byproduct of this competition appears to be an increased probability that these sperm will go astray, invading the ovary, prematurely activating oocytes, and sometimes crossing basement membranes and leaving the gonad altogether. These harmful effects are sometimes observed in crosses between animals of the same species but are most easily detected in interspecies crosses, leading to dramatically lowered fitness, presumably because the competitiveness of the sperm and the associated female countermeasures are not precisely matched. This mismatch is most obvious in crosses involving individuals from androdioecious species (which have both hermaphrodites and males, as predicted by the lower levels of sperm competition these species experience. These results suggest a striking example of sexually antagonistic coevolution and dramatically expand the value of nematodes as a laboratory system for studying postcopulatory interactions.

  20. Observations on some nematodes parasitic in freshwater fishes in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Scholz, T

    1991-01-01

    In 1989, samples of some freshwater fishes collected in Vientiane Province (R. Mekong basin) in Laos were examined for helminths. This material comprised 11 species of parasitic nematodes (7 adults and 4 larvae), including 3 species new to science: Camallanus (Camallanus) hampalae sp. n. from Hampala macrolepidota, Procamallanus (Punctocamallanus) punctatus sp. n. from Mystus rhegma and Mystus sp., and Rhabdochona (Globochona) equispiculata sp. n. from Hampala macrolepidota and H. dispar. Zeylanema Yeh, 1960 is considered a subgenus of the genus Camallanus, Dentocamallanus subgen. n. (type species C. (D.) sweeti (Moorthy, 1937)) is proposed for the species of Paracamallanus with teeth in the buccal capsule, and Punctocamallanus subgen. n. (type species P. (P.) punctatus sp. n.) for the species of Procamallanus with the buccal capsule ornamented with punctations. The name Rhabdochona wangi nom. nov. is proposed for R. bagarii Wang et Guo, 1983 (a homonym to R. bagarii Gupta et Srivastava, 1982) and Camallanus gomtii Gupta et Verma, 1978 is newly synonymized with Neocamallanus ophiocephali (Pearse, 1933). All the nematodes are recorded from Laos for the first time. The parasites are briefly described and illustrated and some problems concerning their taxonomy and geographical distribution are discussed.

  1. 959 Nematode Genomes: a semantic wiki for coordinating sequencing projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujai; Schiffer, Philipp H; Blaxter, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Genome sequencing has been democratized by second-generation technologies, and even small labs can sequence metazoan genomes now. In this article, we describe '959 Nematode Genomes'--a community-curated semantic wiki to coordinate the sequencing efforts of individual labs to collectively sequence 959 genomes spanning the phylum Nematoda. The main goal of the wiki is to track sequencing projects that have been proposed, are in progress, or have been completed. Wiki pages for species and strains are linked to pages for people and organizations, using machine- and human-readable metadata that users can query to see the status of their favourite worm. The site is based on the same platform that runs Wikipedia, with semantic extensions that allow the underlying taxonomy and data storage models to be maintained and updated with ease compared with a conventional database-driven web site. The wiki also provides a way to track and share preliminary data if those data are not polished enough to be submitted to the official sequence repositories. In just over a year, this wiki has already fostered new international collaborations and attracted newcomers to the enthusiastic community of nematode genomicists. www.nematodegenomes.org.

  2. Neuropeptide Y, substance P, and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulate human osteoblast osteogenic activity by enhancing gap junction intercellular communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z. [The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, The Provincial Key Laboratory for Orthopedic Biomechanics of Hebei, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province (China)

    2015-02-13

    Bone homeostasis seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle “cross talk” between the nervous system and “osteo-neuromediators” that control bone remodeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interactions between neuropeptides and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) on human osteoblasts. We also investigated the effects of neuropeptides and hBMP2 on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Osteoblasts were treated with neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), or hBMP2 at three concentrations. At various intervals after treatment, cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. In addition, cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin were determined by colorimetric assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The effects of NPY, SP and hBMP on GJIC were determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The viability of cells treated with neuropeptides and hBMP2 increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, but was inversely associated with the concentration of the treatments. ALP activity and osteocalcin were both reduced in osteoblasts exposed to the combination of neuropeptides and hBMP2. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly increased by the neuropeptides and hBMP2. These results suggest that osteoblast activity is increased by neuropeptides and hBMP2 through increased GJIC. Identification of the GJIC-mediated signal transduction capable of modulating the cellular activities of bone cells represents a novel approach to studying the biology of skeletal innervation.

  3. Convergent signalling in the action of integrins, neuropeptides, growth factors and oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozengurt, E

    1995-01-01

    These findings have important implications for signal transduction and cell regulation. Most obviously, they suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of a novel type of tyrosine kinase p125FAK is a point of convergence in the action of integrins, oncogenic forms of pp60src, mitogenic neuropeptides and growth factors (Fig. 3). One inference is that the signal transduction pathways initiated by these diverse groups of molecules have, at least in part, similar consequences for cellular function. The notion of convergence is reinforced by the striking similarity in the overall pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation produced through these different pathways. It is tempting to speculate that p125FAK, paxillin and p130 are components in a common programme of phosphorylation events stimulated by integrins, mitogenic neuropeptides and growth factors. The localization of p125FAK to focal adhesions is clearly consistent with a role for this protein as a junction point in the transduction of signals that regulate cell substrate adhesion and ultimately cell motility and cell shape, as suggested in Fig. 3. The existence of distinct pathways leading to p125FAK phosphorylation raises the possibility of synergistic interactions between integrins and G protein coupled receptors. In fact, integrin mediated p125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation appears to be mediated by a PKC dependent pathway (Vuori and Ruoslathi, 1993). By contrast, bombesin and LPA induce tyrosine phosphorylation of p125FAK and paxillin through a PKC independent pathway (Sinnett-Smith et al, 1993; Zachary et al, 1993; Seufferlein and Rozengurt, 1994). It is possible that tyrosine phosphorylation of p125FAK by bombesin, LPA and pp60v-src bypasses and perhaps mimics the phosphorylation caused by integrin activation. Further experimental work will be required to elucidate whether integrins and neuropeptides increase the autophosphorylation of Tyr-397 in p125FAK, as has been recently demonstrated in src-transformed cells

