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Sample records for nematode larvae infecting

  1. Predatory activity of Butlerius nematodes and nematophagous fungi against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae

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    Manoel Eduardo da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predatory activity of the nematode Butlerius spp. and fungal isolates of Duddingtonia flagrans, Clonostachys rosea, Arthrobotrys musiformis and Trichoderma esau against H. contortus infective larvae (L3 in grass pots. Forty-eight plastic gardening pots containing 140 g of sterile soil were used. Panicum spp. grass seeds (200 mg were sown into each pot and individually watered with 10 mL of tap water. Twelve days after seeding, the pots were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=8. Two thousand H. contortus infective larvae (L3 were added to each group. Additionally, the following treatments were established: Group 1 – 2000 Butlerius spp. larvae; group 2 – A. musiformis (1x107 conidia; group 3 – T. esau (1x107 conidia; group 4 – C. rosea (1x107 conidia, group 5 – D. flagrans (1x107conidia and Group 6 – no biological controller (control group. The larval population of H. contortus exposed to Butlerius spp. was reduced by 61.9%. Population reductions of 90.4, 66.7, 61.9 and 85.7% were recorded in the pots containing A. musiformis, T. esau, C. rosea and D. flagrans, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the predatory nematode Butlerius spp. and the assessed fungi display an important predatory activity can be considered suitable potential biological control agents.

  2. Effect of Musa spp. extract on eggs and larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes from infected sheep

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    Natalie Neuwirt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helminthes are listed as one of the main problems facing the development of goat and sheep production. Haemonchus contortus is the specie that causes greatest negative impact in ranching. Resistance to anti-parasitic drugs and demand for residue-free animal-derived food products has elevated the importance of herbal treatments. The aim of this study was to develop an extract of Musa spp. and assess by in vitro testing, the anthelmintic effect on eggs and larvae in the gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Stool samples from sheep naturally infected were used to obtain eggs and larvae and was then followed by a test of hatchability and a larval migration inhibition test. In vitro tests on the inhibition of larval hatchability at concentrations of 160 and 180 mg mL-1 of larval extracts and inhibition of migration at concentrations of 800 and 1000 mg mL-1 were observed. The results indicate that the use of banana leaf has an anthelmintic effect and that in vivo studies on the applicability of this technology to the field should be made to further understanding and bring more information to what has already been revealed in this study.

  3. PREVALENCE OF ANISAKID NEMATODE LARVAE INFECTING SOME MARINE FISHES FROM THE LIBYAN COAST.

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    Kassem, Hamed H; Bowashi, Salem Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    This study examined eight hundred ninety six marine fishes belonging to nine different fish species; Synodus saurus; Merluccius merluccius; Trachurus mediterraneus; Serranus cabrilla; Mullus surmuletus; Diplodus annularis; Spicara maena; Siganus rirulatus and Liza ramada. The fishes were bought from fish markets at five different sites on Libyan coast, from January to December 2013, for study the anisakids larvae among them. The results showed that 344/896 fishes (38.4%) were infected with Anisakids larvae. S. saurus was the highly infected (80.9%), followed by T mediterraneus (77.5%) but, S. cabrilla, S. maena, M merluccius, M surmuletus, and D. annularis were least anisakid infected showed rates of 58.2%, 53.8%, 43.7%, 36.7% & 3.6%, respectively. No parasites were in S. rirulatus and L, ramada. Ten species of Anisakids larvae was detected during the present study. Two Pseudoterranova sp. Larvae, two types of Anisakis larvae, Anisakis simplex larva and Anisakis sp. Larva, two types of Contracaecum sp. Larvae and four Hysterothylacium larvae. Females showed higher prevalence than males. The number of anisakid larvae varied according to body length and weight of infected fish, without significant difference between prevalence and seasons, but, a significant difference was between prevalence and regions.

  4. Evaluation of the contamination of infecting larvae of nematodes on pasture of Cynodon sp. in a milk producing system

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    Caio Augusto Perazza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the contamination of infecting larvae of parasitic nematodes in cattle on Cynodon sp. pasture. The research was conducted in a milkproduction system situated in the town of Boa Esperança, in the southern region of Minas Gerais state, during the fall-winter seasons 2008. The samples of the grass were collected in ten points inserted into an outline in “W”, previously designed, in the period of morning between at 7:30 and 8:30, observing the presence of dew in all the collections performed. The samples were CUT close to the soil and separated in half, which constituted an upper and lower sample of each collecting point, their being afterwards placed into plastic bag, identified and carried to a plastic foam box . The samples were processed singly. The infecting larvae (L3 were identified and the amount per kilogram of dry matter in forage was estimated (L3/kg DM. The climatic conditions such as temperature, air relative humidity and rainfall enabled the development of the free life stages throughout the period. Even at low rainfall rates during the months of May to August, the counts of the amount of larvae in the pastures were high. Under the conditions of the dry period (Fall/Winter, the L3 forms of Cooperia sp. presented an expressive predominance in relation to the other genera throughout the period. The greatest amount of infecting larvae of this species was found in the months of July and August in the upper pasture, while for the samples of the lower part were found peaks in the months of June and August. The large number of genera of pathogenic helminths to animals in this study along the drier seasons of the year, especially in the upper pasture, demonstrates the importance of these agents as cause of losses in milk production in Minas Gerais state.

  5. Activity changes of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae infected by the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis beicherriana (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae).

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    Li, Xingyue; Liu, Qizhi; Lewis, Edwin E; Tarasco, Eustachio

    2016-12-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are lethal parasites of many insect species. To investigate defensive mechanisms towards EPNs in relation to antioxidative and detoxifying enzymes, we chose Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as experimental insect. We studied the activity changes of superoxide dismutases (SODs), peroxidases (PODs), and catalases (CATs), as well as tyrosinase (TYR), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CarE), and glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) for 40 h in T. molitor larvae infected with Heterorhabditis beicherriana infective juveniles (IJs) at 5 rates (0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 IJs/larva). We found that when T. molitor larvae infected with H. beicherriana at higher rates (80 and 160 IJs/larva), SOD activity quickly increased to more than 70 % higher than that control levels. The activities of POD and CAT increased after 24 h. TYR activity increased slowly at lower rates of infection for 16 h, followed by a slight decrease, and then increasing from 32 to 40 h. The other detoxifying enzymes (GST, CarE, and AChE) were enhanced at lower infection rates, but were inhibited at higher rates. Our results suggested that host antioxidative response and detoxification reactions played a central role in the defensive reaction to EPNs, and that this stress which was reflected by the higher level enzymes activity contributed to the death of hosts. Further study should explore the exact function of these enzymes using different species of EPNs and investigate the links between enzyme activity and host susceptibility to EPNs.

  6. Capability of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to reduce infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes in goat feces in the southeastern United States: dose titration and dose time interval studies.

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    Terrill, T H; Larsen, M; Samples, O; Husted, S; Miller, J E; Kaplan, R M; Gelaye, S

    2004-04-15

    Infection with gastrointestinal nematodes, particularly Haemonchus contortus, is a major constraint to goat production in the southeastern United States. Non-anthelmintic control alternatives are needed due to increasing resistance of these nematodes to available anthelmintics. Two studies were completed in Central Georgia in August 1999, and April-May 2000, using Spanish does naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus, Trichostongylus colubriformis, and Cooperia spp. to evaluate effectiveness of nematode-trapping fungi as a biological control agent. In the first experiment, five levels of Duddingtonia flagrans spores were mixed with a complete diet and fed once daily to the does (three per treatment) in metabolism crates. The treatment concentrations were (1) 5 x 10(5), (2) 2.5 x 10(5), (3) 10(5), and (4) 5 x 10(4) spores per kilogram body weight (BW), and (5) no spores. Fungal spores were fed for the first 7 days of the 14-day trial, and fecal samples were collected daily from individual animals for analysis of fecal egg count and establishment of fecal cultures. Efficacy of the fungus at reducing development of infective larvae (L3) in the fecal cultures was evaluated. The mean reduction in L3 from day 2 of the treatment period until the day after treatment stopped (days 2-8) was 93.6, 80.2, 84.1, and 60.8% for animals given the highest to lowest spore doses, respectively. Within 3-6 days after termination of fungal spore feedings, reduction in L3 development was no longer apparent in any of the treated animals. In a second experiment, effectiveness of 2.5 x 10(5) spores of D. flagrans per kilogram BW fed to does every day, every second day, and every third day was evaluated. Reduction in L3 development by daily feeding was less in the second experiment than in the first experiment. Daily fungal spore feeding provided more consistent larval reduction than intermittant feeding (every second or third day). When fed daily under controlled conditions, D. flagrans

  7. Nematode cysts and larvae found in Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822.

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    Franco-Acuña, D O; Pinheiro, J; Torres, E J L; Lanfredi, R M; Brandolini, S V P B

    2009-02-01

    This study describes the morphology of the nematode cysts and larvae found in Achatina fulica (giant African snail) in Brazil. Sixty snails were collected in Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro State. Fourteen of the snails were naturally infected. The cysts were spherical, pink colored and measured 0.97 to 1.57 mm in diameter. In the majority of cases they had a single larvae involved in amorphous material. A total of 222 encysted larvae were recovered. Of these, 30 were utilized in the morphological study. The length of the larvae varied from 2.57 to 5.8 mm and they were classified as small--up to 3.5 mm; medium--from 3.53 to 4.5 mm; and large--greater than 4.52 mm. The average length of the larvae in the three groups was 2.85, 3.87 and 5.23 mm, respectively. The larval cuticle was white, shiny and transversally striated until the posterior end of the body. At the anterior end there is a mouth with three lips, with amphids and papillae, followed by a muscular esophagus with average length of 0.61 mm, terminating in an esophageal bulb and having a nerve ring in the middle third of the esophagus, and an intestine with an opening near the posterior end. The tail begins from this opening and has two types of ends: short and abrupt or long and gradually tapering. The difference in the tail end can suggest sexual dimorphism, although no primordial reproductive structures were observed. These characteristics were not sufficient to identify the larvae, so there is a need for further study.

  8. Endosymbiont-based immunity in Drosophila melanogaster against parasitic nematode infection.

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    Yadav, Shruti; Frazer, Joanna; Banga, Ashima; Pruitt, Katherine; Harsh, Sneh; Jaenike, John; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    Associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and their hosts represent a complex ecosystem within organisms ranging from humans to protozoa. Drosophila species are known to naturally harbor Wolbachia and Spiroplasma endosymbionts, which play a protective role against certain microbial infections. Here, we investigated whether the presence or absence of endosymbionts affects the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster larvae to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes carrying or lacking their mutualistic Gram-negative bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (symbiotic or axenic nematodes, respectively). We find that the presence of Wolbachia alone or together with Spiroplasma promotes the survival of larvae in response to infection with S. carpocapsae symbiotic nematodes, but not against axenic nematodes. We also find that Wolbachia numbers are reduced in Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic compared to symbiotic nematodes, and they are also reduced in Spiroplasma-containing compared to Spiroplasma-free larvae infected with axenic nematodes. We further show that S. carpocapsae axenic nematode infection induces the Toll pathway in the absence of Wolbachia, and that symbiotic nematode infection leads to increased phenoloxidase activity in D. melanogaster larvae devoid of endosymbionts. Finally, infection with either type of nematode alters the metabolic status and the fat body lipid droplet size in D. melanogaster larvae containing only Wolbachia or both endosymbionts. Our results suggest an interaction between Wolbachia endosymbionts with the immune response of D. melanogaster against infection with the entomopathogenic nematodes S. carpocapsae. Results from this study indicate a complex interplay between insect hosts, endosymbiotic microbes and pathogenic organisms.

  9. IMPORTANT NEMATODE INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA

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    Sri Oemijati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At least 13 species of intestinal nematodes and 4 species of blood and tissue nematodes have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Five species of intestinal nematodes are very common and highly prevalent, especially in the rural areas and slums of the big cities. Those species are Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is disappearing. The prevalence of the soil transmitted helminths differs from place to place, depending on many factors such as the type of soil, human behaviour etc. Three species of lymph dwelling filarial worms are known to be endemic, the urban Wuchereria bancrofti is low endemic in Jakarta and a few other cities along the north coast of Java, with Culex incriminated as vector, high endemicity is found in Irian Jaya, where Anopheline mosquitoes act as vectors. Brugia malayi is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in many areas. The zoonotic type is mainly endemic in swampy areas, and has many species of Mansonia mosquitoes as vectors. B.timori so far has been found only in the south eastern part of the archipelago and has Anopheles barbirostris as vector. Human infections with animal parasites have been diagnosed properly only when adult stages were found either in autopsies or removed tissues. Cases of infections with A. caninum, A.braziliense, A.ceylanicum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T.axei and Oesophagostomum apiostomum have been desribed from autopsies, while infections with Gnathostoma spiningerum have been reported from removed tissues. Infections with the larval stages such as VLM, eosinophylic meningitis, occult filanasis and other could only be suspected, since the diagnosis was extremely difficult and based on the finding and identification of the parasite. Many cases of creeping eruption which might be caused by the larval stages of A.caninum and A.braziliense and Strongyloides stercoralis

  10. Control of infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes in heifers using different isolates of nematophagous fungi Controle de larvas infectantes de nematóides gastrintestinais de novilhas por diferentes isolados dos fungos nematófagos

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    Manoel Eduardo da Silva

    Full Text Available The effect of different nematophagous fungi [Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001 and CG722 and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34] with regard to controlling infective larvae (L3 of nematodes after gastrointestinal transit in female cattle (3/4 Holstein × Zebu was evaluated. A total of 24 pubescent female cattle were used, weighing approximately 320 kg each one. There were three treatment groups, each contained six animals that received 150 g of pellets (0.2 g of mycelium, orally in a single dose, in a sodium alginate matrix containing mycelial mass of the fungus D. flagrans (AC001 or CG722 or M. thaumasium (NF34; and one control group (without fungi. Fecal samples were collected from the animals at intervals of 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 48, and 72 hours. At the end of 17 days, the L3 not subjected to predation were recovered by means of the Baermann method. The fungal isolates tested were capable of destroying the L3 after gastrointestinal transit. It was observed that within 72 hours, the isolates AC001, CG722, and NF34 showed a higher predatory activity (81.2%, 97.3%, and 98.3%, respectively. The results justify the need for studies in the field, and over longer intervals, in order to observe the efficiency of the fungus D. flagrans, or even M. thaumasium, for environmental control over nematodes in naturally infected cattle.No presente estudo, foi avaliado o efeito de diferentes fungos nematófagos [Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001 e CG722 e Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34] no controle de larvas infectantes (L3 de nematóides após o trânsito gastrointestinal em fêmeas bovinas (3/4 Holandês x Zebu. Um total de 24 fêmeas bovinas pubescentes foram utilizadas, pesando aproximadamente 320 kg cada. Foram utilizados três grupos de tratamento; cada um contendo seis animais que receberam por via oral de 150 g de péletes (0,2 g de micélio, em dose única, em uma matriz de alginato de sódio contendo massa micelial dos fungos D. flagrans (AC001 ou

  11. Nematode Infections Are Risk Factors for Staphylococcal Infection in Children

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    Sandra F Moreira-Silva

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infection may be a risk factor for pyogenic liver abscess in children and we hypothesized that the immunomodulation induced by those parasites would be a risk factor for any staphylococcal infection in children. The present study was designed to compare, within the same hospital, the frequency of intestinal nematodes and Toxocara infection in children with and without staphylococcal infections. From October 1997 to February 1998, 80 children with staphylococcal infection and 110 children with other diseases were submitted to fecal examination, serology for Toxocara sp., evaluation of plasma immunoglobulin levels, and eosinophil counts. Mean age, gender distribution, birthplace, and socioeconomic conditions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Frequency of intestinal nematodes and positive serology for Toxocara, were remarkably higher in children with staphylococcal infections than in the non-staphylococcal group. There was a significant correlation between intestinal nematodes or Toxocara infection and staphylococcal infection in children, reinforced by higher eosinophil counts and higher IgE levels in these children than in the control group. One possible explanation for this association would be the enhancement of bacterial infection by the immunomodulation induced by helminth infections, due to strong activation of the Th2 subset of lymphocytes by antigens from larvae and adult worms.

  12. Survival and Movement of Insect Parasitic Nematodes in Poultry Manure and Their Infectivity Against Musca domestica

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    Georgis, Ramon; Mullens, Bradley A.; Meyer, Jeffery A.

    1987-01-01

    Survival, infectivity, and movement of three insect parasitic nematodes (Steinernema feltiae All strain, S. bibionis SN strain, and Heterorhabditis heliothidis NC strain) in poultry manure were tested under laboratory conditions. The majority (70-100%) of the nematodes died within 18 hours after exposure to the manure. Nematodes exposed to manure slurry for 6 hours killed at least 95% of the house fly larvae, Musca domestica, but nematodes exposed for 12 hours achieved less than 40% larval mo...

  13. Immunity to gastrointestinal nematode infections

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    Sorobetea, D.; Svensson Frej, M.; Grencis, R.

    2018-01-01

    Numerous species of nematodes have evolved to inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans, with over a billion of the world's population infected with at least one species. These large multicellular pathogens present a considerable and complex challenge to the host immune system give...

  14. Occurrence and Intensity of Anisakid Nematode Larvae in Some Commercially Important Fish Species in Persian Gulf

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    Maryam DADAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anisakid nematodes are common parasites of fish, mammals, fish-eating birds, and reptiles with a worldwide distribution, causing diseases in human, fish and important economic losses.Methods: A preliminary epidemiological study was carried out on Anisakid nematodes larvae in some commercially important fish species to evaluate the anisakid nematode larvae from greater lizardfish, (Saurida tumbil, Japanese thread fin bream (Nemipterus japonicus, crocodile longtom (Tylosurus crocodilus crocodiles and longfin trevally (Carangoides armatus from the Persian Gulf of Iran.Result: The collected larvae were identified mainly as the third larval stage (L3 of Hysterothylacium larval type A, B and C, Anisakis sp., Raphidascaris sp., Pseudoterranova sp. and Philometra sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae. The prevalence of Anisakid larvae infection of examined fishes was 97.2% in N. japonicus, 90.3% in S. tumbil, 20.5% in crocodile longtom and 5.5% in longfin trevally. Anisakis type III for the first time was different from Anisakis type I and Anisakis type II.Discussion: Zoonotic anisakids by high prevalence in edible fish could be a health hazard for people. So health practices should be considered in these areas.

  15. Evaluation of efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against larvae of Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

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    Tóth, Erika M; Márialigeti, K; Fodor, A; Lucskai, A; Farkas, R

    2005-01-01

    The blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is the primary agent of cutaneous myiasis of sheep in northern Europe, southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand. As the application of chemicals has several disadvantages, alternative control measures of traumatic myiasis of livestock must be developed. In this study, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) as potential biocontrol agents against second instar larvae of Lucilia sericata was considered. The following nematode species were tested: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (IS 5, HHU 1, Hmol, HNC 1, HAZ 36, Hbrecon, HHU 2, HAZ 29, HHP 88, HHU 3, HHU 4 and HGua), Steinernema intermedia, NC513 strain of S. glaserii, S. anomali, S. riobrave, Steinernema sp. and 5 strains of S. feltiae (22, Vija Norway, HU 1, scp, and IS 6). None of the examined EPN species or strains showed larvicidal efficacy at 37 degrees C (no killing effect was observed in the case of the two heat-tolerant strains--H. bacteriophora and S.feltiae) against L. sericata larvae. At lower temperatures (20 degrees C and 25 degrees C) only strains of S. feltiae were found to be active. The overall odds ratios calculated for L. sericata maggots to contract S. feltiae nematode infection show significant (p nematode occurred in the cadavers.

  16. Association between nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum invasion of cod larvae and growth

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    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Kuhn, Jesper

    , lapillus otoliths were removed, polished and the number of growth zones in each otolith counted by light microscopy. Each growth zone indicates one day of the fish life span. Covariance analysis demonstrated highly significant differences (p≤ 0.001) between the growth rate of infected and uninfected cod...... invertebrates and fish species and for some species also higher vertebrate hosts. We have recently demonstrated that fry of North Sea cod has a high prevalence of infection with regard to the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum and it was indicated that these infections could affect survival of cod and thereby...... affect the cod stock in the North Sea. The objective of the present study was to elucidate if infections are associated with a decrease or an increase of fish size when examining fish of the same age. We investigated effects of H. aduncum infections on the growth rate of cod larvae by using the otolith...

  17. Comparison of two techniques used for the recovery of third-stage strongylid nematode larvae from herbage.

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    Krecek, R C; Maingi, N

    2004-07-14

    A laboratory trial to determine the efficacy of two methods in recovering known numbers of third-stage (L3) strongylid nematode larvae from herbage was carried out. Herbage samples consisting almost entirely of star grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) that had no L3 nematode parasitic larvae were collected at Onderstepoort, South Africa. Two hundred grams samples were placed in fibreglass fly gauze bags and seeded with third-stage strongylid nematode larvae at 11 different levels of herbage infectivity ranging from 50 to 8000 L3/kg. Eight replicates were prepared for each of the 11 levels of herbage infectivity. Four of these were processed using a modified automatic Speed Queen heavy-duty washing machine at a regular normal cycle, followed by isolation of larvae through centrifugation-flotation in saturated sugar solution. Larvae in the other four samples were recovered after soaking the herbage in water overnight and the larvae isolated with the Baermann technique of the washing. There was a strong correlation between the number of larvae recovered using both methods and the number of larvae in the seeded samples, indicating that the two methods give a good indication of changes in the numbers of larvae on pasture if applied in epidemiological studies. The washing machine method recovered higher numbers of larvae than the soaking and Baermann method at all levels of pasture seeding, probably because the machine washed the samples more thoroughly and a sugar centrifugation-flotation step was used. Larval suspensions obtained using the washing machine method were therefore cleaner and thus easier to examine under the microscope. In contrast, the soaking and Baermann method may be more suitable in field-work, especially in places where resources and equipment are scarce, as it is less costly in equipment and less labour intensive. Neither method recovered all the larvae from the seeded samples. The recovery rates for the washing machine method ranged from 18 to 41% while

  18. Susceptibility of irradiated Galleria mellonella F1Larvae to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

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    Salem, H.M.; Rizk, S.A.; Sayed, R.M.; Hussein, M.A; Hafez, S.E

    2008-01-01

    Combined effect of substerilizing doses of gamma radiation (40 and 100 Gy) and different concentrations of entomopathogenic nematodes (20, 40, 60, and 80 IJs) on the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella was studied. The 4th larval instar resulted from irradiated male parent pupae mated with normal female were tested for susceptibility to Heterorhabditis bacteriophora BA1 and Steinernema carpocapsae BA2. The mortality rate of the larvae increased by increrasing radiation dose and nematode concentrations. The reproduction of both nematode strains decreased significantly with increasing the treatments (radiation dose and nematode concentrations). In addition, exposure to gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes significantly decreased the total haemocyte count (THC) of the larvae with increasing radiation doses (40 and 100 Gy) and both nematode strains concentrations (20 and 40 IJs) and reached the minimal count at the combiend effect. Finally, larvae were more susceptible to Steinernema carpocapsa than Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. (author)

  19. Eosinophils mediate protective immunity against secondary nematode infection.

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    Huang, Lu; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Luber, Kierstin L; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are versatile cells that regulate innate and adaptive immunity, influence metabolism and tissue repair, and contribute to allergic lung disease. Within the context of immunity to parasitic worm infections, eosinophils are prominent yet highly varied in function. We have shown previously that when mice undergo primary infection with the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis, eosinophils play an important immune regulatory role that promotes larval growth and survival in skeletal muscle. In this study, we aimed to address the function of eosinophils in secondary infection with T. spiralis. By infecting eosinophil-ablated mice, we found that eosinophils are dispensable for immunity that clears adult worms or controls fecundity in secondary infection. In contrast, eosinophil ablation had a pronounced effect on secondary infection of skeletal muscle by migratory newborn larvae. Restoring eosinophils to previously infected, ablated mice caused them to limit muscle larvae burdens. Passive immunization of naive, ablated mice with sera or Ig from infected donors, together with transfer of eosinophils, served to limit the number of newborn larvae that migrated in tissue and colonized skeletal muscle. Results from these in vivo studies are consistent with earlier findings that eosinophils bind to larvae in the presence of Abs in vitro. Although our previous findings showed that eosinophils protect the parasite in primary infection, these new data show that eosinophils protect the host in secondary infection. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Nematode infections: soil-transmitted helminths and trichinella.

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    Knopp, Stefanie; Steinmann, Peter; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-06-01

    Infection with soil-transmitted helminths occurs via ingestion of nematode eggs with contaminated food and water, via hands, or inhalation of dust, or by penetration of larvae through the skin. Trichinella infections are caused by the ingestion of larvae contained in undercooked meat. In highly endemic areas, preventive chemotherapy (ie, regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations) is the key strategy against soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Integrated control approaches, including improved hygiene, sanitation, and water, are required for lasting effects. Because of growing tourism, travel, and migration, clinicians and specialized travel clinics must remain aware of the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of soil-transmitted helminth and Trichinella infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of oxamyl on the citrus nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and on infection of sweet orange.

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    Baines, R C; Small, R H

    1976-04-01

    Foliar sprays of 4 microg/ml oxamyl on sweet orange trees in a greenhouse slightly depressed the number of Tylenchulus semipenetrans larvae obtained from roots and soil, but similar treatments were not effective in two orchards. Soil drench treatments decreased the number of citrus nematode larvae obtained from roots or soil of citrus plants grown itt a greenhouse and in orchards. Exposure to 5-10 microg/ml of oxamyl in water was lethal to only a few second-stage larvae treated 10 days, and many second-stage larvae in 2.0 microg/ml oxamyl recovered motility when transferred to fresh water. Aqueous solutions of 50 and 100 microg/ml of oxamyl were toxic to citrus nematode larvae. Additional observations indicate that oxamyl interfered with hatch of citrus nematode larvae and was nematistatic and/or protected sweet orange roots from infection. Oxamyl degraded at different rates in two soils. The number of citrus nematode larvae that infected and developed on sweet orange roots was increased by an undetermined product of the degradation of oxamyl in soil, water, and possibly within plants. This product apparently was translocated in roots.

  2. Cytokine production in BALB/c mice immunized with radiation attenuated third stage larvae of the filarial nematode, Brugia pahangi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bancroft, A.J.; Devaney, E.; Grencis, R.K.; Else, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    BALB/c mice immunized with radiation-attenuated third stage larvae of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi are strongly immune to challenge infection. Investigation of the profile of cytokines secreted by spleen cells from immune mice stimulated in vitro with either parasite Ag or with Con A revealed high levels of IL-5 and IL-9 and moderate levels of IL-4. In contrast, secretion of IFN-γ by spleen cells from immune animals was negligible. Spleen cells from control mice secreted low levels of all cytokines assayed. Levels of parasite-specific IgE were significantly elevated in immune animals and a peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed, which exhibited a biphasic distribution. Our results are consistent with the preferential expansion of Th2 cells in immune animals and provide the basis for dissecting the means by which radiation-attenuated larvae of filarial nematodes stimulate immunity. 5l refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Enhancing the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes by gamma radiation in controlling Spodoptera littoralis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Sayed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, finding a safe control program is the aim of all researchers. The goal of this work is to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the Entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema scapterisci and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (HP88 efficacy were tested against larvae of cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. under laboratory conditions. Results showed that 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci and H. bacteriophora were substantially effective in controlling S. littoralis larvae, while H. bacteriophora was more potent in controlling insect larvae. The results revealed that total protein concentration was significantly decreased (P < 0.05 after treatment with normal or irradiated H. bacteriophora or S. scapterisci. In addition, larvae infected with normal S. scapterisci or H. bacteriophora showed a significant elevation in phenoloxidase activity and represented significant reduce after treatment with 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci or H. bacteriophora as compared to control group. Also, lysozyme activity was significantly decreased after treatment with irradiated H. bacteriophora, but there was no significance with irradiated S. scapterisci, when compared with control. LDH activity was significantly high (p<0.05 in the haemolymph of larvae treated with normal or irradiated H. bacteriophora or S. scapterisci, as compared to control group. Furthermore among all treatments, 2 Gy irradiated H. bacteriophora was the most potent and efficient in the biomarkers changes. Therefore, it could be concluded that 2 Gy irradiated S. scapterisci and H. bacteriophora can serve within an integrated pest management (IPM program in an agroecosystem.

  4. Morphogenesis of Strongyloides stercoralis infective larvae requires the DAF-16 ortholog FKTF-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Castelletto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on metabolic and morphological similarities between infective third-stage larvae of parasitic nematodes and dauer larvae of Caenorhabditis elegans, it is hypothesized that similar genetic mechanisms control the development of these forms. In the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, FKTF-1 is an ortholog of DAF-16, a forkhead transcription factor that regulates dauer larval development in C. elegans. Using transgenesis, we investigated the role of FKTF-1 in S. stercoralis' infective larval development. In first-stage larvae, GFP-tagged recombinant FKTF-1b localizes to the pharynx and hypodermis, tissues remodeled in infective larvae. Activating and inactivating mutations at predicted AKT phosphorylation sites on FKTF-1b give constitutive cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the protein, respectively, indicating that its post-translational regulation is similar to other FOXO-class transcription factors. Mutant constructs designed to interfere with endogenous FKTF-1b function altered the intestinal and pharyngeal development of the larvae and resulted in some transgenic larvae failing to arrest in the infective stage. Our findings indicate that FKTF-1b is required for proper morphogenesis of S. stercoralis infective larvae and support the overall hypothesis of similar regulation of dauer development in C. elegans and the formation of infective larvae in parasitic nematodes.

  5. Laboratory trials to infect insects and nematodes by some acaropathogenic Hirsutella strains (Mycota: Clavicipitaceous anamorphs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałazy, Stanisław; Wrzosek, Marta; Sosnowska, Danuta; Tkaczuk, Cezary; Muszewska, Anna

    2008-02-01

    Laboratory assays have been carried out to artificially infect insect larvae of the birch bark-beetle (Scolytus ratzeburgi Jans.-Coleoptera, Scolytidae) and codling moth Cydia pomonella L. -Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) as well as the potato cyst nematode-Globodera rostochiensis Wollenweber, sugar beet nematode-Heterodera schachtii Schmidt and root-knot nematode-Meloidogyne hapla Chif (Nematoda, Heteroderidae), by the phialoconidia of some fungal species of the genus Hirsutella. From among four species tested on insects only H. nodulosa Petch infected about 20% of S. ratzeburgi larvae, whereas H. kirchneri (Rostrup) Minter, Brady et Hall, H. minnesotensis Chen, Liu et Chen, and H. rostrata Bałazy et Wiśniewski did not affect insect larvae. Only single eggs of the root-knot nematode were infected by H. minnesotensis in the laboratory trials, whereas its larvae remained unaffected. No infection cases of the potato cyst nematode (G. rostochiensis) and sugar beet nematode eggs were obtained. Comparisons of DNA-ITS-region sequences of the investigated strains with GenBank data showed no differences between H. minnesotensis isolates from the nematodes Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and from tarsonemid mites (authors' isolate). A fragment of ITS 2 with the sequence characteristic only for H. minnesotensis was selected. Two cluster analyses indicated close similarity of this species to H. thompsonii as sister clades, but the latter appeared more heterogenous. Insect and mite pathogenic species H. nodulosa localizes close to specialized aphid pathogen H. aphidis, whereas the phytophagous mite pathogens H. kirchneri and H. gregis form a separate sister clade. Hirsutella rostrata does not show remarkable relations to the establishment of aforementioned groups. Interrelated considerations on the morphology, biology and DNA sequencing of investigated Hirsutella species state their identification more precisely and facilitate the establishment of systematic positions.

  6. Induction of traps by Ostertagia ostertagi larvae, chlamydospore production and growth rate in the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, J.; Nansen, P.; Henriksen, S. A.

    1996-01-01

    Biological control of parasitic nematodes of domestic animals can be achieved by feeding host animals chlamydospores of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans. In the host faeces, D. flagrans develop traps that may catch nematode larvae. In experiments on agar, D. flagrans had a growth...

  7. Molecular identification of nematode larvae different from those of the Trichinella genus detected by muscle digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci, Gianluca; Interisano, Maria; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Pozio, Edoardo

    2013-05-20

    Although larvae of the genus Trichinella are the most common parasite species detected in vertebrate muscles using artificial digestion, nematode larvae belonging to other genera are sometimes detected and incorrectly identified as Trichinella. However, it is often very difficult to identify these larvae at the species, genus or family level using microscopy because of the absence of specific morphological characters or cuticle damage, and the only means of identification is PCR and sequencing of specific molecular markers (12S mtDNA; COI; 18S rDNA; and ITS1). From 2008 to 2011, 18 nematode isolates not belonging to the genus Trichinella were collected from different host species. Eleven of these isolates were successfully identified at the species, genus or superfamily level: larvae from two common kestrels, three hooded crows, a hen harrier and a domestic pig were identified as Toxocara cati; larvae from a badger were identified as Toxocara canis; larvae from a domestic pig were identified as a free-living nematode of the genus Panagrolaimus; larvae from a wild boar were identified as belonging to the Metastrongylus genus; and larvae from a rough-legged buzzard were identified as belonging to the superfamily Filarioidea. The recovery of nematodes belonging to genera other than Trichinella during routine meat inspection suggests that the persons performing the analyses need to be informed of the possibility of false positives and that a molecular-based identification system that allows for a rapid and reliable response must be adopted (i.e., a DNA barcoding-like system). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode infection and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GIN infection was associated with 1.4 litres per cow per day less milk and this ... Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in cattle are of considerable economic importance .... Table 2. Mean faecal egg counts of gastrointestinal nematodes and the 95% confidence ... 3.2 Gastrointestinal nematode species. The pooled ...

  9. Effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae and Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Control Oryctes rhinoceros Larvae in the Rainy Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, Dyah Rini; Widiyaningrum, Priyantini; Haryuni; Slamet, Muji; Maretta, Yoris Adi

    2017-01-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae (MET) and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are microorganisms that attack the larvae of Oryctes rhinoceros. The effects of MET, EPN and the combination of both on the O. rhinoceros larvae were studied during the rainy season in Jepara Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae and entomopathogenic nematodes to control Oryctes rhinoceros larvae in the rainy season. There were four level doses of MET, four level doses of EPN and four mixture of MET and EPN. The experiment used 72 containers that were placed in the garden with coconut palm shade. Five kilograms of organic soil that was mixed with biological control agents (MET, EPN and MET+EPN) and ten O. rhinoceros larvae 3rd instar were put in each other container. The data were analyzed by descriptive analysis. Every larvae mortality was observed once a week and observations are for 8 weeks. The result showed that the larval mortality due to MET treatment occurred on 2nd-7th week. Meanwhile, the larval mortality due to EPN treatment took place on 2nd-8th weeks and the larval mortality due to MET+EPN treatment occurred on 1st-5th weeks. The combination of MET and EPN was simultaneously effective to control O. rhinoceros larvae than separate use of MET or EPN. Result of this study showed that using two agents of biocontrol was more effective, so that it can be beneficial for controlling O. rhinoceros larvae in the field.

  10. Differential Change Patterns of Main Antimicrobial Peptide Genes During Infection of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Their Symbiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsouei, Reyhaneh; Karimi, Javad; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mojtaba

    2017-08-01

    The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as the main humoral defense reactions of insects during infection by entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and their symbiont is addressed herein. Three AMPs, attacin, cecropin, and spodoptericin, were evaluated in the fifth instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hübner (beet armyworm) when challenged with Steinernema carpocapsae or Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The results indicated that attacin was expressed to a greater extent than either cecropin or spodoptericin. While spodoptericin was expressed to a much lesser extent, this AMP was induced against Gram-positive bacteria, and thus not expressed after penetration of Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens. Attacin and cecropin in the larvae treated with S. carpocapsae at 8 hr post-injection (PI) attained the maximum expression levels and were 138.42-fold and 65.84-fold greater than those of larvae infected with H. bacteriophora, respectively. Generally, the ability of H. bacteriophora to suppress attacin, cecropin, and spodoptericin was greater than that of S. carpocapsae. According to the results, the expression of AMPs by Sp. exigua larvae against S. carpocapsae was determined in the 4 statuses of monoxenic nematode, axenic nematode, live symbiotic bacterium, and dead symbiotic bacterium. The expression of attacin in larvae treated with a monoxenic nematode and live bacterium at 8 and 2 hr PI, respectively, were increased to the maximum amount. Live X. nematophila was the strongest agent for the suppression of attacin. The expression of cecropin against monoxenic nematodes and live symbiotic bacteria at 8 and 4 hr PI, respectively, reached the maximum amount while the expression levels of attacin and cecropin for axenic nematodes were lesser and stable. The results highlighted that the ability of P. luminescens in AMPs suppression was much more than X. nematophila. The results also showed that the effect of symbiotic bacterium in suppressing attacin and

  11. Dynamics in the tomato root transcriptome on infection with the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecicka, Magdalena; Filipecki, Marcin; Lont, Dieuwertje; Van Vliet, Joke; Qin, Ling; Goverse, Aska; Bakker, Jaap; Helder, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes infect roots and trigger the formation of specialized feeding sites by substantial reprogramming of the developmental process of root cells. In this article, we describe the dynamic changes in the tomato root transcriptome during early interactions with the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism-based mRNA fingerprinting (cDNA-AFLP), we monitored 17 600 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in infected and uninfected tomato roots, 1-14 days after inoculation with nematode larvae. Six hundred and twenty-four TDFs (3.5%) showed significant differential expression on nematode infection. We employed GenEST, a computer program which links gene expression profiles generated by cDNA-AFLP and databases of cDNA sequences, to identify 135 tomato sequences. These sequences were grouped into eight functional categories based on the presence of genes involved in hormone regulation, plant pathogen defence response, cell cycle and cytoskeleton regulation, cell wall modification, cellular signalling, transcriptional regulation, primary metabolism and allocation. The presence of unclassified genes was also taken into consideration. This article describes the responsiveness of numerous tomato genes hitherto uncharacterized during infection with endoparasitic cyst nematodes. The analysis of transcriptome profiles allowed the sequential order of expression to be dissected for many groups of genes and the genes to be connected with the biological processes involved in compatible interactions between the plant and nematode.

  12. Seasonal distribution of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep in a semiarid region, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima de Souza

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal distribution and gastrointestinal nematode parasite load in crossbred Santa Inês tracer lambs, and to correlate the rainfall during the study period with occurrences of parasitic infections. Sixty-four male tracer lambs between the ages of four and eight months were used in the study. Two tracer lambs were inserted into the herd every 28 days to determine the pattern of infective larvae available in the environment. Variation in the fecal egg count (FEC of nematodes was observed at the study site, with many samples containing undetectable parasite loads during the dry season. The larvae identified in coprocultures wereHaemonchus sp., Trichostrongylus sp.,Cooperia sp., Strongyloides sp. andOesophagostomum sp. The nematodes recovered at necropsy were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Cooperia punctata, C. pectinata, Trichuris sp.,Oesophagostomum sp. and Skrajabinema ovis. The total number of larvae and the total number of immature and adult forms recovered from the tracers showed seasonal distributions that significantly correlated with the amount of rainfall received that month (p value ≅ 0.000 in all cases . The species H. contortus was predominant in the herd and should be considered to be main pathogenic nematode species in these hosts under these conditions.

  13. Seasonal distribution of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep in a semiarid region, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Maria de Fátima; Pimentel-Neto, Manoel; de Pinho, André Luís Santos; da Silva, Rízia Maria; Farias, Albeísa Cleyse Batista; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal distribution and gastrointestinal nematode parasite load in crossbred Santa Inês tracer lambs, and to correlate the rainfall during the study period with occurrences of parasitic infections. Sixty-four male tracer lambs between the ages of four and eight months were used in the study. Two tracer lambs were inserted into the herd every 28 days to determine the pattern of infective larvae available in the environment. Variation in the fecal egg count (FEC) of nematodes was observed at the study site, with many samples containing undetectable parasite loads during the dry season. The larvae identified in coprocultures were Haemonchus sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Cooperia sp., Strongyloides sp. and Oesophagostomum sp. The nematodes recovered at necropsy were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Cooperia punctata, C. pectinata, Trichuris sp., Oesophagostomum sp. and Skrajabinema ovis. The total number of larvae and the total number of immature and adult forms recovered from the tracers showed seasonal distributions that significantly correlated with the amount of rainfall received that month (p value ≅ 0.000 in all cases ). The species H. contortus was predominant in the herd and should be considered to be main pathogenic nematode species in these hosts under these conditions.

  14. First record of a nematode Metastrongyloidea (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae) in Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Mollusca, Achatinidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengo, Silvana C; Fernandez, Monica A; Torres, Eduardo J L; Coelho, Pablo M; Lanfredi, Reinalda M

    2008-05-01

    Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica was introduced in Brazil in the 1980s for commercial purposes ("escargot" farming) and nowadays, mainly by human activity, it is widespread in at least 23 out of 26 Brazilian states and Brasília, including the Amazonian region and natural reserves, where besides a general nuisance for people it is a pest and also a public health concern, since it is one of the natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ethiological agent of the meningoencephalitis in Asia. As Brazil is experiencing the explosive phase of the invasion, the Laboratório de Malacologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz has been receiving samples of these molluscs for identification and search for Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae. While examining samples of A. fulica different nematode larvae were obtained, including Aelurostrongylus, whose different species are parasites of felids, dogs, primates, and badger. Morphological and morphometric analyses presented herein indicated the species Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, as well as the occurrence of other nematode larvae (Strongyluris-like) found in the interior of the pallial cavity of A. fulica. This is the first report in Brazil of the development of A. abstrusus infective larvae in A. fulica evidencing the veterinary importance of this mollusc in the transmission of A. abstrusus to domestic cats. Since the spread of A. fulica is pointed out in the literature as one of the main causative spread of the meningoencephalitis caused by A. cantonensis the authors emphasize the need of sanitary vigilance of snails and rats from vulnerable areas for A. cantonensis introduction as the port side areas.

  15. Efficacy of moxidectin against nematodes in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, G C; Giordano-Fenton, D J; Tritschler, J P

    1994-07-09

    The activity of an oral drench of moxidectin against nematodes in naturally infected sheep known to harbour Nematodirus species was evaluated at doses of 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg bodyweight. Moxidectin was 100 per cent effective against nematodes in the abomasum and 100 per cent effective against nematodes in the small intestine except for adult Trichostrongylus species, against which its efficacy was 94 per cent. It was 100 per cent effective against nematodes in the large intestine except for Trichuris ovis, against which its efficacy was 83 per cent.

  16. A Survey of Nematode Infection in Oreochromis niloticus (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence and intensity of nematode infection was investigated in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Kyoga, Uganda and 11% of the 406 fish examined were parasitized by nematodes of the genus Contracaecum. The prevalence of these parasites was greatest in the smallest and largest size classes, but this ...

  17. A novel approach to biocontrol: Release of live insect hosts pre-infected with entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Arife; Karagoz, Mehmet; Shapiro-Ilan, David; Hazir, Selcuk

    2015-09-01

    As a new application approach, we tested the efficacy of releasing live insect hosts that were pre-infected with entomopathogenic nematodes against insect pests living in cryptic habitats. We hypothesized that the pre-infected hosts could carry the next generation of emerging nematode infective juveniles to hard-to-reach target sites, and thereby facilitate enhanced control in cryptic habitats. Thus, the infected hosts act as "living insect bombs" against the target pest. We tested this approach using two model insect pests: a chestnut tree pest, the goat moth Cossus cossus (Lepidiptera: Cossidae), and a lawn caterpillar, Spodoptera cilium (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). One pest is considered hard-to-reach via aqueous spray (C. cossus) and the other is more openly exposed in the environment (S. cilium). C. cossus and S. cilium studies were conducted in chestnut logs and Bermudagrass arenas, respectively. The living bomb approach was compared with standard nematode application in aqueous spray and controls (without nematode application); Steinernema carpocapsae (Rize isolate) was used in all experiments. The percentage larval mortality of C. cossus was 86% in the living insect bomb treatment, whereas, all other treatments and controls exhibited less than 4% mortality. The new approach (living bomb) was equally successful as standard aqueous application for the control of S. cilium larvae. Both methods exhibited more than 90% mortality in the turfgrass arena. Our new approach showed an immense potential to control insect pests living in hard-to-reach cryptic habitats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Capacity of the terrestrial entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema rarum (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae to parasite Culex apicinus larvae (Diptera: Culicidae Capacidad del nemátodo terrestre entomopatógeno Steinernema rarum (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae de parasitar larvas de Culex apicinus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana R. Cagnolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes can be considered effective agents for biocontrol, resulting innocuous for humans. Larvaeof Culex apicinus Philippi were exposed to infective juveniles of Steinernema rarum (OLI strain under laboratory conditions, testing six doses (1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, 100:1, 400:1. An increasing percentage of mosquito larvae mortality was recorded with an increased dose. The highest percentage of mosquito larvae mortality (75% was obtained with the dose 400:1. This is the first report of parasitism of an isolated of S. rarum from Córdoba against larvae of C. apicinus, with promising results. Therefore, further studies must be carried out to determine if these nematodes would be effective as autochthonous agents for the control of Culex Linnaeus and other mosquitoes of sanitary interest in the country.Los nemátodos entomopatógenos son considerados eficientes agentes de control de insectos plaga e inocuos para los humanos. Larvas de Culex apicinus Philippi fueron expuestas a seis dosis (1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, 100:1, 400:1 de juveniles infectivos de Steinernema rarum (aislado OLI. Se registró un incremento en la mortalidad de las larvas del mosquito con el aumento de la dosis del nematodo. El mayor porcentaje de mortalidad de larvas del mosquito (75% se obtuvo con la dosis 400:1. Este es el primer reporte de parasitismo de un aislado de S. rarum de Córdoba, en larvas de C. apicinus con resultados promisorios. Por lo tanto, se debería profundizar su estudio para determinar si pueden resultar efectivos como agentes autóctonos para el control biológico de mosquitos Culex Linnaeus, y otros de interés sanitario en el país.

  19. Association between nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum invasion of cod larvae and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Kuhn, Jesper

    Parasitic nematodes of the superfamily Ascaridoidea are distributed worldwide also with numerous representatives in fish. They have an important role to play in the aquatic environment and may affect survivability of fish. The life cycle of many of these fish infecting roundworm species includes...... invertebrates and fish species and for some species also higher vertebrate hosts. We have recently demonstrated that fry of North Sea cod has a high prevalence of infection with regard to the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum and it was indicated that these infections could affect survival of cod and thereby......, lapillus otoliths were removed, polished and the number of growth zones in each otolith counted by light microscopy. Each growth zone indicates one day of the fish life span. Covariance analysis demonstrated highly significant differences (p≤ 0.001) between the growth rate of infected and uninfected cod...

  20. Prevalence of common gastro-intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    (GIN) infection and identified the common GIN parasites in commercial goat production in. Central Uganda. .... Table 1. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in goats in Central Uganda .... ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 40-76.

  1. Extrusion of Contracaecum osculatum nematode larvae from the liver of cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, S.; Barlaup, L.; Mohammadkarami, A.

    2017-01-01

    Baltic cod livers have during recent years been found increasingly and heavily infected with third-stage larvae of Contracaecum osculatum. The infections are associated with an increasing population of grey seals which are final hosts for the parasite. Heavy worm burdens challenge utilization...

  2. Sensory Neuroanatomy of Parastrongyloides trichosuri, a Nematode Parasite of Mammals: Amphidial Neurons of the First-Stage Larva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Li, Jian; Nolan, Thomas J.; Schad, Gerhard A.; Lok, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to its ability to switch between free-living and parasitic modes of development, Parastrongyloides trichosuri represents a valuable model with which to study the evolution of parasitism among the nematodes, especially aspects pertaining to morphogenesis of infective third-stage larvae. In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, developmental fates of third-stage larvae are determined in part by environmental cues received by chemosensory neurons in the amphidial sensillae. As a basis for comparative study, we have described the neuroanatomy of the amphidial sensillae of P. trichosuri. Using computational methods we incorporated serial electron micrographs into a three-dimensional reconstruction of the amphidial neurons of this parasite. Each amphid is innervated by 13 neurons, and the dendritic processes of 10 of these extend nearly to the amphidial pore. Dendritic processes of two specialized neurons leave the amphidial channel and terminate within invaginations of the sheath cell. One of these is similar to the finger cell of C. elegans, terminating in digitiform projections. The other projects a single cilium into the sheath cell. The dendritic process of a third specialized neuron terminates within the tight junction of the amphid. Each amphidial neuron was traced from the tip of its dendrite(s) to its cell body in the lateral ganglion. Positions of these cell bodies approximate those of morphologically similar amphidial neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, so the standard nomenclature for amphidial neurons in C. elegans was adopted. A map of cell bodies within the lateral ganglion of P. trichosuri was prepared to facilitate functional study of these neurons. PMID:21456026

  3. Heliconema anguillae Yamaguti, 1935, a physalopterid nematode found in Japanese eels: taxonomic resurrection with a note on the third-stage larva from intertidal crabs in western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Hirotaka; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    A parasitic nematode from the stomach of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica Temminck et Schlegel in western Japan, previously identified as Heliconema longissimum (Ortlepp, 1922), was morphologically re-examined and compared with the previous descriptions. In addition, the third-stage larva of this nematode is described, based on the specimens of encapsuled larvae found in musculature of two crabs, Hemigrapsus sp. and Perisesarma bidens (De Haan), caught from the upper-intertidal zone of the same locality. As a result of the morphological observation, seven pairs of postcloacal papillae in adult males are confirmed. This matches with the character of H. longissimum, but the shape of the fifth postcloacal papillae differs between the present material and H. longissimum; the former possesses pedunculate papillae in the fifth pair whereas the latter has sessile papillae. Since the pedunculate papillae can be found in the original description and the syntype specimens of H. anguillae Yamaguti, 1935 that has been synonymised with H. longissimum, we thus here resurrect H. anguillae as an accepted species. For the life-cycle of the present nematode, littoral crabs, including the two infected species, are likely to be the source of infections for Japanese eels, acting as intermediate hosts.

  4. Reduced spatial learning in mice infected with the nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliers, M; Colwell, D D

    1995-06-01

    Parasite modification of host behaviour influences a number of critical responses, but little is known about the effects on host spatial abilities. This study examined the effects of infection with the intestinal trichostrongylid nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, on spatial water maze learning by male laboratory mice, Mus musculus. In this task individual mice had to learn the spatial location of a submerged hidden platform using extramaze visual cues. Determinations of spatial performance were made on day 19 post-infection with mice that had been administered either 50 or 200 infective larvae of H. polygyrus. The infected mice displayed over 1 day of testing (6 blocks of 4 trials) significantly poorer acquisition and retention of the water maze task than either sham-infected or control mice, with mice that had received 200 infective larvae displaying significantly poorer spatial performance than individuals receiving 50 larvae. The decrease in spatial learning occurred in the absence of either any symptoms of illness and malaise, or any evident motor, visual and motivational impairments. It is suggested that in this single host system the parasitic infection-induced decrease in spatial learning arises as a side-effect of the host's immunological and neuromodulatory responses and represents a fitness cost of response to infection.

  5. The efficacy of two isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans against Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae in faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, A.S.; Larsen, M.; Nansen, P.

    1999-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to examine the effects of two different isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to reduce the number of free-living larvae of the bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus. A laboratory dose-titration assay showed that isolates CI3...

  6. Extrusion of Contracaecum osculatum nematode larvae from the liver of cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, S; Barlaup, L; Mohammadkarami, A; Al-Jubury, A; Chen, D; Kania, P W; Buchmann, K

    2017-10-01

    Baltic cod livers have during recent years been found increasingly and heavily infected with third-stage larvae of Contracaecum osculatum. The infections are associated with an increasing population of grey seals which are final hosts for the parasite. Heavy worm burdens challenge utilization and safety of the fish liver products, and technological solutions for removal of worms are highly needed. We investigated the attachment of the worm larvae in liver tissue by use of histochemical techniques and found that the cod host encapsulates the worm larvae in layers of host cells (macrophages, fibroblasts) supported by enclosures of collagen and calcium. A series of incubation techniques, applying compounds targeting molecules in the capsule, were then tested for their effect to induce worm escape/release reactions. Full digestion solutions comprising pepsin, NaCl, HCl and water induced a fast escape of more than 60% of the worm larvae within 20 min and gave full release within 65 min but the liver tissue became highly dispersed. HCl alone, in concentrations of 48 and 72 mM, triggered a corresponding release of worm larvae with minor effect on liver integrity. A lower HCl concentration of 24 mM resulted in 80% release within 35 min. Water and physiological saline had no effect on worm release, and 1% pepsin in water elicited merely a weak escape reaction. In addition to the direct effect of acid on worm behaviour it is hypothesised that the acid effect on calcium carbonate in the encapsulation, with subsequent release of reaction products, may contribute to activation of C. osculatum larvae and induce escape reactions. Short-term pretreatment of infected cod liver and possibly other infected fish products, using low acid concentrations is suggested as part of a technological solution for worm clearance as low acid concentrations had limited macroscopic effect on liver integrity within 35 min.

  7. Implications of nutrition for the ability of ruminants to withstand gastrointestinal nematode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houtert, M F; Sykes, A R

    1996-11-01

    Resistance and resilience of the ruminant host to gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic nematode infections are influenced by many factors, including nutrition. This review examines the effects of host nutrition on the ability of ruminants to withstand GI nematode infections. Firstly the effects of infection on host metabolism are summarised briefly. An important factor in the pathogenesis is a reduction in feed intake by the host. Gut nematodes also increase endogenous protein losses, which result in net loss of amino acids to the parasitised host, though energy and mineral metabolism are also perturbed. The indications are that the major nutritional change is in protein metabolism. Resilience (the ability of an animal to withstand the effects of infection) can be enhanced markedly by increasing metabolisable protein supply and to a lesser extent metabolisable energy supply. Resistance to GI nematodes (ability of host to prevent establishment and/or development of infection) is also influenced by diet, particularly metabolisable protein supply. While there do not appear to be any effects of host nutrition on establishment of infective larvae, the rate of rejection of adult worms can be enhanced by improved nutrition. The exact nutritional requirements or the mechanisms involved are not known. It appears that the effects of improving nutritional status on host resilience are more clearly defined than effects on host resistance. The implication of changes in host resistance with nutritional state for host productivity need to be better described. Understanding the role of nutrition in improving both resistance and resilience of the host to GI parasites will be important if producers are to make better use of host acquired immunity and reduce dependence on pesticides for prophylaxis.

  8. Infection Assay of Cyst Nematodes on Arabidopsis Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, Holger; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-09-20

    Plant parasitic nematodes are devastating pests on many crops. Juveniles (J2) of cyst nematodes invade the roots to induce a syncytium. This feeding site is their only source of nutrients. Male nematodes leave the roots after the fourth molt to mate with females. The females stay attached to their syncytia throughout their life and produce hundreds of eggs, which are contained in their bodies. When the females die their bodies form the cysts, which protect the eggs. Cysts can survive for many years in the soil until favorable conditions induce hatching of the juveniles. The beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii ( H. schachtii )is a pathogen of sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris ) but can also complete its life cycle on Arabidopsis roots growing on agar plates under sterile conditions. We present here protocols for a stock culture of H. schachtii and an infection assay on agar plates.

  9. Possible presence of common tyvelose-containing glycans in Trichinella L1 larvae and embryonated eggs of several nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea-Ayuela M.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A monoclonal antibody (mAb US4 recognising an epitope containing tyvelose within the T. spiralis L-1 muscle larvae (TSL-1 antigens was tested in western-blot against various antigenic preparations from different stages of the following nematodes: T. spiralis (L1,adult, T. muris (egg, L1, L3, adult, Ascaris suum (egg, adult, Toxocara canis (egg, adult, Anisakis simplex (L3 and Haemochus contortus (egg. Positive reaction was present in antigen preparations from L1 larvae of T. spiralis and T. muris and from embryonated eggs of T. muris, A. suum, T. canis and H. conlortus.

  10. Nematodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kenshi; Ishii, Naoaki

    1977-01-01

    Utilization of nematodes for a study of radiation biology was considered. Structure, generation, rearing method, and genetic nature of nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans, Turbatri acetic, etc.) were given an outline. As the advantage of a study using nematodes as materials, shortness of one generation time, simplicity in structure, and smallness of the whole cells, specific regular movement, and heliotaxis to chemical substances and light were mentioned. Effect of x-ray on survival rate of nematodes and effect of ultraviolet on nematodes and their eggs were described. It was suggested that nematodes was useful for studies on aging and radiation biology, and a possibility existed that nematodes would be used in studies of cancer and malformation. (Serizawa, K.)

  11. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Weight gain and resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infections in two genetically diverse groups of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Johan; Hessle, Anna; Zaralis, Konstantinos; Arvidsson-Segerkvist, Katarina; Athanasiadou, Spiridoula

    2018-01-15

    Body weight gain (BWG) and gastrointestinal nematode challenge (GIN) were investigated in two genetically diverse groups of cattle. Thirty-two dairy calves (D=Swedish Red/Holstein) and 31 dairy×beef crosses (C=Swedish Red/Holstein×Charolais) pairwise matched by dam breed and birth dates, were monitored for ≈20 weeks on a pasture grazed by cattle in the previous year. At turn-out, animals (between 6 and 12 months age) from each genotype were either infected with 5000 third stage (L3) Ostertagia ostertagi (50%) and Cooperia oncophora (50%) larvae (H, high-exposure); or treated monthly with 0.5mg ivermectin (Noromectin ® , Pour-on) per kg bodyweight to remove worms ingested (L, low-exposure). Animals were weighed every fortnight and individual BWG was calculated. Faecal and blood samples were collected every four weeks throughout the experiment for nematode faecal egg counts (FEC) and larvae cultures and serum pepsinogen concentrations (SPC), respectively. Nematode eggs were observed 29 days post turn-out in both H groups. FEC peaked to around 200 eggs per gram (epg) on days 58 and 85 respectively in both H groups. FEC were also observed in the L groups at the same time, but mean epg remained very low (3.5 IU tyrosine whereas only six DH animals reached similar pepsinogen levels. The level of infection (H and L) significantly affected BWG in both genotypes. Even though there was no statistically significant genotype (C or D)×treatment (H or L) interaction, there was a larger difference in body weight of H and L in C (37kg) compared to D (17kg) genotypes at the end of the experiment. Our data collectively support the view crossbred (C) animals experience the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism more severely compared to pure dairy (D) first season grazers. The mechanisms that underpin this remains speculative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microarray-based analysis of differential gene expression between infective and noninfective larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Ramanathan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Differences between noninfective first-stage (L1 and infective third-stage (L3i larvae of parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis at the molecular level are relatively uncharacterized. DNA microarrays were developed and utilized for this purpose.Oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the array were designed to bind 3,571 putative mRNA transcripts predicted by analysis of 11,335 expressed sequence tags (ESTs obtained as part of the Nematode EST project. RNA obtained from S. stercoralis L3i and L1 was co-hybridized to each array after labeling the individual samples with different fluorescent tags. Bioinformatic predictions of gene function were developed using a novel cDNA Annotation System software. We identified 935 differentially expressed genes (469 L3i-biased; 466 L1-biased having two-fold expression differences or greater and microarray signals with a p value<0.01. Based on a functional analysis, L1 larvae have a larger number of genes putatively involved in transcription (p = 0.004, and L3i larvae have biased expression of putative heat shock proteins (such as hsp-90. Genes with products known to be immunoreactive in S. stercoralis-infected humans (such as SsIR and NIE had L3i biased expression. Abundantly expressed L3i contigs of interest included S. stercoralis orthologs of cytochrome oxidase ucr 2.1 and hsp-90, which may be potential chemotherapeutic targets. The S. stercoralis ortholog of fatty acid and retinol binding protein-1, successfully used in a vaccine against Ancylostoma ceylanicum, was identified among the 25 most highly expressed L3i genes. The sperm-containing glycoprotein domain, utilized in a vaccine against the nematode Cooperia punctata, was exclusively found in L3i biased genes and may be a valuable S. stercoralis target of interest.A new DNA microarray tool for the examination of S. stercoralis biology has been developed and provides new and valuable insights regarding differences between infective and

  14. Transcriptional response of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterial pathogen Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Robert Scott; Lopez, Dawn; Evans, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    American foulbrood disease of honey bees is caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Infection occurs per os in larvae and systemic infection requires a breaching of the host peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelium. Genetic variation exists for both bacterial virulence and host resistance, and a general immunity is achieved by larvae as they age, the basis of which has not been identified. To quickly identify a pool of candidate genes responsive to P. larvae infection, we sequenced transcripts from larvae inoculated with P. larvae at 12 hours post-emergence and incubated for 72 hours, and compared expression levels to a control cohort. We identified 75 genes with significantly higher expression and six genes with significantly lower expression. In addition to several antimicrobial peptides, two genes encoding peritrophic-matrix domains were also up-regulated. Extracellular matrix proteins, proteases/protease inhibitors, and members of the Osiris gene family were prevalent among differentially regulated genes. However, analysis of Drosophila homologs of differentially expressed genes revealed spatial and temporal patterns consistent with developmental asynchrony as a likely confounder of our results. We therefore used qPCR to measure the consistency of gene expression changes for a subset of differentially expressed genes. A replicate experiment sampled at both 48 and 72 hours post infection allowed further discrimination of genes likely to be involved in host response. The consistently responsive genes in our test set included a hymenopteran-specific protein tyrosine kinase, a hymenopteran specific serine endopeptidase, a cytochrome P450 (CYP9Q1), and a homolog of trynity, a zona pellucida domain protein. Of the known honey bee antimicrobial peptides, apidaecin was responsive at both time-points studied whereas hymenoptaecin was more consistent in its level of change between biological replicates and had the greatest increase in expression by RNA-seq analysis.

  15. Successful application of entomopathogenic nematodes for the biological control of western corn rootworm larvae in Europe – a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toepfer, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 10 years of joint efforts in research and development have led to a nematode-based biological control solution for one of the most destructive maize pests, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae. Commercially mass-produced Heterorhabditis species of beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes are ready to use. They can be applied into the soil during sowing of maize for controlling the subsequently hatching larvae of D. virgifera virgifera thus preventing root feeding and damage to maize. Policy bodies, decision makers and farmers are advised to consider biological control as one of the alternatives to synthetic pesticides in maize production, and according to the EC Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides and implementation of integrated pest management.