  4. Marked changes in neuropeptide expression accompany broadcast spawnings in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York Patrick S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A huge diversity of marine species reproduce by synchronously spawning their gametes into the water column. Although this species-specific event typically occurs in a particular season, the precise time and day of spawning often can not be predicted. There is little understanding of how the environment (e.g. water temperature, day length, tidal and lunar cycle regulates a population’s reproductive physiology to synchronise a spawning event. The Indo-Pacific tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, has a highly predictable spawning cycle, where individuals release gametes on the evenings of spring high tides on new and full moons during the warmer half of the year. These calculable spawning events uniquely allow for the analysis of the molecular and cellular processes underlying reproduction. Here we characterise neuropeptides produced in H. asinina ganglia that are known in egg-laying molluscs to control vital aspects of reproduction. Results We demonstrate that genes encoding APGWamide, myomodulin, the putative proctolin homologue whitnin, FMRFamide, a schistosomin-like peptide (SLP, a molluscan insulin-related peptide (MIP and a haliotid growth-associated peptide (HGAP all are differentially expressed in the anterior ganglia during the two week spawning cycle in both male and female abalone. Each gene has a unique and sex-specific expression profile. Despite these differences, expression levels in most of the genes peak at or within 12 h of the spawning event. In contrast, lowest levels of transcript abundance typically occurs 36 h before and 24 h after spawning, with differences in peak and low expression levels being most pronounced in genes orthologous to known molluscan reproduction neuromodulators. Conclusions Exploiting the predictable semi-lunar spawning cycle of the gastropod H. asinina, we have identified a suite of evolutionarily-conserved, mollusc-specific and rapidly-evolving neuropeptides that appear to

  5. Population dynamics of a host-specific root-feeding cyst nematode and resource quantity in the root zone of a clonal grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stoel, C.D.; Duyts, H.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that root-feeding nematodes influence plant community dynamics, but few studies have investigated the population dynamics of the nematodes. In coastal foredunes, feeding-specialist cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) are dominant in the soil nematode community and

  6. Population dynamics of host-specific root-feeding cyst nematode and resource quantity in the root zone of a clonal grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, C.D.; Duyts, H.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that root-feeding nematodes influence plant community dynamics, but few studies have investigated the population dynamics of the nematodes. In coastal foredunes, feeding-specialist cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) are dominant in the soil nematode community and

  7. Assessment of both serum S-100B protein and neuropeptide-Y levels in childhood breath-holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Mustafa; Ciftci, Ahmet; Sarikaya, Suna; Kocaturk, Ozcan; Abuhandan, Mahmut; Taskin, Abdullah; Kandemir, Hasan; Yoldas, Tahır Kurtulus; Aksoy, Nurten

    2015-06-01

    Breath-holding spells are common paroxysmal events in children. Although the spells have a benign prognosis in the long term, they may be complicated by loss of consciousness, tonic-clonic movements, and occasionally seizures. Hence, this study aimed to measure the levels of serum S-100B proteins and neuropeptide-Y in the blood of children who experience breath-holding spells. The study groups consisted of 45 patients (13 females, 32 males) with breath-holding spells and a control group of 32 healthy individuals (12 females, 20 males). The serum S-100B levels were measured using commercially available ELISA kits. The neuropeptide-Y levels in the serum were measured with RayBio® Human/Mouse/Rat Neuropeptide Y ELISA kits. The mean serum S-100B protein level of the breath-holding spells group was 56.38 ± 13.26 pg/mL, and of the control group, 48.53 ± 16.77 pg/mL. The mean neuropeptide-Y level was 62.29 ± 13.89 pg/mL in the breath-holding spells group and 58.24 ± 12.30 pg/mL in the control group. There were significant differences between the groups with respect to serum S-100B protein levels (p = 0.025), while there was no statistically significant difference in neuropeptide-Y levels between the breath-holding spells group and the control group (p = 0.192). The findings of this study suggest that frequent and lengthy breath-holding may lead to the development of neuronal metabolic dysfunction or neuronal damage which is most likely related to hypoxia. In light of these findings, future studies should be conducted using biochemical and radiological imaging techniques to support these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A differential role for neuropeptides in acute and chronic adaptive responses to alcohol: behavioural and genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Mitchell

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged alcohol consumption in humans followed by abstinence precipitates a withdrawal syndrome consisting of anxiety, agitation and in severe cases, seizures. Withdrawal is relieved by a low dose of alcohol, a negative reinforcement that contributes to alcohol dependency. This phenomenon of 'withdrawal relief' provides evidence of an ethanol-induced adaptation which resets the balance of signalling in neural circuits. We have used this as a criterion to distinguish between direct and indirect ethanol-induced adaptive behavioural responses in C. elegans with the goal of investigating the genetic basis of ethanol-induced neural plasticity. The paradigm employs a 'food race assay' which tests sensorimotor performance of animals acutely and chronically treated with ethanol. We describe a multifaceted C. elegans 'withdrawal syndrome'. One feature, decrease reversal frequency is not relieved by a low dose of ethanol and most likely results from an indirect adaptation to ethanol caused by inhibition of feeding and a food-deprived behavioural state. However another aspect, an aberrant behaviour consisting of spontaneous deep body bends, did show withdrawal relief and therefore we suggest this is the expression of ethanol-induced plasticity. The potassium channel, slo-1, which is a candidate ethanol effector in C. elegans, is not required for the responses described here. However a mutant deficient in neuropeptides, egl-3, is resistant to withdrawal (although it still exhibits acute responses to ethanol. This dependence on neuropeptides does not involve the NPY-like receptor npr-1, previously implicated in C. elegans ethanol withdrawal. Therefore other neuropeptide pathways mediate this effect. These data resonate with mammalian studies which report involvement of a number of neuropeptides in chronic responses to alcohol including corticotrophin-releasing-factor (CRF, opioids, tachykinins as well as NPY. This suggests an evolutionarily conserved role

  9. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a Drosophila receptor for the neuropeptides capa-1 and -2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Annette; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The Drosophila Genome Project website contains an annotated gene (CG14575) for a G protein-coupled receptor. We cloned this receptor and found that the cloned cDNA did not correspond to the annotated gene; it partly contained different exons and additional exons located at the 5(')-end of the ann......The Drosophila Genome Project website contains an annotated gene (CG14575) for a G protein-coupled receptor. We cloned this receptor and found that the cloned cDNA did not correspond to the annotated gene; it partly contained different exons and additional exons located at the 5(')-end...... of the annotated gene. We expressed the coding part of the cloned cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells and found that the receptor was activated by two neuropeptides, capa-1 and -2, encoded by the Drosophila capability gene. Database searches led to the identification of a similar receptor in the genome from...

  10. Role of the melanin-concentrating hormone neuropeptide in sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Christelle; Sapin, Emilie; Leger, Lucienne; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice

    2009-11-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a neuropeptide secreted by a limited number of neurons within the tuberal hypothalamus, has been drawn in the field of sleep only fairly recently in 2003. Since then, growing experimental evidence indicates that MCH may play a crucial role in the homeostatic regulation of paradoxical sleep (PS). MCH-expressing neurons fire specifically during PS. When injected icv MCH induces a 200% increase in PS quantities in rats and the lack of MCH induces a decrease in sleep quantities in transgenic mice. Here, we review recent studies suggesting a role for MCH in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, in particular PS, including insights on (1) the specific activity of MCH neurons during PS; (2) how they might be controlled across the sleep-wake cycle; (3) how they might modulate PS; (4) and finally whether MCH might take part in the expression of some symptoms observed in primary sleep disorders.

  11. Neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor antagonism attenuates cocaine-induced effects in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Jensen, Morten; Weikop, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Several studies suggest a role for neuropeptide Y (NPY) in addiction to drugs of abuse, including cocaine. However, the NPY receptors mediating addiction-related effects remain to be determined. Objectives To explore the potential role of Y5 NPY receptors in cocaine-induced behavioural...... effects. Methods The Y5 antagonist L-152,804 and Y5-knockout (Y5-KO) mice were tested in two models of cocaine addiction-related behaviour: acute self-administration and cocaine-induced hyperactivity. We also studied effects of Y5 receptor antagonism on cocaine-induced c-fos expression and extracellular...... dopamine with microdialysis as well as dopamine transporter-mediated uptake of dopamine in vitro. Immunocytochemistry was used to determine whether dopamine neurons express Y5-like immunoreactivity. Results In self-administration, L-152,804 prominently decreased nose-poking for the peak dose of cocaine...

  12. The Neuropeptide Corazonin Controls Social Behavior and Caste Identity in Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospocic, Janko; Shields, Emily J; Glastad, Karl M; Lin, Yanping; Penick, Clint A; Yan, Hua; Mikheyev, Alexander S; Linksvayer, Timothy A; Garcia, Benjamin A; Berger, Shelley L; Liebig, Jürgen; Reinberg, Danny; Bonasio, Roberto

    2017-08-10

    Social insects are emerging models to study how gene regulation affects behavior because their colonies comprise individuals with the same genomes but greatly different behavioral repertoires. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that activate distinct behaviors in different castes, we exploit a natural behavioral plasticity in Harpegnathos saltator, where adult workers can transition to a reproductive, queen-like state called gamergate. Analysis of brain transcriptomes during the transition reveals that corazonin, a neuropeptide homologous to the vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone, is downregulated as workers become gamergates. Corazonin is also preferentially expressed in workers and/or foragers from other social insect species. Injection of corazonin in transitioning Harpegnathos individuals suppresses expression of vitellogenin in the brain and stimulates worker-like hunting behaviors, while inhibiting gamergate behaviors, such as dueling and egg deposition. We propose that corazonin is a central regulator of caste identity and behavior in social insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurotrophic and Neurotoxic Effects of Amyloid |beta Protein: Reversal by Tachykinin Neuropeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankner, Bruce A.; Duffy, Lawrence K.; Kirschner, Daniel A.

    1990-10-01

    The amyloid β protein is deposited in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease but its pathogenic role is unknown. In culture, the amyloid β protein was neurotrophic to undifferentiated hippocampal neurons at low concentrations and neurotoxic to mature neurons at higher concentrations. In differentiated neurons, amyloid β protein caused dendritic and axonal retraction followed by neuronal death. A portion of the amyloid β protein (amino acids 25 to 35) mediated both the trophic and toxic effects and was homologous to the tachykinin neuropeptide family. The effects of the amyloid β protein were mimicked by tachykinin antagonists and completely reversed by specific tachykinin agonists. Thus, the amyloid β protein could function as a neurotrophic factor for differentiating neurons, but at high concentrations in mature neurons, as in Alzheimer's disease, could cause neuronal degeneration.

  14. Increased tissue concentration of neuropeptide Y in the duodenal mucosa in coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoelund, K.; Ekman, R. (Lund Univ. (Sweden))

    1989-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is localized to intestinal nerve fibres, of which there are few in normal duodenal mucosa. In the duodenal mucosa of 10 patients with coeliac disease and in a control group of 21 patients with other gastrointestinal symptoms, but with normal function of the small intestine, we studied the frequency of such fibres by immunohistochemistry and the tissue concentration of NPY by radioimmunoassay. Patients with coeliac disease had an increased number of NPY nerve fibres and significantly elevated tissue concentrations compared with the control group. The eluted fractions obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography of duodenal extracts showed the same immunoreactive components in the two groups. This study therefore suggested proliferation of the peptide-containing nerve system in coeliac disease. The increased NPY levels in the duodenal mucosa may be of functional significance for the disease symptoms. 24 refs.

  15. Neuropeptide Y and sex hormone interactions in humoral and neuronal regulation of bone and fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Ayse; Zhang, Lei; Herzog, Herbert; Baldock, Paul A; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2010-07-01

    The hypothalamus regulates the skeleton and adipose tissue via endocrine mechanisms. Changes in sex steroid levels in menopause and aging are central to the associated changes in bone mass and adiposity. Whereas many of these effects occur via direct actions on osteoblasts or adipocytes, sex hormones can also mediate effects on bone and adipose tissue via interaction with neuronal pathways. A key hypothalamic regulator of bone and adipose tissue is neuropeptide Y (NPY), which coordinately influences these tissues via effects on neuroendocrine and sympathetic nervous output. Better understanding of the interaction between NPY and sex steroids in regulating skeletal and energy homeostasis could lead to more effective treatments for osteoporosis and obesity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of sub-nanomolar dipeptidic ligands of neuropeptide FF receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gealageas, Ronan; Schneider, Séverine; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Bertin, Isabelle; Schmitt, Martine; Laboureyras, Emilie; Dugave, Christophe; Mollereau, Catherine; Simonnet, Guy; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Simonin, Frédéric; Bihel, Frédéric