  16. The Role of Cytokinin During Infection of Arabidopsis thaliana by the Cyst Nematode Heterodera schachtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Carly M; Rice, J Hollis; Zubo, Yan; Schaller, G Eric; Hewezi, Tarek; Kieber, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes induce the formation of hypermetabolic feeding sites, termed syncytia, as their sole source of nutrients. The formation of the syncytium is orchestrated by the nematode, in part, by modulation of phytohormone responses, including cytokinin. In response to infection by the nematode Heterodera schachtii, cytokinin signaling is transiently induced at the site of infection and in the developing syncytium. Arabidopsis lines with reduced cytokinin sensitivity show reduced susceptibility to nematode infection, indicating that cytokinin signaling is required for optimal nematode development. Furthermore, lines with increased cytokinin sensitivity also exhibit reduced nematode susceptibility. To ascertain why cytokinin hypersensitivity reduces nematode parasitism, we examined the transcriptomes in wild type and a cytokinin-hypersensitive type-A arr Arabidopsis mutant in response to H. schachtii infection. Genes involved in the response to biotic stress and defense response were elevated in the type-A arr mutant in the absence of nematodes and were hyperinduced following H. schachtii infection, which suggests that the Arabidopsis type-A arr mutants impede nematode development because they are primed to respond to pathogen infection. These results suggest that cytokinin signaling is required for optimal H. schachtii parasitism of Arabidopsis but that elevated cytokinin signaling triggers a heightened immune response to nematode infection.

  17. A Novel Method for Predicting Anisakid Nematode Infection of Atlantic Cod Using Rough Set Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wąsikowska, Barbara; Sobecka, Ewa; Bielat, Iwona; Legierko, Monika; Więcaszek, Beata

    2018-03-01

    Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) is one of the most important fish species in the fisheries industries of many countries; however, these fish are often infected with parasites. The detection of pathogenic larval nematodes is usually performed in fish processing facilities by visual examination using candling or by digesting muscles in artificial digestive juices, but these methods are both time and labor intensive. This article presents an innovative approach to the analysis of cod parasites from both the Atlantic and Baltic Sea areas through the application of rough set theory, one of the methods of artificial intelligence, for the prediction of food safety in a food production chain. The parasitological examinations were performed focusing on nematode larvae pathogenic to humans, e.g., Anisakis simplex, Contracaecum osculatum, and Pseudoterranova decipiens. The analysis allowed identification of protocols with which it is possible to make preliminary estimates of the quantity and quality of parasites found in cod catches before detailed analyses are performed. The results indicate that the method used can be an effective analytical tool for these types of data. To achieve this goal, a database is needed that contains the patterns intensity of parasite infections and the conditions of commercial fish species in different localities in their distributions.

  18. A Consideration of Resistance and Tolerance for Ruminant Nematode Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eBishop

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Debates on the relative merits of resistance (the ability of the host to control the parasite lifecycle and tolerance (the net impact of infection on host performance are often lively and unhindered by data or evidence. Resistance generally shows continuous, heritable variation but data are sparser for tolerance, the utility of which will depend upon the disease prevalence. Prevalence is a function of group mean resistance and infection pressure, which itself is influenced by mean resistance. Tolerance will have most value for endemic diseases with a high prevalence, but will be of little value for low prevalence diseases. The conditionality of tolerance on infection status, and hence resistance, makes it difficult to estimate independently of resistance.Tolerance is potentially tractable for nematode infections, as the prevalence of infection is ca. 100% in animals grazing infected pasture, and infection level can be quantified by faecal egg count (FEC. Whilst individual animal phenotypes for tolerance are difficult to estimate, breeding values are estimable if related animals graze pastures of different contamination levels. Selection for resistance, i.e. FEC, provides both direct and indirect benefits from ever decreased pasture contamination and hence decreased infectious challenge. Modelling and experimental studies have shown that such reductions in pasture contamination may lead to substantially increased performance.It is proposed that selection goals addressing nematode infections should include both resistance and performance under challenging conditions. However, there may be benefits from exploiting large datasets in which sires are used across cohorts differing in infection level, to further explore tolerance. This may help to customise breeding objectives, with tolerance given greater weight in heavily parasitized environments.

  19. Effect of gut bacterial isolates from Apis mellifera jemenitica on Paenibacillus larvae infected bee larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Ali Khan, Khalid; Javed Ansari, Mohammad; Almasaudi, Saad B; Al-Kahtani, Saad

    2018-02-01

    The probiotic effects of seven newly isolated gut bacteria, from the indegenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia were investigated. In vivo bioassays were used to investigate the effects of each gut bacterium namely, Fructobacillus fructosus (T1), Proteus mirabilis (T2), Bacillus licheniformis (T3), Lactobacillus kunkeei (T4), Bacillus subtilis (T5), Enterobacter kobei (T6), and Morganella morganii (T7) on mortality percentage of honey bee larvae infected with P. larvae spores along with negative control (normal diet) and positive control (normal diet spiked with P. larvae spores). Addition of gut bacteria to the normal diet significantly reduced the mortality percentage of the treated groups. Mortality percentage in all treated groups ranged from 56.67% up to 86.67%. T6 treated group exhibited the highest mortality (86.67%), whereas T4 group showed the lowest mortality (56.67%). Among the seven gut bacterial treatments, T4 and T3 decreased the mortality 56.67% and 66.67%, respectively, whereas, for T2, T6, and T7 the mortality percentage was equal to that of the positive control (86.67%). Mortality percentages in infected larval groups treated with T1, and T5 were 78.33% and 73.33% respectively. Most of the mortality occurred in the treated larvae during days 2 and 3. Treatments T3 and T4 treatments showed positive effects and reduced mortality.

  20. Effect of gut bacterial isolates from Apis mellifera jemenitica on Paenibacillus larvae infected bee larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Ghamdi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The probiotic effects of seven newly isolated gut bacteria, from the indegenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia were investigated. In vivo bioassays were used to investigate the effects of each gut bacterium namely, Fructobacillus fructosus (T1, Proteus mirabilis (T2, Bacillus licheniformis (T3, Lactobacillus kunkeei (T4, Bacillus subtilis (T5, Enterobacter kobei (T6, and Morganella morganii (T7 on mortality percentage of honey bee larvae infected with P. larvae spores along with negative control (normal diet and positive control (normal diet spiked with P. larvae spores. Addition of gut bacteria to the normal diet significantly reduced the mortality percentage of the treated groups. Mortality percentage in all treated groups ranged from 56.67% up to 86.67%. T6 treated group exhibited the highest mortality (86.67%, whereas T4 group showed the lowest mortality (56.67%. Among the seven gut bacterial treatments, T4 and T3 decreased the mortality 56.67% and 66.67%, respectively, whereas, for T2, T6, and T7 the mortality percentage was equal to that of the positive control (86.67%. Mortality percentages in infected larval groups treated with T1, and T5 were 78.33% and 73.33% respectively. Most of the mortality occurred in the treated larvae during days 2 and 3. Treatments T3 and T4 treatments showed positive effects and reduced mortality.

  1. Effectiveness of the Entomopathogenic Nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema feltiae against Tenebrio molitor (Yellow Mealworm) Larvae in Different Soil Types at Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    SUSURLUK, Alper

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema feltiae Tur-S3 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Tur-H2, isolated in Turkey, against larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. was investigated in different soil type and temperature conditions. Sterilized and non-sterilized silver sand, clay-loam soil, and compost soil were tested, each at 12, 18, and 24 ºC. Temperature had the greatest effect on the mortality of T. molitor larvae caused by both nematode species. The efficiency of the 2 nemato...

  2. Experimental infection in Notodiaptomus sp. (Crustacea: Calanoida with larvae of Camallanus sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae Infecção experimental em Notodiaptomus sp. (Crustacea: Calanoida com larvas de Camallanus sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Martins

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This trial registered the experimental infection viability with nematode larvae Camallanus sp. in Notodiaptomus sp., a crustacean, which can be an intermediate host. Adult females of nematode were dissected from the intestines of Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae, at a fish farm in the State of São Paulo. Females were slightly compressed for larvae release, collected with Pasteur pipette and separated on Petri dishes with 9ml filtered water at 28.1ºC, from zooplankton culture. Treatments consisted of Petri dishes with 60 and 105 copepods, in which 120, 150 and 210 larvae of nematode were added in four replications. Twenty-four and 36h after exposition to the larvae, the copepods were fixed in 70% alcohol to record the amount of fixed larvae. Twenty four hours after exposition, 60 copepods group with 120 larvae showed significantly higher prevalence (46.5% when compared to 105 copepods and 120 larvae (33.2%. Thus, these answers suggested that 120 larvae were enough for a successful infectivity. Experimental infection was available and so, it was used as a pattern to life cycle studies of camallanid nematodes and hosts susceptibility tests.A viabilidade da infecção experimental com larvas do nematóide Camallanus sp. em Notodiaptomus sp., crustáceo com potencial para hospedeiro intermediário foi avaliada. Fêmeas adultas do nematóide foram extraídas de Xiphophorus maculatus (Osteichthyes: Poeciliidae, provenientes de piscicultura de peixes ornamentais no estado de São Paulo. As fêmeas foram ligeiramente pressionadas para liberar as larvas, coletadas com pipeta Pasteur e separadas em placas de Petri contendo 9ml de água filtrada a 28,1ºC do próprio cultivo de zooplâncton. Os tratamentos consistiram de placas contendo 60 e 105 copépodes onde se adicionou 120, 150 e 210 larvas de nematóides em quatro repetições. Nos tempos de 24 e 36h após a exposição às larvas, os copépodes foram fixados em álcool 70% para

  3. Infection of silkworm larvae by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The isolate E9 of Metarhizium anisopliae was used in commercial hybrids of Bombyx mori larvae to evaluate its biological effect. Symptomatological analyses showed typical signs of fungal infection. Histopathology revealed the presence of large numbers of hemocytes in the hemocoel, and on the sixth dpi the bodies of the insects appeared to be colonised by the fungus. The isolate E9 is pathogenic to larvae B. mori and; therefore, death of the insects was caused by the colonization of fungus in the epidermal and mesodermal tissues.

  4. Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Skovgaard, Alf

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found ...

  5. Effects of storage temperature on survival and infectivity of three indigenous entomopathogenic nematodes strains (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) from Meghalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalramliana; Yadav, Arun K

    2016-12-01

    Three locally isolated strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), viz. Heterorhabditis indica , Steinernema thermophilum and Steinernema glaseri , from Meghalaya, India were characterized in terms of storage temperature and survival and infectivity of their infective juveniles (IJs). The survival and infectivity of nematode IJs was studied at, 5 ± 2 and 25 ± 2 °C, for a period of 120 days, using deionized water as storage medium. The viability of nematode IJs was checked by mobility criterion at different storage periods, while the infectivity of nematode IJs was ascertained on the basis of establishment of IJs, using Galleria mellonella larva mortality tests in petridishes. The results of this study revealed that storage temperature markedly affects the survival as well as the establishment of nematode IJs of the three EPN species. At 5 °C, comparatively higher rate of IJ's survival (i.e. 74-86 %) was observed for 15 days of storage, but the same reduced drastically to 28-32 % after 30 days of storage for H. indica and S. thermophilum . On the other hand, at 25 °C, the survival of nematode IJs was observed till 120 days for all the three studied EPNs. In case of S. thermophilum and S. glaseri , higher rate of IJs survival (>75 %) was observed respectively at 15 and 30 days of observation. The study also showed that the establishment of IJs of the three EPN species declines with increase in storage periods, at both the test temperatures. In general, the nematodes stored at 25 °C showed comparatively better establishment than those stored at 5 °C. Among the three EPN studied, the establishment of S. glaseri was comparatively better than the rest of the species at both the temperatures and for different storage durations. In conclusion, our study adds further valuable information about the effect of storage temperature on survival and infectivity of three indigenous EPN species of Meghalaya, India which appears to be promising biocontrol

  6. Evaluation of an FDA approved library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Jennifer; Panic, Gordana; Adelfio, Roberto; Cowan, Noemi; Vargas, Mireille; Scandale, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    Treatment options for infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) - Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus - are limited despite their considerable global health burden. The aim of the present study was to test the activity of an openly available FDA library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections. All 1,600 drugs were first screened against Ancylostoma ceylanicum third-stage larvae (L3). Active compounds were scrutinized and toxic compounds, drugs indicated solely for topical use, and already well-studied anthelmintics were excluded. The remaining hit compounds were tested in parallel against Trichuris muris first-stage larvae (L1), Heligmosomoides polygyrus third-stage larvae (L3), and adult stages of the three species in vitro. In vivo studies were performed in the H. polygyrus and T. muris mice models. Fifty-four of the 1,600 compounds tested revealed an activity of > 60 % against A. ceylanicum L3 (hit rate of 3.4 %), following incubation at 200 μM for 72 h. Twelve compounds progressed into further screens. Adult A. ceylanicum were the least affected (1/12 compounds active at 50 μM), while eight of the 12 test compounds revealed activity against T. muris L1 (100 μM) and adults (50 μM), and H. polygyrus L3 (200 μM). Trichlorfon was the only compound active against all stages of A. ceylanicum, H. polygyrus and T. muris. In addition, trichlorfon achieved high worm burden reductions of 80.1 and 98.9 %, following a single oral dose of 200 mg/kg in the T. muris and H. polygyrus mouse model, respectively. Drug screening on the larval stages of intestinal parasitic nematodes is feasible using small libraries and important given the empty drug discovery and development pipeline for STH infections. Differences and commonalities in drug activities across the different STH species and stages were confirmed. Hits identified might serve as a

  7. Effect of the Entomogenous Nematode Nemplectana carpocapsae on the Tachinid Parasite Compsilura concinnata (Diptera: Tachinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Harry K.

    1984-01-01

    The entomogenous nematode Neoaplectana carpocapsae and its associated bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophilus, could not infect the pupal stage of the tachinid Compsilura concinnata through the puparium. N. carpocapsae had an adverse effect on 1-, 2- and 3-day-old C. concinnata larvae within the armyworm host in petri dish tests. All 1-day-old larvae treated with nematodes died in their hosts, whereas 61% and 69% of 2- and 3-day-old larvae treated with nematodes, respectively, died. However, the survivors developed to adults. Nine to thirty-seven percent of adult tachinids which emerged from nematode-treated soil (50 nematodes/cm²) were infected with N. carpocapsae. The nematode adversely affects C. concinnata directly by the frank infection of the tachinid and indirectly by causing the premature death of the host which results in tachinid death. PMID:19295866

  8. Interactions Between Nutrition and Infections With Haemonchus contortus and Related Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Small Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, H; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Quijada, J; Chan-Perez, I; Dakheel, M M; Kommuru, D S; Mueller-Harvey, I; Terrill, T H

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between host nutrition and feeding behaviour are central to understanding the pathophysiological consequences of infections of the digestive tract with parasitic nematodes. The manipulation of host nutrition provides useful options to control gastrointestinal nematodes as a component of an integrated strategy. Focussed mainly on the Haemonchus contortus infection model in small ruminants, this chapter (1) illustrates the relationship between quantitative (macro- and micro-nutrients) and qualitative (plant secondary metabolites) aspects of host nutrition and nematode infection, and (2) shows how basic studies aimed at addressing some generic questions can help to provide solutions, despite the considerable diversity of epidemiological situations and breeding systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcriptional responses in honey bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, Katherine A; Murray, Keith D; Saldivar, Eduardo

    2010-06-21

    Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. We used cDNA-AFLP Technology to profile transcripts in infected and uninfected bee larvae. From 64 primer combinations, over 7,400 transcriptionally-derived fragments were obtained A total of 98 reproducible polymorphic cDNA-AFLP fragments were excised and sequenced, followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of these and additional samples.We have identified a number of differentially-regulated transcripts that are implicated in general mechanisms of stress adaptation, including energy metabolism and protein transport. One of the most interesting differentially-regulated transcripts is for a chitinase-like enzyme that may be linked to anti-fungal activities in the honey bee larvae, similarly to gut and fat-body specific chitinases found in mosquitoes and the red flour beetle. Surprisingly, we did not find many components of the well-characterized NF-kappaB intracellular signaling pathways to be differentially-regulated using the cDNA-AFLP approach. Therefore, utilizing qRT-PCR, we probed some of the immune related genes to determine whether the lack of up-regulation of their transcripts in our analysis can be attributed to lack of immune activation or to limitations of the cDNA-AFLP approach. Using a combination of cDNA-AFLP and qRT-PCR analyses, we were able to determine several key transcriptional events that constitute the overall effort in the honey bee larvae to fight natural fungal infection. Honey bee transcripts identified in this study are involved in critical functions related to transcriptional regulation, apoptotic

  10. Complex interaction between proliferative kidney disease, water temperature and concurrent nematode infection in brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Steiner, Pascale; Müller, Barbara; Casanova-Nakayama, Ayako

    2013-04-29

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is a temperature-dependent disease caused by the myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. It is an emerging threat to wild brown trout Salmo trutta fario populations in Switzerland. Here we examined (1) how PKD prevalence and pathology in young-of-the-year (YOY) brown trout relate to water temperature, (2) whether wild brown trout can completely recover from T. bryosalmonae-induced renal lesions and eliminate T. bryosalmonae over the winter months, and (3) whether this rate and/or extent of the recovery is influenced by concurrent infection. A longitudinal field study on a wild brown trout cohort was conducted over 16 mo. YOY and age 1+ fish were sampled from 7 different field sites with various temperature regimes, and monitored for infection with T. bryosalmonae and the nematode Raphidascaris acus. T. bryosamonae was detectable in brown trout YOY from all sampling sites, with similar renal pathology, independent of water temperature. During winter months, recovery was mainly influenced by the presence or absence of concurrent infection with R. acus larvae. While brown trout without R. acus regenerated completely, concurrently infected brown trout showed incomplete recovery, with chronic renal lesions and incomplete translocation of T. bryosalmonae from the renal interstitium into the tubular lumen. Water temperature seemed to influence complete excretion of T. bryosalmonae, with spores remaining in trout from summer-warm rivers, but absent in trout from summer-cool rivers. In the following summer months, we found PKD infections in 1+ brown trout from all investigated river sites. The pathological lesions indicated a re-infection rather than a proliferation of remaining T. bryosalmonae. However, disease prevalence in 1+ trout was lower than in YOY.

  11. Description, microhabitat selection and infection patterns of sealworm larvae (Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex, nematoda: ascaridoidea) in fishes from Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Third-stage larvae of the Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex (also known as sealworms) have been reported in at least 40 marine fish species belonging to 21 families and 10 orders along the South American coast. Sealworms are a cause for concern because they can infect humans who consume raw or undercooked fish. However, despite their economic and zoonotic importance, morphological and molecular characterization of species of Pseudoterranova in South America is still scarce. Methods A total of 542 individual fish from 20 species from the Patagonian coast of Argentina were examined for sealworms. The body cavity, the muscles, internal organs, and the mesenteries were examined to detect nematodes. Sealworm larvae were removed from their capsules and fixed in 70% ethanol. For molecular identification, partial fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) were amplified for 10 isolates from 4 fish species. Morphological and morphometric data of sealworms were also obtained. Results A total of 635 larvae were collected from 12 fish species. The most infected fish was Prionotus nudigula, followed by Percophis brasiliensis, Acanthistius patachonicus, Paralichthys isosceles, and Pseudopercis semifasciata. Sequences obtained for the cox1 of sealworms from A. patachonicus, P. isosceles, P. brasiliensis and P. nudigula formed a reciprocally monophyletic lineage with published sequences of adult specimens of Pseudoterranova cattani from the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, and distinct from the remaining 5 species of Pseudoterranova. A morphological description, including drawings and scanning electron microscopy photomicrographs of these larvae is provided. Sealworms collected from Argentinean fishes did not differ in their diagnostic traits from the previously described larvae of P. cattani. However a discriminant analysis suggests that specimens from P. nudigula were significantly larger than those from other fishes

  12. Description, microhabitat selection and infection patterns of sealworm larvae (Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex, nematoda: ascaridoidea) in fishes from Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Aznar, Francisco J; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; García, Néstor A; Víllora-Montero, María; Crespo, Enrique A; Raga, Juan A; Montero, Francisco E

    2013-08-29

    Third-stage larvae of the Pseudoterranova decipiens species complex (also known as sealworms) have been reported in at least 40 marine fish species belonging to 21 families and 10 orders along the South American coast. Sealworms are a cause for concern because they can infect humans who consume raw or undercooked fish. However, despite their economic and zoonotic importance, morphological and molecular characterization of species of Pseudoterranova in South America is still scarce. A total of 542 individual fish from 20 species from the Patagonian coast of Argentina were examined for sealworms. The body cavity, the muscles, internal organs, and the mesenteries were examined to detect nematodes. Sealworm larvae were removed from their capsules and fixed in 70% ethanol. For molecular identification, partial fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) were amplified for 10 isolates from 4 fish species. Morphological and morphometric data of sealworms were also obtained. A total of 635 larvae were collected from 12 fish species. The most infected fish was Prionotus nudigula, followed by Percophis brasiliensis, Acanthistius patachonicus, Paralichthys isosceles, and Pseudopercis semifasciata. Sequences obtained for the cox1 of sealworms from A. patachonicus, P. isosceles, P. brasiliensis and P. nudigula formed a reciprocally monophyletic lineage with published sequences of adult specimens of Pseudoterranova cattani from the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, and distinct from the remaining 5 species of Pseudoterranova. A morphological description, including drawings and scanning electron microscopy photomicrographs of these larvae is provided. Sealworms collected from Argentinean fishes did not differ in their diagnostic traits from the previously described larvae of P. cattani. However a discriminant analysis suggests that specimens from P. nudigula were significantly larger than those from other fishes. Most of the sealworms were

  13. Isolation of entomopathogenic nematodes in an apple orchard in Southern Brazil and its virulence to Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae, under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foelkel, E; Voss, M; Monteiro, L B; Nishimura, G

    2017-03-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are a promising alternative to integrated control in many fruit pests. Few studies were made on the relationship of Anastrepha fraterculus natural population with native EPNs population and other biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of this work was to verify the occurrence of endemic nematodes in an apple orchard, concerning environmental conditions and technical procedure, and access isolates virulence to A. fraterculus larvae. The experiment was conducted during a year taking monthly soil samples from an apple orchard, with and without fallen fruits just above the soil. Samples were baited with Tenebrium molitor and A. fraterculus larvae in laboratory. Canopy and fallen fruits were sampled to access the pest infestation. Seventy three EPN isolates were captured, in 23.2% soil samples, more with T. molitor than with A. fraterculus baits. From the 20 isolates tested against A. fraterculus, only five were pathogenic, and they were identified as Oscheius sp. The nematodes were captured during all seasons in a similar frequency. Soil and weather conditions, presence of fruit over the orchard soil, and A. fraterculus pupae in the fruits had no significant influence on the capture. As a conclusion, nematodes of the genera Oscheius are found in an apple orchard of Porto Amazonas constantly along the year, independently of fluctuations in A. fraterculus population, climate conditions and presence of fruit over the soil. Some of the isolates are pathogenic to A. fraterculus.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats raised in Baybay city, Leyte, Philippines

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    Ariel Paul M. Rupa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Gastrointestinal parasitism is a serious constraint affecting goat production in the Philippines. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of gastrointestinal nematode infection in goat-populated barangays of Baybay City, Leyte. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 households or farms were interviewed, and 450 goats were sampled for fecalysis. Fecal egg count along with egg morphological identification and coproculture for third stage larvae identification were conducted. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine the farm- and animal-level prevalence and risk factors. Results: Fecalysis revealed the presence of strongyle and Trichuris spp. with a farm-level prevalence of 100% and 4.94%, respectively; and animal-level prevalence of 96.22% and 4.44%, respectively. The identified strongyle genera per barangay were Haemonchus spp. (34.79%, Trichostrongylus spp. (33.29%, Oesophagostomum spp. (24.21%, Cooperia spp. (6.93%, and Chabertia spp. (0.79%. Goats older than 12 months were four times more likely to present high strongyle burden when compared to goats <6 months. With each month increase in goat’s age, the odds of acquiring strongyle infection also increased by 1.07 times. Animals kept in goat house with cemented flooring have lower odds of acquiring strongyle (odds ratio=0.12. Goats raised for leisure purposes and fed with carabao grass (Paspalum conjugatum were 8.12 and 5.52 times more likely to acquire Trichuris, respectively. Conclusion: Most of the backyard goat raisers in Baybay City, Leyte, do not practice sound helminth control measures as shown by the high prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes. The most relevant risk factors for gastrointestinal nematode infection were the age of the goat, type of goat house’s flooring, purpose of raising goats, and feeding practices.

  15. Multifaceted effects of host plants on entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazir, Selcuk; Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Canan; Leite, Luis G; Cakmak, Ibrahim; Olson, Dawn

    2016-03-01

    The success of parasites can be impacted by multi-trophic interactions. Tritrophic interactions have been observed in parasite-herbivore-host plant systems. Here we investigate aspects of multi-trophic interactions in a system involving an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), its insect host, and host plant. Novel issues investigated include the impact of tritrophic interactions on nematode foraging behavior, the ability of EPNs to overcome negative tritrophic effects through genetic selection, and interactions with a fourth trophic level (nematode predators). We tested infectivity of the nematode, Steinernema riobrave, to corn earworm larvae (Helicoverpa zea) in three host plants, tobacco, eggplant and tomato. Tobacco reduced nematode virulence and reproduction relative to tomato and eggplant. However, successive selection (5 passages) overcame the deficiency; selected nematodes no longer exhibited reductions in phenotypic traits. Despite the loss in virulence and reproduction nematodes, first passage S. riobrave was more attracted to frass from insects fed tobacco than insects fed on other host plants. Therefore, we hypothesized the reduced virulence and reproduction in S. riobrave infecting tobacco fed insects would be based on a self-medicating tradeoff, such as deterring predation. We tested this hypothesis by assessing predatory success of the mite Sancassania polyphyllae and the springtail Sinella curviseta on nematodes reared on tobacco-fed larvae versus those fed on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, tomato fed larvae, or eggplant fed larvae. No advantage was observed in nematodes derived from tobacco fed larvae. In conclusion, our results indicated that insect-host plant diet has an important effect on nematode foraging, infectivity and reproduction. However, negative host plant effects, might be overcome through directed selection. We propose that host plant species should be considered when designing biocontrol programs using EPNs. Copyright © 2016

  16. Entomogenous nematode Neoaplectana carpocapsae: radiation and mammalian safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaugler, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Infective-stage juveniles of Neoaplacetana carpocapsae were acutely sensitive to short uv radiation (254 nm) and natural sunlight. High nematode mortality, although delayed, accompanied uv exposure. Irradiation rapidly reduced nematode pathogenicity, so that nematodes exposed for 7 min were unable to cause lethal infections in Galleria mallonella larvae. Moreover, the median survival time of Galleria larvae increased progressively as nematode exposure to uv was lengthened. Inhibition of nematode reproduction and development was noted at exposure periods more than 2.45 and 5 min, respectively. However, irradiation did not appear to affect juvenile motility. Exposure to direct sunlight also reduced pathogenicity, in a range from 6.9 to 94.9% at 30 and 60 min of exposure, respectively. Long uv (366 nm) did not affect juveniles at the exposures tested

  17. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An improved method for generating axenic entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shruti; Shokal, Upasana; Forst, Steven; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2015-09-19

    Steinernema carpocapsae are parasitic nematodes that invade and kill insects. The nematodes are mutualistically associated with the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and together form an excellent model to study pathogen infection processes and host anti-nematode/antibacterial immune responses. To determine the contribution of S. carpocapsae and their associated X. nematophila to the successful infection of insects as well as to investigate the interaction of each mutualistic partner with the insect immune system, it is important to develop and establish robust methods for generating nematodes devoid of their bacteria. To produce S. carpocapsae nematodes without their associated X. nematophila bacteria, we have modified a previous method, which involves the use of a X. nematophila rpoS mutant strain that fails to colonize the intestine of the worms. We confirmed the absence of bacteria in the nematodes using a molecular diagnostic and two rounds of an axenicity assay involving appropriate antibiotics and nematode surface sterilization. We used axenic and symbiotic S. carpocapsae to infect Drosophila melanogaster larvae and found that both types of nematodes were able to cause insect death at similar rates. Generation of entomopathogenic nematodes lacking their mutualistic bacteria provides an excellent tool to dissect the molecular and genetic basis of nematode parasitism and to identify the insect host immune factors that participate in the immune response against nematode infections.

  19. Infective larvae of five Onchocerca species from experimentally infected Simulium species in an area of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfilariae of five Onchocerca species, O. dewittei japonica (the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Oita, Kyushu, Japan from wild boar (Sus scrofa, O. skrjabini and O. eberhardi from sika deer (Cervus nippon, O. lienalis from cattle, and an as yet unnamed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, were injected intrathoracically into newly-emerged black flies of several species from Oita to search the potential vector(s of these parasites and identify their infective larvae. Development of O. dewittei japonica microfilariae to the infective larvae occurred in Simulium aokii, S. arakawae, S. bidentatum, S. japonicum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. rufibasis while development of infective larvae of O. skrjabini, O. eberhardi, and the unnamed Onchocerca sp. was observed in S. aokii, S. arakawae, and S. bidentatum. Development of O. lienalis microfilaria to infective larvae occurred in S. arakawae. Based on the morphology of infective larvae obtained, we proposed a key of identification of Onchocerca infective larvae found in Oita. We also reconsider the identification of three types of infective larvae previously recovered from Simulium species captured at cattle sheds: the large type I larvae that may be an undescribed species; the small type III identified as O. lienalis may include O. skrjabini too; the intermediary type II that may be O. gutturosa, or O. dewittei japonica, or the unnamed Onchocerca sp. of wild boar.

  20. Parasitic nematodes modulate PIN-mediated auxin transport to facilitate infection.

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    Wim Grunewald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-parasitic nematodes are destructive plant pathogens that cause significant yield losses. They induce highly specialized feeding sites (NFS in infected plant roots from which they withdraw nutrients. In order to establish these NFS, it is thought that the nematodes manipulate the molecular and physiological pathways of their hosts. Evidence is accumulating that the plant signalling molecule auxin is involved in the initiation and development of the feeding sites of sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes. Intercellular transport of auxin is essential for various aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we analysed the spatial and temporal expression of PIN auxin transporters during the early events of NFS establishment using promoter-GUS/GFP fusion lines. Additionally, single and double pin mutants were used in infection studies to analyse the role of the different PIN proteins during cyst nematode infection. Based on our results, we postulate a model in which PIN1-mediated auxin transport is needed to deliver auxin to the initial syncytial cell, whereas PIN3 and PIN4 distribute the accumulated auxin laterally and are involved in the radial expansion of the NFS. Our data demonstrate that cyst nematodes are able to hijack the auxin distribution network in order to facilitate the infection process.

  1. Parasitic nematodes modulate PIN-mediated auxin transport to facilitate infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Wim; Cannoot, Bernard; Friml, Jirí; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2009-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are destructive plant pathogens that cause significant yield losses. They induce highly specialized feeding sites (NFS) in infected plant roots from which they withdraw nutrients. In order to establish these NFS, it is thought that the nematodes manipulate the molecular and physiological pathways of their hosts. Evidence is accumulating that the plant signalling molecule auxin is involved in the initiation and development of the feeding sites of sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes. Intercellular transport of auxin is essential for various aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we analysed the spatial and temporal expression of PIN auxin transporters during the early events of NFS establishment using promoter-GUS/GFP fusion lines. Additionally, single and double pin mutants were used in infection studies to analyse the role of the different PIN proteins during cyst nematode infection. Based on our results, we postulate a model in which PIN1-mediated auxin transport is needed to deliver auxin to the initial syncytial cell, whereas PIN3 and PIN4 distribute the accumulated auxin laterally and are involved in the radial expansion of the NFS. Our data demonstrate that cyst nematodes are able to hijack the auxin distribution network in order to facilitate the infection process.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars infected with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A Postnikova

    Full Text Available Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp. are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69 and susceptible (cv. Lahontan alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with

  3. Viability Test Device for anisakid nematodes

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    Michael Kroeger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to now the visual inspection of mobility of isolated anisakid larvae serves as a measure of viability and possible risk of infection. This paper presents a new method to rule out unreliability – caused by the temporary immobility of the larvae and by the human uncertainty factor of visual observation. By means of a Near infrared (NIR imaging method, elastic curvature energies and geometric shape parameters were determined from contours, and used as a measure of viability. It was based on the modelling of larvae as a cylindrical membrane system. The interaction between curvatures, contraction of the longitudinal muscles, and inner pressure enabled the derivation of viability from stationary form data. From series of spectrally signed images within a narrow wavelength range, curvature data of the larvae were determined. Possible mobility of larvae was taken into account in statistical error variables. Experiments on individual living larvae, long-term observations of Anisakis larvae, and comparative studies of the staining method and the VTD measurements of larvae from the tissue of products confirmed the effectiveness of this method. The VTD differentiated clearly between live and dead nematode larvae isolated from marinated, deep-frozen and salted products. The VTD has been proven as excellent method to detect living anisakid nematode larvae in fishery products and is seen as useful tool for fish processing industry and control authorities. Keywords: Biophysics

  4. Infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pork buried in the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovic S.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Time of survival and infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pig muscle tissue, buried at various depths in the ground were assessed. In the pork pieces the number of infective larvae was 250 ML/g. Meat originated from pig halves was divided in 39 equal pieces, 0.7 kg each, disposed in three groups of 1 3, and buried in depths of 30, 50, and 100 centimeters respectively. The pork was dug up at 13 intervals, approximately every week, until 91st day of the experiment. After each time interval, infectivity of larvae was assessed by bioassay on rats. The artificially infected rats were sacrificed on 42nd day after the infection and meat was examined by the following methods - artificial digestion and trichinoscopy. It was found that the larvae during all 90 days preserved infectivity in each depth.

  5. Effects of irradiation on the biology of the infective larvae of Toxocara canis in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, O.O.; Myser, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    Mice were infected with either 2000 normal or irradiated embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis and the number of larvae in their livers, lungs, brains, and carcasses investigated at 5, 20, and 33 days of infection. Mortality of mice infected with normal eggs was 33% between day 4 and 8 postinfection but there was no mortality among mice infected with irradiated eggs. Irradiation with 60, 90, or 150 kr of X-rays inhibited the migration of larvae from the livers and lungs and their accumulation in brain and carcass in proportion to the irradiation dose. By day 33 of infection, the ratio of larvae in liver and lungs to larvae in brain and carcass was 0.16 in normal mice, 0.42 in 60-kr mice, 0.98 in 90-kr mice, and 23.3 in 150-kr mice. Irradiated larvae, particularly those migrating through the peritoneal cavity, died faster than normal larvae until day 20. Irradiation favored survival after day 20. By days 20 and 33 postinfection the total parasite load was 29% and 8%, respectively, of the administered dose in control mice, 18% and 12% in 60-kr mice, 8% and 4% in 90-kr mice, and 0.9% and 0.3% in 150-kr mice. Irradiation of infective T. canis larvae, then, reduces their pathogenicity, inhibits their migration from liver and lungs, kills some of the parasites during the first 3 weeks of infection, but favors their late survival in the host.

  6. The dynamics of nematode infections of farmed ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, M.G.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics and control of nematode parasites of farmed ruminants are discussed via a qualitative analysis of a differential equation model. To achieve this a quantity, 'the basic reproduction quotient' (Q0), whose definition coincides with previous definitions of R0 for

  7. Age of Haemonchus contortus third stage infective larvae is a factor influencing the in vitro assessment of anthelmintic properties of tannin containing plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Ramírez, G S; Mathieu, C; Vilarem, G; Hoste, H; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; González-Pech, P G; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2017-08-30

    The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) of infective larvae (L 3 ) is an in vitro method used to evaluate the anthelmintic (AH) activity of tannin-containing plant extracts against different species of gastrointestinal nematodes, including Haemonchus contortus. Some conditions remain to be defined in order to standardize the LEIA, i.e. the optimal age of larvae produced from donor animals to use in the assays. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying the effect of age and age-related vitality of H. contortus infective larvae produced under tropical conditions, on the in vitro AH activity measured with the LEIA. The same acetone:water (70:30) extract from Acacia pennatula leaves was used to perform respective LEIA tests with H. contortus L 3 of different ages (1-7 weeks). Each week, the L 3 were tested against different concentrations of extract (1200, 600, 400, 200, 100, 40μg/mL of extract) plus a PBS control. Bioassays were performed with a benzimidazole (Bz) resistant H. contortus (Paraíso) strain. In order to identify changes in L 3 vitality on different weeks (1-7), two assays testing larval motility were included only with PBS: the larval migration assay (LMA) and the larval motility observation assay (LMOA). Mean effective concentrations causing 50% and 90% exsheathment inhibition (EC 50 , EC 90 ) were obtained for every week using respective Probit analyses. On the first week, the larvae had lowest EC 50 and EC 90 (39.4 and 65.6μg/mL) compared to older larvae (P0.05), while older larvae tended to show higher EC 50 and EC 90 (Page of larvae (r≥-0.83; P age. More stable efficacy results were found between two to five weeks of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Infection by anisakid nematodes contracaecum spp. in the Mayan cichlid fish 'Cichlasoma (Nandopsis)' urophthalmus (Gunther 1862).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Gaddy T; Motta, Philip J

    2004-04-01

    Larval nematodes that parasitize the Mayan cichlid fish 'Cichlasoma (Nandopsis)' urophthalmus (Günther 1862) in southern Florida were identified as Contracaecum spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae, Anisakinae). The objective of this study was to determine whether infection intensity and prevalence of these parasites differ between a brackish water and freshwater habitat or through ontogeny in the freshwater habitat only. The nematodes were removed from the abdominal cavity of the fishes and counted. Infection intensity was compared between habitats using analysis of covariance and evaluated through ontogeny using Spearman rank order correlation. Prevalence was compared between habitats and between adults and juveniles from the freshwater habitat using a z-test. Although infection intensity did not differ between habitats, infection prevalence was greater at the freshwater site (FWS). Both the prevalence and intensity of nematode infection increased through ontogeny at the FWS, and no nematode was found in fishes that were smaller than 93 mm standard length. Thus, the parasites appear to accumulate during the lifetime of the fishes.

  9. Investigation on the infection mechanism of the fungus Clonostachys rosea against nematodes using the green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Jinkui; Niu, Qiuhong; Zhao, Xuna; Ye, Fengping; Liang, Lianming; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2008-04-01

    The fungus Clonostachys rosea (syn. Gliocladium roseum) is a potential biocontrol agent. It can suppress the sporulation of the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea and kill pathogenic nematodes, but the process of nematode pathogenesis is poorly understood. To help understand the underlying mechanism, we constructed recombinant strains containing a plasmid with both the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene egfp and the hygromycin resistance gene hph. Expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was monitored using fluorescence microscopy. Our observations reveal that the pathogenesis started from the adherence of conidia to nematode cuticle for germination, followed by the penetration of germ tubes into the nematode body and subsequent death and degradation of the nematodes. These are the first findings on the infection process of the fungal pathogen marked with GFP, and the developed method can become an important tool for studying the molecular mechanisms of nematode infection by C. rosea.

  10. Microbiomes associated with infective stages of root-knot and lesion nematodes in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elhady

    Full Text Available Endoparasitic root-knot (Meloidogyne spp. and lesion (Pratylenchus spp. nematodes cause considerable damage in agriculture. Before they invade roots to complete their life cycle, soil microbes can attach to their cuticle or surface coat and antagonize the nematode directly or by induction of host plant defenses. We investigated whether the nematode-associated microbiome in soil differs between infective stages of Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans, and whether it is affected by variation in the composition of microbial communities among soils. Nematodes were incubated in suspensions of five organically and two integrated horticultural production soils, recovered by sieving and analyzed for attached bacteria and fungi after washing off loosely adhering microbes. Significant effects of the soil type and nematode species on nematode-associated fungi and bacteria were revealed as analyzed by community profiling using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Attached microbes represented a small specific subset of the soil microbiome. Two organic soils had very similar bacterial and fungal community profiles, but one of them was strongly suppressive towards root-knot nematodes. They were selected for deep amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal ITS. Significant differences among the microbiomes associated with the two species in both soils suggested specific surface epitopes. Among the 28 detected bacterial classes, Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria were the most abundant. The most frequently detected fungal genera were Malassezia, Aspergillus and Cladosporium. Attached microbiomes did not statistically differ between these two soils. However, Malassezia globosa and four fungal species of the family Plectosphaerellaceae, and the bacterium Neorhizobium galegae were strongly enriched on M. incognita in the suppressive soil. In conclusion, the highly specific attachment of microbes to infective stages of

  11. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): A Nematode Parasite Isolated from the Banded Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica balteata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C. S.; Fassuliotis, G.

    1985-01-01

    A nematode identified as Heterorhabditis sp. was discovered in June 1982 in larval cadavers of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, in soil on wooded land. Effective beetle control (over 95%) was obtained when larvae were exposed to potted soil containing infective stage nematode juveniles or infected larval cadavers. The nematode was propagated in vivo on larvae of D. balteata, Diaphania nitidalis (the pickleworm), and Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth). This Heterorhabditis sp. has promising potential as a biocontrol agent for the banded cucumber beetle. PMID:19294074

  12. Human Pulmonary Infection by the Zoonotic Metastrongylus salmi Nematode. The First Reported Case in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopina, Manuel; Caballero, Henry; Morita, Tatsushi; Korenaga, Masataka

    2016-10-05

    Pulmonary metastrongylosis, a zoonotic disease found primarily in pigs, is caused by eight different species of the cosmopolitan nematode Metastrongylus genus. To date, only four human cases have been reported, all from Europe. Herein, a severe case of pulmonary infection caused by Metastrongylus salmi in an Ecuadorian man, with successful treatment with ivermectin, is described. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Potato transformation and potato cyst nematode infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    These two protocols describe the methods for generating transgenic potato plants and for evaluating potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) infection on potato plantlets in tissue culture. These methods are useful tools that can be used in the study of the interactions between ...

  14. Mechanized Packing and Delivery System for Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Infected Mealworm Cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes a mechanized system to pack mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes between two sheets of masking tape. The document is also an operation manual for the machine and provides all the machine specifications, and wiring and pneumatic diagram...

  15. Human Pulmonary Infection by the Zoonotic Metastrongylus salmi Nematode. The First Reported Case in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopina, Manuel; Caballero, Henry; Morita, Tatsushi; Korenaga, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary metastrongylosis, a zoonotic disease found primarily in pigs, is caused by eight different species of the cosmopolitan nematode Metastrongylus genus. To date, only four human cases have been reported, all from Europe. Herein, a severe case of pulmonary infection caused by Metastrongylus salmi in an Ecuadorian man, with successful treatment with ivermectin, is described. PMID:27382078

  16. Human Pulmonary Infection by the Zoonotic Metastrongylus salmi Nematode. The First Reported Case in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Calvopina, Manuel; Caballero, Henry; Morita, Tatsushi; Korenaga, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary metastrongylosis, a zoonotic disease found primarily in pigs, is caused by eight different species of the cosmopolitan nematode Metastrongylus genus. To date, only four human cases have been reported, all from Europe. Herein, a severe case of pulmonary infection caused by Metastrongylus salmi in an Ecuadorian man, with successful treatment with ivermectin, is described.

  17. Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16 264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts showed an overall prevalence of GI nematodes of 43 %, coccidia 19.8 % and cestodes 4.8 %. A significantly higher prevalence of infection with GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia was recorded in calves (P < 0.01 than in adults. Pregnant and lactating cows had significantly higher prevalences than bulls, oxen and non-lactating (dry cows (P < 0.01. The general trend of eggs per gram (epg of faeces and oocysts per gram (opg of faeces was associated with the rainfall pattern in the two regions, with high epg and opg being recorded during the wet months. The most prevalent genera of GI nematodes were Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus in that order. Strongyloides papillosus was found exclusively in calves. Haemonchus was significantly more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season (P < 0.01. In contrast, Trichostrongylus was present in significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers during the dry months than the wet months, while Cooperia and Oesophagostomum revealed no significant differences between the wet and dry season. These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

  18. Epidemiology and effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection on milk productions of dairy ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez V.H.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 66 Pampinta breed ewes were studied during milking to evaluate the infection and the effect of gastrointestinal nematode on milk production sheep system. Naturally infected ewes on pasture were randomly allocated to two groups: TG, suppressively treated group every four weeks with levamisole and UG, untreated group. Faecal nematode egg counts and larval differentiation were conducted monthly. Successive groups of worm free tracer lambs were grazed with ewes and then slaughtered for worm counts. Test-day milk yield of individual ewes was recorded and ewe machine-milking period length (MPL were estimated. Faecal egg counts and tracer nematode numbers increased towards midsummer and declined sharply toward the end of the study. TG (188.0 ± 60 liters produced more (p < 0.066 milk liters than UG (171.9 ± 52.2 and TG had significantly more extended (p < 0.041 MPL than those of UG. The present study showed that dairy sheep were negatively affected by worms, even when exposed to short periods of high acute nematode (mainly Haemonchus contortus infection.

  19. In vitro silencing of Brugia malayi trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase impairs embryogenesis and in vivo development of infective larvae in jirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheela Kushwaha

    Full Text Available The trehalose metabolic enzymes have been considered as potential targets for drug or vaccine in several organisms such as Mycobacterium, plant nematodes, insects and fungi due to crucial role of sugar trehalose in embryogenesis, glucose uptake and protection from stress. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP is one of the enzymes of trehalose biosynthesis that has not been reported in mammals. Silencing of tpp gene in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed an indispensable functional role of TPP in nematodes.In the present study, functional role of B. malayi tpp gene was investigated by siRNA mediated silencing which further validated this enzyme to be a putative antifilarial drug target. The silencing of tpp gene in adult female B. malayi brought about severe phenotypic deformities in the intrauterine stages such as distortion and embryonic development arrest. The motility of the parasites was significantly reduced and the microfilarial production as well as their in vitro release from the female worms was also drastically abridged. A majority of the microfilariae released in to the culture medium were found dead. B. malayi infective larvae which underwent tpp gene silencing showed 84.9% reduced adult worm establishment after inoculation into the peritoneal cavity of naïve jirds.The present findings suggest that B. malayi TPP plays an important role in the female worm embryogenesis, infectivity of the larvae and parasite viability. TPP enzyme of B. malayi therefore has the potential to be exploited as an antifilarial drug target.

  20. The diversity and evolution of nematodes (Pharyngodonidae) infecting New Zealand lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockett, Sarah; Bell, Trent; Poulin, Robert; Jorge, Fátima

    2017-04-01

    Host-parasite co-evolutionary studies can shed light on diversity and the processes that shape it. Molecular methods have proven to be an indispensable tool in this task, often uncovering unseen diversity. This study used two nuclear markers (18S rRNA and 28S rRNA) and one mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) marker to investigate the diversity of nematodes of the family Pharyngodonidae parasitizing New Zealand (NZ) lizards (lygosomine skinks and diplodactylid geckos) and to explore their co-evolutionary history. A Bayesian approach was used to infer phylogenetic relationships of the parasitic nematodes. Analyses revealed that nematodes parasitizing skinks, currently classified as Skrjabinodon, are more closely related to Spauligodon than to Skrjabinodon infecting NZ geckos. Genetic analyses also uncovered previously undetected diversity within NZ gecko nematodes and provided evidence for several provisionally cryptic species. We also examined the level of host-parasite phylogenetic congruence using a global-fit approach. Significant congruence was detected between gecko-Skrjabinodon phylogenies, but our results indicated that strict co-speciation is not the main co-evolutionary process shaping the associations between NZ skinks and geckos and their parasitic nematodes. However, further sampling is required to fully resolve co-phylogenetic patterns of diversification in this host-parasite system.

  1. Anorexia in rats infected with the nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: experimental manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J G; Mitchell, P I; Moar, K M; Bissett, A; Geissler, S; Bruce, K; Chappell, L H

    2000-06-01

    Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces a biphasic anorexia in laboratory rats, the first phase coincident with lung invasion (ca day 2) and the second when the worms mature in the intestine (ca day 8). Using the anthelminthic, mebendazole (MBZ), N. brasiliensis infections of the rat were eliminated between the first and second anorexic episodes. This intervention prevented the expression of the second phase of anorexia. Rats exposed to a second infection with N. brasiliensis, 3 weeks after the primary infection, exhibited only a first phase anorexic response which was not influenced by MBZ termination of the primary infection. The lower cumulative food intake and weight gain of all infected rats after 8 days of infection were accompanied by elevated plasma insulin and, in some individuals, by elevated plasma leptin, compared with uninfected controls and previously-infected MBZ-treated rats. Messenger RNA levels for neuropeptide Y were higher in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of 8-day infected rats than in recovering MBZ-treated animals. Inoculation of rats with heat-killed N. brasiliensis larvae failed to induce anorexia and did not alter the severity of biphasic anorexia on subsequent injection of viable larvae. The first anorexic episode is therefore dependent upon viable migrating larvae. The second phase of anorexia clearly requires the continuing presence of the parasite beyond the lung phase. Viable migrating larvae are also required to confer 'resistance' to reinfection.

  2. [Effect of the soil contamination with a potato cyst-forming nematode on the community structure of soil-inhabiting nematodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzdeva, L I; Suzhchuk, A A

    2008-01-01

    Nematode community structure of the potato fields with different infection levels of potato cyst-forming nematode (PCN) such as 10, 30 and 214 cysts per 100 g of soil has been investigated. The influence of specialized parasite on nematode fauna and dominance character of different ecological-trophic groups were described. Parasitic nematode genera in natural meadow biocenosis and agrocenoses without PCN are Paratylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, and Helicotylenchus. It is established, that Paratylenchus nanus was the prevalent species among plant parasites at low infection level. Larvae of Globodera prevailed in the soil with middle and high infection levels and substituted individuals of other genera of parasitic nematodes. The fact of increase in number of hyphal-feeding nematode Aphelenchus avenae was revealed.

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans: a simple nematode infection model for Penicillium marneffei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Huang

    Full Text Available Penicillium marneffei, one of the most important thermal dimorphic fungi, is a severe threat to the life of immunocompromised patients. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of P. marneffei remain largely unknown. In this work, we developed a model host by using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the virulence of P. marneffei. Using two P. marneffei clinical isolate strains 570 and 486, we revealed that in both liquid and solid media, the ingestion of live P. marneffei was lethal to C. elegans (P<0.001. Meanwhile, our results showed that the strain 570, which can produce red pigment, had stronger pathogenicity in C. elegans than the strain 486, which can't produce red pigment (P<0.001. Microscopy showed the formation of red pigment and hyphae within C. elegans after incubation with P. marneffei for 4 h, which are supposed to be two contributors in nematodes killing. In addition, we used C. elegans as an in vivo model to evaluate different antifungal agents against P. marneffei, and found that antifungal agents including amphotericin B, terbinafine, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole successfully prolonged the survival of nematodesinfected by P. marneffei. Overall, this alternative model host can provide us an easy tool to study the virulence of P. marneffei and screen antifungal agents.

  4. Attempts at immunization against Malayan filariasis using X-irradiated infective larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    Recent studies on immunity to helminthic infections have shown that some degree of protective immunity may be stimulated by inoculations of attenuated living worms or their metabolites. Although much on these lines has been done with several helminths, little if any has been done with filarial infections in general. Experiments were designed to observe the effects of attempted immunization in the rhesus monkey as well as the domestic cat by the use of attenuated infective larvae of Brugia malayi. The sub-periodic strain of Brugia malayi, the major filarial parasite of man in Malaysia, maintained in the laboratory on experimentally infected cats and rhesus monkeys were used for the preparation of X-irradiated vaccines as well as for challenge inoculations. Third-stage infective larvae of Brugia malayi were obtained from experimentally fed Aedes togoi mosquitoes. Infective larvae were irradiated by X-rays, using a Dermopan X-ray unit at exposures between 10 - 40 kR. Rhesus monkeys and cats were inoculated twice with 100 - 400 attenuated larvae per inoculation at 2 week intervals and challenged about a month later by inoculation of 100 normal larvae. Control animals for each vaccination dose as well as for challenge doses were maintained. In rhesus monkeys persistent immunity to challenge infections (expressed as failure to cause microfilaraemia) were obtained in animals vaccinated with 200 infective larvae attenuated by X-irradiation at 20000 R. Encouraged with the results obtained on rhesus monkeys, similar experiments on an enlarged scale using varying strengths of the vaccines were carried out on the domestic cat, which is a more receptive animal host for Brugia malayi. However, all cats vaccinated when challenged came down with patent infection indicating lack of any definite immunity. In all these experiments, results of vaccine control animals showed that inoculation of irradiated larvae was not followed by the infection of microfilaria in the blood, indicating

  5. Equine Cyathostominae can develop to infective third-stage larvae on straw bedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Love, Sandy; Burden, Faith A.; McGirr, Eoghan C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Domesticated grazing animals including horses and donkeys are frequently housed using deep litter bedding systems, where it is commonly presumed that there is no risk of infection from the nematodes that are associated with grazing at pasture. We use two different approaches to test w...

  6. Infective larvae of Rhabdiasidae (Nematoda): comparative morphology of seven European species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Junker, Kerstin; Bain, Odile

    2014-03-01

    The morphology of infective third-stage larvae of Rhabdias bufonis, R. rubrovenosa, R. sphaerocephala, R. fuscovenosa, R. elaphe, Entomelas entomelas and E. dujardini is described. The sheath structure in the studied larvae appeared to be similar to that described in other species of the family Rhabdiasidae, its chequered aspect being caused by a combination of outer longitudinal striations and inner longitudinal as well as transverse ridges. The larvae were similar in general morphology but differed in the presence/absence of anterior apical protuberances (pseudolabia), the shape and ornamentation of the tail tip, and the structure of lateral alae in the caudal region of the body. No relationship between the morphological characters of the larvae of the studied species and their taxonomic position or specificity of adult parasites to a particular host group was observed. Regardless, the larvae of each species can be identified by a combination of morphological peculiarities in the anterior and caudal regions of the body.

  7. Infectivity and development of X-irradiated third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiu, Yoshinori

    1989-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis third-stage larvae were exposed to less than 10Krad of X-radiation and then given orally to white rats to examine the effects of X-radiation on infectivity and development of the irradiated third-stage larvae and on fecundity of adults developing from the irradiated third-stage larvae. The deleterious effects of X-radiation were observed at relatively lower dosage in the above three parameters. A degree in susceptibility on X-radiation was shown to be radiation-dose-dependent. Comparing to the irradiation of larvae in vitro, the irradiation of larvae in snails caused less deleterious effects at the same dose of X-irradiation. Application of X-radiation to food hygiene was also discussed. (author)

  8. Diet and nematode infection in Proceratoprhys boiei (Anura: Cycloramphidae from two Atlantic rainforest remnants in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Klaion

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Proceratophrys boiei is an endemic cycloramphid anuran inhabiting the leaf litter of Atlantic rainforests in Southeastern Brazil. We analyzed the whole digestive tract of 38 individuals of Proceratophrys boiei collected in two Atlantic Rainforest areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to study the diet composition and the helminth fauna associated with this species. The main food items in P. boiei's diet were Coleoptera, Orthoptera and Blattaria. Five nematode species were found: Aplectana delirae, Cosmocerca parva, Oxyascaris oxyascaris, Physaloptera sp. (larval stage only and an unidentified nematode. Overall prevalence was 71% and mean infection intensity was 7.3 ± 5.8 neatodes per individual.Proceratophrys boiei é um anuro da familia Cycloramphidae que vive no folhico e é endêmico de areas de floresta na Mata Atlantica do Sudeste do Brasil. Nós analisamos o trato digestivo de 38 indivíduos de Proceratophrys boiei provenientes de duas áreas de Mata Atlântica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, para estudar a composição da dieta e a fauna helmíntica associada a esta espécie. s principais itens alientares na dieta de P. boiei fora Coleoptera, rthoptera e Blattaria. Cinco espécies de nematóides foram encontradas: Aplectana delirae, Cosmocerca parva, Oxyascaris oxyascaris, Physaloptera sp. (apenas larvas e uma espécie de nematóide não identificada. A prevalência total foi de 71% e a intensidade media de infecção foi de 7,3 ± 5,8 nematóides por indivíduo.

  9. Functionality of resistance gene Hero, which controls plant root-infecting potato cyst nematodes, in leaves of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, H L Cabrera; López, R H Manzanilla; Kanyuka, K

    2006-07-01

    The expression of host genomes is modified locally by root endoparasitic nematode secretions to induce the development of complex cellular structures referred as feeding sites. In compatible interactions, the feeding sites provide the environment and nutrients for the completion of the nematode's life cycle, whereas in an incompatible (resistant) interaction, the host immune system triggers a plant cell death programme, often in the form of a hypersensitive reaction, which restricts nematode reproduction. These processes have been studied in great detail in organ tissues normally infected by these nematodes: the roots. Here we show that host leaves can support a similar set of programmed developmental events in the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis life cycle that are typical of the root-invading nematodes. We also show that a gene-for-gene type specific disease resistance that is effective against potato cyst nematodes (PCN) in roots also operates in leaves: the expression of the resistance (R) gene Hero and members of its gene family in leaves correlates with the elicitation of a hypersensitive response only during the incompatible interaction. These findings, and the ability to isolate RNA from relevant parasitic stages of the nematode, may have significant implications for the identification of nematode factors involved in incompatible interactions.

  10. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding [75Se]selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikens, L.M.; Schad, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. When the 75 Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood

  11. Nuclear techniqes in the study of genetic resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infections of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargie, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The paper reviews genetic resistance of sheep to gastrointestinal nematodes from the standpoint of resistance to the parasites themselves and of resistance to the diseases they produce. Attention is focused on infections with the abomasal parasite Haemonchus contortus and the small intestinal nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis, and on the role of nuclear techniques both in verifying the existence of genetically based differences in resistance to these parasites and in gaining an understanding of the mechanisms involved. It is concluded that resistance to disease per se is much less important than resistance to parasite establishment and survival and that genetic studies could contribute substantially to the identification of the factors and variables responsible for the present inability to successfully vaccinate young animals against these infections. (author)

  12. The transgenerational effects of heat stress in the nematode Caenorhabditis remanei are negative and rapidly eliminated under direct selection for increased stress resistance in larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkink, Kristin L; Ituarte, Catherine M; Reynolds, Rose M; Cresko, William A; Phillips, Patrick C

    2014-12-01

    Parents encountering stress environments can influence the phenotype of their offspring in a form of transgenerational phenotypic plasticity that has the potential to be adaptive if offspring are thereby better able to deal with future stressors. Here, we test for the existence of anticipatory parental effects in the heat stress response in the highly polymorphic nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. Rather providing an anticipatory response, parents subject to a prior heat stress actually produce offspring that are less able to survive a severe heat shock. Selection on heat shock resistance within the larvae via experimental evolution leads to a loss of sensitivity (robustness) to environmental variation during both the parental and larval periods. Whole genome transcriptional analysis of both ancestor and selected lines shows that there is weak correspondence between genetic pathways induced via temperature shifts during parental and larval periods. Parental effects can evolve very rapidly via selection acting directly on offspring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biotic and abiotic factors influencing growth rate and production of traps by the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans when induced by Cooperia oncophora larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, J.; Wolstrup, J.; Nansen, P.

    1999-01-01

    A series of experiments on corn meal agar was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in different abiotic and biotic conditions which occur in cow pats. Above a concentration of 50 parasitic larvae (L-3) cm(-2) the fungus produced a maximum...... of between 500 and 600 nets cm(-2) at 20 degrees C in 2 days on the surface of corn meal agar. There were no differences in the trap-producing capacity of three strains of D. flagrans (CIII4, CI3 and Trol A). On agar at 30 degrees and 20 degrees C, the fungus responded to Coaperia oncophora L-3 very quickly...... anaerobically. On agar, D. flagrans (CI3) did not produce trapping nets in an anaerobic atmosphere. Moreover, C. oncophora L-3 stopped migration under anaerobic conditions. When the fungal cultures were transferred to a normal aerobic atmosphere, after 1 and 2 weeks under anaerobic conditions, the C. oncophora...

  14. Hemocyte quantitative changes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae infected by AgMNPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Goulart de Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The initial effects of the infection by AgMNPV in the total and differential counts of the hemocytes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae were studied. The total number of the hemocytes did not decrease in infected larvae, as it occurred in non infected larvae. In infected larvae, the hemocyte types showed the following frequencies: plasmatocytes - 47.8%, esferulocytes - 25.9%, granulocytes - 15.8%, oenocytoids - 7.2%, prohemocytes - 2.8%, vermicytes - 0,5%. Only the percentage of the granulocytes was different among infected and non infected larvae, indicating that these cells responded quickly to the initial viral infection. These results showed the effective role of the hemocytes in the response of the A. gemmatalis to the infection by AgMNPV. The comprehension of the immunological mechanisms of this insect is an important tool to understand its biological control.Os efeitos iniciais da infecção por AgMNPV nas contagens total e diferencial dos hemócitos em Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foram estudados. O número total de hemócitos não diminuiu nas larvas infectadas, como ocorreu nas larvas não infectadas. Nas larvas infectadas, os tipos de hemócitos apresentaram as seguintes freqüências: plasmatócitos - 47,8%, esferulócitos - 25,9%, granulócitos - 15,8%, oenocitóides - 7,2%, prohemócitos - 2,8%, vermiformes - 0,5%. Apenas a porcentagem de granulócitos foi diferente entre larvas infectadas e não infectadas, indicando que estas células responderam rapidamente à infecção viral inicial. Estes resultados mostraram o papel efetivo que dos hemócitos na resposta de A. gemmatalis à infecção por AgMNPV. A compreensão dos mecanismos imunológicos deste inseto é uma ferramenta importante para compreender seu controle biológico.

  15. Distribution patterns and predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in experimentally infected Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No controlled studies have been conducted to determine the predilection muscles of Trichinella zimbabwensis larvae in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus or the influence of infection intensity on the distribution of the larvae in crocodiles. The distribution of larvae in muscles of naturally infected Nile crocodiles and experimentally infected caimans (Caiman crocodilus and varans (Varanus exanthematicus have been reported in literature. To determine the distribution patterns of T. zimbabwensis larvae and predilection muscles, 15 crocodiles were randomly divided into three cohorts of five animals each, representing high infection (642 larvae/kg of bodyweight average, medium infection (414 larvae/kg of bodyweight average and low infection (134 larvae/kg of bodyweight average cohorts. In the high infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were observed in the triceps muscles (26% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the medium infection cohort, high percentages of larvae were found in the triceps muscles (50%, sternomastoid (18% and hind limb muscles (13%. In the low infection cohort, larvae were mainly found in the intercostal muscles (36%, longissimus complex (27%, forelimb muscles (20% and hind limb muscles (10%. Predilection muscles in the high and medium infection cohorts were similar to those reported in naturally infected crocodiles despite changes in infection intensity. The high infection cohort had significantly higher numbers of larvae in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex, external tibial flexor, longissimus caudalis and caudal femoral muscles (p < 0.05 compared with the medium infection cohort. In comparison with the low infection cohort, the high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae in all muscles (p < 0.05 except for the tongue. The high infection cohort harboured significantly higher numbers of larvae (p < 0.05 in the sternomastoid, triceps, intercostal, longissimus complex

  16. Does scavenging extend the host range of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Steinernematidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Půza, Vladimír; Mrácek, Zdenĕk

    2010-05-01

    Living and freeze-killed natural and laboratory hosts, with different susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes, were exposed to the larvae of Steinernema affine and Steinernema kraussei in two different experimental arenas (Eppendorf tubes, Petri dishes), and the success of the colonisation and eventual progeny production were observed. Both nematodes were able to colonise both living and dead larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera) and adult Blatella germanica (Blattodea) even though the progeny production in dead hosts was lower on average. Living carabid beetles, Poecilus cupreus, and elaterid larvae (Coleoptera) were resistant to the infection, however, both nematodes were able to colonise and multiply in several dead P. cupreus and in a majority of dead elaterid larvae. By scavenging, EPNs can utilise cadavers of insects that are naturally resistant to EPN infection, and so broaden their host range. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interspecific nematode signals regulate dispersal behavior.