    2012-12-15

    Based on our earlier reported neuropeptide FF receptors antagonist (RF9), we carried out an extensive structural exploration of the N-terminus part of the amidated dipeptide Arg-Phe-NH(2) in order to establish a structure-activity relationships (SAR) study towards both NPFF receptor subtypes. This SAR led to the discovery of dipeptides (12, 35) with subnanomolar affinities towards NPFF1 receptor subtype, similar to endogenous ligand NPVF. More particularly, compound 12 exhibited a potent in vivo preventive effect on opioid-induced hyperalgesia at low dose. The significant selectivity of 12 toward NPFF1-R indicates that this receptor subtype may play a critical role in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF-like peptides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Control of neuropeptide expression by parallel activity-dependent pathways in caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojo Romanos, Teresa; Petersen, Jakob Gramstrup; Pocock, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of neuronal activity within circuits facilitates integrated responses and rapid changes in behavior. We have identified a system in Caenorhabditis elegans where neuropeptide expression is dependent on the ability of the BAG neurons to sense carbon dioxide. In C. Elegans, CO 2 sensing...... is predominantly coordinated by the BAG-expressed receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9. GCY-9 binding to CO 2 causes accumulation of cyclic GMP and opening of the cGMP-gated TAX-2/TAX-4 cation channels; provoking an integrated downstream cascade that enables C. Elegans to avoid high CO 2. Here we show that c...... to sense changes in carbon dioxide and CREB transcription factor. Such regulation may be required in particular environmental conditions to enable sophisticated behavioral decisions to be performed....

  18. Differential Effect of Neuropeptides on Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in Human Epileptic Hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledri, Marco; Sorensen, Andreas T.; Madsen, Marita G.

    2015-01-01

    therapy is an evolving innovative approach that may prove useful for clinical applications. In animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), gene therapy treatments based on viral vectors encoding NPY or galanin have been shown to effectively suppress seizures. However, how this translates to human TLE...... remains unknown. A unique possibility to validate these animal studies is provided by a surgical therapeutic approach, whereby resected epileptic tissue from temporal lobes of pharmacoresistant patients are available for neurophysiological studies in vitro. To test whether NPY and galanin have...... antiepileptic actions in human epileptic tissue as well, we applied these neuropeptides directly to human hippocampal slices in vitro. NPY strongly decreased stimulation-induced EPSPs in dentate gyrus and CA1 (up to 30 and 55%, respectively) via Y2 receptors, while galanin had no significant effect. Receptor...

  19. Vulnerability to psychogenic non-epileptic seizures is linked to low neuropeptide Y levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winterdahl, Michael; Miani, Alessandro; Vercoe, Moana

    2017-01-01

    ) and PNES symptoms in women with a history of sexual abuse. NPY has been associated with resilience to stress and we hypothesized that low levels would increase the extent and severity of PNES symptoms in this patient population. Serum levels of NPY, and related hormones were measured in fifteen female PNES......Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) is a conversion disorder that reflects underlying psychological distress. Female patients with PNES often present with a history of prolonged stressors, especially sexual abuse. In the current study, we studied the relationship between neuropeptide Y (NPY...... patients and sixty female controls. PNES patients reported more severe abuse histories, feeling of abandonment, and decreased perception of quality of life than controls. Importantly, they also had lower NPY levels. Our analysis indicates that low levels of NPY in PNES may confer greater vulnerability...

  20. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-01-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined...... the distribution of PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptor mRNA's. In the parathyroid gland a large number of nerve fibres displaying PACAP-immunoreactivity were distributed beneath the capsule, around blood vessels and close to glandular cells. Most of the PACAP-nerves were sensory, since they co-stored CGRP...... (calcitonin-gene-related peptide) and were sensitive to capsaicin-treatment. mRNA's for PAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors occurred in the parathyroid gland, mainly located in the glandular cells. In the thyroid gland PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were associated with blood vessels, thyroid follicles...

  1. A key role for neuropeptide Y in lifespan extension and cancer suppression via dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takuya; Tamashiro, Yukari; Park, Daeui; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Fujie, Ryoko; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Kim, Sang Eun; Park, Seongjoon; Hayashi, Hiroko; Mori, Ryoichi; Yamashita, Hitoshi; Chung, Hae Young; Shimokawa, Isao

    2014-03-31

    Knowledge of genes essential for the life-extending effect of dietary restriction (DR) in mammals is incomplete. In this study, we found that neuropeptide Y (Npy), which mediates physiological adaptations to energy deficits, is an essential link between DR and longevity in mice. The lifespan-prolonging effect of lifelong 30% DR was attenuated in Npy-null mice, as was the effect on the occurrence of spontaneous tumors and oxidative stress responses in comparison to wild-type mice. In contrast, the physiological processes activated during adaptation to DR, including inhibition of anabolic signaling molecules (insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1), modulation of adipokine and corticosterone levels, and preferential fatty acid oxidation, were unaffected by the absence of Npy. These results suggest a key role for Npy in mediating the effects of DR. We also provide evidence that most of the physiological adaptations to DR could be achieved in mice without Npy.

  2. Functional Characterization of a Novel Class of Morantel-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors in Nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Courtot

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine receptors are pentameric ligand-gated channels involved in excitatory neuro-transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In nematodes, they represent major targets for cholinergic agonist or antagonist anthelmintic drugs. Despite the large diversity of acetylcholine-receptor subunit genes present in nematodes, only a few receptor subtypes have been characterized so far. Interestingly, parasitic nematodes affecting human or animal health possess two closely related members of this gene family, acr-26 and acr-27 that are essentially absent in free-living or plant parasitic species. Using the pathogenic parasitic nematode of ruminants, Haemonchus contortus, as a model, we found that Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 are co-expressed in body muscle cells. We demonstrated that co-expression of Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to the functional expression of an acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to the anthelmintics morantel and pyrantel. Importantly we also reported that ACR-26 and ACR-27, from the distantly related parasitic nematode of horses, Parascaris equorum, also formed a functional acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to these two drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living model nematode, we demonstrated that heterologous expression of the H. contortus and P. equorum receptors drastically increased its sensitivity to morantel and pyrantel, mirroring the pharmacological properties observed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results are the first to describe significant molecular determinants of a novel class of nematode body wall muscle AChR.

  3. Partitioning yield loss on yellow squash into nematode and insect components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Waddill, V H

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a contplex of several insect and nematode pests on yield of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) was examined in two field tests in southern Florida. Applications of permethrin for insect control and oxamyl primarily for nematode control plus some insect control were made alone and in combination to achieve differential reduction of various insect and nematode components contributing to yield loss. The effect of these components on yield was further analyzed by multiple regression. Yield losses in weight of small fruit to nematode and insect pests together were estimated at 23.4% and 30.4% in each of the two tests, respectively. In the first test, this loss was attributed to the melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata, while in the second test, it was attributed to D. hyalinata and the nematodes Quinisulcius acutus and particularly Rotylenchulus reniforrnis. D. hyalinata accounted for further losses of 9.0% and 10.3%, respectively, from direct damage to the fruit. Despite the presence of low levels of Diabrotica balteata, Liriomyza sativae, and Myzus persicae, yields were little affected by these pests. Prediction of yield loss by multiple regression analysis was more accurate when both insect and nematode populations were present in the plots than when nematodes alone were present.

  4. Transient expression of neuropeptide W in postnatal mouse hypothalamus--a putative regulator of energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoike, T; Skach, A G; Godwin, J K; Sinton, C M; Yamazaki, M; Abe, M; Natsume, R; Sakimura, K; Yanagisawa, M

    2015-08-20

    Neuropeptide B and W (NPB and NPW) are cognate peptide ligands for NPBWR1 (GPR7), a G protein-coupled receptor. In rodents, they have been implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine/autonomic responses, and social interactions. Although localization of these peptides and their receptors in adult rodent brain has been well documented, their expression in mouse brain during development is unknown. Here we demonstrate the transient expression of NPW mRNA in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of postnatal mouse brain and its co-localization with neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA. Neurons expressing both NPW and NPY mRNAs begin to emerge in the DMH at about postnatal day 0 (P-0) through P-3. Their expression is highest around P-14, declines after P-21, and by P-28 only a faint expression of NPW and NPY mRNA remains. In P-18 brains, we detected NPW neurons in the region spanning the subincertal nucleus (SubI), the lateral hypothalamic (LH) perifornical (PF) areas, and the DMH, where the highest expression of NPW mRNA was observed. The majority of these postnatal hypothalamic NPW neurons co-express NPY mRNA. A cross of NPW-iCre knock-in mice with a Cre-dependent tdTomato reporter line revealed that more than half of the reporter-positive neurons in the adult DMH, which mature from the transiently NPW-expressing neurons, are sensitive to peripherally administrated leptin. These data suggest that the DMH neurons that transiently co-express NPW and NPY in the peri-weaning period might play a role in regulating energy homeostasis during postnatal development. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuropeptide S overcomes short term memory deficit induced by sleep restriction by increasing prefrontal cortex activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, Julien; Canini, Frédéric; Poly-Thomasson, Betty; Trousselard, Marion; Granon, Sylvie; Chauveau, Frédéric

    2017-12-01

    Sleep restriction (SR) impairs short term memory (STM) that might be related to different processes. Neuropeptide S (NPS), an endogenous neuropeptide that improves short term memory, activates arousal and decreases anxiety is likely to counteract the SR-induced impairment of STM. The objective of the present study was to find common cerebral pathways in sleep restriction and NPS action in order to ultimately antagonize SR effect on memory. The STM was assessed using a spontaneous spatial alternation task in a T-maze. C57-Bl/6J male mice were distributed in 4 groups according to treatment (0.1nmol of NPS or vehicle intracerebroventricular injection) and to 20h-SR. Immediately after behavioural testing, regional c-fos immunohistochemistry was performed and used as a neural activation marker for spatial short term memory (prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus) and emotional reactivity (basolateral amygdala and ventral hippocampus). Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed using elevated-plus maze task. Results showed that SR impaired short term memory performance and decreased neuronal activation in cingular cortex.NPS injection overcame SR-induced STM deficits and increased neuronal activation in infralimbic cortex. SR spared anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze. Neural activation in basolateral nucleus of amygdala and ventral hippocampus were not changed after SR.In conclusion, the present study shows that NPS overcomes SR-induced STM deficits by increasing prefrontal cortex activation independently of anxiety-like behaviour. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic association of objective sleep phenotypes with a functional polymorphism in the neuropeptide S receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Janek; Sander, Christian; Burkhardt, Ralph; Häntzsch, Madlen; Mergl, Roland; Scholz, Markus; Hegerl, Ulrich; Hensch, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR1) and its ligand neuropeptide S (NPS) have received increased attention in the last few years, as both establish a previously unknown system of neuromodulation. Animal research studies have suggested that NPS may be involved in arousal/wakefulness and may also have a crucial role in sleep regulation. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs324981 in NPSR1 has begun to shed light on a function of the NPS-system in human sleep regulation. Due to an amino acid exchange, the T-allele leads to an increased sensitivity of the NPSR1. In the only genome-wide association study to date on circadian sleep parameters in humans, an association was found between rs324981 and regular bedtime. However, the sleep parameters in this study were only measured by self-rating. Therefore, our study aimed to replicate these findings using an objective measure of sleep. The study included n = 393 white subjects (62-79 years) who participated in an actigraphic assessment for determining sleep duration, rest duration, sleep onset, rest onset and sleep onset latency. Genotyping of the SNP rs324981 was performed using the TaqMan OpenArray System. The genotype at rs324981 was not significantly associated with rest onset (bedtime) or sleep onset (p = .146 and p = .199, respectively). However, the SNP showed a significant effect on sleep- and rest duration (p = .007 and p = .003, respectively). Subjects that were homozygous for the minor T-allele had a significantly decreased sleep- and rest duration compared to A-allele carriers. The results of this study indicate that the sleep pattern in humans is influenced by the NPS-system. However, the previously reported association between bedtime and rs324981 could not be confirmed. The current finding of decreased sleep duration in T/T allele carriers is in accordance with studies in rodents reporting similar results after NPS application.