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    Fatma Kaplan

    Full Text Available Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2 of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective juveniles (IJs of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN, e.g., Steinernema feltiae. Regulation of dispersal behavior has not been thoroughly investigated for C. elegans or any other nematode species. Based on the fact that ascarosides regulate entry in dauer stage as well as multiple behaviors in C. elegans adults including mating, avoidance and aggregation, we hypothesized that ascarosides might also be involved in regulation of dispersal behavior in C. elegans and for other nematodes such as IJ of phylogenetically related EPNs.Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of C. elegans dauer conditioned media, which shows strong dispersing activity, revealed four known ascarosides (ascr#2, ascr#3, ascr#8, icas#9. A synthetic blend of these ascarosides at physiologically relevant concentrations dispersed C. elegans dauer in the presence of food and also caused dispersion of IJs of S. feltiae and J2s of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. Assay guided fractionation revealed structural analogs as major active components of the S. feltiae (ascr#9 and C. elegans (ascr#2 dispersal blends. Further analysis revealed ascr#9 in all Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp. infected insect host cadavers.Ascaroside blends represent evolutionarily conserved, fundamentally important communication systems for nematodes from diverse habitats, and thus may provide sustainable means for control of parasitic nematodes.

  18. Monoxenic liquid culture with Escherichia coli of the free-living nematode Panagrolaimus sp. (strain NFS 24-5), a potential live food candidate for marine fish and shrimp larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Farhana; Seychelles, Laurent; Strauch, Olaf; Wittke, Martina; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo

    2013-09-01

    The free-living, bacterial-feeding nematode Panagrolaimus sp. (strain NFS 24-5) has potential for use as live food for marine shrimp and fish larvae. Mass production in liquid culture is a prerequisite for its commercial exploitation. Panagrolaimus sp. was propagated in monoxenic liquid culture on Escherichia coli and parameters, like nematode density, population dynamics and biomass were recorded and compared with life history table data. A mean maximum nematode density of 174,278 mL(-1) and a maximum of 251,000 mL(-1) were recorded on day 17 after inoculation. Highest average biomass was 40 g L(-1) at day 13. The comparison with life history table data indicated that the hypothetical potential of liquid culture is much higher than documented during this investigation. Nematode development is delayed in liquid culture and egg production per female is more than five times lower than reported from life history trait analysis. The latter assessed a nematode generation time of 7.1 days, whereas the process time at maximum nematode density in liquid culture was 16 days indicating that a reduction of the process time can be achieved by further investigating the influence of nematode inoculum density on population development. The results challenge future research to reduce process time and variability and improve population dynamics also during scale-up of the liquid culture process.

  19. An estimate of seasonality and intensity of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats . in West Java

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    Beriajaya

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Tracer Inoodle tbin-tail sheep and Kacang goats were used to measure the seasonal changes in gastrointestinal nematodes parasitism i ~'und[, .xillapek .Fodd~ 'ofis in West Java . Each 3 months for 12 months worm-free male sheep (5 and goats (5 about 5 months of age were ~ $Jri~tgldI o% ef- farmer, and managed as part of their flock for 2 months . Animals were then returned to the laboratory and maintained on "`~^taaan-ftwAiet in elevated slatted pens for 3 weeks prior to slaughter. In all trials sheep had higher faecal egg counts than goats . Egg counts were significantly lower during the late dry-early wet season due mainly to lower burdens of Oesophagostomum spp. than at other times of the year. The predominant genera recovered from faecal larval cultures were Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus . At post mortem more than 94 percent of animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. axei, Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum columbianwn and Strongyloides papillosus . Other species found, in descending order of occurrence, were Cooperia curticei, Trichuris ovis, Bunostornum trigonocephalum, Oesophagostomumn asperum, Capillaria bovis and Gaigena pachycelis. It was concluded that intensity of exposure of both sheep and goats to H contortus, T. axei and C. curticei was similar throughout the year, but that availability of infectioe larvae of T. colubriformis was higher during the dry than the wet season and vise versa for O. columbianum . Sheep had higher burdens of T. Colubrzformis than goats but similar numbers of other species.

  20. Lung infection rates in two sympatric Tropiduridae lizard species by pentastomids and nematodes in northeastern Brazil

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    WO. Almeida

    Full Text Available We present data on pulmonary infection rates by parasites in the lizards Tropidurus hispidus Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 living sympatrically in the Chapada do Araripe mountain Range, northeastern Brazil. We found no parasite pulmonary infection in T. semitaeniatus. However, two pulmonary parasite species were found in the T. hispidus hosts, the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae Almeida, Freire and Lopes, 2008 and the nematode Rhabdias sp. Overall prevalence was 5%. Prevalence of R. mottae was 2.5% and corresponded to only one parasite on each infected host. Prevalence of Rhabdias sp. was 2.5% and the range of infection was 1-2 parasites per host. This represents the first record of Rhabdias infecting lizards of the family Tropiduridae in the Neotropical region. Furthermore, we present a comparison of parameters of infection by pulmonary parasites including some recent studies in Brazil.

  1. Philippine Survey of Nematode Parasite Infection and Load in the Giant African Snail Achatina fulica indicate Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Mindanao

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    Daisy May A. Constantino-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica is a ubiquitous land snail commonly found throughout the Philippines. As a generalist feeder and being able to survive in a wide range of habitat types and conditions, the snail can easily establish itself in a new area after introduction. It also acts as host to a variety of parasites, including nematodes, which may accidentally infect humans. In this study, A. fulica individuals from 13 areas in the Philippines were sampled and analyzed for nematode infection rate and load. Of the 393 individuals sampled, 80 (20% were found to be infected, with 5049 nematodes isolated. The infection rates and parasite load were highly variable. Overall, the parasite load ranges from 1 to 867 per snail. Representative nematodes from A. fulica from Plaridel (n=8 and Davao City (n=26 in Mindanao were subjected to DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene, which is the universal barcode for nematodes. Sequences successfully matched with the dog lungworm Oslerus osleri for the Plaridel nematodes and the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis for the Davao City nematodes, respectively. The latter is known to infect humans and can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. This study presents the first report of A. cantonensis in A. fulica from Mindanao and raises a public health concern.

  2. Density, Viability Conidia And Symptoms of Metarhizium anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, D. R.; Putri, R. I. P.; Widiyaningrum, P.; Herlina, L.

    2017-04-01

    M. anisopliae is parasitic fungus on insect pests; it is used as a biocontrol agent. M. anisopliae can be propagated on maize or rice substrate. M. anisopliae is currently sold in the form of kaolin powder formulations. Before it is used to check the density, viability and pathogenicity of M. anisopliae. However the problem is the kaolin powder very soft, so it difficult to distinguish between kaolin and conidia. This article gives information on how to calculate conidia density, viability and symptoms of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae. The study was conducted in the laboratory to determine the density and viability. The pathogenicity testing was done using pots. The Pot is containing soil substrate mixed with M. Anispoliae and ten tails O. Rhinoceros larvae per pot. The results showed that the density of M. anisopliae conidia was 1.81 x 108 conidia mL-1 and the viability was 94% within 24 hours. The larval mortality began to emerge in the 1st week, and all larvae died at the sixth week. The symptom of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae, there was a black spot on the larval integument. The larvae movements become slow and poor appetite; it will die within 3-7 days. The larvae die hard, and the white hyphae grow on the body surface that turns green.

  3. Novel fungal proteins in the chalkbrood infection of honey bee larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Doris; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2009-01-01

    . Here we investigate the interaction between the honey bee and its fungal pathogen Ascosphaera apis, the causative agent of chalkbrood, by identifying enzymes secreted by bee and fungus during different timepoints of infection. Upon testing A. apis-infected larvae for enzyme activity, the larvae...... the trappants are sequenced and annotated, selected genes are further described. As a result, we will deepen the understanding of chalkbrood, one of the main honey bee pests with relevant impact on the economy, among others due to the essential role of bees in pollination....

  4. Eosinophils are required to suppress Th2 responses in Peyer's patches during intestinal infection by nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, J; Steinfelder, S; Berek, C; Kühl, A A; Rausch, S; Hartmann, S

    2017-05-01

    Infections with enteric nematodes result in systemic type 2 helper T (Th2) responses, expansion of immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 antibodies, and eosinophilia. Eosinophils have a supportive role in mucosal Th2 induction during airway hyperreactivity. Whether eosinophils affect the local T-cell and antibody response in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue during enteric infections is unknown. We infected eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 mice with the Th2-inducing small intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus and found that parasite fecundity was decreased in the absence of eosinophils. A lack of eosinophils resulted in significantly augmented expression of GATA-3 and IL-4 by CD4 + T cells during acute infection, a finding strictly limited to Peyer's patches (PP). The increase in IL-4-producing cells in ΔdblGATA-1 mice was particularly evident within the CXCR5 + PD-1 + T-follicular helper cell population and was associated with a switch of germinal centre B cells to IgG1 production and elevated serum IgG1 levels. In contrast, infected wild-type mice had a modest IgG1 response in the PP, whereas successfully maintaining a population of IgA + germinal center B cells. Our results suggest a novel role for eosinophils during intestinal infection whereby they restrict IL-4 responses by follicular T helper cells and IgG1 class switching in the PP to ensure maintenance of local IgA production.

  5. Diversity, Host Specialization, and Geographic Structure of Filarial Nematodes Infecting Malagasy Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dellagi, Koussay; Lagadec, Erwan; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Goodman, Steven M; Tortosa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae); a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae) embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae), Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae), and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae). We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors.

  6. The relation between input-output transformation and gastrointestinal nematode infections on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, M; Van Meensel, J; Lauwers, L; Van Huylenbroeck, G; Charlier, J

    2016-02-01

    Efficiency analysis is used for assessing links between technical efficiency (TE) of livestock farms and animal diseases. However, previous studies often do not make the link with the allocation of inputs and mainly present average effects that ignore the often huge differences among farms. In this paper, we studied the relationship between exposure to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections, the TE and the input allocation on dairy farms. Although the traditional cost allocative efficiency (CAE) indicator adequately measures how a given input allocation differs from the cost-minimising input allocation, they do not represent the unique input allocation of farms. Similar CAE scores may be obtained for farms with different input allocations. Therefore, we propose an adjusted allocative efficiency index (AAEI) to measure the unique input allocation of farms. Combining this AAEI with the TE score allows determining the unique input-output position of each farm. The method is illustrated by estimating efficiency scores using data envelopment analysis (DEA) on a sample of 152 dairy farms in Flanders for which both accountancy and parasitic monitoring data were available. Three groups of farms with a different input-output position can be distinguished based on cluster analysis: (1) technically inefficient farms, with a relatively low use of concentrates per 100 l milk and a high exposure to infection, (2) farms with an intermediate TE, relatively high use of concentrates per 100 l milk and a low exposure to infection, (3) farms with the highest TE, relatively low roughage use per 100 l milk and a relatively high exposure to infection. Correlation analysis indicates for each group how the level of exposure to GI nematodes is associated or not with improved economic performance. The results suggest that improving both the economic performance and exposure to infection seems only of interest for highly TE farms. The findings indicate that current farm recommendations

  7. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  8. Effect of infection by irradiated Trichinella Spirals larvae on mice and assessment the role of Al bendazole in treating them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, M.A.F.; Amin, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of infection with irradiated Trichinella Spiralis larvae on mice and to asses the role of albendazole in treating them. This study included parasitological and histopathological studies on mice infected with irradiated Trichinella Spiralis larvae in comparison with mice infected with non-irradiated Trichinella Spiralis only or with mice treated after infection by albendazole. The obtained data revealed that, in mice infected with irradiated Trichinella Spiralis larvae (50 Krad or 80 Krad), the number and length of worms in the small intestine, as well as, the number of encysted larvae in muscles of mice, especially diaphragm and tongue, were significantly decreased. Also, using al bendazole 24 hours after infection with irradiated larvae lead to high significant decrease in all the previously mentioned parameters

  9. Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode infections in goat flocks on semi-arid rangelands of northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivas-Salazar, Raquel; Estrada-Angulo, Alfredo; Mellado, Miguel; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Castro-Pérez, Beatriz Isabel; Gutiérrez-Blanco, Eduardo; Ruiz-Zárate, Fernando

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in goat flocks on semi-arid rangelands of northeastern Mexico (25° N, 350-400 mm annual precipitation). The study included 668 pluriparous goats from 18 herds in five municipalities of Coahuila and Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Five genetic groups were considered (predominance of Boer, Nubian, Alpine, Saanen, and Toggenburg). Fecal samples were taken from the rectum of each animal to determine the number of eggs per gram (EPG) of GIN. The prevalence of flocks with GIN infections was 88.9%. Similar results were observed for the number of goats infected in the flocks. The Alpine breed presented the highest prevalence and highest EPG loads of GIN, whereas Boer and Nubian were the genetic groups with the lowest (P arid zones of Mexico was found a high prevalence of infections with gastrointestinal nematodes. The municipality and the breed of the animals were factors that showed influence on this prevalence and the level of infection of the goats.

  10. Impact of drainage and sewerage on intestinal nematode infections in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, L R S; Cancio, Jacira Azevedo; Cairncross, Sandy

    2004-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1989 among children aged between 5 and 14 years old living in nine poor urban areas of the city of Salvador (pop. 2.44 million), capital of Bahia State, in Northeast Brazil. Three of these areas had benefited from both drainage and sewerage, 3 from improved drainage only, and 3 from neither. The children studied thus belonged to 3 exposure groups regarding their level of sanitation infrastructure. An extensive questionnaire was applied to collect information on each child and on the conditions of the household, and stool examinations of the children 5-14 years old were performed to measure nematode infection. Comparison of the sewerage group with the drainage-only group and the latter with the control (no sewerage or drainage) group showed that, when the level of community sanitation was better, the prevalence of infection among children was less, but risk factors identified for infection were more numerous and more significant. Intensity of infection with Trichuris, but not with Ascaris or hookworm, was also less. The results suggest that sewerage and drainage can have a significant effect on intestinal nematode infections, by reducing transmission occurring in the public domain.

  11. [Investigation on prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infections and influencing factors for children in southwest areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Guo-Fei; Zhang, Lin-Xiu; Luo, Ren-Fu; Tian, Hong-Chun; Tang, Li-Na; Wang, Ju-Jun; Medina, Alexis; Wise, Paul; Rozelle, Scott

    2012-06-01

    To understand the infection status and main risk factors of soil-transmitted nematodes in southwest China so as to provide the evidence for making the control programs for soil-transmitted nematodiasis. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematode infections was determined by Kato-Katz technique and influencing factors were surveyed by using a standardized questionnaire, and in part of the children, the examination of Enterobius vermicularis eggs was performed by using the cellophane swab method. The relationship between soil-transmitted nematode infections and influencing factors was analyzed by the multiple probit estimated method. A total of 1 707 children were examined, with a soil-transmitted nematode infection rate of 22.2%, the crowd infection rates ofAscaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura were 16.0%, 3.8% and 6.6% respectively and 495 children were examined on Enterobius vermicularis eggs, with the infection rate of 5.1%. The results of probit estimated analysis suggested that the effects of 4 factors on soil-transmitted nematode infections were significant (all P values were less than 0.05), namely the number of sib, educational level of mother, drinking unboiled water and raising livestock and poultry. Among the factors above, the educational level of mother could reduce the probability of infection (ME = -0.074), while the number of sib, drinking unboiled water and raising livestock and poultry could increase the probability of the infections (with ME of 0.028, -0.112 and 0.080, respectively). Soil-transmitted nematode infection rates are still in a high level for children in southwest poor areas of China, with Ascaris lumbricoides as a priority. The changes of children's bad health habits, raising livestock and poultry habits, and implementing the health education about parasitic diseases in mothers would be of great significance for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted nematodiasis.

  12. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi and parasitic nematodes on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in Central Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm larvae (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were collected from whorl-stage cornfields, between the V2 and V4 stages, in 22 localities of Central, Chiapas, México, called "La Frailesca" during late June 2009 to determine the occurrence of native entomopathogens and parasitic nema...

  13. Toxocara nematodes in stray cats from shiraz, southern iran: intensity of infection and molecular identification of the isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattaneh Mikaeili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara is a common nematode of cats in different parts of Iran. Despite the close association of cats with human, no attempt has been done so far for molecular identification of this nematode in the country. Therefore, current study was performed on identification of some isolates of Toxocara from stray cats in Shiraz, Fars Province, Southern Iran, based on morphological and molecular approaches, and also determination of intensity of infection.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 stray cats trapped from different geographical areas of Shiraz in 2011. Adult male and female worms were recovered from digestive tract after dissection of cats. Morphological features using existing keys and PCR-sequencing of ITS-rDNA region and pcox1 mitochondrial l gene were applied for the delineating the species of the parasites.Eight out of 30 cats (26.7% were found infected with Toxocara nematodes. All the isolates were confirmed as Toxocara cati based on morphological features and the sequence of ribosomal and mitochondrial targets. Intensity of infection ranged from one to a maximum of 39 worms per cat, with a mean of 10.25±12.36, and higher abundance of female nematodes.The most prevalent ascaridoid nematode of stray cats in the study area was T. cati and female nematodes were more abundant than that of males. This issue has important role in spreading of eggs in the environment and impact on human toxocariasis.

  14. Scanning electron microscopy and histopathological observations of Beauveria bassiana infection of Colorado potato beetle larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yulin; Wu, Hui; Ma, Zhiyan; Yang, Liu; Ma, Deying

    2017-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a potential candidate for use as an environmentally friendly bio-pesticide. We studied the infection process and histopathology of B. bassiana strain NDBJJ-BFG infection of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) using scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining of tissue sections. The results show that the fungus penetrated the insect epidermis through germ tubes and appressoria after spraying the larvae with conidial suspensions. The conidia began to germinate after 24 h and invade the epidermis. After 48 h, the conidia invaded the larvae with germ tubes and began to enter the haemocoel. By 72 h, hyphae had covered the host surface and had colonized the body cavity. The dermal layer was dissolved, muscle tissues were ruptured and adipose tissue was removed. The mycelium had damaged the intestinal wall muscles, and invaded into intestinal wall and midfield cells resulting in cell separation and tracheal deformation. After 96 h of inoculation, the internal structure of the larvae was destroyed. The research shows that B. bassiana NDBJJ-BFG surface inoculation resulted in a series of histopathological changes to the potato beetle larvae that proved lethal within 72 h. This indicated that this fungus has a high pathogenicity to Colorado potato beetle larvae. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacour, Sandrine A.; Heckmann, Aurelie; Mace, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21 degrees C for 19,30 and 56h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam (R) image analysis software and their infectivities were......Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears...... to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella...

  16. The unique resistance and resilience of the Nigerian West African Dwarf goat to gastrointestinal nematode infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background West African Dwarf (WAD) goats serve an important role in the rural village economy of West Africa, especially among small-holder livestock owners. They have been shown to be trypanotolerant and to resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than any other known breed of goat. Methods In this paper we review what is known about the origins of this goat breed, explain its economic importance in rural West Africa and review the current status of our knowledge about its ability to resist parasitic infections. Conclusions We suggest that its unique capacity to show both trypanotolerance and resistance to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections is immunologically based and genetically endowed, and that knowledge of the underlying genes could be exploited to improve the capacity of more productive wool and milk producing, but GI nematode susceptible, breeds of goats to resist infection, without recourse to anthelmintics. Either conventional breeding allowing introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds, or transgenesis could be exploited for this purpose. Appropriate legal protection of the resistance alleles of WAD goats might provide a much needed source of revenue for the countries in West Africa where the WAD goats exist and where currently living standards among rural populations are among the lowest in the world. PMID:21291550

  17. Natural infection of free-range chickens with the ascarid nematode Toxocara sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-da-Silva, Danielle R; da Paz, Jeanne S; Fortunato, Viviane R; Beltrame, Marcus A V; Valli, Luis C P; Pereira, Fausto E L

    2015-11-01

    Human toxocariasis may be acquired by eating raw chicken liver. However, there are no reports on the prevalence of natural infection of chickens with Toxocara. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies as indicators of natural infection with Toxocara, in free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. An ELISA test with secretory and excretory Toxocara canis antigens was used. Negative controls were 20 industrial chickens reared in a high hygiene standard environment. Positive control serum was from a chicken infected with embryonated eggs of T. canis. Sera were adsorbed with Ascaridia galli extract to reduce cross-reactivity. Cut-off was the mean plus four times the standard deviation of optical density (OD) in negative group. One hundred and fifty-seven sera from free-range chicken were investigated. Results showed 58.5% of the chickens were positive with ELISA test; 12.7% had OD over the positive control and may be considered as true infected chickens. The results between the cut-off and the positive control may include infections with low titers of antibodies or may represent serum scar of past infection or may be the result of cross-reaction with other nematodes rather than A. galli which is used for the adsorption of sera. In conclusion, high prevalence of Toxocara sp. antibodies demonstrates natural infection of free-range chickens from Espírito Santo State which may represent a risk of infection with this nematode in people who have the habit of eating raw or undercooked chicken meat or viscera. The results also suggest that chickens may be useful as sentinels to detect soil contaminated with Toxocara eggs.

  18. Levels of infection of gastric nematodes in a flock of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Lake Biwa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dakhly, Kh M; El-Nahass, E; Uni, S; Tuji, H; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2012-03-01

    A high prevalence (86.7%) of various species of nematodes was observed in the stomach of great cormorants living in Lake Biwa, Japan. There were varying numbers of adults belonging to two common genera, Eustrongylides Jagerskiold 1909 (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae) and Contracaecum Railliet & Henry 1912 (Nematoda: Anisakidae). The first included common adenophorean nematodes comprising a single species, Eustrongylides tubifex and the second comprised ascaroid nematodes that contained four named species: Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964, Contracaecum microcephalum Yamaguti, 1961, Contracaecum multipapillatum Drasche, 1882 and Contracaecum chubutensis Garbin, 2008. After the prevalence and intensity of the infection had been noted, both types of nematodes were frequently observed to penetrate the mucosa and intrude into the wall of the glandular stomach, where they caused gross haemorrhage and ulceration. The Eustrongylides sp. was predominantly found in a nodular lesion of the proventricular wall, while Contracaecum spp. were observed either free in the lumen of the proventriculus or, on occasion, deeply penetrating its wall. Of the Contracaecum spp., C. rudolphii was the most prevalent. Grossly, large numbers of nematodes were present in infected stomachs (for C. rudolphii intensity was 1-34 and 3-57 nematodes in male birds and 1-21 and 1-32 in females; for C. microcephalum 1-2 and 1 in male birds and 1-2 in females; for C. multipapillatum 2 in male cormorants and no infection in females; for C. chubutensis 1-2 and 1 in male birds and 1-5 and 1 in females and for E. tubifex 1-5 nematodes in male birds and 2-8 in females). Ulcerative inflammation and hyperaemia were the most common pathological presentations, especially in areas that had been invaded by parasites. Microscopically, varying degrees of granulomatous inflammatory reactions were seen, in addition to degenerated nematodes which appeared to have deeply penetrated mucosal surfaces and were surrounded by

  19. Infective Juveniles of the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema scapterisci Are Preferentially Activated by Cricket Tissue.

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    Dihong Lu

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes are a subgroup of insect-parasitic nematodes that are used in biological control as alternatives or supplements to chemical pesticides. Steinernema scapterisci is an unusual member of the entomopathogenic nematode guild for many reasons including that it is promiscuous in its association with bacteria, it can reproduce in the absence of its described bacterial symbiont, and it is known to have a narrow host range. It is a powerful comparative model within the species and could be used to elucidate parasite specialization. Here we describe a new method of efficiently producing large numbers of S. scapterisci infective juveniles (IJs in house crickets and for quantifying parasitic activation of the IJs upon exposure to host tissue using morphological features. We found that parasite activation is a temporal process with more IJs activating over time. Furthermore, we found that activated IJs secrete a complex mixture of proteins and that S. scapterisci IJs preferentially activate upon exposure to cricket tissue, reaffirming the description of S. scapterisci as a cricket specialist.

  20. Avaliação in vitro dos efeitos do óleo da semente de Carapa guianensis Aubl. sobre larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos e ovinos In vitro evaluation of Carapa guianensis Aubl. seed oil effects on larvae from gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.O Farias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar in vitro a ação do óleo da semente da Carapa guianensis (Andiroba no cultivo de larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de animais das espécies caprina e ovina, foram testadas cinco diluições do óleo de andiroba (100, 50, 30, 25 e 10%, com três repetições por tratamento, utilizando-se tween 80 como dispersante, formando-se ainda três grupos controle, um controle negativo (água destilada, outro controle negativo (água destilada + tween 80 e um controle positivo (Doramectina. A atividade da andiroba sobre os ovos de nematóides gastrintestinais foi determinada pelo cálculo dos percentuais de redução de larvas por gramas de fezes. Os resultados revelaram na espécie caprina redução altamente efetiva no número de larvas totais para os tratamentos 100, 50 e 30% com médias nulas para todos os gêneros de nematóides. Na espécie ovina observou-se redução altamente efetiva no número de larvas totais em todos os tratamentos, com médias nulas nos tratamentos 100, 50 e 30%. Os resultados obtidos neste experimento demonstram que o óleo da semente de Carapa guianensis possui atividade in vitro contra larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos e ovinos.This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro action of Carapa guianensis (Andiroba seed oil on the cultivation of larvae from gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and sheep. Five andiroba oil dilutions (100, 50, 30, 25, and 10% were assayed, with three replicates per treatment, using Tween 80 as surfactant. Three control groups were formed: a negative control (distilled water, another negative control (distilled water + Tween 80 and a positive control (Doramectin. The activity of andiroba on the eggs from gastrointestinal nematodes was obtained by calculating larva reduction percentages per gram of feces. In goats, a highly effective reduction in the total number of larvae was detected for treatments 100, 50 and 30%, with null means for all nematode genera

  1. Evaluation of the myoelectrical activity of the equine ileum infected with Strongylus vulgaris larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, C R; Merritt, A M; Burrows, C F; Campbell, M; Drudge, J H

    1986-01-01

    Five weanling ponies were subjected to an intensive 6-week deworming program after which 4 Ag-AgCl bipolar electrodes were implanted surgically on the distal ileum. For 3 hours each day for 5 consecutive days, ileal myoelectrical activity was recorded from fed ponies under 3 sequential conditions: preinoculation, after oral administration of 1,000 killed Strongylus vulgaris infective larvae (3 ponies), and after oral administration of 1,000 live S vulgaris infective larvae. Recordings were analyzed for slow wave frequency, percentage duration of phases I, II, and III of the migrating myoelectrical complex (MMC), and the frequency of distinct, rapidly migrating action-potential complexes within phase 2 of the MMC. After administration of live and killed infected 3rd-stage larvae, there was a marked increase in the number of disrupted phase III complexes, and a significant (P less than 0.001) increase in the number of migrating action-potential complexes. In addition, after inoculation of live 3rd-stage larvae, there was a significant increase (P less than 0.001) in the percentage of time that the MMC was occupied by prolonged periods devoid of spike activity (phase I). The results indicate that S vulgaris larval mucosal penetration and submucosal migration can cause changes in ileal myoelectrical activity that could cause colic, and that larval antigen alone within the lumen may disrupt ileal motility.

  2. Insecticidal activity of two proteases against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae infected with recombinant baculoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Baculovirus comprise the largest group of insect viruses most studied worldwide, mainly because they efficiently kill agricutural insect pests. In this study, two recombinant baculoviruses containing the ScathL gene from Sarcophaga peregrina (vSynScathL), and the Keratinase gene from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (vSynKerat), were constructed. and their insecticidal properties analysed against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Results Bioassays of third-instar and neonate S. frugiperda larvae with vSynScathL and vSynKerat showed a decrease in the time needed to kill the infected insects when compared to the wild type virus. We have also shown that both recombinants were able to increase phenoloxidase activity in the hemolymph of S. frugiperda larvae. The expression of proteases in infected larvae resulted in destruction of internal tissues late in infection, which could be the reason for the increased viral speed of kill. Conclusions Baculoviruses and their recombinant forms constitute viable alternatives to chemical insecticides. Recombinant baculoviruses containing protease genes can be added to the list of engineered baculoviruses with great potential to be used in integrated pest management programs. PMID:20587066

  3. Establishment of infection models in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio to study the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Roberto Saraceni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen of fish and terrestrial animals. In humans, A. hydrophila mainly causes gastroenteritis, septicaemia and tissue infections. The mechanisms of infection, the main virulence factors and the host immune response triggered by A. hydrophila have been studied in detail using murine models and adult fish. However, the great limitation of studying adult animals is that the animal must be sacrificed and its tissues/organs extracted, which prevents the study of the infectious processes in the whole living animal.Zebrafish larvae are being used for the analysis of several infectious diseases, but their use for studying the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila has never been explored. The great advantage of zebrafish larvae is their transparency during the first week after fertilization, which allows detailed descriptions of the infectious processes using in vivo imaging techniques such as differential interferential contrast (DIC and fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, the availability of fluorescent pathogens and transgenic reporter zebrafish lines expressing fluorescent immune cells, immune marker genes or cytokines/chemokines allows the host-pathogen interactions to be characterized.The present study explores the suitability of zebrafish larvae to study the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila and the interaction mechanisms between the bacterium and the innate immune responses through an infection model using different routes for infection. We used an early-embryo infection model at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf through the microinjection of A. hydrophila into the duct of Cuvier, caudal vein, notochord or muscle and two bath infection models using 4 dpf healthy and injured larvae. The latter resembled the natural conditions under which A. hydrophila produces infectious diseases in animals. We compared the cellular processes after infection in each anatomical site by confocal fluorescence imaging and

  4. Metabolic cues for puberty onset in free grazing Holstein heifers naturally infected with nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Torga, G S; Mejia, M E; González-Iglesias, A; Formia, N; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2001-07-01

    Leptin is a new plausible candidate for the molecular link between nutritional status and the reproductive axis. In previous studies we described that continuous natural nematode infections in heifers retarded growth and delayed the onset of puberty, and that the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was involved. In the present study we monitored the leptin levels during development in heifers naturally parasitized versus those chronically treated with ivermectin and we investigated whether growth hormone (GH) accounted for the differences in IGF-I previously noted. Insulin levels were also measured. Prolactin hormone was recorded as an indicator of immune system activation. We found a direct correlation between leptin and body weight during development and a prepubertal surge of the hormone 2 weeks before the first progesterone peak that indicates the onset of puberty. This suggests that leptin may act as a signal for this event. Insulin did not vary during growth and prepuberty. On the other hand, GH as not responsible for diminished IGF-I levels in parasitized animals as levels were similar in both groups. The GH levels were high at birth and then diminished rapidly and remained constant during development and puberty. The last hormone studied, prolactin, followed seasonal changes of sunlight duration and presented sporadic bursts in infected animals. These were related to high nematode infection and are probably involved in the immune response of the host.

  5. First report of the spiral nematode Helicotylenchus microlobus infecting soybean in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus spp.) are common plant-parasitic nematodes in fields of many crops. In June 2015, two soil samples were collected from a soybean field in Richland County, ND. Nematodes were extracted from soil using the sugar centrifugal flotation method. Plant-parasitic nematodes ...

  6. Diversity, Host Specialization, and Geographic Structure of Filarial Nematodes Infecting Malagasy Bats.

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    Beza Ramasindrazana

    Full Text Available We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae; a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae, Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae, and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae. We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors.

  7. A reverse transcriptase-PCR assay for detecting filarial infective larvae in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J Laney

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Existing molecular assays for filarial parasite DNA in mosquitoes cannot distinguish between infected mosquitoes that contain any stage of the parasite and infective mosquitoes that harbor third stage larvae (L3 capable of establishing new infections in humans. We now report development of a molecular L3-detection assay for Brugia malayi in vectors based on RT-PCR detection of an L3-activated gene transcript.Candidate genes identified by bioinformatics analysis of EST datasets across the B. malayi life cycle were initially screened by PCR using cDNA libraries as templates. Stage-specificity was confirmed using RNA isolated from infected mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were collected daily for 14 days after feeding on microfilaremic cat blood. RT-PCR was performed with primer sets that were specific for individual candidate genes. Many promising candidates with strong expression in the L3 stage were excluded because of low-level transcription in less mature larvae. One transcript (TC8100, which encodes a particular form of collagen was only detected in mosquitoes that contained L3 larvae. This assay detects a single L3 in a pool of 25 mosquitoes.This L3-activated gene transcript, combined with a control transcript (tph-1, accession # U80971 that is constitutively expressed by all vector-stage filarial larvae, can be used to detect filarial infectivity in pools of mosquito vectors. This general approach (detection of stage-specific gene transcripts from eukaryotic pathogens may also be useful for detecting infective stages of other vector-borne parasites.

  8. New Paenibacillus larvae bacterial isolates from honey bee colonies infected with American foulbrood disease in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masry, Saad Hamdy Daif; Kabeil, Sanaa Soliman; Hafez, Elsayed Elsayed

    2014-03-04

    The American foulbrood disease is widely distributed all over the world and causes a serious problem for the honeybee industry. Different infected larvae were collected from different apiaries, ground in phosphate saline buffer (PSB) and bacterial isolation was carried out on nutrient agar medium. Different colonies were observed and were characterized biologically. Two bacterial isolates (SH11 and SH33) were subjected to molecular identification using 16S rRNA gene and the sequence analysis revealed that the two isolates are Paenibacillus larvae with identity not exceeding 83%. The DNA sequence alignment between the other P. larvae bacterial strains and the two identified bacterial isolates showed that all the examined bacterial strains have the same ancestor, i.e. they have the same origin. The SH33 isolate was closely related to the P. larvae isolated from Germany, whereas the isolate SH11 was close to the P. larvae isolated from India. The phylogenetic tree constructed for 20 different Bacillus sp. and the two isolates SH11 and SH33 demonstrated that the two isolates are Bacillus sp. and they are new isolates. The bacterial isolates will be subjected to more tests for more confirmations.

  9. A faunistic survey of digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp have been reported in Tanzania as vectors of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium respectively. Thus most schistosomiasis control efforts have focussed on elimination of these molluscs in freshwater systems or deworming infected persons. In addition almost there is limited ...

  10. The Histopathology of the Infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes by Lasidium Larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Teresa Silva-Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae. The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 µm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host.

  11. Effectivity of Musa paradisiaca extract to control Saprolegnia sp. infection on giant gourami larvae

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    Sri Nuryati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larval stage of giant gourami is a critical period due to fungal infection, such as Saprolegnia sp. infection. There are some plants which have antiseptic compound like banana Musa paradisiaca. This research was aimed to examine the effectiveness of the banana stem extract M. paradisiaca to control Saprolegnia sp. infection on giant gurami larvae through immersion. Eight-day old gorami larvae (at the initial of 0.5±0.03 cm was reared in an aquarium sized 25×25×25 cm3 at the density of 8 fry/L. Culture media were added banana stem extract at the dose of 0; 0.08; 0.12; and 0.16 g/L during 21 days of rearing period. Challenge test was performed for 14 days by giving Saprolegnia sp. spores at the density of 104 cells/mL and banana stem extract. The treatment dose of 0.16 g/L has showen survival 100% than positive control  after the challenge test. Keywords: giant gourami, Musa paradisiaca, Saprolegnia sp., fry  ABSTRAK Fase larva ikan gurami merupakan masa kritis terhadap infeksi cendawan, seperti jenis Saprolegnia sp. Beberapa tanaman memiliki daya antiseptik seperti tanaman pisang ambon Musa paradisiaca. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas ekstrak batang pisang ambon M. paradisiaca dalam mengurangi infeksi Saprolegnia sp. pada larva ikan gurami melalui media pemeliharaan. Larva gurami umur delapan hari (panjang larva 0,5+0,03 cm dipelihara pada akuarium berukuran 25×25×25 cm3 dengan padat tebar 8 ekor/L. Media pemeliharaan diberi ekstrak batang pisang ambon dosis 0; 0,08; 0,12; dan 0,16 g/L selama 21 hari. Uji tantang dilakukan selama 14 hari dengan pemberian spora Saprolegnia sp. kepadatan 104 sel/mL dan ekstrak batang pisang ambon. Perlakuan dosis 0,16 g/L memberikan kelangsungan hidup sebesar 100% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan kontrol positif setelah uji tantang. Kata kunci: giant gourami, Musa paradisiaca, Saprolegnia sp., larva

  12. Metagenomic insights into communities, functions of endophytes, and their associates with infection by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in tomato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bao-Yu; Cao, Yi; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-11-25

    Endophytes are known to play important roles in plant's health and productivity. In this study, we investigated the root microbiome of tomato in association with infection by root knot nematodes. Our objectives were to observe the effects and response of the bacterial endophytes before nematode attacks and to reveal the functional attributes of microbes in plant health and nematode pathogenesis. Community analysis of root-associated microbiomes in healthy and nematode-infected tomatoes indicated that nematode infections were associated with variation and differentiation of the endophyte and rhizosphere bacterial populations in plant roots. The community of the resident endophytes in tomato root was significantly affected by nemato-pathogenesis. Remarkably, some bacterial groups in the nematode feeding structure, the root gall, were specifically enriched, suggesting an association with nematode pathogenesis. Function-based metagenomic analysis indicated that the enriched bacterial populations in root gall harbored abundant genes related to degradation of plant polysaccharides, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and biological nitrogen fixation. Our data indicated that some of the previously assumed beneficial endophytes or bacterial associates with nematode might be involved in nematode infections of the tomato roots.

  13. Strongyloides stercoralis age-1: a potential regulator of infective larval development in a parasitic nematode.

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    Jonathan D Stoltzfus

    Full Text Available Infective third-stage larvae (L3i of the human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis share many morphological, developmental, and behavioral attributes with Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larvae. The 'dauer hypothesis' predicts that the same molecular genetic mechanisms control both dauer larval development in C. elegans and L3i morphogenesis in S. stercoralis. In C. elegans, the phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3 kinase catalytic subunit AGE-1 functions in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS pathway to regulate formation of dauer larvae. Here we identify and characterize Ss-age-1, the S. stercoralis homolog of the gene encoding C. elegans AGE-1. Our analysis of the Ss-age-1 genomic region revealed three exons encoding a predicted protein of 1,209 amino acids, which clustered with C. elegans AGE-1 in phylogenetic analysis. We examined temporal patterns of expression in the S. stercoralis life cycle by reverse transcription quantitative PCR and observed low levels of Ss-age-1 transcripts in all stages. To compare anatomical patterns of expression between the two species, we used Ss-age-1 or Ce-age-1 promoter::enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter constructs expressed in transgenic animals for each species. We observed conservation of expression in amphidial neurons, which play a critical role in developmental regulation of both dauer larvae and L3i. Application of the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 suppressed L3i in vitro activation in a dose-dependent fashion, with 100 µM resulting in a 90% decrease (odds ratio: 0.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.08-0.13 in the odds of resumption of feeding for treated L3i in comparison to the control. Together, these data support the hypothesis that Ss-age-1 regulates the development of S. stercoralis L3i via an IIS pathway in a manner similar to that observed in C. elegans dauer larvae. Understanding the mechanisms by which infective larvae are formed and activated may lead to novel control measures and treatments for

  14. Exploring the Effect of Phage Therapy in Preventing Vibrio anguillarum Infections in Cod and Turbot Larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbo, Nanna; Rønneseth, Anita; Kalatzis, Panos G.

    2018-01-01

    The aquaculture industry is suffering from losses associated with bacterial infections by opportunistic pathogens. Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most important pathogens, causing vibriosis in fish and shellfish cultures leading to high mortalities and economic losses. Bacterial resistance to a...... KVP40, demonstrating that the phage could also reduce mortality imposed by the background population of pathogens. Overall, phage-mediated reduction in mortality of cod and turbot larvae in experimental challenge assays with V. anguillarum pathogens suggested that application of broad...

  15. Effect of host irradiation on bio-infectivity and proliferation capacity of Steinernema glaseri as entomopathogenic nematodes on a serious tropical pest, Spodoptera litura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, R K; Barik, T K [Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2007-07-15

    Bioefficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). Steinernema glaseri on irradiated lepidopteran pest, Spodoptera litura (Fabr.) was studied to understand the impact of host irradiation on behaviour of EPNs in order to establish these nematodes as potential biocontrol agents by using nuclear techniques. Initially, radiation impact was ascertained on growth and reproductive behaviour of host, S. litura when treated in different stages, viz. 5th instar larva (L5), 6th instar larva (L6) and pre-pupa, to select the range of gamma sterilizing doses for these insect stages. ED{sub 50} and ED{sub 90} gamma doses resulting into 50% and 90% check, respectively, in pupa formation, adult emergence and egg viability of host with respect to control, were determined. Then, based on these results, the efficacy of the selected doses, (40-70Gy), was evaluated on the metamorphosis, degree of malformation and reproductive behaviour of S. litura before studying the EPNs' bio-infectivity on irradiated host. 70 Gy was determined as an overall sterilizing dose for L5, L6 and pre-pupa stages. The data indicated that radiosusceptibility decreased with age. Host irradiation of L5 and L6 stages did not influence significantly the parasitization by infective juveniles (IJs) of EPNs. Irradiation decrease the pre-pupal parasitization by EPNs, but in case pre-pupa escaped as being target for parasitization, impact of host irradiation was not apparent on the parasitization of the ensuing pupal stage, although total parasitization by EPNs in pre-pupal and pupal stages (subsequent to pre-pupal irradiation and pre-pupal exposure to IJs) was decreased due to radiation. The impact of host irradiation with 40 Gy was not significant on the bio-infective behaviour of EPNs except harvest of IJs from host stage-pupa. Host irradiation dose of 70 Gy reduced the IJs harvest per mg host weight by 9-11.7% on L5 and by 9-19.8% on L6 in comparison to control. The effect of host radiation on harvest of IJs was

  16. Effect of host irradiation on bio-infectivity and proliferation capacity of Steinernema glaseri as entomopathogenic nematodes on a serious tropical pest, Spodoptera litura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Barik, T.K.

    2007-01-01

    Bioefficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). Steinernema glaseri on irradiated lepidopteran pest, Spodoptera litura (Fabr.) was studied to understand the impact of host irradiation on behaviour of EPNs in order to establish these nematodes as potential biocontrol agents by using nuclear techniques. Initially, radiation impact was ascertained on growth and reproductive behaviour of host, S. litura when treated in different stages, viz. 5th instar larva (L5), 6th instar larva (L6) and pre-pupa, to select the range of gamma sterilizing doses for these insect stages. ED 50 and ED 90 gamma doses resulting into 50% and 90% check, respectively, in pupa formation, adult emergence and egg viability of host with respect to control, were determined. Then, based on these results, the efficacy of the selected doses, (40-70Gy), was evaluated on the metamorphosis, degree of malformation and reproductive behaviour of S. litura before studying the EPNs' bio-infectivity on irradiated host. 70 Gy was determined as an overall sterilizing dose for L5, L6 and pre-pupa stages. The data indicated that radiosusceptibility decreased with age. Host irradiation of L5 and L6 stages did not influence significantly the parasitization by infective juveniles (IJs) of EPNs. Irradiation decrease the pre-pupal parasitization by EPNs, but in case pre-pupa escaped as being target for parasitization, impact of host irradiation was not apparent on the parasitization of the ensuing pupal stage, although total parasitization by EPNs in pre-pupal and pupal stages (subsequent to pre-pupal irradiation and pre-pupal exposure to IJs) was decreased due to radiation. The impact of host irradiation with 40 Gy was not significant on the bio-infective behaviour of EPNs except harvest of IJs from host stage-pupa. Host irradiation dose of 70 Gy reduced the IJs harvest per mg host weight by 9-11.7% on L5 and by 9-19.8% on L6 in comparison to control. The effect of host radiation on harvest of IJs was more severe

  17. Role of stress-related hormones in plant defence during early infection of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerhofer, Nina; Radakovic, Zoran; Regis, Jully M A; Dobrev, Petre; Vankova, Radomira; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Heterodera schachtii, a plant-parasitic cyst nematode, invades host roots and induces a specific syncytial feeding structure, from which it withdraws all required nutrients, causing severe yield losses. The system H. schachtii–Arabidopsis is an excellent research model for investigating plant defence mechanisms. Such responses are suppressed in well-established syncytia, whereas they are induced during early parasitism. However, the mechanisms by which the defence responses are modulated and the role of phytohormones are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of hormone-based defence responses at the onset of nematode infection. First, concentrations of main phytohormones were quantified and the expression of several hormone-related genes was analysed using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR or GeneChip. Further, the effects of individual hormones were evaluated via nematode attraction and infection assays using plants with altered endogenous hormone concentrations. Our results suggest a pivotal and positive role for ethylene during nematode attraction, whereas jasmonic acid triggers early defence responses against H. schachtii. Salicylic acid seems to be a negative regulator during later syncytium and female development. We conclude that nematodes are able to impose specific changes in hormone pools, thus modulating hormone-based defence and signal transduction in strict dependence on their parasitism stage. PMID:25825039

  18. The alkaloid compound harmane increases the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans during bacterial infection, by modulating the nematode's innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Jakobsen

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has in recent years been proven to be a powerful in vivo model for testing antimicrobial compounds. We report here that the alkaloid compound Harmane (2-methyl-β-carboline increases the lifespan of nematodes infected with a human pathogen, the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and several other bacterial pathogens. This was shown to be unrelated to the weak antibiotic effect of Harmane. Using GFP-expressing E. coli EDL933, we showed that Harmane does not lower the colonization burden in the nematodes. We also found that the expression of the putative immune effector gene F35E12.5 was up-regulated in response to Harmane treatment. This indicates that Harmane stimulates the innate immune response of the nematode; thereby increasing its lifespan during bacterial infection. Expression of F35E12.5 is predominantly regulated through the p38 MAPK pathway; however, intriguingly the lifespan extension resulting from Harmane was higher in p38 MAPK-deficient nematodes. This indicates that Harmane has a complex effect on the innate immune system of C. elegans. Harmane could therefore be a useful tool in the further research into C. elegans immunity. Since the innate immunity of C. elegans has a high degree of evolutionary conservation, drugs such as Harmane could also be possible alternatives to classic antibiotics. The C. elegans model could prove to be useful for selection and development of such drugs.

  19. The alkaloid compound harmane increases the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans during bacterial infection, by modulating the nematode's innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Henrik; Bojer, Martin S; Marinus, Martin G; Xu, Tao; Struve, Carsten; Krogfelt, Karen A; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has in recent years been proven to be a powerful in vivo model for testing antimicrobial compounds. We report here that the alkaloid compound Harmane (2-methyl-β-carboline) increases the lifespan of nematodes infected with a human pathogen, the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and several other bacterial pathogens. This was shown to be unrelated to the weak antibiotic effect of Harmane. Using GFP-expressing E. coli EDL933, we showed that Harmane does not lower the colonization burden in the nematodes. We also found that the expression of the putative immune effector gene F35E12.5 was up-regulated in response to Harmane treatment. This indicates that Harmane stimulates the innate immune response of the nematode; thereby increasing its lifespan during bacterial infection. Expression of F35E12.5 is predominantly regulated through the p38 MAPK pathway; however, intriguingly the lifespan extension resulting from Harmane was higher in p38 MAPK-deficient nematodes. This indicates that Harmane has a complex effect on the innate immune system of C. elegans. Harmane could therefore be a useful tool in the further research into C. elegans immunity. Since the innate immunity of C. elegans has a high degree of evolutionary conservation, drugs such as Harmane could also be possible alternatives to classic antibiotics. The C. elegans model could prove to be useful for selection and development of such drugs.

  20. Soybean cyst nematode culture collections and field populations from North Carolina and Missouri reveal high incidences of infection by viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Casey L; Koenning, Stephen R; Davis, Eric L; Opperman, Charles H; Lommel, Steven A; Mitchum, Melissa G; Sit, Tim L

    2017-01-01

    Five viruses were previously discovered infecting soybean cyst nematodes (SCN; Heterodera glycines) from greenhouse cultures maintained in Illinois. In this study, the five viruses [ScNV, ScPV, ScRV, ScTV, and SbCNV-5] were detected within SCN greenhouse and field populations from North Carolina (NC) and Missouri (MO). The prevalence and titers of viruses in SCN from 43 greenhouse cultures and 25 field populations were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Viral titers within SCN greenhouse cultures were similar throughout juvenile development, and the presence of viral anti-genomic RNAs within egg, second-stage juvenile (J2), and pooled J3 and J4 stages suggests active viral replication within the nematode. Viruses were found at similar or lower levels within field populations of SCN compared with greenhouse cultures of North Carolina populations. Five greenhouse cultures harbored all five known viruses whereas in most populations a mixture of fewer viruses was detected. In contrast, three greenhouse cultures of similar descent to one another did not possess any detectable viruses and primarily differed in location of the cultures (NC versus MO). Several of these SCN viruses were also detected in Heterodera trifolii (clover cyst) and Heterodera schachtii (beet cyst), but not the other cyst, root-knot, or reniform nematode species tested. Viruses were not detected within soybean host plant tissue. If nematode infection with viruses is truly more common than first considered, the potential influence on nematode biology, pathogenicity, ecology, and control warrants continued investigation.

  1. Localization of Ascaridia galli larvae in the jejunum of chickens 3 days post infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna Olivares, Luz Adilia; Ferdushy, Tania; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2012-01-01

    The normal habitat of the parasitic stages of Ascaridia galli is in the small intestine of poultry but the exact localization is poorly understood. Therefore, a histological study was conducted in order to localize the larvae during the early phase of infection. Six layer pullets seven-week old...... were infected orally with 20,000 embryonated A. galli eggs each, whereas four chickens were left as un-infected controls. At necropsy 3 days after infection the first half of jejunum/ileum was divided into two equally sized sections (J1 and J2). After taking samples for histology from the middle of J1...... and J2 and the junction between these determined JX, the two sections were subjected to parasitological examination. A higher number of A. galli larvae were recovered from section J2 than J1 and the majority of larvae were recovered from the most profound layers. Based on histology 144 larvae were...

  2. Sublethal pesticide doses negatively affect survival and the cellular responses in American foulbrood-infected honeybee larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier Hernández; Krainer, Sophie; Engert, Antonia; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-02-01

    Disclosing interactions between pesticides and bee infections is of most interest to understand challenges that pollinators are facing and to which extent bee health is compromised. Here, we address the individual and combined effect that three different pesticides (dimethoate, clothianidin and fluvalinate) and an American foulbrood (AFB) infection have on mortality and the cellular immune response of honeybee larvae. We demonstrate for the first time a synergistic interaction when larvae are exposed to sublethal doses of dimethoate or clothianidin in combination with Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of AFB. A significantly higher mortality than the expected sum of the effects of each individual stressor was observed in co-exposed larvae, which was in parallel with a drastic reduction of the total and differential hemocyte counts. Our results underline that characterizing the cellular response of larvae to individual and combined stressors allows unmasking previously undetected sublethal effects of pesticides in colony health.

  3. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host-pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp.

  4. Gastrointestinal nematode infection does not affect selection of tropical foliage by goats in a cafeteria trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Cordero, J; González-Pech, P G; Jaimez-Rodriguez, P R; Ortíz-Ocampo, G I; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Torres-Acosta, J F J

    2017-01-01

    It is important to determine whether gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) affect foliage choice of goats leading to confirm the expression of a self-medication behavior. This study investigated the effect of GIN infection on tropical foliage selection by goats. During experimental stage 1 (10 days), goats had a natural mixed GIN infection, and at stage 2 (10 days), goats were treated with effective anthelmintics to maintain them free of GIN infection. During stage 1 the twelve adult goats (32 ± 2.3 kg live weight [LW]) were assigned to three groups (n = 4) according to their initial GIN infection status: HI group, with fecal egg count (FEC) between 1450 and 2150 eggs per g/feces (EPG); MI group, medium FEC (592-1167 EPG); and the NI group, free from GIN infection. Fresh foliage of four tropical plants were offered to goats ad libitum for 1 h daily: Gymnopodium floribundum (high condensed tannin [CT] content, 37-40 %), Mimosa bahamensis (medium CT content, 16-17 %), Leucaena leucocephala (low CT content, 3-5 %), and Viguiera dentata (negligible CT content, 0.6-0.9 %). Jacobs' selection indexes (JSIs) were estimated for the experimental foliage based on dry matter (DM), CT, or crude protein (CP) intake. During both study stages, individual fecal egg counts were estimated. The JSI patterns of different plant species, based on DM, CT, or CP, were similar irrespective of infection level during stage 1 (HI, MI, and NI) or no GIN infection (stage 2). Thus, irrespective of GIN infection, goats actively selected M. bahamensis (high CT, low CP content) and V. dentata (negligible CT, high CP content) but avoided G. floribundum (high CT, low CP content) and L. leucocephala (medium CT and high CP content). Thus, natural GIN infection did not influence goats' foliage selection.

  5. Effect of spray volume on the deposition, viability and infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes in a foliar spray on vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusselman, Eva; Beck, Bert; Pollet, Sabien; Temmerman, Femke; Spanoghe, Pieter; Moens, Maurice; Nuyttens, David

    2012-10-01

    Spray volume can influence the amount of free water on the leaf surface and subsequently the ability of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) to move. In this study, an investigation was made of the effect of spray volume (548, 730 and 1095 L ha(-1) ) on the deposition, viability and infectivity of EPNs against Galleria mellonella on savoy cabbage, cauliflower and leek. Increasing spray volume decreased nematode deposition on 7.1 cm2 leek leaf discs at a 15° angle with the spray nozzle. Although the number of living nematodes observed on leek after 240 min of exposure was not significantly different between the low-volume application (548 L ha(-1) ) and the high-volume application (1095 L ha(-1) ), a greater infectivity was obtained in the latter application. The higher number of droplets deposited on the leek discs in the high-volume application may have stimulated nematode movement. No significant effect of spray volume was observed on the relative deposition of Steinernema carpocapsae on the bottom side of cauliflower and savoy cabbage leaf discs. In spite of the low S. carpocapsae deposition on the bottom side of the savoy cabbage discs, high infectivity was obtained against G. mellonella. Using the lowest spray volume on savoy cabbage, infectivity decreased with increasing exposure time, while infectivity was not affected by exposure time when a spray volume of 730 L ha(-1) or more was used. Spray volume is an important application parameter, as it affects nematode infectivity. Future research should investigate the effect of spray volume in the field and its influence on the effect of adjuvants. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis megidis: host searching behaviour, infectivity and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, M.I.C.

    2001-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes in the families Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae have considerable potential as biological control agents of soil-inhabiting insect pests. Attributes making these nematodes ideal biological control agents include their broad host range, high virulence,

  7. Identification of tissue-embedded ascarid larvae by ribosomal DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Kenji; Shinohara, Akio; Yagi, Kinpei; Horii, Yoichiro; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2004-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to identify tissue-embedded ascarid nematode larvae. Two sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), ITS1 and ITS2, of the ascarid parasites were amplified and compared with those of ascarid-nematodes registered in a DNA database (GenBank). The ITS sequences of the PCR products obtained from the ascarid parasite specimen in our laboratory were compatible with those of registered adult Ascaris and Toxocara parasites. PCR amplification of the ITS regions was sensitive enough to detect a single larva of Ascaris suum mixed with porcine liver tissue. Using this method, ascarid larvae embedded in the liver of a naturally infected turkey were identified as Toxocara canis. These results suggest that even a single larva embedded in tissues from patients with larva migrans could be identified by sequencing the ITS regions.

  8. Blood biochemical changes in lambs infected with normal and gamma irradiated third stage larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, T.K.; Dhar, D.N.; Bansal, G.C.; Sharma, R.L. (Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Srinagar (India). Regional Centre)

    1984-09-01

    Primary infections with normal third stage larvae of Dictyocaulus filaria at a dose of 150 1/kg caused significant decrease in the levels of haemoglobin, blood glucose, serum total proteins, serum albumin, albumin/globulin ratio and increase in levels of total globulins and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in lambs. Almost similar changes in the above blood constituents excepting for haemoglobin, blood glucose and LDH activity were noticed in lambs immunised with two doses of gamma irradiation larvae and subsequently challenged with normal larvae of D. filaria at a dose of 150 1/kg. In both the infected groups, serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, malate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities were, however, not affected.

  9. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Sandrine A; Heckmann, Aurélie; Macé, Pauline; Grasset-Chevillot, Aurélie; Zanella, Gina; Vallée, Isabelle; Kapel, Christian M O; Boireau, Pascal

    2013-05-20

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21°C for 19, 30 and 56 h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam(®) image analysis software and their infectivities were evaluated using mouse bioassays. Samples frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h allowed recovery of mobile ML, but samples frozen for 1 or 2 weeks did not. Correspondingly, only T. spiralis and T. britovi larvae isolated from wild boar meat frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h established in mice. This study showed that freezing at -21°C for 1 week inactivated T. spiralis and T. britovi ML encapsulated in wild boar meat for 24 weeks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Luminous vibriosis in rock lobster Jasus verreauxi (Decapoda: Palinuridae) phyllosoma larvae associated with infection by Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, B K; Moss, G A; Carson, J; Anderson, C D

    2000-11-14

    Studies were conducted to determine the cause of outbreaks of luminous vibriosis in phyllosoma larvae of the packhorse rock lobster Jasus verreauxi reared in an experimental culture facility. On 2 separate occasions mortalities of up to 75% over a period of 4 wk were observed in 4th to 5th and 8th to 10th instar phyllosomas at water temperatures of 20 and 23 degrees C, respectively. Affected larvae became opaque, exhibited small red spots throughout the body and pereiopods, and were faintly luminous when viewed in the dark. Histopathology showed that the gut and hepatopancreas tubules of moribund phyllosomas contained massive bacterial plaques. The hepatopancreas tubules of moribund larvae were atrophic and some contained necrotic cells sloughed into the lumen. Dense, pure cultures of a bacterium identified as Vibrio harveyi were isolated from moribund larvae. The disease syndrome was reproduced by in vivo challenge and V. harveyi was successfully reisolated from diseased larvae after apparently healthy larvae were exposed by immersion to baths of more than 10(4) V. harveyi ml(-1) at 24 degrees C. Injured larvae were more susceptible to infection than were healthy larvae. Survival of larvae experimentally and naturally exposed to V. harveyi was improved when antibiotics were administered via bath exposures.

  11. The alkaloid compound harmane increases the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans during bacterial infection, by modulating the nematode's innate immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Henrik; Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Marinus, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    pathway; however, intriguingly the lifespan extension resulting from Harmane was higher in p38 MAPK-deficient nematodes. This indicates that Harmane has a complex effect on the innate immune system of C. elegans. Harmane could therefore be a useful tool in the further research into C. elegans immunity....... Since the innate immunity of C. elegans has a high degree of evolutionary conservation, drugs such as Harmane could also be possible alternatives to classic antibiotics. The C. elegans model could prove to be useful for selection and development of such drugs.......The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has in recent years been proven to be a powerful in vivo model for testing antimicrobial compounds. We report here that the alkaloid compound Harmane (2-methyl-β-carboline) increases the lifespan of nematodes infected with a human pathogen, the Shiga toxin...

  12. Prevalence of nematode infection and faecal egg counts in free-range laying hens: relations to housing and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, C M; Nasr, M A F; Gale, E; Petek, M; Stafford, K; Turp, M; Coles, G C

    2013-01-01

    1. Faecal samples from 19 commercial, 65 week old free-range egg laying flocks were examined to assess the prevalence and number of parasitic nematode eggs. Data were collected to characterise the housing, husbandry, behaviour and welfare of the flocks to examine possible relationships with the egg counts. 2. Eggs of at least one genus of nematode were present in the faeces of all 19 flocks. Heterakis eggs were detected in 17 (89%) flocks, Ascaridia in 16 (84%), Trichostrongylus in 9 (47%), and Syngamus in 6 (32%). Faecal egg counts (FEC) were greatest for Ascaridia and Heterakis. 3. For each nematode genus, there was no significant difference in FEC between organic (N = 9) and non-organic (N = 10) flocks, or between static (N = 8) and mobile (N = 11) flocks. 4. FEC were correlated with a range of housing, husbandry and management practices which varied between the nematode genus and included depth of the litter, percentage of hens using the range, and number of dead hens. Statistical analysis indicated relationships with FEC that included light intensity above the feeder, indoor and outdoor stocking density, fearfulness in the shed and on the range, distance to the nearest shelter, and swollen toes. 5. None of the FEC for any of the genera was correlated with weekly egg production or cumulative mortality. 6. Although nematode FEC were highly prevalent among the flocks, the overall lack of relation to other welfare and production measures suggests that these infections were not severe.