  7. Neuropeptide S receptor gene variation modulates anterior cingulate cortex Glx levels during CCK-4 induced panic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruland, Tillmann; Domschke, Katharina; Schütte, Valerie; Zavorotnyy, Maxim; Kugel, Harald; Notzon, Swantje; Vennewald, Nadja; Ohrmann, Patricia; Arolt, Volker; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Zwanzger, Peter

    2015-10-01

    An excitatory-inhibitory neurotransmitter dysbalance has been suggested in pathogenesis of panic disorder. The neuropeptide S (NPS) system has been implicated in modulating GABA and glutamate neurotransmission in animal models and to genetically drive altered fear circuit function and an increased risk of panic disorder in humans. Probing a multi-level imaging genetic risk model of panic, in the present magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study brain glutamate+glutamine (Glx) levels in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during a pharmacological cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) panic challenge were assessed depending on the functional neuropeptide S receptor gene (NPSR1) rs324981 A/T variant in a final sample of 35 healthy male subjects. The subjective panic response (Panic Symptom Scale; PSS) as well as cortisol and ACTH levels were ascertained throughout the experiment. CCK-4 injection was followed by a strong panic response. A significant time×genotype interaction was detected (p=.008), with significantly lower ACC Glx/Cr levels in T allele carriers as compared to AA homozygotes 5min after injection (p=.003). CCK-4 induced significant HPA axis stimulation, but no effect of genotype was discerned. The present pilot data suggests NPSR1 gene variation to modulate Glx levels in the ACC during acute states of stress and anxiety, with blunted, i.e. possibly maladaptive ACC glutamatergic reactivity in T risk allele carriers. Our results underline the notion of a genetically driven rapid and dynamic response mechanism in the neural regulation of human anxiety and further strengthen the emerging role of the NPS system in anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic stress responses in Drosophila are modulated by brain neurosecretory cells that produce multiple neuropeptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Kahsai

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, neurosecretory cells that release peptide hormones play a prominent role in the regulation of development, growth, metabolism, and reproduction. Several types of peptidergic neurosecretory cells have been identified in the brain of Drosophila with release sites in the corpora cardiaca and anterior aorta. We show here that in adult flies the products of three neuropeptide precursors are colocalized in five pairs of large protocerebral neurosecretory cells in two clusters (designated ipc-1 and ipc-2a: Drosophila tachykinin (DTK, short neuropeptide F (sNPF and ion transport peptide (ITP. These peptides were detected by immunocytochemistry in combination with GFP expression driven by the enhancer trap Gal4 lines c929 and Kurs-6, both of which are expressed in ipc-1 and 2a cells. This mix of colocalized peptides with seemingly unrelated functions is intriguing and prompted us to initiate analysis of the function of the ten neurosecretory cells. We investigated the role of peptide signaling from large ipc-1 and 2a cells in stress responses by monitoring the effect of starvation and desiccation in flies with levels of DTK or sNPF diminished by RNA interference. Using the Gal4-UAS system we targeted the peptide knockdown specifically to ipc-1 and 2a cells with the c929 and Kurs-6 drivers. Flies with reduced DTK or sNPF levels in these cells displayed decreased survival time at desiccation and starvation, as well as increased water loss at desiccation. Our data suggest that homeostasis during metabolic stress requires intact peptide signaling by ipc-1 and 2a neurosecretory cells.

  9. Neuropeptide Y induces potent migration of human immature dendritic cells and promotes a Th2 polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttari, Brigitta; Profumo, Elisabetta; Domenici, Giacomo; Tagliani, Angela; Ippoliti, Flora; Bonini, Sergio; Businaro, Rita; Elenkov, Ilia; Riganò, Rachele

    2014-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a major autonomic nervous system and stress mediator, is emerging as an important regulator of inflammation, implicated in autoimmunity, asthma, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Yet the role of NPY in regulating phenotype and functions of dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen-presenting cells, remains undefined. Here we investigated whether NPY could induce DCs to migrate, mature, and polarize naive T lymphocytes. We found that NPY induced a dose-dependent migration of human monocyte-derived immature DCs through the engagement of NPY Y1 receptor and the activation of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. NPY promoted DC adhesion to endothelial cells and transendothelial migration. It failed to induce phenotypic DC maturation, whereas it conferred a T helper 2 (Th2) polarizing profile to DCs through the up-regulation of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 production. Thus, during an immune/inflammatory response NPY may exert proinflammatory effects through the recruitment of immature DCs, but it may exert antiinflammatory effects by promoting a Th2 polarization. Locally, at inflammatory sites, cell recruitment could be amplified in conditions of intense acute, chronic, or cold stress. Thus, altered or amplified signaling through the NPY-NPY-Y1 receptor-DC axis may have implications for the development of inflammatory conditions.-Buttari, B., Profumo, E., Domenici, G., Tagliani, A., Ippoliti, F., Bonini, S., Businaro, R., Elenkov, I., Riganò, R. Neuropeptide Y induces potent migration of human immature dendritic cells and promotes a Th2 polarization. © FASEB.

  10. Support for involvement of glutamate decarboxylase 1 and neuropeptide Y in anxiety susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Jonas; Sipilä, Tessa; Ripatti, Samuli; Kananen, Laura; Chen, Xiangning; Kendler, Kenneth S; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Pirkola, Sami; Hettema, John M; Hovatta, Iiris

    2012-04-01

    Genetic mapping efforts have identified putative susceptibility genes for human anxiety disorders. The most intensively studied genes are involved in neurotransmitter metabolism and signaling or stress response. In addition, neuropeptides and targets of anxiolytics have been examined. It has become apparent that gene × environment interactions may explain individual variation in stress resilience and predisposition to mental disorders. We aimed to replicate previous genetic findings in 16 putative anxiety susceptibility genes and further test whether they modulate the risk for developing an anxiety disorder in adulthood after childhood stress exposure. We tested 93 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic association to anxiety disorders in the Finnish population-based Health 2000 sample (282 cases and 575 matched controls). In addition, we examined by logistic regression modeling whether the SNP genotypes modified the effect of the number of self-reported childhood adversities on anxiety disorder risk. The most significant evidence for association was observed in glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) with phobias (P = 0.0005). A subsequent meta-analysis (N = 1985) incorporating previously published findings supported involvement of a single GAD1 risk haplotype in determining susceptibility to a broad range of internalizing disorders (P = 0.0009). We additionally found that SNPs and haplotypes in neuropeptide Y (NPY) modified the effect of childhood adversities on anxiety susceptibility (P = 0.003). In conclusion, we provide further support for involvement of mainly GAD1, but also NPY in determining predisposition to anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Neuropeptide FF Promotes Recovery of Corneal Nerve Injury Associated With Hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yunhai; Zhao, Xiaowen; Chen, Peng; Yu, Yang; Wang, Ye; Xie, Lixin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate how the neuropeptide FF (NPFF) promotes the recovery of corneal nerve injury associated with hyperglycemia. Gene expression was analyzed using neurotrophin and receptor RT2 profiler polymerase chain reaction arrays in trigeminal (TG) sensory neurons. The role of NPFF in the regeneration of diabetic TG nerves was investigated in vitro by using cultured TG neurons from diabetic BKS.Cg-m+/+Leprdb/J (db/db) mice and in vivo by following corneal injury healing responses. RF9, a selective NPFF receptor (NPFF2R) antagonist, was used to prevent the interactions between NPFF and NPFF2R. Using a mRNA real-time PCR array, NPFF was found to be significantly lower in diabetic TG sensory neurons. Hyperglycemia induced the deficiency of ocular properties in db/db mice. The application of NPFF enhanced neurite elongation in diabetic TG neurons. Through subconjunctival injection, NPFF promoted corneal nerve injury recovery and epithelial wound healing in db/db mice. Furthermore, the application of NPFF rescued the activation of SIRT1 and PPAR-gamma, and downregulated the expression of PTEN and Rb in diabetic TG neurons. The promotion of NPFF on diabetic corneal epithelial healing and corneal innervations was completely abolished by RF9. Moreover, subconjunctivally injected NPFF accelerated the reinnervation of corneal nerves via the ERK1/2 pathway. These results indicate that NPFF signaling through NPFFR2 contributes to diabetic corneal nerve injury recovery and epithelial wound healing. Neuropeptide FF is a potential neuroregenerative factor for diabetic sensory nerve injury. Chinese Abstract.

  12. Sequential expression of the neuropeptides substance P and somatostatin in granulomas associated with murine cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Prema; White, A Clinton; Lewis, Dorothy E; Thornby, John; David, Elliott; Weinstock, Joel

    2002-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis, a parasitic infection of the human central nervous system caused by Taenia solium, is a leading cause of seizures. Seizures associated with neurocysticercosis are caused mainly by the host inflammatory responses to dying parasites in the brain parenchyma. We previously demonstrated sequential expression of Th1 cytokines in early-stage granulomas, followed by expression of Th2 cytokines in later-stage granulomas in murine cysticercosis. However, the mechanism leading to this shift in cytokine response in the granulomas is unknown. Neuropeptides modulate cytokine responses and granuloma formation in murine schistosomiasis. Substance P (SP) induces Th1 cytokine expression and granuloma formation, whereas somatostatin inhibits the granulomatous response. We hypothesized that neuropeptides might play a role in regulation of the granulomatous response in cysticercosis. To test this hypothesis, we compared expression of SP and expression of somatostatin in murine cysticercal granulomas by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We also compared expression with granuloma stage. Expression of SP mRNA was more frequent in the early-stage granulomas than in the late-stage granulomas (34 of 35 early-stage granulomas versus 1 of 13 late-stage granulomas). By contrast, somatostatin was expressed primarily in later-stage granulomas (13 of 14 late-stage granulomas versus 2 of 35 early-stage granulomas). The median light microscope grade of SP mRNA expression in the early-stage granulomas was significantly higher than that in the late-stage granulomas (P = 0.008, as determined by the Wilcoxon signed rank test). By contrast, somatostatin mRNA expression was higher at later stages (P = 0.008, as determined by the Wilcoxon signed rank test). SP and somatostatin are therefore temporally expressed in granulomas associated with murine cysticercosis, which may be related to differential expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines.

  13. Novel Genes Involved in Controlling Specification of Drosophila FMRFamide Neuropeptide Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivik, Caroline; Bahrampour, Shahrzad; Ulvklo, Carina; Nilsson, Patrik; Angel, Anna; Fransson, Fredrik; Lundin, Erika; Renhorn, Jakob; Thor, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    The expression of neuropeptides is often extremely restricted in the nervous system, making them powerful markers for addressing cell specification . In the developing Drosophila ventral nerve cord, only six cells, the Ap4 neurons, of some 10,000 neurons, express the neuropeptide FMRFamide (FMRFa). Each Ap4/FMRFa neuron is the last-born cell generated by an identifiable and well-studied progenitor cell, neuroblast 5-6 (NB5-6T). The restricted expression of FMRFa and the wealth of information regarding its gene regulation and Ap4 neuron specification makes FMRFa a valuable readout for addressing many aspects of neural development, i.e., spatial and temporal patterning cues, cell cycle control, cell specification, axon transport, and retrograde signaling. To this end, we have conducted a forward genetic screen utilizing an Ap4-specific FMRFa-eGFP transgenic reporter as our readout. A total of 9781 EMS-mutated chromosomes were screened for perturbations in FMRFa-eGFP expression, and 611 mutants were identified. Seventy-nine of the strongest mutants were mapped down to the affected gene by deficiency mapping or whole-genome sequencing. We isolated novel alleles for previously known FMRFa regulators, confirming the validity of the screen. In addition, we identified novel essential genes, including several with previously undefined functions in neural development. Our identification of genes affecting most major steps required for successful terminal differentiation of Ap4 neurons provides a comprehensive view of the genetic flow controlling the generation of highly unique neuronal cell types in the developing nervous system. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES ON STONE FRUITS AND CITRUS IN LEBANON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.K.; Azar, I.; Naser, CH.; Akikki, B; Ibrahim, L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the occurrence, distribution of plant parasitic nematodes on stone fruits in Lebanon and to determine the effect of plant extracts on the mortality of several nematode species. A total of 308 soil samples were collected from five different crops. Almost all surveyed areas showed infection with nematodes.The soil infestation rate with nematodes in collected soil samples from all 10 surveyed crops ranged from 66.6 to 100%. Eighteen out of 308 soil samples were free of nematodes (5.8%). All the collected soil samples from nectarine and plum orchards were infested with nematodes (100%), followed by citrus (97.6%), apple (88.7%), pear and quince (85.7%), and cherry (81.4%). The lowest infection (66.6%) was detected on almond and apricot. The level of infestation varied from one area to another and ranged between 0.1and 28 nematodes per 1 g of soil, with the highest number obtained on cherry. Several genera were identified based on morphological characters including:root-knot nematodes (Meloidogynespp.), Tylenchulus, Xiphinema, Rotylenchus, Pratylenchus, and Longidorus. Tylenchulus and Radopholus spp. were the most common on citrus trees, whereas Pratylechus and Meloidogyne spp. were detected almost in all the samples collected from all the crops. Six chopped aromatic plants were tested in pot experiments to control nematodes population densities. The results revealed that carbofuran (nematicide) was the most effective (88.48%) in comparison to the plant materials. Allium sativum gave the highest control (76.52%) followed by Tageta patula (72.0%), Cucurbita maxima (71.84%) and Inula viscosa (63.96%). Origanum syriacum (55.04%)d Thymus (53.72%) were less effective in comparison to the rest of tested plant materials. (author)