  13. Efficacy of albendazole against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimentally infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Sónia M S; Neves, Luis; Pondja, Alberto; Macuamule, Cristiano; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Arboix, Margarita; Cristòfol, Carles; Capece, Bettencourt P S

    2014-12-15

    A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of three therapeutics regimes of albendazole (ABZ) against Taenia multiceps larvae in experimental infected goats. Forty-nine goats experimentally infected with 3000 T. multiceps eggs were selected and randomly divided into treatment or control groups. Treatment with 10mg/kg for 3 days for group 1 (G1), 10mg/kg for group 2 (G2) and 20mg/kg/day for group 3 (G3) was applied 2 months after infection; group 4 (G4) served as a control group. A treatment with doses of 10mg/kg/day for 3 days on group 5 (G5) and group 6 (G6) was used as control, 5 months after the infection. The efficacy of ABZ was assessed as percentage of non-viable cysts which were determined by morphologic characteristics, movement and methyl blue staining technique. The efficacy of ABZ against 2 months old cysts was significantly different from the control and were 90.3% (28/31), 72.7% (8/11) and 73.9% (14/19) for G1, G2 and G3, respectively. No differences were observed in cyst viability between treated and control groups for 5-month old cysts. The results in this study indicate that ABZ is effective in goats against 2-month-old cysts of T. multiceps larva located in tissues outside the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Biological cycle of Cyrnea (Procyrnea) mansoni Seurat, 1914, a habronemid nematode parasite of birds of prey in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, J C; Seureau, C; Railhac, C

    1983-01-01

    A habronemid nematode in birds of prey, Milvus migrans Bonaparti and Accipiter badius Linné, in Togo, is identified as Cyrnea (Procyrnea) mansioni (Seurat, 1914). Larval development is experimentally studied in the orthopteran Acrididae Tylotropidius patagiatus Karsch. The first three larval stages are described and illustrated. The biology of this spiruroid nematode is distinguished by the unusual rapidity of larval development (infective larvae at 10 days). Comparison of the life cycle of C. mansioni with life cycles of other Habronemid Nematodes parasitizing birds, points out an evolution of larvae from primitive forms of large size and slow development to evolved forms of small size and rapid development. Observations concerning the encapsulation of infective larvae in the intermediate host confirm this larval evolution.

  15. Variation in the susceptibility of Drosophila to different entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jennifer M; Carrillo, Mayra A; Hallem, Elissa A

    2015-03-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are lethal parasites of insects that are of interest as models for understanding parasite-host interactions and as biocontrol agents for insect pests. EPNs harbor a bacterial endosymbiont in their gut that assists in insect killing. EPNs are capable of infecting and killing a wide range of insects, yet how the nematodes and their bacterial endosymbionts interact with the insect immune system is poorly understood. Here, we develop a versatile model system for understanding the insect immune response to parasitic nematode infection that consists of seven species of EPNs as model parasites and five species of Drosophila fruit flies as model hosts. We show that the EPN Steinernema carpocapsae, which is widely used for insect control, is capable of infecting and killing D. melanogaster larvae. S. carpocapsae is associated with the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, and we show that X. nematophila induces expression of a subset of antimicrobial peptide genes and suppresses the melanization response to the nematode. We further show that EPNs vary in their virulence toward D. melanogaster and that Drosophila species vary in their susceptibilities to EPN infection. Differences in virulence among different EPN-host combinations result from differences in both rates of infection and rates of postinfection survival. Our results establish a powerful model system for understanding mechanisms of host-parasite interactions and the insect immune response to parasitic nematode infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Generalists at the interface: Nematode transmission between wild and domestic ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Josephine G; Morgan, Eric R

    2014-12-01

    Many parasitic nematode species are generalists capable of infecting multiple host species. The complex life cycle of nematodes, involving partial development outside of the host, facilitates transmission of these parasites between host species even when there is no direct contact between hosts. Infective nematode larvae persist in the environment, and where grazing or water sources are shared ingestion of parasite larvae deposited by different host species is likely. In this paper we examine the extent to which nematode parasite species have been observed in sympatric wild and domestic ungulates. First, using existing host-parasite databases, we describe expected overlap of 412 nematode species between 76 wild and 8 domestic ungulate host species. Our results indicate that host-specific parasites make up less than half of the nematode parasites infecting any particular ungulate host species. For wild host species, between 14% (for common warthog) and 76% (for mouflon) of parasitic nematode species are shared with domestic species. For domestic host species, between 42% (for horse) and 77% (for llamas/alpacas) of parasitic nematode species are shared with wild species. We also present an index of liability to describe the risk of cross-boundary parasites to each host species. We then examine specific examples from the literature in which transmission of nematode parasites between domestic and wild ungulates is described. However, there are many limitations in the existing data due to geographical bias and certain host species being studied more frequently than others. Although we demonstrate that many species of parasitic nematode are found in both wild and domestic hosts, little work has been done to demonstrate whether transmission is occurring between species or whether similar strains circulate separately. Additional research on cross-species transmission, including the use of models and of genetic methods to define strains, will provide evidence to answer this

  17. Generalists at the interface: Nematode transmission between wild and domestic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine G. Walker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitic nematode species are generalists capable of infecting multiple host species. The complex life cycle of nematodes, involving partial development outside of the host, facilitates transmission of these parasites between host species even when there is no direct contact between hosts. Infective nematode larvae persist in the environment, and where grazing or water sources are shared ingestion of parasite larvae deposited by different host species is likely. In this paper we examine the extent to which nematode parasite species have been observed in sympatric wild and domestic ungulates. First, using existing host–parasite databases, we describe expected overlap of 412 nematode species between 76 wild and 8 domestic ungulate host species. Our results indicate that host-specific parasites make up less than half of the nematode parasites infecting any particular ungulate host species. For wild host species, between 14% (for common warthog and 76% (for mouflon of parasitic nematode species are shared with domestic species. For domestic host species, between 42% (for horse and 77% (for llamas/alpacas of parasitic nematode species are shared with wild species. We also present an index of liability to describe the risk of cross-boundary parasites to each host species. We then examine specific examples from the literature in which transmission of nematode parasites between domestic and wild ungulates is described. However, there are many limitations in the existing data due to geographical bias and certain host species being studied more frequently than others. Although we demonstrate that many species of parasitic nematode are found in both wild and domestic hosts, little work has been done to demonstrate whether transmission is occurring between species or whether similar strains circulate separately. Additional research on cross-species transmission, including the use of models and of genetic methods to define strains, will provide

  18. Expression Profiling in Pinus pinaster in Response to Infection with the Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gaspar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests are essential resources on a global scale, not only for the ecological benefits, but also for economical and landscape purposes. However, in recent years, a large number of forest species have suffered a serious decline, with maritime pine being one of the most affected. In Portugal, the maritime pine forest has been devastated by the pine wood nematode (PWN, the causal agent of pine wilt disease. In this study, RNA-Seq data was used to characterize the maritime pine response to infection with PWN, by determining the differentially expressed genes and identifying the regulatory networks and pathways associated. The analyses showed clear differences between an early response that occurs immediately after inoculation and a late response that is observed seven days after inoculation. Moreover, differentially expressed genes related to secondary metabolism, oxidative stress and defense against pathogen infection were identified over different time points. These results provide new insights about the molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways involved in the response of Pinus pinaster against PWN infection, which will be a useful resource in follow-up studies and for future breeding programs to select plants with lower susceptibility to this disease.

  19. Penetration and post-infection development of root-knot nematodes in watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Gómez, M.; Verdejo-Lucas, S.

    2017-07-01

    Meloidogyne javanica has showed less reproductive success than M. incognita in watermelon genotypes. This study was conducted to elucidate the low reproduction of M. javanica in watermelon. The post-infection development of M. javanica in watermelon ‘Sugar Baby’ was determined at progressively higher initial population (Pi) levels at two time points during the life cycle. Plants were inoculated with 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The increase in Pi was correlated with the penetration rates (R2= 0.603, p<0.001) and total numbers of nematodes in the root (R2 =0.963, p< 0.001) but there was no correlation between the Pi and the reproduction factor (eggs/plant/Pi). The population in the roots at 26 days post-inoculation (dpi) consisted primarily of third-stage juveniles (J3) with a small presence of J2 and fourth stages, and egg-laying females. The dominance of the J3, when egg-laying females are expected, point to the malfunction of the feeding sites that failed to support nematode development beyond the J3 stage. The similarities in egg-laying females at 26 and 60 dpi imply the disruption of the life cycle. Watermelon compensated for M. javanica parasitism by increasing vine length (19% to 33%) and dry top weight (40%) in comparison with the non-inoculated plants. The area under the vine length progress curve was significantly larger as the Pi progressively increased (R²=0.417, p<0.001). Physiological variation was detected between the M. incognita populations. M. arenaria had less ability to invade watermelon roots than did M. incognita and M. javanica.

  20. Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foul Brood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Guzman, Zenaida M. [Microbiological Research and Service Laboratory, Atomic Research Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Cervancia, Cleofas R. [Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines); Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B.; Tolentino, Mitos M.; Abrera, Gina B.; Cobar, Ma. Lucia C. [Microbiological Research and Service Laboratory, Atomic Research Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Fajardo, Alejandro C.; Sabino, Noel G.; Manila-Fajardo, Analinda C. [Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines); Feliciano, Chitho P., E-mail: cpfeliciano@pnri.dost.gov.ph [Microbiological Research and Service Laboratory, Atomic Research Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2011-10-15

    The effectiveness of gamma radiation in inactivating the Philippine isolate of Paenibacillus larvae was investigated. Spores of P. larvae were irradiated at incremental doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy) of gamma radiation emitted by a {sup 60}Co source. Surviving spores were counted and used to estimate the decimal reduction (D{sub 10}) value. A dose of 0.2 kGy was sufficient to inactivate 90% of the total recoverable spores from an initial count of 10{sup 5}-9x10{sup 3} spores per glass plate. The sterilizing effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the spores of P. larvae in infected hives was determined. In this study, a minimum dose (D{sub min}) of 15 kGy was tested. Beehives with sub-clinical infections of AFB were irradiated and examined for sterility. All the materials were found to be free of P. larvae indicating its susceptibility to {gamma}-rays. After irradiation, there were no visible changes in the physical appearance of the hives' body, wax and frames. Thus, a dose of 15 kGy is effective enough for sterilization of AFB-infected materials. - Highlights: > We characterized Paenibacillus larvae and determined its radiation sensitivity. > We investigated the effectiveness of gamma rays in inactivating P. larvae. > Gamma radiation inactivates P. larvae. > 15 kGy is effective for the sterilization of P. larvae-infected hives. > Irradiation produces no visible changes in the hives' body, waxes and frames.

  1. Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foul Brood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Guzman, Zenaida M.; Cervancia, Cleofas R.; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B.; Tolentino, Mitos M.; Abrera, Gina B.; Cobar, Ma. Lucia C.; Fajardo, Alejandro C.; Sabino, Noel G.; Manila-Fajardo, Analinda C.; Feliciano, Chitho P.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of gamma radiation in inactivating the Philippine isolate of Paenibacillus larvae was investigated. Spores of P. larvae were irradiated at incremental doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy) of gamma radiation emitted by a 60 Co source. Surviving spores were counted and used to estimate the decimal reduction (D 10 ) value. A dose of 0.2 kGy was sufficient to inactivate 90% of the total recoverable spores from an initial count of 10 5 -9x10 3 spores per glass plate. The sterilizing effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the spores of P. larvae in infected hives was determined. In this study, a minimum dose (D min ) of 15 kGy was tested. Beehives with sub-clinical infections of AFB were irradiated and examined for sterility. All the materials were found to be free of P. larvae indicating its susceptibility to γ-rays. After irradiation, there were no visible changes in the physical appearance of the hives' body, wax and frames. Thus, a dose of 15 kGy is effective enough for sterilization of AFB-infected materials. - Highlights: → We characterized Paenibacillus larvae and determined its radiation sensitivity. → We investigated the effectiveness of gamma rays in inactivating P. larvae. → Gamma radiation inactivates P. larvae. → 15 kGy is effective for the sterilization of P. larvae-infected hives. → Irradiation produces no visible changes in the hives' body, waxes and frames.

  2. Ecological characterisation of the Colombian entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Torres, M C; Sáenz, A

    2013-05-01

    The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) isolated from soil in Alcalá, Valle del Cauca (Colombia) was characterised ecologically using Galleria mellonella larvae (L) (Pyralidae: Galleriinae) as hosts. The effect of temperature on the viability, infectivity and reproduction, and of moisture on infectivity and storage in liquid were evaluated in infective juveniles (IJs). Significant differences were found in the viability, infectivity and reproduction of the IJs at different temperatures. No nematodes were recovered at 5 °C and 10 °C, and at 35 °C no infectivity was observed. Average daily nematode recovery was best at 25 °C, and survival of the IJs was low in substrates presenting 13% moisture. The optimal storage temperature for Heterorhabditis sp. SL0708 was between 20 °C and 30 °C, keeping its infectivity for up to 8 weeks.

  3. Nematodes Parasites of Teiid Lizards from the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, L C; Gardner, S L; Melo, F T V; Giese, E G; Santos, J N

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the helminth composition and parameters of infection by several species of nematodes in teiid lizards, Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Cnemidophorus cryptus Cole and Dessauer, 1993, and Kentropyx calcarata Spix, 1825 from the Brazilian Amazonian Rainforest. The population of lizards studied were parasitized by 6 species of Phylum Nemata including: Spinicauda spinicauda (Olfers, 1919), Parapharyngodon alvarengai Freitas, 1957, Physaloptera sp. (adults), Physaloptera sp. (larvae), Piratuba digiticauda Lent and Freitas, 1941, and Anisakidae (larvae). The overall prevalence was 66.17% and the mean intensity of infection was 19.40 ± 25.48. The association between the body-length of lizards and the abundance and richness of parasitic nematodes was statistically significant only in Ameiva a. ameiva. A new host record is reported here with 1 specimen of the family Anasakidae in Ameiva a. ameiva. Both S. spinicauda and Physaloptera sp. represent new records from C. cryptus.

  4. A stochastic frontier approach to study the relationship between gastrointestinal nematode infections and technical efficiency of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Mariska; Van Meensel, Jef; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Charlier, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The impact of gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections in dairy farming has traditionally been assessed using partial productivity indicators. But such approaches ignore the impact of infection on the performance of the whole farm. In this study, efficiency analysis was used to study the association of the GI nematode Ostertagia ostertagi on the technical efficiency of dairy farms. Five years of accountancy data were linked to GI nematode infection data gained from a longitudinal parasitic monitoring campaign. The level of exposure to GI nematodes was based on bulk-tank milk ELISA tests, which measure the antibodies to O. ostertagi and was expressed as an optical density ratio (ODR). Two unbalanced data panels were created for the period 2006 to 2010. The first data panel contained 198 observations from the Belgian Farm Accountancy Data Network (Brussels, Belgium) and the second contained 622 observations from the Boerenbond Flemish farmers' union (Leuven, Belgium) accountancy system (Tiber Farm Accounting System). We used the stochastic frontier analysis approach and defined inefficiency effect models specified with the Cobb-Douglas and transcendental logarithmic (Translog) functional form. To assess the efficiency scores, milk production was considered as the main output variable. Six input variables were used: concentrates, roughage, pasture, number of dairy cows, animal health costs, and labor. The ODR of each individual farm served as an explanatory variable of inefficiency. An increase in the level of exposure to GI nematodes was associated with a decrease in technical efficiency. Exposure to GI nematodes constrains the productivity of pasture, health, and labor but does not cause inefficiency in the use of concentrates, roughage, and dairy cows. Lowering the level of infection in the interquartile range (0.271 ODR) was associated with an average milk production increase of 27, 19, and 9L/cow per year for Farm Accountancy Data Network farms and 63, 49, and

  5. Visceral larvae as a predictive index of the overall level of fish batch infection in European anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus): A rapid procedure for Food Business Operators to assess marketability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardone, L; Nucera, D; Pergola, V; Costanzo, F; Costa, E; Tinacci, L; Guidi, A; Armani, A

    2017-06-05

    The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), one of the most important pelagic fish resources in the Mediterranean Sea, is frequently infected by anisakid larvae. Food Business Operators (FBOs) should use appropriate sampling plans and analytical methods to avoid commercialization of massively infected batches and reduce the risk of transmission of viable zoonotic larvae. In this study, performed at FishLab (Department of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Pisa) during 2016, an official sampling plan was associated with a digestion protocol for the inspection of anchovies. Considering that anisakid larvae are usually located in the fish visceral cavity and in the adjacent muscles (VM), this part was analyzed. In particular, we assessed the reliability of the digestion of a subsample of 150g (±30g) of VM, randomly collected from 29 specimens, in estimating the marketability of the anchovies' batch. Fifty-seven samples of 29 anchovies were collected. Each anchovy was sectioned to separate VM. All the subsamples were digested, and visible larvae counted. A high correlation between the number of larvae in VM regions and in the total batch was observed, indicating a very significant contribution of the VM region on total number of parasites. The Mean Abundance (MA) was used to assess the batch marketability according to a threshold calculated on the basis of the maximum number of nematodes tolerated per sample. Considering that the MA can be calculated only when the number of examined specimens is known, the number of visible Larvae per gram of tissue (LpG) was calculated on 150g (±30g) of VM subsamples. A LpG marketability threshold was calculated dividing the maximum number of tolerated nematodes by the average weight of a sample of 29 anchovies calculated considering data available in literature. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the LpG threshold, the marketability of 57 batches assessed on the basis of the MA threshold was assumed as the gold

  6. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges-dos-Santos, Roberto Robson; López, Jorge A.; Santos, Luciano C.; Zacharias, Farouk; David, Jorge Maurício; David, Juceni Pereira; Lima, Fernanda Washington de Mendonça

    2012-01-01

    Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12): negative control (G1) (untreated), positive control (G2) (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w.), and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP). Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC), hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P < 0.05). An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P < 0.05), during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition. PMID:22548117

  7. Prevalence of intestinal nematodes in alcoholic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zago-Gomes Maria P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a retrospective study on the frequency of intestinal nematodes among 198 alcoholic and 440 nonalcoholic patients at the University Hospital Cassiano Antonio Moraes in Vitória, ES, Brazil. The control sample included 194 nonalcoholic patients matched according to age, sex and neighborhood and a random sample of 296 adults admitted at the same hospital. Stool examination by sedimentation method (three samples was performed in all patients. There was a significantly higher frequency of intestinal nematodes in alcoholics than in controls (35.3% and 19.2%, respectively, due to a higher frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis (21.7% and 4.1%, respectively. Disregarding this parasite, the frequency of the other nematodes was similar in both groups. The higher frequency of S. stercoralis infection in alcoholics could be explained by immune modulation and/or by some alteration in corticosteroid metabolism induced by chronic ethanol ingestion. Corticosteroid metabolites would mimic the worm ecdisteroids, that would in turn increase the fecundity of females in duodenum and survival of larvae. Consequently, the higher frequency of Strongyloides larvae in stool of alcoholics does not necessarily reflect an increased frequency of infection rate, but only an increased chance to present a positive stool examination using sedimentation methods.

  8. Soybean cyst nematode culture collections and field populations from North Carolina and Missouri reveal high incidences of infection by viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey L Ruark

    Full Text Available Five viruses were previously discovered infecting soybean cyst nematodes (SCN; Heterodera glycines from greenhouse cultures maintained in Illinois. In this study, the five viruses [ScNV, ScPV, ScRV, ScTV, and SbCNV-5] were detected within SCN greenhouse and field populations from North Carolina (NC and Missouri (MO. The prevalence and titers of viruses in SCN from 43 greenhouse cultures and 25 field populations were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Viral titers within SCN greenhouse cultures were similar throughout juvenile development, and the presence of viral anti-genomic RNAs within egg, second-stage juvenile (J2, and pooled J3 and J4 stages suggests active viral replication within the nematode. Viruses were found at similar or lower levels within field populations of SCN compared with greenhouse cultures of North Carolina populations. Five greenhouse cultures harbored all five known viruses whereas in most populations a mixture of fewer viruses was detected. In contrast, three greenhouse cultures of similar descent to one another did not possess any detectable viruses and primarily differed in location of the cultures (NC versus MO. Several of these SCN viruses were also detected in Heterodera trifolii (clover cyst and Heterodera schachtii (beet cyst, but not the other cyst, root-knot, or reniform nematode species tested. Viruses were not detected within soybean host plant tissue. If nematode infection with viruses is truly more common than first considered, the potential influence on nematode biology, pathogenicity, ecology, and control warrants continued investigation.

  9. [Larval biology of Cyrnea (Cyrnea) eurycerca Seurat, 1914, a habronemid nematode parasite of the francolin in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seureau, C; Quentin, J C

    1983-01-01

    Larval biology of the habronemid nematode Cyrnea (Cyrnea) eurycerca Seurat, 1914, parasite of the Double-spurred Francolin Francolinus bicalcaratus, in Togo, is experimentally studied with the orthopteran Acrididae Tylotropidius patagiatus Karsch as intermediate host. The first three larval stages are described and illustrated. Infective larvae, which occur after two weeks of development at 30 degrees C, are unusually large (3 mm). The biology of this habronemid nematode is compared with the biology of the other Spirurids. It differs by: --an asynchronous penetration of the first stage larvae in the insect adipose tissue, --a short stay in this tissue (about 5 days) with a cell reaction of encapsulation, followed by an active escape of second stage larvae out of their capsule, --free and movable infective larvae in the hemocoele of the insect.

  10. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  11. Genetic regulation of parasite infection: empirical evidence of the functional significance of an IL4 gene SNP on nematode infections in wild primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappeler Peter M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to parasite infection affects fitness-related processes, such as mate choice and survival, yet its genetic regulation remains poorly understood. Interleukin-4 (IL4 plays a central role in the humoral immune defence against nematode parasite infections, inducing IgE switch and regulation of worm expulsion from the intestines. The evolutionary and functional significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IL4-genes is known, yet empirical information on the effect of IL4 SNPs on gastro-intestinal infections is lacking. Using samples from a population of wild red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Primates: Lemuridae, from western Madagascar, we explored the association of IL4-gene promoter polymorphisms with nematode infections and investigated a possible functional role of the IL4 polymorphism on male reproductive success. Results Using sequence analyses of lemur DNA we detected a new SNP in the IL4 gene promoter area. Carriers of the genotype T/T showed higher nematode infection intensities than individuals of genotypes C/T and C/C. Genetic population analyses using data from more than 10 years, suggested higher reproductive success of T/T males than expected. Conclusions Our results suggest a regulatory effect of an IL4 gene promoter polymorphism on the intensity of parasite infections in a natural population of red-fronted lemurs, with a seemingly disadvantageous genotype represented in low frequencies. Long-term population analyses, however, point in the direction of a negative frequency-dependent association, giving a fitness advantage to the rare genotype. Due to low frequencies of the genotype in question conclusive evidence of a functional role of IL4 polymorphism cannot be drawn here; still, we suggest the use of IL4 polymorphism as a new molecular tool for quick assessment of individual genetic constitution with regard to nematode infection intensities, contributing to a better

  12. Characterization of a 14,000 dalton antigen of Dirofilaria immitis infective third stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, S.A.; Cachia, P.J.; Wong, M.M.; Hurrell, J.G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Immunogenic proteins of Dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm) were identified by probing extracts of adult worms or their excretory-secretory proteins (ESP) blotted to nitrocellulose following SDS-PAGE with control or infected dog sera. A 14,000 dalton antigen (a prominent component of ESP by protein staining) was consistently recognized both in extracts and ESP by dog sera as early as three months post infection. This indicates a larval origin for the antigen since no adult worms are present until approximately five months post infection. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) prepared against the 14,000 dalton antigen confirmed by immunoblotting that this antigen is expressed by infective third stage larvae, adults and microfilariae and is present intact in the sera of infected dogs. Surface-labelling of whole adult D. immitis with Na 125 I produced radiolabelled antigens closely corresponding to those of ESP. An anti-14,000 dalton MAb was able to immunoprecipitate radiolabelled antigen which strongly suggest a surface or membrane location in the intact organism. Gel filtration data suggests that the protein is a native monomer. A MAb-affinity column has been used to purify the 14,000 dalton antigen to at least 98% homogeneity in one step from crude worm extracts. Further fractionation by HPLC yields a homogeneous preparation. Amino acid analysis and the N-terminal amino acid sequence data will be presented

  13. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THE PROBIOTIC Saccharomyces boulardii IN Toxocara canis INFECTION IS NOT DUE TO DIRECT ACTION ON THE LARVAE

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    Luciana Farias da Costa de Avila

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY In a previous study our group found that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii was capable of reducing the intensity of infection in mice with toxocariasis. In order to assess whether the mechanism involved would be a direct action of the probiotic on Toxocara canis larvae, this study was designed. Both probiotics were singly cultivated in plates containing RPMI 1640 medium and T. canis larvae. S. boulardii and B. cereus var. toyoi cultures presented 97.6% and 95.7% of larvae with positive motility, respectively, and absence of color by the dye trypan blue, not representing significant difference to the control group (p > 0.05. We conclude that none of the probiotics showed in vitro effects on T. canis larvae and that the interaction with the intestinal mucosa is necessary for the development of the protective effect of S. boulardii.

  14. Protective effect of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in Toxocara canis infection is not due to direct action on the larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa de; Telmo, Paula de Lima; Martins, Lourdes Helena Rodrigues; Glaeser, Thaís Aimeé; Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Scaini, Carlos James

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study our group found that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii was capable of reducing the intensity of infection in mice with toxocariasis. In order to assess whether the mechanism involved would be a direct action of the probiotic on Toxocara canis larvae, this study was designed. Both probiotics were singly cultivated in plates containing RPMI 1640 medium and T. canis larvae. S. boulardii and B. cereus var. toyoi cultures presented 97.6% and 95.7% of larvae with positive motility, respectively, and absence of color by the dye trypan blue, not representing significant difference to the control group (p > 0.05). We conclude that none of the probiotics showed in vitro effects on T. canis larvae and that the interaction with the intestinal mucosa is necessary for the development of the protective effect of S. boulardii.

  15. Infection, Reproduction Potential, and Root Galling by Root-knot Nematode Species and Concomitant Populations on Peanut and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunsalee, Anan; Barker, K. R.; Beute, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Single populations of Meloidogyne arenaria races 1 (MA1) and 2 (MA2) and M. hapla (MH), and mixed populations of MA1 + MA2 and MA1 + MH with four inoculum levels of eggs were tested on peanut cv. 'Florigiant' and M. incognita-resistant tobacco cv. 'McNair 373' in a greenhouse experiment. Root infection, female development, and reproduction of MA2 on peanut and MA1 on resistant tobacco were limited at 2 and 6 weeks. MA1, MH, and MA1 + MH on peanut had similar root infection (total parasitic forms per root unit) at both 2 and 6 weeks, and similar female development and reproduction potentials at 6 weeks. MA2 tended to depress root infection, female development, and reproduction of MA1 on peanut. MH had little effect on MA1 on this crop. On tobacco, MA2 population had greater incidence of root infection than did MH at 2 weeks. The two nematode species had similar development in roots at 6 weeks. All of these processes were restricted when either MA2 or MH was present together with MA1. As initial inoculum level of parasitically fit populations increased, relative infection ratio on both peanut and tobacco, and reproduction factor on peanut decreased. Populations that had high infection incidence and reproduction rates induced greater root galling than did other populations. Root galling was suppressed in the presence of antagonistic response between nematode populations. PMID:19277277

  16. Use of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis atacamensis CIA- NE07 in the control of banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus in vitro

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    Marianela Amador

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the species of banana borers, black weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus is the most economically important pest in Costa Rica and worldwide. The control of C. sordidus in intensive production systems is mainly based on application of insecticides; therefore the search for biological alternatives, such as the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN, is needed. The susceptibility of Cosmopolites sordidus to Heterorhabditis atacamensis CIANE07 was evaluated. The effect of inoculating H. atacamensis on larvae and adults of C. sordidus, in vitro and in artificially infected corms, was evaluated. Larvae inoculated with EPN had a mortality of 88% on the second day and 100% on the third day; no mortality was observed in adults. The treatments of 100, 500 and 1000 IJ.larvae-1 showed statistically significant differences from the control and theLD50 was 52 IJ.larvae-1. When the larvae were placed within the corms the LD50 increased to 375 IJ.larvae-1. The results indicate that the strain H. atacamensis CIA-NE07 is capable of locating and infecting weevil larvae within the banana corm and reach infection levels over 80%, 10 days after inoculation at doses of 1000 and 2000 IJ.larvae-1. The entomopathogenic nematodes are a viable alternative to be considered in the Integrated Pest Management programs of black weevil, in crops such us banana and plantain.

  17. Phylogenetic Analysis of C Type Lectin from Toxocara canis Infective Larvae and Comparison with the C Type Lectin Fam-ily in the Immune System of Mouse and Human

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    Fazeleh ETEBAR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: C type lectin (CTL family is a type of calcium-dependent proteins found in vertebrates and invertebrates. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis and phylogenetic inferring for understanding the similarities and differences of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD domain of Toxocara canis CTL and other nematodes, and similar C type lectin involved in the immune system of mouse and human as their host.Methods: The female T. canis was retrieved from the 2-6 months puppies (Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, 2015. To collect T. canis eggs, the worms were cultured for 5 d until they were embryonated. The hatching process was accelerated for collecting the stage 2 larvae, and the larvae were cultured for a week. A cDNA library was made from the total mRNA of T. canis infective larvae. The PCR amplification for C type lectin gene was performed and the amino acids were analyzed using the alignment method and the construction of phylogenetic tree.Results: The suspension sample maintained at 30 ºC for four weeks could embryonate 90%-100% of eggs. T. canis CTL gene was 657 bp in length and encoded a protein with 219 amino acids. The CTL of species of Strongylida order were closely placed in the tree, whereas the members of Ascaridida orders were located in a separate branch. High levels of similarity (36%-44% and conservation of C type lectin from T. canis with mouse and human C type lectins. Its C type lectin showed a higher similarity with asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR, macrophage lectin, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN, MINCLE receptor of mouse and human.Conclusion: Analysis of CRD domain of C type lectin protein could make a better understanding of their role in the interaction of nematode parasite with their hosts.

  18. Infective Larvae of Brugia malayi Induce Polarization of Host Macrophages that Helps in Immune Evasion

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    Aditi Sharma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Filarial parasites suppress, divert, or polarize the host immune response to aid their survival. However, mechanisms that govern the polarization of host MΦs during early filarial infection are not completely understood. In this study, we infected BALB/c mice with infective larvae stage-3 of Brugia malayi (Bm-L3 and studied their effect on the polarization of splenic MΦs. Results showed that MΦs displayed M2-phenotype by day 3 p.i. characterized by upregulated IL-4, but reduced IL-12 and Prostaglandin-D2 secretion. Increased arginase activity, higher arginase-1 but reduced NOS2 expression and poor phagocytic and antigen processing capacity was also observed. M2 MΦs supported T-cell proliferation and characteristically upregulated p-ERK but downregulated NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB-p50/105. Notably, Bm-L3 synergized with host regulatory T-cells (Tregs and polarized M2 MΦs to regulatory MΦs (Mregs by day 7 p.i., which secreted copious amounts of IL-10 and prostaglandin-E2. Mregs also showed upregulated expression levels of MHC-II, CD80, and CD86 and exhibited increased antigen-processing capacity but displayed impaired activation of NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB-p50/105. Neutralization of Tregs by anti-GITR + anti-CD25 antibodies checked the polarization of M2 MΦs to Mregs, decreased accumulation of regulatory B cells and inflammatory monocytes, and reduced secretion of IL-10, but enhanced IL-4 production and percentages of eosinophils, which led to Bm-L3 killing. In summary, we report hitherto undocumented effects of early Bm-L3 infection on the polarization of splenic MΦs and show how infective larvae deftly utilize the functional plasticity of host MΦs to establish themselves inside the host.

  19. Acute intestinal anisakiasis in Spain: a fourth-stage Anisakis simplex larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª José Rosales

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute intestinal anisakiasis has been reported; a nematode larva being found in the submucosa of the ileum of a woman in Jaén (Spain. The source of infection was the ingestion of raw Engraulis encrasicholus. On the basis of its morphology, the worm has been identified as a fourth-stage larva of Anisakis simplex. In Spain, this is the ninth report of human anisakiasis and also probably the first case of anisakiasis caused by a fourth-stage larva of A. simplex.

  20. Ultrastructural characteristics of nurse cell-larva complex of four species of Trichinella in several hosts

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    Sacchi L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus Trichinella plays an Important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. The ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with T. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear, T. spiralis (horses and humans, T. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse and T. papuae (a laboratory mouse were examined. Analysis with transmission electron microscope showed that the typical nurse cell structure was present in all examined samples, irrespective of the species of larva, of the presence of a collagen capsule, of the age of infection and of the host species, suggesting that there exists a molecular mechanism that in the first stage of larva invasion is similar for encapsulated and non-encapsulated species.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots reveals complex gene expression profiles and metabolic networks of both host and nematode during susceptible and resistance responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, Neha; Yadav, Rachita; Kaur, Pritam

    2017-01-01

    Root knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne incognita) are economically important endoparasites having a wide-host range. We have taken a comprehensive transcriptomic approach to investigate the expression of both tomato and RKN genes in tomato roots at five infection time intervals from susceptible p...

  2. Transcriptome analysis of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)-infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) roots reveals complex gene expression profiles and metabolic networks of both host and nematode during susceptible and resistance responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, Neha; Yadav, Rachita; Kaur, Pritam

    2018-01-01

    Root knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne incognita) are economically important endoparasites having a wide-host range. We have taken a comprehensive transcriptomic approach to investigate the expression of both tomato and RKN genes in tomato roots at five infection time intervals from susceptible p...

  3. Morphology of the advanced-stage larva of Eustrongylides wenrichi Canavan 1929, occurring encapsulated in the tissues of Amphiuma in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, T S; Beaver, P C

    1979-02-01

    Larval nematodes identified as Eustrongylides wenrichi Canavan 1929, from cysts in the tissues of Amphiuma means tridactylum Cuvier in Louisana were redescribed. The extent of differentiation of the sex organs was found to be greater than that of 3rd-stage Dioctophyma renale, or of the infective stage of Trichinella spiralis, and comparable with the late 4th-stage larva of secernentean (phasmid) nematodes.

  4. Comparing different maize supplementation strategies to improve resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gárate-Gallardo, Leslie; Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe de Jesús; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Cámara-Sarmiento, Ramón; Canul-Ku, Hilda Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The effect of maize grain supplementation on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo goat kids against gastrointestinal nematodes was evaluated. Five-month-old kids (n = 42), raised worm-free, were allocated to five groups: infected + not supplemented (I-NS; n = 10), infected + maize supplement at 108 g/d (I-S108; n = 8), maize supplement at 1% of body weight (BW) (I-S1%; n = 8), maize supplement at 1.5% BW (I-S1.5%; n = 8), or infected + supplemented (maize supplement 1.5% BW) + moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg BW subcutaneously every 28 d) (T-S1.5%; n = 8). Kids browsed daily (7 h) in a tropical forest for 112 days during the rainy season. Kids were weighed weekly to adjust supplementary feeding. Hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and eggs per gram of feces were determined fortnightly. On day 112, five goat kids were slaughtered per group to determine worm burdens. Kids of the I-S1.5% group showed similar body-weight change, Ht and Hb, compared to kids without gastrointestinal nematodes (T-S1.5%), as well as lower eggs per gram of feces and Trichostrongylus colubriformis worm burden compared to the I-NS group (P > 0.05). Thus, among the supplement levels tested, increasing maize supplementation at 1.5% BW of kids was the best strategy to improve their resilience and resistance against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections under the conditions of forage from the tropical forest. © L. Gárate-Gallardo et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  5. Natural selection on individual variation in tolerance of gastrointestinal nematode infection.

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    Adam D Hayward

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hosts may mitigate the impact of parasites by two broad strategies: resistance, which limits parasite burden, and tolerance, which limits the fitness or health cost of increasing parasite burden. The degree and causes of variation in both resistance and tolerance are expected to influence host-parasite evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics and inform disease management, yet very little empirical work has addressed tolerance in wild vertebrates. Here, we applied random regression models to longitudinal data from an unmanaged population of Soay sheep to estimate individual tolerance, defined as the rate of decline in body weight with increasing burden of highly prevalent gastrointestinal nematode parasites. On average, individuals lost weight as parasite burden increased, but whereas some lost weight slowly as burden increased (exhibiting high tolerance, other individuals lost weight significantly more rapidly (exhibiting low tolerance. We then investigated associations between tolerance and fitness using selection gradients that accounted for selection on correlated traits, including body weight. We found evidence for positive phenotypic selection on tolerance: on average, individuals who lost weight more slowly with increasing parasite burden had higher lifetime breeding success. This variation did not have an additive genetic basis. These results reveal that selection on tolerance operates under natural conditions. They also support theoretical predictions for the erosion of additive genetic variance of traits under strong directional selection and fixation of genes conferring tolerance. Our findings provide the first evidence of selection on individual tolerance of infection in animals and suggest practical applications in animal and human disease management in the face of highly prevalent parasites.

  6. Food consumption by Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and effects of feeding natural versus artificial diets on mortality and mycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Tadele; Pringle, K L

    2003-11-01

    Second and third instar Chilo partellus larvae were infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (both at 1x10(8)conidia/ml) and daily consumption of maize leaves was measured. Infection by the fungi was associated with reduced mean daily food consumption. Reduction in food consumption became evident 3-4 days after treatment with the fungi for second instar larvae and 4-5 days for third instar larvae. Four conidial concentrations, 1x10(5), 1x10(6), 1x10(7), and 1x10(8)conidia/ml, were tested against second instar larvae. Food consumption dropped by 70-85% when the second instar larvae were treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml. Reduction in food consumption by C. partellus larvae infected with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae may offset the slow speed of kill of the fungi. The effect of artificial versus natural diets on mortality and mycoses of second instar larvae treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml was determined. Larvae provided with artificial diet suffered little mortality and mycoses than larvae provided with maize leaves. The LT(50) was longer for larvae provided with artificial diet.

  7. Induction of SA-signaling pathway and ethylene biosynthesis in Trichoderma harzianum-treated tomato plants after infection of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, Paola; Zonno, Maria Chiara; Molinari, Sergio; Altomare, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Salicylic acid-signaling pathway and ethylene biosynthesis were induced in tomato treated with Trichoderma harzianum when infected by root-knot nematodes and limited the infection by activation of SAR and ethylene production. Soil pre-treatment with Trichoderma harzianum (Th) strains ITEM 908 (T908) and T908-5 decreased susceptibility of tomato to Meloidogyne incognita, as assessed by restriction in nematode reproduction and development. The effect of T. harzianum treatments on plant defense was detected by monitoring the expression of the genes PR-1/PR-5 and JERF3/ACO, markers of the SA- and JA/ET-dependent signaling pathways, respectively. The compatible nematode-plant interaction in absence of fungi caused a marked suppression of PR-1, PR-5, and ACO gene expressions, either locally or systemically, whilst expression of JERF3 gene resulted unaffected. Conversely, when plants were pre-treated with Th-strains, over-expression of PR-1, PR-5, and ACO genes was observed in roots 5 days after nematode inoculation. JERF3 gene expression did not change in Th-colonized plants challenged with nematodes. In the absence of nematodes, Trichoderma-root interaction was characterized by the inhibition of both SA-dependent signaling pathway and ET biosynthesis, and, in the case of PR-1 and ACO genes, this inhibition was systemic. JERF3 gene expression was systemically restricted only at the very early stages of plant-fungi interaction. Data presented indicate that Th-colonization primed roots for Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) against root-knot nematodes and reacted to nematode infection more efficiently than untreated plants. Such a response probably involves also activation of ET production, through an augmented transcription of the ACO gene, which encodes for the enzyme catalyzing the last step of ET biosynthesis. JA signaling and Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) do not seem to be involved in the biocontrol action of the tested Th-strains against RKNs.

  8. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii.

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    John Fosu-Nyarko

    Full Text Available The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668 with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii.

  9. First Record of Anisakis simplex Third-Stage Larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae in European Hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus in Egyptian Water

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    Yasmin Abou-Rahma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in European hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus from Hurghada City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, were investigated. Fish samples were collected during the period of February and November 2014. Twenty-two (36.66% out of sixty examined fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with Anisakis type I larvae mostly found as encapsulated larvae in visceral organs. There was a positive relationship between host length/weight and prevalence of infection. Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses, these nematodes were identified as third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. The present study was considered as the first report of anisakid larvae from European hake in the Egyptian water.

  10. First Record of Anisakis simplex Third-Stage Larvae (Nematoda, Anisakidae) in European Hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus in Egyptian Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Rahma, Yasmin; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Kamal Ahmed, Amira

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of infection and the identification of anisakid larvae in European hake Merluccius merluccius lessepsianus from Hurghada City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, were investigated. Fish samples were collected during the period of February and November 2014. Twenty-two (36.66%) out of sixty examined fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with Anisakis type I larvae mostly found as encapsulated larvae in visceral organs. There was a positive relationship between host length/weight and prevalence of infection. Based on morphological, morphometric, and molecular analyses, these nematodes were identified as third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. The present study was considered as the first report of anisakid larvae from European hake in the Egyptian water. PMID:26925257

  11. Further Screening of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes as Control Agents for Drosophila suzukii

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    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii populations remain low in the UK. To date, there have been no reports of widespread damage. Previous research demonstrated that various species of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes could potentially suppress D. suzukii population development under laboratory trials. However, none of the given species was concluded to be specifically efficient in suppressing D. suzukii. Therefore, there is a need to screen further species to determine their efficacy. The following entomopathogenic agents were evaluated for their potential to act as control agents for D. suzukii: Metarhizium anisopliae; Isaria fumosorosea; a non-commercial coded fungal product (Coded B; Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, S. kraussei and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The fungi were screened for efficacy against the fly on fruit while the nematodes were evaluated for the potential to be applied as soil drenches targeting larvae and pupal life-stages. All three fungi species screened reduced D. suzukii populations developing from infested berries. Isaria fumosorosea significantly (p < 0.001 reduced population development of D. suzukii from infested berries. All nematodes significantly reduced adult emergence from pupal cases compared to the water control. Larvae proved more susceptible to nematode infection. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora proved the best from the four nematodes investigated; readily emerging from punctured larvae and causing 95% mortality. The potential of the entomopathogens to suppress D. suzukii populations is discussed.

  12. Further Screening of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes as Control Agents for Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Audsley, Neil

    2016-06-09

    Drosophila suzukii populations remain low in the UK. To date, there have been no reports of widespread damage. Previous research demonstrated that various species of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes could potentially suppress D. suzukii population development under laboratory trials. However, none of the given species was concluded to be specifically efficient in suppressing D. suzukii. Therefore, there is a need to screen further species to determine their efficacy. The following entomopathogenic agents were evaluated for their potential to act as control agents for D. suzukii: Metarhizium anisopliae; Isaria fumosorosea; a non-commercial coded fungal product (Coded B); Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, S. kraussei and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The fungi were screened for efficacy against the fly on fruit while the nematodes were evaluated for the potential to be applied as soil drenches targeting larvae and pupal life-stages. All three fungi species screened reduced D. suzukii populations developing from infested berries. Isaria fumosorosea significantly (p nematodes significantly reduced adult emergence from pupal cases compared to the water control. Larvae proved more susceptible to nematode infection. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora proved the best from the four nematodes investigated; readily emerging from punctured larvae and causing 95% mortality. The potential of the entomopathogens to suppress D. suzukii populations is discussed.

  13. Prevalence and seasonal incidence of nematode parasites and fluke infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

    2007-10-01

    A 2-year abattoir survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, abundance and seasonal incidence of gastro-intestinal (GI) nematodes and trematodes (flukes) of sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of eastern Ethiopia. During May 2003 to April 2005, viscera including liver, lungs and GI tracts were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at 4 abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga in eastern Ethiopia. All animals were raised in the farming areas located within the community boundaries for each town. Collected materials were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University for immediate processing. Thirteen species belonging to 9 genera of GI nematodes (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. vitrinus, Nematodirus filicollis, N. spathiger Oesopha-gostomum columbianum, O. venulosum, Strongyloides papillosus, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Trichuris ovis, Cooperia curticei and Chabertia ovina), and 4 species belonging to 3 genera of trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, Paramphistomum {Calicohoron} microbothrium and Dicrocoelium dendriticum) were recorded in both sheep and goats. All animals in this investigation were infected with multiple species to varying degrees. The mean burdens of adult nematodes were generally moderate in both sheep and goats and showed patterns of seasonal abundance that corresponded with the bi-modal annual rainfall pattern, with highest burdens around the middle of the rainy season. In both sheep and goats there were significant differences in the mean worm burdens and abundance of the different nematode species between the four geographic locations, with worm burdens in the Haramaya and Harar areas greater than those observed in the Dire Dawa and Jijiga locations. Similar seasonal variations were also observed in the prevalence of flukes. But there were no significant differences in the prevalence of each fluke species between the

  14. Natural infection by gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary nematodes in mouflons (Ovis musimon) and their response to netobimin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, A; Luzón-Peña, M; Santiago-Moreno, J; De Bulnes, A; Gómez-Bautista, M

    1996-01-01

    Gastrointestinal and bronchopulmonary nematode infections and the efficacy of netobimin (Hapasil) were analyzed by way of fecal examination in 10 female mouflons (Ovis musimon), in central Spain, February 1993. Before treatment all 10 mouflons had Trichostrongylus axei, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Marshallagia spp.; sic had Nematodirus spp., two had Trichuris sp., one had Capillaria sp., seven had bronchopulmonary Dictyocaulus filaria and 10 mouflons had protostrongylid lungworms (Muellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Cystocaulus ocreatus or Neostrongylus linearis). Netobimin (7.5 mg/kg) was 100% effective against T. axei, T. circumcincta, Marshallagia spp., and D. filaria infections whereas one animal continued eliminating Nematodirus spp. eggs. The drug also was effective against Capillaria spp. but not against Trichuris spp. or protostrongylid infections.

  15. A Standardized Method to Assess Infection Rates of Root-Knot and Cyst Nematodes in Arabidopsis thaliana Mutants with Alterations in Root Development Related to Auxin and Cytokinin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, Rocío; Silva, Ana Cláudia; Díaz-Manzano, Fernando E; Cabrera, Javier; Fenoll, Carmen; Escobar, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes cause a great impact in agricultural systems. The search for effective control methods is partly based on the understanding of underlying molecular mechanisms leading to the formation of nematode feeding sites. In this respect, crosstalk of hormones such as auxins and cytokinins (IAA, CK) between the plant and the nematode seems to be crucial. Thence, the study of loss of function or overexpressing lines with altered IAA and CK functioning is entailed. Those lines frequently show developmental defects in the number, position and/or length of the lateral roots what could generate a bias in the interpretation of the nematode infection parameters. Here we present a protocol to assess differences in nematode infectivity with the lowest interference of root architecture phenotypes in the results. Thus, tailored growth conditions and normalization parameters facilitate the standardized phenotyping of nematode infection.

  16. Regulation of Life Cycle Checkpoints and Developmental Activation of Infective Larvae in Strongyloides stercoralis by Dafachronic Acid.

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    Mennatallah M Y Albarqi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex life cycle of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis leads to either developmental arrest of infectious third-stage larvae (iL3 or growth to reproductive adults. In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, analogous determination between dauer arrest and reproductive growth is governed by dafachronic acids (DAs, a class of steroid hormones that are ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12. Biosynthesis of DAs requires the cytochrome P450 (CYP DAF-9. We tested the hypothesis that DAs also regulate S. stercoralis development via DAF-12 signaling at three points. First, we found that 1 μM Δ7-DA stimulated 100% of post-parasitic first-stage larvae (L1s to develop to free-living adults instead of iL3 at 37°C, while 69.4±12.0% (SD of post-parasitic L1s developed to iL3 in controls. Second, we found that 1 μM Δ7-DA prevented post-free-living iL3 arrest and stimulated 85.2±16.9% of larvae to develop to free-living rhabditiform third- and fourth-stages, compared to 0% in the control. This induction required 24-48 hours of Δ7-DA exposure. Third, we found that the CYP inhibitor ketoconazole prevented iL3 feeding in host-like conditions, with only 5.6±2.9% of iL3 feeding in 40 μM ketoconazole, compared to 98.8±0.4% in the positive control. This inhibition was partially rescued by Δ7-DA, with 71.2±16.4% of iL3 feeding in 400 nM Δ7-DA and 35 μM ketoconazole, providing the first evidence of endogenous DA production in S. stercoralis. We then characterized the 26 CYP-encoding genes in S. stercoralis and identified a homolog with sequence and developmental regulation similar to DAF-9. Overall, these data demonstrate that DAF-12 signaling regulates S. stercoralis development, showing that in the post-parasitic generation, loss of DAF-12 signaling favors iL3 arrest, while increased DAF-12 signaling favors reproductive development; that in the post-free-living generation, absence of DAF-12 signaling is crucial for

  17. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) against gastrointestinal nematode parasites in experimentally infected cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Desrues, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments studied the effects of dietary chicory against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In Experiment (Exp.) 1, stabled calves were fed chicory silage (CHI1; n = 9) or ryegrass/clover hay (CTL1; n = 6) with balanced protein/energy intakes between groups. After 16 days, all calves rec...

  18. Occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes infecting cereals in Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2008 and 2009, a survey on specific composition, frequency and geographical distribution of cyst nematodes living on cereals was conducted in Sicily (Italy). Heterodera latipons Franklin and H. hordecalis Andersson appeared to be the most common species in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) a...

  19. Comparison of artificial digestion and Baermann's methods for detection of Trichinella spiralis pre-encapsulated larvae in muscles with low-level infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Wang, Zhong-Quan; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Artificial digestion method is widely used for the detection of Trichinella larvae (mainly the mature larvae, e.g., encapsulated larvae in encapsulated Trichinella) in meat. The previous studies demonstrated that Trichinella spiralis pre-encapsulated larvae (PEL) at 14-18 days postinfection (dpi) had the infectivity to new hosts. However, to our knowledge, there is no report on the detection methods of PEL in meat. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of artificial digestion and Baermann's methods for detection of T. spiralis PEL in meat, and to test the factors affecting the sensitivity of the two methods. Forty-five male Kunming mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 mice per group), and each group of mice was orally inoculated with 20, 10, or 5 muscle larvae of T. spiralis, respectively. All infected mice were slaughtered at 18 dpi, and the muscles were minced. The digestion method that was recommended by International Commission on Trichinellosis and Baermann's method were used to detect the PEL in the infected mice. The detection rate of PEL in both mice infected with 20 muscle larvae by digestion and Baermann's method was 100% (15/15); the detection rates of PEL in mice infected with 10 larvae by the two methods just mentioned were 93.33% (14/15) and 100% (15/15), respectively; when the mice infected with 5 larvae were tested, the different detection rate of PEL was achieved by using digestion method (63.33%) and Baermann's method (100%). Additionally, the number of PEL collected from the mice infected with 20, 10, or 5 larvae by Baermann's method was greater than that by digestion methods. The mortality of PEL increased along with the prolongation of digestion duration, because the PEL were not resistant to enzymatic digestion. The results revealed that the Baermann's method is superior to the digestion methods for detection of T. spiralis PEL in muscle samples with low-level infections.

  20. Effect of changes in the nutritional status on the performances of growing Creole kids during an established nematode parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceï, W; Archimède, H; Arquet, R; Félicité, Y; Feuillet, D; Nepos, A; Mulciba, P; Etienne, T; Alexandre, G; Bambou, J C

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of changes in the nutritional status on the performances of growing Creole kids during an established experimental gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection. Eighteen 6-month-old Creole kids were distributed in two main groups infected (I) and non-infected (NI) and were placed for a period of 4 weeks on each of three diets differing in their nutritional values: (1) fresh grass (FG, 6.7 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 7.9% crude protein (CP)) non-supplemented, (2) FG supplemented with a commercial concentrate (CC, 12.2 MJ/kg DM and 20.6% of CP), and (3) FG supplemented with dried banana (Ban, 11.1 MJ/kg DM and 4.3% CP). The experiment was designed as a split-plot with experimental infection (I and NI) as the main plot and the diets (FG, CC, and Ban) as the subplots with three replicates. We showed a significant effect of the diet changes on the fecal egg counts. A higher dry matter intake, digestibility, and growth rate were observed with the CC diet but together with a slight but significant increase of the intensity of the GIN infection. These data suggest that the improvement of the protein nutritional status during an establish GIN infection would improve the animal performance at the expense of the mechanism involved in the control of the infection.

  1. Third-stage larvae of the enoplid nematode Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) in the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, C S; Müller, G

    2015-09-01

    The giant kidney worm Dioctophyme renale is normally found in wild carnivores and domestic dogs, with aquatic oligochaetes acting as intermediate hosts. In the present study a prevalence of 50% of third-stage larvae of D. renale was recorded in 60 specimens of the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni from southern Brazil. Larvae were encysted in muscles, the coelomic cavity and mesentery, the serous lining of the stomach and on the surfaces of the lung, heart, liver, pancreas, spleen and intestines. There are no previous records of reptiles being part of the life cycle of D. renale, although fish and amphibians normally act as paratenic hosts. This is the first report of third-stage D. renale larvae in the freshwater turtle, T. dorbigni.

  2. Histological study of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANIN DIAH KURNIAWATI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sanjaya, Machmudin D, Kurniawati ND. 2010. Histological study of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura larvae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 135-140. The effect of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura Fab. larvae has been carried out. The method was used Probit analysis, and based on LD 50 the virus was infected to know body weight and post infection damage.The damage of histological structure caused by SlNPV (0, 315, 390, 465, 540 dan 615 PIB/mL was investigated after 0, 12, 24, 72 and 96 hours post infection. The histological material was prepared by using parafin method after fixation with Bouin Solution, then slice into 7 um and colored with Hematoxilin-Eosin. The result showed that the exposure SlNPV cause decreasing food consumption especially on 540 PIB/mL give average rate as amount of 0.1675 mg. The descriptive obsevation on structural intact of peritrophic membrane histology caused by SlNPV infection shows a tendency to decrease, while in control, there was no damage at all. The longer the exposition of virion in the midgut lumen the more damage on peritrophic membrane occurred. The severest damage occurred 96 hour after infection. The result prove that haNPV virion can destroy hystological structure of midgut.

  3. A strain of Serratia marcescens pathogenic for larvae of Lymantria dispar: Infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; B.J. Cosenza

    1976-01-01

    The ED50 of a strain of Serratia marcescens for microinjected instar III and IV gypsy moth larvae was 7.5 and 14.5 viable cells, respectively. Percentage and rate of mortality were found to be highly variable among replicates of the same instar and between instars in free-feeding bioassays. Mortality in second instar larvae...

  4. The infective larva of Litomosoides yutajensis Guerrero et al., 2003 (Nematoda: Onchocercidae, a Wolbachia-free filaria from bat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero R.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The infective larva of Litomosoides yutajensis Guerrero et al., 2003, a parasite of the bat Pteronotus parnellii, is described; it is distinct from congeneric infective larvae by the absence of caudal lappets. The life cycles of five other species of Litomosoides are known; three are parasites of rodents, one of a marsupial and one of a bat. As with these species, the experimental vector of L. yutajensis used was the macronyssid mite Ornithonyssus bacoti. In nature, the main vectors are probably other macronyssids but transmission by O. bacoti, with its large host-range, could account for the characteristic host-switchings in the evolution of Litomosoides. Unlike the murine model L. sigmodontis Chandler, 1931, L. yutajensis is devoid of the endosymbiontic bacteria Wolbachia and may be of great interest.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE ON THIRD-STAGE LARVAE OF Lagochilascaris minor IN EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED MICE

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    Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa CAMPOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lagochilascariosis, a disease caused by Lagochilascaris minor, affects the neck, sinuses, tonsils, lungs, the sacral region, dental alveoli, eyeballs and the central nervous system of humans. A cycle of autoinfection may occur in human host tissues characterized by the presence of eggs, larvae and adult worms. This peculiarity of the cycle hinders therapy, since there are no drugs that exhibit ovicidal, larvicidal and vermicidal activity. Given these facts, we studied the action of levamisole hydrochloride on third-stage larvae in the migration phase (G1 and on encysted larvae (G3 of L. minor. To this end, 87 inbred mice of the C57BL/6 strain were divided into test groups comprising 67 animals (G1-37; G3-30 and a control group (G2-10; G4-10 with 20 animals. Each animal was inoculated orally with 2,000 infective eggs of the parasite. The animals of the test groups were treated individually with a single oral dose of levamisole hydrochloride at a concentration of 0.075 mg. The drug was administered either 30 minutes prior to the parasite inoculation (G1 animals or 120 days after the inoculation (G3 animals. The mice in the control groups were not treated with the drug. After the time required for the migration and the encysting of L. minor larvae, all the animals were euthanized and their tissues examined. The data were analyzed using the Student's unpaired t-test and the Levene test. The groups showed no statistically significant difference. Levamisole hydrochloride was ineffective on third-stage larvae of L. minor. These findings explain the massive expulsion of live adult worms, as well as the use of long treatment schemes, owing to the persistence of larvae and eggs in human parasitic lesions.

  6. In vitro anti-parasitic effects of sesquiterpene lactones from chicory against cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, A.; Boas, Ulrik

    of SL-rich extracts from 2 chicory cultivars on the viability of first-stage larvae (L1) of Ostertagia ostertagi, a pathogenic cattle nematode. Chicory Spadona and Puna II were grown at the same farm and leaves were sampled the same day. 1 g of freeze-dried leaves was extracted in methanol....../water. Resulting extracts were incubated with cellulase enzymes, recovered in ethyl acetate and purified by normal solid-phase extraction. Obtained extracts were dissolved in 100% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A calf infected with O. ostertagi served as donor of nematode eggs. Eggs were hatched and L1 obtained were...

  7. In vitro anti-parasitic effects of sesquiterpene lactones from chicory against cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, A.; Boas, Ulrik

    . In this study we tested the effect of SL-rich extracts from 2 chicory cultivars on the viability of first-stage larvae (L1) of Ostertagia ostertagi, a pathogenic cattle nematode. Chicory Spadona and Puna II were grown at the same farm and leaves were sampled the same day. 1 g of freeze-dried leaves...... was extracted in methanol/water. Resulting extracts were incubated with cellulase enzymes, recovered in ethyl acetate and purified by normal solid-phase extraction. Obtained extracts were dissolved in 100% DMSO. A calf infected with O. ostertagi served as donor of nematode eggs. Eggs were hatched and L1...

  8. Biological control of infective larvae of Ancylostoma spp. in beach sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, Ingrid Ney Kramer; Braga, Fabio R; Monteiro, Thalita S Avelar; Freitas, Leandro G; Araujo, Juliana M; Soares, Filippe E Freitas; Araújo, Jackson V

    2014-01-01

    Geohelminths are parasites that stand out for their prevalence and wide distribution, depending on the soil for their transmission. The aim of this work was to evaluate the predatory capacity of the fungal isolate of the genus Duddingtonia (CG768) on third stage larvae (L3) of Ancylostoma spp. in beach sand under laboratory conditions. In the assay A five treatment groups and 1 control group were formed. The treatment groups contained 5000, 10,000, 15,000, 20,000 or 25,000 chlamydospores of the fungal isolate and 1000 Ancylostoma spp. L3 in pots containing 30g of sand. The control group (without fungus) contained only 1000 Ancylostoma spp. L3 and distilled water in pots with 30g of sand. Evidence of predatory activity was observed at the end of 15 days, where we observed the following percentages of reduction of L3: Group 1 (4.5%); Group 2 (24.5%); Group 3 (59.2%); Group 4 (58.8%); Group 5 (63%). However, difference was noted (p<0.01) only at concentrations 15,000, 20,000 and 25,000 in relation to control group. In the assay B two groups were formed in Petri dishes of 9cm in diameter containing agar water 2% medium. In the treated group, each Petri dish contained 500 Ancylostoma spp. L3 and 5g of sand containing the isolate CG 768 at a concentration of 25,000 chlamydospores/g of sand, and the control group (without fungus) contained only 500 L3. At the end of 7 days the non-predation L3 of Petri dishes using the method of Baermann were recovered. Difference (p<0.01) between groups on reducing the average number of Ancylostoma spp. L3 (percent reduction of 84%) was observed. The results of this study confirm earlier work on the efficiency of the Duddingtonia genus in the control of Ancylostoma spp. infective larvae. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Black flies (Diptera : Simuliidae attracted to humans and water buffalos and natural infections with filarial larvae, probably Onchocerca sp., in northern Thailand

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    Takaoka H.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Several Simulium species were investigated as to their biting habits and natural infections with filarial larvae at Ban Pan Fan, Chiang Mai Province, in northern Thailand. Female adults flies landing on or flighting around a human and a water buffalo were collected during the daytime from 06.00 to 19.00 hours on 22 June 2001. As a result, 217 S. nodosum, 86 S. asakoae and two S. nigrogilvum were obtained from a human attractant, and 416 S. nodosum, 25 S. nakhonense, 16 S. asakoae, four 5. fenestratum and two S. nigrogilvum, from a water buffalo. The blood-feeding was confirmed only for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum on humans, and for S. nodosum and S. nakhonense on water buffalos. Dissections of these simuliids showed that S. nodosum was naturally infected with developing filarial larvae. Two types of microfilariae were distinguished but only one type of infective larvae. These larvae resembled Onchocerca suzukii, a parasite from a wild Japanese bovid, suggesting that an unknown Onchocerca species from ruminants was transmitted in Thailand. Infection rates with all stages of larvae and third-stage larvae were 2.3 % (14/608 and 1 .0 % (6/608, respectively. This is the first report of natural infections of black flies with Onchocerca larvae in Southeast Asia, and the involved black fly species is shown to be not only anthropophilic but also zoophilic in this region.

  10. Attempts to Image the Early Inflammatory Response during Infection with the Lymphatic Filarial Nematode Brugia pahangi in a Mouse Model.

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    Elmarie Myburgh

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites remain a major constraint upon human health and well-being in many parts of the world. Treatment of these infections relies upon a very small number of therapeutics, most of which were originally developed for use in animal health. A lack of high throughput screening systems, together with limitations of available animal models, has restricted the development of novel chemotherapeutics. This is particularly so for filarial nematodes, which are long-lived parasites with a complex cycle of development. In this paper, we describe attempts to visualise the immune response elicited by filarial parasites in infected mice using a non-invasive bioluminescence imaging reagent, luminol, our aim being to determine whether such a model could be developed to discriminate between live and dead worms for in vivo compound screening. We show that while imaging can detect the immune response elicited by early stages of infection with L3, it was unable to detect the presence of adult worms or, indeed, later stages of infection with L3, despite the presence of worms within the lymphatic system of infected animals. In the future, more specific reagents that detect secreted products of adult worms may be required for developing screens based upon live imaging of infected animals.

  11. Efficacy of an ivermectin controlled-release capsule against nematode and arthropod endoparasites in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, S; Batty, A F; Barth, D; Visser, M; Timms, B J; Barrick, R A; Eagleson, J S

    1998-03-28

    Five controlled trials were conducted in Germany or in the United Kingdom, using 74 female sheep of merino or Dorset horn breeds, to evaluate the efficacy of an ivermectin controlled-release capsule against naturally acquired or induced infections of gastrointestinal nematodes, lungworms and nasal bot larvae and against incoming infections with gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes. Half of the animals were treated with one ivermectin controlled-release capsule that delivered ivermectin at the rate of 1.6 mg per day for 100 days while the other half remained untreated. Parasites were counted 21, 28, 35 or 56 days after administration of the capsule. The treatment was highly effective (> or = 99 per cent) against established parasites of the following species: Haemonchus contortus (adults and fourth-stage larvae), Ostertagia circumcincta, O pinnata, O trifurcata, Ostertagia species fourth-stage larvae, Trichostrongylus axei, T colubriformis, T vitrinus, Cooperia curticei, Nematodirus battus, N filicollis, Strongyloides papillosus, Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Trichuris ovis, Tr skrjabini, Dictyocaulus filaria, Protostrongylus rufescens and Oestrus ovis (larvae). The treatment prevented the establishment of the gastrointestinal nematodes H contortus, O circumcincta, T axei, T colubriformis, C curticei, N battus, N filicollis, Ch ovina, Oe vennulosum and the establishment of the lungworm D filaria by > 99 per cent compared with untreated controls (P < or = 0.01).

  12. Nematode Peptides with host-directed anti-inflammatory activity rescue Caenorhabditis elegans from a Burkholderia pseudomallei infection

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    Mei-Perng Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is among a growing number of bacterial pathogens that are increasingly antibiotic resistant. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been investigated as an alternative approach to treat microbial infections, as generally, there is a lower likelihood that a pathogen will develop resistance to AMPs. In this study, 36 candidate Caenorhabditis elegans genes that encode secreted peptides of <150 amino acids and previously shown to be overexpressed during infection by B. pseudomallei were identified from the expression profile of infected nematodes. RNA interference (RNAi-based knockdown of 12/34 peptide-encoding genes resulted in enhanced nematode susceptibility to B. pseudomallei without affecting worm fitness. A microdilution test demonstrated that two peptides, NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3, exhibited anti-B. pseudomallei activity in a dose dependent manner on different pathogens. Time kill analysis proposed that these peptides were bacteriostatic against B. pseudomallei at concentrations up to 8× MIC90. The SYTOX green assay demonstrated that NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 did not disrupt the B. pseudomallei membrane. Instead, gel retardation assays revealed that both peptides were able to bind to DNA and interfere with bacterial viability. In parallel, microscopic examination showed induction of cellular filamentation, a hallmark of DNA synthesis inhibition, of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 treated cells. In addition, the peptides also regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in B. pseudomallei infected macrophage cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential of NLP-31 and Y43C5A.3 as anti-B. pseudomallei peptides based on their function as immune modulators.

  13. Efficacy of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans against three species of gastro-intestinal nematodes in laboratory faecal cultures from sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, T S; Leathwick, D M; Chen, L-Y; Skipp, R A

    2003-12-30

    The ability of the nematode-killing fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to reduce number of infective larvae of three species of gastro-intestinal parasitic nematodes developing in dung was investigated in both goats and sheep. Groups of lambs and kids (12-20 weeks old) were given mono-specific infections of Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta or Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Following patency of the infections (t1) faecal samples were collected for determination of faecal nematode egg count (FEC) and culture of parasite larvae. Groups of animals were then dosed on 2 consecutive days with one of the two dose rates of the fungus (250,000 or 500,000 spores/kg liveweight). One (t2) and 5 (t3) days after the second dose of fungus samples were again collected for FEC and culture. The number of larvae recovered from the faecal cultures at t1 and t3 were used as controls to assess the efficacy of the experimental treatment at t2. Average efficacy was 78% with group means ranging from 40 to 93%. Dose rate of fungus appeared to influence efficacy against O. circumcincta but not against H. contortus or T. colubriformis. Overall, there were no differences in the efficacy of the fungus against any of the parasite species or in either host animal. The results of this trial indicate the potential use of this fungus as a broad spectrum anti-parasite agent for use in both goats and sheep.

  14. Performance and nematode infection of ewe lambs on intensive rotational grazing with two different cultivars of Panicum maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R L D; Bueno, M S; Veríssimo, C J; Cunha, E A; Santos, L E; Oliveira, S M; Spósito Filha, E; Otsuk, I P

    2007-05-01

    The daily live weight gain (DLWG), faecal nematode egg counts (FEC), and packed cell volume (PCV) of Suffolk, Ile de France and Santa Inês ewe lambs were evaluated fortnightly for 56 days in the dry season (winter) and 64 days in the rainy season (summer) of 2001-2002. The animals were distributed in two similar groups, one located on Aruana and the other on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum), in rotational grazing system at the Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa city (SP), Brazil. In the dry season, 24 one-year-old ewe lambs were used, eight of each breed, and there was no difference (p > 0.05) between grasses for DLWG (100 g/day), although the Suffolk had higher values (p < 0.05) than the other breeds. In the rainy season, with 33 six-month-old ewe lambs, nine Suffolk, eight Ile de France and 16 Santa Inês, the DLWG was not affected by breed, but it was twice as great (71 g/day, p < 0.05) on Aruana as on Tanzânia grass (30 g/day). The Santa Inês ewe lambs had the lowest FEC (p < 0.05) and the highest PCV (p < 0.05), confirming their higher resistance to Haemonchus contortus, the prevalent nematode in the rainy season. It was concluded that the best performance of ewe lambs on Aruana pastures in the rainy season is probably explained by their lower nematode infection owing to the better protein content of this grass (mean contents 11.2% crude protein in Aruana grass and 8.7% in Tanzania grass, p < 0.05) which may have improved the immunological system with the consequence that the highest PCV (p < 0.05) observed in those animals.

  15. Morphological and molecular identification of Gnathostoma binucleatum (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) advanced third stage larvae (AdvL3) in the state of Colima, Mexico Determinación morfológica y molecular de larvas del tercer estadio larvario (L3A) de Gnathostoma binucleatum (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) del estado de Colima, México

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Jorge García-Márquez; Rafael Lamothe-Argumedo; David Osorio-Sarabia; Luis García-Prieto; Virginia León-Règagnon

    2009-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing project to understand the current distribution of Gnathostoma species in Mexico, 22 species of vertebrates were examined for this nematode in the state of Colima. The fish species Dormitator latifrons ("chococo") and Sciades guatemalensis ("cuatete") from Cuyutlán Lagoon and the reptile Crocodylus acutus from the Amela Lagoon were positive for infection. Morphometric characteristics of the larvae collected in Colima were similar to those of G. binucleatum larvae collec...

  16. Meloidogyne incognita Fatty Acid- and Retinol- Binding Protein (Mi-FAR-1) Affects Nematode Infection of Plant Roots and the Attachment of Pasteuria penetrans Endospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phani, Victor; Shivakumara, Tagginahalli N; Davies, Keith G; Rao, Uma

    2017-01-01

    Root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is an economically important pest of crops. Pasteuria penetrans , is a nematode hyperparasitic bacterium capable of suppressing the reproduction of RKN and thereby useful for its management. Secreted fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins are unique in nematodes and are engaged in nutrient acquisition, development and reproduction; they are also a component of the nematode cuticle and thought to be involved in the interface between hosts and parasites. Attachment of endospores to the cuticle of second stage juveniles of RKN is the primary step of infection and several factors have been identified to facilitate attachment. In this study, the full length of Mi-far-1 (573 bp) was cloned from M. incognita and characterized. Analysis revealed that the Mi-far-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a glycosylation site. Quantitative PCR showed the highest expression in the fourth stage juveniles and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Mi-far-1 mRNA in the hypodermis below the cuticle. Single copy insertion pattern of Mi-far-1 in M. incognita genome was detected by Southern blotting. Knockdown of Mi-far-1 showed significantly increased attachment of P. penetrans' endospores on juvenile cuticle surface and also affected host finding, root infection and nematode fecundity.

  17. Meloidogyne incognita Fatty Acid- and Retinol- Binding Protein (Mi-FAR-1 Affects Nematode Infection of Plant Roots and the Attachment of Pasteuria penetrans Endospores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Phani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita is an economically important pest of crops. Pasteuria penetrans, is a nematode hyperparasitic bacterium capable of suppressing the reproduction of RKN and thereby useful for its management. Secreted fatty acid and retinol-binding proteins are unique in nematodes and are engaged in nutrient acquisition, development and reproduction; they are also a component of the nematode cuticle and thought to be involved in the interface between hosts and parasites. Attachment of endospores to the cuticle of second stage juveniles of RKN is the primary step of infection and several factors have been identified to facilitate attachment. In this study, the full length of Mi-far-1 (573 bp was cloned from M. incognita and characterized. Analysis revealed that the Mi-far-1 was rich in α-helix structure, contained a predicted consensus casein kinase II phosphorylation site and a glycosylation site. Quantitative PCR showed the highest expression in the fourth stage juveniles and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Mi-far-1 mRNA in the hypodermis below the cuticle. Single copy insertion pattern of Mi-far-1 in M. incognita genome was detected by Southern blotting. Knockdown of Mi-far-1 showed significantly increased attachment of P. penetrans’ endospores on juvenile cuticle surface and also affected host finding, root infection and nematode fecundity.

  18. Survival and infectivity studies of in-vitro cultivated larvae of Haemonchus contortus in Sheep and Goats in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Sonibare

    Full Text Available The survival and infectivity of indigenous isolates of Haemonchus contortus and in vitro cultivated infective larvae (L3 were studied. Active motile gravid females, adult and immature parasites were morphologically and morphometrically characterized and isolated from Haemonchus infected goats. These were subsequently inoculated into the abomasum of parasite free lambs through left sided laparatomy for production of fertile eggs to be used for coproculture. Harvested faeces from these lambs were cultured in a nutritive medium and kept in the incubator at 320C and room temperature 24-280C to obtain in vitro cultivated L of H. contortus. The infectivity and survival of in vitro cultivated L3 stored in refrigerator at 4-80C and under room temperature 24-280C were evaluated. Incubation period of 3 coproculture was observed to be shorter in medium at 320C than under room temperature 24-280C. The storage of in vitro cultivated L under different temperature range showed that the quantity of active larvae in a given volume 3 decreased at p<0.05 from the 5th day under 24-280C while at 4-80C became significantly lower from 20th day. Infectivity of isolate kept at 4-80C was sustained for 18-20 days while at 24-280C it was maintained for 10-12 days. Laboratory invitro cultivated L of H. contortus had limited infectivity and larvae mortality increase with time under different 3 temperatures. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 533-536

  19. SUPPLEMENTATION OF COFFEE HUSK FERMENTED WITH Pleurotus ostreatus: EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD PROFILE OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES INFECTED GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of coffee husk fermented with P.ostreatus as a natural anthelmintic supplement by measuring the performance and blood profile of goat suffered gastrointestinal nematodes infection. Eighteen local male goats of Kacang goat with body weight of 9.23 ± 1.71 kg and aged at ± 10 months were arranged into three treatments in completely randomized design. The treatments were T0 (group without chemical anthelmintic treatment and no supplementation of fermented coffee husk, T1 (without chemical anthelmintic treatment, but supplied with fermented coffee husk and T2 (group with chemical anthelmintic and no supplementation of fermented coffee husk. All goats were offered a basal diet in the ratio of 60% natural grasses along with 40% concentrate. Fermented coffee husk was added in the diet as much as 6% from the dry matter need. The result showed that there were no significant effect to dry matter intake, daily weight gain, PCV value and eosinophil counts (P>0.05. The supplementation of fermented coffee husk (T1 enhanced Hb and red blood cell (RBC value (P<0.05 while no significant difference to T2. There were no nematodes infection in T1 and T2 with the eggs count were zero while the animals in T0 were still infected. This result indicated that fermented coffee husk can be used as a promising natural anthelmintic supplement with the improvement of Hb value, RBC, egg counts and daily weight gain.

  20. Genetic and Biochemical Diversity of Paenibacillus larvae Isolated from Tunisian Infected Honey Bee Broods

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    Chadlia Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB, a virulent disease of honeybee (Apis mellifera larvae. In Tunisia, AFB has been detected in many beekeeping areas, where it causes important economic losses, but nothing is known about the diversity of the causing agent. Seventy-five isolates of P. larvae, identified by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were obtained from fifteen contaminated broods showing typical AFB symptoms, collected in different locations in the northern part of the country. Using BOX-PCR, a distinct profile of P. larvae with respect to related Paenibacillus species was detected which may be useful for its identification. Some P. larvae-specific bands represented novel potential molecular markers for the species. BOX-PCR fingerprints indicated a relatively high intraspecific diversity among the isolates not described previously with several molecular polymorphisms identifying six genotypes on polyacrylamide gel. Polymorphisms were also detected in several biochemical characters (indol production, nitrate reduction, and methyl red and oxidase tests. Contrary to the relatively high intraspecies molecular and phenotypic diversity, the in vivo virulence of three selected P. larvae genotypes did not differ significantly, suggesting that the genotypic/phenotypic differences are neutral or related to ecological aspects other than virulence.

  1. Cutaneous larva migrans: a bad souvenir from the vacation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Belda, Walter; Vasconcellos, Cidia; Silva, Cristiana Silveira

    2012-06-15

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a common endemic disease in tropical and subtropical countries. This condition is caused by skin-penetrating larvae of nematodes, mainly of the hookworm Ancylostoma braziliense and other nematodes of the family Ancylostomidae. We report three cases of CLM acquired during vacations in different regions of Brazil.

  2. Infection Dynamics Vary between Symbiodinium Types and Cell Surface Treatments during Establishment of Endosymbiosis with Coral Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bette Lynn Willis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Symbioses between microbes and higher organisms underpin high diversity in many ecosystems, including coral reefs, however mechanisms underlying the early establishment of symbioses remain unclear. Here we examine the roles of Symbiodinium type and cell surface recognition in the establishment of algal endosymbiosis in the reef-building coral, Acropora tenuis. We found 20–70% higher infection success (proportion of larvae infected and five-fold higher Symbiodinium abundance in larvae exposed to ITS-1 type C1 compared to ITS-1 type D in the first 96 h following exposure. The highest abundance of Symbiodinium within larvae occurred when C1-type cells were treated with enzymes that modified the 40–100 kD glycome, including glycoproteins and long chain starch residues. Our finding of declining densities of Symbiodinium C1 through time in the presence of intact cell surface molecules supports a role for cell surface recognition molecules in controlling post-phagocytosis processes, leading to rejection of some Symbiodinium types in early ontogeny. Reductions in the densities of unmodified C1 symbionts after 96 h, in contrast to increases in D symbionts may suggest the early initiation of a winnowing process contributing to the establishment of Symbiodinium D as the dominant type in one-month old juveniles of A. tenuis.

  3. Infection levels and species diversity of ascaridoid nematodes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, are correlated with geographic area and fish size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gay, M.; Bao, M.; MacKenzie, K.

    2018-01-01

    2012-2014.Prevalences for Anisakis in whole fish and in fillets in the different fishing areas varied from 16 to 100% and from 12 to 90% respectively. Abundance was also greatly influenced by the sampling area. Generalized additive model results indicate higher numbers of Anisakis in the North Sea......, C. osculatum and H. aduncum. In addition to high prevalence and abundance values, the cod sampled in this study presented a diversity of ascaridoid nematodes with a majority of fish displaying a co-infection. Out of 295 whole infected fish, 269 were co-infected by at least 2 genera.......Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is among the most important commercial fish species on the world market. Its infection by ascaridoid nematodes has long been known, Pseudoterranova even being named cod worm. In the present study, 755 individuals were sampled in the Barents, Baltic and North Seas during...

  4. Isolation and purification of a granulosis virus from infected larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweeten, K A; Bulla, L A; Consigli, R A

    1977-09-01

    A procedure was developed for purification of a granulosis virus inclusion body produced in vivo in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Purification was accomplished by differential centrifugation, treatment with sodium deoxycholate, and velocity sedimentation in sucrose gradients. The adequacy of the procedure was confirmed by mixing experiments in which uninfected, radioactively labeled larvae were mixed with infected, unlabeled larvae. After purification, the virus was shown to be free of host tissue, to retain its physical integrity, and to be highly infectious per os. Preparations of purified virus consisted of homogeneous populations of intact inclusion bodies (210 by 380 nm) whose buoyant density was 1.271 g/cm3 when centrifuged to equilibrium in sucrose gradients. Electron microscopy of thin-sectioned virus or of virus sequentially disrupted on electron microscope grids demonstrated three components: protein matrix, envelope, and nucleocapsid.

  5. Patent gastrointestinal nematode infections in organically and conventionally pastured dairy cows and their impact on individual milk and fertility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Katharina; Brügemann, Kerstin; König, Sven; Strube, Christina

    2017-10-15

    Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) can lead to production losses and impacts on product quality in affected cows, which has mainly been demonstrated during deworming experiments or via herd-level measurements. Here, a field study was carried out to explore the association between GIN infection status and milk production as well as fertility parameters in individual dairy cows. Different selection lines of Black and White cows were included in the study, which were distributed among 17 small and medium-sized organic and conventional German grassland farms. Faecal samples of 1166 dairy cows were examined twice, in July and September 2015. Nematode eggs were found in the faeces of 473 (40.6%) cows. As expected, strongylid eggs (Trichostrongylidae or Oesophagostomum and Bunostomum spp., respectively) were the predominant morphotype, followed by Strongyloides papillosus and Capillaria spp. eggs. In July, cows kept under organic conditions had a significantly lower GIN prevalence in comparison to cows kept on conventional farms. Faecal egg counts were generally low, with the highest value in September and an arithmetic mean of 11.3 eggs per gram faeces (EPG) for all observations. The relationships between GIN infection status and milk yield (kg milk/cow/day), milk protein content (%) and milk fat content (%) for each first test-day record after parasitological assessment were estimated by using linear mixed models. Milk protein content was estimated 0.05% lower in GIN positive compared to GIN negative cows, whereas no significant effect on milk yield or milk fat content was observed. The impact of GIN infection status on success in first insemination (SFI) was estimated by using a threshold model. No significant association was demonstrated between GIN infection status and SFI. Unexpectedly, the fertility parameter days from calving-to-first-service (CTFS) showed a significantly shorter average interval in GIN positive cows. However, these data on

  6. Assessment of gastrointestinal nematode infection, anthelmintic usage and husbandry practices on two small-scale goat farms in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Flora; Sargison, Neil

    2018-03-01

    Haemonchosis is a common problem on goat farms in tropical countries such as Malaysia. Prevention of production losses generally depends on the use of anthelmintic drugs, but is threatened by the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. This study investigates anthelmintic efficacy on small-scale Malaysian goat farms and describes putative risk factors. Adult goats had moderate to high pre-treatment faecal trichostrongyle egg counts, despite being housed on slatted floors and fed on cut-and-carry forage, raising questions about the source of nematode infection. Our results show multiple resistance to benzimidazole and macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic drugs and allow us to discuss the genetic origins of resistance with reference to farm husbandry and management. We conclude that improvement in Malaysian goat production efficiency will require the development of sustainable helminth control strategies, underpinned by a better understanding of the origins and population genetics of anthelmintic resistance.

  7. Metastrongyloid nematode (Otostrongylus circumlitus) infection in a stranded California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)--a new host-parasite association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terra R; Greig, Denise; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Lowenstine, Linda J; Dailey, Murray; Gulland, Frances M; Haulena, Martin

    2005-07-01

    A stranded yearling male California sea lion was admitted to a rehabilitation center June 2003. On presentation, the sea lion was emaciated and had diarrhea and neutrophilia. Two weeks later, the animal became anorexic, blood and mucus were observed around the oral cavity, and corneal opacity was noted in the right eye. Hematology results at that time included leukocytosis consisting of neutrophilia with a left shift, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Despite supportive care, the sea lion died. On post mortem examination, there were multiple areas of hemorrhage scattered throughout all lung lobes, and pulmonary blood vessels were occluded by fibrin thrombi. Nematodes identified as immature forms of Otostrongylus circumlitus were found in the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries. Histologic findings in the lungs included severe suppurative and necrotizing arteritis with vascular thrombosis, interstitial pneumonia, and large areas of pulmonary hemorrhage. This report of O. circumlitus infection in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) might indicate a potentially new host-parasite association.

  8. Multiple-strand displacement and identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms as markers of genotypic variation of Pasteuria penetrans biotypes infecting root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Guang; Chow, Virginia; Schmidt, Liesbeth M; Dickson, Don W; Preston, James F

    2007-08-01

    Pasteuria species are endospore-forming obligate bacterial parasites of soil-inhabiting nematodes and water-inhabiting cladocerans, e.g. water fleas, and are closely related to Bacillus spp. by 16S rRNA gene sequence. As naturally occurring bacteria, biotypes of Pasteuria penetrans are attractive candidates for the biocontrol of various Meloidogyne spp. (root-knot nematodes). Failure to culture these bacteria outside their hosts has prevented isolation of genomic DNA in quantities sufficient for identification of genes associated with host recognition and virulence. We have applied multiple-strand displacement amplification (MDA) to generate DNA for comparative genomics of biotypes exhibiting different host preferences. Using the genome of Bacillus subtilis as a paradigm, MDA allowed quantitative detection and sequencing of 12 marker genes from 2000 cells. Meloidogyne spp. infected with P. penetrans P20 or B4 contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the spoIIAB gene that did not change the amino acid sequence, or that substituted amino acids with similar chemical properties. Individual nematodes infected with P. penetrans P20 or B4 contained SNPs in the spoIIAB gene sequenced in MDA-generated products. Detection of SNPs in the spoIIAB gene in a nematode indicates infection by more than one genotype, supporting the need to sequence genomes of Pasteuria spp. derived from single spore isolates.

  9. Effect of urea-molasses block supplementation on grazing weaner goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

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    R.M. Waruiru

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of feeding urea-molasses blocks (UMB on growth and gastrointestinal (GI nematode parasitism of weaner goats grazing the same pasture was investigated on a farm in Nyandarua District, Kenya. Thirty female Small East African goat kids at an average age of 5 months were initially treated with albendazole orally (5 mg kg-1 body mass and randomly assigned into one of two groups: group I were fed UMB prepared using a cold process and group II kids (controls received no block supplementation (NBS. The UMB were given in the evening when the animals returned from grazing and were consumed during the night at a rate of 95.0 g head-1 day-1. Supplementation was undertaken for 3 consecutive months from July to September 2001 and January to March 2002. Body mass of the kids and faecal egg counts were measured monthly and larval cultures were performed on positive faecal samples of kids of each group. Five goats from each group were randomly selected for slaughter and total counts and identification of worms at the end of June 2002. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were found in cumulative mass gains of kids in group I from September compared with those in group II. On termination of the study kids in group I had gained an average of (+ SD 20.4 ± 1.4 kg while those in group II had gained 11.8 + 1.1 kg. From January 2002, faecal egg counts of the kids in the UMB group differed significantly (P < 0.05 from those of the NBS group and at slaughter, the mean (+ SD worm counts for the UMB group was 482 + 299 while that of the NBS group was 1 302 + 410. In all the goats, Haemonchus contortus was the predominant nematode recovered. These results indicate that UMB had significant effects in the control of GI nematode parasitism and enhanced growth of the young goats.

  10. Efficiency immunization peritoneally with different antigens of Toxocara canis، Toxascaris leonina aganist infection with Toxacara cati and Toxascaris leonina larvae

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    A. B. Hosin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study includes effect of Immunizaton by intrapertoneal inoculation of unembryonated eggs, embryonated eggs , died larvae , live larvae and excretory / secretory products of larvae (L2 of T.canis and T.leonina to protect white mice (Balb/c from the experimental infection by T.cati and T.leonina the results showed that the highest rate of protection is 69. 56% then , 68.77%, 65.83% , 65.20% and 55.70% when the mice immunized by excretory/ secretory products, Live Larvae, died Larvae, embryonated eggs and unembryonated eggs of T.canis antigens against the challenge dose of T.cati the highest protection rate against the experimental infection with T.leonina was obtained by inoculation of live larvae of T.leonina (58.63% by using a challenge dose same to the immunization dose. while the highest protection rate obtained by T.canis against the experimental infection with T.leonina was obtained by immunization with live larvae(54. 74%.

  11. The potential of Nigerian bioactive plants for controlling gastrointestinal nematode infection in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi

    2016-12-01

    Bioactive compounds from marine and terrestrial organisms have been used extensively in the treatment of many diseases in both their natural form and as templates for synthetic modifications. This review summarizes present knowledge about anthelmintic effects of the extracts of bioactive plants in Nigeria against helminth parasites of ruminants. Plants traditionally used in livestock production are discussed. The main focus is hinged on in vitro and in vivo activities of secondary plant metabolites against nematodes of livestock. This review provides insight into preliminary studies of medicinal plants, which can be investigated further to discover promising molecules in the search for novel anthelmintic drugs and nutraceuticals.

  12. Effect of feeding urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbendazole on grazing dairy heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

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    R.M. Waruiru

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Between June 1999 and August 2000, the effects of feeding medicated urea-molasses supplement blocks on the growth of dairy heifers in a marginal area of central Kenya were assessed by comparing the live-weight gain of supplemented and unsupplemented heifers grazing the same pasture. Thirty-nine heifers with an average age of 9.6 months were initially treated orally with albendazole (10 mg / kg body weight and assigned to 3 groups : group I was fed urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbendazole (MUMB, group II was fed urea-molasses blocks (UMB and group III heifers (control received no block supplementation (NBS. Body weights of the heifers and faecal egg counts (FECs were measured monthly and larval cultures were made of positive faecal samples of each group. The mean cumulative live-weight responses of the MUMB and UMB groups were significantly greater than the NBS group (P 0.05. The FECs were moderate to low in all groups and decreased progressively with increasing age of the animals; FECs for the urea-molasses-supplemented groups remained significantly lower than those of the NBS group throughout the experimental period (P <0.05. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus were the predominant nematode genera found in the heifers, but Cooperia, Bunostomum and Oesophagostomum were also present. These results indicate that feeding of urea-molasses blocks substantially reduced production losses attributable to nematode infection of young grazing cattle, and confirms previous observations that well-fed animals are better able to overcome the effects of helminth infections.

  13. Genetic identification of anisakid nematodes isolated from largehead hairtail (Trichiurus japonicus in Korea

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    Jeong-Ho Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nematode species belonging to genus Anisakis occur at their third larval stage in numerous marine teleost fish species worldwide and known to cause accidental human infection through the ingestion of raw or undercooked fish or squids. They may also draw the attention of consumers because of the visual impact of both alive and dead worms. Therefore, the information on their geographical distribution and clear species identification is important for epidemiological survey and further prevention of human infection. Results For identification of anisakid nematodes species isolated from largehead hairtail (Trichiurus japonicus, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis of internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA were conducted. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 gene was also sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. From the largehead hairtail (n = 9, 1259 nematodes were isolated in total. Most of the nematodes were found encapsulated throughout the viscera (56.2 %, 708/1259 or moving freely in the body cavity (41.5 %, 523/1259, and only 0.3 % (4/1259 was found in the muscles. By PCR-RFLP, three different nematode species were identified. Anisakis pegreffii was the most dominantly found (98.7 %, 1243/1259 from the largehead hairtail, occupying 98.7 % (699/708 of the nematodes in the mesenteries and 98.1 % (513/523 in the body cavity. Hybrid genotype (Anisakis simplex × A. pegreffii occupied 0.5 %, and Hysterothylacium sp. occupied 0.2 % of the nematodes isolated in this study. Conclusions The largehead hairtail may not significantly contribute accidental human infection of anisakid nematode third stage larvae because most of the nematodes were found from the viscera or body cavity, which are not consumed raw. But, a high prevalence of anisakid nematode larvae in the largehead hairtail is still in concern because they may raise food safety

  14. Analysis of Babesia bovis infection-induced gene expression changes in larvae from the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Heekin Andrew M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle that has severe economic impact on cattle producers throughout the world’s tropical and subtropical countries. The most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite of infected cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus, with the most prevalent species being Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. We studied the reaction of the R. microplus larval transcriptome in response to infection by B. bovis. Methods Total RNA was isolated for both uninfected and Babesia bovis-infected larval samples. Subtracted libraries were prepared by subtracting the B. bovis-infected material with the uninfected material, thus enriching for expressed genes in the B. bovis-infected sample. Expressed sequence tags from the subtracted library were generated, assembled, and sequenced. To complement the subtracted library method, differential transcript expression between samples was also measured using custom high-density microarrays. The microarray probes were fabricated using oligonucleotides derived from the Bmi Gene Index database (Version 2. Array results were verified for three target genes by real-time PCR. Results Ticks were allowed to feed on a B. bovis-infected splenectomized calf and on an uninfected control calf. RNA was purified in duplicate from whole larvae and subtracted cDNA libraries were synthesized from Babesia-infected larval RNA, subtracting with the corresponding uninfected larval RNA. One thousand ESTs were sequenced from the larval library and the transcripts were annotated. We used a R. microplus microarray designed from a R. microplus gene index, BmiGI Version 2, to look for changes in gene expression that were associated with infection of R. microplus larvae. We found 24 transcripts were expressed at a statistically significant higher level in ticks feeding upon a B. bovis-infected calf contrasted to ticks

  15. Coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors on five farms in the Netherlands. The goats were individually sampled. Coccidial oocysts were identified and nematode eggs counted. Larval cultures were made and infective larvae identified to the generic or

  16. Potato Cyst Nematode in East Java: Newly Infected Areas and Identification

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    Happy Cahya Nugrahana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN, Globodera rostochiensis has noted to be a devastated pest on potato in Indonesia. It is listed as the A2 pest by Plant Quarantine of Republik Indonesia, and it was also being a highly concerned plant parasitic nematode species worlwide. Therefore, both intensive and extensive surveys should be done to monitor the spread of PCN, especially in East Java as one of the centre of potato plantations in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to study the distribution of PCN in four potato plantations in East Java, i.e. Batu, Magetan, Probolinggo, and Pasuruan which were located between 1,205 to 2,063 m above the sea level. Extraction and isolation of cysts from soil samples was done using Baunacke method, and it was followed by identification of the nematodes using morphological and molecular approaches according to Baldwin and Mundo-Ocampo. The results showed that PCN was found on all sampling sites, i.e. Batu (Sumber Brantas, Jurang Kuali, Tunggangan, Junggo, Brakseng; Magetan (Dadi, Sarangan, Singolangu; Probolinggo (Tukul, Pandansari, Ledokombo, Sumberanom, Wonokerto, Ngadas, Pasuruan (Wonokerto, Tosari, Ledoksari, Ngadiwono. Magetan and Pasuruan were noted as new infested areas in East Java. Both morphological and molecular methods showed that the species found on all sites was Globodera rostochiensis.   Intisari Nematoda Sista Kentang (NSK, Globodera rostochiensis telah tercatat sebagai hama yang menghancurkan tanaman kentang di Indonesia. NSK terdaftar sebagai Organisme Pengganggu Tumbuhan Karantina golongan A2 oleh Badan Karantina Pertanian Republik Indonesia, dan juga merupakan spesies nematoda parasit tanaman yang sangat merugikan di seluruh dunia. Oleh karena itu, baik survei intensif maupun ekstensif harus dilakukan untuk memantau penyebaran NSK, terutama di Jawa Timur sebagai salah satu sentra tanaman kentang di Indonesia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari distribusi NSK pada empat daerah sentra

  17. Nematodes from Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in Argentina

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    Valente R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the nematode cysts and larvae found in Achatina fulica, the giant African snail, in the northeast of Argentina. A total of 373 snails were collected from the cities of Puerto Iguazú and Corrientes. Cysts (N= 2958 containing nematodes identified as L3 Strongyluris sp. were found in the mantle cavity of 87 snails from Puerto Iguazú City (Prevalence 23 %; Mean Intensity= 34; Mean Abundance= 8. The shell size correlated with prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance (p < 0.05 indicating that there is an exposure-infection constant rather than an accidental one. In other hand, the absence of infection in the smallest shell size suggests a threshold of size to be infected. Taking into account that there exist records of A. fulica infected by nematodes of medical and veterinary importance such as Angiostrongylus and Aelurostrongylus in some Brazilian states near Puerto Iguazú, we emphasize the need for snail surveillance.

  18. Tyramine functions as a toxin in honey bee larvae during Varroa-transmitted infection by Melissococcus pluton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbar, G; Engels, W; Nicholson, G J; Hertle, R; Winkelmann, G

    2004-05-01

    From wounds of honey bee pupae, caused by the mite Varroa destructor, coccoid bacteria were isolated and identified as Melissococcus pluton. The bacterial isolate was grown anaerobically in sorbitol medium to produce a toxic compound that was purified on XAD columns, gelfiltration and preparative HPLC. The toxic agent was identified by GC-MS and FTICR-MS as tyramine. The toxicity of the isolated tyramine was tested by a novel mobility test using the protozoon Stylonychia lemnae. A concentration of 0.2 mg/ml led to immediate inhibition of mobility. In addition the toxicity was studied on honey bee larvae by feeding tyramine/water mixtures added to the larval jelly. The lethal dosis of tyramine on 4-5 days old bee larvae was determined as 0.3 mg/larvae when added as a volume of 20 microl to the larval food in brood cells. Several other biogenic amines, such as phenylethylamine, histamine, spermine, cadaverine, putrescine and trimethylamine, were tested as their hydrochloric salts for comparison and were found to be inhibitory in the Stylonychia mobility test at similar concentrations. A quantitative hemolysis test with human red blood cells revealed that tyramine and histamine showed the highest membranolytic activity, followed by the phenylethylamine, trimethylamine and spermine, while the linear diamines, cadaverine and putrescine, showed a significantly lower hemolysis when calculated on a molar amine basis. The results indicate that tyramine which is a characteristic amine produced by M. pluton in culture, is the causative agent of the observed toxic symptoms in bee larvae. Thus this disease, known as European foulbrood, is possibly an infection transmitted by the Varroa destructor mite.

  19. The miRNAome dynamics during developmental and metabolic reprogramming of tomato root infected with potato cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koter, Marek D; Święcicka, Magdalena; Matuszkiewicz, Mateusz; Pacak, Andrzej; Derebecka, Natalia; Filipecki, Marcin

    2018-03-01

    Cyst-forming plant-parasitic nematodes are pests threatening many crops. By means of their secretions cyst nematodes induce the developmental and metabolic reprogramming of host cells that lead to the formation of a syncytium, which is the sole food source for growing nematodes. The in depth micro RNA (miRNA) dynamics in the syncytia induced by Globodera rostochiensis in tomato roots was studied. The miRNAomes were obtained from syncytia covering the early and intermediate developmental stages, and were the subject of differential expression analysis. The expression of 1235 miRNAs was monitored. The fold change (log 2 FC) ranged from -7.36 to 8.38, indicating that this transcriptome fraction was very variable. Moreover, we showed that the DE (differentially expressed) miRNAs do not fully overlap between the selected time points, suggesting infection stage specific regulation by miRNA. The correctness of RNA-seq expression profiling was confirmed by qRT-PCR (quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction) for seven miRNA species. Down- and up-regulated miRNA species, including their isomiRs, were further used to identify their potential targets. Among them there are a large number of transcription factors linked to different aspects of plant development belonging to gene families, such as APETALA2 (AP2), SQUAMOSA (MADS-box), MYB, GRAS, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF). The substantial portion of potential target genes belong to the NB-LRR and RLK (RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE) families, indicating the involvement of miRNA mediated regulation in defense responses. We also collected the evidence for target cleavage in the case of 29 miRNAs using one of three alternative methods: 5' RACE (5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends), a search of tasiRNA within our datasets, and the meta-analysis of tomato degradomes in the GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus) database. Eight target transcripts showed a negative correlation with their respective miRNAs at two or three time points. These

  20. New insights into the evolution of Wolbachia infections in filarial nematodes inferred from a large range of screened species.

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    Emanuele Ferri

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are intriguing symbiotic endobacteria with a peculiar host range that includes arthropods and a single nematode family, the Onchocercidae encompassing agents of filariases. This raises the question of the origin of infection in filariae. Wolbachia infect the female germline and the hypodermis. Some evidences lead to the theory that Wolbachia act as mutualist and coevolved with filariae from one infection event: their removal sterilizes female filariae; all the specimens of a positive species are infected; Wolbachia are vertically inherited; a few species lost the symbiont. However, most data on Wolbachia and filaria relationships derive from studies on few species of Onchocercinae and Dirofilariinae, from mammals.We investigated the Wolbachia distribution testing 35 filarial species, including 28 species and 7 genera and/or subgenera newly screened, using PCR, immunohistochemical staining, whole mount fluorescent analysis, and cocladogenesis analysis. (i Among the newly screened Onchocercinae from mammals eight species harbour Wolbachia but for some of them, bacteria are absent in the hypodermis, or in variable density. (ii Wolbachia are not detected in the pathological model Monanema martini and in 8, upon 9, species of Cercopithifilaria. (iii Supergroup F Wolbachia is identified in two newly screened Mansonella species and in Cercopithifilaria japonica. (iv Type F Wolbachia infect the intestinal cells and somatic female genital tract. (v Among Oswaldofilariinae, Waltonellinae and Splendidofilariinae, from saurian, anuran and bird respectively, Wolbachia are not detected.The absence of Wolbachia in 63% of onchocercids, notably in the ancestral Oswaldofilariinae estimated 140 mya old, the diverse tissues or specimens distribution, and a recent lateral transfer in supergroup F Wolbachia, modify the current view on the role and evolution of the endosymbiont and their hosts. Further genomic analyses on some of the newly sampled species

  1. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on developmental stages of house fly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, M; D'Souza, Placid E; Patil, Jagadeesh

    2017-09-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica is a major domestic, medical and veterinary pest. The management of these flies reliance on insecticide, causes environmental constraints, insecticide resistance and residues in the meat, skin. Therefore one of the eco-friendly alternate methods is by using biological agents such as entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). In the present study evaluated the survival of EPN species Steinernema feltiae , Heterorhabditis indica , S. carpocapsae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi in poultry manure and also their efficacy against different developmental stages of house fly. After exposing to poultry manure, S. feltiae showed more survival as followed by H. indica , S. carpocapsae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi in all exposition period. When the exposition period extended to 96 h, all nematode species survivability was drastically reduced. After exposing these nematodes to poultry manure at 24 h their virulence capacity against wax moth, Galleria mellonella showed all the nematode species were able cause 100% mortality. However their progeny production was significantly reduced. Fly eggs and pupae were refractory to these nematode infection. Petri dish without artificial diet assay showed that, second and 3rd-instar larvae were highly susceptible to EPNs as compared to larvae provided with artificial diet. H. indica showed high virulence capacity compared to other nematodes tested. Poultry manure assay revealed that, H. indica and S. carpocapsae caused minimal mortality where as S. feltiae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi did not cause any mortality. This may be because of poor survival and limited movement of nematodes in poultry manure which may be due to ammonia, other toxic substances in poultry manure. The decrease in larval mortality in manure suggests that biocontrol of housefly by using EPNs is unlikely.

  2. Lipopolysaccharides of Rhizobium etli strain G12 act in potato roots as an inducing agent of systemic resistance to infection by the cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, M; Rudolph, K; Schröder, I; Hoffmann-Hergarten, S; Hallmann, J; Sikora, R A

    2000-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that living and heat-killed cells of the rhizobacterium Rhizobium etli strain G12 induce in potato roots systemic resistance to infection by the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. To better understand the mechanisms of induced resistance, we focused on identifying the inducing agent. Since heat-stable bacterial surface carbohydrates such as exopolysaccharides (EPS) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are essential for recognition in the symbiotic interaction between Rhizobium and legumes, their role in the R. etli-potato interaction was studied. EPS and LPS were extracted from bacterial cultures, applied to potato roots, and tested for activity as an inducer of plant resistance to the plant-parasitic nematode. Whereas EPS did not affect G. pallida infection, LPS reduced nematode infection significantly in concentrations as low as 1 and 0.1 mg ml(-1). Split-root experiments, guaranteeing a spatial separation of inducing agent and challenging pathogen, showed that soil treatments of one half of the root system with LPS resulted in a highly significant (up to 37%) systemic induced reduction of G. pallida infection of potato roots in the other half. The results clearly showed that LPS of R. etli G12 act as the inducing agent of systemic resistance in potato roots.

  3. Identification of drought, cadmium and root-lesion nematode infection stress-responsive transcription factors in ramie

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    Zheng Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought, cadmium (Cd stress, and root lesion nematode (RLN infection are three of the most important stresses affecting ramie growth and development; therefore, ramie breeding programs focus on their management more than on any other abiotic or biotic stresses. The fact that only a small number of stress-responsive transcription factors (TFs have been identified so far is a major obstacle in the elucidation of mechanisms regulating the response to these three stresses in ramie. In this study, in order to uncover more stress-responsive TFs, a total of 179 nonredundant genes with full-length open reading frames from the MYB, AP2/ERF, bZIP, HD-ZIP, and COL families were obtained by searching for against the ramie transcriptome. Expression pattern analysis demonstrated that most of these genes showed relatively higher expression in the stem xylem and bast than in other tissues. Among these genes, 96 genes were found to be involved in responses to drought, Cd exposure, or RLN-infection. The expression of 54 of these genes was regulated by at least two stresses. These stress-responsive TFs probably have roles in the regulation of stress tolerance. The discovery of these stress-responsive TFs will be helpful for furthering our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate stress responses in ramie.

  4. How the position of mussels at the intertidal lagoon affects their infection with the larvae of parasitic flatworms (Trematoda: Digenea): A combined laboratory and field experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Kirill E.; Prokofiev, Vladimir V.; Levakin, Ivan A.; Galaktionov, Kirill V.

    2017-10-01

    In the complex trematode life cycle, cercariae transmit infection from the first to the second intermediate host. These short-lived lecithotrophic larvae possess a complex of behavioural responses for finding and infecting the host. We studied strategies used by cercariae of Himasthla elongata and Cercaria parvicaudata (Renicola sp.) infecting mussels Mytilus edulis at the White Sea intertidal. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in parallel. Geotactic response of cercariae was tested in an experimental chamber. Their distribution in nature was studied by counting larvae infecting mussels in cages installed in pairs (a ground and a suspended cage) in an intertidal lagoon. In the chamber H. elongata cercariae concentrated at the bottom, C. parvicaudata cercariae aged 1 h mostly concentrated near the surface and those aged 6 h sank to the bottom. A few larvae of both species ("evaders") showed behavioural patterns antithetic to the prevalent ones. Infection was the highest in mussels in ground cages. In suspended cages mussel infection with H. elongata cercariae was much lower than with C. parvicaudata cercariae. Our study confirmed that results of experiments on cercarial behaviour could be extrapolated to natural conditions. Cercariae of two species using the same intermediate hosts and co-occurring in a biotope implemented dramatically different strategies. This might be associated with differences in cercarial output by parthenitae groups. The presence of "evaders" might be useful for successful transmission. Our results indicate that mussels cultivated in suspended cultures are at the least risk of infection with trematode larvae.

  5. Nematoides anisaquídeos e cestoides Trypanorhyncha de importância em saúde pública em Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus, 1758 no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Larvae of Anisakidae nematodes and Trypanorhyncha cestodes of public health importance in Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus, 1758 in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima de Jesus Esteves Dias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre maio e agosto de 2006, foram adquiridos 100 espécimes de peixe-porco, Aluterus monoceros em estabelecimentos de pescado nos municípios de Niterói e Rio de Janeiro. Os peixes foram medidos, necropsiados, filetados e seus órgãos analisados. Foram encontrados 16 peixes parasitados por larvas de nematoides anisaquídeos pertencentes às espécies Anisakis sp. e Contracaecum sp., com prevalência de 1 e 16%, intensidade média de 2 e 3,31 e abundância média de 0,02 e 0,53, respectivamente. Duas larvas de Anisakis sp. foram encontradas no mesentério de um peixe; e de Contracaecum sp. no fígado e mesentério, com amplitude de variação da intensidade de infecção de 1 a 9. Cinquenta e um peixes mostravam-se parasitados no fígado e mesentério por cestoides da ordem Trypanorhyncha. As espécies colhidas foram Floriceps saccatus e a Callitetrarhynchus speciosus, com a prevalência de 45 e 6%, intensidade média de 3,17 e 2,83, variando de 1 a 20 e 1 a 5, e abundância média de 1,43 e 0,06, respectivamente. Larvas de Anisakis sp. e essas duas espécies de Trypanorhyncha foram registradas pela primeira vez parasitando A. monoceros.One hundred specimens of unicorn leatherjacket, Aluterus monoceros purchased from markets of municipalities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro from May to August 2006. The fishes were measured, necropsied, fileted and analysed their organs. Sixteen fishes were parasitized by nematode Anisakidae: Anisakis spp. and Contracaecum sp. with respectively, 1 and 16% of prevalence, 2 and 3.31 of mean intensity, and 0.02 and 0.53 of mean abundance. Two larvae of Anisakis sp. were found in mesentery of one fish and Contracaecum sp. was found in liver and mesentery with 1 to 9 specimens of range of infection. Fifty-one fishes were parasitized on the liver and mesentery by metacestodes of Trypanorhyncha. The collected species were Floriceps saccatus and Callitetrarhynchus speciosus with respectively, 45 and 6% of prevalence, 3

  6. Arrested larval development in cattle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Duncan, M

    1987-06-01

    Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.

  7. Olfactory circuits and behaviors of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sophie; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-12-01

    Over one billion people worldwide are infected with parasitic nematodes. Many parasitic nematodes actively search for hosts to infect using volatile chemical cues, so understanding the olfactory signals that drive host seeking may elucidate new pathways for preventing infections. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model for parasitic nematodes: because sensory neuroanatomy is conserved across nematode species, an understanding of the microcircuits that mediate olfaction in C. elegans may inform studies of olfaction in parasitic nematodes. Here we review circuit mechanisms that allow C. elegans to respond to odorants, gases, and pheromones. We also highlight work on the olfactory behaviors of parasitic nematodes that lays the groundwork for future studies of their olfactory microcircuits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Group selection on population size affects life-history patterns in the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashey, Farrah; Lively, Curtis M

    2009-05-01

    Selection is recognized to operate on multiple levels. In disease organisms, selection among hosts is thought to provide an important counterbalance to selection for faster growth within hosts. We performed three experiments, each selecting for a divergence in group size in the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae. These nematodes infect and kill insect larvae, reproduce inside the host carcass, and emerge as infective juveniles. We imposed selection on group size by selecting among hosts for either high or low numbers of emerging nematodes. Our goal was to determine whether this trait could respond to selection at the group level, and if so, to examine what other traits would evolve as correlated responses. One of the three experiments showed a significant response to group selection. In that experiment, the high-selected treatment consistently produced more emerging nematodes per host than the low-selected treatment. In addition, nematodes were larger and they emerged later from hosts in the low-selected lines. Despite small effective population sizes, the effects of inbreeding were small in this experiment. Thus, selection among hosts can be effective, leading to both a direct evolutionary response at the population level, as well as to correlated responses in populational and individual traits.

  9. Effects of age, sex, lactation and social dominance on faecal egg count patterns of gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed eland (Taurotragus oryx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlejch, J; Kotrba, R; Čadková, Z; Růžičková, A; Langrová, I

    2015-10-01

    The eland is a large African antelope that can be bred in a temperate climate, under similar conditions and production systems as cattle. However, knowledge of parasites in farmed elands outside the area of their native habitat is still limited, and information concerning factors that influence these parasites is lacking. Therefore, faecal samples from an entire herd of elands, including calves and adult females and males, were examined monthly over a one year period. Almost 84% of the animals were found to be positive for gastrointestinal nematodes. Strongyle-type eggs were most frequently detected (prevalence 75%), followed by Capillaria sp., Nematodirus sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs. Following culturing eggs to infective larvae, Teladorsagia sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Nematodirus sp., Cooperia sp. and Oesophagostomum sp. were identified. Following necropsy of two calves that died during the study one abomasal nematode (Teladorsagia circumcincta), five small intestinal nematode species (Nematodirus helvetianus, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. curticei and Capillaria bovis) and two large intestinal nematodes (Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichuris ovis) were recovered. From these findings, it is evident that the eland harbours nematodes that are typical for domestic cattle and small ruminants. Morphological and morphometric analyses of recovered nematodes revealed that these parasites do not require any special morphological adaptation to establish infection in elands. The faecal output of strongyle-type and Nematodirus sp. eggs was seasonal, with the highest egg production taking place during spring and summer. Calves had higher faecal egg counts (for all the monitored nematode species) than adults did. Lactation in females was significantly (Pnematode egg shedding. Social dominance also affected faecal egg count patterns. The lower the hierarchical position among adults (regardless of sex), the higher the risk of nematode infection. This effect was evident

  10. Application of entomopathogenic nematode-infected cadavars from hard-bodied arthropods for insect suppression

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Pesticidal and/or antimicrobial biological agent-infected hard-bodied arthropod cadavers, such as from the family Tenebrionidae are used to control pest and/or microbial infestations in agriculture, commercial and urban environments.

  11. Eventos externos e internos da infecção de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus por Metarhizium anisopliae External and internal events of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae and nymphs infection by Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Garcia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Examinaram-se a adesão, a germinação, a penetração e a colonização de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus por Metarhizium anisopliae, assim como as lesões infringidas pelo fungo nas respectivas fases do ciclo de vida do ácaro. Realizaram-se infecções experimentais em 11 grupos contendo 250 larvas e 11 grupos contendo 75 ninfas de R. sanguineus, por meio de banho, durante três minutos sob agitação manual, em suspensão contendo 10(8 conídios/ml do fungo. Nos grupos-controles, o banho foi realizado usando o veículo da suspensão. Larvas e ninfas foram processadas para um estudo histopatológico e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura nos seguintes tempos após a infecção: uma e 18 horas, e um, dois, três, quatro, cinco, seis, sete, nove e 11 dias. A germinação dos conídios ocorreu em até 18 horas pós-inoculação, e o fungo penetrou nas larvas e ninfas através do tegumento, dois e três dias após a infecção, respectivamente. Após penetração, o fungo invadiu o corpo das larvas e ninfas, promovendo uma colonização difusa, sem preferência aparente por tecidos específicos. Lesões significativas não foram observadas. A morte das larvas e ninfas ocorreu no terceiro e quarto dias pós-infecção, e a esporulação do patógeno sobre o cadáver foi iniciada no sexto dia pós-infecção.The adhesion, germination and colonization of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae and nymphs by Metarhizium anisopliae as well as the lesions caused by the fungus were studied. For this purpose, 11 groups of 250 larvae each and 11 groups of 75 nymphs each were bathed during 3 minutes under manual shaking in a 10(8 conidia/ml suspension. Corresponding control groups were bathed only in the suspension vehicle. Ticks were also submitted to both conventional microscopy and scanning eletronmicrocopy analyses at several post-infection periods (1 and 18 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 11 days. Conidial germination occurred in less

  12. In Vivo Production of Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    In nature, entomopathogenic nematodes in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are obligate parasites of insects. The nematodes are used widely as biopesticides for suppression of insect pests. More than a dozen entomopathogenic nematode species have been commercialized for use in biological control. Most nematodes intended for commercial application are produced in artificial media via solid or liquid fermentation. However, for laboratory research and small greenhouse or field trials, in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes is the common method of propagation. Additionally, small companies continue to produce nematodes using in vivo methods for application in niche markets. Advances in mechanization and alternative production routes (e.g., production geared toward application of nematodes in infected host cadavers) can improve efficiency and economy of scale. The objective of this chapter is to describe basic and advanced procedures for in vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes.

  13. Resiniferatoxin modulates the Th1 immune response and protects the host during intestinal nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carrillo, J L; Contreras-Cordero, J F; Muñoz-López, J L; Maldonado-Tapia, C H; Muñoz-Escobedo, J J; Moreno-García, M A

    2017-09-01

    In the early stage of the intestinal phase of Trichinella spiralis infection, the host triggers a Th1-type immune response with the aim of eliminating the parasite. However, this response damages the host which favours the survival of the parasite. In the search for novel pharmacological strategies that inhibit the Th1 immune response and assist the host against T. spiralis infection, a recent study showed that resiniferatoxin had anti-inflammatory activity contributed to the host in T. spiralis infection. In this study, we evaluated whether RTX modulates the host immune response through the inhibition of Th1 cytokines in the intestinal phase. In addition, it was determined whether the treatment with RTX affects the infectivity of T. spiralis-L1 and the development of the T. spiralis life cycle. Our results show that RTX decreased serum levels of IL-12, INF-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α and parasite burden on muscle tissue. It was observed that T. spiralis-L1 treated with RTX decreased their infectivity affecting the development of the T. spiralis life cycle in mouse. These results demonstrate that RTX is able to inhibit the production of Th1 cytokines, contributing to the defence against T. spiralis, which places it as a potential drug modulator of the immune response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil = Infecção experimental em larvas e juvenis de Litopaenaeus vannamei cultivados no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Carlos Buglione

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and theeffects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrioalginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p Este estudo avaliou as características patogênicas de cepas de bactérias isoladas de Litopenaeus vannamei durante surto de mortalidade no Laboratório de Camarões Marinhos, UFSC, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Seu potencial de virulência em larvas e juvenis de camarão marinho e os efeitos sobre a contagem total de hemócito, atividade de fenoloxidase e título aglutinante do soro foramavaliados após infecção experimental. As cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de larvas e de camarões adultos e identificadas bioquimicamente pelo sistema API20E como: duas cepas de Vibrio alginolyticus, três de Aeromonas salmonicida e uma de Pasteurella sp. e P. multocida. Todas as cepas isoladas provocaram mortalidade em L. vannamei, e uma de V. alginolyticus resultou em mortalidade de 97,3 e 88,7% para larvas e juvenis de camarões, respectivamente. O sistema imunológico dos camarões juvenis sofreu influência da infecção experimental

  15. RNA-Seq Based Identification of Candidate Parasitism Genes of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae during Incompatible Infection to Aegilops variabilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Zheng

    Full Text Available One of the reasons for the progressive yield decline observed in cereals production is the rapid build-up of populations of the cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae. These nematodes secrete so-call effectors into their host plant to suppress the plant defense responses, alter plant signaling pathways and then induce the formation of syncytium after infection. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism and parasitism during incompatible infection. To gain insight into its repertoire of parasitism genes, we investigated the transcriptome of the early parasitic second-stage (30 hours, 3 days and 9 days post infection juveniles of the CCN as well as the CCN infected tissue of the host Aegilops variabilis by Illumina sequencing. Among all assembled unigenes, 681 putative genes of parasitic nematode were found, in which 56 putative effectors were identified, including novel pioneer genes and genes corresponding to previously reported effectors. All the 681 CCN unigenes were mapped to 229 GO terms and 200 KEGG pathways, including growth, development and several stimulus-related signaling pathways. Sixteen clusters were involved in the CCN unigene expression atlas at the early stages during infection process, and three of which were significantly gene-enriched. Besides, the protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed 35 node unigenes which may play an important role in the plant-CCN interaction. Moreover, in a comparison of differentially expressed genes between the pre-parasitic juveniles and the early parasitic juveniles, we found that hydrolase activity was up-regulated in pre J2s whereas binding activity was upregulated in infective J2s. RT-qPCR analysis on some selected genes showed detectable expression, indicating possible secretion of the proteins and putative role in infection. This study provided better insights into the incompatible interaction between H. avenae and the host plant Ae. varabilis. Moreover, RNAi

  16. The suppression of tomato defence response genes upon potato cyst nematode infection indicates a key regulatory role of miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Święcicka, Magdalena; Skowron, Waldemar; Cieszyński, Piotr; Dąbrowska-Bronk, Joanna; Matuszkiewicz, Mateusz; Filipecki, Marcin; Koter, Marek Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is an obligate parasite of solanaceous plants, triggering metabolic and morphological changes in roots which may result in substantial crop yield losses. Previously, we used the cDNA-AFLP to study the transcriptional dynamics in nematode infected tomato roots. Now, we present the rescreening of already published, upregulated transcript-derived fragment dataset using the most current tomato transcriptome sequences. Our reanalysis allowed to add 54 novel genes to 135, already found as upregulated in tomato roots upon G. rostochiensis infection (in total - 189). We also created completely new catalogue of downregulated sequences leading to the discovery of 76 novel genes. Functional classification of candidates showed that the 'wound, stress and defence response' category was enriched in the downregulated genes. We confirmed the transcriptional dynamics of six genes by qRT-PCR. To place our results in a broader context, we compared the tomato data with Arabidopsis thaliana, revealing similar proportions of upregulated and downregulated genes as well as similar enrichment of defence related transcripts in the downregulated group. Since transcript suppression is quite common in plant-nematode interactions, we assessed the possibility of miRNA-mediated inverse correlation on several tomato sequences belonging to NB-LRR and receptor-like kinase families. The qRT-PCR of miRNAs and putative target transcripts showed an opposite expression pattern in 9 cases. These results together with in silico analyses of potential miRNA targeting to the full repertoire of tomato R-genes show that miRNA mediated gene suppression may be a key regulatory mechanism during nematode parasitism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. First Insights into the Genome of Fructobacillus sp. EFB-N1, Isolated from Honey Bee Larva Infected with European Foulbrood

    OpenAIRE

    Djukic, Marvin; Daniel, Rolf; Poehlein, Anja

    2015-01-01

    European foulbrood is a worldwide disease affecting the honey bee brood. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Fructobacillus sp. EFB-N1, which was isolated from an infected honey bee larva derived from a Swiss European foulbrood outbreak. The genome consists of 68 contigs and harbors 1,629 predicted protein-encoding genes.

  18. Anisakid nematodes associated with aquatic orga- nisms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    and respond to long- and medium-term physical, chemical and biological .... that the formation of fibrotic capsules around nematode larvae might prevent further ... capabilities and function primarily in the encapsulation of large parasitic ...

  19. Effects of anisakid nematodes Anisakis simplex (s.l.), Pseudoterranova decipiens (s.l.) and Contracaecum osculatum (s.l.) on fish and consumer Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt; Mehrdana, Foojan

    2016-01-01

    – including euphausiids, copepods and amphipods – feed on these larvae, become infected and serve as intermediate hosts. A range of fish species may serve as transport hosts following ingestion of infected invertebrates and the final stage develops after two additional moults in the stomach of marine mammals......The anisakid nematodes Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809), Pseudoterranova decipiens (Krabbe, 1878) and Contracaecum osculatum (Rudolphi, 1802) occur as third-stage larvae in marine fish products and may infect consumers ingesting raw or under-cooked fish products. Clinical symptoms associated...... with the infection, termed anisakidosis, vary from irritation of the oesophagus and stomach, via nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea to severe epigastric and abdominal pain. Third-stage larvae of A. simplex are found in the body cavity, musculature and various organs, P. decipiens occur mainly in the fish musculature...

  20. Characterization and experimental infection of Flexibacter maritimus (Wakabayashi et al. 1986 in hatcheries of post-larvae of Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JLP. Mouriño

    Full Text Available A preliminary study to characterize filamentous bacteria, whose presence is related to high mortality of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae cultured in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, is reported. The extract of infected larvae was diluted in different concentrations, cultured in marine agar (DifcoTM, Marine Agar 2216 and incubated at 30 °C for 48 hours. The biochemical characterization included hydrolytic reactions of starch, gelatin and tyrosine, growth in TCBS agar, growth in 0 and 37‰ salinity, pigment production in tyrosine agar, production of H2S, nitrate reduction, congo red reaction, oxidase and catalase. The isolated bacteria belong to the species Flexibacter maritimus, Gram-negative bacilli of 0.4-0.5 µm width and 15 µm length. Experiments were carried out on pathogenicity of F. maritimus in post-larvae of L. vannamei. Survival and symptoms in L. vannamei post-larvae 24 hours after inoculation with F. maritimus and its growth in marine agar were evaluated. Mortality was detected around 92,5% as well as symptoms like melanized lesions in several parts of body, discolouration of gills, bad formation of appendages and of the last abdominal segment, low motility and feeding reduction. The experimental infection results suggested that isolated bacteria of the genus Flexibacter are pathogenic to the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae.

  1. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471 Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Jatoba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p V. alginolyticus isolated from larvae and juvenile reared marine shrimp.This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrio alginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by

  2. Entomopathogenic nematodes in agricultural areas in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brida, Andressa Lima; Rosa, Juliana Magrinelli Osório; Oliveira, Cláudio Marcelo Gonçalves de; Castro, Bárbara Monteiro de Castro E; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola; Leite, Luis Garrigós; Wilcken, Silvia Renata Siciliano

    2017-04-06

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) can control pests due to the mutualistic association with bacteria that kill the host by septicemia and make the environment favorable for EPNs development and reproduction. The diversity of EPNs in Brazilian soils requires further study. The identification of EPNs, adapted to environmental and climatic conditions of cultivated areas is important for sustainable pest suppression in integrated management programs in agricultural areas of Brazil. The objective was to identify EPNs isolated from agricultural soils with annual, fruit and forest crops in Brazil. Soil samples were collected and stored in 250 ml glass vials. The nematodes were isolated from these samples with live bait traps ([Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae]. Infective juveniles were collected with White traps and identified by DNA barcoding procedures by sequencing the D2/D3 expansion of the 28S rDNA region by PCR. EPNs identified in agricultural areas in Brazil were Heterorhabditis amazonensis, Metarhabditis rainai, Oscheios tipulae and Steinernema rarum. These species should be considered pest biocontrol agents in Brazilian agricultural areas.

  3. Efficacy of the amino-acetonitrile derivative, monepantel, against experimental and natural adult stage gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Heinz; Hosking, Barry; Bapst, Béatrice; Stein, Philip; Vanhoff, Kathleen; Kaminsky, Ronald

    2009-01-22

    Multiple drug resistance by nematodes, against anthelmintics has become an important economic problem in sheep farming worldwide. Here we describe the efficacy of monepantel, a developmental molecule from the recently discovered anthelmintic class, the amino-acetonitrile derivatives (AADs). Efficacy was tested against adult stage gastro-intestinal nematodes (GINs) in experimentally and naturally infected sheep at a dose of 2.5mg/kg body weight when administered as an oral solution. Some of the isolates used in experimental infection studies were known to be resistant to the benzimidazoles or levamisole anthelmintics; strains resistant to the macrocyclic lactones were not available for these tests. Worm count-based efficacies of >98% were determined in these studies. As an exception, Oesophagostomum venulosum was only reduced by 88% in one study, albeit with a low worm burden in the untreated controls (geometric mean 15.4 worms). Similar efficacies for monepantel were also confirmed in naturally infected sheep. While the efficacy against most species was >99%, the least susceptible species was identified as Nematodirus spathiger, and although efficacy was 92.4% in one study it was generally >99%. Several animals were infected with Trichuris ovis, which was not eliminated after the treatment. Monepantel demonstrated high activity against a broad range of the important GINs of sheep, which makes this molecule an interesting candidate for use in this species, particularly in regions with problems of anthelmintic resistance. Monepantel was well tolerated by the treated sheep, with no treatment related adverse events documented.