  15. A soil microcosm to test the effects of pollutants on soil nematode and microarthropod communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmelee, R.W. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Entomology; Wentsel, R.S.; Checkai, R.T.; Phillips, C.T. [Army CRDEC, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Bohlen, P.J. [Inst. of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Previous studies have demonstrated that microcosms with field collected soil nematode and microarthropod communities are suitable model systems to detect effects of toxins on soil food web structure and function. The authors investigated the toxicity of copper, cadmium, malathion, and Aroclor 1254 to nematodes (total, bacterivores, fungivores, herbivores, omnivore-predators, hatchlings) and microarthropods (Prostigmata, Mesostigmata, Oribatida, Collembola, other arthropods). Nematodes were sensitive indicators of copper application, and total numbers were reduced at 100 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1}. Fungivore, bacterivore and omnivore-predators were the most susceptible trophic groups. Cadmium had no effects on either nematode or microarthropod communities. Microarthropods were more sensitive to malathion than nematodes, and total microarthropod abundance was lower than controls at 320 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1}. Prostigmatid mites and other arthropods were the most affected groups. Only the herbivore nematode trophic group was affected by malathion, and numbers did not decline until 1,280 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1}. Aroclor 1254 also had a greater negative impact on microarthropods than on nematodes. Total microarthropod abundance declined at 2,500 {micro}g g{sup {minus}1}, while there was no effect on nematodes. Prostigmatid and oribatid mites were the most susceptible groups to PCB application. Strong differential sensitivity between nematode and microarthropod communities indicates that both groups need to be examined to fully evaluate the impact of chemicals on soil systems. The authors conclude that microcosms with field-collected communities of soil microfauna offer high resolution of the ecotoxicological effects of chemicals in complex soil systems.

  16. Multichannel microfluidic chip for rapid and reliable trapping and imaging plant-parasitic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrit, Ratthasart; Sripumkhai, Witsaroot; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Jeamsaksiri, Wutthinan; Tangchitsomkid, Nuchanart; Sutapun, Boonsong

    2013-05-01

    Faster and reliable testing technique to count and identify nematode species resided in plant roots is therefore essential for export control and certification. This work proposes utilizing a multichannel microfluidic chip with an integrated flow-through microfilter to retain the nematodes in a trapping chamber. When trapped, it is rather simple and convenient to capture images of the nematodes and later identify their species by a trained technician. Multiple samples can be tested in parallel using the proposed microfluidic chip therefore increasing number of samples tested per day.

  17. Interactions Between Nutrition and Infections With Haemonchus contortus and Related Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Small Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, H; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Quijada, J; Chan-Perez, I; Dakheel, M M; Kommuru, D S; Mueller-Harvey, I; Terrill, T H

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between host nutrition and feeding behaviour are central to understanding the pathophysiological consequences of infections of the digestive tract with parasitic nematodes. The manipulation of host nutrition provides useful options to control gastrointestinal nematodes as a component of an integrated strategy. Focussed mainly on the Haemonchus contortus infection model in small ruminants, this chapter (1) illustrates the relationship between quantitative (macro- and micro-nutrients) and qualitative (plant secondary metabolites) aspects of host nutrition and nematode infection, and (2) shows how basic studies aimed at addressing some generic questions can help to provide solutions, despite the considerable diversity of epidemiological situations and breeding systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trophic position of soil nematodes in boreal forests as indicated by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, Alexey; Tsurikov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Despite the well-developed trophic classification of soil nematodes, their position in soil food webs is still little understood. Observed deviations from the typical feeding strategy indicate that a simplified trophic classification probably does not fully reflect actual trophic interactions. Furthermore, the extent and functional significance of nematodes as prey for other soil animals remains unknown. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is powerful tool for investigating the structure of soil food webs, but its application to the study of soil nematodes has been limited to only a few studies. We used stable isotope analysis to gain a better understanding of trophic links of several groups of soil nematodes in two boreal forests on albeluvisol. We investigated four taxonomic groups of nematodes: Mononchida, Dorylaimida, Plectidae and Tylenchidae (mostly from the genus Filenchus), that according to the conventional trophic classification represent predators, omnivores, bacterivores and root-fungal feeders, respectively. To assess the trophic position of nematodes, we used a comparison against a set of reference species including herbivorous, saprophagous and predatory macro-invertebrates, oribatid and mesostigmatid mites, and collembolans. Our results suggest that trophic position of the investigated groups of soil nematodes generally corresponds to the conventional classification. All nematodes were enriched in 13C relative to Picea abies roots and litter, and mycorrhizal fungal mycelium. Root-fungal feeders Tylenchidae had δ15N values similar to those of earthworms, enchytraeids and Entomobrya collembolans, but slightly lower δ13C values. Bacterivorous Plectidae were either equal or enriched in 15N compared with saprophagous macroinvertebrates and most mesofauna species. Omnivorous Dorylaimida and predatory Mononchida were further enriched in 15N and their isotopic signature was similar to that of predatory arthropods. These data confirm a clear separation of

  19. Free-living marine nematodes from San Antonio Bay (Río Negro, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, Gabriela; Lo Russo, Virginia; Pastor de Ward, Catalina; Milano, Viviana; Miyashiro, Lidia; Mazzanti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The dataset of free-living marine nematodes of San Antonio Bay is based on sediment samples collected in February 2009 during doctoral theses funded by CONICET grants. A total of 36 samples has been taken at three locations in the San Antonio Bay, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina on the coastal littoral at three tidal levels. This presents a unique and important collection for benthic biodiversity assessment of Patagonian nematodes as this area remains one of the least known regions. In total 7,743 specimens of free-living marine nematodes belonging to two classes, eight orders, 37 families, 94 genera and 104 species were collected. PMID:27110176

  20. Gastric nematodes of Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768, in the Okavango River, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Junker

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The ascaridoid nematodes Dujardinascaris madagascariensis Chabaud & Caballero, 1966, Dujardinascaris dujardini (Travassos, 1920, Gedoelstascaris vandenbrandeni (Baylis, 1929 Sprent, 1978 and Multicaecum agile (Wedl, 1861 Baylis, 1923 were recovered from the stomach contents of Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768 from the Okavango River, Botswana, together with Eustrongylides sp., a dioctophymatoid nematode usually parasitizing piscivorous birds. Dujardinascaris madagascariensis was present in most of the infected hosts, while the remaining species were mostly represented in single collections in one to three hosts. All four ascaridoid nematodes represent new geographic records.