  4. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of Monepantel (AAD 1566 against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne Tritten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few effective drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiases and drug resistance is of concern. In the present work, we tested the efficacy of the veterinary drug monepantel, a potential drug development candidate compared to standard drugs in vitro and in parasite-rodent models of relevance to human soil-transmitted helminthiases. METHODOLOGY: A motility assay was used to assess the efficacy of monepantel, albendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate in vitro on third-stage larvae (L3 and adult worms of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Necator americanus and Trichuris muris. Ancylostoma ceylanicum- or N. americanus-infected hamsters, T. muris- or Ascaris suum-infected mice, and Strongyloides ratti-infected rats were treated with single oral doses of monepantel or with one of the reference drugs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Monepantel showed excellent activity on A. ceylanicum adults (IC(50 = 1.7 µg/ml, a moderate effect on T. muris L3 (IC(50 = 78.7 µg/ml, whereas no effect was observed on A. ceylanicum L3, T. muris adults, and both stages of N. americanus. Of the standard drugs, levamisole showed the highest potency in vitro (IC(50 = 1.6 and 33.1 µg/ml on A. ceylanicum and T. muris L3, respectively. Complete elimination of worms was observed with monepantel (10 mg/kg and albendazole (2.5 mg/kg in A. ceylanicum-infected hamsters. In the N. americanus hamster model single 10 mg/kg oral doses of monepantel and albendazole resulted in worm burden reductions of 58.3% and 100%, respectively. Trichuris muris, S. ratti and A. suum were not affected by treatment with monepantel in vivo (following doses of 600 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, worm burden reductions of 95.9% and 76.6% were observed following treatment of T. muris- and A. suum infected mice with levamisole (200 mg/kg and albendazole (600 mg/kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Monepantel reveals low or no activities against N. americanus

  5. Genome-wide identification of soybean microRNA responsive to soybean cyst nematodes infection by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bin; Wang, Shichen; Todd, Timothy C; Johnson, Charles D; Tang, Guiliang; Trick, Harold N

    2017-08-02

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is one of the most devastating diseases limiting soybean production worldwide. It is known that small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), play important roles in regulating plant growth and development, defense against pathogens, and responses to environmental changes. In order to understand the role of soybean miRNAs during SCN infection, we analyzed 24 small RNA libraries including three biological replicates from two soybean cultivars (SCN susceptible KS4607, and SCN HG Type 7 resistant KS4313N) that were grown under SCN-infested and -noninfested soil at two different time points (SCN feeding establishment and egg production). In total, 537 known and 70 putative novel miRNAs in soybean were identified from a total of 0.3 billion reads (average about 13.5 million reads for each sample) with the programs of Bowtie and miRDeep2 mapper. Differential expression analyses were carried out using edgeR to identify miRNAs involved in the soybean-SCN interaction. Comparative analysis of miRNA profiling indicated a total of 60 miRNAs belonging to 25 families that might be specifically related to cultivar responses to SCN. Quantitative RT-PCR validated similar miRNA interaction patterns as sequencing results. These findings suggest that miRNAs are likely to play key roles in soybean response to SCN. The present work could provide a framework for miRNA functional identification and the development of novel approaches for improving soybean SCN resistance in future studies.

  6. Population-specific gene expression in the plant pathogenic nematode Heterodera glycines exists prior to infection and during the onset of a resistant or susceptible reaction in the roots of the Glycine max genotype Peking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkharouf Nadim W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A single Glycine max (soybean genotype (Peking reacts differently to two different populations of Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode within the first twelve hours of infection during resistant (R and susceptible (S reactions. This suggested that H. glycines has population-specific gene expression signatures. A microarray analysis of 7539 probe sets representing 7431 transcripts on the Affymetrix® soybean GeneChip® were used to identify population-specific gene expression signatures in pre-infective second stage larva (pi-L2 prior to their infection of Peking. Other analyses focused on the infective L2 at 12hours post infection (i-L212h, and the infective sedentary stages at 3days post infection (i-L23d and 8days post infection (i-L2/L38d. Results Differential expression and false discovery rate (FDR analyses comparing populations of pi-L2 (i.e., incompatible population, NL1-RHg to compatible population, TN8 identified 71 genes that were induced in NL1-RHg as compared to TN8. These genes included putative gland protein G23G12, putative esophageal gland protein Hgg-20 and arginine kinase. The comparative analysis of pi-L2 identified 44 genes that were suppressed in NL1-RHg as compared to TN8. These genes included a different Hgg-20 gene, an EXPB1 protein and a cuticular collagen. By 12 h, there were 7 induced genes and 0 suppressed genes in NL1-RHg. By 3d, there were 9 induced and 10 suppressed genes in NL1-RHg. Substantial changes in gene expression became evident subsequently. At 8d there were 13 induced genes in NL1-RHg. This included putative gland protein G20E03, ubiquitin extension protein, putative gland protein G30C02 and β-1,4 endoglucanase. However, 1668 genes were found to be suppressed in NL1-RHg. These genes included steroid alpha reductase, serine proteinase and a collagen protein. Conclusion These analyses identify a genetic expression signature for these two populations both prior to and subsequently

  7. Quorum quenching bacteria protect Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae from Vibrio harveyi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, D T; Cam, D T V; Wille, M; Defoirdt, T; Bossier, P; Sorgeloos, P

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of N-acyl homoserine lactone-degrading bacterial enrichment cultures (ECs) on larviculture of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The larval performance in terms of larval growth, larval survival, larval quality, duration of the larval rearing process and microflora levels in the rearing water as well as inside the prawn gut was investigated. The application of the EC bacteria was performed in two ways: by adding them directly into the larval rearing water and via enriched Artemia nauplii used for larval feeding. The results of the study demonstrated that both ECs that were tested had a similar positive effect on larval survival and larval quality, whereas they did not affect larval growth or the duration of the larval rearing process. Under normal hatchery conditions, the optimal EC densities were found to be 10(6) CFU ml(-1) for adding into the rearing water and 5 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1) for enrichment of Artemia nauplii used for feeding of the larvae. In the hatchery, the ECs can be grown on waste streams of Artemia hatching. Application of this kind of ECs could lead to a more sustainable aquaculture production, by replacing the use of antibiotics to control diseases. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Molecular aspects of cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Catherine J; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2005-11-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Superkingdom Eukaryota; kingdom Metazoa; phylum Nematoda; class Chromadorea; order Tylenchida; suborder Tylenchina; superfamily Tylenchoidea; family Heteroderidae; subfamily Heteroderinae; main genera Heterodera and Globodera. Cyst nematodes comprise approximately 100 known species in six genera. They are pathogens of temperate, subtropical and tropical plant species and the host range of many species is narrow. The most economically important species are within the Globodera and Heterodera genera. Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis are important pathogens of potato crops. There are many economic species in the Heterodera genus, including Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode), H. avenae (cereal cyst nematode) and H. schachtii (sugar beet cyst nematode), the last of which attacks a range of Chenopodiaceae and Cruciferae, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Disease symptoms: Field symptoms of severe cyst nematode infection are often stunting, wilting and chlorosis, but considerable yield loss can occur without obvious symptoms. The only unique indicator of cyst nematode infection is the presence of adult female nematodes attached to host roots after several weeks of parasitism. Disease control: This is usually achieved by using integrated pest management involving cultural practices such as crop rotation, resistant cultivars if available and chemical control when economically justified.

  9. The effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections during the rainy season in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Acosta, J F J; Jacobs, D E; Aguilar-Caballero, A; Sandoval-Castro, C; May-Martinez, M; Cob-Galera, L A

    2004-10-05

    The objective was to determine the effect of supplementary feeding on the resilience and resistance of Criollo kids against natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections, when browsing native vegetation during the wet season in tropical Mexico. Thirty-four 2-month old Criollo kids, raised nematode free, were included at weaning in a 22-week trial. The kids were placed into four groups. Two groups of 8 kids were offered 100g/day soybean and sorghum meal (26%:74%, respectively fresh basis) (treated/supplemented (T-S) and infected/supplemented (I-S)). Two groups remained with no supplement for the duration of the trial (infected/non-supplemented (I-NS) (n = 10) and treated/non-supplemented (T-NS) (n = 8)). Kids in groups T-S and T-NS were drenched with 0.2mg of moxidectin/kg body weight orally (Cydectin, Fort Dodge) every 28 days. Groups I-S and I-NS were naturally infected with GIN. The animals browsed native vegetation (for an average of 7h/day) together with a herd of 120 naturally infected adult goats. Cumulative live weight gain (CLWG), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), total plasma protein and plasma albumin were recorded every 14 days as measurements of resilience. Resistance parameters (faecal egg counts (FEC) and peripheral eosinophil counts (PEC)) were also measured. Bulk faecal cultures were made for each group every 28 days. Every month a new pair of tracer kids assessed the infectivity of the vegetation browsed by the animals. The T-S group had the highest CLWG, PCV and Hb compared to the other three groups (P 0.05), while the I-NS group had the poorest CLWG, PCV and Hb (P Criollo kids against natural GIN infections and was economically feasible. Improved resistance was also suggested by the PEC but was not confirmed in the FEC.

  10. In vivo expression of genes in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana during infection of lepidopteran larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galidevara, Sandhya; Reineke, Annette; Koduru, Uma Devi

    2016-05-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin is commercially available as a bio insecticide. The expression of three genes previously identified to have a role in pathogenicity in in vitro studies was validated in vivo in three lepidopteran insects infected with B. bassiana. Expression of all three genes was observed in all the tested insects starting from 48 or 72h to 10d post infection corroborating their role in pathogenicity. We suggest that it is essential to test the expression of putative pathogenicity genes both in vitro and in vivo to understand their role in different insect species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcription of Biotic Stress Associated Genes in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.) Differs in Response to Cyst and Root-Knot Nematode Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Mercer, Chris F; Leung, Susanna; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The transcription of four members of the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) gene family of white clover (Trifolium repens L.), designated as Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5, was investigated at both local infection (roots) and systemic (leaf tissue) sites in white clover in response to infection with the clover root knot nematode (CRKN) Meloidogyne trifoliophila and the clover cyst nematode (CCN) Heterodera trifolii. Invasion by the CRKN resulted in a significant decrease in transcript abundance of Tr-KPI4 locally at both 4 days post-infection (dpi) and at 8 dpi, and an increase in transcription of Tr-KPI1 systemically at 8 dpi. In contrast, an increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally at 4 and 8 dpi, and an increase of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 at 8 dpi systemically was observed in response to infection with the CCN. Challenge of a resistant (R) genotype and a susceptible (S) genotype of white clover with the CCN revealed a significant increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally in the R genotype, while an increase in abundance of only Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 was observed in the S genotype, and only at 4 dpi. The transcript abundance of a member of the1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE (ACC) SYNTHASE gene family from white clover (Tr-ACS1) was significantly down-regulated locally in response to CRKN infection at 4 and 8 dpi and at 4 dpi, systemically, while abundance increased locally and systemically at 8 dpi in response to CCN challenge. Conversely, the abundance of the jasmonic acid (JA) signalling gene, CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE PROTEIN 1 from white clover (Tr-COI1) increased significantly at 8 dpi locally in response to CRKN infection, but decreased at 8 dpi in response to CCN infection. The significance of this differential regulation of transcription is discussed with respect to differences in infection strategy of the two nematode species.

  12. Legionella-protozoa-nematode interactions in aquatic biofilms and influence of Mip on Caenorhabditis elegans colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Janine; Krüger, Stefanie; Fontvieille, Dominique; Ünal, Can M; Michel, Rolf; Labrosse, Aurélie; Steinert, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaireś disease, is naturally found in aquatic habitats. The intracellular life cycle within protozoa pre-adapted the "accidental" human pathogen to also infect human professional phagocytes like alveolar macrophages. Previous studies employing the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that also nematodes might serve as a natural host for L. pneumophila. Here, we report for the first time from a natural co-habitation of L. pneumophila and environmental nematode species within biofilms of a warm water spring. In addition, we identified the protozoan species Oxytricha bifaria, Stylonychia mytilus, Ciliophrya sp. which have never been described as potential interaction partners of L. pneumophila before. Modeling and dissection of the Legionella-protozoa-nematode interaction revealed that C. elegans ruptures Legionella-infected amoebal cells and by this means incorporate the pathogen. Further infection studies revealed that the macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) protein of L. pneumophila, which is known to bind collagen IV during human lung infection, promotes the colonization of the intestinal tract of L4 larvae of C. elegans and negatively influences the life span of the worms. The Mip-negative L. pneumophila mutant exhibited a 32-fold reduced colonization rate of the nematodes after 48h when compared to the wild-type strain. Taken together, these studies suggest that nematodes may serve as natural hosts for L. pneumophila, promote their persistence and dissemination in the environment, and co-evolutionarily pre-adapt the pathogen for interactions with extracellular constituents of human lung tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Extended phenotype: nematodes turn ants into bird-dispersed fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D P; Kronauer, D J C; Boomsma, J J

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs.......A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs....

  14. Analysis of nematode motion using an improved light-scatter based system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuck S Nutting

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The detailed assessment of nematode activity and viability still remains a relatively undeveloped area of biological and medical research. Computer-based approaches to assessing the motility of larger nematode stages have been developed, yet these lack the capability to detect and analyze the more subtle and important characteristics of the motion of nematodes. There is currently a need to improved methods of assessing the viability and health of parasitic worms.We describe here a system that converts the motion of nematodes through a light-scattering system into an electrical waveform, and allows for reproducible, and wholly non-subjective, assessment of alterations in motion, as well as estimation of the number of nematode worms of different forms and sizes. Here we have used Brugia sp. microfilariae (L1, infective larvae (L3 and adults, together with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.The motion of worms in a small (200 ul volume can be detected, with the presence of immotile worms not interfering with the readings at practical levels (up to at least 500 L1 /200 ul. Alterations in the frequency of parasite movement following the application of the anti-parasitic drugs, (chloroquine and imatinib; the anti-filarial effect of the latter agent is the first demonstrated here for the first time. This system can also be used to estimate the number of parasites, and shortens the time required to estimate parasites numbers, and eliminates the need for microscopes and trained technicians to provide an estimate of microfilarial sample sizes up to 1000 parasites/ml. Alterations in the form of motion of the worms can also be depicted.This new instrument, named a "WiggleTron", offers exciting opportunities to further study nematode biology and to aid drug discovery, as well as contributing to a rapid estimate of parasite numbers in various biological samples.

  15. cGMP and NHR signaling co-regulate expression of insulin-like peptides and developmental activation of infective larvae in Strongyloides stercoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Stoltzfus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The infectious form of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis is a developmentally arrested third-stage larva (L3i, which is morphologically similar to the developmentally arrested dauer larva in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We hypothesize that the molecular pathways regulating C. elegans dauer development also control L3i arrest and activation in S. stercoralis. This study aimed to determine the factors that regulate L3i activation, with a focus on G protein-coupled receptor-mediated regulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP pathway signaling, including its modulation of the insulin/IGF-1-like signaling (IIS pathway. We found that application of the membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP potently activated development of S. stercoralis L3i, as measured by resumption of feeding, with 85.1 ± 2.2% of L3i feeding in 200 µM 8-bromo-cGMP in comparison to 0.6 ± 0.3% in the buffer diluent. Utilizing RNAseq, we examined L3i stimulated with DMEM, 8-bromo-cGMP, or the DAF-12 nuclear hormone receptor (NHR ligand Δ7-dafachronic acid (DA--a signaling pathway downstream of IIS in C. elegans. L3i stimulated with 8-bromo-cGMP up-regulated transcripts of the putative agonistic insulin-like peptide (ILP -encoding genes Ss-ilp-1 (20-fold and Ss-ilp-6 (11-fold in comparison to controls without stimulation. Surprisingly, we found that Δ7-DA similarly modulated transcript levels of ILP-encoding genes. Using the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, we demonstrated that 400 nM Δ7-DA-mediated activation (93.3 ± 1.1% L3i feeding can be blocked using this IIS inhibitor at 100 µM (7.6 ± 1.6% L3i feeding. To determine the tissues where promoters of ILP-encoding genes are active, we expressed promoter::egfp reporter constructs in transgenic S. stercoralis post-free-living larvae. Ss-ilp-1 and Ss-ilp-6 promoters are active in the hypodermis and neurons and the Ss-ilp-7 promoter is active in the

  16. Effect of tanniniferous food from Bauhinia pulchella on pasture contamination with gastrointestinal nematodes from goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Suzana G; Barros, Lilyan B G; Louvandini, Helder; Abdalla, Adibe L; Costa Junior, Livio M

    2016-02-24

    Tannin-rich plants have been examined as an alternative for controlling the gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. In vivo assays typically examine the anthelmintic activity in female fecundity and/or the adult worm burden, without considering other life-cycle stages or the impact on pasture contamination. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of tanniniferous food from Bauhinia pulchella in goats and the potential impact on pasture contamination with the infective larval stage of gastrointestinal nematodes. Sixteen cross breed Boer goats that were naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were fed tanniniferous concentrate from the leaves of B. pulchella and compared to a separate paddock of control animals without condensed tannin supplementation. A range of parasite characteristics were monitored throughout the 63 days of experimentation, including faecal egg count (FEC), egg hatching and relative numbers of hatched helminth larvae on herbage. Worm free tracer animals were used to assess the infective larval stage load of the contaminated pasture. The tanniniferous food did not reduce the combined FEC values, but egg hatching was significantly affected (p food from B. pulchella showed reduced contamination through infective larval stages. Tracer goats maintained in paddocks grazed with animals fed with tanniniferous food had lower numbers of Trichostrongylus colubriformis than did those in the control group (86 % reduction). Condensed tannin from B. pulchella showed anthelmintic activity, affected egg viability and reduced pasture contamination, which led to the reduced infection of the animals by T. colubriformis.

  17. Syphacia obvelata (Nematode, Oxyuridae) infecting laboratory mice Mus musculus (Rodentia, Muridae): phylogeny and host-parasite relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida

    2016-03-01

    Syphacia obvelata is a pinworm nematode parasite infecting man and laboratory animals in high abundance. This parasitological study was carried out during the period of March 2014-February 2015 to investigate the helminth parasites infecting the laboratory mice Mus musculus in the Animal House at Cairo University, Egypt. The prevalence of S. obvelata in M. musculus was 75.0 %. The extent of infection with S. obvelata is analyzed according to the sex of the host mice. It was shown that the prevalence of male infection was greater than female worms. Morphological characterization revealed that the present Oxyurid species possesses a rounded cephalic end with less developed lips, esophagus divided into cylindrical corpus, and globular bulb supported internally with valvular apparatus; three mamelons are located at the ventral surface with a single chitinized spicule and a gubernaculum provided with an accessory hook in males, and ovijector apparatus opens ventrally by the vulva surrounded by protruded lips in female worms. Body of the male was 0.623-1.130 (0.830 ± 0.11) mm long and 0.092-0.130 (0.110 ± 0.01) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.164-0.280 (0.210 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring and excretory pore are located at 0.035-0.132 (0.073 ± 0.01) and 0.087-0.191 (0.145 ± 0.01) mm from the anterior end, respectively, while the female measured 2.930-4.650 (3.540 ± 0.1) mm long and 0.120-0.232 (0.156 ± 0.001) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.213-0.410 (0.342 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring, excretory pore, and vulval opening are located at 0.026-0.157 (0.121 ± 0.01), 0.134-0.243 (0.195 ± 0.01), and 0.323-0.632 (0.546 ± 0.11) mm from the anterior end, respectively; eggs measured 0.120-0.139 (0.129 ± 0.001) mm long and 0.030-0.052 (0.045 ± 0.001) mm wide. It compared morphometrically with other Syphacia species described previously and showed little differences in

  18. Effects of experimental infections with larvae of Eustrongylides ignotus Jäegerskiold, 1909 and Contracaecum multipapillatum (Drasche, 1882 Baylis, 1920 in rabbits Efeitos de infecções experimentais em coelhos com larvas de Eustrongylides ignotus Jäegerskiold, 1909 e Contracaecum multipapillatum (Drasche, 1882 Baylis, 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Barros

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits were infected per os with 10 Eustrongylides ignotus L4 and with 50 Contracaecum multipapillatum L3 per rabbit, recovered from naturally infected freshwater fishes (Hoplias malabaricus in order to evaluate the patogenicity of these two nematode species in mammalian host. Two rabbits (20% infected with E. ignotus died before the fourth day post-inoculation (one after 51 and the other after 78 hours. Six rabbits (60% were inappetent until the fifth day following experimental inoculation. No clinical signs in rabbits inoculated with C. multipapillatum were observed; nevertheless, eight (80% animals were positive for this nematode species. Rabbits inoculated with E. ignotus, had gastric congestion with hematoma of the gastric wall in 60% of the cases. Peritoneum was congested in 20% of the animals with the presence of peritoneal abscess in 10% of the cases. All inoculated animals showed hyperemia of the gastric mucosa with hemorrhagic gastritis due to infections with E. ignotus. In C. multipapillatum inoculated animals, the hyperemia was followed by disruption of the epithelial mucosa in the sites of parasite attachment. In the gastric mucosa, miscellaneous leukocitary infiltrates, with multifocal necrosis reaching the submucosa in the infections with C. multipapillatum were observed under bright field microscopy. Perforating lesions in several organs, mainly in the gastric wall, pancreas and liver, always in the presence of a mixed inflammatory process, intensely fibrous, with hemorrhage and necrosis were observed in animals infected with E. ignotus.Coelhos foram infectados experimentalmente per os com 10 larvas L4 de Eustrogylides ignotus (n= 10 e 50 L3 de Contracaecum multipapillatum (n= 50 coletados em traíras (Hoplias malabaricus naturalmente parasitadas a fim de se avaliar a patogenicidade induzida por essas espécies de nematóides em mamíferos. Dois coelhos (20% infectados com E. ignotus morreram antes do quarto dia p

  19. Molecular identification of infective larvae of three species of Onchocerca found in wild-caught females of Simulium bidentatum in Japan

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    Fukuda M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wild female black flies attracted to a man or an idling automobile were collected at Oita, Japan where five cases of zoonotic onchocerciasis had occurred. Among the five Simulium species captured, 2% of Simulium bidentatum, the predominant species, were infected with filarial larvae. There were at least two types of infective larvae, types A and B, based on morphometric observation. Moreover, molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 gene revealed that types A and B were represented by a single unknown species of Onchocerca and two species, i.e., Onchocerca dewittei japonica from wild boar, the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan, and an undescribed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rRNA gene also showed that type A is likely to be an unknown species of Onchocerca. Natural infection of black flies with infective larvae of O. dewittei japonica and O. sp. was demonstrated for the first time. The present study strongly suggests that S. bidentatum plays a role as a vector in the transmission of zoonotic onchocerciasis due to O. dewittei japonica in Japan.

  20. Baylisascaris Larva Migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazacos, Kevin R.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles

    2016-05-26

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  1. Effect of entomopathogenic nematodes on Plectrodera scalator (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declan J. Fallon; Leellen F. Solter; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; James R. Cate; Michael L. McManus

    2006-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes were screened for efficacy against the cottonwood borer, Plectrodera scalator (Fabricius). Steinernema feltiae SN and S. carpocapsae All killed 58 and 50% of larvae, respectively, in Wlter paper bioassays but less than 10% in diet cup bioassays. S. glaseri NJ, S. riobrave TX, and H. indica MG-13 killed less than 10% of larvae in both assays....

  2. In vitro anthelmintic activity of five tropical legumes on the exsheathment and motility of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Angel; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; Capetillo-Leal, Concepción M

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of five tropical legume plants [Arachis pintoi CIAT 22160 (A.p. 22160), Gliricidia sepium, Cratylia argentea (C.a. Yacapani), C. argentea CIAT 22386 (C.a. 22386), C. argentea Veranera (C.a. Veranera)] against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae and the role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds in the AH effect. Lyophilized leaf extracts of each plant were evaluated using the Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay (LEIA) and the larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds in the AH effect was evaluated in both assays using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to remove tannins from the solutions. At the highest concentration (1200μg of extract/ml), A. pintoi 22160, C.a. Yacapani, C.a. Veranera and C.a. 22386 completely inhibited the exsheathment process of H. contortus (P<0.01). At the same concentration (1200μg of extract/ml), the inhibition of larval migration for C.a. 22386, C.a. Veranera and G. sepium was 66.0%, 35.9% and 39.2% (relative to the PBS control), respectively. In both bioassays (LEIA and LMIA), the AH effect shown by each plant was blocked after the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG), corroborating the role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of the infection with the nematode Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida: Trichostrongylidae on the haematological, biochemical, clinical and reproductive traits in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Rouatbi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of Haemonchus contortus infection on rams’ haematological, biochemical and clinical parameters and reproductive performances. A total number of 12 Barbarine rams (control and infected were included in the experiment. The infected group received 30 000 H. contortus third-stage larvae orally. Each ram’s ejaculate was immediately evaluated for volume, sperm cell concentration and mortality rate. At the end of the experiment (day 82 post-infection, which lasted 89 days, serial blood samples were collected in order to assess plasma testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH concentrations. There was an effect of time, infection and their interaction on haematological parameters (p < 0.001. In infected rams, haematocrit, red blood cell count and haemoglobin started to decrease from 21 days post-infection. There was an effect of time and infection for albumin. For total protein, only infection had a statistically significant effect. For glucose, only time had a statistically significant effect. Concentrations were significantly lower in infected rams compared to control animals. A significant effect of infection and time on sperm concentrations and sperm mortality was observed. The effect of infection appears in time for sperm concentrations at days 69 and 76 post-infection. Sperm mortality rate was significantly higher in infected animals at day 46 post-infection when compared to control group (p < 0.05. Finally, plasma testosterone traits (average concentration, cumulated levels during the sampling period and pulse frequency were depressed in infected rams when compared to control counterparts; none of these endocrine traits were affected for plasma LH.

  4. Venereal worms: sexually transmitted nematodes in the decorated cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, L T; Platzer, E G; Zuk, M; Giblin-Davis, R M

    2000-06-01

    The nematode, Mehdinema alii, occurs in the alimentary canal of the decorated cricket Gryllodes sigillatus. Adult nematodes occur primarily in the hindgut of mature male crickets, whereas juvenile nematodes are found in the genital chambers of mature male and female crickets. Here, we present experimental evidence for the venereal transmission of M. alii in G. sigillatus. Infectivity experiments were conducted to test for transmission via oral-fecal contamination, same-sex contact, and copulation. The infective dauers of the nematode are transferred from male to female crickets during copulation. Adult female crickets harboring infective dauers subsequently transfer the nematode to their next mates. Thus, M. alii is transmitted sexually during copulation.

  5. Control of Pathogenicity Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne Javanica by Earthworm Eisenia Feoetida-Based Products in Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rostami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biocontrol of nematode agents in order to decrease the hazardous impacts of chemical pesticide application including problems of public health and environmental pollution is apriority. In this study, solid (Vermicompost and liquid products (Liquid Vermicompost, Vermiwash and Coelomic fluidof the earthworm species Eisenia fetida were tested against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in greenhouse conditions. Materials and Methods: In this study, Solid (Vermicompost and Liquid products(Wormtea, Vermiwash, Coelomic fluid erthworms (Eisenia foetida were tested against Meloidogyne javanica and also the effect of Vermicompost was evaluated on Pathogenicity of various nematode initial inoculum in two stage greenhouse conditions. Earthworm-based products (Vermicompost, Wormtea, Vermiwash and Coelomic fluid were added to tomato pots. Various treatments of liquid as well as solid products and their combination were used in the greenhouse trial. The first Stage greenhouse experiment- Tomato seeds grown in 2 kg sterilized soil. In the treatments having Vermicompost, pots incorporated with 200 gr of this compost homogeneously mixed with soil. After plants reached at two leaf stage, to study the effects of liquid products (Wormtea, Vermiwash, and Coelomic fluid they added to the pots (500cc along with the irrigation water every week and after of 4 leaf stage, 5000 nematode eggs and larva inoculated to the tomato host plants. 90 days after nematode inoculation, plant and nematode growth indices separately measured and compared. The experiment conducted based on completely randomized design having four replicates. The second stage greenhouse experiment- Tomato seeds grown in 2 kg sterilized soil. In the treatments, pots incorporated with 200 gr of this compost homogeneously mixed with soil. After of 4 leaf stage, 0,1000,2000,4000 and 10000 nematode eggs and larva inoculated to the tomato host plants. 90 days after nematode inoculation, plant

  6. First record of molluscs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lima Caldeira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeking the identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as a potential etiological agent of three clinical cases of eosinophilic meningitis, mollusc specimens were collected in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The snails were identified as Sarasinula marginata (45 specimens, Subulina octona (157, Achatina fulica (45 and Bradybaena similaris (23. Larvae obtained were submitted to polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnosis. Their genetic profile were corresponded to A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with third-stage larvae, developed menigoencephalitis, and parasites became sexually mature in the lungs. Additionally, larvae obtained from A. fulica snails, from São Vicente, state of São Paulo, also showed genetic profiles of this nematode. This is the first record of Brazilian molluscs infected with this nematode species.

  7. Nematode CLE signaling in Arabidopsis requires CLAVATA2 and CORYNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ESR(CLE)-like effector proteins. These proteins have been shown to act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful nematode infection; however, the receptors for nematode CLE-like peptides have not been identified. Her...

  8. Molecular mechanisms of nematode-nematophagous microbe interactions: basis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ji, Xinglai; Niu, Xuemei; Yang, Jinkui; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies.

  9. Isolation and identification of entomopathogenic nematodes from citrus orchards in South Africa and their biocontrol potential against false codling moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Antoinette P; Knoetze, Rinus; Moore, Sean D

    2011-10-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the diversity and frequency of endemic entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in citrus orchards in the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa. The main aim of the survey was to obtain nematodes as biological control agents against false codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta, a key pest of citrus in South Africa. From a total of 202 samples, 35 (17%) tested positive for the presence of EPN. Of these, four isolates (11%) were found to be steinernematids, while 31 (89%) were heterorhabditids. Sequencing and characterisation of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was used to identify all nematode isolates to species level. Morphometrics, morphology and biology of the infective juvenile (IJ) and the first-generation male were used to support molecular identification and characterisation. The Steinernema spp. identified were Steinernema khoisanae, Steinernema yirgalemense and Steinernema citrae. This is the first report of S. yirgalemense in South Africa, while for S. citrae it is the second new steinernematid to be identified from South Africa. Heterorhabditis species identified include Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis zealandica and an unknown species of Heterorhabditis. Laboratory bioassays, using 24-well bioassay disks, have shown isolates of all six species found during the survey, to be highly virulent against the last instar of FCM larvae. S. yirgalemense, at a concentration of 50IJs/FCM larva caused 100% mortality and 74% at a concentration of 200IJs/pupa. Using a sand bioassay, S. yirgalemense gave 93% control of cocooned pupae and emerging moths at a concentration of 20IJs/cm(2). This is the first report on the potential use of EPN to control the soil-borne life stages of FCM, which includes larvae, pupae and emerging moths. It was shown that emerging moths were infected with nematodes, which may aid in control and dispersal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Reindeer as hosts for nematode parasites of sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabok, J T; Oksanen, A; Nieminen, M; Rydzik, A; Uggla, A; Waller, P J

    2006-03-31

    The reindeer husbandry range of Scandinavia overlaps with sheep, goat, and cattle pastures. The aim of this study was to determine whether reindeer are suitable hosts for ovine or bovine nematode parasites, and thus may spread these parasites into the reindeer husbandry regions. To render worm-free, twelve 4-month-old male reindeer calves, six lambs, and six bovine calves were given ivermectin at 200 microg/kg body weight. Five weeks post-treatment, six reindeer calves were each artificially dosed with 10,000 third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from sheep, and an additional six reindeer with L3 derived from cattle. Lambs and bovine calves received the same dose of ovine and bovine larvae as reindeer, from the same larval source, respectively. Faecal samples collected on five occasions after the larval dosing revealed that by the fourth week, all reindeer calves, lambs, and bovine calves were infected. Animals were slaughtered on days 40 (reindeer) or 47 (lambs and bovine calves) after the larval dosing. Reindeer calves were most susceptible to L3 derived from sheep. The overall mean intensity of Haemochus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, and Teladorsagia circumcincta, did not differ between reindeer and sheep; however, early fourth-stage larvae of H. contortus were more abundant in reindeer (p = 0.002). The establishment of bovine-derived Ostertagia ostertagi was similar in reindeer (62%) and bovine calves (57%), but larval inhibition was much higher in reindeer (91%, p bovine derived Cooperia oncophora was recorded in reindeer calves (2%) compared with bovine calves (59%). These results show that young reindeer are susceptible hosts to the important gastrointestinal parasites of sheep (T. circumcincta, H. contortus) and cattle (O. ostertagi), as well as being a suitable host for T. axei.

  11. Role of the eosinophil in serum-mediated adherence of equine leukocytes to infective larvae of Strongylus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klei, T R; Chapman, M R; Dennis, V A

    1992-06-01

    The adherence of equine leukocytes to Strongylus vulgaris infective larvae (L3) in the presence of normal and immune sera was examined in vitro. Immune sera promoted adherence of buffy coat cells from ponies with S. vulgaris-induced eosinophilia (eosinophilic ponies) to S. vulgaris L3. However, eosinophils in the buffy coat cells were the predominant adherent cell type. Studies using leukocyte populations enriched for eosinophils, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells from eosinophilic ponies support the observations using buffy coat cells that eosinophils were the main effector cells. Adherent eosinophils from eosinophilic ponies immobilized L3. Neutrophils were less adherent and did not immobilize L3. Mononuclear cells failed to adhere. Normal eosinophils from strongly-naive ponies did not immobilize S. vulgaris L3 in the presence of immune serum, suggesting the in vivo activation of eosinophils in eosinophilic animals. Immune serum promoted less adherence of buffy coat cells to Strongylus edentatus or mixed species of Cyathostominae L3, suggesting that the serum-mediated cellular adherence phenomenon was species-specific. Normal serum promoted less cellular adherence to S. vulgaris L3 than immune serum. The adherence mediated by normal serum was removed by heat inactivation, suggesting that this nonspecific phenomenon was a complement-mediated reaction. Immune globulins promoted reactions similar to that seen using heat-inactivated immune serum, whereas normal globulins did not promote adherence. Immune globulins absorbed with pieces of S. vulgaris adult worms did not promote the adherence of buffy coat cells to S. vulgaris L3, suggesting that adult and L3 stages share antigens important in this phenomenon that resulted in the removal of specific adherence antibody during absorption.

  12. Protective immune responses with trickle infections of third-stage filarial larvae of Wuchereria bancrofti in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekariah, G R; Monteiro, Y M; Netto, A; Deshpande, L; Subrahmanyam, D

    1989-01-01

    Groups of inbred BALB/c mice were immunized with trickle doses of 20 live third-stage larvae (L3) of Wuchereria bancrofti each subcutaneously or with 150 microg of sonicated microfilarial antigens emulsified in Freund's adjuvant intramuscularly. An antibody response was distinctly seen after seven trickle doses of L3 and following with the sonicated microfilarial immunization. Due to the non-permissive nature of inbred mice to W. bancrofti infections, a novel immunization approach was adopted using appropriate age- and sex-matched controls. The anti-L3 response in terms of antibody-dependent cell-mediated adhesion and killing was assessed in the immunized animals by implanting live L3 in micropore chambers subcutaneously. About 75% L3 W. bancrofti were affected in animals sensitized with seven trickle doses of L3. When sensitizations were continued, as high as 92% of L3 were seen affected with ten trickle doses compared with 27% in age-matched controls. Immunization with sonicated microfilarial antigen affected about 70% of L3 as opposed to only 12% in controls. A positive correlation was observed in the antibody response with protectivity. This method of induction and assessment of the anti-L3 response involving a small set of animals has not only allowed quantification of affected L3 but has also enabled us to visualize larval conditions in immunologically activated animals. The micropore chamber system, would be useful in monitoring the induction of protective immune response against W. bancrofti in inbred mice. Experimentation on large numbers of animals is required to elucidate further the response of mice towards L3 and also to pinpoint the putative protective antigens. PMID:12412764

  13. Efficacy of maslinic acid and fenbendazole on muscle larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Gcanga, L; Kamau, J

    2016-01-01

    Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by nematode species of the genus Trichinella. Anthelmintics targeting the intestinal adults and muscle-dwelling larvae of Trichinella spp. have been tested, with limited success. This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of maslinic acid and fenbendazole on muscle larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis in laboratory rats. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats, with an average weight of 270 g and 180 g for males and females respectively, were infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Infected rats were randomly assigned to three groups which were subjected to single treatments with each of maslinic acid, fenbendazole and a combination of both on day 25 post-infection (pi), and three groups which were subjected to double treatments with each of these drugs and a combination on days 25 and 32 pi. The untreated control group received a placebo. In single-treatment groups, the efficacy of each treatment, measured by rate of reduction in muscle larvae, was significant (P0.05). We conclude that the efficacy of maslinic acid against larval stages of T. zimbabwensis in rats was comparable to that of fenbendazole, with no side-effects observed, making maslinic acid a promising anthelmintic against larval stages of Trichinella species.

  14. Annual Survey of Horsehair Worm Cysts in Northern Taiwan, with Notes on a Single Seasonal Infection Peak in Chironomid Larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Chung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The life cycle of the freshwater horsehair worm typically includes a free-living phase (adult, egg, larva) and a multiple-host parasitic phase (aquatic paratenic host, terrestrial definitive host). Such a life cycle involving water and land can improve energy flow in riparian ecosystems; however, its temporal dynamics in nature have rarely been investigated. This study examined seasonal infection with cysts in larval Chironominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in northern Taiwan. In the larval chironomids, cysts of 3 horsehair worm species were identified. The cysts of the dominant species were morphologically similar to those of Chordodes formosanus. Infection with these cysts increased suddenly and peaked 2 mo after the reproductive season of the adult horsehair worms. Although adult C. formosanus emerged several times in a year, only 1 distinct infection peak was detected in September in the chironomid larvae. Compared with the subfamily Chironominae, samples from the subfamilies Tanypodinae and Orthocladiinae were less parasitized. This indicates that the feeding behavior of the chironomid host likely affects horsehair worm cyst infections; however, bioconcentration in predatory chironomids was not detected.

  15. Characterization of susceptibility and resistance responses to potato cyst nematode (Globodera spp.) infection of tomato lines in the absence and presence of the broad-spectrum nematode resistance Hero gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Miroslaw; Avrova, Anna; Jupowicz, Justyna; Phillips, Mark S; Ernst, Karin; Kumar, Amar

    2005-02-01

    The tomato Hero A gene is the only member of a multigene family that confers a high level (>80%) of resistance to all the economically important pathotypes of potato cyst nematode (PCN) species Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida. Although the resistance levels of transgenic tomato lines were similar to those of the tomato line LA1792 containing the introgressed Hero multigene family, transgenic potato plants expressing the tomato Hero A gene are not resistant to PCNs. Comparative microscopy studies of in vitro infected roots of PCN-susceptible tomato cv. Money Maker, the resistant breeding line LA1792, and transgenic line L10 with Ro1 pathotype have revealed no statistically significant difference in the number of juveniles invading roots. However, syncytia (specialized feeding cells) induced in LA1792 and L10 roots mostly were found to have degenerated a few days after their induction, and a few surviving syncytia were able to support only the development of males rather than females. Thus, the ratio between males and females was biased towards males on LA1792 and L10 roots. A series of changes occur in resistant plants leading to formation of a layer of necrotic cells separating the syncytium from stellar conductive tissues and this is followed by degradation of the syncytium. Although the Hero A gene is expressed in all tissues, including roots, stems, leaves, and flower buds, its expression is upregulated in roots in response to PCN infection. Moreover, the expression profiles of the Hero A correlates with the timing of death of the syncytium.

  16. Signaling in Parasitic Nematodes: Physicochemical Communication Between Host and Parasite and Endogenous Molecular Transduction Pathways Governing Worm Development and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, James B

    2016-12-01

    Signaling or communication between host and parasite may occur over relatively long ranges to enable host finding and acquisition by infective parasitic nematode larvae. Innate behaviors in infective larvae transmitted from the soil that enhance the likelihood of host contact, such as negative geotaxis and hypermotility, are likely mediated by mechanoreception and neuromuscular signaling. Host cues such as vibration of the substratum, elevated temperature, exhaled CO 2 , and other volatile odorants are perceived by mechanosensory and chemosensory neurons of the amphidial complex. Beyond this, the molecular systems that transduce these external cues within the worm are unknown at this time. Overall, the signal transduction mechanisms that regulate switching between dauer and continuous reproductive development in Caenorhabditis elegans , and doubtless other free-living nematodes, have provided a useful framework for testing hypotheses about how the morphogenesis and development of infective parasitic nematode larvae and the lifespan of adult parasites are regulated. In C. elegans , four major signal transduction pathways, G protein-coupled receptor signaling, insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling, TGFβ-like signaling and steroid-nuclear hormone receptor signaling govern the switch between dauer and continuous development and regulate adult lifespan. Parasitic nematodes appear to have conserved the functions of G-protein-coupled signaling, insulin-like signaling and steroid-nuclear hormone receptor signaling to regulate larval development before and during the infective process. By contrast, TGFβ-like signaling appears to have been adapted for some other function, perhaps modulation of the host immune response. Of the three signal transduction pathways that appear to regulate development in parasitic nematodes, steroid-nuclear hormone signaling is the most straightforward to manipulate with administered small molecules and may form the basis of new

  17. Infectivity of Oryctes Nudivirus Produced on Cell Culture Dsir Ha-1179 Against Larvae and Its Effects on Feeding of Neonates of Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes Rhinoceros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ain Farhah Ros Saidon Khudri; Wahizatul Afzan Azmi; Ramle Moslim; Norman Kamarudin; Siti Ramlah Ahmad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Oryctes nudivirus (OrNV) is a classical biocontrol agent for a major oil palm insect pest the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros. The infectivity of three Malaysian indigenous types of OrNV types A, B and C were tested on larvae and neonates. On larvae, the peroral inoculation test technique indicated that the highest mortality of 100 % was achieved using type A produced from cell culture DSIR-HA-1179, while the highest infectivity of 41.7 % was recorded for type A prepared from infected guts. No differences in infectivity were observed on other treatments, which ranged from 13.1 % to 41.7 %. In the substrate contamination inoculation test technique, results showed that the level of infectivity was even lower in all OrNV treatments, ranging as low as 6.7 % to only 15.0 %. Low infectivity was mainly due to inactivation of virus inocula in the larval food substrates. Based on the results for both inoculation methods, the OrNV type C prepared from cell culture DSIR-HA-1179 was found more effective in controlling the L3 larvae than the other types of OrNV. The impact of OrNV infection on food consumption by the neonates was studied. The feeding of inoculated neonates with OrNV reduced rapidly, especially at the early stage of the experiment between eight days after treatment (DAT) to 16 DAT. At this period, the food consumption by all tested OrNV was rapidly reduced and maintained low until the experiment ended at 60 DAT. The highest feeding reduction rate was on neonates treated by type A (-0.074x) followed by neonates treated by type C (-0.053x) and type B (-0.035x). Therefore, it was suggested that besides on highly virulent, the selection of OrNV for field release should also based on high reduction rate on food consumption by the infected insects on plant hosts. (author)

  18. Parasitic Nematode Interactions with Mammals and Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasmer, D.P.; Goverse, A.; Smant, G.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent

  19. Epidemiological studies of nematodes in fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.F.; Butt, K.; Qureshi, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Three hundred fresh water fishes of six species were collected from six different fish farms of Lahore for the prevalence of nematodes. Out of 300 fishes examined, 12 were found to be infected with the helminthes, majority of them were isolated from the stomach and intestines. The following two species of nematodes were recorded; Capillaria spp. and Eustrongylides spp. The overall prevalence of intestinal nematodes was recorded as 4%(12/300). The prevalence of nematodes was recorded on monthly basis which ranged from 0-8%. The highest prevalence of nematodes was 8% (4/50) during March, while the lowest prevalence was noted in June 0%.Singharee (Sperata sawari) showed the maximum infestation of nematodes of 8% (4/50), whereas in Silver Carp (Hypopthaimichthys molitrix) minimum prevalence of nematode (0%) was noted. The prevalence of different nematode in a particular fish specie was also recorded, and it was stated that overall prevalence of capillaria spp. was 6% in Rahu (Labeo rohita) and Saul (Channa marullius). Similarly overall infestation of Eustrongylides sp. was recorded as 4% in Singharee (Sperata sawari) and Silver carp (Hypopthaimichthys molitrix). The nematode intensity might be linked with the genetic makeup, intestinal vigor, and other managemental and environmental factors. (author)

  20. Effects of anthelmintic treatment and feed supplementation on grazing Tuli weaner steers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Magaya

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Tuli cattle and the effect of dietary protein supplementation and anthelmintic treatment on productivity in young growing cattle. Forty steers with an average age of 18 months were divided into 4 groups; 1 fenbendazole (slow release bolus and cottonseed meal (FCSM group, 2 fenbendazole (FBZ group, 3 cottonseed meal (CSM group and 4 control (no cottonseed meal and no fenbendazole (control group. Performance parameters measured included wormeggs per gram of faeces (EPG, packed cell volume (PCV, albumin and live-weight gain. Results showed that faecal worm egg counts were lower and PCV was higher in the FCSM and FBZ groups than in the CSM and control groups (P < 0.01. Weight gains were higher in the CSMand FCSM groups than in the FBZ and control groups (P < 0.05. The cost benefits of anthelmintic treatment and dietary supplementation were apparent in this study. The improved growth performance of the FCSM, FBZ and CSM groups reflected a financial gain over the controls on termination of the study. The dominant genera of gastrointestinal nematodes on faecal culture, pasture larval counts and necropsy were Cooperia and Haemonchus. The incidences of Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum and Bunostomum were low.

  1. Evaluation of follow-up of therapy with fenbendazole incorporated into stabilized liposomes and immunomodulator glucan in mice infected with Toxocara canis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrckova, G; Velebný, S; Obwaller, A; Auer, H; Kogan, G

    2007-01-01

    Anthelmintic activity of benzimidazole carbamate anthelmintics is low against dormant Toxocara canis larvae during late infections in paratenic hosts. The present study was conducted to examine the efficacy of pure fenbendazole, or drug incorporated into sterically stabilized liposomes (SL-FBZ) administered to T. canis-infected mice alone and after its co-administration with the immunomodulator (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan against larvae localized in muscles and brains. Therapy with either drug forms (in total 250 mg/kg in 10 doses) commenced on day 28 post-infection (p.i.) and the efficacy of treatment, examined on day 30 after the last dose of drug, was the highest in groups of mice treated with SL-FBZ in combination with glucan (89.5+/-5.8% in the muscles, 66.1+/-8.1% in brains). During 56 days of follow-up after termination of therapy, serum levels of anti-TES IgG antibodies, circulating IgG-TES immune complexes (CIC) as well as IgG antibodies to the most immunogenic part of recombinant myosin antigen of T. canis larvae were investigated. In contrast to anti-TES IgG antibodies, levels of CIC and anti-myosin antibodies were in the linear correlation with the efficacy of treatments beginning from day 38 post-therapy. We also showed that the serum levels of CIC as well as anti-myosin IgG antibodies seem to be the suitable serological markers for the monitoring of progress in larval destruction and TES resorption from the tissues.

  2. Control of Vibrio harveyi Infection in Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus pelagicus Larvae by the Gut Isolated Lactic Acid Bacteria under Challenge Bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah Dad Talpur*§, Abdul Jabbar Memon§, Muhammad Iqbal Khan§, Muhammad Ikhwanuddin, Muhammad Mhd Danish Daniel2 and Ambok Bolong Abol-Munafi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from the gut of female Portunus pelagicus with inhibitory activity against shellfish pathogens and validation as probiotics via small scale in vivo model were tested for hatchery trials pathogen probiotic assay. Vibrio harveyi previously isolated from the gut of P. pelagicus, was added at 104 cfu mL-1 to test larvae for 10h. Test (LAB isolates were inoculated at a concentration of 106 cfu mL-1 to pathogen addition aquaria once and until day four during the experiment. 20 larvae/liter were stocked and larval survival was determined over five days. Lactobacillus plantarum did produce highest survival 28.33% to 48.33% in one day and daily inoculations respectively and in probiotic control it produced 58.33% survival followed by L. rhamnosus 55% and L. salivarius 53.33% respectively over non inoculated control 43.33% and 0% survival in V. harveyi inoculated control. However, Weissella confusa and W. cibaria did show less probiotic activity compared to rests of three LAB isolates. In the present study, it was determined that three LAB probiotics were effective in hatchery trials challenge assays which may significantly control the infection and increased the survival of larvae.

  3. Investigating the Effect of Different Treatments with Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Fate of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grounta, Athena; Harizanis, Paschalis; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2016-01-01

    The use of Galleria mellonella as a model host to elucidate microbial pathogenesis and search for novel drugs and therapies has been well appreciated over the past years. However, the effect of microorganisms with functional appeal in the specific host remains scarce. The present study investigates the effect of treatment with selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic potential, as potential protective agents by using live or heat-killed cells at 6 and 24 h prior to infection with Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus or as potential therapeutic agents by using cell-free supernatants (CFS) after infection with the same pathogens. The employed LAB strains were Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282 (isolated from table olive fermentations) along with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (inhabitant of human intestinal tract). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted while the pathogen's persistence in the larval hemolymph was determined by microbiological analysis. It was observed that the time (6 or 24 h) and type (live or heat-killed cells) of challenge period with LAB prior to infection greatly affected the survival of infected larvae. The highest decrease of L. monocytogenes population in the hemolymph was observed in groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells by an average of 1.8 log units compared to non challenged larvae for strains B281 (p 0.0322), B282 (p 0.0325), and LGG (p 0.0356). In the case of S. aureus infection, the population of the pathogen decreased in the hemolymph by 1 log units at 8 h post infection in the groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells of strains B281 (p 0.0161) and B282 (p 0.0096) and by 1.8 log units in groups challenged with heat-killed cells of LGG strain (p 0.0175). Further use of CFS of each LAB strain did not result in any significant prolonged survival but interestingly it resulted in pronounced decrease of L. monocytogenes in the hemolymph at 24 h and 48 h after infection by

  4. Investigating the Effect of Different Treatments with Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Fate of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Grounta

    Full Text Available The use of Galleria mellonella as a model host to elucidate microbial pathogenesis and search for novel drugs and therapies has been well appreciated over the past years. However, the effect of microorganisms with functional appeal in the specific host remains scarce. The present study investigates the effect of treatment with selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB with probiotic potential, as potential protective agents by using live or heat-killed cells at 6 and 24 h prior to infection with Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus or as potential therapeutic agents by using cell-free supernatants (CFS after infection with the same pathogens. The employed LAB strains were Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282 (isolated from table olive fermentations along with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (inhabitant of human intestinal tract. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted while the pathogen's persistence in the larval hemolymph was determined by microbiological analysis. It was observed that the time (6 or 24 h and type (live or heat-killed cells of challenge period with LAB prior to infection greatly affected the survival of infected larvae. The highest decrease of L. monocytogenes population in the hemolymph was observed in groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells by an average of 1.8 log units compared to non challenged larvae for strains B281 (p 0.0322, B282 (p 0.0325, and LGG (p 0.0356. In the case of S. aureus infection, the population of the pathogen decreased in the hemolymph by 1 log units at 8 h post infection in the groups challenged for 6 h with heat-killed cells of strains B281 (p 0.0161 and B282 (p 0.0096 and by 1.8 log units in groups challenged with heat-killed cells of LGG strain (p 0.0175. Further use of CFS of each LAB strain did not result in any significant prolonged survival but interestingly it resulted in pronounced decrease of L. monocytogenes in the hemolymph at 24 h and 48 h after

  5. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in field and laboratory trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, D; Addison, M F; Malan, A P

    2016-09-01

    Three commercially available entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) strains (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hb1 and Hb2) and two local species (S. jeffreyense and S. yirgalemense) were evaluated for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). In field spray trials, the use of S. jeffreyense resulted in the most effective control (67%), followed by H. bacteriophora (Hb1) (42%) and S. yirgalemense (41%). Laboratory bioassays using spray application in simulated field conditions indicate S. feltiae to be the most virulent (67%), followed by S. yirgalemense (58%). A laboratory comparison of the infection and penetration rate of the different strains showed that, at 14°C, all EPN strains resulted in slower codling moth mortality than they did at 25°C. After 48 h, 98% mortality was recorded for all species involved. However, the washed codling moth larvae, cool-treated (at 14°C) with S. feltiae or S. yirgalemense, resulted in 100% mortality 24 h later at room temperature, whereas codling moth larvae treated with the two H. bacteriophora strains resulted in 68% and 54% control, respectively. At 14°C, S. feltiae had the highest average penetration rate of 20 IJs/larva, followed by S. yirgalemense, with 14 IJs/larva. At 25°C, S. yirgalemense had the highest penetration rate, with 39 IJs/larva, followed by S. feltiae, with 9 IJs/larva. This study highlights the biocontrol potential of S. jeffreyense, as well as confirming that S. feltiae is a cold-active nematode, whereas the other three EPN isolates tested prefer warmer temperatures.

  6. Role of lipids in the transmission of the infective stage (L3) of Strongylus vulgaris (Nematoda: Strongylida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medica, D L; Sukhdeo, M V

    1997-10-01

    Infective larvae (L3) of Strongylus vulgaris have limited energy stores for host finding and for infection. For transmission to occur, the larvae must have sufficient energy to (a) migrate onto grass, where they are ingested by their equine host (host finding), and (b) penetrate into the host gut. This study is designed to test the hypothesis that L3 larvae of S. vulgaris partition their energy stores between locomotory activity (used in host finding) and infection activity (penetration). Chronic locomotory activity was stimulated by incubating S. vulgaris L3 larvae at a constant temperature (38 C). After 8 days of treatment, locomotory activity ceased (exhaustion). Exhausted L3 larvae had significantly decreased total lipid when compared to controls (P vulgaris L3 larvae are comprised of 9 fatty acids, some of which are depleted in exhausted worms (14:0, 14:1, 16:0, 16:1, 18:1, 18:2), whereas others (18:0, 20:4, 24:0) remain unchanged. These data suggest that specific fatty acids provide the energy source for locomotory activity in S. vulgaris. Exhausted L3 larvae were also less able to penetrate host cecal tissue in in vitro penetration assays when compared to controls (P vulgaris L3 larvae partition their energy stores between host-finding and infection activities. A comparison of lipid storage profiles in the L3 larvae of 4 nematode species with similar transmission strategies (S. vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, Strongylus equinus, and Haemonchus contortus) revealed similarities in the fatty acid composition of these species. These data suggest a relationship between transmission patterns and energy storage strategies in the L3 larvae of nematode parasites of vertebrates.

  7. Non-nematode-derived double-stranded RNAs induce profound phenotypic changes in Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida infective juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Johnathan J; McMaster, Steven; Johnston, Michael J; Kerr, Rachel; Fleming, Colin C; Maule, Aaron G

    2009-11-01

    Nine non-nematode-derived double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), designed for use as controls in RNA interference (RNAi) screens of neuropeptide targets, were found to induce aberrant phenotypes and an unexpected inhibitory effect on motility of root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita J2s following 24h soaks in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA; a simple soaking procedure which we have found to elicit profound knockdown of neuronal targets in Globodera pallida J2s. We have established that this inhibitory phenomenon is both time- and concentration-dependent, as shorter 4h soaks in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA had no negative impact on M. incognita J2 stage worms, yet a 10-fold increase in concentration to 1 mg/ml for the same 4h time period had an even greater qualitative and quantitative impact on worm phenotype and motility. Further, a 10-fold increase of J2s soaked in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA did not significantly alter the observed phenotypic aberration, which suggests that dsRNA uptake of the soaked J2s is not saturated under these conditions. This phenomenon was not initially observed in potato cyst nematode G. pallida J2s, which displayed no aberrant phenotype, or diminution of migratory activity in response to the same 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA 24h soaks. However, a 10-fold increase in dsRNA to 1mg/ml was found to elicit comparable irregularity of phenotype and inhibition of motility in G. pallida, to that initially observed in M. incognita following a 24h soak in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA. Again, a 10-fold increase in the number of G. pallida J2s soaked in the same volume of 1 mg/ml dsRNA preparation did not significantly affect the observed phenotypic deviation. We do not observe any global impact on transcript abundance in either M. incognita or G. pallida J2s following 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA soaks, as revealed by reverse transcriptase-PCR and quantitative PCR data. This study aims to raise awareness of a phenomenon which we observe consistently and which we believe signifies a more expansive deficiency in our knowledge and

  8. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5471

    OpenAIRE

    Buglione, Celso Carlos; UFSC; Vieira, Felipe do Nascimento; UFSC; Mouriño, José Luiz Pedreira; UFSC; Pedrotti, Fabiola Santiago; UFSC; Jatoba, Adolfo; UFSC; Martins, Maurício Laterça; UFSC

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and the effects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as:...

  9. Evolutionary Expansion of WRKY Gene Family in Banana and Its Expression Profile during the Infection of Root Lesion Nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthanthiram, Backiyarani; Subbaraya, Uma; Marimuthu Somasundram, Saraswathi; Muthu, Mayilvaganan

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors orchestrate the reprogrammed expression of the complex network of defense genes at various biotic and abiotic stresses. Within the last 96 million years, three rounds of Musa polyploidization events had occurred from selective pressure causing duplication of MusaWRKYs with new activities. Here, we identified a total of 153 WRKY transcription factors available from the DH Pahang genome. Based on their phylogenetic relationship, the MusaWRKYs available with complete gene sequence were classified into the seven common WRKY sub-groups. Synteny analyses data revealed paralogous relationships, with 17 MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from the duplication events that had occurred within the Musa lineage. We also found 15 other MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from much older duplication events that had occurred along Arecales and Poales lineage of commelinids. Based on the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates, the fate of duplicated MusaWRKY genes was predicted to have undergone sub-functionalization in which the duplicated gene copies retain a subset of the ancestral gene function. Also, to understand the regulatory roles of MusaWRKY during a biotic stress, Illumina sequencing was performed on resistant and susceptible cultivars during the infection of root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae. The differential WRKY gene expression analysis in nematode resistant and susceptible cultivars during challenged and unchallenged conditions had distinguished: 1) MusaWRKYs participating in general banana defense mechanism against P.coffeae common to both susceptible and resistant cultivars, 2) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the pathogen survival as suppressors of plant triggered immunity, 3) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the host defense as activators of plant triggered immunity and 4) cultivar specific MusaWRKY regulation. Mainly, MusaWRKY52, -69 and -92 are found to be P.coffeae specific and can act as activators or repressors in a

  10. Evolutionary Expansion of WRKY Gene Family in Banana and Its Expression Profile during the Infection of Root Lesion Nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Kaliyappan

    Full Text Available The WRKY family of transcription factors orchestrate the reprogrammed expression of the complex network of defense genes at various biotic and abiotic stresses. Within the last 96 million years, three rounds of Musa polyploidization events had occurred from selective pressure causing duplication of MusaWRKYs with new activities. Here, we identified a total of 153 WRKY transcription factors available from the DH Pahang genome. Based on their phylogenetic relationship, the MusaWRKYs available with complete gene sequence were classified into the seven common WRKY sub-groups. Synteny analyses data revealed paralogous relationships, with 17 MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from the duplication events that had occurred within the Musa lineage. We also found 15 other MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from much older duplication events that had occurred along Arecales and Poales lineage of commelinids. Based on the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates, the fate of duplicated MusaWRKY genes was predicted to have undergone sub-functionalization in which the duplicated gene copies retain a subset of the ancestral gene function. Also, to understand the regulatory roles of MusaWRKY during a biotic stress, Illumina sequencing was performed on resistant and susceptible cultivars during the infection of root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae. The differential WRKY gene expression analysis in nematode resistant and susceptible cultivars during challenged and unchallenged conditions had distinguished: 1 MusaWRKYs participating in general banana defense mechanism against P.coffeae common to both susceptible and resistant cultivars, 2 MusaWRKYs that may aid in the pathogen survival as suppressors of plant triggered immunity, 3 MusaWRKYs that may aid in the host defense as activators of plant triggered immunity and 4 cultivar specific MusaWRKY regulation. Mainly, MusaWRKY52, -69 and -92 are found to be P.coffeae specific and can act as activators or

  11. Persistence of specific antibody response in different experimental infections of mice with Toxocara canis larvae Persistência da resposta humoral em camundongos experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Toxocara canis

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    Pedro Paulo Chieffi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Toxocara antibody production and persistence were studied in experimental infections of BALB/c mice, according to three different schedules: Group I (GI - 25 mice infected with 200 T. canis eggs in a single dose; Group II (GII 25 mice infected with 150 T. canis eggs given in three occasions, 50 in the 1st, 50 in the 5th and 50 in the 8th days; Group III (GIII - 25 mice also infected with 150 T. canis eggs, in three 50 eggs portions given in the 1st, 14th and 28th days. A 15 mice control group (GIV was maintained without infection. In the 30th, 50th, 60th, 75th, 105th and 180th post-infection days three mice of the GI, GII and GIII groups and two mice of the control group had been sacrificed and exsanguinated for sera obtention. In the 360th day the remainder mice of the four groups were, in the same way, killed and processed. The obtained sera were searched for the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies by an ELISA technique, using T. canis larvae excretion-secretion antigen. In the GI and GII, but not in the GIII, anti-Toxocara antibodies had been found, at least, up to the 180th post-infection day. The GIII only showed anti-Toxocara antibodies, at significant level, in the 30th post-infection day.Estudou-se a cinética de anticorpos anti-Toxocara em camundongos BALB/c infectados experimentalmente segundo três esquemas: Grupo I (GI: 25 camundongos infectados com dose única de 200 ovos embrionados de T. canis; grupo II (GII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, divididos em três doses de 50 ovos, administrados no 1º, 5º e 8º dias; Grupo III (GIII: 25 camundongos infectados com 150 ovos embrionados de T. canis, administrados em três doses de 50 ovos no 1º, 14º e 28º dias. Um grupo de 15 camundongos foi mantido nas mesmas condições, porém sem infecção, constituindo o grupo controle (GIV. No 30º, 50º, 60º, 75º, 105º e 180º dias pós-infecção três camundongos dos grupos GI, GII e GIII e dois do

  12. Identification of Virulence Factors in Nematode-Trapping Fungi - Insights from Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Karl-Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are soil-living organisms with the unique ability to capture and infect free-living nematodes. The interest in studying these fungi arises from their potential use as biological control agents for plant- and animal-parasitic nematodes. To enter the parasitic stage, nematode-trapping fungi develop different kinds of trapping structures. In order to understand more about the evolution of parasitism in the nematode-trapping fungi and to identify virulence factors in these...

  13. Biocontrol: Bacillus penetrans and Related Parasites of Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sayre, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus penetrans Mankau, 1975, previously described as Duboscqia penetrans Thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. This review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. The morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. Taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, partic...

  14. Evaluation of the Tolerance of Some Citrus Rootstocks to Citrus Nematode in Greenhouse (Tylenchulus semipenetrans

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    Y. Mohammad Alian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Citrus nematode is one of the most important damaging nematodes of citrus trees, spreading widely in most areas under citrus planting causing dieback, the gradual decline of trees and crop decrease in citrus orchards. Eighty citrus cultivars and species are sensitive to this nematode. From other nematode hosts, we can refer to olive, fig, medlar, persimmon, pear and grapevine. Surveys Full filled in Mazandaran province is indicative of the widespread of this nematode in citrus horticulture and the level of infection in some samples is so high, thus it is necessary to use different ways of controlling this parasite. Materials and Methods: This research was carried out for 2 successive years and the reaction of sin citrus rootstocks including Citromelo, Poncirus, Sour Orange, Bakraee, Rough lemon and Off-type to citrus nematode under controlled conditions in the greenhouse was evaluated. Three months years old plants of this rootstock Were planted in completely random design with 5 replications in pots containing the population of 40 larvae per cubic centimeter of soil and after six months, the level of infection of roots was investigated and then the most tolerable rootstock for nematode was introduced on the basis of the least population of young females and adult females injected in one gram of root volume. Results and Discussion: Experiment results on the basis of LSD test in two successive years indicated that there is a meaningful statistical difference between Citrumelo and poncirus Poncirus with the least population of nematode of adult female on the root and other treatments the results show that sour orange and off-type rootstocks are the most sensitive to citrus nematode, poncirus Poncirus and Citrumelo are the most tolerable to nematode Bakraee and Rough lemon are in the biotype group with average tolerance (relatively sensitive to citrus nematode. Purpose of this research is to assess the sensitivity level of six citrus

  15. Efficacy of a novel topical fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel combination against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Martin; Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Kok, Dawie J; Kusi, Ilir; Postoli, Rezart; Chester, S Theodore; Rosentel, Joseph; Alva, Roberto; Irwin, Jennifer; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2014-04-28

    The efficacy of a novel topical combination formulation of fipronil, (S)-methoprene, eprinomectin and praziquantel against naturally acquired intestinal nematode and cestode infections in cats was evaluated in seven negative control, blinded studies. Cats were selected based on a pre-treatment faecal examination indicating a patent infection with at least hookworms (two studies), Toxocara ascarids (one study), taeniid cestodes (two studies) or Dipylidium cestodes (two studies). In each study, cats were assigned randomly to blocks of two animals each, based on decreasing pre-treatment body weight and were randomly allocated to one of two groups of six to 12 cats: untreated (control) or treated with topical fipronil (8.3%, w/v), (S)-methoprene (10%, w/v), eprinomectin (0.4%, w/v) and praziquantel (8.3%, w/v) (BROADLINE(®), Merial) at 0.12 mL/kg body weight (providing a minimum of 10mg fipronil+12 mg S-methoprene+0.5mg eprinomectin+10mg praziquantel per kg body weight). The topical treatment was administered directly on the skin in the midline of the neck in a single spot once on Day 0. For parasite recovery and count, cats were euthanized humanely and necropsied seven or ten days after treatment. A single treatment with the novel topical combination product provided 91% efficacy against Ancylostoma braziliense, ≥ 99% efficacy against Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and >97% efficacy against Toxocara cati. Similarly, excellent efficacy was established against Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium caninum and Diplopylidium spp. as demonstrated by >97% and up to 100% reductions of cestode counts in the treated cats when compared to the untreated controls (P<0.01). All cats accepted the treatment well based on health observations post-treatment and daily health observations. No adverse experiences or other health problems were observed throughout the studies. The results of this series of controlled studies demonstrated high efficacy and excellent acceptability of the novel

  16. Nematode neuropeptides as transgenic nematicides.

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    Neil D Warnock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs seriously threaten global food security. Conventionally an integrated approach to PPN management has relied heavily on carbamate, organophosphate and fumigant nematicides which are now being withdrawn over environmental health and safety concerns. This progressive withdrawal has left a significant shortcoming in our ability to manage these economically important parasites, and highlights the need for novel and robust control methods. Nematodes can assimilate exogenous peptides through retrograde transport along the chemosensory amphid neurons. Peptides can accumulate within cells of the central nerve ring and can elicit physiological effects when released to interact with receptors on adjoining cells. We have profiled bioactive neuropeptides from the neuropeptide-like protein (NLP family of PPNs as novel nematicides, and have identified numerous discrete NLPs that negatively impact chemosensation, host invasion and stylet thrusting of the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. Transgenic secretion of these peptides from the rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis, and the terrestrial microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reduce tomato infection levels by up to 90% when compared with controls. These data pave the way for the exploitation of nematode neuropeptides as a novel class of plant protective nematicide, using novel non-food transgenic delivery systems which could be deployed on farmer-preferred cultivars.

  17. Evaluation of in vitro culture systems for the maintenance of microfilariae and infective larvae of Loa loa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofou, Denis; Fombad, Fanny Fri; Gandjui, Narcisse V T; Njouendou, Abdel Jelil; Kengne-Ouafo, Arnaud Jonas; Chounna Ndongmo, Patrick W; Datchoua-Poutcheu, Fabrice R; Enyong, Peter A; Bita, Dizzle Tayong; Taylor, Mark J; Turner, Joseph D; Wanji, Samuel

    2018-05-02

    Suitable and scalable in vitro culture conditions for parasite maintenance are needed to foster drug research for loiasis, one of the neglected tropical diseases which has attracted only limited attention over recent years, despite having important public health impacts. The present work aims to develop adequate in vitro culture systems for drug screening against both microfilariae (mf) and infective third-stage larvae (L3) of Loa loa. In vitro culture conditions were evaluated by varying three basic culture media: Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI-1640), Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) and Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium (IMDM); four sera/proteins: newborn calf serum (NCS), foetal bovine serum (FBS), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the lipid-enriched BSA (AlbuMax® II, ALB); and co-culture with the Monkey Kidney Epithelial Cell line (LLC-MK2) as a feeder layer. The various culture systems were tested on both mf and L3, using survival (% motile), motility (T 90 = mean duration (days) at which at least 90% of parasites were fully active) and moulting rates of L3 as the major criteria. The general linear model regression analysis was performed to assess the contribution of each variable on the viability of Loa loa L3 and microfilarie. All statistical tests were performed at 95% confidence interval. Of the three different media tested, DMEM and IMDM were the most suitable sustaining the maintenance of both L. loa L3 and mf. IMDM alone could sustain L3 for more than 5 days (T 90 = 6.5 ± 1.1 day). Serum supplements and LLC-MK2 co-cultures significantly improved the survival of parasites in DMEM and IMDM. In co-cultures with LLC-MK2 cells, L. loa mf were maintained in each of the three basic media (T 90 of 16.4-19.5 days) without any serum supplement. The most effective culture systems promoting significant moulting rate of L3 into L4 (at least 25%) with substantial maintenance time were: DMEM + BSA, DMEM + NCS, DMEM-AlbuMax®II, DMEM + FBS all in co

  18. The reorganization of root anatomy and ultrastructure of syncytial cells in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. infected with potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis Woll.

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    Sylwia Fudali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The sequence of anatomical and ultrastructural events leading to the syncytium development in tomato roots infected with Globodera rostochiensis was examined. The syncytia were preferentially induced in cortical or pericyclic cells in the elongation zone of root. They developed towards the vascular cylinder by incorporation of new cells via local cell wall breakdown. After surrounding primary phloem bundle and reaching xylem tracheary elements syncytia spread along vascular cylinder. Roots in primary state of growth seemed to be the best place for syncytium induction as syncytia formed in the zone of secondary growth were less hypertrophied. At the ultrastructural level syncytial elements were characterized by strong hypertrophy, breakdown of central vacuole, increased volume of cytoplasm, proliferation of organelles, and enlargement of nuclei. On the syncytial wall adjoining vessels the cell wall ingrowths were formed, while the syncytial walls at interface of phloem were considerably thickened. They lacked of functional plasmodesmata and did not form any ingrowths. Using immunofluorescent-labelling and immunogold-labelling methods tomato expansin 5 protein was localized in nematode infected roots. The distribution of LeEXP A5 was restricted only to the walls of syncytia. The protein distribution pattern indicated that LeEXP A5 could mediates cell wall expansion during hypertrophy of syncytial elements.

  19. Damage-associated responses of the host contribute to defence against cyst nematodes but not root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Jehangir; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Mendy, Badou; Anwer, Muhammad Arslan; Habash, Samer S; Lozano-Torres, Jose L; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid

    2017-12-16

    When nematodes invade and subsequently migrate within plant roots, they generate cell wall fragments (in the form of oligogalacturonides; OGs) that can act as damage-associated molecular patterns and activate host defence responses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating damage responses in plant-nematode interactions remain unexplored. Here, we characterized the role of a group of cell wall receptor proteins in Arabidopsis, designated as polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs), during infection with the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. PGIPs are encoded by a family of two genes in Arabidopsis, and are involved in the formation of active OG elicitors. Our results show that PGIP gene expression is strongly induced in response to cyst nematode invasion of roots. Analyses of loss-of-function mutants and overexpression lines revealed that PGIP1 expression attenuates infection of host roots by cyst nematodes, but not root-knot nematodes. The PGIP1-mediated attenuation of cyst nematode infection involves the activation of plant camalexin and indole-glucosinolate pathways. These combined results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying plant damage perception and response pathways during infection by cyst and root-knot nematodes, and establishes the function of PGIP in plant resistance to cyst nematodes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta, a new definitive host of the canid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum

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    Nina Gillis-Germitsch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiostronglyus vasorum is a cardiopulmonary nematode infecting mainly canids such as dogs (Canis familiaris and foxes (Vulpes vulpes. Natural infections have also been reported in mustelids and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens fulgens. We report the occurrence of natural A. vasorum infections in a group of captive meerkats (Suricata suricatta, housed at a university facility in Switzerland. A. vasorum first-stage larvae (L1 were initially identified in a pooled faecal sample. Individual samples, investigated with the Baermann-Wetzel technique, revealed that 41% (7/17 of the meerkats were infected, with ranges of 2–125 L1/g faeces. PCR and sequencing of part of the ITS-2 region resulted in 100% identity with A. vasorum. Infected animals did not show clinical signs. One meerkat died two days after diagnosis. Upon necropsy one adult specimen was recovered; histological examination of the lung revealed granulomatous pneumonia caused by A. vasorum larvae and eggs as well as intima and media hyperplasia and isolated arteriosclerosis of larger lung vessels. However, the cause of death was a spleen rupture with associated blood loss. All meerkats were topically treated with 10 mg imidacloprid/2.5 mg moxidectin per animal, after which they became negative in all follow up faecal examinations. Potential intermediate (gastropods and paratenic hosts (birds were collected from within or outside the meerkats enclosure. Gastropods were examined by PCR and bird samples by digestion. Four out of 193 (2.1% gastropod samples were positive for A. vasorum, whereas none of the bird samples were positive. Meerkats, belonging to the Herpestidae, therefore are suitable definitive hosts for A. vasorum, with production and excretion of live L1. Meerkats kept in captivity in areas where A. vasorum is endemic and with potential contact to intermediate hosts are at risk of infection. Regular faecal examinations including Baermann-Wetzel technique should be considered

  1. First report of Coelomomyces santabrancae sp. nov. (Blastocladiomycetes: Blastocladiales) infecting mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Páramo, M E; Montalva, C; Arruda, W; Fernandes, É K K; Luz, C; Humber, R A

    2017-10-01

    A project from 2013 to 2017 sought to discover pathogenic fungi and oomycetes from dipteran species that are vectors of major diseases of humans and animals in central Brazil and to begin evaluating the potential of these pathogens as potential biological control agents concentrated on mosquito larvae. Some collecting sites proved to be especially productive for pathogens of naturally occurring mosquito species and for placements of healthy sentinel larvae of Aedes aegypti in various sorts of containers in a gallery forest in the Santa Branca Ecoturismo Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony (RPPN) near Terezópolis de Goiás (GO). Collections during May-April of 2016 and February 2017 yielded a few dead mosquito larvae of an undetermined Onirion sp. (Culicidae: Sabethini) whose hemocoels contained many ovoid, thick-walled, yellow-golden to golden-brown, ovoid thick-walled resistant sporangia, 38.3±4×22.8±2.3µm, decorated by numerous, closely and randomly spaced punctations of variable size and shape. These were the first indisputable collections from Brazil of any Coelomomyces species. Comparisons of the morphology of these sporangia with those of other species of Coelomomyces, confirmed that this Brazilian fungus represented a new species that is described here as Coelomomyces santabrancae. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Conservation of a microRNA cluster in parasitic nematodes and profiling of miRNAs in excretory-secretory products and microvesicles of Haemonchus contortus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Y Gu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression in a range of animals, including nematodes. We have analysed a cluster of four miRNAs from the pathogenic nematode species Haemonchus contortus that are closely linked in the genome. We find that the cluster is conserved only in clade V parasitic nematodes and in some ascarids, but not in other clade III species nor in clade V free-living nematodes. Members of the cluster are present in parasite excretory-secretory products and can be detected in the abomasum and draining lymph nodes of infected sheep, indicating their release in vitro and in vivo. As observed for other parasitic nematodes, H. contortus adult worms release extracellular vesicles (EV. Small RNA libraries were prepared from vesicle-enriched and vesicle-depleted supernatants from both adult worms and L4 stage larvae. Comparison of the miRNA species in the different fractions indicated that specific miRNAs are packaged within vesicles, while others are more abundant in vesicle-depleted supernatant. Hierarchical clustering analysis indicated that the gut is the likely source of vesicle-associated miRNAs in the L4 stage, but not in the adult worm. These findings add to the growing body of work demonstrating that miRNAs released from parasitic helminths may play an important role in host-parasite interactions.

  3. A SNARE-like protein and biotin are implicated in soybean cyst nematode virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some phytoparasitic nematodes have the ability to infect and reproduce on plants that are normally considered resistant to nematode infection. Such nematodes are referred to as virulent and the mechanisms they use to evade or suppress host plant defenses are not well understood. Here, we report the ...

  4. Natural infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in long-nosed armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 from Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Mato Grosso do Sul State, with the description of Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux Hoppe, Estevam G; do Nascimento, Adjair Antonio

    2007-03-15

    This study evaluated the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of long-nosed armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus, from the Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Aquidauana County, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Thirteen species of nematodes, comprising seven genera and four families, were recovered from their gastrointestinal tracts. The following descriptors of infection were determined: prevalence, variation of intensity, average intensity and abundance. Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. is first described here.

  5. In vitro anthelmintic activity of active compounds of the fringed rue Ruta chalepensis against dairy ewe gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortu, E; Sanna, G; Scala, A; Pulina, G; Caboni, P; Battacone, G

    2017-07-01

    Infections by gastrointestinal nematodes negatively affect small ruminant health and at the same time cause substantial economic losses worldwide. Because resistance to conventional anthelmintic compounds is growing, target studies evaluating the effectiveness of alternative ingredients of botanical origin on gastrointestinal nematodes are needed. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anthelmintic activity of Ruta chalepensis L. extracts on the third-stage larvae of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. A methanol extract showed the highest anthelmintic activity, with an EC50 = 0.10 ± 0.06 mg/ml after 96 h, while the essential oil had an EC50 = 1.45 ± 1.22 mg/ml after 48 h. Moreover, three secondary metabolites of the essential oil, i.e. 2-decanone, 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone, showed EC50 values of 0.07 ± 0.06, 0.25 ± 0.29 and 0.88 ± 0.73 mg/ml at 24 h, respectively. The present study indicated that the R. chalepensis methanol extract, the essential oil and its metabolites 2-decanone, 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone showed promising anthelmintic activity on gastrointestinal nematodes.

  6. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization and Function of the Inflammatory Response to Infection by a Gastrointestinal Nematode Parasite: New Insights into Protective Th2 Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    gastrointestinal nematode parasites;T. trichuris, T. muris , T suis. WT wild type. 1 Dissertation Introduction Background and Significance...and hosts2. Infectious parasites are responsible for a wide range of human diseases, including Leishmanisis, Malaria, Schistosomaisis, Giardia ...the gut to define more clearly protective mechanisms against gastrointestinal nematodes. Using a mouse whipworm model of Trichuris 81 muris

  8. Analysis of the mucosal immune responses induced by single and trickle infections with the bovine abomasal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihi, B; van Meulder, F; Vancoppernolle, S; Rinaldi, M; Chiers, K; van den Broeck, W; Goddeeris, B M; Vercruysse, J; Claerebout, E; Geldhof, P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide more information on the kinetics of the immunological changes occurring in the abomasal mucosa after single and trickle infections with the bovine parasite Ostertagia ostertagi. The time course analysis of gene expression revealed that the major changes coincided with the emergence of adult worms from the gastric glands. These changes consisted of a simultaneous upregulation of Th1- and Th2-type cytokines. In addition, a single O. ostertagi infection elicited an upregulation of the epithelial-derived cytokine IL33, while TSLP expression levels were not impacted. Apart from the massive increase in inflammatory cytokines IL6, IL17 and IL21, O. ostertagi infection also elicited an upregulation of the immunosuppressors TGFB, IL10 and ARG1, as well as NK and γδ-T cell markers. Furthermore, the cytotoxic factors granulysin, perforin and granzyme B were upregulated following an O. ostertagi infection. Analysis of cytokine transcript levels in animals receiving trickle infections for 60 days showed a similar trend as observed following a single infection except for IL33, IL6, GATA-3, TBX21 and NCR1, which were no longer upregulated after trickle infections. Finally, the long trickle infections were associated with mucosal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Flavanol-Rich Cocoa Powder Interacts with Lactobacillus rhamnossus LGG to Alter the Antibody Response to Infection with the Parasitic Nematode Ascaris suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saebyeol Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG and flavanol-rich cocoa have purported immune modulating effects. This study compared the host response to infection with Ascaris suum in three-month-old pigs fed a standard growth diet supplemented with a vehicle control: LGG, cocoa powder (CP or LGG + CP. Pigs were inoculated with infective A. suum eggs during Week 5 of dietary treatment and euthanized 17 days later. Lactobacillus abundance was increased in pigs fed LGG or LGG + CP. Specific anti-A. suum IgG2 antibodies were decreased (p < 0.05 in LGG + CP-fed pigs compared to pigs fed CP alone. Pigs fed LGG had significantly reduced expression (p < 0.05 of Eosinophil peroxidase (EPX, Interleukin 13 (IL-13, Eotaxin 3 (CCL26, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 and Interleukin-1Beta (IL1B in the tracheal-bronchial lymph node (TBLN independent of CP treatment. These results suggested that feeding LGG significantly reduced the localized prototypical Th2-related markers of infection with A. suum in the TBLN. Although feeding CP does not appear to affect the A. suum-induced Th2-associated cytokine response, feeding LGG + CP reduced anti-A. suum antibodies and delayed intestinal expulsion of parasitic larvae from the intestine.

  10. Flavanol-Rich Cocoa Powder Interacts with Lactobacillus rhamnossus LGG to Alter the Antibody Response to Infection with the Parasitic Nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Saebyeol; Lakshman, Sukla; Beshah, Ethiopia; Xie, Yue; Molokin, Aleksey; Vinyard, Bryan T; Urban, Joseph F; Davis, Cindy D; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I

    2017-10-12

    Consumption of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG and flavanol-rich cocoa have purported immune modulating effects. This study compared the host response to infection with Ascaris suum in three-month-old pigs fed a standard growth diet supplemented with a vehicle control: LGG, cocoa powder (CP) or LGG + CP. Pigs were inoculated with infective A . suum eggs during Week 5 of dietary treatment and euthanized 17 days later. Lactobacillus abundance was increased in pigs fed LGG or LGG + CP. Specific anti- A . suum IgG2 antibodies were decreased ( p < 0.05) in LGG + CP-fed pigs compared to pigs fed CP alone. Pigs fed LGG had significantly reduced expression ( p < 0.05) of Eosinophil peroxidase ( EPX) , Interleukin 13 ( IL-13) , Eotaxin 3 ( CCL26) , Toll-like receptor 2 ( TLR2 ), TLR4, and TLR9 and Interleukin-1Beta ( IL1B ) in the tracheal-bronchial lymph node (TBLN) independent of CP treatment. These results suggested that feeding LGG significantly reduced the localized prototypical Th2-related markers of infection with A . suum in the TBLN. Although feeding CP does not appear to affect the A . suum- induced Th2-associated cytokine response, feeding LGG + CP reduced anti- A . suum antibodies and delayed intestinal expulsion of parasitic larvae from the intestine.

  11. Timecourse microarray analyses reveal global changes in gene expression of susceptible Glycine max (soybean) roots during infection by Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharouf, Nadim W; Klink, Vincent P; Chouikha, Imed B; Beard, Hunter S; MacDonald, Margaret H; Meyer, Susan; Knap, Halina T; Khan, Rana; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2006-09-01

    Changes in gene expression within roots of Glycine max (soybean), cv. Kent, susceptible to infection by Heterodera glycines (the soybean cyst nematode [SCN]), at 6, 12, and 24 h, and 2, 4, 6, and 8 days post-inoculation were monitored using microarrays containing more than 6,000 cDNA inserts. Replicate, independent biological samples were examined at each time point. Gene expression was analyzed statistically using T-tests, ANOVA, clustering algorithms, and online analytical processing (OLAP). These analyses allow the user to query the data in several ways without importing the data into third-party software. RT-PCR confirmed that WRKY6 transcription factor, trehalose phosphate synthase, EIF4a, Skp1, and CLB1 were differentially induced across most time-points. Other genes induced across most timepoints included lipoxygenase, calmodulin, phospholipase C, metallothionein-like protein, and chalcone reductase. RT-PCR demonstrated enhanced expression during the first 12 h of infection for Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and sucrose synthase. The stress-related gene, SAM-22, phospholipase D and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase were also induced at the early time-points. At 6 and 8 dpi there was an abundance of transcripts expressed that encoded genes involved in transcription and protein synthesis. Some of those genes included ribosomal proteins, and initiation and elongation factors. Several genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport were also more abundant. Those genes included glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and sucrose synthase. These results identified specific changes in gene transcript levels triggered by infection of susceptible soybean roots by SCN.

  12. General aspects concerning strictly meat and fish transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infested fleshes, where man is definitive host too, are represented by four groups of helminths: the cestodes Dyphyllobothrium spp and Spirometra spp. (Sparganum proliferum is the name of the immature plerocercoid larva, the trematodes Opisthorchis Clonorchis “group” (many could be the genera and species involved, and the nematode Capillaria philippinensis. So, for fishes humans foods (fresh or salted water the control and prevention in veterinary health must be directed to investigation regarding intermediate stages of these parasites in fishes for human alimentation; if present, they must be eliminated. The helminths parasitosis transmitted to humans trough ingestion of infected mammals meats, are represented by taeniasis (Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. saginata asiatica, where man id definitive host and the infection is caused by ingestion of bovine or swine meat, containing larvae of these cestodes, and by trichinellosis, where humans represent a intermediate stage, and the eventual pathology is caused as by adult (acute infection as by larvae (chronic infection of this nematode: usually the meats responsible are infected pork, wild pork or horse (Trichinella spp. Is inside the meats of these animals. So the veterinary control and prophylaxis are necessary to avoid this disease and preventing the infection that could be severe.

  13. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of Drosophila larvae infected by entomopathogenic nematodes shows involvement of complement, recognition and extracellular matrix proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arefin, B.; Kučerová, Lucie; Dobeš, P.; Markus, R.; Strnad, H.; Wang, Z.; Hyršl, P.; Žurovec, Michal; Theopold, U.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2014), s. 192-204 ISSN 1662-811X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : basement membrane * coagulation * hemocyte Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.352, year: 2014

  14. A Phosphorylcholine-Containing Glycolipid-like Antigen Present on the Surface of Infective Stage Larvae of Ascaris spp. Is a Major Antibody Target in Infected Pigs and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Vlaminck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pig parasite Ascaris suum plays and important role in veterinary medicine and represents a suitable model for A. lumbricoides, which infects over 800 million people. In pigs, continued exposure to Ascaris induces immunity at the level of the gut, protecting the host against migrating larvae. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize parasite antigens targeted by this local immune response that may be crucial for parasite invasion and establishment and to evaluate their protective and diagnostic potential.Pigs were immunized by trickle infection for 30 weeks, challenged with 2,000 eggs at week 32 and euthanized two weeks after challenge. At necropsy, there was a 100% reduction in worms recovered from the intestine and a 97.2% reduction in liver white spots in comparison with challenged non-immune control animals. Antibodies purified from the intestinal mucus or from the supernatant of cultured antibody secreting cells from mesenteric lymph nodes of immune pigs were used to probe L3 extracts to identify antibody targets. This resulted in the recognition of a 12kDa antigen (As12 that is actively shed from infective Ascaris L3. As12 was characterized as a phosphorylcholine-containing glycolipid-like antigen that is highly resistant to different enzymatic and chemical treatments. Vaccinating pigs with an As12 fraction did not induce protective immunity to challenge infection. However, serological analysis using sera or plasma from experimentally infected pigs or naturally infected humans demonstrated that the As12 ELISA was able to detect long-term exposure to Ascaris with a high diagnostic sensitivity (98.4% and 92%, respectively and specificity (95.5% and 90.0% in pigs and humans, respectively.These findings show the presence of a highly stage specific, glycolipid-like component (As12 that is actively secreted by infectious Ascaris larvae and which acts as a major antibody target in infected humans and pigs.

  15. Efeito do clima sobre a infecção parasitária em bezerros e presença de larvas em manejo rotativo de pasto em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Climatological effects on parasitic infection in calves and the presence of larvae in a pasture rotation management in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Heck

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi correlacionar os dados climáticos e parasitários através de exames laboratoriais e da pastagem. O experimento foi realizado no período de março a junho de 2004, utilizando 110 bezerros com idade média de cinco meses, em pastos com diferentes relevos. Foi avaliado o número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG, a coprocultura e o número de larvas na pastagem em intervalos de 15 dias, e dados climáticos deciduais. A coprocultura revelou a presença de 60% de parasitas do gênero Trichostrongylus spp. e 40% de Cooperia spp. assim como Moniezia spp. e oocistos de Eimeria spp. A temperatura permitiu a sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento das larvas infectantes na pastagem durante o experimento. O aumento do número de larvas na pastagem está associado ao acréscimo da precipitação após um período de seca. O relevo com maior número de larvas apresentou maior concentração de massa seca de capim arroz (Echinochloa spp.. Pode-se comprovar que em condições climáticas ideais ocorreu uma rápida contaminação da pastagem com larvas infectantes quando animais naturalmente infectados foram transferidos para a área após colheita de milho.The objective of this work was to correlate climatic and parasitological data from laboratory and field samples. The experiment was executed from March to June of 2004, using 110 naturally infected five months old calves. The counting of eggs per gram of feces (EPG, fecal culture and the number of larva on pasture was evaluated every 15 days in relation to decidual climatic data. The EPG increased during the study. The same observation occurred with the pluviometric level. Coproculture revealed the presence of 60% of Trichostrongylus spp. and 40% of Cooperia spp. as well as Moniezia spp. and Eimeria spp. oocists. The temperature during all the experimental periods was favorable to infecting larvae survival and development on pasture. The area with higher larvae count had the higher

  16. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts......). A third nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum was rarely found. The study indicates that the prey animals for large cod act as transport hosts for the parasite larvae. Analyses of stomach contents of cod caught in the same area (2007-2014) showed that small benthic organisms (including polychaetes Harmothoë...... suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts...

  17. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infecting Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Amazon region Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda na região amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanny Maria de Andrade-Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon region. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença.

  18. Detection and molecular characterization of ascarid nematode infection (Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati) in captive Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul Mohanchandra; Lakshmikantan, Uthandaraman; Hasan, Shakir; Poornachandar, Anantula; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ascarid infection in Asiatic lions using scat samples, based on microscopic analysis, PCR amplification of the ITS-2 region of ribosomal DNA and sequence analysis of the amplicons. Microscopic analysis indicated the presence of eggs of Toxascaris leonina in eleven of the sixteen scat samples analysed and in one of these eleven scats eggs of Toxocara cati were also detected. In five of the scats eggs were not detectable. The presence of T. leonina in all the infected samples was also confirmed by PCR amplification of the ITS-2 of ribosomal RNA gene and five of these also showed amplicons corresponding to T. cati, respectively. Toxocara canis infection was not observed in any of the scat samples. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the ITS-2 region indicated 97% to 99% similarity with T. leonina and T. cati, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of ascarid infection in captive Asiatic lions from a zoological garden of India. This study also indicates that Asiatic lions are more prone to infection either with T. leonina or T. cati and the parasite is not host specific.

  19. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline B. Matthews

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin. Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop

  20. Identification of a bacteria-like ferrochelatase in Strongyloides venezuelensis, an animal parasitic nematode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Nagayasu

    Full Text Available Heme is an essential molecule for vast majority of organisms serving as a prosthetic group for various hemoproteins. Although most organisms synthesize heme from 5-aminolevulinic acid through a conserved heme biosynthetic pathway composed of seven consecutive enzymatic reactions, nematodes are known to be natural heme auxotrophs. The completely sequenced Caenorhabditis elegans genome, for example, lacks all seven genes for heme biosynthesis. However, genome/transcriptome sequencing of Strongyloides venezuelensis, an important model nematode species for studying human strongyloidiasis, indicated the presence of a gene for ferrochelatase (FeCH, which catalyzes the terminal step of heme biosynthesis, whereas the other six heme biosynthesis genes are apparently missing. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that nematode FeCH genes, including that of S. venezuelensis (SvFeCH have a fundamentally different evolutionally origin from the FeCH genes of non-nematode metazoa. Although all non-nematode metazoan FeCH genes appear to be inherited vertically from an ancestral opisthokont, nematode FeCH may have been acquired from an alpha-proteobacterium, horizontally. The identified SvFeCH sequence was found to function as FeCH as expected based on both in vitro chelatase assays using recombinant SvFeCH and in vivo complementation experiments using an FeCH-deficient strain of Escherichia coli. Messenger RNA expression levels during the S. venezuelensis lifecycle were examined by real-time RT-PCR. SvFeCH mRNA was expressed at all the stages examined with a marked reduction at the infective third-stage larvae. Our study demonstrates the presence of a bacteria-like FeCH gene in the S. venezuelensis genome. It appeared that S. venezuelensis and some other animal parasitic nematodes reacquired the once-lost FeCH gene. Although the underlying evolutionary pressures that necessitated this reacquisition remain to be investigated, it is interesting that the presence of Fe

  1. Antibody isotype analysis of malaria-nematode co-infection: problems and solutions associated with cross-reactivity

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    Graham Andrea L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody isotype responses can be useful as indicators of immune bias during infection. In studies of parasite co-infection however, interpretation of immune bias is complicated by the occurrence of cross-reactive antibodies. To confidently attribute shifts in immune bias to the presence of a co-infecting parasite, we suggest practical approaches to account for antibody cross-reactivity. The potential for cross-reactive antibodies to influence disease outcome is also discussed. Results Utilising two murine models of malaria-helminth co-infection we analysed antibody responses of mice singly- or co-infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis or Litomosoides sigmodontis. We observed cross-reactive antibody responses that recognised antigens from both pathogens irrespective of whether crude parasite antigen preparations or purified recombinant proteins were used in ELISA. These responses were not apparent in control mice. The relative strength of cross-reactive versus antigen-specific responses was determined by calculating antibody titre. In addition, we analysed antibody binding to periodate-treated antigens, to distinguish responses targeted to protein versus carbohydrate moieties. Periodate treatment affected both antigen-specific and cross-reactive responses. For example, malaria-induced cross-reactive IgG1 responses were found to target the carbohydrate component of the helminth antigen, as they were not detected following periodate treatment. Interestingly, periodate treatment of recombinant malaria antigen Merozoite Surface Protein-119 (MSP-119 resulted in increased detection of antigen-specific IgG2a responses in malaria-infected mice. This suggests that glycosylation may have been masking protein epitopes and that periodate-treated MSP-119 may more closely reflect the natural non-glycosylated antigen seen during infection. Conclusions In order to utilize antibody isotypes as a measure of

  2. Parasitological and immunological effects induced by immunization of Mandrillus sphinx against the human filarial Loa loa using infective stage larvae irradiated at 40 krad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akue J.P

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Six mandrills were immunized with 150 Loa loa infective stage larvae (L3 irradiated with 40 Krad, and challenged with 100 L3, 60 days after initial vaccination. The parasitological outcome of this immunization was compared to results from six mandrills infected with normal L3. No clear association was seen between vaccination and microfilaremia until day 245 when a significant drop in the level of microfilaria occured in vaccinated compared to infected animals (5 vs 10 mf/ml; p = 0.012. A one-year follow-up of the humoral immune response showed a strong adult, microfilariae (Mf and L3 specific IgG response, with distinct profiles for each extract. In immunized animal a significant decrease in antibody level was systematically observed between days 90-145 for the anti-L3 and anti-adult IgG. However, in the same group anti-Mf antibody levels that peaked around 160-175 days post-challenge, were inversely correlated with the decrease in Mf density between day 200 and day 386. These results suggest that immunization with irradiated L3 using these specific conditions may affect the appearance of Mf.

  3. Peculiarities of Embryonic and Post-Embryonic Development of Оesophagostomum dentatum (Nematoda, Strongylidae Larvae Cultured in Vitro

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    Yevstafieva V. А.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric peculiarities of the development of Оesophagostomum dentatum Rudolphi, 1803 from egg to infective larva were studied under laboratory conditions at various temperatures. The determined optimum temperature for embryonic and post-embryonic development of О. dentatum larvae from domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 is 22 °С. At this temperature, 81 % of larvae develop to the third stage (L3 on the 10th day. Temperatures of 24 °С and 20 °С are less favorable for the development of the nematode, at those temperatures only 67 and 63 % of larvae, respectively, reached infective stage by the 10th day of cultivation. Embryonic development of О. dentatum eggs is characterized by their lengthening (by 8.87-9.50 %, р < 0.01 and widening (by 6.77-9.35 %, р < 0.05-0.01, and post-embryonic larval development is associated with lengthening (by 4.59-17.33 %, р < 0.01-0.001.

  4. Role of stress-related hormones in plant defence during early infection of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kammerhofer, N.; Radakovic, Z.; Regis, J.M.A.; Dobrev, Petre; Vaňková, Radomíra; Grundler, F.M.W.; Siddique, S.; Hofmann, J.; Wieczorek, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 3 (2015), s. 778-789 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14120 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : defence responses * early infection * ethylene Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 7.210, year: 2015

  5. Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as an alternative host to study fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Patrícia Canteri; Morey, Alexandre Tadachi; Castanheira, Gabriel Marcondes; Bocate, Karla Paiva; Panagio, Luciano Aparecido; Ito, Fabio Augusto; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Costa, Idessânia Nazareth; Mora-Montes, Hector Manuel; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio

    2015-11-01

    Models of host–pathogen interactions are crucial for the analysis of microbial pathogenesis. In this context, invertebrate hosts, including Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and Galleria mellonella (moth), have been used to study the pathogenesis of fungi and bacteria. Each of these organisms offers distinct benefits in elucidating host–pathogen interactions. In this study,we present a newinvertebrate infection model to study fungal infections: the Tenebrio molitor (beetle) larvae. Here we performed T. molitor larvae infection with one of two important fungal human pathogens, Candida albicans or Cryptococcus neoformans, and analyzed survival curves and larva infected tissues.We showed that increasing concentrations of inoculum of both fungi resulted in increased mortality rates, demonstrating the efficiency of the method to evaluate the virulence of pathogenic yeasts. Additionally, following 12 h post-infection, C. albicans formsmycelia, spreading its hyphae through the larva tissue,whilst GMS stain enabled the visualization of C. neoformans yeast and theirmelanin capsule. These larvae are easier to cultivate in the laboratory than G. mellonella larvae, and offer the same benefits. Therefore, this insect model could be a useful alternative tool to screen clinical pathogenic yeast strainswith distinct virulence traits or different mutant strains.

  6. Human case of gastric infection by a fourth larval stage of Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda, Anisakidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercado Rubén

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Only three cases of human infection by anisakid nematodes have been reported in Chile since 1976. In the present case, an anisakid worm, identified as a fourth-stage Pseudoterranova decipiens larva, was removed with a gastroendoscopic biopsy clipper from the stomach of a 45 year-old man from southern Chile. The patient, who presented acute epigastric pain and a continuous sensation of having an empty stomach, reported having eaten smoked fish. The worm was fixed in 70% ethanol and cleaned in lactophenol for morphological study. The morphometric characteristics of the worm are described and drawn. Anisakid larvae in fish flesh can be killed by freezing or cooking.

  7. Human case of gastric infection by a fourth larval stage of Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda, Anisakidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Mercado

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Only three cases of human infection by anisakid nematodes have been reported in Chile since 1976. In the present case, an anisakid worm, identified as a fourth-stage Pseudoterranova decipiens larva, was removed with a gastroendoscopic biopsy clipper from the stomach of a 45 year-old man from southern Chile. The patient, who presented acute epigastric pain and a continuous sensation of having an empty stomach, reported having eaten smoked fish. The worm was fixed in 70% ethanol and cleaned in lactophenol for morphological study. The morphometric characteristics of the worm are described and drawn. Anisakid larvae in fish flesh can be killed by freezing or cooking.

  8. Nematode burdens of pastured cattle treated once at turnout with eprinomectin extended-release injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, S; Baggott, D G; Johnson, E G; Kunkle, B N; Yazwinski, T A; Yoon, S; Cramer, L G; Soll, M D

    2013-03-01

    The efficacy of eprinomectin in an extended-release injection (ERI) formulation was evaluated against infections with third-stage larvae or eggs of gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes in cattle under 120-day natural challenge conditions in a series of five studies conducted in the USA (three studies) and in Europe (two studies). For each study, 30 nematode-free (four studies) or 30 cattle harboring naturally acquired nematode infections (one study) were included. The cattle were of various breeds or crosses, weighed 107.5-273 kg prior to treatment and aged approximately 4-11 months. For each study, animals were blocked based on pre-treatment bodyweight and then randomly allocated to treatment: ERI vehicle (control) at 1 mL/50 kg bodyweight or Eprinomectin 5% (w/v) ERI at 1 mL/50 kg bodyweight (1.0 mg eprinomectin/kg) for a total of 15 and 15 animals in each group. Treatments were administered once on Day 0 by subcutaneous injection in front of the shoulder. In each study, all animals grazed one naturally contaminated pasture for 120 days. At regular intervals during the studies, fecal samples from all cattle were examined for nematode egg and larval counts. In four studies pairs of tracer cattle were used to monitor pasture infectivity at 28-day intervals before and/or during the grazing period. All calves were weighed before turnout onto pasture and at regular intervals until housing on Day 120. For parasite recovery, all study animals were humanely euthanized 27-30 days after removal from pasture. Cattle treated with Eprinomectin ERI had significantly (p92%: Dictyocaulus viviparus (adults and fourth-stage larvae (L4), Bunostomum phlebotomum, Cooperia curticei, Cooperia oncophora, Cooperia punctata, Cooperia surnabada, Cooperia spp. inhibited L4, Haemonchus contortus, Haemonchus placei, Haemonchus spp. inhibited L4, Nematodirus helvetianus, Nematodirus spp. inhibited L4, Oesophagostomum radiatum, Oesophagostomum spp. inhibited L4, Ostertagia leptospicularis

  9. Systematics of gastrointestinal nematodes of domestic ruminants: advances between 1992 and 1995 and proposals for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenfels, J R; Hoberg, E P; Zarlenga, D S

    1997-11-01

    The systematics of trichostrongyloid nematodes of ruminants provides a foundation for diagnostics and responds to the need to identify eggs in feces, free-living larvae from pastures or fecal cultures and larval or adult nematodes collected from hosts. These needs are associated with diagnostic problems or research projects. Difficulties in identifying all developmental stages of trichostrongyloid nematodes of domestic ruminants still severely limit the effective diagnosis and control of these parasites. Phylogenetic hypotheses as the basis for predictive classifications have been developed only for the subfamilies of the Trichostrongylidae. This report briefly describes recent progress in the development of improved tools for identification, phylogenetic analyses and predictive classifications. It also describes future research needed on the identification and classification of trichostrongyloid nematode parasites of domestic ruminants. Nematodes included are species of the super-family Trichostrongyloidea known to be important pathogens of domestic ruminants. The information summarized is presented by nematode developmental stage and by taxonomic groups. Eggs: While eggs of some trichostrongyloid nematode parasites of ruminants can be readily identified to their genus (Nematodirus), and some to species (e.g. Nematodirus battus), most of the important pathogens (including the Ostertagiinae and Haemonchinae) cannot be identified morphologically or morphometrically even to family level. However, DNA technology has been developed for determining not only the presence of specific pathogens in eggs from fecal samples, but also for estimating the percentage of the total eggs that each pathogen comprises. This new method will make possible a rapid determination of which individual animals in a herd should be treated. Larvae: The most commonly-used method for identifying infective larvae is time-consuming (several weeks), unreliable for estimating intensities of

  10. Determination of Immunogenic Relevant Antigens in the Excretory-Secretory (ES Products and the Lysates of Ascaridia galli Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saffi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ascaridia galli, the largest nematode of small intestine of birds, especially the native poultry, may give rise to serious illness, pathological defects and economical losses even in modern poultry production systems. Although various measures have been undertaken to vaccinate poultry against A.galli, no satisfactory results were obtained so far. However, there is no report on the efficacy of excretory-secretory (ES proteins of A.galli larvae in immunization of poultry. Thus, the aim of the present research project was based on the use of the ES products of the larvae, in order to find the protective anti­gens.Methods: Five hundred native poultry were autopsied and adult A.galli was removed form their intestines. The eggs were harvested form the uterus of female worms and cultured at 25 ˚C in water containing 0.1 N sulphuric acid for almost a fort­night. The larvae were then freed mechanically and kept in Earl's salt solution for a few days. The supernatant solution of alive larvae containing the ES products of the larvae, as well as the sonicated alive and dead larvae, was analyzed by SDS-PAGE.Result: Many protein fractions of 15 kDa up to 200 kDa were demonstrated in lysate of these larvae. Using the serum of a hen, infected with a high numbers of A.galli, an immunogenic antigen was identified between 55 kDa to 72 kDa by Western blotting procedure.Conclusion: Finding the protein band between 55 and 72 kDa can be promising for preparation of vaccine, though more investigations are needed to prove the protective ability of this antigen.

  11. Prevalence of Pasteuria SP. on Renfirom Nematode in a Georgia Cotton Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteuria species are bacterial parasites of nematodes and have been associated with suppression of root-knot, sting, and cyst nematode populations. Little is known about the Pasteuria sp. infecting the reniform nematode. While sampling a cotton field study near Cochran, GA, we found Pasteuria spo...

  12. Cyst nematode-induced changes in plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes a first attempt to investigate the biological activity of cyst nematode secretions on plant cell proliferation and the molecular mechanisms underlying feeding cell development in plant roots upon cyst nematode infection.

    To investigate the role of

  13. Nematode parasitism in adult dairy cows in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, J.; Claerebout, E.; Dorny, P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Vercruysse, J.

    2000-01-01

    Over a period of 1 year, from November 1997 to October 1998, the abomasa, blood and faecal samples of 121 dairy cows in Belgium were collected and examined for nematode infections. Nematodes were present in the abomasa of 110 animals. Ostertagia was found in all 110, Trichostrongylus was seen in 65

  14. Potential Nematode Alarm Pheromone Induces Acute Avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Loeza-Cabrera, Mario; Liu, Zheng; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Nguyen, Julie K; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Yuna; Shou, Qingyao; Butcher, Rebecca A; Zhong, Weiwei

    2017-07-01

    It is crucial for animal survival to detect dangers such as predators. A good indicator of dangers is injury of conspecifics. Here we show that fluids released from injured conspecifics invoke acute avoidance in both free-living and parasitic nematodes. Caenorhabditis elegans avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. The worm extracts have no impact on animal lifespan, suggesting that the worm extract may function as an alarm instead of inflicting physical harm. Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2/TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK. Genetic evidence indicates that the avoidance behavior is modulated by the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin, two common targets of anxiolytic drugs. Together, these data support a model that nematodes use a nematode-specific alarm pheromone to detect conspecific injury. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Plant actin cytoskeleton re-modeling by plant parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Janice de Almeida; Rodiuc, Natalia; Smertenko, Andrei; Abad, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    The cytoskeleton is an important component of the plant's defense mechanism against the attack of pathogenic organisms. Plants however, are defenseless against parasitic root-knot and cyst nematodes and respond to the invasion by the development of a special feeding site that supplies the parasite with nutrients required for the completion of its life cycle. Recent studies of nematode invasion under treatment with cytoskeletal drugs and in mutant plants where normal functions of the cytoskeleton have been affected, demonstrate the importance of the cytoskeleton in the establishment of a feeding site and successful nematode reproduction. It appears that in the case of microfilaments, nematodes hijack the intracellular machinery that regulates actin dynamics and modulate the organization and properties of the actin filament network. Intervening with this process reduces the nematode infection efficiency and inhibits its life cycle. This discovery uncovers a new pathway that can be exploited for the protection of plants against nematodes.

  16. Entomopathogenic and plant pathogenic nematodes as opposing forces in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Eric; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are responsible for substantial damages within the agriculture industry every year, which is a challenge that has thus far gone largely unimpeded. Chemical nematicides have been employed with varying degrees of success, but their implementation can be cumbersome, and furthermore they could potentially be neutralising an otherwise positive effect from the entomopathogenic nematodes that coexist with plant-parasitic nematodes in soil environments and provide protection for plants against insect pests. Recent research has explored the potential of employing entomopathogenic nematodes to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes, while providing their standard degree of protection against insects. The interactions involved are highly complex, due to both the three-organism system and the assortment of variables present in a soil environment, but a strong collection of evidence has accumulated regarding the suppressive capacity of certain entomopathogenic nematodes and their mutualistic bacteria, in the context of limiting the infectivity of plant-parasitic nematodes. Specific factors produced by certain entomopathogenic nematode complexes during the process of insect infection appear to have a selectively nematicidal, or at least repellant, effect on plant-parasitic nematodes. Using this information, an opportunity has formed to adapt this relationship to large-scale, field conditions and potentially relieve the agricultural industry of one of its most substantial burdens. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nematode eel parasite found inside acanthocephalan cysts--a "Trojan horse" strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, Sebastian; Rueckert, Sonja; Kochmann, Judith; Knopf, Klaus; Sures, Bernd; Klimpel, Sven

    2014-11-18

    The invasive eel parasite Anguillicoloides crassus (syn. Anguillicola crassus) is considered one of the major causes for the decline of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) panmictic population. It impairs the swim bladder function and reduces swimming performance of its host. The life cycle of this parasite involves different intermediate and paratenic hosts. Despite an efficient immune system of the paratenic fish hosts acting against infections with A. crassus, levels of parasitized eels remain high in European river systems. Recently, the round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Gobiidae) has become dominant in many rivers in Europe and is still spreading at a rapid pace. This highly invasive species might potentially act as an important, so far neglected paratenic fish host for A. crassus. Based on own observations and earlier single sightings of A. crassus in N. melanostomus, 60 fresh individuals of N. melanostomus were caught in the Rhine River and examined to assess the infection levels with metazoan parasites, especially A. crassus. Glycerin preparations were used for parasite identification. The parasite most frequently found in N. melanostomus was the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus sp. (subadult stage) which occurred mainly encysted in the mesenteries and liver. Every third gobiid (P = 31.7%) was infected by A. crassus larvae (L3) which exclusively occurred inside the acanthocephalan cysts. No intact or degenerated larvae of A. crassus were detected elsewhere in the goby, neither in the body cavity and mesenteries nor in other organs. Affected cysts contained the acanthocephalan larvae and 1-12 (mI =3) living A. crassus larvae. Additionally, encysted larvae of the nematode Raphidascaris acus were detected in the gobies, but only in the body cavity and not inside the acanthocephalan cysts. Based on our observations, we suggest that A. crassus might actively bypass the immune response of N. melanostomus by invading the cysts of acanthocephalan parasites of the

  18. Parasitic nematode interactions with mammals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, Douglas P; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent reinfection of host species. In addition, development of resistance to nematicides and anthelmintics by these parasites and reduced availability of some nematicides, for environmental protection, pose significant obstacles for current and future prospects of effective parasite control. Due to marked differences in host species, research on animal and plant parasitic nematodes often proceeds independently. Despite the differences between animals and plants, basic cellular properties are shared among these host organisms. Some common properties may be important for mechanisms [homologous or convergent (homoplastic)] by which nematodes successfully infect these diverse hosts or by which animal and plant hosts resist infections by these pathogens. Here we compare host/parasite interactions between plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) and animal parasitic nematodes, with an emphasis on mammalian hosts (MPN). Similarities and differences are considered in the context of progress on molecular dissection of these interactions. A comprehensive coverage is not possible in the space allotted. Instead, an illustrative approach is used to establish examples that, it is hoped, exemplify the value of the comparative approach.

  19. Experimental population dynamics of Rhabdias bufonis (Nematoda) in toads (Bufo bufo): density-dependence in the primary infection

    OpenAIRE

    Goater, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Density-dependence in worm establishment, numbers, biomass and larval production were examined in primary infections of 0, 10, 40, 80 and 160 larvae of the lung nematode, Rhabdias bufonis in the common toad, Bufo bufo. The infection procedure established 4 non-overlapping levels of infection which persisted until 6 weeks post-infection (p.i.), after which there was an overall decline up to 12 weeks p.i. Worm numbers had no direct effect on adult worm survival but temporal changes in worm weig...

  20. EFEITOS DOS EXTRATOS AQUOSO E METANÓLICO DE ALGAROBA SOBRE CULTURAS DE LARVAS DE NEMATÓDEOS GASTRINTESTINAIS DE CAPRINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA JOSÉ MOREIRA BATATINHA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves and fruits of Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C., respectively, on larvae cultures of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats. Six different concentrations of the methanol extract (724.5; 557.3; 428.7; 329.8; 253.7; 195.1mg/mL and one of the aqueous extracts (110.0mg/mL were used for thetreatment of larvae cultures, in triple assays. Destilled water and doramectin were used to treat cultures considered to be negative and positive control, respectively. The results revealed a reduction of more than 90% of the infective larvae between the concentrations of724.5 up to 253.7 mg/mL for the methanol extract and a low percentage of reduction (59.87% for the aqueous extract. Only the methanol extract of Prosopis juliflora (Sw D.C. was effective in the in vitro treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes of goat.

  1. Development of the system nematode, Ditylenchus Dipsaci (Kuehn) Filipjev, and the potato tuber nematode, D. Destructor thore, after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Karnkowski, W.

    1996-01-01

    Juvenile and adult nematodes emerged from onion and garlic samples on the 3 rd week after irradiation with doses up to 0.5 kGy and from potato treated with doses up to 2.0 kGy. However, irradiation of onion infected with Ditylenchus dipsaci caused the inhibition of the development and growth of juvenile nematodes to mature forms. Doses of gamma radiation ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 kGy had only a slight effect, if any, on the development and growth of D. dipsaci nematodes infecting garlic, but they increased juvenile mortality. Gamma radiation at doses up to 2.0 kGy induced increased mortality of nematode juveniles of the potato tuber nematode, D. destructor but less so inhibited their development to mature forms. Nematodes were found to be resistant to irradiation treatment. Therefore the use of gamma irradiation for nematode disinfestation of agricultural products seems to be impractical, if the aim of the treatment is to kill these pests within a few weeks. The level of radiation required to kill nematodes in infected plants would damage plant tissues so that the further storage of vegetables will be impossible. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Magnetic Stirrer Method for the Detection of Trichinella Larvae in Muscle Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Pozio, Edoardo; Gayda, Jennifer; Thaben, Nora; Bahn, Peter; Nöckler, Karsten

    2017-03-03

    Trichinellosis is a debilitating disease in humans and is caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked meat of animals infected with the nematode larvae of the genus Trichinella. The most important sources of human infections worldwide are game meat and pork or pork products. In many countries, the prevention of human trichinellosis is based on the identification of infected animals by means of the artificial digestion of muscle samples from susceptible animal carcasses. There are several methods based on the digestion of meat but the magnetic stirrer method is considered the gold standard. This method allows the detection of Trichinella larvae by microscopy after the enzymatic digestion of muscle samples and subsequent filtration and sedimentation steps. Although this method does not require special and expensive equipment, internal controls cannot be used. Therefore, stringent quality management should be applied throughout the test. The aim of the present work is to provide detailed handling instructions and critical control points of the method to analysts, based on the experience of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Parasites and the National Reference Laboratory of Germany for Trichinella.

  3. Release of lungworm larvae from snails in the environment: potential for alternative transmission pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Giannelli

    2015-04-01

    indicate that A. abstrusus and T. brevior infective L3 are shed in the mucus of H. aspersa or in water where infected gastropods had died submerged. Both elimination pathways may represent alternative route(s of environmental contamination and source of the infection for these nematodes under field conditions and may significantly affect the epidemiology of feline lungworms. Considering that snails may act as intermediate hosts for other metastrongyloid species, the environmental contamination by mucus-released larvae is discussed in a broader context.

  4. Variations in the Rate of Infestations of Dogs with Zoonotic Nematodes and the Contamination of Soil in Different Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzińska, Maria Bernadeta; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, Marta; Borecka, Anna; Meisner, Michał; Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Roczeń-Karczmarz, Monika; Kłapeć, Teresa; Abbass, Zahrai; Cholewa, Alicja

    2017-09-01

    Companion animals are an important aspect in human life. However, they may also be considered a source of pathogens. An example of zoonotic parasitoses is toxocarosis or cutaneous larva migrans (CLM). The aim of the study was to detect zoonotic nematodes of dogs living in different areas and the intensity of contamination in parasite polluted environments that are hazardous to human health. The fecal samples were examined using standard flotation and decantation methods as well as McMaster's quantitative technique. The soil samples in urban and rural areas were examined using a modified flotation method as described by Quinn et al. Statistical analyses were performed by IBM SPSS Statistics Version 23. The overall prevalence of parasites in dogs was 38%, 17.02% and 56.60% from urban and rural areas, respectively. The percentage values of nematodes important for human health ( Toxocara canis , Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis ) remained at the same level (16%). The infected dogs were dominated by a single parasite species, the main was T. canis (28.95%). In total, 54.30% of the soil samples were contaminated with parasite eggs. The contamination of urban and rural sandpits was 40% and 60%, respectively. The molecular examinations of soil samples using LAMP (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) confirmed the presence of nematode eggs of the species T. canis in all samples previously classified as positive.

  5. Dentirumai philippinensis n. gen., n. sp (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new tissue-infecting philometrid nematode from the loach goby Rhyacichthys aspro (Valenciennes) (Rhyacichthyidae) in the Philippines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quiazon, K.M.A.; Moravec, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2013), s. 59-65 ISSN 0022-149X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Philometridae * Phillipine Archipelago * Parasitic nematode Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.303, year: 2013

  6. Mixed infection of Galleria mellonella with two entomopathogenic nematode (Nematoda: Rhabditida) species: Steinernema affine benefits from the presence of Steinernema kraussei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půža, Vladimír; Mráček, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2009), s. 40-43 ISSN 0022-2011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : entomopathogenic nematodes * Steinernema affine * Steinernema kraussei Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.807, year: 2009

  7. Parasitic nematodes of the genus Syphacia Seurat, 1916 infecting Muridae in the British Isles, and the peculiar case of Syphacia frederici.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, Alex; Lowe, Ann; Smales, Lesley; Bajer, Anna; Bradley, Jan; Dwużnik, Dorota; Franssen, Frits; Griffith, Jack; Stuart, Peter; Turner, Cyan; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2017-01-01

    Syphacia stroma (von Linstow, 1884) Morgan, 1932 and Syphacia frederici Roman, 1945 are oxyurid nematodes that parasitize two murid rodents, Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis, on the European mainland. Only S. stroma has been recorded previously in Apodemus spp. from the British Isles.

  8. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

  9. Influence of host irradiation on the bio-infectivity of Steinernema glaseri as entomopathogenic nematodes and their perpetuating parasitisation potential on a serious tropical lepidopteran pest, Spodoptera litura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, R K [Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi (India); Barik, T K; Chauhan, S [Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2005-07-01

    Biological and parabiological control measures of the lepidopteran pest, Spodoptera litura need to be eco-compatible in view of increasing environmental hazards by the chemical pesticides and development of insecticide-resistance in this pest. Among bio-control agents, the entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) appear to be promising due to their great ability for host searching and killing, high reproductive rate, and safety to the non target organisms. The EPNs need to be transported within host-insects (in vivo) into the field so that they have their proper viability as part of augmentative releases. To avoid the risk of released host insects, if unparasitized, building up of the pest population in the field, radiation-sterilisation of the host is considered desirable. Therefore, an attempt was made to ascertain the bioinfectivity of EPNs, Steinernema glaseri vis-a-vis irradiated hosts, Spodoptera litura and assess parasitisation behaviour of the infective juveniles (IJs) derived from irradiated hosts, in order to establish this biocontrol strategy using nuclear techniques. Radiation impact was ascertained on behaviour and reproduction of S. litura in order to select the range of gamma doses for sterilising the various insect stages. Radio-sensitivity decreased with age in this 'radio-resistant' pest, S. litura. Two doses were selected (40 Gy, 70 Gy), for bio-evaluation of EPNs on treated host stages. 70 Gy was determined as an overall sterilising dose for late larval and prepupal stages. Influence of host-irradiation was ascertained on EPNs bioefficacy towards hosts reared on two different diets, castor (natural food) and a semi-synthetic diet (used in mass-rearing). Host-irradiation did not influence significantly the parasitisation behaviour of EPNs on host insects reared on castor, whereas irradiation slightly affected the bio-infective response of EPNs and their proliferation rate in hosts fed on the semi-synthetic diet. Further, the parasitisation behaviour of

  10. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  11. Identification of Lamanema chavezi Becklund 1963 infection in a llama (Lama glama) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, Julie Ann C; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Kreuder, Amanda J; Schleining, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Lamanema chavezi, a parasitic nematode of New World camelids, was diagnosed by examination of feces and formalin-fixed liver from a 14-month-old female llama (Lama glama) that died after a 6-week illness. Infection with L. chavezi was initially suspected when a granuloma containing an unidentified nematode was detected microscopically in the hepatic parenchyma from a necropsy specimen. The subsequent diagnosis of L. chavezi infection was based on the morphologic features of 2 immature nematodes dissected from individual hepatic granulomas, characteristics of eggs detected in feces of the llama by centrifugal flotation in sugar solution (specific gravity: 1.30), development of third-stage larvae within the eggs after incubation of the llama feces at room temperature for ≥30 days, and the morphology of third-stage larvae released from the embryonated eggs. Collectively, these findings indicate that the llama, born and raised in Oregon, harbored an autochthonous L. chavezi infection. Eggs identified as L. chavezi were also detected by centrifugal flotation of pelleted feces from 3 of 7 herd mates of the llama indicating this parasite is endemic in the Oregon herd. The findings reported herein serve to alert diagnosticians and veterinary practitioners to the occurrence of L. chavezi in New World camelids in the United States and describe diagnostic features of this potential pathogen.

  12. Nutritional requirements for soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans [Glycine max] are the second largest cash crop in US Agriculture, but the soybean yield is compromised by infections from Heterodera glycines, also known as Soybean Cyst Nematodes [SCN]. SCN are the most devastating pathogen or plant disease soybean producers confront. This obligate parasi...

  13. The oxygen consumption rates of different life stages of the endoparasitic nematode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie van Aardt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxygen consumption rates of different life stages of the endoparasitic nematode, Pratylenchus zeae (Nematoda: Tylenchida during non- and post-anhydrobiosisPratylenchus zeae, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, is an endoparasite in roots of maize and other crop plants. The nematode is attracted to plant roots by CO2 and root exudates and feeds primarily on cells of the root cortex, making channels and openings where the eggs are deposited, with the result that secondary infection occurs due to bacteria and fungi. Nothing is known about the respiration physiology of this nematode and how it manages to survive during dry seasons. To measure the oxygen consumption rate (VO2 of individual P. zeae (less than half a millimeter long, a special measuring technique namely Cartesian diver micro-respirometry was applied. The Cartesian divers were machined from Perspex, and proved to be more accurate to measure VO2 compared with heavier glass divers used in similar experiments on free living nematodes. An accuracy of better than one nanoliter of oxygen consumed per hour was achieved with a single P. zeae inside the diver. Cartesian diver micro-respirometry measurements are based in principle on the manometric changes that occur in a fl otation tube in a manometer set-up when oxygen is consumed by P. zeae and CO2 from the animal is chemically absorbed. VO2 was measured for eggs (length: < 0.05 mm, larvae (length: 0.36 mm and adults (length: 0.47 mm before induction to anhydrobiosis. P. zeae from infected maize roots were extracted and exposed aseptically to in vitro maize root cultures in a grow cabinet at 50 % to 60% relative humidity at 28 ºC using eggs, larvae and adults. VO2 was also measured for post-anhydrobiotic eggs, larvae and adults by taking 50 individuals, eggs and larvae from the culture and placing them in Petri-dishes with 1% agar/water to dry out for 11 days at 28 ºC and 50% relative humidity. The VO2 was measured

  14. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  15. Antibody responses in pregnancy-induced transmammary transmission of Ancylostoma caninum hookworm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasu, P; Heller, A

    1999-09-20

    Third stage larvae of the Ancylostoma caninum hookworm nematode have the capacity to infect a dog, abort the normal maturation pathway to become blood-feeding intestinal worms, and instead distribute throughout the body in a developmentally arrested state that is relatively resilient to most chemotherapeutic agents. During pregnancy, a percentage of the arrested larvae reactivate and transmit via the mammary glands to infect the nursing puppies with resulting iron-deficiency anemia and potential mortality. To determine if the suppression of parasite-specific antibody responses during pregnancy facilitates the reactivation and transmammary transfer of hookworm larvae, a murine model of A. caninum infection was used to compare the infected versus uninfected animals that were either bred or not bred. Initial comparisons of genetically divergent BALB/c versus C57BL/6 mice showed that both the strains mounted strong Th2 biased IgG1 and IgE antibody responses to A. caninum infection. Using the BALB/c strain for the breeding analyses, it was confirmed that larval transfer to the mouse pups only occurred during the post-partum lactational period. In the dams, levels of total and antigen-specific IgG1 and total IgE were highly correlated with parasite burden. During most phases of pregnancy and lactation, infected dams had lower total IgG1, IgG2a and IgE levels as compared to unbred mice at comparable times post-infection; this downward modulation of antibody responses supports the established dogma of a generalized immunosuppression associated with pregnancy. However, at parturition and post-partum lactation, antigen-specific IgG1 levels measured at 1:5000 serum dilutions were comparable between bred and unbred mice, and antigen-specific IgG2a levels at 1:100 serum dilutions were also not significantly different except for a marginal reduction in the bred mice at the lactational timepoint. The comparable anti-A. caninum IgG1 levels between bred and unbred mice, and low

  16. Phylogency and Evolution of Nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bert, W.; Karssen, G.; Helder, J.

    2011-01-01

    Many plant-parasitic nematodes including members of the genera Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes), Heterodera and Globodera (cyst nematodes) and Pratylenchus (lesion nematodes) are studied as they cause major damage to crops such as potato, tomato, soybean and sugar beet. Both for fundamental reasons

  17. Anisakid nematodes as possible markers to trace fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ferrantelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a total of 949 fish samples were analysed for the identification of nematode larvae belonging to the Anisakidae family. Biomolecular application for the identification of Anisakidae larvae can be an optimal instrument for the traceability of fish products, described on the Reg. EC 178/2002. Results confirm a correlation between geographical distribution of fishes and presence of specific Anisakid larvae. FAO 37 zone (Mediterranean sea showed a prevailing distribution of Anisakis pegreffii and a minimal presence of A. simplex s.s. in hybrid form with Anisakis pegreffii. FAO 27 zone showed a prevailing distribution of A. simplex s.s. in fish like Brosme (Brosme brosme and infestation prevalence of Pseudoterranova krabbei and P. decipiens s.s. in Gadus morhua. Obtained results validate the hypothesis that molecular biology methods for identifying Anisakidae larvae are effective traceability markers of fish products.

  18. Effectiveness of different species of entomopathogenic nematodes for biocontrol of the Mediterranean flatheaded rootborer, Capnodis tenebrionis (Linné) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in potted peach tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Ana; Del Pino, Fernando García

    2008-02-01

    The susceptibility of larvae of the Mediterranean flatheaded rootborer (Capnodis tenebrionis) to 13 isolates of entomopathogenic nematodes was examined using GF-677 potted trees (peachxalmond hybrid) as the host plant. The nematode strains tested included nine Steinernema feltiae, one S. affine, one S. carpocapsae and two Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Nematodes showed the ability to locate and kill larvae of C. tenebrionis just after they enter into the roots of the tree. S. feltiae strains provided an efficacy ranging from 79.68% to 88.24%. H. bacteriophora strains resulted in control of 71.66-76.47%. S. carpocapsae (B14) and S. affine (Gspe3) caused lower control of C. tenebrionis larvae (62.03% and 34.76%, respectively). The influence of foraging strategy and the use of autochthonous nematodes to control C. tenebrionis larvae inside the roots is discussed.

  19. Survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J L; Ivanova, E S; Hatteland, B A; Brurberg, M B; Haukeland, S

    2016-09-01

    A survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs was conducted for the first time in Norway. A total of 611 terrestrial slugs were collected from 32 sample sites. Slugs were identified by means of morphological examination, dissection of genitalia and molecular analysis using mitochondrial DNA. Twelve slug species were identified, representing four different slug families. Internal nematodes were identified by means of morphological analysis and the sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Of the sample sites studied, 62.5% were found to be positive for nematode parasites, with 18.7% of all slugs discovered being infected. Five nematode species were identified in this study: Alloionema appendiculatum, Agfa flexilis, Angiostoma limacis, Angiostoma sp. and Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Of these species, only one nematode was previously undescribed (Angiostoma sp.). This is the first record of the presence of A. appendiculatum, A. flexilis and A. limacis in Norway.

  20. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and ACC synthase expression in soybean roots, root tips, and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)-infected roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark L; Xue, Ping; Yang, Ronghui

    2010-01-01

    Colonization of plant roots by root knot and cyst nematodes requires a functional ethylene response pathway. However, ethylene plays many roles in root development and whether its role in nematode colonization is direct or indirect, for example lateral root initiation or root hair growth, is not known. The temporal requirement for ethylene and localized synthesis of ethylene during the life span of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) on soybean roots was further investigated. Although a significant increase in ethylene evolution was not detected from SCN-colonized roots, the concentration of the immediate precursor to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), was higher in SCN-colonized root pieces and root tips than in other parts of the root. Moreover, expression analysis of 17 ACC synthase (ACS) genes indicated that a select set of ACS genes is expressed in SCN-colonized root pieces that is clearly different from the set of genes expressed in non-colonized roots or root tips. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR indicated that ACS transcript accumulation correlates with the high concentration of ACC in root tips. In addition, an ACS-like sequence was found in the public SCN nucleotide database. Acquisition of a full-length sequence for this mRNA (accession GQ389647) and alignment with transcripts for other well-characterized ACS proteins indicated that the nematode sequence is missing a key element required for ACS activity and therefore probably is not a functional ACS. Moreover, no significant amount of ACC was found in any growth stage of SCN that was tested.

  1. Use of copper oxide wire particles to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J M; Terrill, T H; Kallu, R R; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J

    2007-10-01

    The objectives of these experiments were to determine the optimal dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) necessary to reduce gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection in young and mature goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus or a mixed infection and to determine whether the effectiveness could be enhanced through feeding management. Two experiments were conducted during cooler months in Georgia, and 4 experiments were conducted during warmer spring or summer months in Arkansas. Meat goats received 0 up to 10 g of COWP under a variety of management conditions. In all experiments, blood and feces were collected every 3 or 7 d from 6 to 42 d to determine blood packed cell volume (PCV) and fecal egg counts (FEC) to estimate the degree of GIN infection. In mature goats grazing fall pasture, mean FEC of 0 g of COWP-treated goats increased, and those of 4 g of COWP-treated goats remained low on d 0, 7, and 14 (COWP x d, P 0.10), which were lower on d 7 through 21 (COWP x date, P copper toxicity, was effective in reducing FEC in young goats, and 5 g of COWP was effective in older goats. Copper oxide does not appear to be effective in controlling newly acquired L4 stage (preadult) larvae, which also feed on blood, leading to decreased PCV in newly infected goats.

  2. Inbreeding and population structure of the potato cyst nematode (Globodera pallida) in its native area (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, D; Plantard, O; Scurrah, M; Mugniery, D

    2004-10-01

    The dispersal abilities and the population genetic structure of nematodes living in the soil are poorly known. In the present study, we have pursued these issues in the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida, which parasitizes potato roots and is indigenous to South America. A hierarchical sampling regime was conducted in Peru to investigate gene flow on regional, field and plant scales. Multilocus genotypes of single individuals were obtained using eight polymorphic microsatellites markers. Large heterozygote deficiencies were observed at most loci. The limited active dispersal of larvae from their cyst, which favours mating between (half) siblings, could be responsible for this pattern. Within fields, as well as among fields within regions (even 35 km apart), low F(ST) values suggest extensive gene flow. Among fields within regions, only 1.5-4.4% genetic variability was observed. Passive dispersal of cysts by natural means (wind, running water, or wild animals) or by anthropogenic means (tillage, movement of infected seed tubers) is probably responsible for the results observed. Among regions, high F(ST) values were observed. Thus long-range dispersal (more than 320 km apart) is probably limited by major biogeographical barriers such as the mountains found in the Andean Cordillera. These results provide useful information for the management of resistant varieties, to slow down the emergence and spread of resistance-breaking pathotypes.

  3. Cutaneous larva migrans in northern climates. A souvenir of your dream vacation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelglass, J W; Douglass, M C; Stiefler, R; Tessler, M

    1982-09-01

    Three young women recently returned to the metropolitan Detroit area with cutaneous larva migrans. All three had vacationed at a popular club resort on the Caribbean island of Martinique. Cutaneous larva migrans is frequently seen in the southern United States, Central and South America, and other subtropical areas but rarely in northern climates. Several organisms can cause cutaneous larva migrans, or creeping eruption. The larvae of the nematode Ancylostoma braziliense are most often the causative organisms. Travel habits of Americans make it necessary for practitioners in northern climates to be familiar with diseases contracted primarily in warmer locations. The life cycle of causative organisms and current therapy are reviewed.

  4. Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea: molecular and ecological links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, S; Kania, P W; Mehrdana, F; Marana, M H; Buchmann, K

    2018-01-01

    Populations of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), sprats (Sprattus sprattus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea are relatively stationary. The present work, applying classical and molecular helminthological techniques, documents that seals and cod also share a common parasite, the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum, which uses seals as the final host and fish as transport hosts. Sequencing mitochondrial genes (COX1 and COX2) in adult worms from seals and third-stage larvae from livers of Baltic fish (sprats and cod), showed that all gene variants occur in both seals and fish. Other anisakid nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens and Anisakis simplex are also found in both seals and cod in the Baltic Sea, but at much lower rates. The Baltic grey seal population was left at a critically low level (comprising a few hundred individuals) during the latter part of the 20th century, but since the year 2000 a marked increase in the population has been observed, reaching more than 40,000 individuals at present. Ecological consequences of the increased seal abundance may result from increased predation on fish stocks, but recent evidence also points to the influence of elevated parasitism on fish performance. Contracaecum osculatum larvae preferentially infect the liver of Baltic cod, considered a vital organ of the host. Whereas low prevalences and intensities in cod were reported during the 1980s and 1990s, the present study documents 100% prevalence and a mean intensity of above 80 worms per fish. Recent studies have also indicated the zoonotic potential of C. osculatum larvae in fish, following the consumption of raw or under-cooked fish. Therefore the present work discusses the impact of parasitism on the cod stock and the increasing risk for consumer health, and lists possible solutions for control.

  5. Comparison of three methods for gastrointestinal nematode diagnosis determination in grazing dairy cattle in relation to milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, M E; Perri, A F; Licoff, N; Miglierina, M M; Cseh, S; Ornstein, A M; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2011-12-29

    Development of resistance to anthelmintic drugs has motivated the search for diagnostic methods to identify animals for targeted selective treatments. We compared three methods for the diagnosis of nematode infection in relation to milk production in a fully grazing dairy herd of 150 cows in the humid Pampa (Argentina). Animals had feces, blood and milk sampled during the first postpartum month for EPG, pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody determination, respectively. With the results obtained two groups of cows, divided in high and low parasite burden, were conformed for each method, and milk production was then compared between groups. When cows were separated by the EPG method (EPG=0 (N=106) vs. EPG>0 (N=44)) a difference of nearly 800 l of milk per cow per lactation was found (P 1000) or by anti-Ostertagia (ODR ≤ 0.5 vs. ODR > 0.5) results did not differ. Interestingly, proportion of cows in each group differed between methods (P<0.0001), and the anti-Ostertagia method yielded significantly more cows in the high index group compared to results using the EPG or Pepsinogen method. No correlations were found between parasite indexes determined by the different methods. High parasite burden estimation found may be ascribed to the production system, fully grazing all year round, and to the sampling time, at the beginning of lactation with cows in negative energy balance and depressed immunity. The fact that the cows were born and reared outside, on pasture with continuous nematode larvae exposure, may also account for the results obtained. In conclusion, EPG counting during the first postpartum month may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of production impairment induced by high nematode burden in adult grazing dairy cows. The anthelmintic treatment of only the EPG-positive recently calved cows would improve milk production, while reducing selective pressure on nematode population for the development of resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Stem nematode counteracts plant resistance of aphids in alfalfa, Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ricardo A; Spears, Lori R

    2014-10-01

    Plants are exploited by a diverse community of insect herbivores and phytopathogens that interact indirectly through plant-mediated interactions. Generally, plants are thought to respond to insects and pathogens through different defensive signaling pathways. As plants are selected for resistance to one phytophagous organism type (insect vs. pathogen) in managed systems, it is not clear how this selection may affect community interactions. This study examined the effect of nematode-resistant varieties on aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) suppression, and then determined how infection by the stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci, mediated ecological effects on aphids and on plant defense proteins. Four alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties were selected with resistance to nematodes only (+,-), aphids only (-,+), nematodes and aphids (+,+), and susceptibility to nematodes and aphids (-,-). Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to isolate the effect of nematode infection and aphid abundance on each variety. We found that varieties resistant to nematode, regardless of aphid resistance, had the lowest aphid counts, suggesting possible cross-resistance. Aphid abundance, however, increased when plants were exposed to nematodes. Resistant varieties were associated with elevated saponins but these compounds were not affected by insect or pathogen feeding. Concentrations of peroxidases and trypsin inhibitors, however, were increased in nematode resistant varieties when exposed to nematodes and aphids, respectively. The patterns of plant defense were variable, and a combination of resistance traits and changes in nutrient availability may drive positive interactions between nematodes and aphids aboveground.

  7. Adaptive radiation within marine anisakid nematodes: a zoogeographical modeling of cosmopolitan, zoonotic parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kuhn

    Full Text Available Parasites of the nematode genus Anisakis are associated with aquatic organisms. They can be found in a variety of marine hosts including whales, crustaceans, fish and cephalopods and are known to be the cause of the zoonotic disease anisakiasis, a painful inflammation of the gastro-intestinal tract caused by the accidental consumptions of infectious larvae raw or semi-raw fishery products. Since the demand on fish as dietary protein source and the export rates of seafood products in general is rapidly increasing worldwide, the knowledge about the distribution of potential foodborne human pathogens in seafood is of major significance for human health. Studies have provided evidence that a few Anisakis species can cause clinical symptoms in humans. The aim of our study was to interpolate the species range for every described Anisakis species on the basis of the existing occurrence data. We used sequence data of 373 Anisakis larvae from 30 different hosts worldwide and previously published molecular data (n = 584 from 53 field-specific publications to model the species range of Anisakis spp., using a interpolation method that combines aspects of the alpha hull interpolation algorithm as well as the conditional interpolation approach. The results of our approach strongly indicate the existence of species-specific distribution patterns of Anisakis spp. within different climate zones and oceans that are in principle congruent with those of their respective final hosts. Our results support preceding studies that propose anisakid nematodes as useful biological indicators for their final host distribution and abundance as they closely follow the trophic relationships among their successive hosts. The modeling might although be helpful for predicting the likelihood of infection in order to reduce the risk of anisakiasis cases in a given area.

  8. Differential Response of a Local Population of Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Non-Native Herbivore Induced Plant Volatiles (HIPV) in the Laboratory and Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Monique J; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Alborn, Hans T; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M

    2016-12-01

    Recent work has shown the potential for enhanced efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) through their attraction to herbivore induced plant volatiles. However, there has been little investigation into the utilization of these attractants in systems other than in those in which they were identified. We compared (E)-β-caryophyllene and pregeijerene in the highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) agroecosystem in their ability to enhance the attraction of EPN to and efficacy against the system's herbivore, oriental beetle (Anomala orientalis). The relative attractiveness of (E)-β-caryophyllene and pregeijerene to a local isolate of the EPN species Steinernema glaseri was tested in a six-arm olfactometer in the laboratory to gather baseline values of attraction to the chemicals alone in sand substrate before field tests. A similar arrangement was used in a V. corymbosum field by placing six cages with assigned treatments and insect larvae with and without compound into the soil around the base of 10 plants. The cages were removed after 72 h, and insect baits were retrieved and assessed for EPN infection. The lab results indicate that in sand alone (E)-β-caryophyllene is significantly more attractive than pregeijerene to the local S. glaseri isolate Conversely, there was no difference in attractiveness in the field study, but rather, native S. glaseri were more attracted to cages with G. mellonella larvae, no larvae, and cages with the blank control and G. mellonella larvae.

  9. Reciprocal Interactions between Nematodes and Their Microbial Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midha, Ankur; Schlosser, Josephine; Hartmann, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic nematode infections are widespread in nature, affecting humans as well as wild, companion, and livestock animals. Most parasitic nematodes inhabit the intestines of their hosts living in close contact with the intestinal microbiota. Many species also have tissue migratory life stages in the absence of severe systemic inflammation of the host. Despite the close coexistence of helminths with numerous microbes, little is known concerning these interactions. While the environmental niche is considerably different, the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) is also found amongst a diverse microbiota, albeit on decaying organic matter. As a very well characterized model organism that has been intensively studied for several decades, C. elegans interactions with bacteria are much more deeply understood than those of their parasitic counterparts. The enormous breadth of understanding achieved by the C. elegans research community continues to inform many aspects of nematode parasitology. Here, we summarize what is known regarding parasitic nematode-bacterial interactions while comparing and contrasting this with information from work in C. elegans . This review highlights findings concerning responses to bacterial stimuli, antimicrobial peptides, and the reciprocal influences between nematodes and their environmental bacteria. Furthermore, the microbiota of nematodes as well as alterations in the intestinal microbiota of mammalian hosts by helminth infections are discussed.

  10. Larvae for layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lotte; Fischer, Christian Holst; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Companies and researchers are in close collaboration developing a container- based system for cultivating fly larvae at organic poultry farms. In a one week process, manure will be converted to compost and the live larvae will be harvested and used for feeding laying hens. The larvae are expected...

  11. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Combretum molle (R. Br. ex G. Don) (Combretaceae) against Haemonchus contortus ova and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, I O; Eloff, J N

    2010-04-19

    Parasitic nematodes, especially Haemonchus contortus (Rudolphi), are among the most common and economically important causes of disease in sheep and goats owned by pastoralists and small holder farmers in Africa. The control of these infections relies mainly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, herbal preparations are widely used by pastoralists and small holder farmers for the treatment of their livestock against helminth parasites. The anthelmintic effect of acetone leaf extract and fractions of Combretum molle was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the components against gastrointestinal sheep nematodes. The fractions were obtained by solvent:solvent extraction from the acetone extract. These were evaluated for nematocidal activity by means of an egg hatch (EHA) and larval a development and viability assay (LDVA) in vitro. The effect of the test extracts on the hatchability of eggs and development of first to third stage larvae and the survival rate of the third stage larvae. H. contortus, were used to determine the relative bioactivities. Best-fit LC(50) values were computed using global model of nonlinear regression curve-fitting. The extracts inhibited egg hatching and development of the larvae of H. contortus in a concentration-dependent manner. Best-fit LC(50) values for the egg hatch test were 0.866, 0.333, 0.833, 0.747, and 0.065mg/mL for acetone extract, n-butanol, hexane, chloroform, and 35% water in methanol fractions, respectively. The best-fit LC(50) values for the LDVA were 0.604, 0.362, 1.077, 0.131 and 0.318mg/mL for the acetone extract, butanol, hexane, chloroform, and 35% water in methanol fractions, respectively. In the EHA the 35% water in methanol fraction was significantly more active than all the other fractions (pmolle leaf could find application in anthelmintic therapy in veterinary practice.

  12. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts...... for these parasites. Here, we report from an investigation of 368 cod (total length [TL] 6-49 cm; caught in ICES Subdivision 25) that the infection level of juvenile cod (TL 6-30 cm) with larvae of C. osculatum and P. decipiens is absent or very low, whereas it increases drastically in larger cod (TL 31-48 cm...... suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts...

  13. Human Dirofilaria repens Infection in Romania: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Popescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the filarial nematodes of dogs Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis. Depending on the species involved, human infections usually manifest as one cutaneous or visceral larva migrans that forms a painless nodule in the later course of disease. Dirofilariae are endemic in the Mediterranean, particularly in Italy. They are considered as emerging pathogens currently increasing their geographical range. We present one of the few known cases of human dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in Romania. The patient developed unusual and severe clinical manifestations that mimicked pathological conditions like cellulitis or deep venous thrombosis.

  14. Desenvolvimento e migração de larvas infectantes de ciatostomíneos (Nematoda: Cyathostominae em gramínea coast cross (Cynodon dactylon em clima tropical, na Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brasil Development and migration of cyathostome infective larvae (Nematoda: Cyathostominae in bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon in tropical climate, in Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C. M. do Couto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo foi realizado no período de julho de 2003 a novembro de 2004, para avaliar o desenvolvimento, a sobrevivência, a migração das larvas infectantes em gramínea "coast cross" (Cynodon dactylon e o horário de maior disponibilidade, em condições de clima tropical, na Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brasil. De julho de 2003 a setembro de 2004, massas fecais de equinos naturalmente infectados foram depositadas mensalmente sobre a gramínea. Sete dias após, amostras de fezes e gramínea foram coletadas semanalmente em diferentes horários (8, 13 e 17 horas, pesadas e processadas pela técnica de Baermann. O desenvolvimento, a sobrevivência e a migração das larvas infectantes nas fezes e na gramínea foram observados durante todo o período. A sobrevivência das L3 foi de até 15 semanas nas fezes e 12 semanas na gramínea no período seco e de nove e oito semanas, respectivamente, para o período chuvoso. No período chuvoso, maior número de L3 foi recuperado nas fezes e, no período seco, na gramínea. Condições climáticas influenciaram diretamente o número larvas infectantes. Pela análise multivariada, ficou demonstrado uma forte relação entre o tempo e o número de L3 nas fezes, sendo esta relação menos acentuada para a gramínea. Não se observou diferença significativa entre os horários de coleta.A study following the development and migration of Cyathostominae infective larvae was conducted from July 2003 to November 2004 in tropical climate, Baixada Fluminense, RJ, Brazil. Samples of naturally infected feces were placed on 12 m² plot each month on a cyathostomin-free "Bermuda grass" pasture (Cynodon dactylon. After Seven days, samples of feces and grass were collected every week at 8 a.m, 1 and 5 p.m., weighed and processed by Baermann technique. Higher survival of L3 was found at dry season, 15 and 12 weeks on feces and sward respectively, at rainy season the survival was smaller. The multivariable analysis of main

  15. Cellular proliferation rate and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and IGFBP-3 and estradiol receptor alpha expression in the mammary gland of dairy heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, A F; Dallard, B E; Baravalle, C; Licoff, N; Formía, N; Ortega, H H; Becú-Villalobos, D; Mejia, M E; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary ductal morphogenesis during prepuberty occurs mainly in response to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and estradiol stimulation. Dairy heifers infected with gastrointestinal nematodes have reduced IGF-1 levels, accompanied by reduced growth rate, delayed puberty onset, and lower parenchyma-stroma relationship in their mammary glands. Immunohistochemical studies were undertaken to determine variations in cell division rate, IGF-1 system components, and estradiol receptors (ESR) during peripubertal development in the mammary glands of antiparasitic-treated and untreated Holstein heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Mammary biopsies were taken at 20, 30, 40, and 70 wk of age. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunolabeling, evident in nuclei, tended to be higher in the parenchyma of the glands from treated heifers than in those from untreated. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) type 2 and type 3 immunolabeling was cytoplasmic and was evident in stroma and parenchyma. The IGFBP2-labeled area was lower in treated than in untreated heifers. In the treated group, a maximal expression of this protein was seen at 40 wk of age, whereas in the untreated group the labeling remained constant. No differences were observed for IGFBP3 between treatment groups or during development. Immunolabeling for α ESR (ESR1) was evident in parenchymal nuclei and was higher in treated than in untreated heifers. In the treated group, ESR1 peaked at 30 wk of age and then decreased. These results demonstrate that the parasite burden in young heifers negatively influence mammary gland development, affecting cell division rate and parameters related to estradiol and IGF-1 signaling in the gland. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of sialoglycopolypeptide for potentially blocking influenza virus infection using a rat α2,6-sialyltransferase expressed in BmNPV bacmid-injected silkworm larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata Makoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acid is a deoxy uronic acid with a skeleton of nine carbons which is mostly found on cell surface in animals. This sialic acid on cell surface performs various biological functions by acting as a receptor for microorganisms, viruses, toxins, and hormones; by masking receptors; and by regulating the immune system. In order to synthesize an artificial sialoglycoprotein, we developed a large-scale production of rat α2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal1. The ST6Gal1 was expressed in fifth instar silkworm larval hemolymph using recombinant both cysteine protease- and chitinase-deficient Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV-CP--Chi- bacmid. The expressed ST6Gal1 was purified, characterized and used for sialylation of asialoglycopolypeptide. We tested the inhibitory effect of the synthesized α2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide on hemagglutination by Sambucus nigra (SNA lectin. Results FLAG-tagged recombinant ST6Gal1 was expressed efficiently and purified by precipitation with ammonium sulphate followed by affinity chromatography on an anti-FLAG M2 column, generating 2.2 mg purified fusion protein from only 11 silkworm larvae, with a recovery yield of 64%. The purified ST6Gal1 was characterized and its N-glycan patterns were found to be approximately paucimannosidic type by HPLC mapping method. Fluorescently-labelled N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc glycoside containing dansyl group was synthesized chemo-enzymatically as high-sensitivity acceptor substrate for ST6Gal1. The acceptor substrate specificity of the enzyme was similar to that of rat liver ST6Gal1. The fluorescent glycoside is useful as a substrate for a highly sensitive picomole assay of ST6Gal1. Asialoglycopolypeptide was regioselectively and quantitatively sialylated by catalytic reaction at the terminal Gal residue to obtain α2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide using ST6Gal1. The α2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide selectively inhibited hemagglutination induced by Sambucus nigra (SNA lectin

  17. Preliminary study on the inactivation of anisakid larvae in baccalà prepared according to traditional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Smaldone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority stated that many traditional marinating and cold smoking methods are not sufficient to kill A. simplex and asked to evaluate alternative treatments for killing viable parasites in fishery. Baccalà is a well-liked traditional product. The aim of study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the salting process on the inactivation of nematodes of the genus Anisakis in naturally infected Baccalà fillets. N. 19 fillets, subjected to a dual salting process (brine and dry salting were analyzed. Visual inspection and chloropeptic digestion were performed. Larvae viability was evaluated, and parameters such as NaCl (%, moisture (%, WPS and aw were determined. In n. 17 samples parasites were found 123 parasites with a mean intensity of 7.23±4.78 and an mean abundance of 6.47±5.05. Visual examination has revealed 109 parasites. 61.8% of larvae were found in the ventral portions. The results show that salting process with a salt concentration of 18.6%, aw values of 0.7514 and 24.15% WPS in all parts of baccalà fillets, devitalise Anisakidae larvae in a 15-day period.

  18. Preliminary study on the inactivation of anisakid larvae in baccalà prepared according to traditional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldone, Giorgio; Marrone, Raffaele; Palma, Giuseppe; Sarnelli, Paolo; Anastasio, Aniello

    2017-10-20

    The European Food Safety Authority stated that many traditional marinating and cold smoking methods are not sufficient to kill A. simplex and asked to evaluate alternative treatments for killing viable parasites in fishery . Baccalà is a well-liked traditional product. The aim of study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the salting process on the inactivation of nematodes of the genus Anisakis in naturally infected Baccalà fillets. N. 19 fillets, subjected to a dual salting process (brine and dry salting) were analyzed. Visual inspection and chloropeptic digestion were performed. Larvae viability was evaluated, and parameters such as NaCl (%), moisture (%), WPS and a w were determined. In n. 17 samples parasites were found 123 parasites with a mean intensity of 7.23±4.78 and an mean abundance of 6.47±5.05. Visual examination has revealed 109 parasites. 61.8% of larvae were found in the ventral portions. The results show that salting process with a salt concentration of 18.6%, a w values of 0.7514 and 24.15% WPS in all parts of baccalà fillets, devitalise Anisakidae larvae in a 15-day period.

  19. Natural infection of the feline lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in the invasive snail Achatina fulica from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Romina; Diaz, Julia Ines; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2017-02-15

    The giant African snail Achatina fulica is an invasive mollusk native to Africa, the first record in Argentina was in Puerto Iguazú, in northeastern Argentina in 2010. Recently it was reported in Corrientes Province. This snail can act as an intermediate host of Metastrongyloidea nematodes of importance in public health as: Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus vasorum. Taking into account the presence of A. fulica in Argentina, the objectives of this study is to assess the presence of Metastrongyloidea nematodes in this mollusk species in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, close to the international border with Brazil and Paraguay. A total of 451 samples were collected from February 2014 to November 2015. The snails were processed using a digestion technique to recover the parasites. A total of 206 nematodes larvae were founded in the digestion solution of 10 hosts (P=2%; MA=0.5; MI=21). Third larval stage (L3) nematodes identified as Aelurostrongylus abstrusus were founded parasitizing the snails. No other larval stage was observed. This species has veterinary importance because it causes 'aelurostrongilosis', also known as feline strongyloidosis. This study constitutes the first record of a Metastrongyloidea nematode in A. fulica in Argentina and also highlights the susceptibility of this mollusk as intermediate host of other helminthes of health importance. The present study suggests that there is a need to establish an epidemiological monitoring system in order to prevent the possible installation of an infected mollusks focus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Oesophagostomum columbianum : immunization of young lambs using gamma ray attenuated inefective larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.L.; Dhar, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    Infective Oesophagostomum columbianum larvae were successfully attenuated by exposing them to a gamma radiation dose levels of either 40 or 50 Krad. Lambs receiving a single vaccination dose of 2000 infective larvae attenuated at 40 Krad developed partial protection, whereas those vaccinated with similar dose of infection with 50 Krad irradiated larvae failed to develop any protection. A double vaccination schedule comprising of 500 and 2000 gamma attenuated (40 Krad) infective larvae induced a significantly higher level of protection against the challenge dose. The possible use of radiation attenuated larvae as vaccine for immunoprophylaxis against ovine Oesophagostomiasis has been discussed. (author). 11 refs., 2 tables

  1. Control of Root-Knot Nematodes on Tomato by the Endoparasitic Fungus Meria coniospora

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Hans-Börje; Jeyaprakash, A.; Zuckerman, Bert M.

    1985-01-01

    The endoparasitic nematophagous fungus Meria coniospora reduced root-knot nematode galling on tomatoes in greenhouse pot trials. The fungus was introduced to pots by addition of conidia at several inoculum levels directly to the soil or addition of nematodes infected with M. coniospora to the soil; both methods reduced root galling by root-knot nematodes. These studies represent a part of a recently initiated effort to evaluate the potential of endoparasitic nematophagous fungi for biocontrol...

  2. Small RNAs and extracellular vesicles in filarial nematodes: From nematode development to diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, J F; Babayan, S A; Buck, A H

    2017-02-01

    Parasitic nematodes have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to communicate with their hosts in order to survive and successfully establish an infection. The transfer of RNA within extracellular vesicles (EVs) has recently been described as a mechanism that could contribute to this communication in filarial nematodes. It has been shown that these EVs are loaded with several types of RNAs, including microRNAs, leading to the hypothesis that parasites could actively use these molecules to manipulate host gene expression and to the exciting prospect that these pathways could result in new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the literature on the diverse RNAi pathways that operate in nematodes and more specifically our current knowledge of extracellular RNA (exRNA) and EVs derived from filarial nematodes in vitro and within their hosts. We further detail some of the issues and questions related to the capacity of RNA-mediated communication to function in parasite-host interactions and the ability of exRNA to enable us to distinguish and detect different nematode parasites in their hosts. © 2016 The Authors. Parasite Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Nematode cholinergic pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segerberg, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nematode acetylcholine (ACh) receptors were characterized using both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques, including: (1) receptor binding studies in crude homogenates of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides with the high-affinity probe [ 3 H]N-methylscopolamine ([ 3 H]NMS) which binds to muscarinic receptors in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues (2) measurement of depolarization and contraction induced by a variety of cholinergic agents, including N-methylscopolamine (NMS), in an innervated dorsal muscle strip preparation of Ascaris; (3) examination of the antagonistic actions of d-tubocurarine (dTC) and NMS at dorsal neuromuscular junction; (4) measurement of input resistance changes in Ascaris commissural motorneurons induced by ACh, dTC, NMS, pilocarpine and other cholinergic drugs

  4. Dioctophyma-like larval nematode in a subcutaneous nodule from man in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, P C; Khamboonruang, C

    1984-09-01

    A nematode in a subcutaneous nodule from the anterior chest of a 12-year-old boy in Northern Thailand was identified as a third-stage larval dioctophymatid, possibly Dioctophyma renale, the second such larva to be reported from man.

  5. Impact of direct and indirect application of rising furfural concentrations on viability, infectivity and reproduction of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnabby, Hazem; Wang, Yunhe; Xiao, Xueqiong; Wang, Gaofeng; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-07-01

    The gradual withdraw of several broadly used nematicides from market has enhanced the need to develop sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives with nematicidal properties. Furfural is one of the promising alternatives to fill this need. Baseline information about the impact of furfural on egg hatch, penetration potential and ultrastructure of nematode is lacking. In this study, the reagent-grade (purity ≥ 99.0%) of furfural was applied against Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests showed gradual reduction in either the rate of egg hatch or second stage juvenile (J2) viability of M. incognita when immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10.0 μl/ml furfural. The mean EC50 for J2 and egg hatch was 0.37 and 0.27 μl/ml furfural, respectively. Furfural, even at low concentrations, resulted in a considerable suppression in egg hatch. Hatch was 0.2 ml/kg soil. No adverse effect was detected on plants or free-living nematodes as a result of furfural application. Liquid furfural proved to have superior juvenile-suppressive effect whereas its vapor has such superiority against eggs. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study showed irregular appearance of the body surface accompanied with some cuticle disfigurement of furfural-treated juveniles. These results indicated that furfural can adversely affect egg hatch, juvenile viability, penetration potential and ultrastructure of M. incognita. Furfural may therefore be of a considerable potential as an appropriate alternative for class I nematicides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PATHOGENICITY, DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION OF THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODE Steinernema sp., IN MEALWORM Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliantoro Baliadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenicity, development and reproduction of Steinernema sp., isolate Skpr-20/Str, were studied using Tenebrio molitor. Results revealed that pathogenicity, development and reproduction were significantly influenced by nematode doses. Although the number of invading IJs increased with increasing dose, percentage penetration declined. The IJs reached adulthood within 3 days. Females laid eggs from day 4-7. All eggs remaining inside uterus develop inside the maternal body. The first female bearing endotokia matricida was observed on day 5. In a sand-based assay, nematode was more pathogenic at lower dose instead of higher ones, where optimum dose was 80 nematodes per larva and average number of progeny per female was 5438. Under crowded conditions, development proceeds to IJ stage instead of the J3. The average length and width decreased with increasing of nematode doses. The IJ produced in cadavers infested with 640 nematodes per larva was significantly smaller (492 ± 6.4 µm than offspring from other doses. The number of days which nematodes first emerged from the cadavers decreased with increasing dose. IJ first emerged at the average of 10-13 days at high IJ densities. It is concluded that the wide experimental characteristic of EPNs is also true for Steinernema sp., isolate Skpr-20/Str.

  7. RNAseq analysis of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis reveals divergent regulation of canonical dauer pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Stoltzfus

    Full Text Available The infectious form of many parasitic nematodes, which afflict over one billion people globally, is a developmentally arrested third-stage larva (L3i. The parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis differs from other nematode species that infect humans, in that its life cycle includes both parasitic and free-living forms, which can be leveraged to investigate the mechanisms of L3i arrest and activation. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a similar developmentally arrested larval form, the dauer, whose formation is controlled by four pathways: cyclic GMP (cGMP signaling, insulin/IGF-1-like signaling (IIS, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ signaling, and biosynthesis of dafachronic acid (DA ligands that regulate a nuclear hormone receptor. We hypothesized that homologous pathways are present in S. stercoralis, have similar developmental regulation, and are involved in L3i arrest and activation. To test this, we undertook a deep-sequencing study of the polyadenylated transcriptome, generating over 2.3 billion paired-end reads from seven developmental stages. We constructed developmental expression profiles for S. stercoralis homologs of C. elegans dauer genes identified by BLAST searches of the S. stercoralis genome as well as de novo assembled transcripts. Intriguingly, genes encoding cGMP pathway components were coordinately up-regulated in L3i. In comparison to C. elegans, S. stercoralis has a paucity of genes encoding IIS ligands, several of which have abundance profiles suggesting involvement in L3i development. We also identified seven S. stercoralis genes encoding homologs of the single C. elegans dauer regulatory TGFβ ligand, three of which are only expressed in L3i. Putative DA biosynthetic genes did not appear to be coordinately regulated in L3i development. Our data suggest that while dauer pathway genes are present in S. stercoralis and may play a role in L3i development, there are significant differences between

  8. THE PREVALENCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF BALI CATTLE BREEDERS IN NUSA PENIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Agus Trisna Kusuma Antara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nusa Penida is a pure breeding area of bali cattle, in which the cattle are mainly kept in conventional maintenance system and potentially infected by parasite, especially gastrointestinal nematodes. This study aims were to determine the prevalence and type of gastrointestinal nematodes in bali cattle breeders in Nusa Penida. Fecal samples were taken from 50 bali cattle breeders kept in cages (simantri and another 50 samples were from cattle not kept in cage. The floating method was used for morphological examination and prevalence, the data was analyzed with descriptive analysis. The results showed, the prevalence of bovine gastrointestinal nematodes in Nusa Penida was 25%. The prevalence of nematode infection in bali cattle that kept cages was lower compared to the cattle that were not kept in cage. Strongyloides papillosus and Capillaria bovis were the gastrointestinal nematodes found in the infected cattle.

  9. Evaluation of Cruzia americana, Turgida turgida, and Didelphostrongylus hayesi infection in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and risk factors along the California coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichelason, Amy E; Rejmanek, Dan; Dabritz, Haydee A; Melli, Ann C; Miller, Melissa; Conrad, Patricia A

    2008-10-01

    Three nematodes, Turgida turgida, Cruzia americana, and Didelphostrongylus hayesi, have been documented to cause morbidity and mortality in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). The present study was designed to determine the frequency of infection of these nematodes in opossums at 2 study sites in California and to determine if there are risk factors associated with shedding of eggs or larvae in the feces. Turgida turgida and C. americana adults were found in 84.4% (stomach; n = 45) and 62.5% (intestinal wash and feces; n = 16) of sampled opossums. Eggs were present in opossum feces (n = 105) less frequently (40% T. turgida and 35.2% C. americana). Didelphostrongylus hayesi larvae were found in 79.0% of opossum feces examined (n = 105). Adult age and wet season (December through April) were significant predictive factors for the presence of T. turgida eggs, whereas the dry season (May through November) was significantly associated with the presence of C. americana eggs in feces. Adult opossums were more likely to have eggs and larvae from all 3 nematodes in the feces.

  10. Oslerus osleri (Cobbold, 1876) infection in maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, illiger, 1815).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Rafael Grobério Souto; Legatti, Emerson; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Ruiz Júnior, Raul Lopes; Rocha, Noeme Sousa; dos Santos, Ivan Felismino Charas; Schmidt, Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Oslerus osleri is a small nematode that infects the respiratory tract of domestic and wild canids and is responsible for causing chronic nodular tracheobronchitis. This paper aims to report a case of parasitism by O. osleri in a free-living maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) that was struck by a motor vehicle. Fecal samples were collected, and the presence of spiral larvae, with "S"-shaped tails, was observed on flotation. This characteristic was compatible with the Filaroididae Family larvae of O. osleri. Although the animal did not show clinical signs of respiratory system impairment, a tracheobronchoscopy was performed. Semitransparent nodules, 5 mm in diameter, containing adult parasites were observed in the third distal portion of the trachea, cranial to the carina. Larval morphological characteristics and the nodular locations were compatible with an O. osleri respiratory tract infection.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus larvae MEX14, Isolated from Honey Bee Larvae from the Xochimilco Quarter in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peréz de la Rosa, D; Pérez de la Rosa, J J; Cossio-Bayugar, R; Miranda-Miranda, E; Lozano, L; Bravo-Díaz, M A; Rocha-Martínez, M K; Sachman-Ruiz, B

    2015-08-27

    Paenibacillus larvae strain MEX14 is a facultative anaerobic endospore-forming bacterium that infects Apis mellifera larvae. Strain MEX14 was isolated from domestic bee larvae collected in a backyard in Mexico City. The estimated genome size was determined to be 4.18 Mb, and it harbors 4,806 protein coding genes (CDSs). Copyright © 2015 Peréz de la Rosa et al.

  12. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Kloezen

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future.

  13. The influence of organic matter content and media compaction on the dispersal of entomopathogenic nematodes with different foraging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranas, Apostolos; Maher, Abigail M D; Griffin, Christine T

    2017-12-01

    In laboratory experiments, we investigated how media with varying ratio of peat:sand and two levels of compaction influence dispersal success of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species with different foraging strategies: Steinernema carpocapsae (ambusher), Heterorhabditis downesi (cruiser) and Steinernema feltiae (intermediate). Success was measured by the numbers of nematodes moving through a 4 cm column and invading a wax moth larva. We found that both compaction and increasing peat content generally decreased EPN infective juvenile (IJ) success for all three species. Of the three species, H. downesi was the least affected by peat content, and S. carpocapsae was the most adversely influenced by compaction. In addition, sex ratios of the invading IJs of the two Steinernema species were differentially influenced by peat content, and in the case of S. feltiae, sex ratio was also affected by compaction. This indicates that dispersal of male and female IJs is differentially affected by soil parameters and that this differentiation is species-specific. In conclusion, our study shows that organic matter: sand ratio and soil compaction have a marked influence on EPN foraging behaviour with implications for harnessing them as biological pest control agents.

  14. Genetic mapping of variation in dauer larvae development in growing populations of Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, J.W.M.; Snoek, L.B.; Kammenga, J.E.; Harvey, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the appropriate induction of dauer larvae development within growing populations is likely to be a primary determinant of genotypic fitness. The underlying genetic architecture of natural genetic variation in dauer formation has, however, not been thoroughly

  15. In planta processing and glycosylation of a nematode CLE effector and its interaction with a CLV2-like receptor to promote parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like other biotrophic plant pathogens, plant-parasitic nematodes secrete effector proteins into host cells to facilitate infection. Effector proteins that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-like proteins have been identified in several cyst nematodes including the potato cyst nematode (PCN); however, th...

  16. Condensed tannins act against cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novobilský, Adam; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    The use of natural plant anthelmintics was suggested as a possible alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in ruminants. Direct anthelmintic effects of tannin-containing plants have already been shown in sheep and goat GIN. These anthelmintic properties are mainly associated...... with condensed tannins. In the present study, we evaluated possible in vitro effects of three tannin-containing plants against bovine GIN. Effects of Onobrychis viciifolia, Lotus pedunculatus and Lotus corniculatus condensed tannin (CT) extracts on Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi were determined...... (third stage larvae) was also affected by CT extracts from all three plants. In both in vitro assays, extracts with added polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, an inhibitor of tannins, generated almost the same values as the negative control; this confirms the role of CT in the anthelmintic effect of these plant...

  17. Heterodera schachtii Tyrosinase-like protein a novel nematode effector modulating plant hormone homeostasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Habash, S.; Radakovic, Z.S.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Siddique, S.; Dobrev, Petre; Gleason, C.; Grundler, F.M.W.; Elashry, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, JUL 31 (2017), č. článku 6874. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : arabidopsis-thaliana * cyst-nematode * parasitic nematode * transient expression * host plants * sequence * identification * infection * model * transformation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  18. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has

  19. Low cost production of nematodes for biological control of insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are produced in two ways: in artificial media using liquid or solid fermentation methods (in vitro) or by mass producing insect hosts to be artificially exposed to mass infection by nematodes (in vivo). The yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) is a good host for in vivo nema...

  20. Development of a desiccated cadaver delivery system to apply entomopathogenic nematodes for control of soil pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentomopathogenic nematodes may be more capable of controlling soil pests when they are harbored by desiccated cadavers. A small-scale system was developed from a modified crop seed planter to effectively deliver desiccated nematode-infected cadavers into the soil. The system mainly consists of a me...

  1. The killing effects of ultraviolet light and x-rays on free-living nematode, Rhabditidae tokai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Naoaki; Suzuki, Kenshi

    1980-01-01

    The life-shortening effects of ultraviolet light (UV) and X-rays were investigated with a strain of free-living nematode, Rhabditidae tokai. UV exhibited a significant life-shortening effect on adult worms, and it also inhibited growth of larvae, hatching of eggs and reproduction. Sensitivity to UV was decreased with increasing ages. In contrast, nematodes showed a marked resistance to X-rays. Data were obtained suggesting that X-ray-induced single-strand breaks in DNA can be rapidly and efficiently rejoined by a repair mechanism. Malformations were observed when immature larvae were irradiated with X-rays. (author)

  2. Resistance and Resistant Reaction of Gossypium arboreum to the Reniform, Nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, William W.

    1981-01-01

    Gossypium arboreum 'Nanking CB 1402' possessed a high level of resistance to Rotylenchulus reniformis. Within 16 h, the nematode penetrated roots of resistant and susceptible cottons equally. After 36 h, significantly fewer nematodes were found in resistant roots. Larvae fed in either an endodermal or pericyclic cell and had no specificity for root tissue of a particular age. In roots of resistant G. arboreum '1402,' wall breakdown of pericyclic cells was evident after 3 d, endodermal and cortical cells collapsed, and the hypertrophied pericyclic cells disintegrated within 12 d. Cell walls immediately adjacent to the nematode's head were thickened and more safranin positive in resistant than in susceptible cotton cultivars. Several other cultivars of G. arboreum were also resistant to R. reniformis, based on nematode fecundity and percent egg reduction. PMID:19300777

  3. A novel bacterial symbiont in the nematode Spirocerca lupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottlieb Yuval

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parasitic nematode Spirocerca lupi (Spirurida: Thelaziidae, the canine esophageal worm, is the causative agent of spirocercosis, a disease causing morbidity and mortality in dogs. Spirocerca lupi has a complex life cycle, involving an obligatory coleopteran intermediate host (vector, an optional paratenic host, and a definitive canid host. The diagnosis of spirocercosis is challenging, especially in the early disease stages, when adult worms and clinical signs are absent. Thus, alternative approaches are needed to promote early diagnosis. The interaction between nematodes and their bacterial symbionts has recently become a focus of novel treatment regimens for other helminthic diseases. Results Using 16S rDNA-based molecular methods, here we found a novel bacterial symbiont in S. lupi that is closely related to Comamonas species (Brukholderiales: Comamonadaceae of the beta-proteobacteria. Its DNA was detected in eggs, larvae and adult stages of S. lupi. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization technique, we localized Comamonas sp. to the gut epithelial cells of the nematode larvae. Specific PCR enabled the detection of this symbiont's DNA in blood obtained from dogs diagnosed with spirocercosis. Conclusions The discovery of a new Comamonas sp. in S. lupi increase the complexity of the interactions among the organisms involved in this system, and may open innovative approaches for diagnosis and control of spirocercosis in dogs.

  4. Evaluation of pyrantel pamoate, nitramisole and avermectin B1a against migrating Strongylus vulgaris larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, J O; McCraw, B M

    1980-01-01

    Trials were conducted in ponies to evaluate the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate (Strongid-T(R)) and two newer anthelmintics not yet commercially available, nitramisole and avermectin B(1)a, against migrating Strongylus vulgaris larvae. Ponies were removed from their mares within 24-48 hr after birth and reared in isolation, worm free. Between six and 14 weeks of age they were infected with 2000 or 2500 infective S. vulgaris larvae. Subsequently, they were monitored daily for clinical signs until the experiment terminated at 28 days postinfection. All ponies showed increased body temperature and reduced appetite within the first week of infection. All anthelmintics were administered on day 7 and in addition pyrantel pamoate was given on day 8 postinfection. The anthelmintics were in liquid formulation. Nitramisole and pyrantel pamoate were given by stomach tube and avermectin B(1)a by subcutaneous injection.Following administration of these compounds toxic reactions were not observed. All anthelmintics caused a reduction in body temperature and increased appetite and effected a clinical cure. In ponies which were not treated with an anthelmintic, temperatures remained elevated and appetites never returned completely to normal. These ponies also showed variable degrees of lethargy, depression, recumbency and colic and the majority died between two and three weeks postinfection. At necropsy, these control ponies showed variable degrees of adhesions involving the abdominal organs, necrosis of the ileum and cecum and severe arteritis and thrombosis of the major abdominal arteries and their branches.Although pyrantel pamoate, used at eight times the therapeutic dose for intestinal nematodes in the horse, effected a clinical cure it did not produce a radical cure. At necropsy, ponies treated with pyrantel pamoate had arteritis and thrombosis of the cranial mesenteric artery and its major branches. Nitramisole and avermectin B(1)a were able to effect both a clinical and

  5. Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of digenean larvae in freshwater snails in the Ruvu basin, Tanzania. G Nkwengulila, ESP Kigadye. Abstract. A survey was carried out on digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails in five habitats in Dar es Salaam, Ruvu and Morogoro. 9424 snails belonging to 12 species from five families were examined for ...

  6. Rarely reported, widely distributed, and unexpectedly diverse: molecular characterization of mermithid nematodes (Nematoda: Mermithidae) infecting bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Amber D; Strange, James P

    2018-03-16

    Mermithid nematodes (Nematoda: Mermithida: Mermithidae) parasitize a wide range of both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate hosts, yet are recorded in bumble bees (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) only six times historically. Little is known about the specific identity of these parasites. In a single-season nationwide survey of internal parasites of 3646 bumble bees, we encountered six additional instances of mermithid parasitism in four bumble bee species and genetically characterized them using two regions of 18S to identify the specific host-parasite relationships. Three samples from the northeastern USA are morphologically and genetically identified as Mermis nigrescens, whereas three specimens collected from a single agricultural locality in the southeast USA fell into a clade with currently undescribed species. Nucleotide sequences of the V2-V6 region of 18S from the southeastern specimens were 2.6-3.0% divergent from one another, and 2.2-4.0% dissimilar to the nearest matches to available data. The dearth of available data prohibits positive identification of this parasite and its affinity for specific bumble bee hosts. By doubling the records of mermithid parasitism of bumble bee hosts and providing genetic data, this work will inform future investigations of this rare phenomenon.

  7. Parasitic nematodes of the genus Syphacia Seurat, 1916 infecting Muridae in the British Isles, and the peculiar case of Syphacia frederici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alex; Lowe, Ann; Smales, Lesley; Bajer, Anna; Bradley, Jan; Dwużnik, Dorota; Franssen, Frits; Griffith, Jack; Stuart, Peter; Turner, Cyan; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2018-03-01

    Syphacia stroma (von Linstow, 1884) Morgan, 1932 and Syphacia frederici Roman, 1945 are oxyurid nematodes that parasitize two murid rodents, Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis, on the European mainland. Only S. stroma has been recorded previously in Apodemus spp. from the British Isles. Despite the paucity of earlier reports, we identified S. frederici in four disparate British sites, two in Nottinghamshire, one each in Berkshire and Anglesey, Wales. Identification was based on their site in the host (caecum and not small intestine), on key morphological criteria that differentiate this species from S. stroma (in particular the tail of female worms) and by sequencing two genetic loci (cytochrome C oxidase 1 gene and a section of ribosomal DNA). Sequences derived from both genetic loci of putative British S. frederici isolates formed a tight clade with sequences from continental worms known to be S. frederici, clearly distinguishing these isolates from S. stroma which formed a tight clade of its own, distinct from clades representative of Syphacia obvelata from Mus and S. muris from Rattus. The data in this paper therefore constitute the first record of S. frederici from British wood mice, and confirm the status of this species as distinct from both S. obvelata and S. stroma.

  8. Effects of associated bacteria on the pathogenicity and reproduction of the insect-parasitic nematode Rhabditis blumi (Nematoda: Rhabditida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Yong Ook; Ha, Jae-Seok; Youn, Sung Hun; Kim, Hyeong Hwan; Bilgrami, Anwar L; Shin, Chul Soo

    2011-09-01

    Three bacteria, Alcaligenes faecalis , Flavobacterium sp., and Providencia vermicola , were isolated from dauer juveniles of Rhabditis blumi . The pathogenic effects of the bacteria against 4th instar larvae of Galleria mellonella were investigated. Providencia vermicola and Flavobacterium sp. showed 100% mortality at 48 h after haemocoelic injection, whereas A. faecalis showed less than 30% mortality. Dauer juveniles showed 100% mortality against G. mellonella larvae, whereas axenic juveniles, which do not harbor associated bacteria, exhibited little mortality. All of the associated bacteria were used as a food source for nematode growth, and nematode yield differed with bacterial species. Among the bacterial species, P. vermicola was most valued for nematode yield, showing the highest yield of 5.2 × 10(4) nematodes/mL in the plate. In bacterial cocultures using two of the three associated bacteria, one kind stimulated the other. The highest total bacterial yield of 12.6 g/L was obtained when the inoculum ratio of P. vermicola to A. faecalis was 10:1. In air-lift bioreactors, the nematode growth rate increased with an increasing level of dissolved oxygen. The maximum nematode yield of 1.75 × 10(5) nematodes/mL was obtained at 192 h with an aeration rate of 6 vvm.

  9. The Effect of Solarization and Manure in Controlling Sugar Beet Cyst Nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmidt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi Nasr Esfahani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii Schmidt is the major disease of sugar beet worldwide, causing considerable damages, and even death of the plants, in the infested fields. There are several suggested methods of controls, which may have its own difficulties to be taken into consideration. To avoid the use of nematicides, and reduced the risk of chemical hazards in the environment, any sorts of nonchemical management is incorrigible. However, any method of management must be safe, large scale application and economical. Thus, in this manuscript, polyethylene sheaths were used to solarize and or disinfection of the infested soils to H. schachtii. And, also, the incorporation of the farm yards manure was taken into consideration too. Therefore, the field experiments were carried out in infected sugar beet growing regions, where there was a heavy infestation to the sugar beet nematodes, Isfahan province, Iran, to determine the effects of soil solarization alone and or along with undecomposed farm yard manure on sugar beet cyst nematode, H. schachtii. Material and Methods. Transparent Polyethylene sheaths of 2microns were used to solarize and or disinfection of the infested soils to H. schachtii. The fresh farm yards manure for 40 tons per hector for the incorporation was taken into consideration. The field experiments were carried out in infected sugar beet growing regions, where, there was a heavy infestation to the sugar beet nematodes, Jey and Ghahab of Isfahan, Isfahan province, Iran, for determination of the effects of soil solarization alone and or along with undecomposed farm yard manure on sugar beet cyst nematode, H. schachtii. Treatments were consisted of soil solarization with transparent polyethylene sheets, fresh yard manure, integration of soil solarization with farm yard manure and untreated, control and or ckecks in a randomized block design in three replications each in an infested field conditions, in the

  10. Occurrence of anisakid nematodes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Kim N.; Hedeholm, Rasmus; Schack, Henriette B.

    2010-01-01

    Anisakid nematodes commonly infect gadids, and are of economic and aesthetic importance to the commercial fishing industry in Greenland as some species are pathogenic to humans. However, very little is known about the occurrence of these parasites and their impact on the hosts in Greenland waters....... During a survey in 2005, stomach sample of 227 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and 64 Greenland cod (Gadus ogac) was collected in Godthaab and Sisimiut fiord systems in West Greenland waters. All cod were dissected for stomach contents and anisakid nematodes were removed from the visceral cavity. Third stage...... nematode species regarding prevalence of infection and mean infection intensity was evident, and there was no relationship between fish condition and the intensity of nematode infections. Standardised for size, capelin-eating cod were in better condition and more heavily infected than fish subsisting...

  11. Efficacy of doramectin injectable against Oestrus ovis and gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep in the southwestern region of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchies, P; Jacquiet, P; Bergeaud, J P; Duranton, C; Prévot, F; Alzieu, J P; Gossellin, J

    2001-03-20

    A study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of doramectin administered intramuscularly at a dose rate of 200 microg/kg to sheep harbouring naturally acquired infections of gastrointestinal nematodes and Oestrus ovis in the southwestern region of France. On day 0, 24 sheep were selected on the basis of positive faecal egg counts (>100 EPG) and positive assessment of O. ovis infection (including positive O. ovis antibody level and positive clinical score). The sheep were randomly allocated to a non-medicated control group (T1) or a doramectin-treated group (T2) of 12 animals each. On day 0, sheep in group T2 received a single intramuscular injection of doramectin (200 microg/kg), whereas those in group T1 received an intramuscular injection of saline solution (sodium chloride, 0.02ml/kg). Individual faecal egg counts were performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 14. Between days 14 and 16, all sheep were slaughtered, and worm and O. ovis burdens were determined. In doramectin-treated sheep, faecal egg counts had decreased to zero by day 4 for all recovered types of nematode eggs: strongyles, Nematodirus sp., Trichuris sp., and Rhabditidae sp. For strongyles, Nematodirus sp., and Rhabditidae, the percentage reductions in faecal egg counts (geometric means) of doramectin-treated sheep, compared to the non-medicated control sheep were 100% from days 4-7. For Trichuris sp., they were 100, 99.7, 99.9, and 100% on days 4, 5, 6, and 7, respectively. On day 14, percentage reductions were 100% for Nematodirus sp. and Rhabditidae, and 99.8 and 99.1% for strongyles and Trichuris sp., respectively. At necropsy, only adult nematodes and mainly first-stage O. ovis larvae were recovered. Doramectin was highly efficacious against the adult stages of Teladorsagia circumcincta (100%), Nematodirus battus (100%), Nematodirus filicollis (99.9%), Oesophagostomum venulosum (99.8%), and Trichuris sp. (99.3%). It was also 100% efficacious against first-stage larvae of O

  12. First record of the nematode Libyostrongylus dentatus Hoberg, Lloyd & Omar, 1995 (Trichostrongylidae) in ostriches (Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758) (Struthionidae) outside the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Josiana Gomes de; Kumsa, Bersissa; Ayana, Dinka; Vieira, Ricardo Augusto Mendonça; Santos, Clóvis de Paula; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2018-04-13

    Libyostrongylus douglassii, Libyostrongylus dentatus and Libyostrongylus magnus are nematodes that infect ostriches. The first species has been identified in ostriches from Africa, Europe, Americas and Oceania. Although the natural range of ostriches is Africa, L. dentatus was first described in birds from the USA and later identified in Brazil, where co-infections with L. douglassii have been commonly reported. Libyostrongylus magnus is known from the original description only. There are a few reports on infections with L. douglassii in ostriches from Africa and all farmed birds examined are from the southern region of the continent. The aim of this report was to verify Libyostrongylus spp. infections in wild ostriches from Ethiopia. Fecal samples from ostriches, Struthio molybdophanes, were collected and submitted to coproculture. Infective larvae were identified to the species level based on general morphology and morphometry. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the first and second internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA was performed. Infective larvae from Ethiopian ostriches had the morphological characteristics of L. dentatus. Confidence interval estimate for sheath tail length from Ethiopian Libyostrongylus sp. isolates overlapped one for Brazilian L. dentatus. Neighbor-joining and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees based on sequences of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions revealed that the Ethiopian samples belong to the L. dentatus species clade. Monospecific infections with L. dentatus were confirmed in Ethiopian wild ostriches, opposed to the co-infections typically found in the Americas. To our knowledge, this is the first record of L. dentatus from African ostriches, the region from which this parasite originated.

  13. Identification, Validation and Utilization of Novel Nematode-Responsive Root-Specific Promoters in Arabidopsis for Inducing Host-Delivered RNAi Mediated Root-Knot Nematode Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kakrana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita, is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite that infects a large number of crops and severely affects productivity. The commonly used nematode control strategies have their own limitations. Of late, RNA interference (RNAi has become a popular approach for the development of nematode resistance in plants. Transgenic crops capable of expressing dsRNAs, specifically in roots for disrupting the parasitic process, offer an effective and efficient means of producing resistant crops. We identified nematode-responsive and root-specific (NRRS promoters by using microarray data from the public domain and known conserved cis-elements. A set of 51 NRRS genes was identified which was narrowed down further on the basis of presence of cis-elements combined with minimal expression in the absence of nematode infection. The comparative analysis of promoters from the enriched NRRS set, along with earlier reported nematode-responsive genes, led to the identification of specific cis-elements. The promoters of two candidate genes were used to generate transgenic plants harboring promoter GUS constructs and tested in planta against nematodes. Both promoters showed preferential expression upon nematode infection, exclusively in the root in one and galls in the other. One of these NRRS promoters was used to drive the expression of splicing factor, a nematode-specific gene, for generating host-delivered RNAi-mediated nematode-resistant plants. Transgenic lines expressing dsRNA of splicing factor under the NRRS promoter exhibited upto a 32% reduction in number of galls compared to control plants.

  14. Direct anthelmintic effects of Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae) on trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep: in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, A F; Kandu-Lelo, C; Ademola, I O; Eloff, J N

    2011-08-25

    Following claims of anthelmintic activity of Cereus jamacaru DC (Cactaceae) by a commercial farmer, in vivo studies were conducted to determine the possible direct anthelmintic effects of the plant on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes. Eighteen sheep were infected with 4000 Haemonchus contortus and 6000 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae given in three divided doses over a period of three days. Once the infections were patent, the sheep were allocated to three groups and were drenched once a week for six weeks with fresh blended C. jamacaru plant material at a single (32.3g/sheep) or double dose (64.6g/sheep) or they remained as undrenched controls. Faeces were collected from individual animals on the day of treatment and three days thereafter on a weekly basis for seven weeks for faecal egg count. While there were no statistically significant differences in the egg counts between the groups, a double dose of C. jamacaru was effective in reducing the egg counts in the sheep by 18-65% over the 49 days of the experiment. Given that all animals remained in good health throughout the course of the experiment, with no adverse events occurring during the study, further experiments using higher doses or administering the plant material for a longer period of time than in the present study would be warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The evolutionary position of nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojobori Takashi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complete genomes of three animals have been sequenced by global research efforts: a nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans, an insect (Drosophila melanogaster, and a vertebrate (Homo sapiens. Remarkably, their relationships have yet to be clarified. The confusion concerns the enigmatic position of nematodes. Traditionally, nematodes have occupied a basal position, in part because they lack a true body cavity. However, the leading hypothesis now joins nematodes with arthropods in a molting clade, Ecdysozoa, based on data from several genes. Results We tested the Ecdysozoa hypothesis with analyses of more than 100 nuclear protein alignments, under conditions that would expose biases, and found that it was not supported. Instead, we found significant support for the traditional hypothesis, Coelomata. Our result is robust to different rates of sequence change among genes and lineages, different numbers of taxa, and different species of nematodes. Conclusion We conclude that insects (arthropods are genetically and evolutionarily closer to humans than to nematode worms.

  16. Role of biogenic amines in the post-mortem migration of Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae Dujardin, 1845) larvae into fish fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimat, Vida; Miletić, Jelena; Bogdanović, Tanja; Poljak, Vedran; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-12-02

    Infective third-stage larvae (L3) of nematode Anisakis spp. have been recognized as one of the major food-borne threats in lightly processed fish products in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the effect of different storage temperatures of fish on larval post-mortem migration from visceral cavity into fillets is an important parameter to take into account when evaluating the risk for consumer safety. The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were caught during fishing season, a subsample of fillets was checked for the presence of Anisakis larvae at capture (mean abundance=0.07), and the rest was stored at four different temperatures (-18, 0, 4 and 22°C) in order to count migrating larvae and measure the production of biogenic amines over a period of time. Larvae were identified by morphological features and molecular tools. Post-mortem migration was observed in fillets stored at 0 and 4°C after three and five days, respectively, but not at 22 and -18°C. In case of storage at 22°C for two days, at